WorldWideScience

Sample records for subject matter retention

  1. Changes in Dictionary Subject Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2003-01-01

    The general content of the three editions of the Duden dictionary has undergone few changes. The most substantial changes are the addition of syllabification and the deletion of antonomy in respect of lemmata in the second and third editions. The concept of dictionary subject matter is questioned...

  2. Foodservice. Subject Matter Update 1986-87.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This publication recognizes the constantly changing requirements of the food service industry and varying conditions for employment opportunities. It addresses the goal of relevance in education by enabling the educator to make timely adjustments in the subject matter of the food service curriculum. There are six sections in this publication, each…

  3. Coarse Particulate Organic Matter: Storage, Transport, and Retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiegs, Scott [Oakland University, Rochester, MI; Lamberti, Gary A. [University of Notre Dame, IN; Entrekin, Sally A. [University of Central Arkansas; Griffiths, Natalie A. [ORNL

    2017-06-01

    Coarse particulate organic matter, or CPOM, is a basal energy and nutrient resource in many stream ecosystems and is provided by inputs from the riparian zone, incoming tributaries, and to a lesser extent from in-stream production. The ability of a stream to retain CPOM or slow its transport is critical to its consumption and assimilation by stream biota. In this chapter, we describe basic exercises to measure (1) the amount of CPOM in the streambed and (2) the retention of CPOM from standardized particle releases. We further describe advanced exercises that (1) experimentally enhance the retentiveness of a stream reach and (2) measure organic carbon transport and turnover (i.e., spiraling) in the channel.

  4. Coarse Particulate Organic Matter: Storage, Transport, and Retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiegs, Scott [Oakland University, Rochester, MI; Lamberti, Gary A. [University of Notre Dame, IN; Entrekin, Sally A. [University of Central Arkansas; Griffiths, Natalie A. [ORNL

    2017-08-01

    Coarse particulate organic matter, or CPOM, is a basal energy and nutrient resource in many stream ecosystems and is provided by inputs from the riparian zone, incoming tributaries, and to a lesser extent from in-stream production. The ability of a stream to retain CPOM or slow its transport is critical to its consumption and assimilation by stream biota. In this chapter, we describe basic exercises to measure (1) the amount of CPOM in the streambed and (2) the retention of CPOM from standardized particle releases. We further describe advanced exercises that (1) experimentally enhance the retentiveness of a stream reach and (2) measure organic carbon transport and turnover (i.e., spiraling) in the channel.

  5. 45 CFR 703.3 - Scope of subject matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope of subject matter. 703.3 Section 703.3... AND FUNCTIONS OF STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 703.3 Scope of subject matter. The scope of the subject matter to be dealt with by Advisory Committees shall be those subjects of inquiry or study with which the...

  6. 75 FR 57469 - Guidance on Withdrawal of Subjects From Research: Data Retention and Other Related Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Guidance on Withdrawal of Subjects From Research: Data Retention and Other Related Issues... availability of a guidance document entitled, ``Guidance on Withdrawal of Subjects From Research: Data... guidance document entitled, ``Guidance on Withdrawal of Subjects From Research: Data Retention and Other...

  7. 49 CFR 1108.3 - Matters subject to arbitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Matters subject to arbitration. 1108.3 Section... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE ARBITRATION OF CERTAIN DISPUTES SUBJECT TO THE STATUTORY JURISDICTION OF THE SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD § 1108.3 Matters subject to arbitration. (a) Any...

  8. Influence of Channel Geomorphology on Retention of Dissolved and Particulate Matter in a Cascade Mountain Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary A. Lamberti; Stan V. Gregory; Linda R. Ashkenas; Randall C. Wildman; Alan G. Steinman

    1989-01-01

    Retention of particulate and dissolved nutrients in streams is a major determinant of food avail-ability to stream biota. Retention of particulate matter (leaves) and dissolved nutrients (nitrogen) was studied experimentally during summer 1987 in four 300-500 m reaches of Lookout Creek, a fifth-order stream in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon. Constrained (narrow valley...

  9. Conditioning audience patronage using subject matters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Films are subject-based and when producers set out to communicate their viewpoints, some do it flamboyantly while others take the subtle path. Unlike live theatre before it, the possibility of a virile spiral regarding the themes treated in movies can be as much repugnant as they can be fascinating. In this case, the audience ...

  10. Cortex Parcellation Associated Whole White Matter Parcellation in Individual Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schiffler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of specific white matter areas is a growing field in neurological research and is typically achieved through the use of atlases. However, the definition of anatomically based regions remains challenging for the white matter and thus hinders region-specific analysis in individual subjects. In this article, we focus on creating a whole white matter parcellation method for individual subjects where these areas can be associated to cortex regions. This is done by combining cortex parcellation and fiber tracking data. By tracking fibers out of each cortex region and labeling the fibers according to their origin, we populate a candidate image. We then derive the white matter parcellation by classifying each white matter voxel according to the distribution of labels in the corresponding voxel from the candidate image. The parcellation of the white matter with the presented method is highly reliable and is not as dependent on registration as with white matter atlases. This method allows for the parcellation of the whole white matter into individual cortex region associated areas and, therefore, associates white matter alterations to cortex regions. In addition, we compare the results from the presented method to existing atlases. The areas generated by the presented method are not as sharply defined as the areas in most existing atlases; however, they are computed directly in the DWI space of the subject and, therefore, do not suffer from distortion caused by registration. The presented approach might be a promising tool for clinical and basic research to investigate modalities or system specific micro structural alterations of white matter areas in a quantitative manner.

  11. 22 CFR 61.6 - Consultation with subject matter specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FREE FLOW OF AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS § 61.6 Consultation with subject matter specialists. (a) The... assisting the Department in its determination of whether materials for which export certification or import... determine eligibility of material for certification or authentication based in part on the opinions obtained...

  12. students' perception of teacher's knowledge of subject matter and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ALEXANDER E. TIMOTHY

    The study used the ex post facto design to find out the influence of student's perception of teacher's knowledge of the subject matter on the Senior Secondary Three (SS 3) students' performance in reading comprehension. Questionnaires reading comprehension test were used in eliciting data. The data were subsequently ...

  13. Does tutor subject-matter expertise influence student achievement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To establish whether or not tutor subject-matter expertise influences student achievement in content-based examinations in the problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum at the University of Transkei (UNITRA) Medical School. Design. A retrospective study of MB ChB III student achievement in end-of-block ...

  14. Teachers mathematical communication profile in explaining subject matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umami, Rohmatul; Budayasa, I. Ketut; Suwarsono, St.

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to see a teachers mathematical communication profile in explaining a subject matter. It is a qualitative research. A high-school junior teacher (i.e., a teacher with 1- to 5-year experience) teaching mathematics at X-Social Class was selected as the subject of this study. The data was collected by observing the teachers mathematical communication in explaining a given material (i.e., the rule of sine) in class and an in-depth interview would be organized respectively. The result showed that the junior teacher explained the subject matter in systematic, complete, fluent, and centered manner. In this case, she began with reminding students on the previous material related to the current material to be learned, informing the current learning objectives, and finally delivering the subject matter. To support her explanation, the teacher also provided some related information, led the students attention into the given material by asking them particular related questions, and did not use any confusing terms. However, the study found that some of high-school teachers still used less appropriate language in explaining materials.

  15. Extended retention intervals can help to bridge the gap between subjective and objective memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Juri-Alexander; Glöckner, Carina; Helmstaedter, Christoph

    2012-03-01

    Despite their excellent clinical validity, objective measures of memory often do not reflect self-perceived memory impairment. This discordance has mostly been attributed to depressed mood. Alternatively, a lack of ecological validity due to the rather short standard retention intervals of 20-60 min may be responsible for this discordance. Therefore, we explored the value of extended retention intervals in regard to subjective memory deficits. Our prospective study was based on 73 patients with epilepsy. In addition to the standard 30-min retention interval of a verbal learning and memory test (VLMT) patients were randomized to either a free delayed recall after 1 week or after 4 weeks. Mood was assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Forty-four patients (60%) reported self-perceived memory deficits, whereas objective verbal memory impairment was present in 26 patients (36%). Concordance between subjective and objective memory performance was observed in 53% of the patients. Multivariate analyses identified memory performance after 4 weeks and self-rated mood as determinants of subjective memory impairment. Self-perceived memory impairment correlated with the number of remembered words after 4 weeks (r = -0.361, p = 0.030) and the BDI total score (r = 0.332, p = 0.004) but neither with recall performance after 30 min nor after 1 week. Subjective memory appears to follow a different time scale than routine memory testing. Thus, the introduction of longer retention intervals may enhance the ecological validity of standard memory tests. Furthermore, the findings again underscore that controlling for mood is mandatory when dealing with subjective memory complaints. Copyright © 2011 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Learning, knowledge building, and subject matter knowledge in school science

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aalst, Jan Cornelis Wouterus

    Following a theoretical analysis of constructivist approaches to collaborative learning, a curriculum development model, the Learning to Knowledge Building Model, is proposed. Two empirical studies of student work with Computer Supported Intentional Learning Environment (CSILE) are then presented; these lend support to the model and explicate in detail the nature and extent of the knowledge developed by elementary school students. The first study is a content analysis of a database developed by a combined Grade 5/6 class as part of a unit on heat and matter, conducted after the children completed their work; the analysis assumes the point of view of a subject matter specialist in the field of the students' inquiry. The second study was conducted while the students' investigation was in progress, and takes the point of view of curriculum coverage; it involved a teacher who used a different model of database use, as well as different subject matter. The proposed LKB model is based on a distinction Bereiter and Scardamalia (1996a) have made between learning and knowledge building (i.e., progressive collaborative problem solving); its aim is to support the design and planning of curriculum units and classroom practices in which knowledge building is central. An important feature of the model is the attention given to ensuring that students learn to evaluate their knowledge and to ask the questions that can advance shared knowledge. Among the findings of the first study are: (a) students who wrote more notes that explicated their commonsense knowledge early in the unit, by means of mixed framework notes, tended to write more notes of high scientific merit later; (b) some of the students in this category tried out their ideas in diverse problem contexts; and (c) they tended to dominate the discussions they started. The second study provides additional insight into the role of the teacher, and the potential role of subject matter specialists, in knowledge building; it

  17. Single-subject grey matter graphs in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijms, Betty M; Möller, Christiane; Vrenken, Hugo; Wink, Alle Meije; de Haan, Willem; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Stam, Cornelis J; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    Coordinated patterns of cortical morphology have been described as structural graphs and previous research has demonstrated that properties of such graphs are altered in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it remains unknown how these alterations are related to cognitive deficits in individuals, as such graphs are restricted to group-level analysis. In the present study we investigated this question in single-subject grey matter networks. This new method extracts large-scale structural graphs where nodes represent small cortical regions that are connected by edges when they show statistical similarity. Using this method, unweighted and undirected networks were extracted from T1 weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging scans of 38 AD patients (19 female, average age 72±4 years) and 38 controls (19 females, average age 72±4 years). Group comparisons of standard graph properties were performed after correcting for grey matter volumetric measurements and were correlated to scores of general cognitive functioning. AD networks were characterised by a more random topology as indicated by a decreased small world coefficient (p = 3.53×10(-5)), decreased normalized clustering coefficient (p = 7.25×10(-6)) and decreased normalized path length (p = 1.91×10(-7)). Reduced normalized path length explained significantly (p = 0.004) more variance in measurements of general cognitive decline (32%) in comparison to volumetric measurements (9%). Altered path length of the parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, fusiform gyrus and precuneus showed the strongest relationship with cognitive decline. The present results suggest that single-subject grey matter graphs provide a concise quantification of cortical structure that has clinical value, which might be of particular importance for disease prognosis. These findings contribute to a better understanding of structural alterations and cognitive dysfunction in AD.

  18. Landscape History and Theory: from Subject Matter to Analytical Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Birksted

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores how landscape history can engage methodologically with the adjacent disciplines of art history and visual/cultural studies. Central to the methodological problem is the mapping of the beholder - spatially, temporally and phenomenologically. In this mapping process, landscape history is transformed from subject matter to analytical tool. As a result, landscape history no longer simply imports and applies ideas from other disciplines but develops its own methodologies to engage and influence them. Landscape history, like art history, thereby takes on a creative cultural presence. Through that process, landscape architecture and garden design regains the cultural power now carried by the arts and museum studies, and has an effect on the innovative capabilities of contemporary landscape design.

  19. Water retention in a peatland with organic matter in different decomposition stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo da Rocha Campos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands are ecosystems formed by successive pedogenetic processes, resulting in progressive accumulation of plant remains in the soil column under conditions that inhibit the activity of most microbial decomposers. In Diamantina, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, a peatland is located at 1366 m asl, in a region with a quartz-rich lithology and characteristic wet grassland vegetation. For this study, the peat area was divided in 12 transects, from which a total of 90 soil samples were collected at a distance of 20 m from each other. The properties rubbed fiber content (RF, bulk density (Bd, mineral material (MM, organic matter (OM, moisture (Moi and maximum water holding capacity (MWHC were analyzed in all samples. From three selected profiles of this whole area, samples were collected every 27 cm from the soil surface down to a depth of 216 cm. In these samples, moisture was additionally determined at a pressure of 10 kPa (Moi10 or 1500 kPa (Moi1500, using Richards' extractor and soil organic matter was fractionated by standard procedures. The OM decomposition stage of this peat was found to increase with soil depth. Moi and MWHC were highest in layers with less advanced stages of OM decomposition. The humin levels were highest in layers in earlier stages of OM decomposition and with higher levels of water retention at MWHC and Moi10. Humic acid contents were higher in layers at an intermediate stage of decomposition of organic matter and with lowest levels of water retention at MWHC, Moi10 and Moi1500.

  20. On indexes and subject matter of “global competitiveness”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Korotkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to analyze the subject matter of a country’s competitiveness and to characterize statistical indexes of competitiveness known in the international practice from the perspective of a more elaborated theory of market competition. This aim follows from the identified problems. First, there are no generally accepted interpretation and joint understanding of competition and competitiveness at country level. Even the international organizations giving estimations of global competitiveness disagree on definitions of competitiveness. Secondly, there is no relation to the theory of market competition in the available source materials on competitiveness of the country without original methodology. Thirdly, well-known statistical indexes of global competitiveness do not have enough theoretical justification and differ in sets of factors. All this highlights the incompleteness of the methodology and methodological support of studying competitiveness at country level.Materials and methods. The research is based on the methodology of statistics, economic theory and marketing. The authors followed the basic principle of statistical methodology – requirement of continuous combination of qualitative and quantitative analysis, when the research begins and ends with qualitative analysis. A most important section of statistical methodology is widely used – construction of statistical indexes. In the course of the analysis, a method of statistical classifications is applied. A significant role in the present research is given to the method of generalizing and analogue method, realizing that related terms should mean similar and almost similar contents. Modeling of competition and competitiveness is widely used in the present research, which made it possible to develop a logical model of competition following from the competition theory.Results. Based on the definitions’ survey the analysis of the subject matter of global

  1. Cerebral white matter lesions and subjective cognitive dysfunction - The Rotterdam Scan Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, J.C.; de Leeuw, FE; Oudkerk, M; Hofman, A; Jolles, J; Breteler, MMB

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship between cerebral white matter lesions (WML) and subjective cognitive dysfunction. Background: Subjective cognitive dysfunction is present when a person perceives failures of cognitive function. When annoying enough, these failures will be expressed as

  2. The influence of adverse reactions, subjective distress, and anxiety on retention of first-time blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Anne; Abraham, Charles; Ruiter, Robert A C; Veldhuizen, Ingrid J T

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of adverse events (i.e., needle reactions, fatigue, and vasovagal reactions) and feelings of distress and anxiety on retention of first-time blood donors. All effects were explored separately for men and women. First-time blood donors (n = 2438) received a questionnaire, asking them about their experience of adverse events, subjective distress, and anxiety at their first donation. Provision of a second donation was checked approximately 18 months later. After exclusion of nonresponders and donors who did not experience an adverse event, 1278 first-time donors were included in the logistic regression analyses. Nine percent of donors who experienced an adverse event at their first donation did not return for a second donation. Vasovagal reactions decreased retention in both males and females (men-odds ratio [OR], 0.45; 95% CI, 0.23-0.89; women-OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.51-0.98). Fatigue decreased retention in males only (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.42-0.91), and subjective distress decreased retention in females only (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.65-0.92). In addition to decreasing vasovagal reactions, retention interventions could productively target coping with fatigue and reducing subjective distress after adverse reactions. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  3. 48 CFR 52.227-10 - Filing of Patent Applications-Classified Subject Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filing of Patent... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.227-10 Filing of Patent Applications—Classified Subject Matter. As prescribed at 27.203-2, insert the following clause: Filing of Patent Applications—Classified Subject Matter...

  4. Beyond "Either-Or" Thinking: John Dewey and Confucius on Subject Matter and the Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charlene

    2016-01-01

    This article compares the educational thought of John Dewey and Confucius on the nature of and relationship between subject matter and the learner. There is a common perception in the existing literature and discourse that Dewey advocates child- or learner-centred education whereas Confucius privileges subject matter via textual transmission.…

  5. Florida Master Teacher Program: Testing Teacher Subject Matter Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavely, Carolyn; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The efforts of the Florida Institute for Instructional Research and Practice in designing, developing, and analyzing the subject area knowledge tests of the Florida Master Teacher Program are described. A total of 13 subject area examinations was developed in 1984-85, and 5 additional tests were developed the following year. For each subject area…

  6. GP teachers' subject matter knowledge in the context of a tutorial: the preparation and delivery compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantillon, Peter; de Grave, Willem

    2012-05-01

    Clinical teachers use several different types of knowledge in the act of teaching. These include content knowledge (subject matter), knowledge of how to teach (pedagogy) and knowledge of learners (context). Most attention in faculty development has been on how to teach rather than what is taught. The quality of a teacher's subject matter knowledge is likely to be a critical determinant of how well a subject is presented, communicated and learned. We therefore set out to examine teachers' subject matter knowledge in the context of a general practice tutorial on grade 1 hypertension. This study is part of a larger study that employed a mixed method approach (concept mapping, phenomenological interviews and video-stimulated recall) to examine differences between clinical educators in subject matter knowledge, pedagogical knowledge and knowledge of the learning environment in the context of general practice education. This paper presents the concept map data findings from the larger study as well as the parts of the phenomenological interviews that relate to subject matter knowledge and beliefs. We found that there were marked differences in the quality and elaborative structure of GP teachers' knowledge in the concept maps completed prior to the tutorials. These differences were also predictive of differences in the content presented to learners in tutorials. Teachers' beliefs about subject matter were also likely to have affected what they chose to teach about and how they presented it. Subject matter knowledge varies considerably between GP teachers in the context of a common and relatively simple tutorial. Differences in the quality of subject matter knowledge matter because they have a profound effect on what is learned and how it is learned. Faculty development for clinical educators needs to pay heed to the quality of subject matter knowledge in addition to its more common pedagogical focus.

  7. Subjects' skill and biphasic effects of met-enkephalin upon the acquisition and retention of a perceptual motor task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woosley, E A; Chara, P J

    1988-06-01

    The effects of met-enkephalin on the acquisition and retention over 10 days of a perceptual motor skill were investigated. Mice were randomly assigned to either one of two experimental groups (1-mg or 3-mg injections per 1-kg of body weight of met-enkephalin) or one of two control groups (dH2O injections). During the acquisition phase of the study, they were separated into "slow" and "fast" learners on the basis of their skill in negotiating a water maze. The results indicated an inhibitory effect of met-enkephalin in the 3-mg condition in the retention phase of the experiment. Subjects' skill was not implicated as a critical factor in retention of this simple task.

  8. Generating a non-English subjectivity lexicon: relations that matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jijkoun, V.; Hofmann, K.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a method for creating a non-English subjectivity lexicon based on an English lexicon, an online translation service and a general purpose thesaurus: Wordnet. We use a PageRank-like algorithm to bootstrap from the translation of the English lexicon and rank the words in the thesaurus by

  9. Preservice History Teachers' Perceptions of Subject Matter Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Tercan; Yazici, Fatih

    2017-01-01

    Teachers should be able to understand conceptual constructs, viewpoints, and principles related to their field and organize teaching process accordingly. This is valid also for history teachers. They are expected to comprehend the basic conceptions related to subject areas and reflect them on classroom practices. The association between subject…

  10. The interrelationship between subject matter and school gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jacob Højgaard; Wistoft, Karen

    2018-01-01

    This article maps out existing research regarding the effectiveness of integrated teaching in school gardens, i.e. including the math, languages and science subjects with their related objectives and curricula in school garden teaching and vice versa. The article is based on a literature review...... a standard garden curriculum is essential to planning, carrying out and evaluating effective school garden teaching in math, languages and science. Experiential learning and hands-on activities are teaching methods that immediately come to mind because they make the subject content less abstract, activate...... that concludes that school gardens have a predominantly positive influence on students’ learning outcome. However, there are a few school garden programmes that have the same or even a less beneficial influence on students’ learning outcome than traditional teaching. Thus, school gardens do not have...

  11. Didactic Matters in Teaching Subjects of Economics at the College

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Strazdienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been stated in Lithuania‘s National School Concept that the primary goal of the education of Lithuania is to secure the best possible comprehensive development of physical, psychological and spiritual human powers, to create conditions for the unfolding of the personal individuality. The subject of my teaching is economic theory. We face economic questions every day and in all areas of life. Therefore, my purpose is to acquaint college students, who do not study economics, with economic basics, to develop economic thinking and literacy. Greatest attention is paid to describe economic concepts and to use them in practice. Economics can not be learned through observing, one must work, analyse, solve practical exercises, search for correct answers. The purpose of the article is to assess the students‘ approach to the relevance of the subjects of economics. It is sought to identify the possibilities of applying new methods for teaching economic subjects and of selecting a teaching method in accordance with the students‘ level of preparation. The assessment of the research carried out enables to conclude that teaching economics forms students‘ capacities of a wide range, stimulates their self-expression, prepares young people to work in market conditions. The following methods of the research have been employed: pedagogic observation, questionnaire (survey, analysis of scientific literature and generalization.

  12. Subjectivity and Objectivity: A Matter of Life and Death?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrudis Van de Vijver

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it is argued that the question ldquo;What is life?rdquo; time and again emergesmdash;and within the confines of an objectivistic/subjectivistic frame of thought has to emergemdash;as a symptom, a non-deciphered, cryptic message that insists on being interpreted. br /Our hypothesis is that the failure to measure up the living to the standards of objectification has been taken too frequently from an objectivistic angle, leading to a simple postponement of an objective treatment of the living, and meanwhile confining it to the domain of the subjective, the relative and the metaphorical. As a consequence, the truly important question of the co-constitutive relation between objectivity and subjectivity is thereby evaded. A critical, transcendental account can be relevant in this regard, not only because of the fact that objectivity and subjectivity are seen as co-constitutive, but also because it addresses the question of the embeddedness of objectivity and subjectivity from within the living dynamics.br /This hypothesis will be articulated on the basis of Erwin Schrouml;dingerrsquo;s famous little book on ldquo;What is life?rdquo;, in dialogue with Robert Rosenrsquo;s critical reading of it. It appears that Schrouml;dinger considered the living as a genuine challenge for classical objectification procedures. However, it is doubtful whether this brought him to a critical reading of objectivity or to the acknowledgment of a constitutive role of subjectivity in relation to objectivity. We argue that his viewpoint has the merit ofnbsp; expressing the difficulty of the living within the field of the physical sciences, but does not really transcend the objectivism/subjectivism opposition. At this point, Rosenrsquo;s relational account takes up the challenge more radically by acknowledging the need for a new epistemology and a new metaphysics in relation to living systems, and by attributing a place to classical objectivity from within this

  13. Retention of pesticide Endosulfan by nanofiltration: influence of organic matter-pesticide complexation and solute-membrane interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Munari, Annalisa; Semiao, Andrea Joana Correia; Antizar-Ladislao, Blanca

    2013-06-15

    Nanofiltration (NF) is a well-established process used in drinking water production to effectively remove Natural Organic Matter (NOM) and organic micropollutants. The presence of NOM has been shown to have contrasting results on micropollutant retention by NF membranes and removal mechanisms are to date poorly understood. The permeate water quality can therefore vary during operation and its decrease would be an undesired outcome for potable water treatment. It is hence important to establish the mechanisms involved in the removal of organic micropollutants by NF membranes in the presence of NOM. In this study, the retention mechanisms of pesticide Endosulfan (ES) in the presence of humic acids (HA) by two NF membranes, TFC-SR2 and TFC-SR3, a "loose" and a "tight" membrane, respectively, were elucidated. The results showed that two mechanisms were involved: (1) the formation of ES-HA complexes (solute-solute interactions), determined from solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME), increased ES retention, and (2) the interactions between HA and the membrane (solute-membrane interactions) increased membrane molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) and decreased ES retention. HA concentration, pH, and the ratio between micropollutant molecular weight (MW) and membrane MWCO were shown to influence ES retention mechanisms. In the absence of HA-membrane interactions at pH 4, an increase of HA concentration increased ES retention from 60% to 80% for the TFC-SR2 and from 80% to 95% for the TFC-SR3 due to ES-HA complex formation. At pH 8, interactions between HA and the loose TFC-SR2 increased the membrane MWCO from 460 to 496 g/mol and ES retention decreased from 55% to 30%, as HA-membrane interactions were the dominant mechanism for ES retention. In contrast, for the "tight" TFC-SR3 membrane the increase in the MWCO (from 165 to 179 g/mol), was not sufficient to decrease ES retention which was dominated by ES-HA interactions. Quantification of the contribution of both solute

  14. 37 CFR 1.110 - Inventorship and date of invention of the subject matter of individual claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... invention of the subject matter of individual claims. 1.110 Section 1.110 Patents, Trademarks, and... invention of the subject matter of individual claims. When more than one inventor is named in an application... claim in the application or patent. Where appropriate, the invention dates of the subject matter of each...

  15. Peat properties and water retention in boreal forested peatlands subject to wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dan K.; Waddington, James M.

    2013-06-01

    Peat cores from a recently burned peatland and one over 75 years since fire in Alberta, Canada were analyzed for physical properties and water retention. Wildfire exposed denser peat at the peat surface, more so in hollow than hummock microforms. Water retention in peat has implications for postfire Sphagnum regeneration, as this more dense peat requires smaller volumes of water loss before a critical growth-inhibiting pore-water pressure of -100 mb is reached. Simulations of water retention after fire showed that hollow microforms are at a higher risk of losing low-density surface peat, which moderates water table (WT) declines via high specific yield. Exposure of dense peat to the surface after fire increases surface moisture under a constant WT. The net effect of decreasing specific yield and increasing water retention at the surface has implications on hydrologic stability and resilience of boreal peatlands to future wildfire risk under a changing climate. Earth system models incorporating wildfire disturbance in boreal peatlands would benefit from the inclusion of these hydrological feedbacks in this globally significant carbon reservoir.

  16. Experiential Learning of Electronics Subject Matter in Middle School Robotics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihtaršic, David; Avsec, Stanislav; Kocijancic, Slavko

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the experiential learning of electronics subject matter is effective in the middle school open learning of robotics. Electronics is often ignored in robotics courses. Since robotics courses are typically comprised of computer-related subjects, and mechanical and electrical engineering, these…

  17. One Health in food safety and security education: Subject matter outline for a curricular framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Angelos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Educating students in the range of subjects encompassing food safety and security as approached from a One Health perspective requires consideration of a variety of different disciplines and the interrelationships among disciplines. The Western Institute for Food Safety and Security developed a subject matter outline to accompany a previously published One Health in food safety and security curricular framework. The subject matter covered in this outline encompasses a variety of topics and disciplines related to food safety and security including effects of food production on the environment. This subject matter outline should help guide curriculum development and education in One Health in food safety and security and provides useful information for educators, researchers, students, and public policy-makers facing the inherent challenges of maintaining and/or developing safe and secure food supplies without destroying Earth's natural resources.

  18. Trends in the journal of nematology, 1969-2009: authors, States, nematodes, and subject matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSorley, R

    2011-06-01

    Issues of the Journal of Nematology from 1969-2009 were examined to determine trends in authorship and subject matter. Data were collected on authors, affiliations, locations, funding, nematodes, and nematological subject matter, and then compared among the 4 decades involved. Some of the more prominent changes noted included: a decrease (P Journal of Nematology in the 1990s and 2000s from a peak in the 1980s; an increase (P Journal of Nematology from 1969-2009. The greatest changes in subject matter were increases in papers on biological control and resistance in the 1990s and 2000s compared to the 1970s and 1980s. Additional trends and subjects are discussed, and data are provided comparing differences among the 4 decades for various aspects of nematology.

  19. One Health in food safety and security education: Subject matter outline for a curricular framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelos, John A; Arens, Amanda L; Johnson, Heather A; Cadriel, Jessica L; Osburn, Bennie I

    2017-06-01

    Educating students in the range of subjects encompassing food safety and security as approached from a One Health perspective requires consideration of a variety of different disciplines and the interrelationships among disciplines. The Western Institute for Food Safety and Security developed a subject matter outline to accompany a previously published One Health in food safety and security curricular framework. The subject matter covered in this outline encompasses a variety of topics and disciplines related to food safety and security including effects of food production on the environment. This subject matter outline should help guide curriculum development and education in One Health in food safety and security and provides useful information for educators, researchers, students, and public policy-makers facing the inherent challenges of maintaining and/or developing safe and secure food supplies without destroying Earth's natural resources.

  20. Fiberprint: A subject fingerprint based on sparse code pooling for white matter fiber analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kuldeep; Desrosiers, Christian; Siddiqi, Kaleem; Colliot, Olivier; Toews, Matthew

    2017-09-01

    White matter characterization studies use the information provided by diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) to draw cross-population inferences. However, the structure, function, and white matter geometry vary across individuals. Here, we propose a subject fingerprint, called Fiberprint, to quantify the individual uniqueness in white matter geometry using fiber trajectories. We learn a sparse coding representation for fiber trajectories by mapping them to a common space defined by a dictionary. A subject fingerprint is then generated by applying a pooling function for each bundle, thus providing a vector of bundle-wise features describing a particular subject's white matter geometry. These features encode unique properties of fiber trajectories, such as their density along prominent bundles. An analysis of data from 861 Human Connectome Project subjects reveals that a fingerprint based on approximately 3000 fiber trajectories can uniquely identify exemplars from the same individual. We also use fingerprints for twin/sibling identification, our observations consistent with the twin data studies of white matter integrity. Our results demonstrate that the proposed Fiberprint can effectively capture the variability in white matter fiber geometry across individuals, using a compact feature vector (dimension of 50), making this framework particularly attractive for handling large datasets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Anthocyanin Retention of Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Juice Subjected to Different Nanofiltration Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Ah-Hen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the retention of anthocyanin during a nanofiltration process of cranberry juice. Nanofiltration membranes, HC-50P DDS with an effective area of 0.36 m2 in a plate/frame nanofilter system, DDS Lab Module, were used for the experiments. Juice feed flow rate varied from 1.0 to 12.0 L min−1 at transmembrane pressures between 20 and 40 bar (2026 and 4052 kPa. Permeate flux reached a maximum value of 41.3 L h−1 m−2 at a pressure of 40 bar and a feed rate of 12 L min−1, showing a direct dependency on these two parameters. Retention coefficients of anthocyanin of 0.94 to 0.99 corresponding to percentage recovery between 93 and 99% were obtained. Total anthocyanin content increased to values between 237 and 287 mg L−1 from original concentration of 82 to 97 mg L−1 in feed solution. Total soluble solids were also retained on the nanofilter. Both anthocyanin retentate and permeate obtained by nanofiltration could be potential functional ingredients for the food and nutraceutical industry.

  2. Engaging Students with Subject Matter Experts and Science Content Through Classroom Connection Webinars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, P. V.; Rampe, E.; Stefanov, W. L.; Vanderbloemen, L.; Higgins, M.

    2015-01-01

    Connecting students and teachers in classrooms with science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) experts provides an invaluable opportunity. Subject matter experts can share exciting science and science-related events as well as help to "translate" science being conducted by professionals. The Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) Program, facilitated by the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center, has been providing virtual access to subject matter experts through classroom connection webinars for the last five years. Each year, the reach of these events has grown considerably, especially over the last nine months. These virtual connections not only help engage students with role models, but are also designed to help teachers address concepts and content standards they are required to teach. These events also enable scientists and subject matter experts to help "translate" current science in an engaging and understandable manner while actively involving classrooms in the journey of science and exploration.

  3. Trends in the Journal of Nematology, 1969-2009: Authors, States, Nematodes, and Subject Matter

    OpenAIRE

    McSorley, R.

    2011-01-01

    Issues of the Journal of Nematology from 1969-2009 were examined to determine trends in authorship and subject matter. Data were collected on authors, affiliations, locations, funding, nematodes, and nematological subject matter, and then compared among the 4 decades involved. Some of the more prominent changes noted included: a decrease (P < 0.05) in the number of papers published in the Journal of Nematology in the 1990s and 2000s from a peak in the 1980s; an increase (P < 0.05) in number o...

  4. Transport and Retention of Colloids in Porous Media: Does Shape Really Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of particle shape on its transport and retention in porous media was evaluated by stretching carboxylate-modified fluorescent polystyrene spheres into rod shapes with aspect ratios of 2:1 and 4:1. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation experiments (QCM-D) were c...

  5. Effects of Motivation, Subject Activity, and Readability on the Retention of Prose Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fass, Warren; Schumacher, Gary M.

    1978-01-01

    Undergraduates read a prose passage and were tested on its contents. Difficulty, permission to underline key phrases, and financial motivation were varied. Non-highly motivated subjects performed better on the easy version; underlining aided highly motivated subjects and those reading the difficult version. (Author/RD)

  6. The Effects of CLIL Education on the Subject Matter (Mathematics) and the Target Language (English)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouazizi, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of Content and Language Integrated Learning, CLIL for short, on both the attainment of the subject matter, mathematics in our case, hence the content aspect of CLIL. The second axes of research focuses on the effect of CLIL on the learners' proficiency vis-à-vis the language of instruction, epitomized here by…

  7. On the Importance of Subject Matter in Mathematics Education: A Conversation with Erich Christian Wittmann

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinwunmi, Kathrin; Höveler, Karina; Schnell, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Erich Christian Wittmann is one of the primary founders of mathematics education research as an autonomous field of work and research in Germany. The interview presented here reflects on his role in promoting mathematics education as a design science. The interview addresses the following topics: (1) The importance of subject matter in…

  8. The Structure of Subject Matter Content and Its Instructional Design Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigeluth, Charles M.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Four types of fundamental structures are briefly described and illustrated: the learning hierarchy, the procedural hierarchy, the taxonomy, and the model. Then a theoretical framework is presented for classifying types of subject matter content, and some implications of these content classifications are discussed. (VT)

  9. Pre-Service Geography Teachers' Confidence in Geographical Subject Matter Knowledge and Teaching Geographical Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Wendy; Reitano, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This research tracked the confidence of 16 undergraduate and postgraduate pre-service geography teachers as they completed a single semester, senior phase geography curriculum course. The study focused specifically on the pre-service teachers' confidence in geographical subject matter knowledge and their confidence in teaching geographical skills.…

  10. The Designer-by-Assignment in Practice: Instructional Design Thinking of Subject Matter Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, Sandra V.

    2012-01-01

    Designers-by-assignment, or subject matter experts (SMEs) who are pressed into training service, have become common in the workplace. A review of more than 24 studies on expert and novice instructional designers, however, revealed that little is known about how designers-by-assignment think about design and make design decisions in the field. A…

  11. The Dialectical Nature of Writing and Its Implications for Learning Subject Matter Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Males, Terry

    1997-01-01

    Looks at writing as a dialectical affair--"dialectic" refers both to the dialogical nature of writing and the opportunity it opens up for the writer in coming to a new understanding of the subject matter. Uses H. Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics as a starting point for developing writing as a dialectical process. (PA)

  12. Reclaiming the Subject Matter as a Guide to Mutual Understanding: Effectiveness and Ethics in Interpersonal Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deetz, Stanley

    1990-01-01

    Presents H. G. Gadamer's ontology of understanding as a developmental foundation for interpersonal system ethics. Conceptualizes interaction in terms of demand that the subject matter places on openly formed mutual understanding. Shows unethical interactions as practices which prohibit this development. Provides examples of processes by which…

  13. What Do Subject Matter Experts Have to Say about Participating in Education and Outreach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Colleen; NASA's Universe of Learning Team

    2018-01-01

    NASA’s Universe of Learning partners wish to actively engage with Subject Matter Experts (scientists and engineers) throughout the design, development, and delivery of products, programs, and professional development. In order to ensure these engagement efforts aligned with the needs of Subject Matter Experts, the external evaluators conducted an online survey. The subject pool included the scientists and engineers employed at the partner organizations as well as other scientists and engineers affiliated with NASA’s Astrophysics missions and research programs. This presentation will describe scientists’/engineers’ interest in various types of education/outreach, their availability to participate in education/outreach, factors that would encourage their participation in education/outreach, and the preparation and support they have for participation in education/outreach.

  14. John Dewey on theory of learning and inquiry: The scientific method and subject matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Nien

    This study examines the educational debate between Dewey and some of his critics on the merits of learning the scientific method. Four of Dewey's critics---Hutchins, Hirsch, Hirst, and Scheffler criticize Dewey for over-emphasizing the importance of the scientific method and under-emphasizing the importance of subject matter in education. This dissertation argues that these critics misunderstand Dewey's use of the scientific method and its importance in education. It argues that Dewey conceives of the scientific method in two different ways: first as an attitude and second as a tool. It also argues that, by failing to understand this critical distinction, these critics misunderstand the role of the scientific method in education. The dissertation concludes by showing that, educationally, Dewey's ideas of the scientific method have different meanings in different context. It analyzes the scientific method as empirical method, critical thinking, cooperative learning, and creative thinking, and shows the place of subject matter in each of them.

  15. White Matter Hyperintensity Associations with Cerebral Blood Flow in Elderly Subjects Stratified by Cerebrovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Ahmed A; Powell, David K; Yu, Guoquiang; Johnson, Eleanor S; Jicha, Gregory A; Smith, Charles D

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to add clarity to the relationship between deep and periventricular brain white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and cerebrovascular risk in older persons. Deep white matter hyperintensity (dWMH) and periventricular white matter hyperintensity (pWMH) and regional gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) blood flow from arterial spin labeling were quantified from magnetic resonance imaging scans of 26 cognitively normal elderly subjects stratified by cerebrovascular disease (CVD) risk. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images were acquired using a high-resolution 3-dimensional (3-D) sequence that reduced partial volume effects seen with slice-based techniques. dWMHs but not pWMHs were increased in patients at high risk of CVD; pWMHs but not dWMHs were associated with decreased regional cortical (GM) blood flow. We also found that blood flow in WM is decreased in regions of both pWMH and dWMH, with a greater degree of decrease in pWMH areas. WMHs are usefully divided into dWMH and pWMH regions because they demonstrate differential effects. 3-D regional WMH volume is a potentially valuable marker for CVD based on associations with cortical CBF and WM CBF. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Problems Faced By Elementary School Second Grade English Subject Matter Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belgin Bal Incebacak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of thisstudy isto determine the problems experienced by subject matter teachers while instructing English lessons in the second grade of elementary school. What are the problemsfaced by English subject matter teachers when they instruct in 2nd grade lessons? In this research the descriptive modeling, which is one of the qualitative research methods, was employed. In accordance with this objective, we worked with 8 subject matter teachers from 5 different schoolsinAtakum and Ilkadim districtslocated in downtown Samsun, through easily accessible case sampling. The semi-structured “English Course Interview Form’’was applied to the teachers. In the study, descriptive survey model was employed, since it was aimed to reveal the current status of qualitative research methods.According to the results obtained from the research, the content was configured and presented under 5 themes. They were categorized as: 1. the problems experienced in classroom management, 2. the problems in physical and cognitive readiness, 3. the problems experienced in the learning and teacher process, 4. the problems seen in counseling, 5. the problems experienced in assessment and evaluation. In conclusion, the teachers stated that they had problems with managing the classroom, especially with the second grade students, whom are younger than others. It is observed that the change for teaching English at a younger age has been appropriate. Our teachersstated that they required in-service training so as to adapt to this aforementioned change.

  17. Phosphorus retention in calcareous soils and the effect of organic matter on its mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Wandruszka Ray

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A survey of the interactions between phosphorus (P species and the components of calcareous soils shows that both surface reactions and precipitation take place, especially in the presence of calcite and limestone. The principal products of these reactions are dicalcium phosphate and octacalcium phosphate, which may interconvert after formation. The role of calcium carbonate in P retention by calcareous soils is, however, significant only at relatively high P concentrations – non-carbonate clays play a more important part at lower concentrations. In the presence of iron oxide particles, occlusion of P frequently occurs in these bodies, especially with forms of the element that are pedogenic in origin. Progressive mineralization and immobilization, often biological in nature, are generally observed when P is added as a fertilizer. Manure serves both as a source of subsurface P and an effective mobilizing agent. Blockage of P sorption sites by organic acids, as well as complexation of exchangeable Al and Fe in the soil, are potential causes of this mobilization. Swine and chicken manure are especially rich P sources, largely due the practice of adding the element to the feed of nonruminants. Humic materials, both native and added, appear to increase recovery of Olsen P. In the presence of metal cations, strong complexes between inorganic P and humates are formed. The influence of humic soil amendments on P mobility warrants further investigation.

  18. Beta Oscillatory Changes and Retention of Motor Skills during Practice in Healthy Subjects and in Patients with Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Aaron B; Moisello, Clara; Lin, Jing; Panday, Priya; Ricci, Serena; Canessa, Andrea; Di Rocco, Alessandro; Quartarone, Angelo; Frazzitta, Giuseppe; Isaias, Ioannis U; Tononi, Giulio; Cirelli, Chiara; Ghilardi, M Felice

    2017-01-01

    Recently we found that modulation depth of beta power during movement increases with practice over sensory-motor areas in normal subjects but not in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). As such changes might reflect use-dependent modifications, we concluded that reduction of beta enhancement in PD represents saturation of cortical plasticity. A few questions remained open: What is the relation between these EEG changes and retention of motor skills? Would a second task exposure restore beta modulation enhancement in PD? Do practice-induced increases of beta modulation occur within each block? We thus recorded EEG in patients with PD and age-matched controls in two consecutive days during a 40-min reaching task divided in fifteen blocks of 56 movements each. The results confirmed that, with practice, beta modulation depth over the contralateral sensory-motor area significantly increased across blocks in controls but not in PD, while performance improved in both groups without significant correlations between behavioral and EEG data. The same changes were seen the following day in both groups. Also, beta modulation increased within each block with similar values in both groups and such increases were partially transferred to the successive block in controls, but not in PD. Retention of performance improvement was present in the controls but not in the patients and correlated with the increase in day 1 modulation depth. Therefore, the lack of practice-related increase beta modulation in PD is likely due to deficient potentiation mechanisms that permit between-block saving of beta power enhancement and trigger mechanisms of memory formation.

  19. Pulmonary retention of particulate matter is associated with airway inflammation in allergic rats exposed to air pollution in urban Detroit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Masako; Keeler, Gerald; Wagner, James; Marsik, Frank; Timm, Edward; Dvonch, J; Harkema, Jack

    2004-09-01

    A collaborative research study was conducted in order to improve our understanding of the source-to-receptor pathway for ambient fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter rats, with and without ovalbumin-induced allergic airway disease, to concentrated air particles (CAPs) generated from ambient air in an urban Detroit community where the pediatric asthma rate was three times higher than the national average. Rats were exposed to CAPs during the exposure periods in July (mean = 676 microg/m3) and September (313 microg/m3) of 2000. Twenty-four hours after exposures lung lobes were either lavaged with saline to determine cellularity and protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), or removed for analysis by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to detect ambient PM2.5-derived trace element retention. PM2.5 trace elements of anthropogenic origin, lanthanum (La), vanadium (V), manganese (Mn), and sulfur (S), were recovered from the lung tissues of CAPs-exposed rats. Recovery of those pulmonary anthropogenic particles was further increased in rats with allergic airways. In addition, eosinophils and protein in BALF were increased only in allergic animals exposed to CAPs. These results demonstrate preferential retention in allergic airways of air particulates derived from identified local combustion sources after a short-term exposure. Our findings suggest that the enhancement of allergic airway responses by exposure to PM2.5 is mediated in part by increased pulmonary deposition and localization of potentially toxic elements in urban air. Copyright Taylor & Francis Inc.

  20. Participation in a mobile health intervention trial to improve retention in HIV care: does gender matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kop, Mia L; Muhula, Samuel; Ekström, Anna M; Jongbloed, Kate; Smillie, Kirsten; Abunah, Bonface; Kinagwi, Koki; Kyomuhangi, Lennie B; Gelmon, Lawrence; Ojakaa, David I; Lester, Richard T; Awiti, Patricia O

    2017-02-01

    Background To be consistent with the United Nations' sustainable development goals on gender equality, mobile health (mHealth) programmes should aim to use communications technology to promote the empowerment of women. We conducted a pre-trial analysis of data from the WelTel Retain study on retention in HIV care to assess gender-based differences in phone access, phone sharing and concerns about receiving text messages from a healthcare provider. Methods Between April 2013-June 2015, HIV-positive adults were screened for trial participation at two clinics in urban slums in Nairobi, Kenya. Proportions of men and women excluded from the trial due to phone-related criteria were compared using a chi-square test. Gender-based differences in phone sharing patterns and concerns among trial participants were similarly compared. Results Of 1068 individuals screened, there was no difference in the proportion of men ( n = 39/378, 10.3%) and women ( n = 71/690, 10.3%) excluded because of phone-related criteria ( p-value = 0.989). Among those who shared their phone, women ( n = 52/108, 48.1%) were more likely than men ( n = 6/60, 10.0%) to share with other non-household and household members ( p equally able to participate in a trial of an mHealth intervention. Equitable access in these urban slums may indicate the 'gender digital divide' is narrowing in some settings; however, gender-specific phone sharing patterns and concerns regarding privacy must be fully considered in the development and scale-up of mHealth programmes.

  1. Influence of natural organic matter on transport and retention of polymer coated silver nanoparticles in porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinyao; Lin, Shihong; Wiesner, Mark R

    2014-01-15

    Interactions between organic matter (OM) and engineered polymer coatings as they affect the retention of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) polymer-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were studied. Two distinct types of OM-cysteine representing low molecular weight multivalent functional groups, and Suwannee River Humic Acid (HA) representing high molecular weight polymers, were investigated with respect to their effects on particle stability in aggregation and deposition. Aggregation of the PVP coated AgNPs (PVP-AgNPs) was enhanced by cysteine addition at high ionic strengths, which was attributed to cysteine binding to the AgNPs and replacing the otherwise steric stabilizing agent PVP. In contrast the addition of HA did not increase aggregation rates and decreased PVP-AgNP deposition to the silica porous medium, consistent with enhanced electrosteric stabilization by the HA. Although cysteine also reduced deposition in the porous medium, the mechanisms of reduced deposition appear to be enhanced electric double layer (EDL) interaction at low ionic strengths. At higher ionic strengths, aggregation was favored leading to lower deposition due to smaller diffusion coefficients and single collector efficiencies despite the reduced EDL interactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. OntoBrowser: a collaborative tool for curation of ontologies by subject matter experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravagli, Carlo; Pognan, Francois; Marc, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The lack of controlled terminology and ontology usage leads to incomplete search results and poor interoperability between databases. One of the major underlying challenges of data integration is curating data to adhere to controlled terminologies and/or ontologies. Finding subject matter experts with the time and skills required to perform data curation is often problematic. In addition, existing tools are not designed for continuous data integration and collaborative curation. This results in time-consuming curation workflows that often become unsustainable. The primary objective of OntoBrowser is to provide an easy-to-use online collaborative solution for subject matter experts to map reported terms to preferred ontology (or code list) terms and facilitate ontology evolution. Additional features include web service access to data, visualization of ontologies in hierarchical/graph format and a peer review/approval workflow with alerting. The source code is freely available under the Apache v2.0 license. Source code and installation instructions are available at http://opensource.nibr.com This software is designed to run on a Java EE application server and store data in a relational database. philippe.marc@novartis.com. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Habitual sleep durations and subjective sleep quality predict white matter differences in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakh Khalsa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-imposed short sleep durations are increasingly commonplace in society, and have considerable health and performance implications for individuals. Reduced sleep duration over multiple nights has similar behavioural effects to those observed following acute total sleep deprivation, suggesting that lack of sleep affects brain function cumulatively. A link between habitual sleep patterns and functional connectivity has previously been observed, and the effect of sleep duration on the brain's intrinsic functional architecture may provide a link between sleep status and cognition. However, it is currently not known whether differences in habitual sleep patterns across individuals are related to changes in the brain's white matter, which underlies structural connectivity. In the present study we use diffusion–weighted imaging and a group comparison application of tract based spatial statistics (TBSS to investigate changes to fractional anisotropy (FA and mean diffusivity (MD in relation to sleep duration and quality, hypothesising that white matter metrics would be positively associated with sleep duration and quality. Diffusion weighted imaging data was acquired from a final cohort of 33 (23–29 years, 10 female, mean 25.4 years participants. Sleep patterns were assessed for a 14 day period using wrist actigraphs and sleep diaries, and subjective sleep quality with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. Median splits based on total sleep time and PSQI were used to create groups of shorter/longer and poorer/better sleepers, whose imaging data was compared using TBSS followed by post-hoc correlation analysis in regions identified as significantly different between the groups. There were significant positive correlations between sleep duration and FA in the left orbito-frontal region and the right superior corona radiata, and significant negative correlations between sleep duration and MD in right orbito-frontal white matter and the right

  4. The Effects of Verbal Rewards and Punishment on Subject-Matter Growth of Culturally Disadvantaged First Grade Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, Joan K.; Soar, Robert S.

    The purpose of this study was to extend a relationship between teacher verbal rewarding and punishing behavior and subject matter growth previously obtained with middle-class postprimary children, with a different population; namely, first-grade, lower-class children. The subjects were 366 children and 20 teachers from first-grade classes…

  5. Knot numbers used as labels for identifying subject matter of a khipu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Saez-Rodriguez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This investigation presents a new way to look at the numerical khipu, a knotted-string recording device from Pachacamac (Peru, and the types of information it contains. In addition to celestial coordinates, khipu knots apparently pertain to an early form of double-entry accounting. This study hypothesizes that the khipu sample has the recording capacity needed to register double-entry-like accounts. After the identification of its subject matter, the khipu sample was studied in an attempt to ascertain whether the knot values could represent instructions from the Inca state administration to a local accounting center. The results indicate that the numerical information in the pairing quadrants (determined by the distribution of S- and Z-knots should be read from top to bottom along the full length of the string and can then provide certain complementary details regarding the projected corn stocks of the Inca stat

  6. Subject matter knowledge, classroom management, and instructional practices in middle school science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Okhee

    This study examined the interrelationships among three major components of classroom teaching: subject matter content knowledge, classroom management, and instructional practices. The study involved two middle school science classes of different achievement levels taught by the same female teacher. The teacher held an undergraduate degree with a major in social studies and a minor in mathematics and science from an elementary teacher education program. The findings indicated that the teacher's limited knowledge of science content and her strict classroom order resulted in heavy dependence on the textbook and students' individual activities (e.g., seatwork) and avoidance of whole-class activities (e.g., discussion) similarly in both classes. Implications for educational practices and further research are discussed.

  7. [Exploration of a quantitative methodology to characterize the retention of PM2.5 and other atmospheric particulate matter by plant leaves: taking Populus tomentosa as an example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Dan; Xi, Ben-Ye; Cao, Zhi-Guo; Jia, Li-Ming

    2014-08-01

    Taking Populus tomentosa as an example, a methodology called elution-weighing-particle size-analysis (EWPA) was proposed to evaluate quantitatively the ability of retaining fine particulate matter (PM2.5, diameter d ≤ 2.5 μm) and atmospheric particulate matter by plant leaves using laser particle size analyzer and balance. This method achieved a direct, accurate measurement with superior operability about the quality and particle size distribution of atmospheric particulate matter retained by plant leaves. First, a pre-experiment was taken to test the stability of the method. After cleaning, centrifugation and drying, the particulate matter was collected and weighed, and then its particle size distribution was analyzed by laser particle size analyzer. Finally, the mass of particulate matter retained by unit area of leaf and stand was translated from the leaf area and leaf area index. This method was applied to a P. tomentosa stand which had not experienced rain for 27 days in Beijing Olympic Forest Park. The results showed that the average particle size of the atmospheric particulate matter retained by P. tomentosa was 17.8 μm, and the volume percentages of the retained PM2.5, inhalable particulate matter (PM10, d ≤ 10 μm) and total suspended particle (TSP, d ≤ 100 μm) were 13.7%, 47.2%, and 99.9%, respectively. The masses of PM2.5, PM10, TSP and total particulate matter were 8.88 x 10(-6), 30.6 x 10(-6), 64.7 x 10(-6) and 64.8 x 10(-6) g x cm(-2) respectively. The retention quantities of PM2.5, PM10, TSP and total particulate matter by the P. tomentosa stand were 0.963, 3.32, 7.01 and 7.02 kg x hm(-2), respectively.

  8. Grey-Matter Metabolism in Relation with White-Matter Lesions in Older Hypertensive Patients with Subjective Memory Complaints: A Pilot Voxel-Based Analysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Antoine; Hossu, Gabriela; Kearney-Schwartz, Anna; Bracard, Serge; Roch, Veronique; Van der Gucht, Axel; Fay, Renaud; Benetos, Athanase; Marie, Pierre-Yves; Joly, Laure

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the changes in brain metabolism related to white-matter magnetic resonance (MR) hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin, with a voxel-based quantitative analysis of (18F)-fluorodesoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging. Sixty older hypertensive patients with subjective memory complaints (75 ± 5 years, 34 women) were prospectively referred to FDG-PET and MRI brain imaging. The Statistical Parametric Mapping software was used to assess the correlation between brain distribution of FDG and white-matter hyperintensities assessed by the Fazekas score on MRI images. The Fazekas score was inversely related to FDG uptake, independently of age and gender, within 14 Brodmann areas located mainly in the frontal lobe but also in certain limbic, insular and temporal areas. This relationship was also found to be largely independent of the volume of grey matter expressed in percentage of cranial volume, an index of atrophy. White-matter MR hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin are cross-sectionally associated with a lower grey-matter metabolism, mainly but not only within frontal areas and independently of age, gender and grey-matter atrophy. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. 'The body does matter': Women as embodied social subjects in Angela Carter's Nights at the Circus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milosavljević Tatjana B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Postmodernism posed a crucial ontological challenge to reality, questioning what constitutes the real world, simultaneously interrogating the horizon of representation of this unstable reality in fiction. Feminism on the other hand equipped us with critical tools for interpreting the reality of being in the world in a gendered body, as well as with a conceptual apparatus for interpreting the manifold institutional and private oppressions of women's bodies that play out in women's daily lives and in the discourses that shape them, literary discourse being one of them. This paper argues that Angela Carter's 1984 novel Nights at the Circus, which is widely held as a postfeminist text due to its narrative commitment to transcending gender binaries, essentially uses the strategies of postmodern storytelling and characterization in order to explore women's embodied potentialities of agency i.e. their construction of subjectivity through body. We will argue that the hybrid magic realist narrative constructs Fevvers' body as a titillating postmodern performance, ontologically illusive and elusive, yet it grounds that same body in various socially effected predicaments and experiences that serve to show that even in the midst of a play of signifiers, in Patricia Waugh's words, 'the body does matter, at least to what has been the dominant perspective within British female fiction' (Waugh, 2006, p. 196. In other words, it may be argued that Carter's novel is invested in traditional second-wave feminist politics to the extent that it shows that a woman's body is an indispensable medium of being in the world with material consequences that bear on the formation of her subjectivity and possibility of agency, and through which she acts out her relationships to others and is acted upon.

  10. NASA's Universe of Learning: The Integral Role of Research Astronomers and Other Subject Matter Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Janice; Universe of Learning Team

    2018-01-01

    Astronomy seeks to understand the workings of the Universe on its largest scales, and to answer fundamental questions about the story of our origins. The science of astronomy thus naturally lends itself to informal education and public outreach activities, as it broadly captures the human imagination. There are at least three overall goals for investment of resources in Astronomy E/PO: to interest students in pursuing STEM education and careers; to develop Astronomy as context for teaching more basic physical and computer science in service of US National Education Goals; to help motivate continued public support of federally funded Astronomy research and technology development. Providing a full spectrum of opportunities for the public to learn about recent Astronomy discoveries is key to achieving these societal goals. Thus, the E/PO professional community must have an understanding of recent scientific/technological results, and engage with the researchers who are creating new knowledge to explicate that knowledge to the public. It stands to reason that researchers (or “subject matter experts, SMEs”) must be involved in and remain connected to the E/PO endeavor. In this talk, I will describe how research astronomers and other SMEs play an integral role in a full range of informal education programming developed by the NASA Universe of Learning collaboration, and opportunities to get involved.

  11. Cognitive Control and White Matter Callosal Microstructure in Methamphetamine Dependent Subjects: A DTI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Ruth; Nordahl, Thomas E; Buonocore, Michael H; Natsuaki, Yutaka; Waters, Christy; Moore, Charles D; Galloway, Gantt P; Leamon, Martin H

    2009-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine (MA) abuse causes damage to structures within the human cerebrum, with particular susceptibility to white matter (WM). Abnormalities have been reported in anterior regions with less evidence of changes in posterior regions. MA abusers have also shown deficits on attention tests that measure response conflict and cognitive control. Methods We examined cognitive control using a computerized measure of the Stroop selective attention task and indices of WM microstructure obtained from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the callosal genu and splenium of 37 currently abstinent MA abusers and 17 non-substance abusing controls. Measurements of Fractional Anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of callosal fibers and diffusion tensor eigenvalues were obtained in all subjects. Results The MA abusers exhibited greater Stroop reaction time interference (i.e., reduced cognitive control) [p=.04] compared to controls. After correcting for multiple comparisons, FA within the genu correlated significantly with measures of cognitive control in the MA abusers [p=.04, bonferroni corrected] but not in controls [p=.26]. Group differences in genu, but not splenium, FA were trend significant [p=.09]. Conclusions MA abuse appears to alter anterior callosal WM microstructure with less evidence of change within posterior callosal WM microstructure. DTI indices within the genu, but not splenium, correlated with measures of cognitive control in chronic MA abusers. PMID:18814867

  12. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  13. What Subject Matter Knowledge Do Second-Level Teachers Need to Know to Teach Trigonometry? An Exploration and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Richard; Fitzmaurice, Olivia; O'Donoghue, John

    2017-01-01

    This study reports on the level of trigonometry Subject Matter Knowledge (SMK) of third and final-year pre-service second-level mathematics teachers () at an Irish third-level institution. The aim of the study was to determine if this sample of prospective teachers has an appropriate level of SMK to teach second-level trigonometric concepts. The…

  14. A Methodology for Investigating the Interactions of Individual Differences and Subject Matter Characteristics with Instructional Methods. ; Report 67.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigeluth, Charles M.

    This paper presents a general model for conceptualizing and testing the interactions of individual differences and subject-matter characteristics with instructional methods. The model postulates certain ways of classifying the variables of interest in such investigations and of conceptualizing the cause-and-effect relationships among those classes…

  15. Which One Is Better? Jigsaw II versus Jigsaw IV on the Subject of the Building Blocks of Matter and Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkmen, Hakan; Buyukaltay, Didem

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effect of using Jigsaw II and Jigsaw IV techniques on the subject of "Atoms-The Basic Unit of Matter" in science course of 6th grade on academic achievement was examined. Pre-test post-test control group research was used in the study. Study population is all secondary schools in Turgutlu district of Manisa province…

  16. "Frustrated" or "Surprised?" An Examination of the Perspectives of Spanish Teacher Candidates regarding the Praxis II Subject-Matter Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Researchers (Sandarg & Schomber, 2009; Wilkerson, Schomber, & Sandarg, 2004) have urged the profession to develop a new subject-matter licensure test to reflect the best practices in the foreign language classroom. In October 2010, the Praxis II: World Language Test joined the Praxis Series. Given that this standards-driven test differs…

  17. Reflective Pedagogy: The Integration of Methodology and Subject-Matter Content in a Graduate-Level Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakeman, Rick C.; Henderson, Markesha M.; Howard, Lionel C.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a critical reflection on how we, instructors of a graduate-level course in higher education administration, sought to integrate theoretical and subject-matter content and research methodology. Our reflection, guided by autoethnography and teacher reflection, challenged both our assumptions about curriculum design and our…

  18. The Knowledge Base of Subject Matter Experts in Teaching: A Case Study of a Professional Scientist as a Beginning Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diezmann, Carmel M.; Watters, James J.

    2015-01-01

    One method of addressing the shortage of science and mathematics teachers is to train scientists and other science-related professionals to become teachers. Advocates argue that as discipline experts these career changers can relate the subject matter knowledge to various contexts and applications in teaching. In this paper, through interviews and…

  19. Shared Knowledge among Graphic Designers, Instructional Designers and Subject Matter Experts in Designing Multimedia-Based Instructional Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Rafiza Abdul

    2013-01-01

    The research identified and explored the shared knowledge among the instructional multimedia design and development experts comprising of subject matter expert, graphic designer and instructional designer. The knowledge shared by the team was categorized into three groups of multimedia design principles encompasses of basic principles, authoring…

  20. The Impact of Self-Perceived Subject Matter Knowledge on Pedagogical Decisions in EFL Grammar Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Hugo Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in language teacher cognition research highlight the need to explore subject matter knowledge in relation to classroom practice. This study examines the impact of two foreign language teachers' knowledge about grammar upon their pedagogical decisions. The primary database consisted of classroom observations and post-lesson…

  1. The Effect of Applying Elements of Instructional Design on Teaching Material for the Subject of Classification of Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdilek, Zehra; Ozkan, Muhlis

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of instructional materials for the subject of classification of matter as solids, liquids and gases that were developed using a holistic instructional design model on student achievement. In the study a pre-test/post-test with control group experimental design was used. The study was conducted in the…

  2. Resting state cortical electroencephalographic rhythms are related to gray matter volume in subjects with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiloni, Claudio; Carducci, Filippo; Lizio, Roberta; Vecchio, Fabrizio; Baglieri, Annalisa; Bernardini, Silvia; Cavedo, Enrica; Bozzao, Alessandro; Buttinelli, Carla; Esposito, Fabrizio; Giubilei, Franco; Guizzaro, Antonio; Marino, Silvia; Montella, Patrizia; Quattrocchi, Carlo C; Redolfi, Alberto; Soricelli, Andrea; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Ferri, Raffaele; Rossi-Fedele, Giancarlo; Ursini, Francesca; Scrascia, Federica; Vernieri, Fabrizio; Pedersen, Torleif Jan; Hardemark, Hans-Goran; Rossini, Paolo M; Frisoni, Giovanni B

    2013-06-01

    Cortical gray matter volume and resting state cortical electroencephalographic rhythms are typically abnormal in subjects with amnesic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we tested the hypothesis that in amnesic MCI and AD subjects, abnormalities of EEG rhythms are a functional reflection of cortical atrophy across the disease. Eyes-closed resting state EEG data were recorded in 57 healthy elderly (Nold), 102 amnesic MCI, and 108 AD patients. Cortical gray matter volume was indexed by magnetic resonance imaging recorded in the MCI and AD subjects according to Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative project (http://www.adni-info.org/). EEG rhythms of interest were delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha1 (8-10.5 Hz), alpha2 (10.5-13 Hz), beta1 (13-20 Hz), beta2 (20-30 Hz), and gamma (30-40 Hz). These rhythms were indexed by LORETA. Compared with the Nold, the MCI showed a decrease in amplitude of alpha 1 sources. With respect to the Nold and MCI, the AD showed an amplitude increase of delta sources, along with a strong amplitude reduction of alpha 1 sources. In the MCI and AD subjects as a whole group, the lower the cortical gray matter volume, the higher the delta sources, the lower the alpha 1 sources. The better the score to cognitive tests the higher the gray matter volume, the lower the pathological delta sources, and the higher the alpha sources. These results suggest that in amnesic MCI and AD subjects, abnormalities of resting state cortical EEG rhythms are not epiphenomena but are strictly related to neurodegeneration (atrophy of cortical gray matter) and cognition. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Rhetorical meta-language to promote the development of students' writing skills and subject matter understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelger, Susanne; Sigrell, Anders

    2016-01-01

    students' understanding of their subject matter.

  4. Girl Scouts and Subject Matter Experts: What’s the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Pamela; Girls Scouts of Northern California, Girl Scouts USA, Astronomical Society of the Pacifica, Univeristy of Arizona, and ARIES Scientific.

    2018-01-01

    Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts (Girl Scout Stars) fosters interaction between Girl Scouts and NASA Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), disseminates NASA STEM education-related resources, and engages Girl Scouts in NASA science and programs through space science badges and summer camps.A space science badge is in development for each of the six levels of Girl Scouts: Daisies, Grades K – 1; Brownies, Grades 2 -3; Juniors, Grades 4 -5; Cadettes, Grades 6 -8; Seniors, Grades 9 -10; and Ambassadors, Grades 11 -12. Indirectly, SMEs will reach tens of thousands of girls through the badges. SETI Institute SMEs Institute and SME Co-Is located at ARIES Scientific, Astronomical Society of the Pacific, University of Arizona, and Girl Scouts of Northern California developed and modified astronomy activities for the Girl Scouts USA badge writers to finesse into the Girl Scout formats. Revisions are reviewed by SMEs for accuracy. Each badge includes a step option that encourages girls to connect with SMEs, and recommendations for volunteers.A total of 127 girls from 31 states and the District of Columbia attendedTotal Eclipse Destination Camps at three locations. SMEs led activities and tours, inspiring girls to consider STEM careers. University of Arizona (U of A) SMEs lead Astronomy Camp for Volunteers, enabling volunteers to lead and inspire Girl Scouts in their respective Girl Scout Councils. A Destination Camp for Girl Scouts was also held at U of A. Girls experience authentic astronomy, learning how to collect and analyze data.Eleven teams comprised of two Girl Scouts, a volunteer or Council Staff, and an amateur astronomer attended Astronomy Club Camp, held at NASA GSFC. SMEs delivered science content. The girls will lead the formation of astronomy clubs in their councils, and will train their successors. SMEs will present and coach the clubs during monthly webinars.This presentation will highlight success and discuss lessons learned that are applicable

  5. Being in a romantic relationship is associated with reduced gray matter density in striatum and increased subjective happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kawamichi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that romantic relationship is associated with structural differences in the striatum related to the positive subjective experience of being in a romantic relationship. Because intimate romantic relationships contribute to perceived subjective happiness, this subjective enhancement of happiness might be accompanied by the experience of positive events related to being in a romantic relationship. To test this hypothesis and elucidate the structure involved, we compared subjective happiness, an indirect measure of the existence of positive experiences caused by being in a romantic relationship, of participants with or without romantic partners (N = 68. Furthermore, we also conducted a voxel-based morphometry (VBM study of the effects of being in a romantic relationship (N = 113. Being in a romantic relationship was associated with greater subjective happiness and reduced gray matter density within the right dorsal striatum. These results suggest that being in a romantic relationship enhances perceived subjective happiness via positive experiences. Furthermore, the observed reduction in gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum may reflect an increase in saliency of social reward within a romantic relationship. Thus, being in a romantic relationship is associated with positive experiences and a reduction of gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum, representing a modulation of social reward.

  6. Being in a Romantic Relationship Is Associated with Reduced Gray Matter Density in Striatum and Increased Subjective Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Sugawara, Sho K; Hamano, Yuki H; Makita, Kai; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Ogino, Yuichi; Saito, Shigeru; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that romantic relationship is associated with structural differences in the striatum related to the positive subjective experience of being in a romantic relationship. Because intimate romantic relationships contribute to perceived subjective happiness, this subjective enhancement of happiness might be accompanied by the experience of positive events related to being in a romantic relationship. To test this hypothesis and elucidate the structure involved, we compared subjective happiness, an indirect measure of the existence of positive experiences caused by being in a romantic relationship, of participants with or without romantic partners (N = 68). Furthermore, we also conducted a voxel-based morphometry study of the effects of being in a romantic relationship (N = 113). Being in a romantic relationship was associated with greater subjective happiness and reduced gray matter density within the right dorsal striatum. These results suggest that being in a romantic relationship enhances perceived subjective happiness via positive experiences. Furthermore, the observed reduction in gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum may reflect an increase in saliency of social reward within a romantic relationship. Thus, being in a romantic relationship is associated with positive experiences and a reduction of gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum, representing a modulation of social reward.

  7. Planetary Exploration Education: As Seen From the Point of View of Subject Matter Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, M. P.; Anderson, R. B.; Gaither, T. A.; Vaughan, R. G.

    2016-12-01

    Planetary Learning that Advances the Nexus of Engineering, Technology, and Science (PLANETS) was selected as one of 27 new projects to support the NASA Science Mission Directorate's Science Education Cooperative Agreement Notice. Our goal is to develop and disseminate out-of-school time (OST) curricular and related educator professional development modules that integrate planetary science, technology, and engineering. We are a partnership between planetary science Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), curriculum developers, science and engineering teacher professional development experts and OST teacher networks. The PLANETS team includes the Center for Science Teaching and Learning (CSTL) at Northern Arizona University (NAU); the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Science Center (Astrogeology), and the Boston Museum of Science (MOS). Here, we present the work and approach by the SMEs at Astrogeology. As part of this overarching project, we will create a model for improved integration of SMEs, curriculum developers, professional development experts, and educators. For the 2016 and 2017 Fiscal Years, our focus is on creating science material for two OST modules designed for middle school students. We will begin development of a third module for elementary school students in the latter part of FY2017. The first module focuses on water conservation and treatment as applied on Earth, the International Space Station, and at a fictional Mars base. This unit involves the science and engineering of finding accessible water, evaluating it for quality, treating it for impurities (i.e., dissolved and suspended), initial use, a cycle of greywater treatment and re-use, and final treatment of blackwater. The second module involves the science and engineering of remote sensing as it is related to Earth and planetary exploration. This includes discussion and activities related to the electromagnetic spectrum, spectroscopy and various remote sensing systems and techniques. In

  8. Methods to model particulate matter clarification of unit operations subject to unsteady loadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelman, David; Sansalone, John J

    2017-05-15

    Stormwater, and also wastewater unit operations (UOs) to a much lower extent, are subject to unsteady hydrodynamic and particulate matter (PM) fluxes. Simulating fully transient clarification of hetero-disperse PM requires much greater computational expense compared to steady simulations. An alternative to fully unsteady methods are stepwise steady (SS) methods which use stepwise steady flow transport and fate to approximate unsteady PM clarification of a UO during transient hydraulic loadings such as rainfall-runoff. The rationale is reduced computational effort for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) compared to simulating continuous unsteadiness of such events. An implicit solution stepwise steady (IS3) method is one approach which builds upon previous SS methods. The IS3 method computes steady flows that are representative of unsteady PM transport throughout an unsteady loading. This method departs from some previous SS methods that assume PM fate can be simulated with an instantaneous clarifier (basin) influent flowrate coupled with a PM input. In this study, various SS methods were tested for basins of varying size and residence time to examine PM fate. Differences between SS methods were a function of turnover fraction indicating the role of unsteady flowrates on PM transport for larger basins of longer residence times. The breakpoint turnover fraction was between two and three. The IS3 method best approximated unsteady behavior of larger basins. These methods identified limitations when utilizing standard event-based loading analysis for larger basins. For basins with a turnover fraction less than two, the majority of effluent PM did not originate from the event-based flow; originating from previous event loadings or existing storage. Inter- and multiple event processes and interactions, that are dependent on this inflow turnover fraction, are not accounted for by single event-based inflow models. Results suggest the use of long-term continuous modeling

  9. Integrating Multicultural Subject Matters into Teaching Strategies of Elementary School Teachers (The U.S. State of Kansas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanka Lunder Verlič

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The following academic article is based on a PhD thesis that is currently being completed, titled Education and Qualifications of Elementary School Teachers in the U.S. State of Kansas and Slovenia for teaching in classes with immigrant children. The research study titled Integrating Multicultural Subject Matters into Teaching Strategies of Elementary School Teachers (The U.S. State of Kansas, conducted in 2007 based on a sample of 89 elementary school teachers in the U.S. State of Kansas, represents one aspect of assessing the adequacy of undergraduate education regarding multicultural subject matters for elementary school teachers in Slovenia and the U.S. (State of Kansas as well as the qualifications of elementary school teachers of both countries for working with immigrant children. Despite the long-standing tradition of multicultural education in western countries, the research results for Kansas elementary school teachers showed a presence of significant discrepancies between the actual and optimal integration of multicultural subject matters. These results indicate that future undergraduate study programs will have to invest more time in developing multicultural skills and providing practical experiences for working in a diverse environment.

  10. Subject Matter Expert Evaluation of Multi-Flight Common Route Advisories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilimoria, Karl D.; Hayashi, Miwa; Sheth, Kapil

    2017-01-01

    manager finds the advisory to be operationally appropriate, he or she would coordinate with the Area Supervisor(s) of the sectors that currently control the flights in the advisory. When the traffic manager accepts the MFCR advisory via the user interface, the corresponding flight plan amendments would be sent to the displays of the appropriate sector controllers, using the Airborne Re-Routing (ABRR) capability which is scheduled for nationwide operation in 2017. The sector controllers would then offer this time-saving route modification to the pilots of the affected flights via datalink (or voice), and implement the corresponding flight plan amendment if the pilots accept it. MFCR is implemented as an application in the software environment of the Future Air traffic management Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET). This paper focuses on an initial subject matter expert (SME) evaluation of MFCR. The evaluation covers MFCRs operational concept, algorithm, and user interface.

  11. Bromatological composition and dry matter digestibility of millet cultivars subjected to nitrogen doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.H.D. Buso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The bromatological composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of millet cultivars were assessed for different nitrogen doses and two sowing seasons in the Ceres municipality of Goiás state, Brazil. The treatments consisted of three millet cultivars (ADR-7010, ADR-500 and BRS-1501, four nitrogen (N doses (0, 50, 100 and 200kg ha-1 of N and two sowing seasons. Three replicates and a randomised block design with a 3 x 4 x 2 factorial scheme were used. Two cuttings were performed in each season when plants reached an average height of 0.70 cm. No significant interactions were observed between or among cultivars for N doses and dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fibre (NDF and acid detergent fibre (ADF contents. The DM, CP, NDF and ADF contents were significantly different between N doses. The DM and CP contents increased as the N dose increased to 100kg ha-1. The maximum DM and CP contents were 11.14 and 22.53%, respectively. The NDF and ADF contents were higher in the control treatment (60.11 and 30.01%, respectively. In addition, the lowest ADF and NDF concentrations occurred at an N dose of 50kg ha-1 (56.33 and 30.23%, respectively. The DM contents were higher for the February sowing, with an average of 10.59%. The highest CP and ADF contents were found for the December sowing (22.46 and 31.58%, respectively. No significant differences were found for millet cultivars, N doses or sowing seasons. A significant interaction was found between sowing season and millet cultivar. The BRS-1501 cultivar had a higher in vitro dry matter digestibility in the December/2010 sowing (73.88%.

  12. Individualized Gaussian process-based prediction and detection of local and global gray matter abnormalities in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, G; Ridgway, G R; Dahnke, R; Gaser, C

    2014-08-15

    Structural imaging based on MRI is an integral component of the clinical assessment of patients with potential dementia. We here propose an individualized Gaussian process-based inference scheme for clinical decision support in healthy and pathological aging elderly subjects using MRI. The approach aims at quantitative and transparent support for clinicians who aim to detect structural abnormalities in patients at risk of Alzheimer's disease or other types of dementia. Firstly, we introduce a generative model incorporating our knowledge about normative decline of local and global gray matter volume across the brain in elderly. By supposing smooth structural trajectories the models account for the general course of age-related structural decline as well as late-life accelerated loss. Considering healthy subjects' demography and global brain parameters as informative about normal brain aging variability affords individualized predictions in single cases. Using Gaussian process models as a normative reference, we predict new subjects' brain scans and quantify the local gray matter abnormalities in terms of Normative Probability Maps (NPM) and global z-scores. By integrating the observed expectation error and the predictive uncertainty, the local maps and global scores exploit the advantages of Bayesian inference for clinical decisions and provide a valuable extension of diagnostic information about pathological aging. We validate the approach in simulated data and real MRI data. We train the GP framework using 1238 healthy subjects with ages 18-94 years, and predict in 415 independent test subjects diagnosed as healthy controls, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A common NTRK2 variant is associated with emotional arousal and brain white-matter integrity in healthy young subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalek, K; Coynel, D; Freytag, V; Hartmann, F; Heck, A; Milnik, A; de Quervain, D; Papassotiropoulos, A

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of emotional arousal is observed in many psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders. The neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 2 gene (NTRK2) has been associated with these disorders. Here we investigated the relation between genetic variability of NTRK2 and emotional arousal in healthy young subjects in two independent samples (n1=1171; n2=707). In addition, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data in a subgroup of 342 participants were used to identify NTRK2-related white-matter structure differences. After correction for multiple testing, we identified a NTRK2 single nucleotide polymorphism associated with emotional arousal in both samples (n1: Pnominal=0.0003, Pcorrected=0.048; n2: Pnominal=0.0141, Pcorrected=0.036). DTI revealed significant, whole-brain corrected correlations between emotional arousal and brain white-matter mean diffusivity (MD), as well as significant, whole-brain corrected NTRK2 genotype-related differences in MD (PFWE<0.05). Our study demonstrates that genetic variability of NTRK2, a susceptibility gene for psychiatric disorders, is related to emotional arousal and—independently—to brain white-matter properties in healthy individuals. PMID:26978740

  14. A common NTRK2 variant is associated with emotional arousal and brain white-matter integrity in healthy young subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalek, K; Coynel, D; Freytag, V; Hartmann, F; Heck, A; Milnik, A; de Quervain, D; Papassotiropoulos, A

    2016-03-15

    Dysregulation of emotional arousal is observed in many psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders. The neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 2 gene (NTRK2) has been associated with these disorders. Here we investigated the relation between genetic variability of NTRK2 and emotional arousal in healthy young subjects in two independent samples (n1=1171; n2=707). In addition, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data in a subgroup of 342 participants were used to identify NTRK2-related white-matter structure differences. After correction for multiple testing, we identified a NTRK2 single nucleotide polymorphism associated with emotional arousal in both samples (n1: Pnominal=0.0003, Pcorrected=0.048; n2: Pnominal=0.0141, Pcorrected=0.036). DTI revealed significant, whole-brain corrected correlations between emotional arousal and brain white-matter mean diffusivity (MD), as well as significant, whole-brain corrected NTRK2 genotype-related differences in MD (PFWEemotional arousal and-independently-to brain white-matter properties in healthy individuals.

  15. Relationship between mathematics teacher subject matter knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge and professional development needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajudin, Nor'ain Mohd; Chinnappan, Mohan; Saad, Noor Shah

    2017-05-01

    Two key variables emerged from the literature review is that Specific Matter Knowledge [SMK] and Pedagogical Content Knowledge [PCK] can influence the mathematics teachers' Professional Development [PD] needs. However, the key variables of SMK and PCK that were being investigated were not defined clearly. Empirical evidence that support relationship between SMK and PD and PCK and PD were not verified. In addition, how does PCK mediate SMK and PD is not clear and somewhat lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to examine the relationship between primary mathematics teacher's SMK, PCK and PD needs. Results of path analysis with SmartPLS indicated that the direct effect of SMK on PD was mediated via PCK. This data provide support for the claim that PD programs for future teachers of primary mathematics should be driven by a more nuanced understanding of the link between SMK and PCK.

  16. Transport, retention, and long-term release behavior of polymer-coated silver nanoparticles in saturated quartz sand: The impact of natural organic matters and electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jun; Zhang, Mingzhi; Wang, Peifang; Wang, Chao; Miao, Lingzhan; Xu, Yi; You, Guoxiang; Lv, Bowen; Yang, Yangyang; Liu, Zhilin

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the transport and long-term release of stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), including polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated AgNPs (PVP-AgNPs) and bare AgNPs (Bare-AgNPs), in the presence of natural organic matters (NOMs; both humic acids (HA) and alginate (Alg)) and an electrolyte (Ca 2+ ) in a sand-packed column. Very low breakthrough rate (C/C 0 ) of AgNPs (below 0.04) occurred in the absence of NOM and the electrolyte. Increasing the concentration of NOM and decreasing the influent NOM solution's ionic strength (IS) reduced the retention of AgNPs. The reduced NP retention at high NOM and low IS was mainly attributed to the increased energy barrier between the AgNPs and the sand grain surface. Notably, the retention of PVP-AgNPs was enhanced at high Alg concentration and low IS, which mainly resulted from the improved hydrophobicity that could increase the interaction between the PVP-AgNPs and the collector. The total release amount of PVP-AgNPs (10.03%, 9.50%, 28.42%, 6.37%) and Bare-AgNPs (3.28%, 2.58%, 10.36%, 1.54%) were gained when exposed to four kinds of NOM solutions, including deionized water, an electrolyte solution (1 mM Ca 2+ ), HA with an electrolyte (1 mM Ca 2+ ), and a Alg (40 mg/L) solution with an electrolyte (1 mM Ca 2+ ). The long-term release of retained silver nanoparticles in the quartz sand was mostly through the form of released Ag NPs. The factors that increased the mobility of AgNPs in quartz sand could improve the release of the AgNPs. The release of AgNPs had no significant change in the presence Ca 2+ but were increased in the presence of HA. The Alg slightly decreased the release of AgNPs by increasing the hydrophobicity of AgNPs. The results of the study indicated that all the tested NOM and Ca 2+ have prominent influence on the transport and long-term release behavior of silver nanoparticles in saturated quartz sand. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Role of Reading Comprehension in Large-Scale Subject-Matter Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed with the overall goal of understanding how difficulties in reading comprehension are associated with early adolescents' performance in large-scale assessments in subject domains including science and civic-related social studies. The current study extended previous research by taking a cognition-centered approach based on…

  18. Subjective Evaluations of Alcohol-Related Consequences among College Students: Experience with Consequences Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavens, Eleanor L.; Leffingwell, Thad R.; Miller, Mary Beth; Brett, Emma I.; Lombardi, Nathaniel

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Research suggests college students rate some alcohol-related consequences less negatively than others, yet it is unclear how or when these differences in perception develop. The current study compared college students' subjective evaluations of alcohol-related consequences that they had and had not experienced in order to test the…

  19. Relative activity of cerebral subcortical gray matter in varying states of attention and awareness in normal subjects and patient studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.; Levy, J.; Wagner, N.; Spire, J.P.; Jacobsen, J.; Meltzer, H.; Metz, J.; Beck, R.N.

    1985-05-01

    An important aspect of the study of brain function involves measurement of the relationships; between activities in the subcortical gray matter of the caudate and of the thalamus; and between these structures and functional cortical areas. The authors have studied these relationships in 22 subjects under different conditions of activation, sleep and sensory deprivation using a PET VI system and F-18-2DG to determine regional cerebral metabolism. Subject activating conditions were maintained throughout the period of equilibration of F-18-2DG and E.E.G.'s were monitored. Multiple tomographic slices of 1-2 million counts were obtained simultaneously with slice separation of 14mm and each plane parallel to the cantho-meatal line. In activated and non-activated awake conditions for normal subjects, left and right thalmus-to-caudate ratios were similar and greater than unity. This relationship was maintained in non-REM sleep, but was reversed and divergent in REM sleep and sensory deprivation; this was also evident in 3/4 narcoleptics awake and asleep in non-REM and REM and 2/3 schizophrenics and affective disorder, subjects. This approach appears to have potential for characterizating normal and disordered regional cerebral function.

  20. Concentration dynamics and biodegradability of dissolved organic matter in wetland soils subjected to experimental warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hang; Holden, Joseph; Zhang, Zhijian; Li, Meng; Li, Xia

    2014-02-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is the most bioavailable soil organic pool. Understanding how DOM responds to elevated temperature is important for forecasting soil carbon (C) dynamics under climate warming. Here a 4.5-year field microcosm experiment was carried out to examine temporal DOM concentration dynamics in soil pore-water from six different subtropical wetlands. Results are compared between control (ambient temperature) and warmed (+5°C) treatments. UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy was performed to reveal DOM structural complexity at the end of the warming incubation. Elevated temperature resulted in initially (1 to 2.5 years) high pore-water DOM concentrations in warmed samples. These effects gradually diminished over longer time periods. Of the spectral indices, specific UV absorbance at 280 nm and humification index were significantly higher, while the signal intensity ratio of the fulvic-like to humic-like fluorescence peak was lower in warmed samples, compared to the control. Fluorescence regional integration analysis further suggested that warming enhanced the contribution of humic-like substances to DOM composition for all tested wetlands. These spectral fingerprints implied a declined fraction of readily available substrates in DOM allocated to microbial utilization in response to 4.5 years of warming. As a negative feedback, decreased DOM biodegradability may have the potential to counteract initial DOM increases and alleviate C loss in water-saturated wetland soils. © 2013.

  1. Effects of soil moisture retention on ice distribution and active layer thickness subject to seasonal ground temperature variations in a dry loess terrace in Adventdalen, Svalbard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Carina; Frampton, Andrew; Christiansen, Hanne

    2017-04-01

    The active layer constitutes an important part of permafrost environments. Thermal and hydrological processes in the active layer determine local phenomena such as erosion and hydrological and ecosystem changes, and can have important implications for the global carbon-climate feedback. Permafrost degradation usually starts with a deepening of the active layer, followed by the formation of a talik and the subsequent thawing of permafrost. An increasing active layer thickness is therefore regarded as an indicator of permafrost degradation. The importance of hydrology for active layer processes is generally well acknowledged on a conceptual level, however the in general non-linear physical interdependencies between soil moisture, subsurface water and heat fluxes and active layer thaw progression are not fully understood. In this study, high resolution field data for the period 2000-2014 consisting of active layer and permafrost temperature, active layer soil moisture, and thaw depth progression from the UNISCALM research site in Adventdalen, Svalbard, is combined with a physically-based coupled cryotic and hydrogeological model to investigate active layer dynamics. The site is a loess-covered river terrace characterized by dry conditions with little to no summer infiltration and an unsaturated active layer. A range of soil moisture characteristic curves consistent with loess sediments is considered and their effects on ice and moisture redistribution, heat flux, energy storage through latent heat transfer, and active layer thickness is investigated and quantified based on hydro-climatic site conditions. Results show that soil moisture retention characteristics exhibit notable control on ice distribution and circulation within the active layer through cryosuction and are subject to seasonal variability and site-specific surface temperature variations. The retention characteristics also impact unfrozen water and ice content in the permafrost. Although these effects

  2. How to foster student-student learning of science? The student, the teacher and the subject matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Julie A.

    2011-12-01

    In this response to Konstantinos Alexakos, Jayson K. Jones, and Victor H. Rodriguez's study, I discuss ways attending to student membership in groups can both inform research on equity and diversity in science education and improve the teaching of science to all students. My comments are organized into three sections: how underrepresented students' experiences in science classrooms are shaped by their peers; how science teachers can help students listen to and learn from one another; and how the subject matter can invite or discourage student participation in science. More specifically, I underscore the need for teachers and students to listen to one another to promote student learning of science. I also highlight the importance of science education researchers and science teachers viewing students both as individuals and as members of multiple groups; women of color, for example, should be understood as similar to and different from each other, from European American women and from ethnic minorities in general.

  3. Insight on AV-45 binding in white and grey matter from histogram analysis: a study on early Alzheimer's disease patients and healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemmi, Federico; Saint-Aubert, Laure; Peran, Patrice [Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Adel, Djilali; Salabert, Anne-Sophie; Payoux, Pierre [Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Pole Imagerie, Toulouse (France); Pariente, Jeremie [Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Service de Neurologie, Pole Neurosciences, Toulouse (France); Barbeau, Emmanuel J. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Service de Neurologie, Pole Neurosciences, Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition, CNRS, CerCo, Toulouse (France)

    2014-07-15

    AV-45 amyloid biomarker is known to show uptake in white matter in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), but also in the healthy population. This binding, thought to be of a non-specific lipophilic nature, has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the differential pattern of AV-45 binding in white matter in healthy and pathological populations. We recruited 24 patients presenting with AD at an early stage and 17 matched, healthy subjects. We used an optimized positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI) registration method and an approach based on an intensity histogram using several indices. We compared the results of the intensity histogram analyses with a more canonical approach based on target-to-cerebellum Standard Uptake Value (SUVr) in white and grey matter using MANOVA and discriminant analyses. A cluster analysis on white and grey matter histograms was also performed. White matter histogram analysis revealed significant differences between AD and healthy subjects, which were not revealed by SUVr analysis. However, white matter histograms were not decisive to discriminate groups, and indices based on grey matter only showed better discriminative power than SUVr. The cluster analysis divided our sample into two clusters, showing different uptakes in grey, but also in white matter. These results demonstrate that AV-45 binding in white matter conveys subtle information not detectable using the SUVr approach. Although it is not more efficient than standard SUVr in discriminating AD patients from healthy subjects, this information could reveal white matter modifications. (orig.)

  4. Elevated leukocyte count in asymptomatic subjects is associated with a higher risk for cerebral white matter lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chi Kyung; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Beom Joon; Ryu, Wi-Sun; Choi, Seung Ho; Oh, Byung-Hee; Yoon, Byung-Woo

    2011-04-01

    Cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) are radiologic markers of small vessel disease in brain, and inflammatory processes were related to WMLs. We propose to determine if elevated leukocyte count was associated with a higher risk of WMLs. 1586 asymptomatic subjects who visited our hospital for a routine health check-up were enrolled. Leukocyte counts were measured and the presence of moderate to severe WMLs was determined by brain MRI. Thirty (1.9%) had moderate to severe WMLs, and a significant greater proportion (4.1%) of subjects in the highest leukocyte count quartile had moderate to severe WMLs. After adjusting by C-reactive protein, aspirin use and cardiovascular risk factors, the highest quartile of leukocyte count (≥6.7×10⁹/L) was significantly associated with moderate to severe WMLs compared with the lowest quartile [adjusted odds ratio, 4.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-15.5]. The authors report for the first time that an elevated leukocyte count is independently associated with moderate to severe WMLs. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. NPY mRNA Expression in the Prefrontal Cortex: Selective Reduction in the Superficial White Matter of Subjects with Schizoaffective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Harvey M.; Stopczynski, Rachelle E.; Lewis, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Alterations in the inhibitory circuitry of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in schizophrenia include reduced expression of the messenger RNA (mRNA) for somatostatin (SST), a neuropeptide present in a subpopulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is expressed in a subset of SST-containing interneurons and lower levels of NPY mRNA have also been reported in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. However, whether the alterations in these two transcripts identify the same, particularly vulnerable, subset of GABA neurons has not been examined. Methods We used in situ hybridization to quantify NPY mRNA levels in DLPFC gray and white matter from 23 pairs of subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and matched normal control subjects; results were compared to those from a previous study of SST mRNA expression in the same subjects. Results In contrast to SST mRNA, NPY mRNA levels were not significantly lower in the gray matter of subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. However, NPY, but not SST, mRNA expression was significantly lower in the superficial white matter of subjects with schizoaffective disorder. Conclusion These findings suggest that the alterations in SST-containing interneurons in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder are selective for the subset that do not express NPY mRNA, and that lower NPY mRNA expression in the superficial white matter may distinguish subjects with schizoaffective disorder from those with schizophrenia. PMID:19804960

  6. The Subject's Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in the significance of the body in our mental life. The sixteen specially commissioned essays in this book reflect the advances in these fields. The book is divided into three parts, each part covering a topic central to an explanation of bodily self-awareness: representation of the body; the sense of bodily......The body may be the object we know the best. It is the only object from which we constantly receive a flow of information through sight and touch; and it is the only object we can experience from the inside, through our proprioceptive, vestibular, and visceral senses. Yet there have been very few...... books that have attempted to consolidate our understanding of the body as it figures in our experience and self-awareness. This volume offers an interdisciplinary and comprehensive treatment of bodily self-awareness, the first book to do so since the landmark 1995 collection The Body and the Self...

  7. DNA as patentable subject matter and a narrow framework for addressing the perceived problems caused by gene patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Stephen H

    2011-12-01

    Concerns about the alleged harmful effects of gene patents--including hindered research and innovation and impeded patient access to high-quality genetic diagnostic tests--have resulted in overreactions from the public and throughout the legal profession. These overreactions are exemplified by Association for Molecular Pathology v. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, a 2010 case in the Southern District of New York that held that isolated DNA is unpatentable subject matter under 35 U.S.C. § 101. The problem with these responses is that they fail to adequately consider the role that gene patents and patents on similar biomolecules play in facilitating investment in the costly and risky developmental processes required to transform the underlying inventions into marketable products. Accordingly, a more precisely refined solution is advisable. This Note proposes a narrowly tailored set of solutions to address the concerns about gene patents without destroying the incentives for companies to create and commercialize inventions derived from these and similar patents.

  8. Developing Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Teaching a New Topic: More Than Teaching Experience and Subject Matter Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kennedy Kam Ho; Yung, Benny Hin Wai

    2017-03-01

    Teaching experience has been identified as an important factor in pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) development. However, little is known about how experienced teachers may draw on their previous experience to facilitate their PCK development. This study examined how two experienced high school biology teachers approached the teaching of a newly introduced topic in the curriculum, polymerase chain reaction and their PCK development from the pre-lesson planning phase through the interactive phase to the post-lesson reflection phase. Multiple data sources included classroom observations, field notes, semi-structured interviews and classroom artefacts. It was found that the teachers' previous experience informed their planning for teaching the new topic, but in qualitatively different ways. This, in turn, had a bearing on their new PCK development. Subject matter knowledge (SMK) can not only facilitate but may also hinder this development. Our findings identify two types of experienced teachers: those who can capitalise on their previous teaching experiences and SMK to develop new PCK and those who do not. The critical difference is whether in the lesson planning stage, the teacher shows the disposition to draw on a generalised mental framework that enables the teacher to capitalise on his existing SMK to develop new PCK. Helping teachers to acquire this disposition should be a focus for teacher training in light of continuous curriculum changes.

  9. Teacher professionalisation in relation to retention strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    within Danish VET. The main research questions are: Is it possible to train teachers to be able to focus on the students’ completion of the program and not only on the subject matter? Do teachers change their attitudes and actual performance in the classroom after training programs? And do new......Teacher professionalization in relation to retention strategies Bjarne Wahlgren, professor, director National Centre of Competence Development, University of Aarhus, Denmark The research project ‘New roles for the teacher’ was initiated due to a concern about the increasing number of dropouts...... pedagogical strategies have any impact on retention? The project started in 2010 and includes annual interventions and measurements of the output of these inventions. The intervention includes various teacher training programs e.g. about training in cooperative learning, classroom management, conflict...

  10. The effect of productive classroom talk and metacommunication on young children's oral communicative competence and subject matter knowledge: An intervention study in early childhood education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, C.; de Mey, J.R.P.B.; van Kruistum, C.J.; van Oers, B.

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of productive classroom talk and metacommunication on the development of young children's oral communicative competence and subject matter knowledge. This study can be characterized as a quasi-experimental study with a

  11. A Case Study of Beginning Science Teachers' Subject Matter (SMK) and Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) of Teaching Chemical Reaction in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usak, Muhammet; Ozden, Mustafa; Eilks, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a case study focusing on the subject matter knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and beliefs about science teaching of student teachers in Turkey at the start of their university education. The topic of interest was that of teaching chemical reactions in secondary chemistry education. A written test was developed which…

  12. Exploring the Relationship between Secondary Science Teachers' Subject Matter Knowledge and Knowledge of Student Conceptions While Teaching Evolution by Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Margaret M.; Petrosino, Anthony J.; Delgado, Cesar

    2017-01-01

    The fundamental scientific concept of evolution occurring by natural selection is home to many deeply held alternative conceptions and considered difficult to teach. Science teachers' subject matter knowledge (SMK) and the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) component of knowledge of students' conceptions (KOSC) can be valuable resources for…

  13. Is Practical Subject Matter Knowledge Still Important? Examining the Siedentopian Perspective on the Role of Content Knowledge in Physical Education Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Frank; Waring, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background: The role that content knowledge, an important component of practical subject matter knowledge, plays for pre-service teachers (PSTs) in physical education teacher education (PETE) remains contested and unclear. Whilst some researchers emphasise the facilitative nature of such knowledge, others criticise that too much focus on content…

  14. Does Variation in the Extent of Generalized Trust, Individual Education and Extensiveness of Social Security Policies Matter for Maximization of Subjective Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeeva, Rania F.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I examine whether generalized trust and education, as well as social security policies of welfare state institutions matter for cross-national differences in subjective well-being (SWB), because knowledge on this issue is still lacking. For this purpose I integrated the insights of two sociological theories: Social Function…

  15. The Examination of Secondary Education Chemistry Curricula Published between 1957-2007 in Terms of the Dimensions of Rationale, Goals, and Subject-Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekdag, Bulent; Erol, Hilal

    2013-01-01

    Fifteen secondary education chemistry curricula published from 1957 until 2007 were examined based on the dimensions of rationale, goals, and subject matter. An examination of documents in the scope of qualitative research was carried out in the study. The goals included in the examined chemistry curricula were analyzed according to the cognitive,…

  16. CosmoQuest: Supporting Subject Matter Experts in Broadening the Impacts of their Work beyond their Institutional Walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel-Storr, J.; Buxner, S.; Grier, J.; Gay, P.

    2016-12-01

    CosmoQuest is a virtual research facility, which, like its physical counterparts, provides tools for scientists to acquire reduced data products (thanks to our cadre of citizen scientists working to analyze images and produce results online), and also to participate in education and outreach activities either directly through CosmoQuest activities (such as CosmoAcademy and the Educators' Zone) or with the support of CosmoQuest. Here, we present our strategies to inspire, engage and support Subject Matter Experts (SMEs - Scientists, Engineers, Technologists and Mathematicians) in activities outside of their institutions, and beyond college classroom teaching. We provide support for SMEs who are interested in increasing the impacts of their science knowledge and expertise by interacting with people online, or in other venues outside of their normal work environment. This includes a broad spectrum of opportunities for those interested in hosting webinars; running short courses for the public; using Facebook, Twitter or other social media to communicate science; or other diverse activities such as supporting an open house, science fair, or star party. As noted by Katheryn Woods-Townsend and colleagues, "...face-to-face interactions with scientists allowed students to view scientists as approachable and normal people, and to begin to understand the range of scientific areas and careers that exist. Scientists viewed the scientist-student interactions as a vehicle for science communication" (2015). As CosmoQuest fosters these relationships, it We present a framework for SMEs which combine opportunities for continuing professional development (virtually and in person at conferences) with ongoing online support, creating a dynamic professional learning network. The goal of this is to deepen SME capacity-knowledge, attitudes and behaviors-both encouraging and empowering them to connect to broader audiences in new ways.

  17. Location of lacunar infarcts correlates with cognition in a sample of non-disabled subjects with age-related white-matter changes: the LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benisty, S; Gouw, A A; Porcher, R

    2009-01-01

    in the following areas: lobar white matter, putamen/pallidum, thalamus, caudate nucleus, internal/external capsule, infratentorial areas. An analysis of covariance was performed after adjustment for possible confounders. RESULTS: Among 633 subjects, 47% had at least one lacune (31% at least one within basal...... a significant negative association between the presence of lacunes in putamen/pallidum and the memory compound Z score (beta = -0.13; p = 0.038). By contrast, no significant negative association was found between cognitive parameters and the presence of lacunes in internal capsule, lobar white matter...

  18. Grade Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gia A. Renaud

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Academic accountability is of great concern, therefore grade retention is being considered for both students with and without disabilities who are not meeting end-of-the-year achievement benchmarks. The purpose of this study was to investigate teacher attitudes toward grade retention and whether practices differ when recommending retention of students with or without disabilities. This mixed-methods study utilized a paper-and-pencil questionnaire using a Likert-type scale, as well as two open-ended questions and a checklist. Teacher interviews were also conducted. The findings of this study indicate that teachers are considering a multitude of factors when considering grade retention for their struggling students. Academic performance was the factor that teachers (77% indicated the most frequently. Although teachers felt pressure and accountability from high stakes testing, they felt test results should be one of many factors considered in the retention decision.

  19. Perfection of methods of training to the technics of throws and catching of gymnastic subject matters at a stage of special base preparation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreeva N.O.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of performances gymnasts at competitions of a different level shows, that the system of training in rhythmic gymnastics at a stage of special-purpose base preparation requires entering of the corrective amendments which have been directed on perfection of its forms and procedures. One of such innovations may be use in training process of innovative methods of perfection of work on gymnastic subject matters. In article initial theoretical positions and ways of perfection of process of training to throws and catching of a ball and other subject matters as basic means of progress at gymnasts impellent qualities and the skills necessary for achievement of high results in competitive activity are considered.

  20. Being in a romantic relationship is associated with reduced gray matter density in striatum and increased subjective happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroaki Kawamichi; Sugawara, Sho K.; Hamano, Yuki H.; Kai Makita; Masahiro Matsunaga; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Yuichi Ogino; Shigeru Saito; Norihiro Sadato

    2016-01-01

    Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that ro...

  1. Being in a Romantic Relationship Is Associated with Reduced Gray Matter Density in Striatum and Increased Subjective Happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Sugawara, Sho K.; Hamano, Yuki H.; Makita, Kai; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Ogino, Yuichi; Saito, Shigeru; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that ro...

  2. Effect of dimethyl fumarate on gray and white matter pathology in subjects with relapsing multiple sclerosis: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivadinov, R; Hagemeier, J; Bergsland, N; Tavazzi, E; Weinstock-Guttman, B

    2018-03-01

    Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is an oral treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) with anti-inflammatory and possible neuroprotective properties. Its effect on white matter and gray matter pathology is still not fully understood. The aim of the study was to characterize the effect of DMF on normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and thalamic pathology longitudinally. In this observational, longitudinal, 24-month magnetic resonance imaging study, 75 patients with relapsing-remitting MS treated with DMF and 40 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals were enrolled. Regional diffusion tensor imaging metrics and tract-based spatial statistics analyses were used to assess differences between groups. Mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, radial diffusivity and fractional anisotropy were measured in the thalamus and NAWM. Baseline differences and changes over time were evaluated within and between study groups. At baseline, patients with MS showed significantly increased diffusivity and decreased fractional anisotropy in the thalamus (P < 0.001 for mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity) and NAWM (all P < 0.016) compared with healthy individuals. No significant within-group difference was found in diffusion tensor imaging measures over 24 months in either group. Healthy individuals showed a significantly greater rate of increased diffusivity parameters in the thalamus and NAWM compared with patients with MS, over 24 months (P < 0.05). The lack of changes in diffusion tensor imaging metrics in patients with MS over 24 months possibly indicates a neuroprotective role of DMF. These findings provide additional evidence of the beneficial effect of DMF on MS-related pathology. © 2018 EAN.

  3. Corpus callosum atrophy is associated with mental slowing and executive deficits in subjects with age-related white matter hyperintensities: the LADIS Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokinen, Hanna; Ryberg, Charlotte; Kalska, Hely

    2007-01-01

    , attention and executive functions in subjects with age-related white matter hyperintensities (WMH). METHODS: In the Leukoaraiosis and Disability Study, 567 subjects with age-related WMH were examined with a detailed neuropsychological assessment and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging. The relationships...... processing--namely, trail making A and Stroop test parts I and II. Anterior, but not posterior, corpus callosum atrophy was associated with deficits of attention and executive functions as reflected by the symbol digit modalities and digit cancellation tests, as well as by the subtraction scores in the trail...... is related to the frontal-lobe-mediated executive functions and attention, whereas overall corpus callosum atrophy is associated with the slowing of processing speed. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-May...

  4. It matters how old you feel: Antecedents and performance consequences of average relative subjective age in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Florian; Raes, Anneloes M L; Bruch, Heike

    2015-09-01

    This article extends the conceptual knowledge of average relative subjective age in organizations by exploring organizational-level antecedents and consequences of employees, on average, feeling younger than their chronological age. We draw from the theories of selection-optimization-compensation and socioemotional selectivity to build a theoretical framework for relative subjective age in organizations. We hypothesize that companies in which employees, on average, perceive themselves to be younger than they actually are have a higher average individual goal accomplishment and, in turn, experience higher company performance. We further hypothesize that employees' average experience of high work-related meaning relates to a lower subjective age in organizations. In addition, we assess the role of environmental dynamism and age-inclusive human resource management as moderators in this theoretical model. Through empirically testing this model in a multisource dataset, including 107 companies with 15,164 participating employees, we received support for the hypothesized relationships. Our results contribute to current debates in the scientific literature on age and have important practical implications in light of the demographic changes faced by many companies. This research indicates to both researchers and practitioners that it is not employees' chronological age but their subjective age, a factor that can be influenced, which drives organizational performance outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Single-subject gray matter graph properties and their relationship with cognitive impairment in early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijms, Betty M; Yeung, Hiu M; Sikkes, Sietske A M; Möller, Christiane; Smits, Lieke L; Stam, Cornelis J; Scheltens, Philip; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Barkhof, Frederik

    2014-06-01

    Abstract We investigated the relationships between gray matter graph properties and cognitive impairment in a sample of 215 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and also whether age of disease onset modifies such relationships. We expected that more severe cognitive impairment in AD would be related to more random graph topologies. Single-subject gray matter graphs were constructed from T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans. The following global and local graph properties were calculated: betweenness centrality, normalized clustering coefficient γ, and normalized path length λ. Local clustering, path length, and betweenness centrality measures were determined for 90 anatomically defined areas. Regression models with as interaction term age of onset (i.e., early onset when patients were ≤65 years old and late onset when they were >65 years old at the time of diagnosis)×graph property were used to assess the relationships between cognitive functioning in five domains (memory, language, visuospatial, attention, and executive). Worse cognitive impairment was associated with more random graphs, as indicated by low γ, λ, and betweenness centrality values. Three interaction effects for age of onset×global graph property were found: Low γ and λ values more strongly related to memory impairment in early-onset patients; low beta values were significantly related to impaired visuospatial functioning in late-onset patients. For the local graph properties, language impairment showed the strongest relationship with decreased clustering coefficient in the left superior temporal gyrus across the entire sample. Our study shows that single-subject gray matter graph properties are associated with individual differences in cognitive impairment.

  6. Computer-Based Instruction: Effect of Cognitive Style, Instructional Format, and Subject-Matter Content on Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    for this study. The test consists of 10 pairs of words (see Appendix B), ranked from easy to hard, selected from the Weschler Paired Associate Learning...facts and opinions on a current affairs topic. The decision-making task involved a maze problem. Subjects were tested immediately after training, 2...Screening Measures for Cognitive Style ........................ 5 The 4-Mat Test ......................................... 5 The Lateral Preference Test

  7. Investigation of Psychophysiological and Subjective Effects of Long Working Hours – Do Age and Hearing Impairment Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Wagner-Hartl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Following current prognosis, demographic development raises expectations of an aging of the working population. Therefore, keeping employees healthy and strengthening their ability to work, becomes more and more important. When employees become older, dealing with age-related impairments of sensory functions, such as hearing impairment, is a central issue. Recent evidence suggests that negative effects that are associated with reduced hearing can have a strong impact at work. Especially under exhausting working situations such as working overtime hours, age and hearing impairment might influence employees’ well-being. Until now, neither the problem of aged workers and long working hours, nor the problem of hearing impairment and prolonged working time has been addressed explicitly. Therefore, a laboratory study was examined to answer the research question: Do age and hearing impairment have an impact on psychophysiological and subjective effects of long working hours. In total, 51 white-collar workers, aged between 24 and 63 years, participated in the laboratory study. The results show no significant effects for age and hearing impairment on the intensity of subjective consequences (perceived recovery and fatigue, subjective emotional well-being and physical symptoms of long working hours. However, the psychophysiological response (the saliva cortisol level to long working hours differs significantly between hearing impaired and normal hearing employees. Interestingly, the results suggest that from a psychophysiological point of view long working hours were more demanding for normal hearing employees.

  8. Improving Student Retention: A University of Western Sydney Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Geoff; Shah, Mahsood; Grebennikov, Leonid; Singh, Harmanpreet

    2008-01-01

    Retention at university matters. It matters morally, as we know the life chances of people who complete a degree are dramatically improved. It matters financially, as students who leave a university before graduation take their fees with them. And it matters nationally, as the higher the education level of the population, the greater the nation's…

  9. Predictive Utility of Marketed Volumetric Software Tools in Subjects at Risk for Alzheimer Disease: Do Regions Outside the Hippocampus Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanpitukpongse, T P; Mazurowski, M A; Ikhena, J; Petrella, J R

    2017-03-01

    Alzheimer disease is a prevalent neurodegenerative disease. Computer assessment of brain atrophy patterns can help predict conversion to Alzheimer disease. Our aim was to assess the prognostic efficacy of individual-versus-combined regional volumetrics in 2 commercially available brain volumetric software packages for predicting conversion of patients with mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer disease. Data were obtained through the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. One hundred ninety-two subjects (mean age, 74.8 years; 39% female) diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment at baseline were studied. All had T1-weighted MR imaging sequences at baseline and 3-year clinical follow-up. Analysis was performed with NeuroQuant and Neuroreader. Receiver operating characteristic curves assessing the prognostic efficacy of each software package were generated by using a univariable approach using individual regional brain volumes and 2 multivariable approaches (multiple regression and random forest), combining multiple volumes. On univariable analysis of 11 NeuroQuant and 11 Neuroreader regional volumes, hippocampal volume had the highest area under the curve for both software packages (0.69, NeuroQuant; 0.68, Neuroreader) and was not significantly different ( P > .05) between packages. Multivariable analysis did not increase the area under the curve for either package (0.63, logistic regression; 0.60, random forest NeuroQuant; 0.65, logistic regression; 0.62, random forest Neuroreader). Of the multiple regional volume measures available in FDA-cleared brain volumetric software packages, hippocampal volume remains the best single predictor of conversion of mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer disease at 3-year follow-up. Combining volumetrics did not add additional prognostic efficacy. Therefore, future prognostic studies in mild cognitive impairment, combining such tools with demographic and other biomarker measures, are justified in using hippocampal volume as

  10. Reduced binding of Pittsburgh Compound-B in areas of white matter hyperintensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodheart, A E; Tamburo, E; Minhas, D; Aizenstein, H J; McDade, E; Snitz, B E; Price, J C; Mathis, C A; Lopez, O L; Klunk, W E; Cohen, A D

    2015-01-01

    The amyloid imaging agent, Pittsburgh Compound-B, binds with high affinity to β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brain, and it is well established that PiB also shows non-specific retention in white matter (WM). However, little is known about retention of PiB in areas of white matter hyperintensities (WMH), abnormalities commonly seen in older adults. Further, it is hypothesized that WMH are related to both cognitive dysfunction and Aβ deposition. The goal of the present study was to explore PiB retention in both normal-appearing WM (NAWM) and WMH in a group of elderly, cognitively normal individuals. In a group of cognitively normal elderly (n = 64; 86.5 ± 2.6 years) two analyses were applied: (1) ROIs were placed over periventricular areas in which WMH caps are commonly seen on all subjects, regardless of WMH burden or size. (2) Subject-specific maps of NAWM and WMH were co-registered with the PiB-PET images and mean SUVR values were calculated in these NAWM and WMH maps. PiB retention was significantly reduced in the ROIs of subjects with high WMH compared to subjects with low WMH. Additionally, in subjects with high WMH, there was significantly lower PiB retention in subject-specific maps of WMH compared to NAWM, which was not observed in subjects with low WMH, likely because of the small size of WMH maps in this group. These data suggest that WM in areas of WMH binds PiB less effectively than does normal WM. Further exploration of this phenomenon may lead to insights about the molecular basis of the non-specific retention of amyloid tracers in white matter.

  11. Reduced binding of Pittsburgh Compound-B in areas of white matter hyperintensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Goodheart

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The amyloid imaging agent, Pittsburgh Compound-B, binds with high affinity to β-amyloid (Aβ in the brain, and it is well established that PiB also shows non-specific retention in white matter (WM. However, little is known about retention of PiB in areas of white matter hyperintensities (WMH, abnormalities commonly seen in older adults. Further, it is hypothesized that WMH are related to both cognitive dysfunction and Aβ deposition. The goal of the present study was to explore PiB retention in both normal-appearing WM (NAWM and WMH in a group of elderly, cognitively normal individuals. In a group of cognitively normal elderly (n = 64; 86.5 ± 2.6 years two analyses were applied: (1 ROIs were placed over periventricular areas in which WMH caps are commonly seen on all subjects, regardless of WMH burden or size. (2 Subject-specific maps of NAWM and WMH were co-registered with the PiB-PET images and mean SUVR values were calculated in these NAWM and WMH maps. PiB retention was significantly reduced in the ROIs of subjects with high WMH compared to subjects with low WMH. Additionally, in subjects with high WMH, there was significantly lower PiB retention in subject-specific maps of WMH compared to NAWM, which was not observed in subjects with low WMH, likely because of the small size of WMH maps in this group. These data suggest that WM in areas of WMH binds PiB less effectively than does normal WM. Further exploration of this phenomenon may lead to insights about the molecular basis of the non-specific retention of amyloid tracers in white matter.

  12. Dark matter in galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Zasov, A. V.; Saburova, A. S.; Khoperskov, A. V.; Khoperskov, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    Dark matter in galaxies, its abundance, and its distribution remain a subject of long-standing discussion, especially in view of the fact that neither dark matter particles nor dark matter bodies have yet been found. Experts' opinions range from a very large number of completely dark galaxies exist to nonbaryonic dark matter does not exist at all in any significant amounts. We discuss astronomical evidence for the existence of dark matter and its connection with visible matter and examine att...

  13. Train, teach; taught? How the content of specific science subject matter knowledge sessions impacts on trainee teachers’ classroom practice and children’s learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Kind

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The impact science sessions for trainee science teachers have on 11-14 year olds’ learning of science was assessed using questionnaires and a “Video-Interview (trainee –Interview (pupils” (V-I-I technique devised for this study. V-I-I involved: video-recording trainee-taught lessons; and two interviews – with a pupil group to probe learning occurring in the lesson and with the trainee.Eighty UK-based trainees taking a one-year postgraduate teacher education course completed the questionnaire probing perceptions about university- and school-based training sessions designed to develop science subject matter knowledge (SMK and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK. Six trainees participated in V-I-I.Most trainees saw all sessions as SMK-based, regardless of teacher educators’ intended purposes. Lesson videos revealed ”describing” activities, task completion and good behaviour as main focii. Explanation of key science ideas and use of materials and /ideas from training sessions were largely absent. Trainee interviews revealed contrasts: most perceived a lesson as “successful” when children completed tasks quietly. Other trainees realised their understanding impacted on pupils’ learning science concepts. Pupil interviews showed positive attitudes towards science and learning difficult ideas, but little specific learning of topics taught.

  14. A tale of three blind men on the proper subject matter of clinical science and practice: commentary on Plaud's behaviorism vs. Ilardi and Feldman's cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, J P; Kelly, M M

    2001-09-01

    Plaud (J Clin Psychol 57, 1089-1102, 1109-1111, 1119-1120) and Ilardi and Feldman (J Clin Psychol 57, 1067-1088, 1103-1107, 1113-1117, 1121-1124) argue for two very different approaches to clinical science and practice (i.e., behavior analysis and cognitive neuroscience, respectively). We comment on the assets and liabilities of both perspectives as presented and attempt to achieve some semblance of balance between the three protagonists embroiled in this current debate. The vision of clinical science we articulate is more ecumenical and evolutionary, rather than paradigmatic and revolutionary. As we see it, the problem clinical psychology faces is much larger than the authors let on; namely, how best to make clinical science meaningful and relevant to practitioners, consumers, the general public, and the behavioral health-care community. Clinical psychology's immediate internal problem is not pluralism with regard to subject matter, worldview, methodology, or school of thought, but pluralism in clinical psychologists' adherence to a scientific epistemology as the only legitimate form of clinical psychology. On this latter point, we still have a very long way to go. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. The Role of Teachers' Pedagogical and Subject-Matter Knowledge in Planning and Enacting Science-Inquiry Instruction, and in Assessing Students' Science-Inquiry Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birlean, Camelia

    This study explored the relation between pedagogical knowledge and subject-matter knowledge, in the context of inquiry-driven science instruction, and their relation to instructors' performance in the instructional process. This multiple case study focused on three distinct categories of teachers--Novice in Inquiry and in Science, Novice in Inquiry and Expert in Science, and Expert in Inquiry and in Science--and examined the commonalities and differences among them by exploring the cognitive processes these teachers used when planning and enacting an inquiry instructional situation, as well as when assessing students' learning resulting from this specific instructional event. Inquiry instruction varied across cases from largely structured to largely open. The Novice-Novice's science instruction, predominantly traditional in the approach, differed greatly from that of the Expert-Expert and of the Novice-Expert. The latter two emphasized--to various extents structured, guided, and open--inquiry strategy as part of their ongoing instruction. The open inquiry was an approach embraced solely by the Expert-Expert teacher throughout the Advanced Science Research instruction, emphasizing the creative aspect of problem generation. Edward teacher also distinguished himself from the other two participants in his view of planning and terminology used to describe it, both of which emphasized the dynamic and flexible feature of this instructional process. The Expert-Expert identified occasional planning, planning of specific skills and content critical to students' learning process during their independent inquiry. The observed teaching performance of the three participants partly reflected their planning; the alignment was least frequent for the Novice-Novice. The assessment of inquiry-based projects varied greatly across participants. Each teacher participant evaluated a set of three inquiry-based science projects that differed in their quality, and this variation increased

  16. Fall 1982 Retention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta Community Coll. District, Oakland, CA. Office of Research, Planning and Development.

    In fall 1982, a study was conducted in the Peralta Community College District (PCCD) using withdrawal and grade distribution data to analyze student retention patterns. Successful retention rates were based on the percentage of students who received a passing grade, while total retention rates were based on the percentage of students who received…

  17. Fall 1984 Retention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta Community Coll. District, Oakland, CA. Office of Research, Planning and Development.

    A study was conducted of the retention patterns of students enrolled in the Peralta Community College District (PCCD) in fall 1984 using college reports on withdrawals and grade distributions. The study focused on successful retention (i.e., all students who received a passing grade) and on total retention (i.e., all students who received any…

  18. Teacher professionalisation in relation to retention strategies:do teacher training activities have any impact on drop-out rates in adult education?

    OpenAIRE

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    Teacher professionalization in relation to retention strategies Bjarne Wahlgren, professor, directorNational Centre of Competence Development, University of Aarhus, DenmarkThe research project ‘New roles for the teacher’ was initiated due to a concern about the increasing number of dropouts within Danish VET. The main research questions are: Is it possible to train teachers to be able to focus on the students’ completion of the program and not only on the subject matter? Do teachers change th...

  19. Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic characterization of soil organic matter fractions in a forest ecosystem subjected to prescribed burning and thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescribed burning and thinning are gaining popularity as low-cost forest protection measures. Such field management practices could alter the chemical properties of soil organic matter (SOM), especially humic substances. In this work, we collected surface soil samples from the Bankhead National For...

  20. Keeping students in by sending them out: Retention and service-learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Mae Yob

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This review of recent literature examines the research on the impact of service-learning on student retention.  The theoretical framework of the review draws on both Tinto’s model of student attrition and Knowles’s theory of adult learning, which together suggest that academic and social integration, active participation and engagement in learning, and application and relevancy of the subject-matter under study are key factors in student success. The role of these factors has been confirmed in a growing body of research around learning experiences in general and, as this review shows, particularly in service-learning experiences. Suggestions are made for how future research might expand and critically deepen this evidence and offers some implications for service-learning as a means of improving student retention. DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v4i2.177

  1. Gray and white matter changes in subjective cognitive impairment, amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: a voxel-based analysis study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuniaki Kiuchi

    Full Text Available Subjective cognitive impairment may be a very early at-risk period of the continuum of dementia. However, it is difficult to discriminate at-risk states from normal aging. Thus, detection of the early pathological changes in the subjective cognitive impairment period is needed. To elucidate these changes, we employed diffusion tensor imaging and volumetry analysis, and compared subjective cognitive impairment with normal, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The subjects in this study were 39 Alzheimer's disease, 43 mild cognitive impairment, 28 subjective cognitive impairment and 41 normal controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the normal control and subjective cognitive impairment groups in all measures. Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment had the same extent of brain atrophy and diffusion changes. These results are consistent with the hypothetical model of the dynamic biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease.

  2. Low episodic memory performance in cognitively normal elderly subjects is associated with increased posterior cingulate gray matter N-acetylaspartate: a1H MRSI study at 7 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Simon J; Kirchner, Thomas; Wyss, Michael; Van Bergen, Jiri M G; Quevenco, Frances C; Steininger, Stefanie C; Griffith, Erica Y; Meier, Irene; Michels, Lars; Gietl, Anton F; Leh, Sandra E; Brickman, Adam M; Hock, Christoph; Nitsch, Roger M; Pruessmann, Klaas P; Henning, Anke; Unschuld, Paul G

    2016-12-01

    Low episodic memory performance characterizes elderly subjects at increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may reflect neuronal dysfunction within the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus (PCP) region. To investigate a potential association between cerebral neurometabolism and low episodic memory in the absence of cognitive impairment, tissue-specific magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging at ultrahigh field strength of 7 Tesla was used to investigate the PCP region in a healthy elderly study population (n = 30, age 70 ± 5.7 years, Mini-Mental State Examination 29.4 ± 4.1). The Verbal Learning and Memory Test (VLMT) was administered as part of a neuropsychological battery for assessment of episodic memory performance. Significant differences between PCP gray and white matter could be observed for glutamate-glutamine (p = 0.001), choline (p = 0.01), and myo-inositol (p = 0.02). Low Verbal Learning and Memory Test performance was associated with high N-acetylaspartate in PCP gray matter (p = 0.01) but not in PCP white matter. Our data suggest that subtle decreases in episodic memory performance in the elderly may be associated with increased levels of N-acetylaspartate as a reflection of increased mitochondrial energy capacity in PCP gray matter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. New light on a dark subject: On the use of fluorescence data to deduce redox states of natural organic matter (NOM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macalady, Donald L.; Walton-Day, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the use of excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (EEMS), parallel factor statistical analysis (PARAFAC), and oxidation-reduction experiments to examine the effect of redox conditions on PARAFAC model results for aqueous samples rich in natural organic matter. Fifty-four aqueous samples from 11 different geographic locations and two plant extracts were analyzed untreated and after chemical treatments or irradiation were used in attempts to change the redox status of the natural organic matter. The EEMS spectra were generated and modeled using a PARAFAC package developed by Cory and McKnight (2005). The PARAFAC model output was examined for consistency with previously reported relations and with changes expected to occur upon experimental oxidation and reduction of aqueous samples. Results indicate the implied fraction of total sample fluorescence attributed to quinone-like moieties was consistent (0.64 to 0.78) and greater than that observed by Cory and McKnight (2005). The fraction of the quinone-like moieties that was reduced (the reducing index, RI) showed relatively little variation (0.46 to 0.71) despite attempts to alter the redox status of the natural organic matter. The RI changed little after reducing samples using zinc metal, oxidizing at high pH with air, or irradiating with a Xenon lamp. Our results, however, are consistent with the correlations between the fluorescence indices (FI) of samples and the ratio of PARAFAC fitting parameters suggested by Cory and McKnight (2005), though we used samples with a much narrower range of FI values.

  4. Responsibilities and retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J Littlewood

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As our understanding of orthodontic relapse has improved, there is an increasing move toward long-term retention. Safely reducing relapse using appropriate long-term retention imposes considerable responsibilities on the orthodontist, the patient, and the patient's general dentist. This article will describe these responsibilities.

  5. Age, Cumulative Trauma and Stressful Life Events, and Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms among Older Adults in Prison: Do Subjective Impressions Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschi, Tina; Morgen, Keith; Zgoba, Kristen; Courtney, Deborah; Ristow, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aging prison population in the United States presents a significant public health challenge with high rates of trauma and mental health issues that the correctional system alone is ill-prepared to address. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of age, objective, and subjective measures of trauma and stressful…

  6. Using Academic Journals to Help Students Learn Subject Matter Content, Develop and Practice Critical Reasoning Skills, and Reflect on Personal Values in Food Science and Human Nutrition Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaoka, Wayne T.; Crosetti, Lea M.

    2008-01-01

    It has been reported that students learn best when they use a wide variety of techniques to understand the information of the discipline, be it visual, auditory, discussion with others, metacognition, hands-on activities, or writing about the subject. We report in this article the use of academic journals not only as an aid for students to learn…

  7. A Structural Equation Model Analyzing the Relationship of Student Achievement Motivations and Personality Factors in a Range of Academic Subject-Matter Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempelaar, Dirk T.; Gijselaers, Wim H.; Schim van der Loeff, Sybrand; Nijhuis, Jan F. H.

    2007-01-01

    The question of subject-specificity of achievement motivations is important, both for educational psychology, as well as for educational policy. This study contributes to the investigation of the heterogeneity in achievement motivations in the context of the expectancy-value model. Whereas existing research deals with middle and high school…

  8. Acute and chronic urine retention among adults at the urology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out at the Urology and Accident and Emergency Units of KATH. A complete work-up to establish the cause of urine retention preceded data collection. The subject's demographic data, causes and management of urine retention with outcomes were recorded on data sheet. Data was analyzed using ...

  9. 42 CFR 35.31 - Retention by patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention by patients. 35.31 Section 35.31 Public... HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Disposition of Articles Produced by Patients § 35.31 Retention by patients. Subject to the rules of the station or hospital, patients may be accorded the privilege of retaining...

  10. 19 CFR 10.308 - Records retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records retention. 10.308 Section 10.308 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Canada Free Trade Agreement § 10...

  11. Structural Information Retention in Visual Art Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroscik, Judith Smith

    The accuracy of non-art college students' longterm retention of structural information presented in Leonardo da Vinci's "Mona Lisa" was tested. Seventeen female undergraduates viewed reproductions of the painting and copies that closely resembled structural attributes of the original. Only 3 of the 17 subjects reported having viewed a reproduction…

  12. Drug Retention Times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user.

  13. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) is located in the central part of the Hanford Site. LERF is permitted by the State of Washington and has three liquid...

  14. White matter organization in relation to upper limb motor control in healthy subjects: exploring the added value of diffusion kurtosis imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooijers, J; Leemans, A; Van Cauter, S; Sunaert, S; Swinnen, S P; Caeyenberghs, K

    2014-09-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) characterizes white matter (WM) microstructure. In many brain regions, however, the assumption that the diffusion probability distribution is Gaussian may be invalid, even at low b values. Recently, diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) was suggested to more accurately estimate this distribution. We explored the added value of DKI in studying the relation between WM microstructure and upper limb coordination in healthy controls (N = 24). Performance on a complex bimanual tracking task was studied with respect to the conventional DTI measures (DKI or DTI derived) and kurtosis metrics of WM tracts/regions carrying efferent (motor) output from the brain, corpus callosum (CC) substructures and whole brain WM. For both estimation models, motor performance was associated with fractional anisotropy (FA) of the CC-genu, CC-body, the anterior limb of the internal capsule, and whole brain WM (r s range 0.42-0.63). Although DKI revealed higher mean, radial and axial diffusivity and lower FA than DTI (p motor performance was associated with increased mean and radial kurtosis and kurtosis anisotropy (r s range 0.43-0.55). In conclusion, DKI provided additional information, but did not show increased sensitivity to detect relations between WM microstructure and bimanual performance in healthy controls.

  15. Urinary retention in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, Amihay; Mano, Roy; Livne, Pinhas M; Sivan, Bezalel; Ben-Meir, David

    2014-12-01

    To describe the causes and outcome of urinary retention in children and assess its prevalence by gender and age. The medical records of all children (aged <18 years) who presented to the emergency room with acute urinary retention from 2000 to 2012 were reviewed. Patients with postoperative urinary retention, a known neurologic disorder, and neonates were excluded. Data were collected on patient demographics and cause, treatment, and outcome of the urinary retention. Findings were evaluated and compared by age and gender. The study group comprised 42 boys (75%) and 14 girls (25%). Median follow-up time was 25 months. Causes of urinary retention were mechanical obstruction in 14 patients (25%), infection or inflammation in 10 (18%), fecal impaction in 7 (13%), neurologic disorders in 6 (11%), gynecologic disorders in 4 (7%), and behavioral processes in 3 patients (5%); 12 patients (21%) were idiopathic. All patients with mechanical obstruction were boys, of whom 5 had a pelvic tumor. Age distribution was bimodal: 29% of the events occurred between ages 3 and 5 years, and 32%, between ages 10 and 13 years. Fifteen children underwent surgery. Three children required continuous catheterization during follow-up. Urinary retention in children is characterized by a variable etiology and bimodal age distribution. The high rate of severe underlying disease is noteworthy and should alert physicians to the importance of a prompt, comprehensive, primary evaluation of this patient population in a hospital setting to initiate appropriate treatment and avoid complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of qualitative and quantitative imaging characteristics of [11C]PiB and [18F]flutemetamol in normal control and Alzheimer's subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Mountz

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: [11C]PiB and [18F]flutemetamol have similar retention characteristics across a range of amyloid negative to positive subjects. Both tracers performed similarly when a standardized visual read technique was used to classify scans as amyloid-positive or amyloid-negative and correlated well with SUVR classifications. However, care in visual interpretation of amyloid positive versus amyloid negative regions should be taken, particularly in the case of [18F]flutemetamol when considering cortical vs. white-matter retention.

  17. Dark matter an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Majumdar, Debasish

    2015-01-01

    Dark Matter: An Introduction tackles the rather recent but fast-growing subject of astroparticle physics, encompassing three main areas of fundamental physics: cosmology, particle physics, and astrophysics. Accordingly, the book discusses symmetries, conservation laws, relativity, and cosmological parameters and measurements, as well as the astrophysical behaviors of galaxies and galaxy clusters that indicate the presence of dark matter and the possible nature of dark matter distribution.

  18. Does skill retention benefit from retentivity and symbolic rehearsal? - two studies with a simulated process control task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Annette; Frank, Barbara; Maafi, Sanaz; Kuzmanovska, Aleksandra

    2016-05-01

    Two experiments were designed to compare two symbolic rehearsal refresher interventions (imaginary practice, a hidden introspective process) and investigate the role of retentivity in skill retention. Retentivity is investigated as the ability to memorise and reproduce information and associations that were learned a short time ago. Both experiments comprised initial training (week 1), a symbolic rehearsal for the experimental group (week 2) and a retention assessment (week 3). In the first study, the experimental group received a symbolic rehearsal, while the control group received no rehearsal. In the second study, the experimental group received the same symbolic rehearsal used in study 1, enhanced with rehearsal tasks addressing human-computer interaction. The results showed that both symbolic rehearsal interventions were equally likely to mitigate skill decay. The retentivity showed medium to high correlations with skill retention in both studies, and the results suggest that subjects high in retentivity benefit more from a symbolic rehearsal refresher intervention. Practitioner Summary: Skill decay becomes a problem in situations in which jobs require the correct mastery of non-routine situations. Two experimental studies with simulated process control tasks showed that symbolic rehearsal and retentivity can significantly mitigate skill decay and that subjects higher in retentivity benefit more from refresher interventions.

  19. Respiratory effects of particulate matter air pollution: studies on diesel exhaust, road tunnel, subway and wood smoke exposure in human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehlstedt, Maria

    2011-07-01

    Background: Ambient air pollution is associated with adverse health effects, but the sources and components, which cause these effects is still incompletely understood. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the pulmonary effects of a variety of common air pollutants, including diesel exhaust, biomass smoke, and road tunnel and subway station environments. Healthy non-smoking volunteers were exposed in random order to the specific air pollutants and air/control, during intermittent exercise, followed by bronchoscopy. Methods and results: In study I, exposures were performed with diesel exhaust (DE) generated at transient engine load and air for 1 hour with bronchoscopy at 6 hours post-exposure. Immunohistochemical analyses of bronchial mucosal biopsies showed that DE exposure significantly increased the endothelial adhesion molecule expression of p-selectin and VCAM-1, together with increased bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) eosinophils. In study II, the subjects were exposed for 1 hour to DE generated during idling with bronchoscopy at 6 hours. The bronchial mucosal biopsies showed significant increases in neutrophils, mast cells and lymphocytes together with bronchial wash neutrophils. Additionally, DE exposure significantly increased the nuclear translocation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and phosphorylated c-jun in the bronchial epithelium. In contrast, the phase II enzyme NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) decreased after DE. In study III, the 2-hour exposures took place in a road tunnel with bronchoscopy 14 hours later. The road tunnel exposure significantly increased the total numbers of lymphocytes and alveolar macrophages in BAL, whereas NK cell and CD56+/T cell numbers significantly decreased. Additionally, the nuclear expression of phosphorylated c-jun in the bronchial epithelium was significantly increased after road tunnel exposure. In study IV, the subjects were exposed to metal-rich particulate aerosol for 2 hours at a subway station

  20. 50 CFR 635.24 - Commercial retention limits for sharks and swordfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial retention limits for sharks and... Management Measures § 635.24 Commercial retention limits for sharks and swordfish. The retention limits in this section are subject to the quotas and closure provisions in §§ 635.27 and 635.28. (a) Sharks. (1...

  1. Do CS-US pairings actually matter? A within-subject comparison of instructed fear conditioning with and without actual CS-US pairings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An K Raes

    Full Text Available Previous research showed that instructions about CS-US pairings can lead to fear of the CS even when the pairings are never presented. In the present study, we examined whether the experience of CS-US pairings adds to the effect of instructions by comparing instructed conditioning with and without actual CS-US pairings in a within-subject design. Thirty-two participants saw three fractals as CSs (CS(+1, CS(+2, CS(- and received electric shocks as USs. Before the start of a so-called training phase, participants were instructed that both CS(+1 and CS(+2 would be followed by the US, but only CS(+1 was actually paired with the US. The absence of the US after CS(+2 was explained in such a way that participants would not doubt the instructions about the CS(+2-US relation. After the training phase, a test phase was carried out. In this phase, participants expected the US after both CS(+s but none of the CS(+s was actually paired with the US. During test, self-reported fear was initially higher for CS(+1 than for CS(+2, which indicates that the experience of actual CS-US pairings adds to instructions about these pairings. On the other hand, the CS(+s elicited similar skin conductance responses and US expectancies. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

  2. Variables affecting athletes' retention of coaches' feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januário, Nuno M S; Rosado, Antonio F; Mesquita, Isabel

    2013-10-01

    Athletes' retention of information conveyed in coaches' feedback during training was examined, considering the nature of the information transmitted by each coach (extensions, total number of ideas transmitted, and total number of repeated ideas), athletes' characteristics, (ages, genders, school levels, and practice levels), and athletes' perceptions (relevance and acceptance of coaches' information, task motivational levels, and athletes' attention levels). Participants were 193 athletes (79 boys, 114 girls; 9 to 13 years of age) and 6 coaches. Feedback was both audio and video recorded and all athletes were interviewed. All coaches' feedback and athletes' recollections were subjected to content analysis. Information was completely retained in 31.60% of feedback episodes. Athletes' mean per-episode information retention was 63.0%. Three variables appeared to b e predictiveathletes' retention: athletes' practice levels (p = -.25), attention to coaches' provision of feedback (P = .17), and the number of different ideas transmitted by each coach (P = -.90).

  3. Meningitis retention syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Krishna

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A 50-year-old Caucasian woman presented with signs and symptoms of meningitis preceded by a 3 day history of flu-like symptoms and progressive difficulty with urination. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF analysis was consistent with aseptic meningitis. She was found to have a significant urinary retention secondary to atonic bladder. MRI of the brain and spine were normal and CSF-PCR (polymerase chain reaction was positive for HSV-2. Urinary retention in the context of meningitis and CSF pleocytosis is known as Meningitis Retention Syndrome (MRS. MRS is a rare but important complication of meningitis most commonly associated with HSV-2. Involvement of central pathways may have a role in the pathogenesis of MRS but this is poorly documented. MRS is different from Elsberg syndrome wherein patients display features of lumbosacral polyradiculitis or radiculomyelitis. Early treatment with antiviral therapy was associated with a favorable outcome in our patient.

  4. Benefits of multi-modal fusion analysis on a large-scale dataset: life-span patterns of inter-subject variability in cortical morphometry and white matter microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Adrian R; Smith, Stephen M; Fjell, Anders M; Tamnes, Christian K; Walhovd, Kristine B; Douaud, Gwenaëlle; Woolrich, Mark W; Westlye, Lars T

    2012-10-15

    Neuroimaging studies have become increasingly multimodal in recent years, with researchers typically acquiring several different types of MRI data and processing them along separate pipelines that provide a set of complementary windows into each subject's brain. However, few attempts have been made to integrate the various modalities in the same analysis. Linked ICA is a robust data fusion model that takes multi-modal data and characterizes inter-subject variability in terms of a set of multi-modal components. This paper examines the types of components found when running Linked ICA on a large magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) morphometric and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data set comprising 484 healthy subjects ranging from 8 to 85 years of age. We find several strong global features related to age, sex, and intracranial volume; in particular, one component predicts age to a high accuracy (r=0.95). Most of the remaining components describe spatially localized modes of variability in white or gray matter, with many components including both tissue types. The multimodal components tend to be located in anatomically-related brain areas, suggesting a morphological and possibly functional relationship. The local components show relationships between surface-based cortical thickness and arealization, voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and between three different DTI measures. Further, we report components related to artifacts (e.g. scanner software upgrades) which would be expected in a dataset of this size. Most of the 100 extracted components showed interpretable spatial patterns and were found to be reliable using split-half validation. This work provides novel information about normal inter-subject variability in brain structure, and demonstrates the potential of Linked ICA as a feature-extracting data fusion approach across modalities. This exploratory approach automatically generates models to explain structure in the data, and may prove especially powerful for large

  5. Improving College Freshman Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Winnie Y.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, access to higher education was greatly improved through public funding. This improvement is not matched by a similar increase in graduation rate. The purpose of this study is to examine what postsecondary institutions can do to improve college freshman retention. The conceptual framework was based on research on college student…

  6. Employment Retention Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, E; Stafford, B.

    2007-01-01

    This Report investigates the potential for a statutory model of employment retention leave. A Private Members Bill (HC Bill 2006-07) [79] currently in progress through Parliament would, if enacted, offer disabled employees the right to paid leave for employment assessment, rehabilitation or re-training.

  7. Tritium retention in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dylla, H.F.; Wilson, K.L. (eds.)

    1988-04-01

    This report discusses the materials physics related to D-T operation in TFTR. Research activities are described pertaining to basic studies of hydrogenic retention in graphite, hydrogen recycling phenomena, first-wall and limiter conditioning, surface analysis of TFTR first-wall components, and estimates of the tritium inventory.

  8. Surf zone surface retention on a rip?channeled beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, A.J.H.M.; MacMahan, J.H.; Thornton, E.B.; Stanton, T.P.; Henriquez, M.; Brown, J.W.; Brown, J.A.; Gallagher, E.

    The retention of floating matter within the surf zone on a rip-channeled beach is examined with a combination of detailed field observations obtained during the Rip Current Experiment and a three-dimensional (3-D) wave and flow model. The acoustic Doppler current profiler–observed hourly vertical

  9. Retention of Emergency Care Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burckes, Mardie E.; Shao, Kung Ping Pam

    1984-01-01

    Data on the emergency care knowledge of college students were measured by a pretest, posttest, and retention test. A high relationship was found between students' posttest scores and retention test scores. Findings are discussed. (Author/DF)

  10. Designing a customer retention plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSouza, G

    1992-01-01

    What is your company's customer retention rate? How many customers are price defectors? Have you identified barriers that prevent customers from switching to a competitor? In this article, the author outlines a game plan to increase customer retention.

  11. phosphorus retention data and metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — phosphorus retention in wetlands data and metadata. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Lane , C., and B. Autrey. Phosphorus retention of...

  12. The effect of the 4MAT learning model on the achievement and motivation of 7th grade students on the subject of particulate nature of matter and an examination of student opinions on the model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, İdris; Bılgın, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    Background:Many researchers agree that students, especially primary students, have learning difficulties on the 'Particulate Nature of Matter' unit. One reason for this difficulty is not considering individual differences for teaching science. In 4MAT model learning, environment is arranged according to individual differences. Purpose:The purpose of this study is to examine (1) the effects of the 4MAT learning model on the7th grade students' academic achievement and motivation on the 'Particulate Nature of Matter' unit and (2) identify student opinions on the 4MAT model. Sample:The sample consists of 235 students (115 experimental, 120 control) in Turkey. Design and methods:Experimental groups were instructed with the 4MAT model while control groups were instructed with a traditional method. Achievement Test (AchToM) and Motivation Scale (MotScl) were administered to students as pre- and post-tests. Moreover, the opinions of students in the experimental groups on the 4MAT model were ascertained through open-ended questions after the application. Results:According to independent t-test results, statistical difference in favour of the experimental groups was detected between the post-AchToM (ES = 1.43; p motivation and participation in the lesson, lessons are more amusing and enjoyable, and the self-confidence of the students increases. Besides these positive opinions, however, a few students stated that the method took too much time, they were not motivated and it did not help them in understanding the subject. Conclusions:The 4MAT model is more effective than traditional method in terms of increasing achievement and motivation. The model takes all learners into account. Thus, the teacher or educator should use the 4MAT model to ensure all students' learning in their classroom.

  13. Enhancing retention of partial dentures using elastomeric retention rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakkirala Revathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents an alternative method for the retention of partial dentures that relies on the engagement of tooth undercuts by a lining material. The lab procedures are also presented. A new maxillary and mandibular acrylic partial dentures were fabricated using elastomeric retention technique for a partially dentate patient. A partially dentate man reported difficulty in retaining his upper removable partial denture (RPD. The maxillary RPD was designed utilizing elastomeric retention technique. During follow-up, it was necessary to replace the retention rings due to wear. The replacement of the retention rings, in this case, was done through a chairside reline technique. Elastomeric retention technique provides exceptionally good retention can be indicated to stabilize, cushion, splint periodontally involved teeth, no enough undercut for clasps, eliminate extractions, single or isolated teeth.

  14. Updating metacognitive control in response to expected retention intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiechter, Joshua L; Benjamin, Aaron S

    2017-04-01

    In five experiments, we investigated whether expected retention intervals affect subjects' encoding strategies. In the first four experiments, our subjects studied paired associates consisting of words from the Graduate Record Exam and a synonym. They were told to expect a test on a word pair after either a short or a longer interval. Subjects were tested on most pairs after the expected retention interval. For some pairs, however, subjects were tested after the other retention interval, allowing for a comparison of performance at a given retention interval conditional upon the expected retention interval. No effect of the expected retention interval was found for 1 min versus 4 min (Exp. 1), 30 s versus 3 min (Exp. 2), and 30 s versus 10 min (Exps. 3 and 4), even when subjects were given complete control over the pacing of study items (Exp. 4). However, when the difference between the expected retention intervals was increased massively (10 min vs. 24 h; Exp. 5), subjects remembered more items that they expected to be tested sooner, an effect consistent with the idea that they traded off efforts to remember items for the later test versus items that were about to be tested. Overall, this set of results accords with much of the test-expectancy literature, revealing that subjects are often reluctant to adjust encoding strategies on an item-by-item basis, and when they do, they usually make quantitative, rather than qualitative, adjustments.

  15. Spatial targeting of conservation tillage to improve water quality and carbon retention benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, W.; Sheng, C. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Voroney, P. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Land Resource Science

    2005-12-15

    Conservation tillage reduces soil erosion and improves water quality in agricultural watersheds. However, the benefits of conservation tillage in carbon sequestration are the subject of controversy. Public funds are provided to farms to encourage the adoption of conservation tillage. Given the economic costs, the targeting of areas likely to achieve the greatest environmental benefits has become an important policy-making issue. A geographic information system (GIS) based modelling framework which integrated hydrologic, soil organic matter, and farm models to evaluate the spatial targeting of conservation tillage was presented. A case study applying the framework in the Fairchild Creek watershed in Ontario indicated that targeting conservation tillage based on sediment abatement goals can achieve comparable carbon retention benefits in terms of the percentage reduction of base carbon losses. Targeted subcatchments for conservation tillage varied across the watershed based on benefit to cost ratios. Conservation tillage patterns based on carbon retention goals showed similar results to sediment abatement goals but slight differences were observed because of different carbon content in the soils. The results indicated that sediment abatement may be used as an indicator in setting up program goals. The impacts of conservation programs can then be evaluated based on calibrated and validated hydrologic models in conjunction with monitoring data. Results also showed that setting carbon retention may lead to higher costs in order to achieve corresponding sediment abatement benefits. Carbon retention may not be suitable for setting as a stand-alone environmental goal for conservation programs because of the difficulties in verifying the impacts and the discrepancies between carbon and sediment benefits. It was concluded that the modelling results have important policy implications for the design of conservation stewardship programs that aim to achieve environmental

  16. Cosmetology. Subject Matters, Volume 3, No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Susan

    2001-01-01

    "The Beauty of Cosmetology" discusses the employment outlook for cosmetologists. "High School Cosmetology with Great Style" describes the academic and career cosmetology curriculum at Great Oaks Institute of Technology and Career Development (Ohio). "More than Skin Deep" explores the job shadowing program at the American Academy of Hair Design.…

  17. Digital Literacy and Subject Matter Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm

    2015-01-01

    It is generally agreed that learners need to acquire digital literacy in order to be able to act as citizens, employees and entrepreneurs in an increasingly digitalized environment. It is also generally agreed that the educational system has to be responsible for educating towards digital literacy....... However, there is no shared conception of the scope and meaning of digital literacy. The overall picture shows two main approaches: The first aims at digital literacy in the sense of Buildung (general education) while the second addresses a wide range of specific skills and competences: From basic...... computer skills over multimodal analysis to social conventions for behavior in online environments. Consequently designs for teaching and learning that aim at learners acquiring digital literacy and the related learning objectives appear as weak defined. According to the Danish Ministry of Education Shared...

  18. Language and Composition: Does the Subject Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexis, Gerhard T.

    1968-01-01

    Attempts to combine language and composition in the freshman English course at Gustavus Adolphus College (St. Peter, Minnesota) should interest all teachers of English. One project utilized a single key word for several assignments. Students were asked to (1) think through the meaning of the word for a week and write definitions and associations,…

  19. Meeting the Challenge: Teaching Sensitive Subject Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Dorian B.

    2012-01-01

    When teaching diversity courses that discuss sensitive issues, such as racial, gender, sexuality, religious, and ethnic discrimination, it is possible to encounter student resistance, which can subsequently prevent students from comprehending the content. While teaching an introductory course on African American history in a Black Studies…

  20. Improved motor sequence retention by motionless listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, Amir; Katz, Tal; Chess, Roxanne; Saltzman, Elliot

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the effect of listening to a newly learned musical piece on subsequent motor retention of the piece. Thirty-six non-musicians were trained to play an unfamiliar melody on a piano keyboard. Next, they were randomly assigned to participate in three follow-up listening sessions over 1 week. Subjects who, during their listening sessions, listened to the same initial piece showed significant improvements in motor memory and retention of the piece despite the absence of physical practice. These improvements included increased pitch accuracy, time accuracy, and dynamic intensity of key pressing. Similar improvements, though to a lesser degree, were observed in subjects who, during their listening sessions, were distracted by another task. Control subjects, who after learning the piece had listened to nonmusical sounds, showed impaired motoric retention of the piece at 1 week from the initial acquisition day. These results imply that motor sequences can be established in motor memory without direct access to motor-related information. In addition, the study revealed that the listening-induced improvements did not generalize to the learning of a new musical piece composed of the same notes as the initial piece learned, limiting the effects to musical motor sequences that are already part of the individual's motor repertoire.

  1. When Matter Matters

    CERN Document Server

    Easson, Damien A.; Vikman, Alexander

    2013-07-10

    We study a recently proposed scenario for the early universe: Subluminal Galilean Genesis. We prove that without any other matter present in the spatially flat Friedmann universe, the perturbations of the Galileon scalar field propagate with a speed at most equal to the speed of light. This proof applies to all cosmological solutions -- to the whole phase space. However, in a more realistic situation, when one includes any matter which is not directly coupled to the Galileon, there always exists a region of phase space where these perturbations propagate superluminally, indeed with arbitrarily high speed. We illustrate our analytic proof with numerical computations. We discuss the implications of this result for the possible UV completion of the model.

  2. Wildfire impacts on soil-water retention in the Colorado Front Range, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebel, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    This work examined the plot-scale differences in soil-water retention caused by wildfire in the area of the 2010 Fourmile Canyon Fire in the Colorado Front Range, United States. We measured soil-water retention curves on intact cores and repacked samples, soil particle-size distributions, and organic matter content. Estimates were also made of plant-available water based on the soil-water retention curves. Parameters for use in soil-hydraulic property models were estimated; these parameters can be used in unsaturated flow modeling for comparing burned and unburned watersheds. The primary driver for measured differences in soil-water retention in burned and unburned soils was organic matter content and not soil-particle size distribution. The tendency for unburned south-facing soils to have greater organic matter content than unburned north-facing soils in this field area may explain why unburned south-facing soils had greater soil-water retention than unburned north-facing soils. Our results suggest that high-severity wildfire can “homogenize” soil-water retention across the landscape by erasing soil-water retention differences resulting from organic matter content, which for this site may be affected by slope aspect. This homogenization could have important implications for ecohydrology and plant succession/recovery in burned areas, which could be a factor in dictating the window of vulnerability of the landscape to flash floods and erosion that are a common consequence of wildfire.

  3. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  4. Selenide retention by mackinawite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finck, N; Dardenne, K; Bosbach, D; Geckeis, H

    2012-09-18

    The isotope (79)Se may be of great concern with regard to the safe disposal of nuclear wastes in deep geological repositories due to its long half-life and potential mobility in the geosphere. The Se mobility is controlled by the oxidation state: the oxidized species (Se(IV)) and (Se(VI)) are highly mobile, whereas the reduced species (Se(0) and Se(-II)) form low soluble solids. The mobility of this trace pollutant can be greatly reduced by interacting with the various barriers of the repository. Numerous studies report on the oxidized species retention by mineral phases, but only very scarce studies report on the selenide (Se(-II)) retention. In the present study, the selenide retention by coprecipitation with and by adsorption on mackinawite (FeS) was investigated. XRD and SEM analyses of the samples reveal no significant influence of Se on the mackinawite precipitate morphology and structure. Samples from coprecipitation and from adsorption are characterized at the molecular scale by a multi-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) investigation. In the coprecipitation experiment, all elements (S, Fe, and Se) are in a low ionic oxidation state and the EXAFS data strongly point to selenium located in a mackinawite-like sulfide environment. By contacting selenide ions with FeS in suspension, part of Se is located in an environment similar to that found in the coprecipitation experiment. The explanation is a dynamical dissolution-recrystallization mechanism of the highly reactive mackinawite. This is the first experimental study to report on selenide incorporation in iron monosulfide by a multi-edge XAS approach.

  5. Speech Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse Jørgensen, Stina

    2011-01-01

    About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011.......About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011....

  6. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    matter and that it must be of some exotic type. Before we discuss the evidences for dark matter in clusters of galaxies, let us point out that it is not just spiral galaxies which are thought to contain dark matter, although the evidences from them are the strongest. Other types of galaxies, like elliptical galaxies, are often seen to ...

  7. Drug Retention Times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to provide information on drug retention times in the human body. The information provided is based on plausible illegal drug use activities that might be engaged in by a recreational drug user. Based on anecdotal evidence, most people “party” during extended time away from the work environment. Therefore, the following scenarios were envisioned: (1) a person uses an illicit drug at a party on Saturday night (infrequent user); (2) a person uses a drug one time on Friday night and once again on Saturday night (infrequent user); and (3) a person uses a drug on Friday night, uses a drug twice on Saturday night, and once again on Sunday (frequent user).

  8. Gadolinium retention in the body: what we know and what we can do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedeschi, Enrico; Caranci, Ferdinando; Giordano, Flavio; Angelini, Valentina; Cocozza, Sirio; Brunetti, Arturo

    2017-08-01

    Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCA), widely used in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for almost 30 years, were recently shown to be deposited in the brain and to induce persistent T1 shortening in deep gray matter structures in subjects with normal renal function. The aim of the present study is to summarize the evidence derived from the rapidly growing scientific literature on Gadolinium retention in the brain and in the rest of the body. To this end, the original articles that described imaging and pathology findings in humans and animals exposed to GBCA were reviewed. The main aspects that emerged were the different effects of linear and macrocyclic GBCA on brain MRI appearance, the evidence of Gadolinium tissue retention in multiple organs, and the debated issue of the possible clinical consequences. Although no adverse health effects have been documented so far, updated information about GBCA build-up in the body is necessary for health professionals, also in view of the increasing concern in the general population. To date, our knowledge about the mechanisms of Gadolinium tissue deposition and, above all, its long-term consequences is still largely incomplete. However, while official guidelines are eagerly awaited, some advices may already be given, to help our radiological daily practice.

  9. Research Synopsis: Spring 1983 Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta Community Coll. District, Oakland, CA. Office of Research, Planning and Development.

    An analysis of spring 1983 retention rates and grade distributions within the Peralta Community College District (PCCD) revealed: (1) College of Alameda had the highest successful retention rate in the PCCD, defined as the total of all students who completed the term with a grade of A, B, C, D, or CR (credit); (2) the PCCD's successful retention…

  10. Is Piaget's epistemic subject dead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    Niaz (1990) presents arguments in favor of the retention of Piaget's epistemic subject as a theoretical construct to guide research and practice in science education and psychology. The intent of this article is to point out the weaknesses of those arguments and to suggest that the weight of evidence argues against the existence of the logical thinker postulated by Piaget. Therefore, contrary to Niaz's conclusion that the acceptance of Piaget's epistemic subject will facilitate the development of cognitive theories with greater explanatory power, the conclusion is reached that Piaget's epistemic subject is dead and that continued acceptance of this aspect of Piagetian theory would be counterproductive.

  11. Military Retention. A Comparative Outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Sminchise

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main goals for human resources management structures and for armed forces leaders is to maintain all necessary personnel, both qualitatively and quantitatively for operational needs or for full required capabilities. The retention of military personnel is essential to keep morale and unit readiness and to reduce the costs for recruiting, training, replacement of manpower. Retention rates depend not only on money or other social measures. The goal for retention is to keep in use the most valuable resource that belongs to an organization: the human beings and their knowledge. The aim pf this paper is to provide a comparative analysis of retention measures in various countries based on Research and Technology Organisation report released in 2007 and, thus, provide more examples of retention measures as far as the Romanian military system is concerned.

  12. The Subjectivity of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    What is a 'we' – a collective – and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity – and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas...... practices. Through this dialogue, it develops an original trans-disciplinary critical theory and practice of collective subjectivity for which the ongoing construction and overcoming of common sense, or ideology, is central. It also points to ways of relating discourse with agency, and fertilizing insights...... from interactionism and ideology theories in a cultural-historical framework....

  13. COLLEGE RETENTION OF THE ADMINISTRATION STUDENTS OF UFS: REASONS AND ACADEMIC MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Teles Dantas de Oliveira; Jenny Dantas Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the subject of students retention from the Management Program of the Federal University of Sergipe (UFS), regarding the maintenance of the student beyond the regular time. The objectives of this article are to outline the characteristics of UFS’s Management students, to identify the retention reasons, to measure the quality of the course, and to learn the actions to avoid students’ retention, which were developed by the Management Program. Data were collected through do...

  14. A voxel-based morphometric magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain detects age-related gray matter volume changes in healthy subjects of 21–45 years old

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Beltagi, Ahmed; Cherian, Jigi; Gejo, Grace; Al-Jazzaf, Abrar; Ismail, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Previous and more recent work of analyzing structural changes in the brain suggest that certain brain regions such as the frontal lobe are among the brain regions profoundly affected by the aging process across males and females. Also, a unified model of structural changes in a normally aging brain is still lacking. The present study investigated age-related structural brain changes in gray matter from young to early middle-age adulthood for males and females. Magnetic resonance images of 215 normal and healthy participants between the ages of 21–45 years were acquired. Changes in gray matter were assessed using voxel-based morphometry and gray matter volumetric analysis. The results showed significant decrease in gray matter volume between the youngest and oldest groups in the following brain regions: frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. Grey matter loss in the frontal lobe was among the most widespread of all brain regions across the comparison groups that showed significant age-related changes in grey matter for both males and females. This work provides a unique pattern of age-related decline of normal and healthy adult males and females that can aid in the future development of a unified model of normal brain aging. PMID:26306927

  15. A voxel-based morphometric magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain detects age-related gray matter volume changes in healthy subjects of 21-45 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourisly, Ali K; El-Beltagi, Ahmed; Cherian, Jigi; Gejo, Grace; Al-Jazzaf, Abrar; Ismail, Mohammad

    2015-10-01

    Previous and more recent work of analyzing structural changes in the brain suggest that certain brain regions such as the frontal lobe are among the brain regions profoundly affected by the aging process across males and females. Also, a unified model of structural changes in a normally aging brain is still lacking. The present study investigated age-related structural brain changes in gray matter from young to early middle-age adulthood for males and females. Magnetic resonance images of 215 normal and healthy participants between the ages of 21-45 years were acquired. Changes in gray matter were assessed using voxel-based morphometry and gray matter volumetric analysis. The results showed significant decrease in gray matter volume between the youngest and oldest groups in the following brain regions: frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. Grey matter loss in the frontal lobe was among the most widespread of all brain regions across the comparison groups that showed significant age-related changes in grey matter for both males and females. This work provides a unique pattern of age-related decline of normal and healthy adult males and females that can aid in the future development of a unified model of normal brain aging. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Recruitment and Retention of LGBTIQ Astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, William Van Dyke

    2012-01-01

    While lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, or questioning (LGBTIQ) astronomers face many of the same workplace challenges as women and racial/ethnic minorities, from implicit bias to overt discrimination, other challenges are unique to this group. An obvious example is the absence at many institutions of health insurance and other benefits for the same-sex domestic partners of their employees. More subtle is the psychological toll paid by LGBTIQ astronomers who remain "in the closet," self-censoring every statement about their personal lives. Paradoxically, the culture of the physical sciences, in which sexuality, gender identity, and gender expression are considered irrelevant, can discourage their discussion, further isolating LGBTIQ researchers. Addressing these challenges is not just a matter of fairness; it is an essential tool in the recruitment and retention of the brightest researchers and in assuring their productivity. We will discuss these issues and what individuals and departments can to make their institutions more welcoming to their LGBTIQ colleagues.

  17. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  18. Influence of PBL with open-book tests on knowledge retention measured with progress tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne-Penninga, M.; Kuks, J. B. M.; Hofman, W. H. A.; Muijtjens, A. M. M.; Cohen-Schotanus, J.

    The influence of problem-based learning (PBL) and open-book tests on long-term knowledge retention is unclear and subject of discussion. Hypotheses were that PBL as well as open-book tests positively affect long-term knowledge retention. Four progress test results of fifth and sixth-year medical

  19. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In Part 11 of this article we learnt that there are compelling evidences from dynamics of spiral galaxies, like our own, that there must be non-luminous matter in them. In this second part we will see that even clusters of galaxies must harbour dark matter. As if this was not enough, it turns out that if our knowledge of the ...

  20. Describing Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Krista; Feagin, Shannon

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a lesson that was designed to explore the scientific descriptions of matter through both the intensive and extensive properties that students successfully added to their vocabulary. Students' examples demonstrated that there were places where their reasoning about matter faltered as related to how the material is the same…

  1. Video Games Promote Saudi Children's English Vocabulary Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlShaiji, Ohoud Abdullatif

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of Video Games and their role on promoting Saudi Kids' English vocabulary retention. The study attempted to answer whether there was a statistically significant difference (a = 0.05) between the Saudi children's subjects' mean score on the English vocabulary test due to using Video Games…

  2. Increasing Army Retention Through Incentives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beerman, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    .... This study examines current retention issues and the Army Incentive Model. The model appears to offer a range of benefits that may retain a segment of what demographers have labeled as the Millennium Generation...

  3. Fuzzy indicators for customer retention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valenzuela-Fernández, Leslier; Nicolas, Carolina; Gil-Lafuente, Jaime; Merigó, José M

    2016-01-01

    .... Nevertheless, one cannot ignore the existence of a gap on how to measure this relationship. Following this idea, this study proposes six fuzzy key performance indicators that aims to measure customer retention and loyalty of the portfolio...

  4. Condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Isihara, A

    2007-01-01

    More than a graduate text and advanced research guide on condensed matter physics, this volume is useful to plasma physicists and polymer chemists, and their students. It emphasizes applications of statistical mechanics to a variety of systems in condensed matter physics rather than theoretical derivations of the principles of statistical mechanics and techniques. Isihara addresses a dozen different subjects in separate chapters, each designed to be directly accessible and used independently of previous chapters. Topics include simple liquids, electron systems and correlations, two-dimensional

  5. Maximizing Retention with High Risk Participants in a Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Romina; Hickman, Norval; Gali, Kathleen; Orozco, Nicholas; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To describe effective retention strategies in a clinical trial with a high risk, low income, and vulnerable patient population with serious mental illness. Design Follow-up assessments were conducted for a randomized clinical tobacco treatment trial at 3-, 6-, and 12-months post-baseline. Initial follow-up rates of jails and prisons; text messaging, e-mailing, and messaging via social networking sites; identifying appointments via electronic medical record; and field outreach to treatment facilities, residences, and parks. Setting Large urban public hospital Subjects Participants were current smokers recruited from 100% smoke-free locked psychiatry units. Measures Assessments covered demographics, substance use, and mental health functioning. Analysis Retention rates were plotted over time in relation to key retention strategies. Chi-square and t-tests were used to examine participant predictors of retention at each follow-up. At the 12-month follow-up, the retention strategies that most frequently led to assessment completion were identified. Results The sample (N=100) was 65% male; age M=39.5 years (SD=11.3); 44% non-Hispanic White; 46% on Medicaid and 34% uninsured; 79% unemployed; and 48% unstably housed. Proactive retention strategies dramatically increased follow-up rates, concluding at 3-months=82.65%, 6-months=89.69%, and 12-months=92.78%. Married and divorced/separated/widowed participants, those with higher income, and participants with alcohol or illicit drug problems had increased retention from 3 to 12-months follow-up. Conclusion Follow-up rates improved as proactive methods to contact participants were implemented. Dedicated research staff, multiple methods, community networking, and outreach within drug treatment settings improved retention. PMID:23875989

  6. Air Force Pilot Retention-1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    Politica l Science from Texas A&M University in 1973. He earned his commission S’- ,t the same time. This project will fulfill partial r(,quir(,m,nts...12 years of Air Force pilot retention rates , (2:12: 5:2). 0>. _ , FISCAL YEAR PILOT RETENTION RATES 1976 50.6% 1977 47.9% 1978 39.6% 1979 26.0% 1980

  7. Subject (of documents)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    such as concepts, aboutness, topic, isness and ofness are also briefly presented. The conclusion is that the most fruitful way of defining “subject” (of a document) is the documents informative or epistemological potentials, that is, the documents potentials of informing users and advance the development......This article presents and discuss the concept “subject” or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document......-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts...

  8. Gaseous Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    aseous Matter focuses on the many important discoveries that led to the scientific interpretation of matter in the gaseous state. This new, full-color resource describes the basic characteristics and properties of several important gases, including air, hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and nitrogen. The nature and scope of the science of fluids is discussed in great detail, highlighting the most important scientific principles upon which the field is based. Chapters include:. Gaseous Matter An Initial Perspective. Physical Characteristics of Gases. The Rise of the Science of Gases. Kinetic Theory of

  9. Strategies to enhance participant recruitment and retention in research involving a community-based population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullagh, Marjorie C; Sanon, Marie-Anne; Cohen, Michael A

    2014-11-01

    Challenges associated with recruiting and retaining community-based populations in research studies have been recognized yet remain of major concern for researchers. There is a need for exchange of recruitment and retention techniques that inform recruitment and retention strategies. Here, the authors discuss a variety of methods that were successful in exceeding target recruitment and retention goals in a randomized clinical trial of hearing protector use among farm operators. Recruitment and retention strategies were 1) based on a philosophy of mutually beneficial engagement in the research process, 2) culturally appropriate, 3) tailored to the unique needs of partnering agencies, and 4) developed and refined in a cyclical and iterative process. Sponsoring organizations are interested in cost-effective recruitment and retention strategies, particularly relating to culturally and ethnically diverse groups. These approaches may result in enhanced subject recruitment and retention, concomitant containment of study costs, and timely accomplishment of study aims. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Relationship between Dry Matter Increase of Seed and Shoot during the Seed-Filling Period in Three Kinds of Soybeans with Different Growth Habits Subjected to Shading and Thinning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kakiuchi, Jin; Kobata, Tohru

    2006-01-01

    The ratio of dry-matter increase in seed (S) to that in shoot (W), referred to as RS/W, during the seed-filling period may reflect the balance between the assimilate supply and the sink capacity of harvest organs...

  11. Dirac matter

    CERN Document Server

    Rivasseau, Vincent; Fuchs, Jean-Nöel

    2017-01-01

    This fifteenth volume of the Poincare Seminar Series, Dirac Matter, describes the surprising resurgence, as a low-energy effective theory of conducting electrons in many condensed matter systems, including graphene and topological insulators, of the famous equation originally invented by P.A.M. Dirac for relativistic quantum mechanics. In five highly pedagogical articles, as befits their origin in lectures to a broad scientific audience, this book explains why Dirac matters. Highlights include the detailed "Graphene and Relativistic Quantum Physics", written by the experimental pioneer, Philip Kim, and devoted to graphene, a form of carbon crystallized in a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, from its discovery in 2004-2005 by the future Nobel prize winners Kostya Novoselov and Andre Geim to the so-called relativistic quantum Hall effect; the review entitled "Dirac Fermions in Condensed Matter and Beyond", written by two prominent theoreticians, Mark Goerbig and Gilles Montambaux, who consider many other mater...

  12. Antimatter Matters

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN

    2016-01-01

    This video is a teaser-introduction to the Antimatter Matters exhibtion at the Royal Society's Summer Science exhibition July 4-10 2016. The exhibition is jointly organised and hosted by UK members of the ALPHA and LHCb collaborations.

  13. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  14. Increased dopaminergic signaling impairs aversive olfactory memory retention in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shixing; Yin, Yan; Lu, Huimin; Guo, Aike

    2008-05-23

    Dopamine is necessary for the aversive olfactory associative memory formation in Drosophila, but its effect on other stages of memory is not known. Herein, we studied the effect of enhanced dopaminergic signaling on aversive olfactory memory retention in flies. We used l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) to elevate dopamine levels: l-DOPA-treated flies exhibited a normal learning performance, but a decrease in 1-h memory. Dopamine transporter (DAT) mutant flies or flies treated with the DAT inhibitor desipramine exhibited poor memory retention. Flies subjected to heat stress after training exhibited a decrease in memory. Memory was restored by blocking dopaminergic neuronal output during heat stress, suggesting that dopamine is involved in heat stress-induced memory impairment in flies. Taken together, our findings suggest that increased dopaminergic signaling impairs aversive olfactory memory retention in flies.

  15. A voxel-based morphometric magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain detects age-related gray matter volume changes in healthy subjects of 21–45 years old

    OpenAIRE

    Bourisly, Ali K; El-Beltagi, Ahmed; Cherian, Jigi; Gejo, Grace; Al-Jazzaf, Abrar; Ismail, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Previous and more recent work of analyzing structural changes in the brain suggest that certain brain regions such as the frontal lobe are among the brain regions profoundly affected by the aging process across males and females. Also, a unified model of structural changes in a normally aging brain is still lacking. The present study investigated age-related structural brain changes in gray matter from young to early middle-age adulthood for males and females. Magnetic resonance images of 215...

  16. Tritium retention in reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatano, Y.; Abe, S.; Matsuyama, M. [University of Toyama, Toyama (Japan); Alimov, V.K. [University of Toyama, Toyama (Japan); Max-Planck-Insitut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Spitsyn, A.V.; Bobyr, N.P.; Cherkez, D.I.; Khripunov, B.I.; Golubeva, A.V. [NRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ogorodnikova, O.V. [Max-Planck-Insitut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Assciation, Garching (Germany); Klimov, N.S. [SRC RF TRINITI, Troitsk (Russian Federation); Chernov, V.M. [JSC, A.A. Bochvar High-Technology Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, Moscow (Russian Federation); Oyaidzu, M.; Yamanishi, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho-mura, Aomori (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    Reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels are structural material candidates for breeding blankets of future fusion reactors. Therefore, tritium (T) retention in RAFM steels is an important problem in assessing the T inventory of blankets. In this study, specimens of RAFM steels were subjected to irradiation of 20 MeV W ions to 0.54 displacements per atom (dpa), exposure to high flux D plasmas at 400 and 600 K and that to pulsed heat loads. The specimens thus prepared were exposed to DT gas at 473 K. Despite severe modification in the surface morphology, heat loads had negligible effects on T retention. Significant increase in T retention at the surface and/or subsurface was observed after D plasma exposure. However, T trapped at the surface/subsurface layer was easily removed by maintaining the specimens in the air at about 300 K. Displacement damage led to increase in T retention in the bulk due to the trapping effects of defects, and T trapped was stable at 300 K. It was therefore concluded that displacement damages had the largest influence on T retention under the present conditions.

  17. Subjective memory complaints and personality traits in normal elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänninen, T; Reinikainen, K J; Helkala, E L; Koivisto, K; Mykkänen, L; Laakso, M; Pyörälä, K; Riekkinen, P J

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between objectively measured memory functions and subjective complaints of memory disturbance and whether subjective complaints are affected by some personality traits or affective states. Cross-sectional two-group comparison. The city of Kuopio in Eastern Finland, considered representative of the urban elderly population of Finland. Originally 403 subjects aged 67-78 years from the random sample and then two matched study groups initially including eighteen subjects but only ten in the final analysis. Screening and follow-up examinations of subjects with and without subjective memory complaints: (1) Memory functions: Benton's visual retention test and the paired-associated learning subtest of Wechsler Memory Scale. (2) Memory complaints: Memory Complaint Questionnaire. (3) Personality traits and affective state: Two subscales from Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and Geriatric Depression Scale. Complaints of memory loss did not correlate with the actual memory performance in the tests. However, those subjects who most emphatically complained of memory disturbance had greater tendencies toward somatic complaining, higher feelings of anxiety about their physical health, and more negative feelings of their own competence and capabilities than those who did not complain of memory deterioration associated with aging. The study suggests that subjective feelings of memory impairment are more closely associated with personality traits than with actual memory performance in normal elderly people.

  18. Children's Differentiation between Beliefs about Matters of Fact and Matters of Opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Robin; Yuill, Nicola; Larson, Christina; Easton, Kate; Robinson, Elizabeth; Rowley, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments investigated children's implicit and explicit differentiation between beliefs about matters of fact and matters of opinion. In Experiment 1, 8- to 9-year-olds' (n = 88) explicit understanding of the subjectivity of opinions was found to be limited, but their conformity to others' judgments on a matter of opinion was considerably…

  19. DIAFILTRATION OF ULTRAFILTRATION RETENTATE OF WHEY FROM WHITE BRINED CHEESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria DUSHKOVA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Whey diafiltration was carried out with a UF25-PAN polyacrylnitrilic membrane with 25 kDa molecular weight cut-off at volume reduction factors (VRF VRF=2, VRF=4, VRF=6, VRF=8, VRF=10. The values of the principal components dry matter, protein, lactose and mineral substances in the retentates and permeate obtained were established. The relative shares of protein, lactose and mineral substances in the dry matter, the concentration factor (CF values for dry matter, protein, lactose and mineral substances, and the protein retention factor (RF were determined. Linear models were created for the CF of each investigated component according to the VRF, and a logarithmic model was developed for the protein RF according to the VRF. The results obtained demonstrated the efficiency of diafiltration for deep treatment aimed at a further elimination of lactose and mineral substances and subsequent utilization of the diafiltration concentrates low in lactose and mineral substances as a liquid supplement in the manufacture of extruded cereal products.

  20. Strategies for improving employee retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlander, Edward G; Evans, Martin R

    2007-03-28

    This article proposes a solution to the perennial problem of talent retention in the clinical laboratory. It includes the presentation of 12 strategies that may be used to significantly improve institutional identity formation and establishment of the psychological contract that employees form with laboratory management. Identity formation and psychological contracting are deemed as essential in helping reduce employee turnover and increase retention. The 12 conversational strategies may be used as a set of best practices for all employees, but most importantly for new employees, and should be implemented at the critical moment when employees first join the laboratory. This time is referred to as "retention on-boarding"--the period of induction and laboratory orientation. Retention on-boarding involves a dialogue between employees and management that is focused on the psychological, practical, cultural, and political dimensions of the laboratory. It is placed in the context of the modern clinical laboratory, which is faced with employing and managing Generation X knowledge workers. Specific topics and broad content areas of those conversations are outlined.

  1. Employee voice and employee retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, D G

    1986-09-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the extent to which employees have opportunities to voice dissatisfaction and voluntary turnover in 111 short-term, general care hospitals. Results show that, whether or not a union is present, high numbers of mechanisms for employee voice are associated with high retention rates. Implications for theory and research as well as management practice are discussed.

  2. Exploring General Education Development Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sharon D.

    2013-01-01

    According to the instructors and administrators at a local adult education (AE) program in Houston, Texas, retaining and graduating general education development (GED) students has been a constant challenge. Locating GED attendance barriers could enable AE programs to develop techniques that increase student retention and graduation rates. The…

  3. Maslow's Hierarchy and Student Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman, David M.

    1989-01-01

    Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs offers perspective on student motivation and a rationale for college retention programing. Student affairs and faculty interventions addressing student safety needs and engaging students' sense of purpose reinforce persistence. A mentor program is a possible cooperative effort between student personnel and…

  4. Bootstrapping white matter segmentation, Eve++

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plassard, Andrew; Hinton, Kendra E.; Venkatraman, Vijay; Gonzalez, Christopher; Resnick, Susan M.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-03-01

    Multi-atlas labeling has come in wide spread use for whole brain labeling on magnetic resonance imaging. Recent challenges have shown that leading techniques are near (or at) human expert reproducibility for cortical gray matter labels. However, these approaches tend to treat white matter as essentially homogeneous (as white matter exhibits isointense signal on structural MRI). The state-of-the-art for white matter atlas is the single-subject Johns Hopkins Eve atlas. Numerous approaches have attempted to use tractography and/or orientation information to identify homologous white matter structures across subjects. Despite success with large tracts, these approaches have been plagued by difficulties in with subtle differences in course, low signal to noise, and complex structural relationships for smaller tracts. Here, we investigate use of atlas-based labeling to propagate the Eve atlas to unlabeled datasets. We evaluate single atlas labeling and multi-atlas labeling using synthetic atlases derived from the single manually labeled atlas. On 5 representative tracts for 10 subjects, we demonstrate that (1) single atlas labeling generally provides segmentations within 2mm mean surface distance, (2) morphologically constraining DTI labels within structural MRI white matter reduces variability, and (3) multi-atlas labeling did not improve accuracy. These efforts present a preliminary indication that single atlas labels with correction is reasonable, but caution should be applied. To purse multi-atlas labeling and more fully characterize overall performance, more labeled datasets would be necessary.

  5. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study of gas clouds orbiting in the outer regions of spiral galaxies has revealed that their gravitational at- traction is much larger than the stars alone can provide. Over the last twenty years, astronomers have been forced to postulate the presence of large quantities of 'dark matter' to explain their observations. They are ...

  6. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fluorescence usually originates from the lowest excited electronic state (singlet) irrespective of the excitation and hence, the fluorescence spectrum of a molecule is characterized by a single band. However, what makes DMABN a very special molecule is that it exhibits dual fluorescence (i.e. emission of. Molecule Matters.

  7. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 4. Molecule Matters – van der Waals Molecules - History and Some Perspectives on Intermolecular Forces. E Arunan. Feature Article Volume 14 Issue 4 April 2009 pp 346-356 ...

  8. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 9. Molecule Matters - A Chromium Compound with a Quintuple Bond. K C Kumara Swamy. Feature Article Volume 11 Issue 9 September 2006 pp 72-75. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  9. Science Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 2. Science Matters A Book for Curious Minds. Rohini Godbole. Book Review Volume 2 Issue 2 February 1997 pp 94-95. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/02/0094-0095 ...

  10. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 5. Molecule Matters - N-Heterocyclic Carbenes - The Stable Form of R2 C: Anil J Elias. Feature Article Volume 13 Issue 5 May 2008 pp 456-467. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  11. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 11. Molecule Matters - Carbon Dioxide: Molecular States and Beyond. T P Radhakrishnan. Feature Article Volume 11 Issue 11 November 2006 pp 88-92. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  12. Process arrangements for variety, retention, and selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bruijn, J.A.; Ten Heuvelhof, E.F.

    2004-01-01

    This article argues that process management aimed at introducing variety, retention, and selection into complex decision-making processes can make a substantial contribution to improving them. It also describes process arrangements for variety, retention, and selection.

  13. Population Ration, Intermarriage and Mother Tongue Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Eddie C. Y.

    1978-01-01

    An explanatory model of the relationship between mother tongue retention, population ratio, and intermarriage is presented. In general, data collected on mother tongue retention in Singapore, a multilingual and multiethnic society, support the proposed model. (DS)

  14. Hiring and Retention: Key Factors in Increasing Gender Diversity in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, M.; O'Connell, S.; Frey, C.

    2004-12-01

    Graduation and hiring data of geoscientists over the last ten years indicate that the largest leak in the academic pipeline for women geoscientists is at hiring into tenure-track positions. Anecdotal explanations for this leak generally cite a lack of females in the applicant pool, but women in tenure-track positions anecdotally cite a lack of family-friendly practices by academic departments. Both ideas are currently being tested via surveys of geoscience departments. Is there a way to attract more women to the field to increase the applicant pool? Results of focus groups of geoscientists indicate that both men and women are attracted into the field of geosciences by the same types of events: over one-third became a geoscientist by randomly walking into an undergraduate class and finding themselves captivated by the topic and/or a dynamic instructor. The subject matter itself attracts another one-fourth, and family members encourage another one-fifth of geoscientists to initially enter the field. Slightly more women cite the first attractor of undergraduate class, but the principal draw for our future workforce, male and female, is good instruction of freshman courses. Retention of women in academia is another key issue. The proportion that considers leaving after working towards one or more degrees is highly skewed by gender: one-half of female and only one-third of male geoscientists considered leaving the field at some time in their career. The reasons for considering leaving also differ by gender. Males cite financial issues, including an uncertain job market. Females cite two principal reasons for considering leaving: family issues and difficulties with a graduate advisor. Strategies currently exist for "family issues", including stop-the-clock (of tenure for family needs), assignment shift, on-campus daycare facilities, and unflinching administrative support for such practices. Graduate advising is a learnable skill, and more attention needs to be paid to

  15. Cerebral [18 F]T807/AV1451 retention pattern in clinically probable CTE resembles pathognomonic distribution of CTE tauopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickstein, D L; Pullman, M Y; Fernandez, C; Short, J A; Kostakoglu, L; Knesaurek, K; Soleimani, L; Jordan, B D; Gordon, W A; Dams-O'Connor, K; Delman, B N; Wong, E; Tang, C Y; DeKosky, S T; Stone, J R; Cantu, R C; Sano, M; Hof, P R; Gandy, S

    2016-09-27

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disorder most commonly associated with repetitive traumatic brain injury (TBI) and characterized by the presence of neurofibrillary tangles of tau protein, known as a tauopathy. Currently, the diagnosis of CTE can only be definitively established postmortem. However, a new positron emission tomography (PET) ligand, [18F]T807/AV1451, may provide the antemortem detection of tau aggregates, and thus various tauopathies, including CTE. Our goal was to examine [18F]T807/AV1451 retention in athletes with neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with a history of multiple concussions. Here we report a 39-year-old retired National Football League player who suffered 22 concussions and manifested progressive neuropsychiatric symptoms. Emotional lability and irritability were the chief complaints. Serial neuropsychological exams revealed a decline in executive functioning, processing speed and fine motor skills. Naming was below average but other cognitive functions were preserved. Structural analysis of longitudinally acquired magenetic resonance imaging scans revealed cortical thinning in the left frontal and lateral temporal areas, as well as volume loss in the basal ganglia. PET with [18F]florbetapir was negative for amyloidosis. The [18F]T807/AV1451 PET showed multifocal areas of retention at the cortical gray matter-white matter junction, a distribution considered pathognomonic for CTE. [18F]T807/AV1451 standard uptake value (SUV) analysis showed increased uptake (SUVr⩾1.1) in bilateral cingulate, occipital, and orbitofrontal cortices, and several temporal areas. Although definitive identification of the neuropathological underpinnings basis for [18F]T807/AV1451 retention requires postmortem correlation, our data suggest that [18F]T807/AV1451 tauopathy imaging may be a promising tool to detect and diagnose CTE-related tauopathy in living subjects.

  16. 27 CFR 26.276 - Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retention. 26.276 Section 26.276 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... of Liquors From the Virgin Islands Filing and Retention of Records and Reports § 26.276 Retention...

  17. 27 CFR 27.137 - Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retention. 27.137 Section 27.137 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... Filing and Retention of Records and Reports § 27.137 Retention. All records required by this part...

  18. Families matter! Presexual risk prevention intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kim S; Lasswell, Sarah M; Riley, Drewallyn B; Poulsen, Melissa N

    2013-11-01

    Parent-based HIV prevention programming may play an important role in reaching youths early to help establish lifelong patterns of safe and healthy sexual behaviors. Families Matter! is a 5-session, evidence-based behavioral intervention designed for primary caregivers of children aged 9 to 12 years to promote positive parenting and effective parent-child communication about sexuality and sexual risk reduction. The program's 5-step capacity-building model was implemented with local government, community, and faith-based partners in 8 sub-Saharan African countries with good intervention fidelity and high levels of participant retention. Families Matter! may be useful in other resource-constrained settings.

  19. Urinary retention and post-void residual urine in men: separating truth from tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Steven A; Wein, Alan J; Staskin, David R; Roehrborn, Claus G; Steers, William D

    2008-07-01

    The definitions of acute and chronic urinary retention remain empirical and subject to wide interpretation. Standardized criteria have not been established and many questions remain unanswered. Moreover, the definition of significant post-void residual urine is unclear. We reviewed several aspects of urinary retention that require clarification with the objective of stimulating discussion among urologists to establish an accurate and coherent definition of urinary retention and significant post-void residual urine, and clarify risk factors. A MEDLINE search for articles written in English and published before April 2007 was done using a list of terms related to urinary retention. Articles not directly relevant to urinary retention or post-void residual urine were excluded. The term urinary retention lacks precise clinical or urodynamic meaning. Use of this term to describe a symptom, a sign, and a condition further complicates the issue. Many factors can contribute to the development of retention, including bladder outlet obstruction, detrusor underactivity, and neurogenic bladder conditions. Community based studies and clinical trials in patients with benign prostatic enlargement and/or lower urinary tract symptoms yield different estimates of the incidence of retention and only provide information on the epidemiology of acute urinary retention. However, age, previous retention episodes, lower urinary tract symptoms, chronic inflammation, serum prostate specific antigen level, prostate size, and urodynamic variables appear to be predictors of acute urinary retention. Alpha-receptor antagonists and 5alpha-reductase inhibitors may be useful in preventing urinary retention episodes and progressive benign prostatic enlargement. Clinical trials on the short-term use of antimuscarinics have not provided evidence that these agents increase the risk of retention; data on longer term administration are needed. Clinicians are adopting less invasive approaches (eg

  20. The clearance concept with special reference to determination of glomerular filtration rate in patients with fluid retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ulrik L; Henriksen, Jens H

    2014-01-01

    In subjects without fluid retention, the total plasma clearance of a renal filtration indicator (inulin, (99m) Tc-DTPA, (51) Cr-EDTA) is close to the urinary plasma clearance. Conversely, in patients with fluid retention (oedema, pleural effusions, ascites), there is a substantial discrepancy...

  1. Factors Affecting Tooth Retention among Adult Population of Dharwad District, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulla, Salma H; Inamdar, Nurul Ameen; Prasad, K V V

    2016-11-01

    Oral health in relation to general health is influen-ced by the retention of teeth. Understanding factors affecting tooth retention will help health and social policy-makers to translate the knowledge on tooth retention into action programs for improving oral health of the people and hence enhance tooth retention. The aim of the present study was to determine the factors affecting tooth retention among adult population of Dharwad district, India. A cross-sectional survey of 1100 subjects (616 urban and 484 rural) residing in Dharwad district, Karnataka, India, was conducted. Self-designed questionnaire was prepared and data were collected on socio-demographic factors, oral hygiene practices, diet practices, adverse oral habits and frequency of dental visits by the interview method and clinical examination. Statistical analysis was carried out by applying one way analysis of variance (ANOVA), unpaired t-test and backward stepwise multiple regression. Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to test the correlation between the two quantitative variables. A total of 66.72% subjects retained all 28 teeth and mean number of teeth retained by the study subjects were 25.33 (90.46%). There was gradual reduction in tooth retention with increase in age. Males (95.8%) compared to females (94.07%), unmarried (98.8%) than married subjects (93.3%) and subjects with intermediate or post high school diploma (97.5%) than those who were illiterate (89.5%) and other low educational level study subjects retained more teeth. Further mean values of tooth retention for other socio demographic factors i.e., occupation, income and family size were not statistically significant (p≤0.05). In addition, subjects using tooth brush (96.6%) and tooth paste (96.6%) for cleaning the teeth, subjects practicing mixed diet (96.6%) and subjects who never visited the dentist (96.5%) in their lifetime showed statistically significant greater tooth retention than study subjects who visited the

  2. Unilateral primary or secondary retention of permanent teeth, and dental malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becktor, Karin Binner; Bangstrup, Merete Ingemann; Rølling, Steen; Kjaer, Inger

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to describe the dentition in subjects with local primary or secondary unilateral retention of two or more permanent teeth, and to elucidate the aetiology by comparing the regions of retention with the innervation pattern of the jaws. The material comprised radiographic dental orthopantomograms (OTP) from 12 patients with an age range of 6-18 years (six females and six males). The locations of retention and the dental morphology in the affected regions were analysed. Comparison with contralateral teeth was undertaken and the innervation pattern of the affected field was considered. Varying degrees of dental root malformation were found to be associated with primary and secondary retention. More pronounced root malformations were observed in subjects with several affected teeth. A connection between unilateral retained permanent teeth and temporary or permanent disruption of the nerve supply to the affected region is suggested.

  3. Analytic solutions for colloid transport with time- and depth-dependent retention in porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leij, Feike J; Bradford, Scott A; Sciortino, Antonella

    2016-12-01

    Elucidating and quantifying the transport of industrial nanoparticles (e.g. silver, carbon nanotubes, and graphene oxide) and other colloid-size particles such as viruses and bacteria is important to safeguard and manage the quality of the subsurface environment. Analytic solutions were derived for aqueous and solid phase colloid concentrations in a porous medium where colloids were subject to advective transport and reversible time and/or depth-dependent retention. Time-dependent blocking and ripening retention were described using a Langmuir-type equation with a rate coefficient that respectively decreased and increased linearly with the retained concentration. Depth-dependent retention was described using a rate coefficient that is a power-law function of distance. The stream tube modeling concept was employed to extend these analytic solutions to transport scenarios with two different partitioning processes (i.e., two types of retention sites). The sensitivity of concentrations was illustrated for the various time- and/or depth-dependent retention model parameters. The developed analytical models were subsequently used to describe breakthrough curves and, in some cases, retention profiles from several published column studies that employed nanoparticle or pathogenic microorganisms. Simulations results provided valuable insights on causes for many observed complexities associated with colloid transport and retention, including: increasing or decreasing effluent concentrations with continued colloid application, delayed breakthrough, low concentration tailing, and retention profiles that are hyper-exponential, exponential, linear, or non-monotonic with distance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Analytic solutions for colloid transport with time- and depth-dependent retention in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leij, Feike J.; Bradford, Scott A.; Sciortino, Antonella

    2016-12-01

    Elucidating and quantifying the transport of industrial nanoparticles (e.g. silver, carbon nanotubes, and graphene oxide) and other colloid-size particles such as viruses and bacteria is important to safeguard and manage the quality of the subsurface environment. Analytic solutions were derived for aqueous and solid phase colloid concentrations in a porous medium where colloids were subject to advective transport and reversible time and/or depth-dependent retention. Time-dependent blocking and ripening retention were described using a Langmuir-type equation with a rate coefficient that respectively decreased and increased linearly with the retained concentration. Depth-dependent retention was described using a rate coefficient that is a power-law function of distance. The stream tube modeling concept was employed to extend these analytic solutions to transport scenarios with two different partitioning processes (i.e., two types of retention sites). The sensitivity of concentrations was illustrated for the various time- and/or depth-dependent retention model parameters. The developed analytical models were subsequently used to describe breakthrough curves and, in some cases, retention profiles from several published column studies that employed nanoparticle or pathogenic microorganisms. Simulations results provided valuable insights on causes for many observed complexities associated with colloid transport and retention, including: increasing or decreasing effluent concentrations with continued colloid application, delayed breakthrough, low concentration tailing, and retention profiles that are hyper-exponential, exponential, linear, or non-monotonic with distance.

  5. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Chuan-Bo, E-mail: send007@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); School of Neurosurgery, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishang Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Qian, Ruo-Bing, E-mail: rehomail@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Fu, Xian-Ming, E-mail: 506537677@qq.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Lin, Bin, E-mail: 274722758@qq.com [School of Neurosurgery, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishang Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Han, Xiao-Peng, E-mail: hanxiaopeng@163.com [Department of Psychology, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Niu, Chao-Shi, E-mail: niuchaoshi@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Wang, Ye-Han, E-mail: wangyehan@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China)

    2013-08-15

    Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA.

  6. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chuan-Bo; Qian, Ruo-Bing; Fu, Xian-Ming; Lin, Bin; Han, Xiao-Peng; Niu, Chao-Shi; Wang, Ye-Han

    2013-08-01

    Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Emotional intelligence and clinical performance/retention of nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea Marvos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This exploratory, quantitative, descriptive study was undertaken to explore the relationship between clinical performance and anticipated retention in nursing students. Methods: After approval by the university′s Human Subjects Committee, a sample of 104 nursing students were recruited for this study, which involved testing with a valid and reliable emotional intelligence (EI instrument and a self-report survey of clinical competencies. Results: Statistical analysis revealed that although the group average for total EI score and the 6 score subsets were in the average range, approximately 30% of the individual total EI scores and 30% of two branch scores, identifying emotions correctly and understanding emotions, fell in the less than average range. This data, as well as the analysis of correlation with clinical self-report scores, suggest recommendations applicable to educators of clinical nursing students. Conclusions: Registered nurses make-up the largest segment of the ever-growing healthcare workforce. Yet, retention of new graduates has historically been a challenge for the profession. Given the projected employment growth in nursing, it is important to identify factors which correlate with high levels of performance and job retention among nurses. There is preliminary evidence that EI "a nontraditional intelligence measure" relates positively not only with retention of clinical staff nurses, but with overall clinical performance as well.

  8. Emotional intelligence and clinical performance/retention of nursing students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvos, Chelsea; Hale, Frankie B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This exploratory, quantitative, descriptive study was undertaken to explore the relationship between clinical performance and anticipated retention in nursing students. Methods: After approval by the university's Human Subjects Committee, a sample of 104 nursing students were recruited for this study, which involved testing with a valid and reliable emotional intelligence (EI) instrument and a self-report survey of clinical competencies. Results: Statistical analysis revealed that although the group average for total EI score and the 6 score subsets were in the average range, approximately 30% of the individual total EI scores and 30% of two branch scores, identifying emotions correctly and understanding emotions, fell in the less than average range. This data, as well as the analysis of correlation with clinical self-report scores, suggest recommendations applicable to educators of clinical nursing students. Conclusions: Registered nurses make-up the largest segment of the ever-growing healthcare workforce. Yet, retention of new graduates has historically been a challenge for the profession. Given the projected employment growth in nursing, it is important to identify factors which correlate with high levels of performance and job retention among nurses. There is preliminary evidence that EI a nontraditional intelligence measure relates positively not only with retention of clinical staff nurses, but with overall clinical performance as well. PMID:27981096

  9. The human body retention time of environmental organically bound tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, John; Bailey, Trevor [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, Suffolk NR33 0HT (United Kingdom); Reese, Allan [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, The Nothe, Barrack Road, Weymouth, Dorset DT4 8UB (United Kingdom)], E-mail: john.hunt@cefas.co.uk

    2009-03-15

    Tritium in the UK environment causes low radiation doses to the public, but uncertainty exists in the dose coefficient for the organically bound component of tritium (OBT). This can affect the assessment of effective doses to representative persons. Contributing to that uncertainty is poor knowledge of the body retention time of OBT and how this varies for different OBT compounds in food. This study was undertaken to measure the retention time of tritium by volunteers after eating sole from Cardiff Bay, which may contain OBT from discharges from the GE Healthcare Ltd plant. Five volunteers provided samples of excreta over periods up to 150 days after intake. The results, which are presented in raw form to allow independent analysis, suggest retention of total tritium with body half-times ranging from 4 to 11 days, with no evidence (subject to experimental noise) of a significant contribution due to retention with a longer half-time. This range covers the half-time of 10 days used by the ICRP for tritiated water. The short timescale could be due to rapid hydrolysis in body tissues of the particular form of OBT used in this study. Implications for the dose coefficient for OBT are that the use of the ICRP value of 4.2 x 10{sup -11} Sv Bq{sup -1} may be cautious in this specific situation. These observations on dose coefficients are separate from any implications of recent discussion on whether the tritium radiation weighting factor should be increased from 1 to 2.

  10. Emotional intelligence and clinical performance/retention of nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvos, Chelsea; Hale, Frankie B

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory, quantitative, descriptive study was undertaken to explore the relationship between clinical performance and anticipated retention in nursing students. After approval by the university's Human Subjects Committee, a sample of 104 nursing students were recruited for this study, which involved testing with a valid and reliable emotional intelligence (EI) instrument and a self-report survey of clinical competencies. Statistical analysis revealed that although the group average for total EI score and the 6 score subsets were in the average range, approximately 30% of the individual total EI scores and 30% of two branch scores, identifying emotions correctly and understanding emotions, fell in the less than average range. This data, as well as the analysis of correlation with clinical self-report scores, suggest recommendations applicable to educators of clinical nursing students. Registered nurses make-up the largest segment of the ever-growing healthcare workforce. Yet, retention of new graduates has historically been a challenge for the profession. Given the projected employment growth in nursing, it is important to identify factors which correlate with high levels of performance and job retention among nurses. There is preliminary evidence that EI a nontraditional intelligence measure relates positively not only with retention of clinical staff nurses, but with overall clinical performance as well.

  11. Effective Field Theory of Majorana Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Huayong; WU, HONGYAN; Zheng, Sibo

    2017-01-01

    Thermal Majorana dark matter is explored from the viewpoint of effective field theory. Completely analytic result for dark matter annihilation into standard model background is derived in order to account relic density. The parameter space subject to the latest LUX, PandaX-II and Xenon-1T limits is shown in a model-independent way. For illustration, applications to singlet-doublet and neutralino dark matter are work out.

  12. Retention Rates in New Contact Lens Wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulley, Anna; Young, Graeme; Hunt, Chris; McCready, Sarah; Targett, Marie-Therese; Craven, Ruth

    2017-06-14

    To determine the retention rate (RR) for neophyte patients fitted with contact lenses (CLs) and to identify factors associated with retention and dropout. This multisite, sponsor-masked registry study evaluated the 1-year status of neophyte CL wearers fitted in a representative range of UK practices. A total of 26 UK investigational sites each recruited up to 89 neophyte patients. The participants were requested to complete surveys at 1 month (±1 week from date of fitting), 3 months (±2 weeks), and 12 months (±3 weeks) online or through phone. Participants were contacted by email (or phone) and invited to complete an online survey that asked a range of questions regarding their CL wearing experience. Of the 531 participants recruited, 65.3% (347/531) responded to at least one follow-up survey and 42.3% (225/531) responded to all three surveys. One in four patients showed discontinued CL wear by 12 months. Based on evaluable subjects at 12 months, the RR was 77.6% (194/250, 95% confidence interval: 72.0-82.3). The most common reason for discontinuation was problems with vision (41%), followed by discomfort (36%) and handling problems (25%). The factors affecting first-year RRs: sex, spherical refraction, lens usage (full time or part time), and supply method (collected or posted). In this prospective study, the first-year RR for neophyte CL wearers was 77.6%. This was consistent with that noted in a retrospective study: 74.0%. As with the previous study, the commonly cited reason for discontinuation was visual problems.

  13. The Effects of Test Trial and Processing Level on Immediate and Delayed Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sau Hou

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of test trial and processing level on immediate and delayed retention. A 2 × 2 × 2 mixed ANOVAs was used with two between-subject factors of test trial (single test, repeated test) and processing level (shallow, deep), and one within-subject factor of final recall (immediate,…

  14. The effect of brumation on memory retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Anna; Hloch, Anne; Mueller-Paul, Julia; Huber, Ludwig

    2017-01-01

    Long-term torpor is an adaptive strategy that allows animals to survive harsh winter conditions. However, the impact that prolonged torpor has on cognitive function is poorly understood. Hibernation causes reduced synaptic activity and experiments with mammals reveal that this can have adverse effects on memories formed prior to hibernation. The impact of brumation, the winter dormancy that is observed in ectotherms, on memory remains unknown. The aim of this study was to examine whether an amphibian, the fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra), was able to retain learned spatial information after a period of brumation. Twelve fire salamanders were trained to make a simple spatial discrimination using a T-maze. All subjects learned the initial task. Upon reaching criterion, half of the subjects were placed into brumation for 100 days while the other half served as controls and were maintained under normal conditions. A post-brumation memory retention test revealed that animals from both conditions retained the learned response. Control tests showed that they solved the task using learned information and not olfactory cues. This finding contrasts with much of the mammalian research and suggests that the processes involved in prolonged torpor may have a fundamentally different impact on memory in mammals and amphibians. PMID:28074838

  15. Nitrogen retention, removal, and nitrous oxide production in the Elbe Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dähnke, Kirstin; Brase, Lisa; Jacob, Juliane; Sanders, Tina

    2017-04-01

    The Elbe River, an important tributary to the coastal North Sea, is subject to massive anthropogenic pressures from, for example, fertilization and dredging of the river and its estuary. Despite clear improvements in nutrient loads, we find that these changes have impacted the river's capacity to cope with surplus inputs of nutrients. Based on measurements of nitrate stable isotopes and N2O concentration profiles, we investigated the estuarine capacity of nitrogen retention and denitrification, and compared it to the situation several decades ago. A combined water-column and sediment-based approach suggests that the denitrification capacity has decreased significantly to no more than 5-10% of summer nitrate loads, while nitrate regeneration via nitrification has in turn gained in importance. Active biogeochemical nitrogen cycling, seems to be almost exclusively restricted to the deeper areas of the port of Hamburg, where deepening of the riverbed has led to immense recycling activity. Overall, we find that the remineralization and oxidation of organic matter dominates the riverine N-budget. This is apparent in stable isotope signatures in the estuary and the limnic water sections, for which we calculated relative ratios of denitrification and nitrification. This shift from denitrification to nitrification is also mirrored in the production of nitrous oxide, which, despite improved nutrient status of the river and estuary, remained high. In combination, our data suggest that high loads of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and nitrous oxide production are a legacy of the past eutrophication period, and of enhanced upstream primary production.

  16. Play Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    ? In Play Matters, Miguel Sicart argues that to play is to be in the world; playing is a form of understanding what surrounds us and a way of engaging with others. Play goes beyond games; it is a mode of being human. We play games, but we also play with toys, on playgrounds, with technologies and design......, but not necessarily fun. Play can be dangerous, addictive, and destructive. Along the way, Sicart considers playfulness, the capacity to use play outside the context of play; toys, the materialization of play--instruments but also play pals; playgrounds, play spaces that enable all kinds of play; beauty...

  17. Active matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Sriram

    2017-05-01

    The study of systems with sustained energy uptake and dissipation at the scale of the constituent particles is an area of central interest in nonequilibrium statistical physics. Identifying such systems as a distinct category—Active matter—unifies our understanding of autonomous collective movement in the living world and in some surprising inanimate imitations. In this article I present the active matter framework, briefly recall some early work, review our recent results on single-particle and collective behaviour, including experiments on active granular monolayers, and discuss new directions for the future.

  18. Teaching Evolution: Do State Standards Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Randy

    2002-01-01

    Explores the relationship of state standards for the teaching of evolution to the actual teaching of that subject. Compares a grading of states for their performance and discusses the question of whether state standards matter. (MM)

  19. Nonimposed Overpractice and Skill Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    half of acquisition. This first ratio is an inverse measure of nonimposed overpractice. The second ratio is the change from the last day of acquisition...0.04. This second ratio is an inverse measure of relative retention. It makes use of the same baseline, that is, the increase from day I to day 8, as...relatively (R-A). The first-order correlations between an externa . ability or ability-;rlated measure X and these two measures may, of course, be different

  20. Retention and leaching of nitrite by municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash under the landfill circumstance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jun; Kong, Qingna; Zhu, Huayue; Long, Yuyang; Shen, Dongsheng

    2015-01-01

    The retention and leaching of nitrite by municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash could affect its migration in the landfill. In this study, the effect of the dosage of MSWI bottom ash as well as the variation of the landfill environmental parameters including pH, anions and organic matter on the nitrite retention and leaching behavior was investigated by batch experiments. The highest removal percentage (73.0%) of nitrite was observed when the dosage of MSWI bottom ash was 10 g L(-1) in 2 mg L(-1) nitrite solution. Further increase of the dosage would retard the retention, as the nitrite leaching from MSWI bottom ash was enhanced. The optimum retention of nitrite was observed when the pH was 5.0, while the leaching of nitrite showed a consistent reduction with the increase of pH. Besides, the presence of Cl(-), SO4(2)(-) and acetic acid could enhance the leaching of nitrite and mitigate the retention process. However, the retention of nitrite was enhanced by PO4(3)(-), which was probably due to the formation of the apatite, an active material for the adsorption of the nitrite. These results suggested that MSWI bottom ash could affect the migration of nitrite in the landfill, which was related to the variation of the landfill circumstance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mimicking Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Bel, Lluís

    2017-01-01

    I show that a very simple model in the context of Newtonian physics promoted to a first approximation of general relativity can mimic Dark matter and explain most of its intriguing properties. Namely: i) Dark matter is a halo associated to ordinary matter; ii) Dark matter does not interact with ordinary matter nor with itself; iii) Its influence grows with the size of the aggregate of ordinary matter that is considered, and iv) Dark matter influences the propagation of light.

  2. Removal of organic matter from domestic wastewater in a tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Removal of organic matter from domestic wastewater in a tropical subsurface horizontal flow constructed wetlands. ... This was done under different operating conditions of hydraulic loading rates. Average removal rates of up to 50 ... A retention time of 2 days was determined to be optimum for BOD5 removal. Keywords: ...

  3. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2012-09-24

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  4. Respiratory dust retention in small animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palm, P.E.; McNerney, J.M.; Hatch, T.

    1956-01-01

    Guinea pigs were indirectly measured for retention of 9 dusts (mean 0.1 to 3.0 ..mu..m) in various serial fractions. Total retention varies from approx. 90% for 3 ..mu..m dropping systematically with decreasing particle size to approx. 45% at 0.1 ..mu..m. Upper respiratory retention drops rapidly from approx. 70% at 3 ..mu..m to 10 to 20% at 1 ..mu..m or less. Alveolar retention drops somewhat with wide scatter from approx. 75 to approx. 50%. Alveolar deposition showed peak at approx. 1 ..mu..m. With monkeys, retention is similar to that of man although there is somewhat less deposition in 1 to 2 ..mu..m range. Retention was directly measured by killing experimental animals at different intervals after exposure to antimony trioxide dust and measuring antimony. Within 1 h after exposure, 80 to 82% was retained in entire system, 1/2 of which was in upper respiratory including bronchi. Retention after 6 h was approx. 45% in entire tract, 30% in upper tract alone, so lung retention was approx. 15% after 6 h. After 8 and up to 18 h, lung retention was about 10%, and that left in upper tract was only about 5% of original inhaled. Upper respiratory clearance was essentially completed in 2 to 6 h (subsiquent small removal from alveoli), so lung retention of 15% probably represents initial alveolar retention.Direct and indirect methods compared well. Smaller test animals have greater retention because of smaller dimensions of upper tract, especially the nose.

  5. Play Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    What do we think about when we think about play? A pastime? Games? Childish activities? The opposite of work? Think again: If we are happy and well rested, we may approach even our daily tasks in a playful way, taking the attitude of play without the activity of play. So what, then, is play......, but not necessarily fun. Play can be dangerous, addictive, and destructive. Along the way, Sicart considers playfulness, the capacity to use play outside the context of play; toys, the materialization of play--instruments but also play pals; playgrounds, play spaces that enable all kinds of play; beauty......? In Play Matters, Miguel Sicart argues that to play is to be in the world; playing is a form of understanding what surrounds us and a way of engaging with others. Play goes beyond games; it is a mode of being human. We play games, but we also play with toys, on playgrounds, with technologies and design...

  6. Maxwell Matters

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenberg, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Charges are everywhere because most atoms are charged. Chemical bonds are formed by electrons with their charge. Charges move and interact according to Maxwell's equations in space and in atoms where the equations of electrodynamics are embedded in Schroedinger's equation as the potential. Maxwell's equations are universal, valid inside atoms and between stars from times much shorter than those of atomic motion (0.1 femtoseconds) to years (32 mega-seconds). Maxwell's equations enforce the conservation of current. Analysis shows that the electric field can take on whatever value is needed to ensure conservation of current. The properties of matter rearrange themselves to satisfy Maxwell's equations and conservation of current. Conservation of current is as universal as Maxwell's equations themselves. Yet equations of electrodynamics find little place in the literature of material physics, chemistry, or biochemistry. Kinetic models of chemistry and Markov treatments of atomic motion are ordinary differential eq...

  7. Play Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    What do we think about when we think about play? A pastime? Games? Childish activities? The opposite of work? Think again: If we are happy and well rested, we may approach even our daily tasks in a playful way, taking the attitude of play without the activity of play. So what, then, is play......? In Play Matters, Miguel Sicart argues that to play is to be in the world; playing is a form of understanding what surrounds us and a way of engaging with others. Play goes beyond games; it is a mode of being human. We play games, but we also play with toys, on playgrounds, with technologies and design......, but not necessarily fun. Play can be dangerous, addictive, and destructive. Along the way, Sicart considers playfulness, the capacity to use play outside the context of play; toys, the materialization of play--instruments but also play pals; playgrounds, play spaces that enable all kinds of play; beauty...

  8. Characterization of the bacterial community involved in the bioflocculation process of wastewater organic matter in high loaded MBRs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faust, L.; Szendy, M.; Plugge, C.M.; Brink, van den P.F.; Temmink, H.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    High-loaded membrane bioreactors (HL-MBRs), i.e., bioreactors equipped with a membrane for biomass retention and operated at extremely short sludge and hydraulic retention times, can concentrate sewage organic matter to facilitate subsequent energy and chemical recovery from these organics.

  9. Interaction of radiation with matter

    CERN Document Server

    Nikjoo, Hooshang; Emfietzoglou, Dimitris

    2012-01-01

    Written for students approaching the subject for the first time, this text provides a solid grounding in the physics of the interactions of photons and particles with matter, which is the basis of radiological physics and radiation dosimetry. The authors first present the relevant atomic physics and then describe the interactions, emphasizing practical applications in health/medical physics and radiation biology. They cover such important topics as microdosimetry, interaction of photons with matter, electron energy loss, and dielectric response. Each chapter includes exercises and a summary.

  10. Breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Gamborg, Michael; Heitmann, Berit L

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Weight gained during pregnancy and not lost postpartum may contribute to obesity in women of childbearing age. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention (PPWR) in a population among which full breastfeeding is common and breastfeeding......) reduced PPWR at 6 and 18 mo after adjustment for maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG). RESULTS: GWG was positively (P ... by that time in women with GWG values of approximately 12 kg, and that the possibility of major weight gain (>or=5 kg) could be reduced in all but the heaviest women. CONCLUSION: Breastfeeding was associated with lower PPWR in all categories of prepregnancy BMI. These results suggest that, when combined...

  11. Using the theory of reasoned action to model retention in rural primary care physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, Thomas Hugh

    2003-01-01

    Much research attention has focused on medical students', residents', and physicians' decisions to join a rural practice, but far fewer studies have examined retention of rural primary care physicians. The current review uses Fishbein and Ajzen's Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) to organize the literature on the predictors and correlates of retention of rural practicing physicians. TRA suggests turnover behavior is directly predicted by one's turnover intentions, which are, in turn, predicted by one's attitudes about rural practice and perceptions of salient others' (eg, spouse's) attitudes about rural practice and rural living. Narrative literature review of scholarship in predicting and understanding predictors and correlates of rural physician retention. The TRA model provides a useful conceptual model to organize the literature on rural physician retention. Physicians' subjective norms regarding rural practice are an important source of influence in the decision to remain or leave one's position, and this relation should be more fully examined in future research.

  12. Developing Successful Retention Programs: An Interview with Michael Hovland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluepfel, Gail A.; Hovland, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Michael Hovland, the senior consultant at Noel-Levitz Centers, responds to questions about summer bridge programs, first-year seminar programs, Rutgers' retention model, faculty reactions to retention programs, the impact of retention programs on institutional mission, administrative involvement in retention, student assessment, retention efforts…

  13. Culture Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Warner-Søderholm

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Whether managers are concerned with financial issues, marketing, or human resource management (HRM, cultural values and practices do matter. The purpose of this article is to understand Norwegian managers’ cultural values within the cross-cultural landscape of her neighbors in the “Scandinavian cluster.” Clearly, subtle but disturbing differences may surface even when representatives from similar cultures work together. As a follow on from the GLOBE project, data based on the GLOBE instrument were collected on culture and communication values in Norway from 710 Norwegian middle managers for this present study. Although the Scandinavian cultures appear ostensibly similar, the results illustrate that research can reveal subtle but important cultural differences in nations that are similar yet dissimilar. All three Scandinavian societies appear intrinsically egalitarian; they appear to value low Power Distance, directness, and consensus in decision making and to promote Gender Egalitarianism. Nevertheless, there are significant differences in the degrees of commitment to these values by each individual Scandinavian partner. These differences need to be understood and appreciated to avoid misunderstandings.

  14. Posttreatment and retention outcomes with and without periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics assessed using ABO objective grading system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald J Ferguson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The posttreatment and retention outcomes following nonextraction orthodontic therapy, with and without corticotomy, were assessed using the American Board of Orthodontists objective grading system (OGS. Purpose: The purpose was to determine if the course of retention was any different following alveolar decortication and augmentation bone grafting, i.e., periodontally accelerated osteogenic orthodontics (PAOO. Materials and Methods: Study casts and panoramic radiographs of patients with and without PAOO (28 subjects each were selected on the basis of the following: (1 comprehensive nonextraction orthodontic treatment using straight wire edgewise appliances for Class I crowding, (2 availability of immediate posttreatment records and retention records at least 1 year post de-bracketing, and (3 use of Hawley removable retainers with similar wearing instructions. Results: Independent and paired t-test statistical testing revealed the following: (1 Posttreatment orthodontic outcomes were the same, with or without corticotomy. (2 During retention, 5 of 8 ABO grading criteria improved for the sample without corticotomy, and 6 of 8 ABO grading criteria improved for the group with corticotomy. (3 Retention outcome scores were lower (better for alignment and marginal ridges in the corticotomy-facilitated group. (4 The total score was significantly lower (better for the corticotomy group at retention and the increment of total score change decreased (improved significantly more during retention following corticotomy. Conclusions: The retention phase was more favorable following corticotomy because the amount of OGS total score change demonstrated a significantly improved retention outcome following PAOO therapy.

  15. 12 CFR 609.945 - Records retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records retention. 609.945 Section 609.945 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Standards for Boards and Management § 609.945 Records retention. Records stored electronically must be accurate, accessible, and reproducible for later reference...

  16. Profile in Action: Linking Admission and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Carla M.

    2013-01-01

    A profile-oriented retention strategy embraces the admission process as a powerful lever in improving retention and completion rates and recognizes that the student profile can be shaped by changes in admission policies or priorities--even within the current market position of the institution. In addition, the student body can be oriented toward…

  17. Managing human resources to improve employee retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Edwin

    2005-01-01

    Managers face increased challenges as the demand for health care services increases while the supply of employees with the requisite skills continues to lag. Employee retention will become more important in the effort to service health care needs. Appropriate human resource management strategies and policies implemented effectively can significantly assist managers in dealing with the employee retention challenges ahead.

  18. Employee Retention Strategies And Organizational Performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study empirically examines the relationship between employee retention strategies and organizational performance. Using a sample size of 120 respondents in a leading beverage establishment in Nigeria, the results shows that organizations with adequate employee retention strategies in form of enhanced and ...

  19. 27 CFR 478.129 - Record retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record retention. 478.129 Section 478.129 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND....129 Record retention. (a) Records prior to Act. Licensed importers and licensed manufacturers may...

  20. Black Student Retention in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Marvel, Ed.; Ford, Clinita A., Ed.

    This collection focuses on problems in the recruitment, enrollment and retention of Blacks in higher education in America. The following chapters are provided: "The Black Student Retention Problem in Higher Education: Some Introductory Perspectives" (Marvel Lang); "Early Acceptance and Institutional Linkages in a Model Program of Recruitment,…

  1. Novel Word Retention in Sequential Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Pui Fong

    2014-01-01

    Children's ability to learn and retain new words is fundamental to their vocabulary development. This study examined word retention in children learning a home language (L1) from birth and a second language (L2) in preschool settings. Participants were presented with sixteen novel words in L1 and in L2 and were tested for retention after…

  2. Emotional Intelligence and Nursing Student Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Victoria Jane

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the constructs of a Multi-Intelligence Model of Retention with four constructs: cognitive and emotional-social intelligence, student characteristics, and environmental factors. Data were obtained from sophomore students entering two diploma, nine associate, and five baccalaureate nursing programs. One year later, retention and…

  3. Faculty Personality: A Factor of Student Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Cassandra S.; Wu, Xiaodong; Irwin, Kathleen C.; Patrizi, L. A. Chad

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between student retention and faculty personality as it was hypothesized that faculty personality has an effect on student retention. The methodology adopted for this study was quantitative and in two parts 1) using linear regression models to examine the impact or causality of faculty…

  4. Correlation between white matter damage and gray matter lesions in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue-Mei; Tian, Hong-Ji; Han, Zheng; Zhang, Ce; Liu, Ying; Gu, Jie-Bing; Bakshi, Rohit; Cao, Xia

    2017-05-01

    We observed the characteristics of white matter fibers and gray matter in multiple sclerosis patients, to identify changes in diffusion tensor imaging fractional anisotropy values following white matter fiber injury. We analyzed the correlation between fractional anisotropy values and changes in whole-brain gray matter volume. The participants included 20 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and 20 healthy volunteers as controls. All subjects underwent head magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Our results revealed that fractional anisotropy values decreased and gray matter volumes were reduced in the genu and splenium of corpus callosum, left anterior thalamic radiation, hippocampus, uncinate fasciculus, right corticospinal tract, bilateral cingulate gyri, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus in multiple sclerosis patients. Gray matter volumes were significantly different between the two groups in the right frontal lobe (superior frontal, middle frontal, precentral, and orbital gyri), right parietal lobe (postcentral and inferior parietal gyri), right temporal lobe (caudate nucleus), right occipital lobe (middle occipital gyrus), right insula, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left cingulate gyrus. The voxel sizes of atrophic gray matter positively correlated with fractional anisotropy values in white matter association fibers in the patient group. These findings suggest that white matter fiber bundles are extensively injured in multiple sclerosis patients. The main areas of gray matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis are the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, caudate nucleus, parahippocampal gyrus, and cingulate gyrus. Gray matter atrophy is strongly associated with white matter injury in multiple sclerosis patients, particularly with injury to association fibers.

  5. Cross-Cultural Adjustment of Native-Speaking English Teachers (NETs) in Hong Kong: A Factor in Attrition and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chau Kan; Morrison, Keith

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that, despite government support in financial and contractual matters, ongoing problems of retention of Native-speaking English Teachers (NETs) in Hong Kong stem, in part, from problems of cross-cultural adjustment. The paper reports a small-scale qualitative investigation into the experiences of NETS in Hong Kong and finds…

  6. Water retention and availability in soils of the State of Santa Catarina-Brazil: effect of textural classes, soil classes and lithology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André da Costa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The retention and availability of water in the soil vary according to the soil characteristics and determine plant growth. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate water retention and availability in the soils of the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, according to the textural class, soil class and lithology. The surface and subsurface horizons of 44 profiles were sampled in different regions of the State and different cover crops to determine field capacity, permanent wilting point, available water content, particle size, and organic matter content. Water retention and availability between the horizons were compared in a mixed model, considering the textural classes, the soil classes and lithology as fixed factors and profiles as random factors. It may be concluded that water retention is greater in silty or clayey soils and that the organic matter content is higher, especially in Humic Cambisols, Nitisols and Ferralsol developed from igneous or sedimentary rocks. Water availability is greater in loam-textured soils, with high organic matter content, especially in soils of humic character. It is lower in the sandy texture class, especially in Arenosols formed from recent alluvial deposits or in gravelly soils derived from granite. The greater water availability in the surface horizons, with more organic matter than in the subsurface layers, illustrates the importance of organic matter for water retention and availability.

  7. Retention of resin-based filled and unfilled pit and fissure sealants: A comparative clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, V Rajashekar; Chowdhary, Nagalakshmi; Mukunda, K S; Kiran, N K; Kavyarani, B S; Pradeep, M C

    2015-03-01

    The most caries-susceptible period of a permanent first molar tooth is the eruption phase, during which the enamel is not fully matured and it is usually difficult for the child to clean the erupting tooth surfaces. Sealing occlusal pits and fissures with resin-based pit and fissure sealants is a proven method to prevent occlusal caries. The difference in the viscosity of the sealants differs in the penetration into pit and fissures and abrasive wear resistance property due to the addition of filler particles. The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare the retention of the resin-based filled (Helioseal F, Ivoclar Vivadent) and unfilled (Clinpro, 3M ESPE) pit and fissure sealants, which is important for their effectiveness. Fifty-six children between the age group of 6 and 9 years, with all four newly erupted permanent first molars were selected. Sealants were applied randomly using split mouth design technique on permanent first molars. Evaluation of sealant retention was performed at regular intervals over 12 months, using Simonsen's criteria at 2(nd), 4(th), 6(th), 8(th), 10(th) and 12(th) month. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. At the end of our study period (12(th) month), 53.57% showed complete retention, 37.50% showed partial retention, and 8.83% showed complete missing of resin-based filled (Helioseal F) pit and fissure sealant. And, 64.29% showed complete retention, 32.14% showed partial retention, and 3.57% showed complete missing of resin-based unfilled (Clinpro) pit and fissure sealant. This difference in retention rates between filled and unfilled pit and fissure sealants was not statistically significant. The difference in retention rates between Helioseal F and Clinpro was not statistically significant, but Clinpro (unfilled) sealant showed slightly higher retention rates and clinically better performance than Helioseal F (filled).

  8. Retention of resin-based filled and unfilled pit and fissure sealants: A comparative clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Rajashekar Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The most caries-susceptible period of a permanent first molar tooth is the eruption phase, during which the enamel is not fully matured and it is usually difficult for the child to clean the erupting tooth surfaces. Sealing occlusal pits and fissures with resin-based pit and fissure sealants is a proven method to prevent occlusal caries. The difference in the viscosity of the sealants differs in the penetration into pit and fissures and abrasive wear resistance property due to the addition of filler particles. The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare the retention of the resin-based filled (Helioseal F, Ivoclar Vivadent and unfilled (Clinpro, 3M ESPE pit and fissure sealants, which is important for their effectiveness. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six children between the age group of 6 and 9 years, with all four newly erupted permanent first molars were selected. Sealants were applied randomly using split mouth design technique on permanent first molars. Evaluation of sealant retention was performed at regular intervals over 12 months, using Simonsen′s criteria at 2 nd , 4 th , 6 th , 8 th , 10 th and 12 th month. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: At the end of our study period (12 th month, 53.57% showed complete retention, 37.50% showed partial retention, and 8.83% showed complete missing of resin-based filled (Helioseal F pit and fissure sealant. And, 64.29% showed complete retention, 32.14% showed partial retention, and 3.57% showed complete missing of resin-based unfilled (Clinpro pit and fissure sealant. This difference in retention rates between filled and unfilled pit and fissure sealants was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The difference in retention rates between Helioseal F and Clinpro was not statistically significant, but Clinpro (unfilled sealant showed slightly higher retention rates and clinically better performance than Helioseal F (filled.

  9. Introduction. Cosmology meets condensed matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, T W B; Pickett, G R

    2008-08-28

    At first sight, low-temperature condensed-matter physics and early Universe cosmology seem worlds apart. Yet, in the last few years a remarkable synergy has developed between the two. It has emerged that, in terms of their mathematical description, there are surprisingly close parallels between them. This interplay has been the subject of a very successful European Science Foundation (ESF) programme entitled COSLAB ('Cosmology in the Laboratory') that ran from 2001 to 2006, itself built on an earlier ESF network called TOPDEF ('Topological Defects: Non-equilibrium Field Theory in Particle Physics, Condensed Matter and Cosmology'). The articles presented in this issue of Philosophical Transactions A are based on talks given at the Royal Society Discussion Meeting 'Cosmology meets condensed matter', held on 28 and 29 January 2008. Many of the speakers had participated earlier in the COSLAB programme, but the strength of the field is illustrated by the presence also of quite a few new participants.

  10. Non-labile Soil Nitrogen Retention beneath Three Tree Species in a Tropical Plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason P. Kaye; Dan Binkley; Xiaoming Zou; John A. Parrotta

    2002-01-01

    Soil organic matter is the largest sink for N additions to forests. Species composition may affect soilNretention by altering the amount or proportion of added N stored in non-labile organic pools. We measured 15N tracer retention in labile and non-labile pools of surface (0–20 cm) mineral soils, 7 yr after the tracer was applied to a 9 yr-old Puerto Rican tree...

  11. Non-labile Soil 15Nitrogen Retention beneath Three Tree Species in a Tropical Plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason P. Kaye; Dan Binkley; Xiaoming Zou; John A. Parrotta

    2002-01-01

    Soil organic matter is the largest sink for N additions to forests.Species composition may affect soilNretention by altering the amount or proportion of added N stored in non-labile organic pools. We measured 15N tracer retention in labile and non-labile pools of surface (0–20 cm) mineral soils, 7 yr after the tracer was applied to a 9 yr-old Puerto Rican tree...

  12. Retention interval affects visual short-term memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankó, Eva M; Vidnyánszky, Zoltán

    2010-03-01

    Humans can efficiently store fine-detailed facial emotional information in visual short-term memory for several seconds. However, an unresolved question is whether the same neural mechanisms underlie high-fidelity short-term memory for emotional expressions at different retention intervals. Here we show that retention interval affects the neural processes of short-term memory encoding using a delayed facial emotion discrimination task. The early sensory P100 component of the event-related potentials (ERP) was larger in the 1-s interstimulus interval (ISI) condition than in the 6-s ISI condition, whereas the face-specific N170 component was larger in the longer ISI condition. Furthermore, the memory-related late P3b component of the ERP responses was also modulated by retention interval: it was reduced in the 1-s ISI as compared with the 6-s condition. The present findings cannot be explained based on differences in sensory processing demands or overall task difficulty because there was no difference in the stimulus information and subjects' performance between the two different ISI conditions. These results reveal that encoding processes underlying high-precision short-term memory for facial emotional expressions are modulated depending on whether information has to be stored for one or for several seconds.

  13. Reduced deuterium retention in simultaneously damaged and annealed tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, M. J.; Wang, Y. Q.; Barton, J. L.; Baldwin, M. J.; Yu, J. H.; Doerner, R. P.; Tynan, G. R.

    2017-10-01

    Deuterium (D) retention in polycrystalline tungsten (W) with copper (Cu) ion damage concurrently produced at elevated surface temperature is investigated. An in situ heated stage held W samples at a controlled temperature up to 1243 K, which were subjected to displacement damage produced by 3.4 MeV Cu ions. D retention is subsequently explored by exposure of the W samples held at 383 K to a D2 plasma ion fluence of 1024 D+/m2. Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), utilizing the D(3He,p)4He nuclear reaction, is used to probe the D concentration in the near surface up to 6 μm. Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) is used to measure outgassed HD and D2 molecules to determine the bulk D concentration. Both NRA and TDS measure a significant reduction in D retention for samples damaged at elevated temperature. TDS quantitatively shows that the lowest energy trap remains largely unaffected while higher energy traps, induced by Cu ions, are annealed and approach intrinsic concentrations as the temperature during ion damage approaches 1243 K. Analysis of TDS data yields an activation energy of (0.10 ± 0.02) eV for recovery of ion-damage induced traps at elevated temperature.

  14. Cerebral [18 F]T807/AV1451 retention pattern in clinically probable CTE resembles pathognomonic distribution of CTE tauopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickstein, D L; Pullman, M Y; Fernandez, C; Short, J A; Kostakoglu, L; Knesaurek, K; Soleimani, L; Jordan, B D; Gordon, W A; Dams-O'Connor, K; Delman, B N; Wong, E; Tang, C Y; DeKosky, S T; Stone, J R; Cantu, R C; Sano, M; Hof, P R; Gandy, S

    2016-01-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disorder most commonly associated with repetitive traumatic brain injury (TBI) and characterized by the presence of neurofibrillary tangles of tau protein, known as a tauopathy. Currently, the diagnosis of CTE can only be definitively established postmortem. However, a new positron emission tomography (PET) ligand, [18F]T807/AV1451, may provide the antemortem detection of tau aggregates, and thus various tauopathies, including CTE. Our goal was to examine [18F]T807/AV1451 retention in athletes with neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with a history of multiple concussions. Here we report a 39-year-old retired National Football League player who suffered 22 concussions and manifested progressive neuropsychiatric symptoms. Emotional lability and irritability were the chief complaints. Serial neuropsychological exams revealed a decline in executive functioning, processing speed and fine motor skills. Naming was below average but other cognitive functions were preserved. Structural analysis of longitudinally acquired magenetic resonance imaging scans revealed cortical thinning in the left frontal and lateral temporal areas, as well as volume loss in the basal ganglia. PET with [18F]florbetapir was negative for amyloidosis. The [18F]T807/AV1451 PET showed multifocal areas of retention at the cortical gray matter–white matter junction, a distribution considered pathognomonic for CTE. [18F]T807/AV1451 standard uptake value (SUV) analysis showed increased uptake (SUVr⩾1.1) in bilateral cingulate, occipital, and orbitofrontal cortices, and several temporal areas. Although definitive identification of the neuropathological underpinnings basis for [18F]T807/AV1451 retention requires postmortem correlation, our data suggest that [18F]T807/AV1451 tauopathy imaging may be a promising tool to detect and diagnose CTE-related tauopathy in living subjects. PMID:27676441

  15. Sirius Matters

    CERN Document Server

    Brosch, Noah

    2008-01-01

    Since very early times Sirius was a point of attraction in the night sky. It served to synchronize calendars in antiquity and was the subject of many myths and legends, including some modern ones. It was perceived as a red star for more than 400 years, but such reports were relegated to the Mediterranean region. Astronomically, Sirius is a very bright star. This, and its present close distance to us, argues in favor of it being the target of detailed studies of stellar structure and evolution. Its binary nature, with a companion that is one of the more massive white dwarfs, is an additional reason for such studies. This book collects the published information on Sirius in an attempt to derive a coherent picture of how this system came to look as it does.

  16. Industry Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Angie Ngoc; Jeppesen, Søren

    2018-01-01

    regulation and greater industry pressure with regard to quality and safety of products than to labour standards in both sectors. Most factories in the TGF sector assembled products for global supply chains and were under pressure by industry norms, while most companies in the FBP sector produced......This chapter draws on a study investigating what corporate social responsibility (CSR) means to Vietnam’s small- and medium-size enterprise (SME) owner/managers and workers, using Scott’s three-pillar (norms, regulation, cognition) institutional framework. The findings are based on factory visits...... for the domestic market and were subjected to greater state regulation. Moreover, contributing critical perspectives to Scott’s framework, we found an overlap between the normative and the regulatory, and between the cognitive and the industry norms, which reveals how institutional and cultural pressures...

  17. Retention of copper originating from different fungicides in contrasting soil types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komarek, Michael, E-mail: komarek@af.czu.cz [Department of Agro-Environmental Chemistry and Plant Nutrition, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamycka 129, 165 21, Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Vanek, Ales [Department of Soil Science and Soil Protection, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamycka 129, 165 21, Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Chrastny, Vladislav [Department of Applied Chemistry, University of South Bohemia, Studentska 13, 370 05, Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Szakova, Jirina; Kubova, Karolina [Department of Agro-Environmental Chemistry and Plant Nutrition, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamycka 129, 165 21, Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Drahota, Petr [Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Mineral Resources, Charles University Prague, Albertov 6, 128 43, Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Balik, Jiri [Department of Agro-Environmental Chemistry and Plant Nutrition, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamycka 129, 165 21, Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2009-07-30

    This work described the retention of Cu from two different commonly used pesticides, the Bordeaux mixture (CuSO{sub 4} + Ca(OH){sub 2}) and Cu-oxychloride (3Cu(OH){sub 2}.CuCl{sub 2}), and from Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} in contrasting soil types (Leptosol, Chernozem, Cambisol). Thermodynamic modeling showed that Cu speciation was similar in all fungicide solutions. However, the retention of Cu differed with the fungicide used (maximum retention from the Bordeaux mixture) which indicates that different retention processes occurred in the studied soils. The suggested mechanisms include: specific and non-specific adsorption (especially on soil organic matter), precipitation of newly formed phases, such as CuO, Cu(OH){sub 2}, Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}NO{sub 3}, CuCO{sub 3}/Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3} and in the case of the Bordeaux mixture, precipitation of various Cu-hydroxysulfates. These phases were identified by the speciation model. The retention of fungicide-derived Cu in the studied soil types followed well the Freundlich isotherm and was directly controlled by the chemical form of Cu. This fact should be taken into account for both environmental and practical applications.

  18. Factors contributing to the retention of clinical laboratory personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doig, Kathy; Beck, Susan

    2005-01-01

    To identify factors contributing to retention of clinical laboratory practitioners. A paper survey addressing retention was distributed to a potential of 4000 clinical laboratory professionals. The survey was distributed to subjects by their laboratory manager to be completed at the worksite or home. 599 usable surveys were received from non-supervisory individuals employed in clinical laboratory science (CLS) for five years or more. Surveys were mailed to laboratory managers in March 2003 with directions to distribute to practitioners with five or more years of work experience. Percentages of respondents agreeing and disagreeing with Lickert-type opinion items were determined. The means, ranges, and standard deviations were calculated for the number of hours of continuing education, years of experience, percentage of time spent on tasks, and years in the current job. The means for job satisfaction were calculated and compared statistically based on respondents' job function, satisfaction with salary, job independence, sense of appreciation, and responsibility for continuing education. Open-ended responses were tabulated and categorized. Committed practitioners believe their work is important and find it challenging. Those who are most satisfied with their jobs believe they make a good salary (p = 0.000), have work independence (p = 0.000), and feel that their work is appreciated (p = 0.000). Job satisfaction does not differ for CLTs vs. CLSs. Salaries comparable to nurses and appreciation from physicians, nurses, and hospital administrators are cited by respondents as the most important factors to retaining laboratory staff. Committed practitioners believe that salaries comparable to nurses are needed to improve retention of staff. Respondents said that being appreciated by hospital administrators, nurses, and physicians would also contribute to improved retention.

  19. Language matters: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leap, William L; Provencher, Denis M

    2011-01-01

    That language and sexuality are closely connected is one of the enduring themes in human sexuality research. The articles in this special issue of the Journal of Homosexuality explore some of these language-centered insights as they apply to same-sex related desires, identities, and practices and to other dimensions of non-normative sexual experiences. The articles address language use over a range of geographic and social locations. The linguistic practices discussed are diverse, including the language associated with Santería, comments viewers make about gay pornography, homophobic discourse, coming out stories, stories where declarations of sexual identity are tacitly withheld, sexual messages in Black hip hop culture, assessments of urban AIDS ministries, and policies that limit transgender subjects' access to urban space. Taken together, these articles demonstrate that language matters in the everyday experience of sexual sameness and they model some of the approaches that are now being explored in language and sexuality studies.

  20. The Effect of Acute Exercise on Consolidation and Retention of Motor Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Kasper Christen

    performed before or after acquisition of a novel motor task would improve long-term retention of the motor skill. Forty-eight young men were recruited to the study. The subjects were divided into three experimental groups. Two groups performed 20 minutes of intense bike ergometer exercise either before (PRE...... improvement of long-term motor memory as running. With Study III we explored the potential mediators of the observed behavioral effect of exercise on motor memory reported in Study I. Blood samples were drawn from subjects from PRE and CON groups at various time points before, during and after motor practice...... be important mediators of exercise to the nervous system. In summary, the studies demonstrated that a single bout of exercise performed before or after learning of a motor task can improve long-term retention of the task. Additionally, in children, performing a team sport can improve long-term retention...

  1. Multiple coding strategies in the retention of musical tones by possessors of absolute pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatorre, R J; Beckett, C

    1989-09-01

    Eighteen musicians with absolute pitch (AP) confirmed by screening tests participated in tonal and verbal short-term-retention tasks. In the tonal task, subjects identified three successive piano tones by their letter names. Recall of these note names after 18 sec of counting backwards was near perfect. Recall after an 18-sec delay filled with random piano tones was also near perfect. In contrast, the same subjects demonstrated significant forgetting when required to retain letter trigrams while counting backwards for 18 sec. These results were essentially replicated in a second experiment using longer (27 sec) retention intervals, a more demanding verbal interference task, and an active musical interference task (singing a descending scale). We interpret these results as indicating that retention of note names by possessors of AP is not limited to verbal encoding; rather, multiple codes (e.g., auditory, kinesthetic, and visual imagery) are probably used.

  2. A dynamic processes study of PM retention by trees under different wind conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Changkun; Kan, Liyan; Guo, Jiankang; Jin, Sijia; Li, Zhigang; Chen, Dan; Li, Xin; Che, Shengquan

    2017-10-27

    Particulate matter (PM) is one of the most serious environmental problems, exacerbating respiratory and vascular illnesses. Plants have the ability to reduce non-point source PM pollution through retention on leaves and branches. Studies of the dynamic processes of PM retention by plants and the mechanisms influencing this process will help to improve the efficiency of urban greening for PM reduction. We examined dynamic processes of PM retention and the major factors influencing PM retention by six trees with different branch structure characteristics in wind tunnel experiments at three different wind speeds. The results showed that the changes of PM numbers retained by plant leaves over time were complex dynamic processes for which maximum values could exceed minimum values by over 10 times. The average value of PM measured in multiple periods and situations can be considered a reliable indicator of the ability of the plant to retain PM. The dynamic processes were similar for PM10 and PM2.5. They could be clustered into three groups simulated by continually-rising, inverse U-shaped, and U-shaped polynomial functions, respectively. The processes were the synthetic effect of characteristics such as species, wind speed, period of exposure and their interactions. Continually-rising functions always explained PM retention in species with extremely complex branch structure. Inverse U-shaped processes explained PM retention in species with relatively simple branch structure and gentle wind. The U-shaped processes mainly explained PM retention at high wind speeds and in species with a relatively simple crown. These results indicate that using plants with complex crowns in urban greening and decreasing wind speed in plant communities increases the chance of continually-rising or inverse U-shaped relationships, which have a positive effect in reducing PM pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Improving retention and motivation in non-clinical dialysis employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Anne

    2004-02-01

    For no additional expense, little intrusion into the schedule or duties of the day, and no additional personnel to hire, dialysis facilities can make a dramatic impact on the training, motivation, and retention of employees through the use of classes designed specifically for the needs of newly employed non-clinical personnel. In today's world where many are expected to do a task with little or no orientation to the overall values and goals of the organization and how their tasks matter, what other action can accomplish so much for employee motivation and retention for so little time and expense? At DCI Mid-Missouri this program has been successful in retaining many excellent employees over many years and has been part of an ongoing effort to increase employees' interest and commitment to their work and the organization. It has also made them much more aware of treatments, other personnel and most of all, of our patients and their needs. It fulfills the needs of humans to be valued and have meaningful work. It contains costs and helps efficiency and productivity. Most of all, it keeps excellent people on the job and enjoying their work more than they would have. Participants' words when evaluating the most recent series of classes speak for themselves in demonstrating these important benefits that can be achieved easily in dialysis facilities throughout the United States and the world.

  4. Retention Models on Core-Shell Columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandera, Pavel; Hájek, Tomáš; Růžičková, Marie

    2017-07-13

    A thin, active shell layer on core-shell columns provides high efficiency in HPLC at moderately high pressures. We revisited three models of mobile phase effects on retention for core-shell columns in mixed aqueous-organic mobile phases: linear solvent strength and Snyder-Soczewiński two-parameter models and a three-parameter model. For some compounds, two-parameter models show minor deviations from linearity due to neglect of possible minor retention in pure weak solvent, which is compensated for in the three-parameter model, which does not explicitly assume either the adsorption or the partition retention mechanism in normal- or reversed-phase systems. The model retention equation can be formulated as a function of solute retention factors of nonionic compounds in pure organic solvent and in pure water (or aqueous buffer) and of the volume fraction of an either aqueous or organic solvent component in a two-component mobile phase. With core-shell columns, the impervious solid core does not participate in the retention process. Hence, the thermodynamic retention factors, defined as the ratio of the mass of the analyte mass contained in the stationary phase to its mass in the mobile phase in the column, should not include the particle core volume. The values of the thermodynamic factors are lower than the retention factors determined using a convention including the inert core in the stationary phase. However, both conventions produce correct results if consistently used to predict the effects of changing mobile phase composition on retention. We compared three types of core-shell columns with C18-, phenyl-hexyl-, and biphenyl-bonded phases. The core-shell columns with phenyl-hexyl- and biphenyl-bonded ligands provided lower errors in two-parameter model predictions for alkylbenzenes, phenolic acids, and flavonoid compounds in comparison with C18-bonded ligands.

  5. Water retention curve for hydrate‐bearing sediments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dai, Sheng; Santamarina, J. Carlos

    2013-01-01

    .... The determination of the water retention curve for hydrate‐bearing sediments faces experimental difficulties, and most studies assume constant water retention curves regardless of hydrate saturation...

  6. A strategic approach to employee retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gering, John; Conner, John

    2002-11-01

    A sound retention strategy should incorporate a business plan, a value proposition, progress measures, and management influences. The business plan will indicate whether a healthcare organization will achieve a return on investment for its effort. A value proposition will showcase an organization's strengths and differentiate it from its competitors. Measuring progress toward meeting retention goals at regular intervals will help keep an organization on track. The best managers require accountability, rewarding employees for their successes and taking corrective action as necessary. Retention rate targets must be at a level that will achieve a competitive advantage in the served market.

  7. Retention and failure morphology of prefabricated posts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahafi, Alireza; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Asmussen, Erik

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study evaluated the effect of cement, post material, surface treatment, and shape (1) on the retention of posts luted in the root canals of extracted human teeth and (2) on the failure morphology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Posts of titanium alloy (ParaPost XH), glass fiber (Para...... at 37 degrees C for 7 days, retention was determined by extraction of the posts. Failure morphology of extracted posts was analyzed and quantified stereomicroscopically. RESULTS: Type of luting cement, post material, and shape of post influenced the retention and failure morphology of the posts. Because...

  8. Media matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, L M

    1995-01-01

    The impact of the mass media on woman's status was addressed at two 1995 conferences: the Fourth World Conference on Women, held in Beijing, China, and the Congress of the World Association for Christian Communication, held in Puebla, Mexico. The globalization process facilitated by the mass media has served to increase the power of patriarchy, with no advantages to the cause of women's rights. Coverage of popular movements has been suppressed out of deference to male-controlled governments. Coverage of the Beijing Conference highlighted celebrities and personal stories, to the exclusion of the economic and political issues under debate. Television has commodified women, reinforcing their oppression. On the other hand, the alternative media, which tend to be decentralized, democratic, low-cost, and low in technology, are presenting women as subjects rather than objects and deconstructing gender stereotypes. Of concern, however, is the tendency of computer technology to widen the gap between social classes and developed and developing countries. Women must use information networks to disseminate information on women's rights and strengthen the links between women throughout the world.

  9. The Effect of Gradual Increase in Contextual Interference on Acquisition, Retention and Transfer of Volleyball Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Pasand

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: A general viewpoint on contextual interference shows that a blocked practice schedule facilitates the acquisition of a skill while a random practice is more useful in the retention and transfer of that skill. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gradual increase in contextual interference upon acquisition, retention and transfer of volleyball skills. Methods: For this purpose, 45 participants were randomly selected from male students at Shiraz University-Iran. After pre-test, the participants were equally distributed in three experimental groups: blocked (low CI, random (high CI and percentile gradual increase. After nine training sessions and recording the scores, the students were tested for acquisition, retention and transfer. p≤0.05 was considered as significance level in all the tests. Results: There was significant difference between the groups in acquisition sessions in favor of the blocked group. Retention and transfer test results also showed a significant difference between the groups in favor of random training and gradual increase groups compared to blocked training group .However no significant difference was observed between random with gradual increase training groups. Conclusion: According to the findings of this research, it can be concluded that random and gradual increase in contextual interference training methods may increase the performance of subjects in terms of volleyball skills in retention and transfer tests. Keywords: Gradual Increase of Contextual Interference, Blocked, Random, Volleyball, Acquisition, Retention, Transfer

  10. Retention period after treatment of posterior crossbite with maxillary expansion: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Julia Garcia; Galindo, Thaís Magalhães; Mattos, Claudia Trindade; Cury-Saramago, Adriana de Alcantara

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the duration of the retention period in growing patients undergoing maxillary expansion and its relation with posterior crossbite stability. METHODS: Search strategies were executed for electronic databases Cochrane Library, Web of Science, PubMed and Scopus, which were completed on January 15, 2016. The inclusion criteria included randomized, prospective or retrospective controlled trials in growing subjects with posterior crossbite; treated with maxillary expanders; retention phase after expansion; post-retention phase of at least 6 months. The exclusion criteria were anterior crossbite, craniofacial anomalies, surgery or another orthodontic intervention; case reports; author’s opinions articles, thesis, literature reviews and systematic reviews. The risk of bias of selected articles was assessed with Cochrane risk of bias tool for RCTs and Downs and Black checklist for non-RCTs. RESULTS: A total of 156 titles/abstracts was retrieved, 44 full-texts were examined, and 6 articles were selected and assessed for their methodological quality. The retention period after maxillary expansion ranged between 4 weeks and 16 months. Fixed (acrylic plate, Haas, Hyrax and quad-helix) or removable (Hawley and Hawley expander) appliances were used for retention. CONCLUSIONS: Six months of retention with either fixed or removable appliances seem to be enough to avoid relapse or to guarantee minimal changes in a short-term follow-up. PMID:28658354

  11. Retention period after treatment of posterior crossbite with maxillary expansion: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Garcia Costa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the duration of the retention period in growing patients undergoing maxillary expansion and its relation with posterior crossbite stability. METHODS: Search strategies were executed for electronic databases Cochrane Library, Web of Science, PubMed and Scopus, which were completed on January 15, 2016. The inclusion criteria included randomized, prospective or retrospective controlled trials in growing subjects with posterior crossbite; treated with maxillary expanders; retention phase after expansion; post-retention phase of at least 6 months. The exclusion criteria were anterior crossbite, craniofacial anomalies, surgery or another orthodontic intervention; case reports; author’s opinions articles, thesis, literature reviews and systematic reviews. The risk of bias of selected articles was assessed with Cochrane risk of bias tool for RCTs and Downs and Black checklist for non-RCTs. RESULTS: A total of 156 titles/abstracts was retrieved, 44 full-texts were examined, and 6 articles were selected and assessed for their methodological quality. The retention period after maxillary expansion ranged between 4 weeks and 16 months. Fixed (acrylic plate, Haas, Hyrax and quad-helix or removable (Hawley and Hawley expander appliances were used for retention. CONCLUSIONS: Six months of retention with either fixed or removable appliances seem to be enough to avoid relapse or to guarantee minimal changes in a short-term follow-up.

  12. Transport and Retention of Engineered Nanoporous Particles in Porous Media: Effects of Concentration and Flow Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang, Jianying; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming

    2013-01-20

    Engineered nanoporous particles are an important class of nano-structured materials that can be functionalized in their internal surfaces for various applications including groundwater contaminant sequestration. This paper reported a study of transport and retention of engineered nanoporous silicate particles (ENSPs) that are designed for treatment and remediation of contaminants such as uranium in groundwater and sediments. The transport and retention of ENSPs were investigated under variable particle concentrations and dynamic flow conditions in a synthetic groundwater that mimics field groundwater chemical composition. The dynamic flow condition was achieved using a flow-interruption (stop-flow) approach with variable stop-flow durations to explore particle retention and release kinetics. The results showed that the ENSPs transport was strongly affected by the particle concentrations and dynamic flow conditions. A lower injected ENSPs concentration and longer stop-flow duration led to a more particle retention. The experimental data were used to evaluate the applicability of various kinetic models that were developed for colloidal particle retention and release in describing ENSPs transport. Model fits suggested that the transport and retention of ENSPs were subjected to a complex coupling of reversible attachment/detachment and straining/liberation processes. Both experimental and modeling results indicated that dynamic groundwater flow condition is an important parameter to be considered in exploring and modeling engineered particle transport in subsurface porous media.

  13. COLLEGE RETENTION OF THE ADMINISTRATION STUDENTS OF UFS: REASONS AND ACADEMIC MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Teles Dantas de Oliveira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the subject of students retention from the Management Program of the Federal University of Sergipe (UFS, regarding the maintenance of the student beyond the regular time. The objectives of this article are to outline the characteristics of UFS’s Management students, to identify the retention reasons, to measure the quality of the course, and to learn the actions to avoid students’ retention, which were developed by the Management Program. Data were collected through documental research and bibliographic references. Google Forms® were used for the retention of the students, as well as interviews were performed with the teachers from the Program who had previously occupied the cargo of Head of the Program/Department. Quantitative data were analyzed using nonparametric statistics through the SPSS® statistical program, using the adapted Likert scale. Qualitative information was analyzed through content analysis. It was concluded that most of the retained students were female, single, aged between 18-30 years old, with 1-3 minimum income wages, within work shifts and/or under internships of 40 or more hours/week, and having more than 75% of the course completed. The reasons identified for the retention were the lack of time of the students, conflict between their professional/academic schedules; strikes; dissatisfaction with faculty members, and reprobation/locking disciplines. Students rated the course as regular. Retention management has been done partially by the Department.

  14. ADAPTIVE OUTPUT CONTROL: SUBJECT MATTER, APPLICATION TASKS AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Bobtsov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of adaptive output control for parametric and functionally uncertain plants is considered. Application examples illustrating the practical use of the discussed theory are given along with the mathematical formulation of the problem. A brief review of adaptive output control methods, by both linear and non-linear systems, is presented and an extensive bibliography, in which the reader will find a detailed description of the specific algorithms and their properties, is represented. A new approach to the output control problem - a method of consecutive compensator - is considered in detail.

  15. K-Means Subject Matter Expert Refined Topic Model Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    implementations for Case 4 only. The accuracy results for all of the SMERT/KSMERT implantations are similar due to the user employing domain knowledge to...truck. 5 The supplier welded and misdimensioned the titanium offsite. 6 The inspector drilled plastic and overheated it at station2. 7 It was...drilled and overheated. 8 It was drilled and overheated. 9 The engineer and the manager at station3 and on the truck. 10 The welded titanium was

  16. Applying Subject Matter Expertise (SME) Elicitation Techniques to TRAC Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    in different ways. In the first case, CPR Analisys , we use the measures as way to derive effectiveness and uncertainty. In the second approach...means by which to overcome these capability gaps through the implementation of solutions, e.g., changes to doctrine, organizational structure , training...controlled through good elicitation practices, especially good question structuring , which we discuss in section C. (2) Modeling bias. This type of bias

  17. Writing for professional publication. Part 2: Subject matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, John

    Motivation is the first step in writing for professional publication: the next question is, what should you write about? Whatever your area of practice or level of experience, your writing will be suitable for one of the wealth of journals covering all aspects of healthcare and nursing. In this second part of a series of articles, John Fowler, an experienced nursing lecturer and author, presents some tips and suggestions to inspire you as you take your first steps on the road to writing for professional publication.

  18. Classification of educational subject matter: the case of Home ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although it represents an individual view, this article was submitted to the Department of Education by the Cape Higher Education Consortium (CHEC) as an outcome of the review of the field of Home Economics in the Western Cape region. By presenting some history, it argues that the category of Home Economics is no ...

  19. RAn Enlarged Conception of the Subject Matter of Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T. Kearns

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Una concepción ampliada del objeto de estudio de la lógica: El ensayo es una introducción a la lógica ilocucionaria, es decir a la lógica de los actos de habla. El autor propone una aproximación distinta a este campo de investigación con respecto al que han propuesto John Searle y Daniel Vanderveken. Ellos conciben la lógica ilocucionaria como un suplemento o un apéndice a la lógica estándar, la lógica de los enunciados, y se concentran en el estudio de leyes y principios muy generales que caracterizan todo tipo de actos ilocucionarios. Kearns, en cambio, concibe la lógica ilocucionaria como una disciplina muy comprensiva, con muchos subsistemas, que cobija a la lógica estándar como parte suya. El escrito describe brevemente el uso de los operadores ilocucionarios (de aseveración, de negación, de suposición de verdad o falsedad, explica la manera como se expande la concepción semántica en términos de condiciones de verdad para incluir los compromisos racionales del hablante y presenta un sistema de deducción para esta lógica. Como un ejemplo de lo que esta lógica puede hacer se ofrece una solución a la paradoja de Moore contenida en la aseveración “Está lloviendo, pero no lo creo”

  20. Occupational Listings Arranged by Cluster and Subject Matter Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Otto

    Approximately 850 occupations are listed under 27 occupational clusters. The Dictionary of Occupational Title (DOT) number is specified for occupations in the clusters of business training and distributive education, chemistry, general shop and industrial arts, home economics, foreign language, music, social studies, art, agriculture, physics, and…

  1. Instructional Design: Impact of Subject Matter and Cognitive Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    processing, and the integration/synthesis of component parts. The haptic individual uses " bodily " perceptions, and is kinesthetically oriented. An...microcomputers, and the introduction of artificial intelligence techniques into training has permitted more effective use of computer-based instruction...instruction, the advent of more powerful and inexpensive microcomputers, and the introduction of artificial intelligence techniques into training, has permitted

  2. Does tutor subject-matter expertise influence student achievement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs.

  3. Subjective matters: from image quality to image psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorovskaya, Elena A.; De Ridder, Huib

    2013-03-01

    From the advent of digital imaging through several decades of studies, the human vision research community systematically focused on perceived image quality and digital artifacts due to resolution, compression, gamma, dynamic range, capture and reproduction noise, blur, etc., to help overcome existing technological challenges and shortcomings. Technological advances made digital images and digital multimedia nearly flawless in quality, and ubiquitous and pervasive in usage, provide us with the exciting but at the same time demanding possibility to turn to the domain of human experience including higher psychological functions, such as cognition, emotion, awareness, social interaction, consciousness and Self. In this paper we will outline the evolution of human centered multidisciplinary studies related to imaging and propose steps and potential foci of future research.

  4. The role of subject-matter analysis in science didactics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiklin, Seth

    to problems within science education. STEM education research can be reduced (roughly) to four major problem areas: curriculum, empirical evaluation of existing practices and conditions, didactics, and professional development, where each of these categories can be concretised further according to grade...... paper is primarily on the didactics category, and slightly on the professional development category. The purpose of this paper is to outline three significant points that have been developed within the cultural-historical tradition that have consequences for these two categories: (a) the relation...

  5. Blending critical thinking skills with the teaching of subject matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study draws on Piaget and Vygotsky's theory of (social) constructivism to advance approaches and practices that teachers can employ to promote critical thinking in learners. We develop a lesson plan that incorporates critical thinking skills and show how teachers can correct egocentric and sociocentric tendencies that ...

  6. Active Processing via Write-to-Learn Assignments: Learning and Retention Benefits in Introductory Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Karla J.; Bugg, Julie M.; Doe, Sue R.; Rowland, Christopher A.; Richards, Tracy L.; Tompkins, Sara Anne; McDaniel, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated brief, in-class write-to-learn assignments as a tool for promoting learning and retention in large, introductory psychology courses. A within-subjects (student) design was used with assignment of concepts to write-to-learn and copy (control) conditions counterbalanced across sections for each instructor. Students performed…

  7. The Effects of Cooperative Learning on the Academic Achievement and Knowledge Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Van Dat

    2014-01-01

    This experimental study investigated the effects of cooperative learning on the achievement and knowledge retention of 110 first-year primary education students toward the psychology subject over the eight weeks of instruction at An Giang University. These tertiary students were divided into two matched groups of 55 to be taught by the same…

  8. The white matter query language: a novel approach for describing human white matter anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassermann, Demian; Makris, Nikos; Rathi, Yogesh; Shenton, Martha; Kikinis, Ron; Kubicki, Marek; Westin, Carl-Fredrik

    2016-12-01

    We have developed a novel method to describe human white matter anatomy using an approach that is both intuitive and simple to use, and which automatically extracts white matter tracts from diffusion MRI volumes. Further, our method simplifies the quantification and statistical analysis of white matter tracts on large diffusion MRI databases. This work reflects the careful syntactical definition of major white matter fiber tracts in the human brain based on a neuroanatomist's expert knowledge. The framework is based on a novel query language with a near-to-English textual syntax. This query language makes it possible to construct a dictionary of anatomical definitions that describe white matter tracts. The definitions include adjacent gray and white matter regions, and rules for spatial relations. This novel method makes it possible to automatically label white matter anatomy across subjects. After describing this method, we provide an example of its implementation where we encode anatomical knowledge in human white matter for ten association and 15 projection tracts per hemisphere, along with seven commissural tracts. Importantly, this novel method is comparable in accuracy to manual labeling. Finally, we present results applying this method to create a white matter atlas from 77 healthy subjects, and we use this atlas in a small proof-of-concept study to detect changes in association tracts that characterize schizophrenia.

  9. Water Retention: Relieve This Premenstrual Symptom

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for you? Here's help to feel better. Premenstrual water retention is likely caused by fluctuations in your hormones. Your diet also might play a role. Most women who menstruate experience symptoms ...

  10. International perspectives on retention and persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Burkholder

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Access to higher education globally is increasing dramatically; attainment of tertiary degrees is a high priority, as educational attainment is associated with increased personal incomes as well as growth of the middle class in developing countries. The purpose of this essay is to briefly examine retention and persistence issues from a global perspective, review some retention strategies that have been employed at schools outside the United States, and to identify several key factors that related to retention and persistence globally, including access, infrastructure, financial consideration, and readiness for tertiary education.  There exists an opportunity to utilize knowledge gained in the evolution of the higher education system in the United States to help address the problems associated with retention and persistence.   DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v4i2.208

  11. Linkage between psychological contract and employee retention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... employees' participation. This is necessary if organizations need to maintain their vibrant and resourceful workforce that will competitively drive organizational goals in this globalized economy and society. Keywords: Psychological contract, Employer, Employee retention, Performance, Productivity, Organization, Nigeria.

  12. Sleep physiology predicts memory retention after reactivation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Macdonald, Kevin J; Cote, Kimberly A

    2016-01-01

    ...) received reminders designed to leave these memories in a stable state. No significant differences in memory retention were found between blocks or groups the following morning. Frontal delta (0.5–4 Hz...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: chylomicron retention disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources (1 link) CLIMB: Children Living with Inherited Metabolic Diseases ... R, Biselli R, Bosman C. Chylomicron retention disease--the role of ultrastructural examination in differential diagnosis. Pathol Res Pract. 2001;197(11):753-7. ...

  14. 42 CFR 1008.15 - Facts subject to advisory opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facts subject to advisory opinions. 1008.15 Section... Requesting Party § 1008.15 Facts subject to advisory opinions. (a) The OIG will consider requests from a requesting party for advisory opinions regarding the application of specific facts to the subject matters set...

  15. AUA White Paper on Nonneurogenic Chronic Urinary Retention: Consensus Definition, Treatment Algorithm, and Outcome End Points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, John T; Peterson, Andrew C; Sandhu, Jaspreet S; Suskind, Anne M; Wei, John T; Lightner, Deborah J

    2017-07-01

    The AUA (American Urological Association) QIPS (Quality Improvement and Patient Safety) committee created a white paper on the diagnosis and management of nonneurogenic chronic urinary retention. Recommendations for the white paper were based on a review of the literature and consensus expert opinion from the workgroup. The workgroup defined nonneurogenic chronic urinary retention as an elevated post-void residual of greater than 300 mL that persisted for at least 6 months and documented on 2 or more separate occasions. It is proposed that chronic urinary retention should be categorized by risk (high vs low) and symptomatology (symptomatic versus asymptomatic). High risk chronic urinary retention was defined as hydronephrosis on imaging, stage 3 chronic kidney disease or recurrent culture proven urinary tract infection or urosepsis. Symptomatic chronic urinary retention was defined as subjectively moderate to severe urinary symptoms impacting quality of life and/or a recent history of catheterization. A treatment algorithm was developed predicated on stratifying patients with chronic urinary retention first by risk and then by symptoms. The proposed 4 primary outcomes that should be assessed to determine effectiveness of retention treatment are 1) symptom improvement, 2) risk reduction, 3) successful trial of voiding without catheterization, and 4) stability of symptoms and risk over time. Defining and categorizing nonneurogenic chronic urinary retention, creating a treatment algorithm and proposing treatment end points will hopefully spur comparative research that will ultimately lead to a better understanding of this challenging condition. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of retention forces with various fabrication methods and materials in double crowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuna, Meral; Bozdağ, Ergun; Öztürk, Gizem Nur; Bayraktar, Gulsen

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to analyze the retention force changes and wear behaviours of double-crown systems over long-term use. MATERIALS AND METHODS Ten groups, each consisting of six samples, were evaluated. Specifically, casting gold alloy primary crown - casting gold alloy secondary crown (AA), laser sintering primary crown - laser sintering secondary crown (LL), casting Cr alloy primary crown - casting Cr alloy secondary crown, (CC) zirconia primary crown - electroformed secondary crown (ZA), and CAD/CAM titanium alloy primary crown - CAD/CAM titanium alloy secondary crown (TT) groups were evaluated at cone angles of 4° and 6°. The samples were subjected to 5,000 insertion-separation cycles in artificial saliva, and the retention forces were measured every 500 cycles. The wear levels were analyzed via SEM at the beginning and end of the 5,000 cycles. RESULTS In all samples, the retention forces increased when the conus angle decreased. The highest initial and final retention force values were found in the LL-4° group (32.89 N-32.65 N), and the lowest retention force values were found in the ZA6° group (5.41 N-6.27 N). The ZA groups' samples showed the least change in the retention force, and no wear was observed. In the other groups, wear was observed mostly in the primary crowns. CONCLUSION More predictable, clinically relevant, and less excursive retention forces can be observed in the ZA groups. The retention force values of the LL groups were statically similar to those of the other groups, except the ZA groups. PMID:28874999

  17. Determinants of feedback retention in soccer players

    OpenAIRE

    Janu?rio, Nuno; Rosado, Ant?nio; Mesquita, Isabel; Gallego, Jos?; Aguilar-Parra, Jos? M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study analyzed soccer players? retention of coaches? feedback during training sessions. We intended to determine if the retention of information was influenced by the athletes? personal characteristic (age, gender and the sports level), the quantity of information included in coach?s feedback (the number of ideas and redundancy), athletes? perception of the relevance of the feedback information and athletes? motivation as well as the attention level. The study that was conducted...

  18. The Challenges and Issues of Undergraduate Student Retention and Attainment in UK Veterinary Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Elizabeth L; Armitage-Chan, Elizabeth

    Student retention and attainment has recently been identified as a key area for development in veterinary medical education enquiry. Woodfield's research on retention and attainment across the UK disciplines has yielded some unique information about the challenges and issues of students who study veterinary medicine and related subjects. The present literature review aims to expand on Woodfield's findings and explain important issues about retention and attainment across veterinary medicine. Overall, the subject of retention and attainment in undergraduate veterinary medical education needs a great deal more empirical attention, such as data on the retention and attainment of mature and widening access students, and the effects of students being placed at remote locations during their studies. Our findings also cover some unsurprising issues: the dominance of women in a profession that is principally lead by men, the underrepresentation of black and minority ethnic (BME) students in veterinary medicine, and the effects of content overload in the veterinary medical curriculum. Based on data gathered by Woodfield and our investigation of the scholarly and gray literatures, we offer an overview of gaps in current knowledge and recommendations for further research.

  19. The Effects of Test Trial and Processing Level on Immediate and Delayed Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sau Hou Chang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of test trial and processing level on immediate and delayed retention. A 2 × 2 × 2 mixed ANOVAs was used with two between-subject factors of test trial (single test, repeated test and processing level (shallow, deep, and one within-subject factor of final recall (immediate, delayed. Seventy-six college students were randomly assigned first to the single test (studied the stimulus words three times and took one free-recall test and the repeated test trials (studied the stimulus words once and took three consecutive free-recall tests, and then to the shallow processing level (asked whether each stimulus word was presented in capital letter or in small letter and the deep processing level (whether each stimulus word belonged to a particular category to study forty stimulus words. The immediate test was administered five minutes after the trials, whereas the delayed test was administered one week later. Results showed that single test trial recalled more words than repeated test trial in immediate final free-recall test, participants in deep processing performed better than those in shallow processing in both immediate and delayed retention. However, the dominance of single test trial and deep processing did not happen in delayed retention. Additional study trials did not further enhance the delayed retention of words encoded in deep processing, but did enhance the delayed retention of words encoded in shallow processing.

  20. Long-term dynamics of organic matter and elements exported as coarse particulates from two Caribbean montane watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Heartsill Scalley; F.N. Scatena; S. Moya; A.E. Lugo

    2012-01-01

    In heterotrophic streams the retention and export of coarse particulate organic matter and associated elements are fundamental biogeochemical processes that influence water quality, food webs and the structural complexity of forested headwater streams. Nevertheless, few studies have documented the quantity and quality of exported organic matter over multiple years and...

  1. Best practices in doctoral retention: Mentoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judie L. Brill

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available  The aim of this critical literature review is to outline best practices in doctoral retention and the successful approach of one university to improve graduation success by providing effective mentorship for faculty and students alike. The focus of this literature review is on distance learning relationships between faculty and doctoral students, regarding retention, persistence, and mentoring models. Key phrases and words used in the search and focusing on mentoring resulted in over 20,000 sources. The search was narrowed to include only doctoral study and mentoring. Research questions of interest were: Why do high attrition rates exist for doctoral students? What are the barriers to retention? What are the benefits of doctoral mentoring? What programs do institutions have in place to reduce attrition? The researchers found a key factor influencing doctoral student retention and success is effective faculty mentorship. In particular, the design of a mentoring and faculty training program to increase retention and provide for success after graduation is important. This research represents a key area of interest in the retention literature, as institutions continue to search for ways to better support students during their doctoral programs and post-graduation. DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v4i2.186

  2. Best practices in doctoral retention: Mentoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judie L. Brill

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this critical literature review is to outline best practices in doctoral retention and the successful approach of one university to improve graduation success by providing effective mentorship for faculty and students alike. The focus of this literature review is on distance learning relationships between faculty and doctoral students, regarding retention, persistence, and mentoring models. Key phrases and words used in the search and focusing on mentoring resulted in over 20,000 sources. The search was narrowed to include only doctoral study and mentoring. Research questions of interest were: Why do high attrition rates exist for doctoral students? What are the barriers to retention? What are the benefits of doctoral mentoring? What programs do institutions have in place to reduce attrition? The researchers found a key factor influencing doctoral student retention and success is effective faculty mentorship. In particular, the design of a mentoring and faculty training program to increase retention and provide for success after graduation is important. This research represents a key area of interest in the retention literature, as institutions continue to search for ways to better support students during their doctoral programs and post-graduation. DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v4i2.186

  3. Trial order and retention interval in human predictive judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Steven C; Amundson, Jeffrey C; Miller, Ralph R

    2005-12-01

    The influences of order of trial type and retention interval on human predictive judgments were assessed for a cue that was reinforced on half of its training presentations. Subjects observed 10 cue-outcome presentations (i.e., reinforced trials) and 10 cue-alone presentations (i.e., nonreinforced trials) in one of three different orders: all nonreinforced trials followed by all reinforced trials(latent inhibition), reinforced and nonreinforced trials interspersed (partial reinforcement), or al lreinforced trials followed by all nonreinforced trials (extinction). Ratings were based mainly on the most recent event type (i.e., a recency effect) when the test occurred immediately after training but were based mainly on initial event types (i.e., a primacy effect) when the test occurred after a 48-h delay. The subjects tested both immediately and with a long retention interval did not exhibit this shift to primacy (i.e., the recency effect persisted). These results demonstrate noncatastrophic forgetting and the flexible use of trial order information in predictive judgments.

  4. Patterns of 11C-PIB cerebral retention in mild cognitive impairment patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzo, I; Jiménez-Bonilla, J F; Martínez-Rodríguez, I; Quirce, R; de Arcocha-Torres, M; Bravo-Ferrer, Z; Lavado-Pérez, C; Sánchez-Juan, P; Rodríguez, E; Jiménez-Alonso, M; López-Defilló, J; Carril, J M

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the patterns of cerebral cortical distribution of (11)C-PIB in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The study included 69 patients (37 male, age range 42-79 years) with MCI, sub-classified as 53 with amnestic-MCI (A-MCI), and 16 with non-amnestic-MCI (NA-MCI). Patients underwent (11)C-PIB PET/CT scan 60min after intravenous injection of the radiotracer. A visual analysis of the images was performed by 2 experienced physicians. (11)C-PIB-positive studies were considered when gray matter uptake was equal to or greater than white matter. According to the regions involved, (11)C-PIB-positive studies were classified into A-pattern (predominant retention in frontal, anterior cingulate, lateral temporal, and basal ganglia) and B-pattern (generalized retention). Thirty-nine of the 69 (56%) patients with MCI showed (11)C-PIB retention. Of the 53 A-MCI patients, 36 (68%) showed (11)C-PIB retention. Eleven out of 36 (30%) positive scans in A-MCI patients showed A-pattern, and 25 out of 36 (70%) patients had a B-pattern. Positive (11)C-PIB was observed in 3 out of 16 (19%) patients with NA-MCI. Regional distribution in these 3 patients showed A-pattern in 1, and B-pattern in 2 patients. Cortical retention of (11)C-PIB was more frequent in A-MCI than in NA-MCI patients, and also B-pattern than A-pattern in the (11)C-PIB positive group. The recognition of (11)C-PIB distribution patterns allows MCI patients to be classified, and the A-pattern may offer a therapeutic window for potential future treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  5. 21 CFR 878.4930 - Suture retention device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suture retention device. 878.4930 Section 878.4930...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4930 Suture retention device. (a) Identification. A suture retention device is a device, such as a retention bridge, a surgical...

  6. Prediction of the soil water retention curve for structured soil from saturation to oven-dryness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karup, Dan; Møldrup, Per; Tuller, Markus

    2017-01-01

    The soil water retention curve (SWRC) is the most fundamental soil hydraulic function required for modelling soil–plant–atmospheric water flow and transport processes. The SWRC is intimately linked to the distribution of the size of pores, the composition of the solid phase and the soil specific....... In this research we evaluated a new two-stage approach developed recently to predict the SWRC based onmeasurements for disturbed repacked soil samples. Our study involved undisturbed structured soil and took into account the effects of bulk density, organic matter content and particle-size distribution....... Independently measured SWRCs for 171 undisturbed soil samples with organic matter contents that ranged from 3 to 14% were used for model validation. The results indicate that consideration of the silt and organic matter fractions, in addition to the clay fraction, improved predictions for the dry-end SWRC...

  7. The structural neural substrate of subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Kubota, Yasutaka; Sawada, Reiko; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-11-20

    Happiness is a subjective experience that is an ultimate goal for humans. Psychological studies have shown that subjective happiness can be measured reliably and consists of emotional and cognitive components. However, the neural substrates of subjective happiness remain unclear. To investigate this issue, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging and questionnaires that assessed subjective happiness, the intensity of positive and negative emotional experiences, and purpose in life. We found a positive relationship between the subjective happiness score and gray matter volume in the right precuneus. Moreover, the same region showed an association with the combined positive and negative emotional intensity and purpose in life scores. Our findings suggest that the precuneus mediates subjective happiness by integrating the emotional and cognitive components of happiness.

  8. The structural neural substrate of subjective happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Kubota, Yasutaka; Sawada, Reiko; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-01-01

    Happiness is a subjective experience that is an ultimate goal for humans. Psychological studies have shown that subjective happiness can be measured reliably and consists of emotional and cognitive components. However, the neural substrates of subjective happiness remain unclear. To investigate this issue, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging and questionnaires that assessed subjective happiness, the intensity of positive and negative emotional experiences, and purpose in life. We found a positive relationship between the subjective happiness score and gray matter volume in the right precuneus. Moreover, the same region showed an association with the combined positive and negative emotional intensity and purpose in life scores. Our findings suggest that the precuneus mediates subjective happiness by integrating the emotional and cognitive components of happiness. PMID:26586449

  9. Evidence for Functional Networks within the Human Brain's White Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, Michael; Nitzan, Mor; Bick, Atira S; Levin, Netta; Arzy, Shahar

    2017-07-05

    Investigation of the functional macro-scale organization of the human cortex is fundamental in modern neuroscience. Although numerous studies have identified networks of interacting functional modules in the gray-matter, limited research was directed to the functional organization of the white-matter. Recent studies have demonstrated that the white-matter exhibits blood oxygen level-dependent signal fluctuations similar to those of the gray-matter. Here we used these signal fluctuations to investigate whether the white-matter is organized as functional networks by applying a clustering analysis on resting-state functional MRI (RSfMRI) data from white-matter voxels, in 176 subjects (of both sexes). This analysis indicated the existence of 12 symmetrical white-matter functional networks, corresponding to combinations of white-matter tracts identified by diffusion tensor imaging. Six of the networks included interhemispheric commissural bridges traversing the corpus callosum. Signals in white-matter networks correlated with signals from functional gray-matter networks, providing missing knowledge on how these distributed networks communicate across large distances. These findings were replicated in an independent subject group and were corroborated by seed-based analysis in small groups and individual subjects. The identified white-matter functional atlases and analysis codes are available at http://mind.huji.ac.il/white-matter.aspx Our results demonstrate that the white-matter manifests an intrinsic functional organization as interacting networks of functional modules, similarly to the gray-matter, which can be investigated using RSfMRI. The discovery of functional networks within the white-matter may open new avenues of research in cognitive neuroscience and clinical neuropsychiatry.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In recent years, functional MRI (fMRI) has revolutionized all fields of neuroscience, enabling identifications of functional modules and networks in the human

  10. White matter injury detection in neonatal MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Irene; Hajari, Nasim; Firouzmanesh, Amirhossein; Shen, Rui; Miller, Steven; Poskitt, Ken; Basu, Anup

    2013-02-01

    Early detection of white matter injury in premature newborns can facilitate timely clinical treatments reducing the potential risk of later developmental deficits. It was reported that there were more than 5% premature newborns in British Columbia, Canada, among which 5-10% exhibited major motor deficits and 25-50% exhibited significant developmental and visual deficits. With the advancement of computer assisted detection systems, it is possible to automatically identify white matter injuries, which are found inside the grey matter region of the brain. Atlas registration has been suggested in the literature to distinguish grey matter from the soft tissues inside the skull. However, our subjects are premature newborns delivered at 24 to 32 weeks of gestation. During this period, the grey matter undergoes rapid changes and differs significantly from one to another. Besides, not all detected white spots represent injuries. Additional neighborhood information and expert input are required for verification. In this paper, we propose a white matter feature identification system for premature newborns, which is composed of several steps: (1) Candidate white matter segmentation; (2) Feature extraction from candidates; (3) Validation with data obtained at a later stage on the children; and (4) Feature confirmation for automated detection. The main challenge of this work lies in segmenting white matter injuries from noisy and low resolution data. Our approach integrates image fusion and contrast enhancement together with a fuzzy segmentation technique to achieve promising results. Other applications, such as brain tumor and intra-ventricular haemorrhage detection can also benefit from our approach.

  11. Effect of sludge retention on UF membrane fouling: The significance of sludge crystallization and EPS increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenzheng; Graham, Nigel; Yang, Yunjia; Zhou, Zhiqi; Campos, Luiza C

    2015-10-15

    This paper concerns a previously unreported mechanism of membrane ultrafiltration (UF) fouling when a UF process with coagulation pre-treatment is used in drinking water treatment. The significance of settled coagulant solids (sludge) with different age within the membrane tank on UF fouling has been investigated at laboratory-scale, using model micro-polluted surface water. The process of floc crystallization and increasing bacterial EPS with solids (sludge) retention time may be detrimental to UF operation by causing an increased rate of membrane fouling. In this study the performance of two alum pre-treated hollow-fibre UF units, operated in parallel but with different settled sludge retention times (1 and 7 days), was compared. The results showed that over 34 days of operation the extent of reversible and irreversible fouling was much greater for the 7-day solids retention time. This was attributed to the greater extent of bacterial activity and the presence of Al-nanoparticles, arising from sludge crystallization, at the longer retention time. In particular, greater quantities of organic matter, particularly EPS (proteins and polysaccharides), were found in the UF cake layer and pores for the 7-day retention time. The addition of chlorine later in the membrane run substantially reduced the rate of membrane fouling for both sludge retention times, and this corresponded to reduced quantities of organic substances, including EPS, in the cake layer and pores of both membranes. The results suggest that bacterial activity (and EPS production) is more important than the production of Al-nanoparticles from solids crystallization in causing membrane fouling. However, it is likely that both phenomena are interactive and possibly synergistic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Using Entropy to Quantify Soil Structure from Water Retention and Texture Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, D.; Yoon, S.-W.

    2012-04-01

    Soil structure embodies complex interactions between particle sizes (texture) and environmental factors that lead to the formation of structural units of different sizes and shapes. Water retention curves of structured soils reflect those interactions on the distribution and connectivity of pores. The main hypothesis of this work is that a measure of soil structure is given by the entropic distance between pore systems resulting from the same particle size distribution arranged randomly (reference distribution) and in structural units. It was also hypothesized that such distance can be derived from water retention curves by assuming that the reference and structured pore systems follow lognormal distributions and that textural pore systems are the result of random arrangements of particles sizes. Reference pore size distributions were obtained from texture using an empirical model to convert from particle to pore size distributions. Soil clods were sampled in triplicate from each of 24 horizons of soil profiles under forest and agriculture management. Disturbed samples were collected to measure texture and organic matter. Soil clods were used to measure bulk density and water retention by the hanging column and pressure extractor methods (7 points between -0.3 to -10 kPa). Clods were then disturbed and water retention measured on packed soil (13 points between-0.3 to -1500 kPa on disturbed samples). Water retention data were fit with the Kosugi lognormal water retention model and the parameters from the model used to calculate the entropic or Kullback-Leibler Distance (KLD) between measured and reference pore size distributions. Values of KLD estimated from undisturbed clods were significantly (Pquantitative measure of the effect of soil structure on pore size distribution.

  13. Vanishing White Matter Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In Memory Of Obituaries Contact Us Donate Vanishing White Matter Disease What is Vanishing White Matter Disease? ... of the genetic basis of VWM was a great step forward. First of all, it allows genetic ...

  14. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution Contact Us Share Most PM particles form in ... and cause serious health effects. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution PM Basics What is PM, and how does ...

  15. Mind Over Matter: Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Term(s): Teachers / NIDA Teaching Guide / Mind Over Matter Teaching Guide and Series / Cocaine Mind Over Matter: Cocaine Print Order Free Publication in: English Spanish Download PDF 806.08 KB Cocaine is ...

  16. Mind Over Matter: Methamphetamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Term(s): Teachers / NIDA Teaching Guide / Mind Over Matter Teaching Guide and Series / Methamphetamine Mind Over Matter: Methamphetamine (Meth) Print Order Free Publication in: English Spanish Download PDF 739.54 KB Methamphetamine comes ...

  17. BARYONIC DARK MATTER ?

    OpenAIRE

    Rees, M J

    1986-01-01

    In the first two of these lectures, I present the evidence for baryonic dark matter and describe possible forms that it may take. The final lecture discusses formation of baryonic dark matter, and sets the cosmological context.

  18. A combination appliance for obstructive sleep apnea: the effectiveness of mandibular advancement and tongue retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dort, Leslie; Remmers, John

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine if subjects with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea would experience increasing treatment effect when a tongue retention component was added to a mandibular repositioning appliance. Cohort study. Sleep clinic. Forty-four sequentially recruited patients with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea. Subjects were sleep tested at 4 treatment stages of oral appliance therapy. The 4 stages were: 6-mm mandibular protrusion, 8-mm protrusion, 6-mm protrusion with a tongue retention bulb, and 8-mm protrusion with a tongue retention bulb. Forty-one of 44 subjects completed the protocol. There was a decrease in mean respiratory disturbance index from 33.5 events/h at baseline to 18.1 events/h at stage 4 (p = 0.001). Mean Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) decreased from 12.3 at baseline to 9.0 at stage 4 (p = 0.0001. A combined approach utilizing both mandibular protrusion and tongue retention can provide effective treatment for moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea. The addition of a tongue bulb may provide further treatment effect when mandibular protrusion is limited. Appliance designs that allow for convenient combination therapy need to be developed for this purpose.

  19. Nursing Student Retention in Associate Degree Nursing Programs Utilizing a Retention Specialist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrum, Ronna A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine specific variables associated with nursing student retention in Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) Programs. Jeffreys (2004) Nursing Undergraduate Retention and Success (NURS) conceptual model provided the framework for this descriptive correlational study. One hundred sixty eight pre-licensure associate degree…

  20. Dark Matter Effective Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Nobile, Eugenio; Sannino, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    We organize the effective (self)interaction terms for complex scalar dark matter candidates which are either an isosinglet, isodoublet or an isotriplet with respect to the weak interactions. The classification has been performed ordering the operators in inverse powers of the dark matter cutoff...... scale. We assume Lorentz invariance, color and charge neutrality. We also introduce potentially interesting dark matter induced flavor-changing operators. Our general framework allows for model independent investigations of dark matter properties....

  1. Dence Cold Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavinskiy Alexey

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Possible way to create dense cold baryonic matter in the laboratory is discussed. The density of this matter is comparable or even larger than the density of neutron star core. The properties of this matter can be controlled by trigger conditions. Experimental program for the study of properties of dense cold matter for light and heavy ion collisions at initial energy range √sNN~2-3GeV is proposed..

  2. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  3. Employee retention: a customer service approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Richard F

    2002-01-01

    Employee retention is a huge problem. There are staff shortages in radiology because not enough people are entering the profession; too many people are leaving the profession for retirement, higher-paying jobs or jobs with less stress; and there are not enough opportunities for career advancement. Staff shortages are exacerbated by difficulty in retaining people who enter the profession. While much work has been focused on recruitment and getting more people "in the front door," I suggest that the bulk of future efforts be focused on employee retention and "closing the back door." Employee retention must be an ongoing process, not a program. Approaches to employee retention that focus on external things, i.e., things that the company can do to or for the employee, generally are not successful. The truth is that employee retention processes must focus on what the employee gets out of the job. The process must be a benefits-based approach that helps employees answer the question, "What's in it for me?" The retention processes must be ongoing and integrated into the daily culture of the company. The best way to keep your employees is to treat them like customers. Customer service works for external customers. We treat them nicely. We work to satisfy them. We help them achieve their goals. Why not do the same for our employees? If positive customer service policies and practices can satisfy and keep external customers, why not adapt these policies and practices for employees? And, there is a service/satisfaction link between employee retention and higher levels of customer satisfaction. Customers prefer dealing with the same employees over and over again. Employee turnover destroys a customer's confidence in the company. Just like a customer does not want to have to "train and educate" a new provider, they do not want to do the same for your "revolving door" employees. So, the key is to keep employees so they in turn will help you keep your customers. Because the

  4. The influence of macrophytes on sedimentation and nutrient retention in the lower River Spree (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Marcus; Kozerski, Hans-Peter; Pluntke, Thomas; Rinke, Karina

    2003-02-01

    Nutrient retention due to sedimentation in running waters has been little studied. The knowledge about the processes of self-purification is important for the management of rivers. The principal aim of our investigations was to quantify nutrient retention by sedimentation within and adjacent to stands of submerged macrophytes. In addition, we examined the relationship between deposition and sedimentation patterns and the flow regime. In the summer of 2001, investigations were performed in the lower River Spree with sediment traps and sediment cores and measurement of flow velocities. The spatial distribution of macrophytes was described and related to sedimentation and flow patterns. Water and sediment samples were analysed for total phosphorus and total organic nitrogen concentrations. Macrophytes significantly enhanced water residence time by factors between 2 and 18. Trapping rates were high within and downstream of macrophyte stands due to the prevailing quiescent conditions. Trapping rates were low in regions not covered by macrophytes, where flow velocities were high. Calculated deposition of organic matter due to trapping rates accounted for 15-49% of observed deposition between May and September, the vegetation period. The difference between calculated and observed deposition can partly be attributed to an incomplete erosion of the organic sediments between October and April. Between May and September, nitrogen and phosphorus were retained by deposition by as much as 2.5% and 12.2%, respectively (% of total load). Therefore, macrophytes considerably contributed to total monthly phosphorus retention (up to 25%) by increasing deposition of particulate organic matter.

  5. States of Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    states of matter in school. Are these the only states of matter? What distinguishes different ... can be classified based on color, or electrical properties, or whether they are organic or inorganic, or conductors .... school textbooks continue to preach that there are three states of matter. Thus, I have reduced my problem from ...

  6. Matter and Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Karam, P Andrew

    2011-01-01

    In Matter and Energy, readers will learn about the many forms of energy, the wide variety of particles in nature, and Albert Einstein's world-changing realization of how matter can be changed into pure energy. The book also examines the recent discoveries of dark matter and dark energy and the future of the universe.

  7. Nonthermal Supermassive Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Kolb, Edward W.; Riotto, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    We discuss several cosmological production mechanisms for nonthermal supermassive dark matter and argue that dark matter may he elementary particles of mass much greater than the weak scale. Searches for dark matter should ma be limited to weakly interacting particles with mass of the order of the weak scale, but should extend into the supermassive range as well.

  8. Healthcare Learning Community and Student Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherryl W. Johnson, PhD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Teaching, learning, and retention processes have evolved historically to include multifaceted techniques beyond the traditional lecture. This article presents related results of a study using a healthcare learning community in a southwest Georgia university. The value of novel techniques and tools in promoting student learning and retention remains under review. This study includes a healthcare learning community as a cutting-edge teaching and learning modality. The results of an introspective survey of 22 students in a learning community explore strategies to enhance culturally relevant teaching, learning, and retention. Although learning and retention studies have been conducted at numerous universities, few have included feedback from students in a healthcare learning community. Frequencies from student responses were tabulated using five thematic factors: social support, career knowledge/opportunities, academic support, networking and faculty rapport/relationship building. Of the five theme areas, social support was identified most frequently by students as a means to support their learning and retention in the university setting.

  9. Effect of algal blooms on retention of N, Si and P in Europe's largest coastal lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vybernaite-Lubiene, I.; Zilius, M.; Giordani, G.; Petkuviene, J.; Vaiciute, D.; Bukaveckas, P. A.; Bartoli, M.

    2017-07-01

    Nutrient fluxes from land to sea are regulated by climatic factors governing hydrologic loading rates (e.g., storm events, snowmelt) and by internal processes within estuaries that affect nutrient transformation and retention. We compared monthly input and output fluxes of N, Si, and P at the entrance and exit of the hypereutrophic Curonian Lagoon to better understand how seasonal changes in the stoichiometry of nutrient inputs and the occurrence of algal blooms affected nutrient retention within the lagoon. Nutrient ratios were indicative of increasing Si and N limitation during the growing season, and these were associated with a shift from a diatom-based to a cyanobacteria dominated phytoplankton community. The estuary was a net sink for dissolved nutrients, but we observed large interannual difference in the overall retention of N and P. The occurrence of a large cyanobacteria bloom in 2012 was associated with increased export of particulate matter to the Baltic Sea resulting in a net surplus of P export. Bloom conditions mobilized P from sediments and resulted in a shift from net retention to net export for the lagoon. The findings of our study illustrate how changes in nutrient loading ratios influence phytoplankton community composition, which in turn alters the source-sink status of the estuary.

  10. Clinical Evaluation of the Retention of Different Pit and Fissure Sealants: A 1-Year Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, Parvathy

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the retention of different pit and fissure sealants on the first permanent molars over a period of one year. Materials and methods: In this study, a total of 40 children with all first permanent molars erupted received four different pit and fissure sealants. The children were evaluated at 6 and 12 months. Results: The data was subjected to Chi-square test and Kaplan Meier survival analysis. The p-value was calculated using Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test. Conclusion: The retention rates of resin-based sealants were superior to that of glass ionomer sealant. How to cite this article: Kumaran P. Clinical Evaluation of the Retention of Different Pit and Fissure Sealants: A 1-Year Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(3):183-187. PMID:25206219

  11. Distinguishing medication-free subjects with unipolar disorder from subjects with bipolar disorder : state matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rive, Maria M.; Redlich, Ronny; Schmaal, Lianne; Marquand, Andre F.; Dannlowski, Udo; Grotegerd, Dominik; Veltman, Dick J.; Schene, Aart H.; Ruhe, Henricus G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Recent studies have indicated that pattern recognition techniques of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data for individual classification may be valuable for distinguishing between major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Importantly, medication may have

  12. Distinguishing medication-free subjects with unipolar disorder from subjects with bipolar disorder: state matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rive, M.M.; Redlich, R.; Schmaal, L.; Marquand, A.F.; Dannlowski, U.; Grotegerd, D.; Veltman, D.J.; Schene, A.H.; Ruhe, H.G.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have indicated that pattern recognition techniques of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data for individual classification may be valuable for distinguishing between major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Importantly, medication may have

  13. You Only Get One Chance to Make a First Impression: A Quantitative Analysis of Division Officer Fleet Experiences on Surface Warfare Officer Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    graduate education experience a memorable one—so consider this a special thanks to Mike, Chris, Matt, and Stew— Viva La Hole! xiv...Leadership Perhaps the single most consistent strand of argument within the job satisfaction and retention literature is that leadership matters . In her...and culture— matters . Hay (2002) argues that pay is not the major factor that leads to dissatisfaction amongst employees. Instead, his survey of

  14. Height, Relationship Satisfaction, Jealousy, and Mate Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle Brewer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Male height is associated with high mate value. In particular, tall men are perceived as more attractive, dominant and of a higher status than shorter rivals, resulting in a greater lifetime reproductive success. Female infidelity and relationship dissolution may therefore present a greater risk to short men. It was predicted that tall men would report greater relationship satisfaction and lower jealousy and mate retention behavior than short men. Ninety eight heterosexual men in a current romantic relationship completed a questionnaire. Both linear and quadratic relationships were found between male height and relationship satisfaction, cognitive and behavioral jealousy. Tall men reported greater relationship satisfaction and lower levels of cognitive or behavioral jealousy than short men. In addition, linear and quadratic relationships were found between male height and a number of mate retention behaviors. Tall and short men engaged in different mate retention behaviors. These findings are consistent with previous research conducted in this area detailing the greater attractiveness of tall men.

  15. Safeguards Workforce Repatriation, Retention and Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallucci, Nicholas [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Poe, Sarah [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory was tasked by NA-241 to assess the transition of former IAEA employees back to the United States, investigating the rate of retention and overall smoothness of the repatriation process among returning safeguards professionals. Upon conducting several phone interviews, study authors found that the repatriation process went smoothly for the vast majority and that workforce retention was high. However, several respondents expressed irritation over the minimal extent to which their safeguards expertise had been leveraged in their current positions. This sentiment was pervasive enough to prompt a follow-on study focusing on questions relating to the utilization rather than the retention of safeguards professionals. A second, web-based survey was conducted, soliciting responses from a larger sample pool. Results suggest that the safeguards workforce may be oversaturated, and that young professionals returning to the United States from Agency positions may soon encounter difficulties finding jobs in the field.

  16. Retention of adhesively bonded posts: effect of pretreatment of the root canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahafi, Alireza; Peutzfeldt, Anne

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of three different root canal pretreatments on the retention of prefabricated titanium posts luted in the root canal with one of three resin cements. After removal of the clinical crowns of 216 extracted premolars, the root canals were prepared with the ParaPost system (length = 5 mm, diameter = 1.25 mm). The walls of the roots were subjected to either none (control) or one of three pretreatments: etching with citric acid, application of EDTA C, or mechanical roughening with a diamond-coated bur (n = 18 per group). CoJet-treated ParaPost XH posts were luted in the root canals with one of three resin cements: Panavia 2.0 F, Rely X Unicem, or ParaCem. Following water storage at 37 degrees C for 7 days, retention was determined by extraction of the posts. Mechanical roughening of root canal walls resulted in improved retention of posts, irrespective of the type of resin cement. Etching of root canal walls with citric acid resulted in improved retention only when Panavia 2.0 F was used. Depending on the resin cement, application of EDTA C had either no effect or a negative effect. Luting of posts with Panavia 2.0 F resulted in higher retention than did luting with Rely X Unicem or ParaCem. Mechanical roughening of the root canal walls with a diamond-coated bur was the most effective method to improve retention of posts. The use of Panavia 2.0 F resulted in higher retention than did the use of Rely X Unicem or ParaCem.

  17. Evaluation of retention of cemented laser-sintered crowns on unmodified straight narrow implant abutments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilicarslan, Mehmet Ali; Ozkan, Pelin

    2013-01-01

    A common problem with cemented crowns is inadequate retention at the crown-abutment interface. The aim of this study was to compare the retention of new laser-sintered cobalt-chromium alloy crowns to the retention of cobalt-chromium alloy crowns fabricated with a traditional casting technique with and without an alloy primer. Twenty-four metallic crowns per casting technique were fabricated, and surface roughness values were recorded with a profilometer. Alloy primer was applied to half the specimens, and all crowns were luted with resin cement. After 24 hours, specimens were subjected to tensile force application with a universal testing machine. The effect of the cement amount was evaluated with an analytic balance. The results were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis multiple-comparison test. The Spearman correlation was used to determine correlations between crown retention and cement weight. The laser-sintered crowns (2.72 μm) were rougher than conventionally cast crowns. The mean load to failure values were as follows: 455.10 ± 192.69 Ncm for conventional crowns, 565.52 ± 112.87 Ncm for conventional crowns with alloy primer, 534.78 ± 130.15 Ncm for laser-sintered crowns, and 678.60 ± 212.83 Ncm for laser-sintered crowns with alloy primer. Laser-sintered crowns (10.10 ± 2.15 mg) showed a significant difference in terms of cement weight compared with cast crowns. In addition, negative correlations were found for retention and cement weight between all groups, except for the laser-sintered group without alloy primer. Retentive forces were significantly higher for laser-sintered crowns than for conventionally cast crowns. An increase in the surface roughness and the application of alloy primers led to an increase in the adhesive bonding of resin cements to metal alloys. It was concluded that a reduction in cement weight improved retention.

  18. Urinary Analysis of Fluid Retention in the General Population: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G Hahn

    Full Text Available Renal conservation (retention of fluid might affect the outcome of hospital care and can be indicated by increased urinary concentrations of metabolic waste products. We obtained a reference material for further studies by exploring the prevalence of fluid retention in a healthy population.Spot urine sampling was performed in 300 healthy hospital workers. A previously validated algorithm summarized the urine-specific gravity, osmolality, creatinine, and color to a fluid retention index (FRI, where 4.0 is the cut-off for fluid retention consistent with dehydration. In 50 of the volunteers, we also studied the relationships between FRI, plasma osmolality, and water-retaining hormones.The cut-off for fluid retention (FRI ≥ 4.0 was reached by 38% of the population. No correlation was found between the FRI and the time of the day of urine sample collection, and the FRI was only marginally correlated with the time period spent without fluid intake. Volunteers with fluid retention were younger, generally men, and more often had albuminuria (88% vs. 34%, P < 0.001. Plasma osmolality and plasma sodium were somewhat higher in those with a high FRI (mean 294.8 vs. 293.4 mosmol/kg and 140.3 vs. 139.9 mmol/l. Plasma vasopressin was consistently below the limit of detection, and the plasma cortisol, aldosterone, and renin concentrations were similar in subjects with a high or low FRI. The very highest FRI values (≥ 5.0, N = 61 were always accompanied by albuminuria.Fluid retention consistent with moderate dehydration is common in healthy staff working in a Swedish hospital.

  19. Early removal of urinary catheters after rectal surgery is associated with increased urinary retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwaan, Mary R; Lee, Janet T; Rothenberger, David A; Melton, Genevieve B; Madoff, Robert D

    2015-04-01

    Urinary retention after rectal resection is common and managed prophylactically by prolonging urinary catheterization. However, because indwelling urinary catheterization is a well-established risk factor for urinary tract infection, the ideal timing for urinary catheter removal following a rectal resection is unknown. We hypothesized that early urinary catheter removal (on or before postoperative day 2) would be associated with urinary retention. This study is a retrospective review of medical records. This study was conducted at a colorectal surgery service at a tertiary care academic teaching hospital. Adults undergoing rectal resection operations by colorectal surgeons in 2005 to 2010 were selected. The primary outcome measured was urinary retention. Of 205 patients included, 41 (20%) developed urinary retention. Male sex (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.7-9), increased intraoperative intravenous fluid (OR for each liter, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.04-1.48), and urinary catheter removal on postoperative day 2 or earlier (OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.4-10.5) were associated with urinary retention on multivariable analysis. Early catheter removal was not associated with decreased urinary tract infection rates (p = 0.29) but was associated with shorter length of stay (6.5 vs 8.9 days; p = 0.005). The retrospective nature of this study did not allow for a precise definition of urinary retention. Preoperative urinary function was not available, and the patient sample was heterogeneous, including several indications for rectal resection. Urinary catheters were not removed per protocol and therefore subject to bias. The study is likely underpowered to detect differences in urinary tract infection between urinary catheter removal groups. In patients undergoing rectal resection, we found that urinary catheter removal on or before postoperative day 2 was associated with urinary retention (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/DCR/A172).

  20. Retention of three endodontic post systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, John; Zyman, Gad; Kogan, Enrique; Kuttler, Sergio; García-Godoy, Franklin

    2007-06-01

    To evaluate the retention of three post systems using one adhesive and one cement. The hypothesis tested was that there was no significant difference among the posts. 90 freshly extracted single rooted lower bicuspids were evaluated for similar root morphology. The teeth were decoronated using an Isomet saw leaving a 15 mm-long sample. Preoperative digital radiographs were taken of all samples from the buccal and mesial direction. A glide path was established with #15K type file. Roots were then instrumented to working length to a size #40 .04 using Profile nickel titanium files. 1cc of distilled water was used as an irrigant after each file to remove dentinal debris. The teeth were then obturated with custom fit #40 0.04 taper gutta percha points and AH Plus as a sealer, using a warm vertical compaction technique. Residual gutta percha of 5 mm was left. The samples were divided into three experimental groups to receive posts. Group 1: Fiber White Para-Post No. 2 red; Group 2: No. 1 DT Light Post; Group 3: PeerlessPost No. 3. Post spaces were created in Groups 1 and 2 with the appropriate drills supplied by the manufacturer using a slow speed handpiece. The post spaces from Group 3 required no further preparation after endodontic treatment. All posts were cemented with Nexus 2 Universal Luting System. A layer of excess cement was left in the most coronal portion of the tooth for visual confirmation of tensile strength failure. Using an Instron the teeth were mounted in a custom-made jig to prevent crushing of the post and to ensure extension perpendicular to the long axis of the post. Samples were then subjected to tensile stresses until failure occurred. Failure was defined as the maximum load produced under tensile load that corresponded to visual separation of the post from the tooth. The maximum load at failure in kilograms was recorded. The average of each group was compared for significant difference. Data was analyzed using ANOVA at a significance level of P

  1. Impeded Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence & Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics,Johannes Gutenberg University,Staudingerweg 7, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Slatyer, Tracy R. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Wang, Xiao-Ping [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence & Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics,Johannes Gutenberg University,Staudingerweg 7, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Xue, Wei [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-12-12

    We consider dark matter models in which the mass splitting between the dark matter particles and their annihilation products is tiny. Compared to the previously proposed Forbidden Dark Matter scenario, the mass splittings we consider are much smaller, and are allowed to be either positive or negative. To emphasize this modification, we dub our scenario “Impeded Dark Matter”. We demonstrate that Impeded Dark Matter can be easily realized without requiring tuning of model parameters. For negative mass splitting, we demonstrate that the annihilation cross-section for Impeded Dark Matter depends linearly on the dark matter velocity or may even be kinematically forbidden, making this scenario almost insensitive to constraints from the cosmic microwave background and from observations of dwarf galaxies. Accordingly, it may be possible for Impeded Dark Matter to yield observable signals in clusters or the Galactic center, with no corresponding signal in dwarfs. For positive mass splitting, we show that the annihilation cross-section is suppressed by the small mass splitting, which helps light dark matter to survive increasingly stringent constraints from indirect searches. As specific realizations for Impeded Dark Matter, we introduce a model of vector dark matter from a hidden SU(2) sector, and a composite dark matter scenario based on a QCD-like dark sector.

  2. Collapsed Dark Matter Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Matthew R.; DiFranzo, Anthony

    2018-02-01

    The distributions of dark matter and baryons in the Universe are known to be very different: The dark matter resides in extended halos, while a significant fraction of the baryons have radiated away much of their initial energy and fallen deep into the potential wells. This difference in morphology leads to the widely held conclusion that dark matter cannot cool and collapse on any scale. We revisit this assumption and show that a simple model where dark matter is charged under a "dark electromagnetism" can allow dark matter to form gravitationally collapsed objects with characteristic mass scales much smaller than that of a Milky-Way-type galaxy. Though the majority of the dark matter in spiral galaxies would remain in the halo, such a model opens the possibility that galaxies and their associated dark matter play host to a significant number of collapsed substructures. The observational signatures of such structures are not well explored but potentially interesting.

  3. Collapsed Dark Matter Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Matthew R; DiFranzo, Anthony

    2018-02-02

    The distributions of dark matter and baryons in the Universe are known to be very different: The dark matter resides in extended halos, while a significant fraction of the baryons have radiated away much of their initial energy and fallen deep into the potential wells. This difference in morphology leads to the widely held conclusion that dark matter cannot cool and collapse on any scale. We revisit this assumption and show that a simple model where dark matter is charged under a "dark electromagnetism" can allow dark matter to form gravitationally collapsed objects with characteristic mass scales much smaller than that of a Milky-Way-type galaxy. Though the majority of the dark matter in spiral galaxies would remain in the halo, such a model opens the possibility that galaxies and their associated dark matter play host to a significant number of collapsed substructures. The observational signatures of such structures are not well explored but potentially interesting.

  4. How dark matter came to matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Swart, J. G.; Bertone, G.; van Dongen, J.

    2017-03-01

    The history of the dark matter problem can be traced back to at least the 1930s, but it was not until the early 1970s that the issue of 'missing matter' was widely recognized as problematic. In the latter period, previously separate issues involving missing mass were brought together in a single anomaly. We argue that reference to a straightforward accumulation of evidence alone is inadequate to comprehend this episode. Rather, the rise of cosmological research, the accompanying renewed interest in the theory of relativity and changes in the manpower division of astronomy in the 1960s are key to understanding how dark matter came to matter. At the same time, this story may also enlighten us on the methodological dimensions of past practices of physics and cosmology.

  5. 商業方法軟體專利之標的適格性研究 ― 以比較法之研究為中心 The Patentable Subject Matter of Business Method Patents: An Analysis from a Perspective on Comparative Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    吉玉成 Yuh-Cherng Jyi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available 本文於第2 部分先就商業方法軟體依軟體系統之架構予以定義,以觀察其特殊性,並作為發明專利標的適格分析之基礎。第3 部分則概述商業方法軟體之施以專利保護,對產業與專利審查實務所造成之影響。第4 部分係探討商業方法軟體是否得為發明專利之標的,而依次簡介美國法之規定與實務見解、日本特許法之規定與特許廳之態度、歐洲專利公約與專利局之立場,並由我國專利法之規定,論述絕大多數之商業方法軟體專利,其發明專利之標的適格性乃有欠缺;另就我國智慧財產局所公布之「電腦軟體相關發明專利審查基準」加以探討,及提出個人淺見,並就智慧財產局已核准商業方法軟體專利之實例,予以個案分析。第5 部分則提出個人對商業方法軟體專利之淺見及對我國未來專利保護方向之芻議,以為結 論。 This thesis first in Chapter II defines and identifies business method software under modern computer software architecture so as to form the foundation on which the patentable subject matter of business method software can be further analyzed. In Chapter III follows an overview of how patenting business method software impacts on industry and patent examination practice. Chapter IV analyzes whether business method software qualifies as patentable subject matter from a perspective on comparative legal research in American laws, Japanese laws and the European Patent Convention, and explicates that most of the business method patents granted are unqualified under the interpretation of current ROC Patent Law; this Chapter also reviews the “Examination Guidelines for Computer- Related Software Inventions” promulgated by the Intellectual Property Office from a different perspective and illustrates thereof with a business method patent granted by the Intellectual Property Office. Chapter V concludes this

  6. Huge anterior sacral meningocele simulating bladder retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Emanuele; Rosso, Rodolfo; Leucci, Giuliana; Luparello, Vincenzo; Collura, Devis; Giacobbe, Alessandro; Muto, Giovanni

    2013-02-01

    Anterior sacral meningocele (ASM) is a rare congenital disorder involving herniation of the dural sac through a defect in the anterior surface of the sacrum. We report the case of a young patient with an enormous ASM that simulated bladder retention in terms of symptoms as well as on physical examination and at ultrasonography. After introducing a catheter that excluded urinary retention, computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed the ASM. The patient underwent surgical repair of the ASM through a sacral laminectomy and recovered normal lower urinary tract function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. USAR Nurse Referral and Retention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, J E; Foley, B J

    1992-09-01

    In 1987, the 804th Hospital Center made alleviating the shortfall of registered nurses in the Command a priority. The Command had only 79% of its registered nurse positions filled at the time. Using the recruitment strategies of an employee referral program and a mailing list, the Command reached 100% fill in 2 years and maintained those gains for an additional year. Retention strategies were also implemented which lowered the attrition rate. This paper describes the Army Nurse Referral and Retention Program developed and implemented at the 804th Hospital Center that relieved the shortfall of registered nurses in the United States Army Reserve in New England.

  8. Microwave-aided skin drug penetration and retention of 5-fluorouracil-loaded ethosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nauman Rahim; Wong, Tin Wui

    2016-09-01

    Skin drug retention is required in local treatment of skin cancer. This study investigated the interplay effects of ethosomes and microwave in transdermal drug delivery. Skin pre-treatment by microwave and applied with liquified medicine is deemed to 'cement' the skin thereby raising skin drug deposition. 5-fluorouracil-loaded ethosomes were prepared and subjected to size, zeta potential, morphology, drug content, drug release and skin permeation tests. The molecular characteristics of untreated, microwave and/or ethosome-treated skins were examined by Fourier transform infrared and raman spectroscopy, thermal and electron microscopy techniques. The skin drug retention was promoted using larger ethosomes with negative zeta potentials that repelled anionic lipids of skin and hindered vesicle permeation into deep layers. These ethosomes had low ethanol content. They were less able to fluidize the lipid and defluidize the protein domains at epidermis to enlarge aqueous pores for drug permeation. Pre-treatment of skin by 2450 MHz microwave for 2.5 min further increased skin drug penetration and retention of low ethanol ethosomes and provided lower drug permeation than cases treated for 1.15 min and 5 min. A 2.5 min treatment might be accompanied by specific dermal protein fluidization via C=O moiety which translated to macromolecular swelling, narrowing of intercellular spaces at lower skin layers, increased drug retention and reduced drug permeation. Ethosomes and microwave synergized to promote skin drug retention.

  9. Participant retention practices in longitudinal clinical research studies with high retention rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Abshire

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need for improving cohort retention in longitudinal studies. Our objective was to identify cohort retention strategies and implementation approaches used in studies with high retention rates. Methods Longitudinal studies with ≥200 participants, ≥80% retention rates over ≥1 year of follow-up were queried from an Institutional Review Board database at a large research-intensive U.S. university; additional studies were identified through networking. Nineteen (86% of 22 eligible studies agreed to participate. Through in-depth semi-structured interviews, participants provided retention strategies based on themes identified from previous literature reviews. Synthesis of data was completed by a multidisciplinary team. Results The most commonly used retention strategies were: study reminders, study visit characteristics, emphasizing study benefits, and contact/scheduling strategies. The research teams were well-functioning, organized, and persistent. Additionally, teams tailored their strategies to their participants, often adapting and innovating their approaches. Conclusions These studies included specialized and persistent teams and utilized tailored strategies specific to their cohort and individual participants. Studies’ written protocols and published manuscripts often did not reflect the varied strategies employed and adapted through the duration of study. Appropriate retention strategy use requires cultural sensitivity and more research is needed to identify how strategy use varies globally.

  10. Absorption and retention of selenium from shrimps in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugel, S. H.; Sandstrom, B.; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt

    2001-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the bioavailability of selenium in shrimps, a possible good source of selenium, by measurements of the absorption and retention of selenium and the effects on plasma selenium concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity. Twelve healthy young subjects (9F...... of the study, after 2, 4, and 6 weeks. The selenium intake increased from 39.4 +/- 15.3 mug/d to 127 +/- 5.5 mug/d with the addition of shrimps. The apparent absorption of selenium from shrimps was 83 +/- 4%, Faecal and urinary selenium excretion was 32.5 +/- 17.0 mug/d and 21.2 +/- 9.0 mug/d, re spectively...... and the total retention of selenium was 3.1 +/- 1.1 mg. Plasma selenium concentrations were 95.2 +/- 9.7 mug/L and 101.5 +/- 9.7 mug/L before and after six weeks of shrimp intake, respectively (p...

  11. Dark matter and LHC: Complementarities and limitations arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, G.; Arbey, A.; Boudaud, M.

    It is well known that dark matter density measurements, indirect and direct detection experiments, importantly complement the LHC in setting strong constraints on new physics scenarios. Yet, dark matter searches are subject to limitations which need to be considered for realistic analyses. For illustration, we explore the parameter space of the phenomenological MSSM and discuss the interplay of the constraints from dark matter searches and the LHC, and analyse the impact of the astrophysical uncertainties in some detail.

  12. The retention of [99mTc]-d,l-HM-PAO in the human brain after intracarotid bolus injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A; Andersen, A R; Friberg, L

    1988-01-01

    [99mTc]-d,l-HM-PAO (HM-PAO) was injected rapidly into the internal carotid artery and its retention in the brain was recorded by external scintillation cameras in eight human subjects. A model is described based on three compartments: the lipophilic tracer in the blood pool of the brain, the lipo......[99mTc]-d,l-HM-PAO (HM-PAO) was injected rapidly into the internal carotid artery and its retention in the brain was recorded by external scintillation cameras in eight human subjects. A model is described based on three compartments: the lipophilic tracer in the blood pool of the brain...

  13. Motives matter: a cultural historical approach to IT mediated subject matter teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenild, Kåre; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2011-01-01

    The contributors to this collection employ the analytic resources of cultural-historical theory to examine the relationship between childhood and children's development under different societal conditions. In particular they attend to relationships between development, emotions, motives and ident......The contributors to this collection employ the analytic resources of cultural-historical theory to examine the relationship between childhood and children's development under different societal conditions. In particular they attend to relationships between development, emotions, motives...

  14. Nutrient Retention by Spodosols in an Impacted Isolated Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadha, J. H.; Jawitz, J. W.

    2007-12-01

    Agricultural soils within the Lake Okeechobee drainage basin can pose a nutrient management challenge because of their low nutrient retention capacity and hydrological setting. While hydrological restoration of isolated wetlands within the hydroscape may mitigate some phosphorus (P) loss from pastures, P retention mechanisms within these wetlands are difficult to control, and depend primarily on vegetation, antecedent soil conditions, and climate. The objective of this research was to: (i) Characterize soil properties responsible for nutrient retention such as, texture, bulk density, particle density, porosity, soil organic matter (OM) and total P (TP) concentrations, and distinct hydric soil indicators; and (ii) Use steady-state diagenetic equations to describe the effect of physical and biological processes using a low authigenic phosphate (PO4) precipitation rate on measured soil pore water profiles. Results indicate that the spodosols exhibit a modified A-horizon within the upper few centimeters, a sandy illuviated E-horizon, a loamy Bt-horizon interspersed with Fe-Al redoximorphic features, a Bh-horizon with slightly higher soil TP concentrations, contained over a high density-low conductivity argillic clay horizon, and at least three distinct hydric soil indicators observed within the top 15 cm. An inverse relationship between porosity (17-50 %) and bulk density (0.8-2.2 g.cm-3) was attributed to physical stresses such as tillage and compaction. Based on the strong correlation between soil OM and TP we conclude that a large fraction of the soil P is organic, and not derived from inorganic agricultural amendments. However, the low sorption capacity of P by spodosols can pose a threat to downstream aquatic systems through ground water pathways, restricted only by the presence of semi-confining clayey horizons (below 120 cm depth) that may behave as preferential flow paths, and possibly retaining some of the P from solution onto its reaction sites. Lastly, pore

  15. Effects of Enhanced Thaw Depth on the Composition of Arctic Soil Organic Matter Leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, J.; Zhang, X.; Bianchi, T. S.; Schuur, E.; Arellano, A. R.; Liu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Pan-Arctic permafrost is increasingly susceptible to thaw due to the disproportionally high rate of temperature change in high latitudes. These soils contain a globally significant quantity of organic carbon that, when thawed, interacts with the modern carbon cycle. Current research has focused on atmospheric carbon fluxes and transport by rivers and streams to continental shelves, but has overlooked the lateral flux of carbon within watershed soils, which is the primary link between terrestrial and riverine ecosystems. Understanding the effects of water movement through permafrost soils on dissolved organic carbon is critical to better modelling of lateral carbon fluxes and interpreting the resulting observed riverine carbon fluxes with applications to investigations of the past, present, and future of the pan-Arctic. We conducted a laboratory leaching experiment using active layer soils from the Eight Mile Lake region of interior Alaska. Cores were sampled into surface and deep sections. Surface sections were subjected to a three-stage leaching process using artificial rain, with cores stored frozen overnight between stages (which crudely simulated freeze-thaw mechanisms). Surface leachates were sampled for analysis and the remainder percolated through deep soils using the same three-staged approach. Measurements of surface and deep leachates were selected to characterize transport-related changes to dissolved organic matter and included dissolved organic carbon, fluorescent dissolved organic matter via excitation emission matrices, and molecular composition via Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Primary findings from the experiment include a net retention of 2.4 to 27% of dissolved organic carbon from surface leachates in deep soils, a net release of fluorescent dissolved organic matter from deep soils that was 43 to 106% greater than surface leachates, increased hydrophobicity during stage three of leaching, and the preferential

  16. Matters of Life and Longing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Line

    of the ways that phenomenology can be used as a tool of critical social analysis. The book focuses on lived experience and subjective meaning within a life-world dominated by poverty and violence. Through a focus on the basic human need for recognition Dalsgaard describes women’s desire to be valuable...... from simplistic dichotomies of mind/body, history/biography in an effort to grasp human experience in its complexity. “Matters of Life and Longing” is a lucid and accessible work which will be of interest to a wide and varied audience with interest in Latin America, reproductive health, gender studies...

  17. Atrazine retention and transport in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, L; Selim, H M

    1996-01-01

    No pesticide has been studied as extensively as atrazine. The study of atrazine has contributed to our general understanding of the behavior of pesticides in soils. New knowledge and concepts were evaluated, such as atrazine adsorption kinetics, desorption hysteresis, and preferential flow. Corresponding conceptual models were also proposed to explain the behavior of atrazine in soils. Atrazine adsorption-desorption is the major process affecting atrazine behavior in soils and is mainly affected by organic matter and soil pH. Atrazine in soils is subject to biological and chemical degradations. Hydroxyatrazine, the chemical degradation product, is more strongly adsorbed to soil than atrazine. Deethylatrazine and deisopropylatrazine, the major biological degradation products, are more mobile than atrazine. Hydrolysis of atrazine is soil-surface catalyzed and favored by low soil pH. The overall dissipation rate of atrazine was found to be pseudo first-order. Two distinct and different processes are involved in atrazine movement: slow transport through the soil matrix and rapid movement through macropores. The first process is controlled by adsorption kinetics and degradation reactions and can be well explained by models based on chemical heterogeneity, such as the two-site models and second-order models. The second flow process results from preferential flow through large pores and can be explained by physical nonequilibrium models such as the mobile-immobile and two-flow domain models. Because both processes coexist in atrazine transport, coupling of physical and chemical nonequilibrium models is often necessary and has shown promise in atrazine transport modeling. However, more efforts are needed in estimating model parameters and in developing management-oriented models.

  18. Linguoaxial wall and cervicoincisal dimension of anterior crown preparation: effect on retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami, Amir H; Campagni, Wayne V; Peregrina, Alejandro; Johnston, William M; Rosenstiel, Stephen F

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate the effect of the linguoaxial wall, a lingual auxiliary groove, and the cervicoincisal dimension of the anterior tooth preparation on retention. A simulated maxillary central incisor was prepared following "ideal" guidelines. The linguoaxial wall of these preparations was modified and the samples were divided into three groups: preparations with a linguoaxial wall (Group 1), preparations with a linguoaxial wall and groove (Group 2), and preparations with no linguoaxial wall (Group 3). Ten metal dies and crowns were fabricated from each preparation group. A universal testing machine subjected cemented crowns to force along the long axis of the dies and load-to-dislodgement was measured. All preparations were shortened by 3.0 mm and crowns for the reduced-height groups were fabricated, cemented, and subjected to similar force. The preparations with the groove produced higher mean retention than the other groups. Among the reduced-height groups, the preparations with the groove also produced higher mean retention than the other groups. There were no differences in mean retention for the short and long preparation heights of each group.

  19. Hydraulic analysis of functioning of the drainage channel with increased retention capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pochwat Kamil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic overload of networks and its related objects is a problem that is more and more common in drainage systems. The most popular way to prevent it from its occurring is to increase the storage capacity of the system. At present, there are numerous solutions allowing to increase retention in drainage systems, with the selection of the most beneficial one being dependent on numerous factors; it must also be preceded by a technical and financial analysis. Financial analysis is of particular importance here, since due to significant dimensions and complicated structure, these objects require high investment outlays for its construction. As a consequence, it is a priority to undertake actions aimed at developing such solutions that will allow for significant increases of retention in the drainage system, and cost reductions at the same time. One of such solutions is the Underground tank for combined sewage and stormwater that is now patent-pending. The application of this solution allows to multiply retention capacity of the drainage system, without the necessity of modernizing the existing sewer system. This paper presents the application potential of the subject method for increasing sewer retention, along with its hydraulic function analysis. The research carried out and presented was based on the analysis of individual phases of functioning of the subject solution.

  20. Reframing Retention Strategy: A Focus on Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Charles C.

    2013-01-01

    When institutions engage in discussions regarding improving retention and graduation rates, invariably the conversation focuses on entering student characteristics, especially ACT and SAT scores and high school grades. Clearly, attracting and enrolling well-prepared and motivated high-ability students will certainly improve institutional measures…

  1. Employee Retention: A Challenge of the Nineties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiss, Tony

    1990-01-01

    Considers ways in which community colleges can help employers implement programs to improve the work environment and retain trained workers. Presents a model for employee retention that has worked effectively in Pueblo, Colorado. Describes Pueblo Community College's cooperative program with the Wats Marketing Group to help reduce employee…

  2. Managing talent retention: an ROI approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phillips, Jack J; Edwards, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    .... Employee retention will continue to be an important issue for most job groups in the next decade. Unwanted talent departure continues to be one of the most unappreciated and undervalued issues facing business leaders. This stems from several important assumptions and conclusions about turnover: 1. All stakeholders involved in the issue, including human ...

  3. Designing a Better Navy Aviation Retention Bonus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    human worth, community.  Military bearing/character—Appearance, conduct, physical fitness , adherence to Navy Core Values.  Teamwork—Contributions...Federal Aviation Administration FITREP fitness report FOS failure of selection FRG Fleet Replenishment Group FRS Fleet Replenishment Squadron IFS...retention bonus while fitting within the current promotion and advancement system. C. STUDY ORGANIZATION The study is separated into six chapters that

  4. Foster Family Resources, Psychosocial Functioning, and Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Kathryn W.; Orme, John G.; Cox, Mary Ellen; Buehler, Cheryl

    2003-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the effect of family resources and psychosocial problems on retention for foster families. Almost 50 percent of families who started preservice training did not complete it. Families with more psychosocial problems and fewer resources were more likely to express uncertainly about continuing. These results have…

  5. Effects of Emotional Intelligence on Teacher Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, Grant Ronald

    2010-01-01

    This mixed methods, explanatory design study focused on determining if the emotional intelligence of principals affects the retention of new teachers. In phase one, a non-random cluster sample of 138 public school principals in the state of Louisiana was surveyed using a quantitative instrument. A Factor Analysis, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and…

  6. Water retention in mushroom during sustainable processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, E.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with the understanding of the water holding capacity of mushroom, in the context of a redesign of their industrial processing. For designing food process the retention of food quality is of the utmost importance. Water holding capacity is an important quality aspect of mushrooms. A

  7. Associations between stormwater retention pond parameters and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Presented in this paper are the results of correlational analyses and logistic regression between metal substances (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn), as well as suspended solids removal, and physical pond parameters of 19 stormwater retention pond case studies obtained from the International Stormwater BMP database. Included are ...

  8. The Case for Focusing on Millennial Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Jenna; Deline, Marisa; Virkstis, Katherine

    A concern for nurse leaders is rapid turnover of engaged, early-tenure millennial nurses. In this 1st article in a 2-part series, the authors describe why leaders should supplement their organization's current investments in engagement with retention strategies targeted at millennial nurses.

  9. Retention practices in education human resources management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    The public education system in South Africa, particularly in public schools, faces serious problems. The review of retention practices for teachers is premised on the principles of quality management which aim at continual increase of the accountability in education human resources management. This research revealed that ...

  10. Relationship of Personality Traits to Student Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, John Paul

    2010-01-01

    Carl Jung's theory of psychological types has been the basis for the development of personality categorization, including tests such as Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). This study analyzed the extent of the relationship between MBTI and Tinto (1993) retention factors that influence Oriental medicine students' choice of staying or dropping out…

  11. Modeling Coast Redwood Variable Retention Management Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    John-Pascal Berrill; Kevin O' Hara

    2007-01-01

    Variable retention is a flexible silvicultural system that provides forest managers with an alternative to clearcutting. While much of the standing volume is removed in one harvesting operation, residual stems are retained to provide structural complexity and wildlife habitat functions, or to accrue volume before removal during subsequent stand entries. The residual...

  12. Studies on nitrogen retention in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorbek, G; Henckel, S; Chwalibog, André

    1987-01-01

    Nitrogen retention (RN) was measured in 60 barrows of Danish Landrace and a total of 470 balance periods was carried out during the growth period from 20 to 85 kg live weight. In the first serie (Expt A) six different feed compounds of high biological value (HBV) were fed to 48 barrows, while...... in the second serie (Expt B) 12 barrows were measured on feed compounds of HBV or low biological value (LBV). Three different levels of gross energy were used in Expt B. Individual differences of 10-20% in the pigs capability for nitrogen retention were observed. Nitrogen retention increased from 12 to 21 g N....../d on the HBV-compounds and was not influenced by increasing nitrogen or energy intake. Nitrogen retention was curvilinear in relation to metabolic live weight (kg0.75) in both series. A parabolic function on kg0.75 gave the best fit to the data with the following regression equations: Expt A + B: RN, g/d = 1...

  13. Global distribution of soil phosphorus retention potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batjes, N.H.

    2011-01-01

    Limited availability of P in soils to crops may be due to deficiency and/or severe P retention. Earlier studies that drew on large soil profile databases have indicated that it is not (yet) feasible to present meaningful values for “plant-available” soil P, obtained according to comparable

  14. 7 CFR 400.412 - Record retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Record retention. 400.412 Section 400.412 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS General Administrative Regulations; Collection and Storage of...

  15. 33 CFR 133.21 - Records retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 133.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS § 133.21 Records retention. (a) The State official shall maintain all records for ten years following completion of...

  16. Longitudinal Literature Review on Grade Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Carleton R.; Range, Bret; Pijanowski, John

    2009-01-01

    Literature on retention focuses on both short term and long term outcomes for retained students. Short term outcomes typically include academic achievement, self-esteem issues, and occurrence of behavior problems. Long term outcomes include academic growth and persistence to graduation. Regardless of the focus and intent of the study, research on…

  17. Testing to Enhance Retention in Human Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Jessica M.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Marshak, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in cognitive psychology has shown that repeatedly testing one's knowledge is a powerful learning aid and provides substantial benefits for retention of the material. To apply this in a human anatomy course for medical students, 39 fill-in-the-blank quizzes of about 50 questions each, one for each region of the body, and four about the…

  18. Healthcare Learning Community and Student Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sherryl W.

    2014-01-01

    Teaching, learning, and retention processes have evolved historically to include multifaceted techniques beyond the traditional lecture. This article presents related results of a study using a healthcare learning community in a southwest Georgia university. The value of novel techniques and tools in promoting student learning and retention…

  19. 5 CFR 293.404 - Retention schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RECORDS Employee Performance File System Records § 293.404 Retention schedule. (a)(1) Except as provided... prescribe and consistent with § 293.405(a). (3) Appraisals of unacceptable performance, where a notice of... performance-related documents five years old or less shall be forwarded in the Employee Performance File along...

  20. Retention practices in education human resources management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The public education system in South Africa, particularly in public schools, faces serious problems. The review of retention practices for teachers is premised on the principles of quality management which aim at continual increase of the accountability in education human resources management. This research revealed that ...

  1. 5 CFR 9701.356 - Pay retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pay retention. 9701.356 Section 9701.356 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES...

  2. Moisture Retention Characteristics of Soils of Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Least total available water was found in soils over alluvium (4.03). Total available water had a significant relationship with total sand (R2 = 0.56, P=0.01). Soil moisture retention characteristic dependent variable was highly predicted by independent variables of total sand, clay content and organic carbon at various tension ...

  3. Silage quality, dry matter intake and digestibility by West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grass mixtures were subjected to silage for 42 days. Quality and chemical composition of the silage was assessed. Silage was also fed to WAD sheep to determine the dry matter intake (DMI) and dry matter digestibility (DMD). Crude protein for 4WGG was 17.5% higher than that of 12WGG. Silage colour was normal except ...

  4. Understanding Physical Educators' Perceptions of Mattering Questionnaire--Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, K. Andrew R.; Gaudreault, Karen Lux; Woods, Amelia Mays

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has illustrated that physical educators feel their subject is valued less than others in the context of schools. However, to date, no instruments have been developed to measure physical education teachers' perceptions of mattering. This study sought to propose and validate the Perceived Mattering Questionnaire--Physical Education…

  5. The influence of bleaching agent and temperature on bleaching efficacy and volatile components of fluid whey and whey retentate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, A J; Smith, T J; Gerard, P D; Drake, M A

    2013-10-01

    Fluid whey or retentate are often bleached to remove residual annatto Cheddar cheese colorant, and this process causes off-flavors in dried whey proteins. This study determined the impact of temperature and bleaching agent on bleaching efficacy and volatile components in fluid whey and fluid whey retentate. Freshly manufactured liquid whey (6.7% solids) or concentrated whey protein (retentate) (12% solids, 80% protein) were bleached using benzoyl peroxide (BP) at 100 mg/kg (w/w) or hydrogen peroxide (HP) at 250 mg/kg (w/w) at 5 °C for 16 h or 50 °CC for 1 h. Unbleached controls were subjected to a similar temperature profile. The experiment was replicated three times. Annatto destruction (bleaching efficacy) among treatments was compared, and volatile compounds were extracted and separated using solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME GC-MS). Bleaching efficacy of BP was higher than HP (P whey at both 5 and 50 °C. HP bleaching efficacy was increased in retentate compared to liquid whey (P whey retentate, there was no difference between bleaching with HP or BP at 50 or 5 °C (P > 0.05). Retentate bleached with HP at either temperature had higher relative abundances of pentanal, hexanal, heptanal, and octanal than BP bleached retentate (P wheys generally had lower concentrations of selected volatiles compared to retentates. These results suggest that the highest bleaching efficacy (within the parameters evaluated) in liquid whey is achieved using BP at 5 or 50 °C and at 50 °C with HP or BP in whey protein retentate. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Pedotransfer functions to estimate water retention parameters of soils in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Hugo Cezar Barros

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pedotransfer functions (PTF were developed to estimate the parameters (α, n, θr and θs of the van Genuchten model (1980 to describe soil water retention curves. The data came from various sources, mainly from studies conducted by universities in Northeast Brazil, by the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa and by a corporation for the development of the São Francisco and Parnaíba river basins (Codevasf, totaling 786 retention curves, which were divided into two data sets: 85 % for the development of PTFs, and 15 % for testing and validation, considered independent data. Aside from the development of general PTFs for all soils together, specific PTFs were developed for the soil classes Ultisols, Oxisols, Entisols, and Alfisols by multiple regression techniques, using a stepwise procedure (forward and backward to select the best predictors. Two types of PTFs were developed: the first included all predictors (soil density, proportions of sand, silt, clay, and organic matter, and the second only the proportions of sand, silt and clay. The evaluation of adequacy of the PTFs was based on the correlation coefficient (R and Willmott index (d. To evaluate the PTF for the moisture content at specific pressure heads, we used the root mean square error (RMSE. The PTF-predicted retention curve is relatively poor, except for the residual water content. The inclusion of organic matter as a PTF predictor improved the prediction of parameter a of van Genuchten. The performance of soil-class-specific PTFs was not better than of the general PTF. Except for the water content of saturated soil estimated by particle size distribution, the tested models for water content prediction at specific pressure heads proved satisfactory. Predictions of water content at pressure heads more negative than -0.6 m, using a PTF considering particle size distribution, are only slightly lower than those obtained by PTFs including bulk density and organic matter

  7. Codecaying Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Jeff Asaf; Kuflik, Eric; Ng, Wee Hao

    2016-11-18

    We propose a new mechanism for thermal dark matter freeze-out, called codecaying dark matter. Multicomponent dark sectors with degenerate particles and out-of-equilibrium decays can codecay to obtain the observed relic density. The dark matter density is exponentially depleted through the decay of nearly degenerate particles rather than from Boltzmann suppression. The relic abundance is set by the dark matter annihilation cross section, which is predicted to be boosted, and the decay rate of the dark sector particles. The mechanism is viable in a broad range of dark matter parameter space, with a robust prediction of an enhanced indirect detection signal. Finally, we present a simple model that realizes codecaying dark matter.

  8. Nicotine delivery, retention and pharmacokinetics from various electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Helen, Gideon; Havel, Christopher; Dempsey, Delia A; Jacob, Peyton; Benowitz, Neal L

    2016-03-01

    To measure the systemic retention of nicotine, propylene glycol (PG) and vegetable glycerin (VG) in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) users, and assess the abuse liability of e-cigarettes by characterizing nicotine pharmacokinetics. E-cigarette users recruited over the internet participated in a 1-day research ward study. Subjects took 15 puffs from their usual brand of e-cigarette. Exhaled breath was trapped in gas-washing bottles and blood was sampled before and several times after use. San Francisco, California, USA. Thirteen healthy, experienced adult e-cigarette users (six females and seven males). Plasma nicotine was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) and nicotine, VG and PG in e-liquids and gas traps were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Heart rate changes and subjective effects were assessed. E-cigarettes delivered an average of 1.33 (0.87-1.79) mg [mean and 95% confidence interval (CI)] of nicotine, and 93.8% of the inhaled dose, 1.22 (0.80-1.66) was systemically retained. Average maximum plasma nicotine concentration (Cmax ) was 8.4 (5.4-11.5) ng/ml and time of maximal concentration (Tmax ) was 2-5 minutes. One participant had Tmax of 30 minutes. 84.4% and 91.7% of VG and PG, respectively, was systemically retained. Heart rate increased by an average of 8.0 beats per minute after 5 minutes. Withdrawal and urge to smoke decreased and the e-cigarettes were described as satisfying. E-cigarettes can deliver levels of nicotine that are comparable to or higher than typical tobacco cigarettes, with similar systemic retention. Although the average maximum plasma nicotine concentration in experienced e-cigarette users appears to be generally lower than what has been reported from tobacco cigarette use, the shape of the pharmacokinetic curve is similar, suggesting addictive potential. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Dark Matter Indirect Signatures

    OpenAIRE

    Lavalle, Julien; Salati, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The astronomical dark matter could be made of weakly interacting and massive particles. If so, these species would be abundant inside the Milky Way, where they would continuously annihilate and produce cosmic rays. Those annihilation products are potentially detectable at the Earth, and could provide indirect clues for the presence of dark matter species within the Galaxy. We will review here the various cosmic radiations which the dark matter can produce. We will examine how they propagate t...

  10. Clumpy cold dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joseph; Stebbins, Albert

    1993-01-01

    A study is conducted of cold dark matter (CDM) models in which clumpiness will inhere, using cosmic strings and textures suited to galaxy formation. CDM clumps of 10 million solar mass/cu pc density are generated at about z(eq) redshift, with a sizable fraction surviving. Observable implications encompass dark matter cores in globular clusters and in galactic nuclei. Results from terrestrial dark matter detection experiments may be affected by clumpiness in the Galactic halo.

  11. Removal versus retention of cerclage in preterm premature rupture of membranes: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galyean, Anna; Garite, Thomas J; Maurel, Kimberly; Abril, Diana; Adair, Charles D; Browne, Paul; Combs, C Andrew; How, Helen; Iriye, Brian K; Kominiarek, Michelle; Lu, George; Luthy, David; Miller, Hugh; Nageotte, Michael; Ozcan, Tulin; Porto, Manuel; Ramirez, Mildred; Sawai, Shirley; Sorokin, Yoram

    2014-10-01

    The decision of whether to retain or remove a previously placed cervical cerclage in women who subsequently rupture fetal membranes in a premature gestation is controversial and all studies to date are retrospective. We performed a multicenter randomized controlled trial of removal vs retention of cerclage in these patients to determine whether leaving the cerclage in place prolonged gestation and/or increased the risk of maternal or fetal infection. A prospective randomized multicenter trial of 27 hospitals was performed. Patients included were those with cerclage placement at ≤23 weeks 6 days in singleton or twin pregnancies, with subsequent spontaneous rupture of membranes between 22 weeks 0 days and 32 weeks 6 days. Patients were randomized to retention or removal of cerclage. Patients were then expectantly managed and delivered only for evidence of labor, chorioamnionitis, fetal distress, or other medical or obstetrical indications. Management after 34 weeks was at the clinician's discretion. The initial sample size calculation determined that a total of 142 patients should be included but after a second interim analysis, futility calculations determined that the conditional power for showing statistical significance after randomizing 142 patients for the primary outcome of prolonging pregnancy was 22.8%. Thus the study was terminated after a total of 56 subjects were randomized with complete data available for analysis, 32 to removal and 24 to retention of cerclage. There was no statistical significance in primary outcome of prolonging pregnancy by 1 week comparing the 2 groups (removal 18/32, 56.3%; retention 11/24, 45.8%) P = .59; or chorioamnionitis (removal 8/32, 25.0%; retention 10/24, 41.7%) P = .25, respectively. There was no statistical difference in composite neonatal outcomes (removal 16/33, 50%; retention 17/30, 56%), fetal/neonatal death (removal 4/33, 12%; retention 5/30, 16%); or gestational age at delivery (removal mean 200 days; retention

  12. Calculation of retention time tolerance windows with absolute confidence from shared liquid chromatographic retention data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Paul G; Abate-Pella, Daniel; Hewitt, Joshua T

    2015-09-18

    Compound identification by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is a tedious process, mainly because authentic standards must be run on a user's system to be able to confidently reject a potential identity from its retention time and mass spectral properties. Instead, it would be preferable to use shared retention time/index data to narrow down the identity, but shared data cannot be used to reject candidates with an absolute level of confidence because the data are strongly affected by differences between HPLC systems and experimental conditions. However, a technique called "retention projection" was recently shown to account for many of the differences. In this manuscript, we discuss an approach to calculate appropriate retention time tolerance windows for projected retention times, potentially making it possible to exclude candidates with an absolute level of confidence, without needing to have authentic standards of each candidate on hand. In a range of multi-segment gradients and flow rates run among seven different labs, the new approach calculated tolerance windows that were significantly more appropriate for each retention projection than global tolerance windows calculated for retention projections or linear retention indices. Though there were still some small differences between the labs that evidently were not taken into account, the calculated tolerance windows only needed to be relaxed by 50% to make them appropriate for all labs. Even then, 42% of the tolerance windows calculated in this study without standards were narrower than those required by WADA for positive identification, where standards must be run contemporaneously. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Towards Retention And Moving Beyond Acquisition. : Refining Consumer Customer Retention at Vaarani Works Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Muriuki, Mike

    2015-01-01

    In today’s highly competitive cloud business market, increasing customer retention strategies emerges as an important challenge faced by most marketers. An even more demanding task, is minimizing customer churn rates within organisations. Organisations are striving to move beyond just acquiring customers and towards excellence through retention. For businesses to remain competitive and successful, they have to develop methods and strategies that ensure they acquire and retain only the profita...

  14. Soft matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Doi, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Soft matter (polymers, colloids, surfactants and liquid crystals) are an important class of materials in modern technology. They also form the basis of many future technologies, for example in medical and environmental applications. Soft matter shows complex behaviour between fluids and solids, and used to be a synonym of complex materials. Due to the developments of the past two decades, soft condensed matter can now be discussed on the same sound physical basis as solid condensedmatter. The purpose of this book is to provide an overview of soft matter for undergraduate and graduate students

  15. Searches for dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Feinstein, Fabrice

    2000-01-01

    The fact that the mass of the visible stars could not account for the gravitational cohesion of the galaxies was the first sign of non-visible (i.e. dark) matter in the Universe. Since then, many observational evidences tell us that most of the matter is indeed dark. The nature of this dark matter is still unknown. There are good reasons to think that most of it is not composed of normal matter. These lectures will review the experimental methods, which have been developed to unravel this mystery and will compare their results with theoretical predictions.

  16. Front matter: Volume 10385

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assoufid, Lahsen; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Asundi, Anand K.

    2017-09-01

    This PDF file contains the front matter associated with SPIE Proceedings Volume 10385, including the Title Page, Copyright information, Table of Contents, Introduction, and Conference Committee listing.

  17. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  18. Chemical evaluation of soil organic matter structure in diverse cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil organic matter (SOM) improves soil structure, nutrient and water retention, and biodiversity while reducing susceptibility to soil erosion. SOM also represents an important pool of C that can be increased to help mitigate global climate change. Our understanding of how agricultural management ...

  19. Measuring the Impact of the Quality Matters Rubric™: A Discussion of Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legon, Ron

    2015-01-01

    In countless discussions over the past ten years with educators considering the adoption of the Quality Matters (QM) Rubric™, the most common question asked is, "Can you prove that applying the QM Rubric to an online course improves outcomes--retention, grades, learner satisfaction?" This question seems necessary, reasonable, and even…

  20. Effect of N, P and K Humates on Dry Matter of Zea mays and Soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sharjeel Ahmad

    consisting urea, triple superphosphate (TSP) and mono triphosphate (MOP) amended with or without. HA, FA, acidified HA and FA and humin significantly increased the dry matter of the test crop with significant retention of soil exchangeable ammonium. However, only the complete fertilizer with and without HA and humin ...

  1. 7 CFR 277.12 - Retention and custody of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retention and custody of records. 277.12 Section 277.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE... OF STATE AGENCIES § 277.12 Retention and custody of records. (a) Retention period. All financial...

  2. Framing Retention for Institutional Improvement: A 4 Ps Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsbeek, David H.

    2013-01-01

    A 4 Ps framework for student retention strategy is a construct for reframing the retention discussion in a way that enables institutional improvement by challenging some conventional wisdom and prevailing perspectives that have characterized retention strategy for years. It opens new possibilities for action and improvement by suggesting that…

  3. Evaluation of the water retention curve of Abidjan Quaternary aquifer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods and Results: The water retention curve is difficult to measure in situ on large sites like this aquifer. Kovac's modified model to predict the water retention curve is tested. Predicted curves are compared with in situ measurements points. The results show that, overall, the model predicts well the water retention curves.

  4. 49 CFR 382.401 - Retention of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Handling of Test Results, Records Retention, and Confidentiality § 382.401 Retention of records. (a) General requirement. Each employer shall maintain records of its alcohol misuse... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of records. 382.401 Section 382.401...

  5. Predictors of Atrasentan-Associated Fluid Retention and Change in Albuminuria in Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohan, Donald E; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; Coll, Blai; Andress, Dennis; Brennan, John J; Kitzman, Dalane W; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Makino, Hirofumi; Perkovic, Vlado; Hou, Fan Fan; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Tobe, Sheldon W; Toto, Robert; Parving, Hans-Henrik; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2015-09-04

    Endothelin A receptor antagonists (ERAs) decrease residual albuminuria in patients with diabetic kidney disease; however, their clinical utility may be limited by fluid retention. Consequently, the primary objective of this study was to identify predictors for ERA-induced fluid retention among patients with type 2 diabetes and CKD. A secondary objective was to determine if the degree of fluid retention necessarily correlated with the magnitude of albuminuria reduction in those patients receiving ERAs. A post hoc analysis was conducted of the phase IIb atrasentan trials assessing albuminuria reduction in 211 patients with type 2 diabetes, urine albumin/creatinine ratios of 300-3500 mg/g, and eGFRs of 30-75 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) who were randomly assigned to receive placebo (n=50) or atrasentan 0.75 mg/d (n=78) or 1.25 mg/d (n=83) for 12 weeks. Changes in body weight and hemoglobin (Hb) after 2 weeks of treatment were used as surrogate markers of fluid retention. Baseline predictors of weight gain after 2 weeks of atrasentan treatment were higher atrasentan dose, lower eGFR, higher glycated hemoglobin, higher systolic BP, and lower homeostatic metabolic assessment product. Higher atrasentan dose and lower eGFR also predicted decreases in Hb. There were no changes in B-type natriuretic peptide. There was no correlation between reduction in albuminuria after 2 weeks of atrasentan treatment and changes in body weight or Hb. In the Reducing Residual Albuminuria in Subjects With Diabetes and Nephropathy With Atrasentan/JAPAN trials, atrasentan-associated fluid retention was more likely in patients with diabetes and nephropathy who had lower eGFR or received a higher dose of atrasentan. Finding that albuminuria reduction was not associated with changes in body weight and Hb suggests that the albuminuria-reducing efficacy of atrasentan is not impaired by fluid retention. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  6. Effect of novel restorative materials and retention slots on fracture resistance of endodontically-treated teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasa, Bilal; Arslan, Hakan; Yasa, Elif; Akcay, Merve; Hatirli, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fracture resistance of endodontically-treated teeth restored with nano-hybrid composite resin, bulk-fill flowable and short fibre-reinforced-composite in the absence/presence of retention slots. One hundred and ten extracted non-carious human mandibular molars received endodontic treatment followed by mesio-occlusodistal (MOD) cavities with 3 ± 0.2 mm thicknesses of buccal and lingual walls. Teeth were divided into two main groups according to the retention slot preparation. The dove-tail retention slots were prepared on the middle of opposite buccal and lingual walls to create mechanical interlocking. Each group was further divided into four sub-groups according to restorative material types: control (no restoration), nano-hybrid composite resin (Filtek™ Z550), bulk-fill flowable (Filtek™ Bulk Fill) and short fibre-reinforced-composite (everX Posterior™). Restored teeth were subjected to compressive load at a strain rate of 1 mm/min. The data were statistically analysed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test for multiple comparisons. The fracture resistance was significantly affected by the presence of the retentive slots and restorative material (p resistance compared with restored teeth without retentive slots (p resistance values compared with the other test groups (p resistance of endodontically-treated teeth, especially, when restored with short fibre-reinforced composite. The use of short fibre-reinforced composite with retentive slots could be an alternative technique to prevent cuspal fracture on endodontically-treated teeth with MOD cavity.

  7. Association between exercise habits and subcortical gray matter volumes in healthy elderly people: A population-based study in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikie Yamamoto

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Subjects with exercise habits show larger subcortical gray matter volumes than subjects without exercise habits in community-dwelling elderly subjects in Japan. Specifically, the volume of the nucleus accumbens correlates with both exercise habits and cognitive preservation.

  8. Asymptotically Safe Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Shoemaker, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new paradigm for dark matter (DM) interactions in which the interaction strength is asymptotically safe. In models of this type, the coupling strength is small at low energies but increases at higher energies, and asymptotically approaches a finite constant value. The resulting...... searches are the primary ways to constrain or discover asymptotically safe dark matter....

  9. Dark Matter Day

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Wessel Valkenburg, Research Fellow at the Theory Department at CERN will explain the how and why research is carried out on dark matter. The event will be in English with simultaneous interpretation into French. Dark Matter Day falls on Hallow...

  10. CORRELATION BETWEEN PARTICULATE MATTER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BIG TIMMY

    2017-03-21

    Mar 21, 2017 ... Measurement of atmospheric particulate matter was carried out with a view to establish the potential influence of meteorological parameters such as wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, rainfall, relative humidity and global radiation on the mass concentration. Particulate matter (PM) in two size ...

  11. Dark matter and cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1992-03-01

    The cosmological dark matter problem is reviewed. The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints on the baryon density are compared with the densities implied by visible matter, dark halos, dynamics of clusters, gravitational lenses, large-scale velocity flows, and the {Omega} = 1 flatness/inflation argument. It is shown that (1) the majority of baryons are dark; and (2) non-baryonic dark matter is probably required on large scales. It is also noted that halo dark matter could be either baryonic or non-baryonic. Descrimination between cold'' and hot'' non-baryonic candidates is shown to depend on the assumed seeds'' that stimulate structure formation. Gaussian density fluctuations, such as those induced by quantum fluctuations, favor cold dark matter, whereas topological defects such as strings, textures or domain walls may work equally or better with hot dark matter. A possible connection between cold dark matter, globular cluster ages and the Hubble constant is mentioned. Recent large-scale structure measurements, coupled with microwave anisotropy limits, are shown to raise some questions for the previously favored density fluctuation picture. Accelerator and underground limits on dark matter candidates are also reviewed.

  12. Dark matter and cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1992-03-01

    The cosmological dark matter problem is reviewed. The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints on the baryon density are compared with the densities implied by visible matter, dark halos, dynamics of clusters, gravitational lenses, large-scale velocity flows, and the {Omega} = 1 flatness/inflation argument. It is shown that (1) the majority of baryons are dark; and (2) non-baryonic dark matter is probably required on large scales. It is also noted that halo dark matter could be either baryonic or non-baryonic. Descrimination between ``cold`` and ``hot`` non-baryonic candidates is shown to depend on the assumed ``seeds`` that stimulate structure formation. Gaussian density fluctuations, such as those induced by quantum fluctuations, favor cold dark matter, whereas topological defects such as strings, textures or domain walls may work equally or better with hot dark matter. A possible connection between cold dark matter, globular cluster ages and the Hubble constant is mentioned. Recent large-scale structure measurements, coupled with microwave anisotropy limits, are shown to raise some questions for the previously favored density fluctuation picture. Accelerator and underground limits on dark matter candidates are also reviewed.

  13. Impact of management development on nurse retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Alexis A

    2005-01-01

    Nurse retention is essential to maintain quality healthcare organizations. In an effort to mitigate the loss of nurse managers, a management education program was created for new and transitioning nurse managers that included scholarships for nurses from long-term and rural acute care settings. Program evaluation was based upon the outcomes of anticipated turnover and employee satisfaction. Using a preprogram and postprogram evaluation, the Index of Work Satisfaction (IWS) and the Anticipated Turnover Scale (ATS) were used to survey participants. Descriptive statistics as well as Wilcoxon statistics for group comparisons were used for analysis. ATS scores were significantly reduced (P attrition, findings can only be considered preliminary. While the high level of attrition among the scholarship recipients is disappointing, potential attendance barriers are discussed, particularly from long-term care settings. Management development programs may improve the satisfaction and retention of critically needed managers and enhance development of future nursing leaders.

  14. Psychogenic urine retention during doping controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Schlegel, Marius M.; Brand, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Psychogenic urine retention during doping controls (PURD) refers to an athlete's inability to urinate during a doping control. This paper reports PURD to occur quite frequently in elite athletes, investigates the relationship to the clinical disorder of paruresis (PAR), and investigates its...... relation to recovery, performance, and self-perception of professionalism and athletic excellence. Furthermore, a scale developed especially for the close description and measurement of PURD is presented. A questionnaire was used for measuring paruresis. The results are based on two online and one paper...... and pencil study involving 222 German-speaking athletes from various sports. The results indicate that 60% of these athletes have experienced psychogenic urine retention during doping controls, with only 39% of them showing symptoms of paruresis. PURD impacts athlete recovery and self...

  15. Adolescent student nurses: implications for retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Jean

    2008-04-01

    Students on child branch programmes tend to be younger than those joining other branches. There appear to be issues that are specific to younger children's nursing students that could have an impact on student retention. In this article, young student nurses (under 21 years of age) are viewed as late adolescents. Issues that may impact on retention are explored including: identity development, transition to university life, adolescents as learners and coping strategies and support. Younger children's nursing students also face the specific challenge of nursing adolescents not much younger than themselves. Educationalists need to be mindful of the differing needs of students across the age range, especially younger students who are immersed in the transitions to adulthood and the sometimes difficult times encountered when exploring their personal identity as well as their university identity.

  16. A model of nursing student retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Elisabeth N

    2012-03-18

    A model of nursing student retention was studied in nontraditional, associate degree nursing students. Student retention was defined as persistence, or choosing to continue in a nursing program, and successful academic performance, or meeting the necessary academic standards to continue in a nursing program. The model shows the interaction of background variables, internal psychological processes, and external supports, and their relationships to persistence and academic performance. Participants were 458 nontraditional associate degree nursing students. There were significant differences in background variables between students who persisted and those who withdrew voluntarily or failed academically. Perceived faculty support was related to both persistence and academic performance, such that students with higher perceived faculty support were more likely to continue in a nursing program until graduation and were more likely to be successful academically. Students with higher perceived faculty support also had higher outcome expectations of earning an associate degree in nursing.

  17. Assessing the impact of health literacy on education retention of stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Kalina; Schnepel, Loretta; Smotherman, Carmen; Livingood, William; Dodani, Sunita; Antonios, Nader; Lukens-Bull, Katryne; Balls-Berry, Joyce; Johnson, Yvonne; Miller, Terri; Hodges, Wayne; Falk, Diane; Wood, David; Silliman, Scott

    2014-04-10

    Inadequate health literacy is a pervasive problem with major implications for reduced health status and health disparities. Despite the role of focused education in both primary and secondary prevention of stroke, the effect of health literacy on stroke education retention has not been reported. We examined the relationship of health literacy to the retention of knowledge after recommended stroke education. This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted at an urban safety-net hospital. Study subjects were patients older than 18 admitted to the hospital stroke unit with a diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke who were able to provide informed consent to participate (N = 100). Health literacy levels were measured by using the short form of Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Patient education was provided to patients at an inpatient stroke unit by using standardized protocols, in compliance with Joint Commission specifications. The education outcomes for poststroke care education, knowledge retention, was assessed for each subject. The effect of health literacy on the Stroke Patient Education Retention scores was assessed by using univariate and multivariate analyses. Of the 100 participating patients, 59% had inadequate to marginal health literacy. Stroke patients who had marginal health literacy (mean score, 7.45; standard deviation [SD], 1.9) or adequate health literacy (mean score, 7.31; SD, 1.76) had statistically higher education outcome scores than those identified as having inadequate health literacy (mean score, 5.58; SD, 2.06). Results from multivariate analysis indicated that adequate health literacy was most predictive of education outcome retention. This study demonstrated a clear relationship between health literacy and stroke education outcomes. Studies are needed to better understand the relationship of health literacy to key educational outcomes for primary or secondary prevention of stroke and to refine stroke education for literacy

  18. Enabling forbidden dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, James M.; Liu, Hongwan; Slatyer, Tracy R.; Xue, Wei

    2017-10-01

    The thermal relic density of dark matter is conventionally set by two-body annihilations. We point out that in many simple models, 3 →2 annihilations can play an important role in determining the relic density over a broad range of model parameters. This occurs when the two-body annihilation is kinematically forbidden, but the 3 →2 process is allowed; we call this scenario not-forbidden dark matter. We illustrate this mechanism for a vector-portal dark matter model, showing that for a dark matter mass of mχ˜MeV -10 GeV , 3 →2 processes not only lead to the observed relic density, but also imply a self-interaction cross section that can solve the cusp/core problem. This can be accomplished while remaining consistent with stringent CMB constraints on light dark matter, and can potentially be discovered at future direct detection experiments.

  19. Macro Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobs, David M; Lynn, Bryan W.

    2015-01-01

    Dark matter is a vital component of the current best model of our universe, $\\Lambda$CDM. There are leading candidates for what the dark matter could be (e.g. weakly-interacting massive particles, or axions), but no compelling observational or experimental evidence exists to support these particular candidates, nor any beyond-the-Standard-Model physics that might produce such candidates. This suggests that other dark matter candidates, including ones that might arise in the Standard Model, should receive increased attention. Here we consider a general class of dark matter candidates with characteristic masses and interaction cross-sections characterized in units of grams and cm$^2$, respectively -- we therefore dub these macroscopic objects as Macros. Such dark matter candidates could potentially be assembled out of Standard Model particles (quarks and leptons) in the early universe. A combination of earth-based, astrophysical, and cosmological observations constrain a portion of the Macro parameter space; ho...

  20. Imperfect Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Mirzagholi, Leila

    2014-01-01

    We consider cosmology of the recently introduced mimetic matter with higher derivatives (HD). Without HD this system describes irrotational dust - Dark Matter (DM) as we see it on cosmologically large scales. DM particles correspond to the shift-charges - Noether charges of the shifts in the field space. Higher derivative corrections usually describe a deviation from the thermodynamical equilibrium in the relativistic hydrodynamics. Thus we show that mimetic matter with HD corresponds to an imperfect DM which: i) renormalises the Newton's constant in the Friedmann equations, ii) has zero pressure when there is no extra matter in the universe, iii) survives the inflationary expansion which puts the system on a dynamical attractor with a vanishing shift-charge, iv) perfectly tracks any external matter on this attractor, v) can become the main (and possibly the only) source of DM, provided the shift-symmetry in the HD terms is broken during some small time interval in the radiation domination era. In the second ...

  1. White matter involvement in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caverzasi, Eduardo; Mandelli, Maria Luisa; DeArmond, Stephen J; Hess, Christopher P; Vitali, Paolo; Papinutto, Nico; Oehler, Abby; Miller, Bruce L; Lobach, Irina V; Bastianello, Stefano; Geschwind, Michael D; Henry, Roland G

    2014-12-01

    Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is considered primarily a disease of grey matter, although the extent of white matter involvement has not been well described. We used diffusion tensor imaging to study the white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease compared to healthy control subjects and to correlated magnetic resonance imaging findings with histopathology. Twenty-six patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and nine age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects underwent volumetric T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging. Six patients had post-mortem brain analysis available for assessment of neuropathological findings associated with prion disease. Parcellation of the subcortical white matter was performed on 3D T1-weighted volumes using Freesurfer. Diffusion tensor imaging maps were calculated and transformed to the 3D-T1 space; the average value for each diffusion metric was calculated in the total white matter and in regional volumes of interest. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis was also performed to investigate the deeper white matter tracts. There was a significant reduction of mean (P=0.002), axial (P=0.0003) and radial (P=0.0134) diffusivities in the total white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Mean diffusivity was significantly lower in most white matter volumes of interest (Pchanges in white matter anisotropy. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis showed significant reductions of mean diffusivity within the white matter of patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, mainly in the left hemisphere, with a strong trend (P=0.06) towards reduced mean diffusivity in most of the white matter bilaterally. In contrast, by visual assessment there was no white matter abnormality either on T2-weighted or diffusion-weighted images. Widespread reduction in white matter mean diffusivity, however, was apparent visibly on the quantitative attenuation coefficient maps compared to healthy control subjects

  2. Determinants of Student Retention of Microeconomic Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    John Kane; Larry Spizman

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we examine a variety of individual, institutional, and course-specific factors that influence students' retention of concepts from the microeconomics principles course. Students in 15 upper-division courses in the SUNY-Oswego economics department completed a survey instrument and the TUCE exam at the beginning of the Spring 1999 semester. A regression analysis is used to examine the effect of principles course characteristics on student recall (as measured by TUCE score), contr...

  3. Tele-recruitment for Donor Retention

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Amit; Tiwari, A.

    2012-01-01

    Blood transfusion services are the integral part of health care system and these services have safe blood transfusion as the major goal. Voluntary blood donation is the key to safe blood and this safety is further enhanced when the voluntary blood donors become repeat/regular donors. Retention of donors is therefore a very crucial strategy to ensure enhanced blood safety. Tele-recruitment is an effective medium of recruiting and more importantly retaining donors via means of telephone/Short M...

  4. Water retention in mushroom during sustainable processing

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, E.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with the understanding of the water holding capacity of mushroom, in the context of a redesign of their industrial processing. For designing food process the retention of food quality is of the utmost importance. Water holding capacity is an important quality aspect of mushrooms. A convenient process design methodology which accounts also for product quality is Conceptual Process Design (CPD). An approach to follow CPD methodology is first to explore, the material properties...

  5. Customer Retention in E-commerce business

    OpenAIRE

    Qu, Feihua

    2011-01-01

    E-commerce is growing fast with the fast development of internet and communication technology. Now E-commerce brings the businesses a world wide market and a huge population of protential csutomer. For customers the price information is more transparent and there are much more buying choices than before. Online businesses are competeing for customers on a word wide market like never before. The customer retention gained increased value among the E-commerc businesses. But the research of cust...

  6. 300 Area Building Retention Evaluation Mitigation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. J. McBride

    2007-07-03

    Evaluate the long-term retention of several facilities associated with the PNNL Capability Replacement Laboratory and other Hanfor mission needs. WCH prepared a mitigation plan for three scenarios with different release dates for specific buildings. The evaluations present a proposed plan for providing utility services to retained facilities in support of a long-term (+20 year) lifespan in addition to temporary services to buildings with specified delayed release dates.

  7. POSSIBLE RECESSION CURVE APPLICATIONS FOR RETENTION EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Liberacki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article was to present possible applications of recession flow curve in a small lowland watershed retention discharge size evaluation. The examined woodland micro catchment area of 0.52 sq km is located in Puszcza Zielonka in central Wielkopolska. The Hutka catchment is typically woody with high retention abilities. The catchment of the Hutka watercourse is forested in 89%, the other 11% is covered by swamps and wasteland. The predominant sites are fresh mixed coniferous forest (BMśw, fresh coniferous forest (Bśw and alder carr forest (Ol. Landscape in catchment is characterized by a large number of interior depressions, filled partly with rainwater or peatbogs, with poorly developed natural drainage. The watercourses do not exceed 1 km in length, the mean width is approx. 0.5 m, while mean depth ranges from 0.2 to 0.3 m. During hydrological research conducted in 1997/1998–1999/2000, 35 major (characteristic raised water stages were observed in Hutka after substantial precipitation. The recession curve dating from 18–24 September 2000 has the α and n rates nearest to average. Comparing the model curve and the curve created by observing watercourse flow, one can notice their resemblance and that they have similar ordinate values as well as shape. In the case of other recession curves, the maximum differences of ordinate values are also about 0.1–0.2 l/s/km2. The measuured α and n rates do not reveal any regularities. There are no significant statistical Horton model parameter (for recession flow curves dependencies between α and n and e.g. initial flows (Qo or the whole period of high water waves (Qp. Consequently, calculated relation between these parameters is only an approximation for the general evaluation of the retention discharge in the catchment area towards retention with flow function.

  8. Dark matter universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahcall, Neta A

    2015-10-06

    Most of the mass in the universe is in the form of dark matter--a new type of nonbaryonic particle not yet detected in the laboratory or in other detection experiments. The evidence for the existence of dark matter through its gravitational impact is clear in astronomical observations--from the early observations of the large motions of galaxies in clusters and the motions of stars and gas in galaxies, to observations of the large-scale structure in the universe, gravitational lensing, and the cosmic microwave background. The extensive data consistently show the dominance of dark matter and quantify its amount and distribution, assuming general relativity is valid. The data inform us that the dark matter is nonbaryonic, is "cold" (i.e., moves nonrelativistically in the early universe), and interacts only weakly with matter other than by gravity. The current Lambda cold dark matter cosmology--a simple (but strange) flat cold dark matter model dominated by a cosmological constant Lambda, with only six basic parameters (including the density of matter and of baryons, the initial mass fluctuations amplitude and its scale dependence, and the age of the universe and of the first stars)--fits remarkably well all the accumulated data. However, what is the dark matter? This is one of the most fundamental open questions in cosmology and particle physics. Its existence requires an extension of our current understanding of particle physics or otherwise point to a modification of gravity on cosmological scales. The exploration and ultimate detection of dark matter are led by experiments for direct and indirect detection of this yet mysterious particle.

  9. Determinants of feedback retention in soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Januário Nuno

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed soccer players’ retention of coaches’ feedback during training sessions. We intended to determine if the retention of information was influenced by the athletes’ personal characteristic (age, gender and the sports level, the quantity of information included in coach’s feedback (the number of ideas and redundancy, athletes’ perception of the relevance of the feedback information and athletes’ motivation as well as the attention level. The study that was conducted over the course of 18 sessions of soccer practice, involved 12 coaches (8 males, 4 females and 342 athletes (246 males, 96 females, aged between 10 and 18 years old. All coach and athlete interventions were transposed to a written protocol and submitted to content analysis. Descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression were calculated. The results showed that a substantial part of the information was not retained by the athletes; in 65.5% of cases, athletes experienced difficulty in completely reproducing the ideas of the coaches and, on average, the value of feedback retention was 57.0%. Six variables with a statistically significant value were found: gender, the athletes’ sports level, redundancy, the number of transmitted ideas, athletes’ perception of the relevance of the feedback information and the athletes’ motivation level.

  10. RAINWATER RETENTION ON THE HEAVILY INDUSTRIALIZED AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Kaźmierczak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the dimensioning of retention reservoirs indicator method regarding to the German DWA-A 117 guideline, recommended for small rainfall catchments (with an area of 200 ha. A comparative calculation of the retention reservoirs overflow useful volume were conducted for 4 variants of catchment development (degree sealing surface varied from 60% to 90%, under the assumed sewage outflow from the tank at the level of the urban basin natural runoff. At given conditions required unit volume of retention reservoirs, from 145.4 m3 to 206.7 m3 for each 1 ha of catchment area were determined. The obtained results confirmed the fact that useful volume of the tanks were decreased, when Blaszczyk’s pattern reliable rainwater streams were used for calculations. Because the DWA-A 117 guideline method should be applied to a small rainfall catchments, it is recommended to verify the hydraulic capacity of dimensioned channels and objects using hydrodynamic simulations at different load of rainfall catchment scenarios, variable in time and space.

  11. High efficiency diffusion molecular retention tumor targeting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Guo

    Full Text Available Here we introduce diffusion molecular retention (DMR tumor targeting, a technique that employs PEG-fluorochrome shielded probes that, after a peritumoral (PT injection, undergo slow vascular uptake and extensive interstitial diffusion, with tumor retention only through integrin molecular recognition. To demonstrate DMR, RGD (integrin binding and RAD (control probes were synthesized bearing DOTA (for (111 In(3+, a NIR fluorochrome, and 5 kDa PEG that endows probes with a protein-like volume of 25 kDa and decreases non-specific interactions. With a GFP-BT-20 breast carcinoma model, tumor targeting by the DMR or i.v. methods was assessed by surface fluorescence, biodistribution of [(111In] RGD and [(111In] RAD probes, and whole animal SPECT. After a PT injection, both probes rapidly diffused through the normal and tumor interstitium, with retention of the RGD probe due to integrin interactions. With PT injection and the [(111In] RGD probe, SPECT indicated a highly tumor specific uptake at 24 h post injection, with 352%ID/g tumor obtained by DMR (vs 4.14%ID/g by i.v.. The high efficiency molecular targeting of DMR employed low probe doses (e.g. 25 ng as RGD peptide, which minimizes toxicity risks and facilitates clinical translation. DMR applications include the delivery of fluorochromes for intraoperative tumor margin delineation, the delivery of radioisotopes (e.g. toxic, short range alpha emitters for radiotherapy, or the delivery of photosensitizers to tumors accessible to light.

  12. Conceptualising the Factors Affecting Retention in Care of Patients on Antiretroviral Treatment in Kabwe District, Zambia, Using the Ecological Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand C. Mukumbang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. HIV remains a major public health challenge in Zambia. The roll-out of antiretroviral treatment (ART has engendered new challenges in retention in care. Objective. To conceptualise the factors affecting retention in care of ART patients at three primary healthcare facilities using the ecological framework. Method. Qualitative data were collected through in-depth interviews with 45 ART patients and three focus group discussions with 20 healthcare providers from three primary healthcare facilities in Kabwe district, Zambia, and subjected to thematic content analysis. Results. Individual level barriers to retention in care included side effects, gaining weight, belief in faith healing, and use of herbal remedies and alcohol. Interpersonal barriers such as stigma and nondisclosure of HIV status were reported. At the institutional level, inadequate space in the clinic, long waiting times, long travel distances, and shortage of third-line drugs presented barriers to retention in care. Food shortages and patient mobility were reported as community barriers to retention in care. Conclusion. The ecological framework conceptualises the complex and dynamic factors affecting retention in ART care and highlights the need for multifaceted interventions that combine health education, disease management, and opportunities for income generation in a socially responsive and accountable environment.

  13. “To be or not to be retained … That’s the question!”Retention,self - esteem,self - concept,achievement goalsand grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Peixoto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Keeping students back in the same grade – retention – has always been a controversial issue in Education, with some defending it as a beneficial remedial practice and others arguing against its detrimental effects. This paper undertakes an analysis of this issue, focusing on the differences in student motivation and self-related variables according to their retention related status, and the interrelationship between retention and these variables. The participants were 695 students selected from two cohorts (5th and 7th graders of a larger group of students followed over a three-year project. The students were assigned to four groups according to their retention-related status over time: 1 students with past and recent retention; 2 students with past but no recent retention; 3 students with no past but recent retention; 4 students with no past or recent retention. Measures of achievement goal orientations, self-concept, self-esteem, importance given to school subjects and Grade Point Average (GPA were collected for all students.Repeated measures MANCOVA analyses were carried out showing group differences in self-esteem, academic self-concept, importance attributed to academic competencies, task and avoidance orientation and academic achievement. To attain a deeper understanding of these results and to identify profiles across variables, a cluster analysis based on achievement goals was conducted and four clusters were identified. Students who were retained at the end of the school year are mainly represented in clusters with less adaptive motivational profiles and almost absent from clusters exhibiting more adaptive ones.Findings highlight that retention leaves a significant mark that remains even when students recover academic achievement and retention is in the distant past. This is reflected in the low academic self-concept as well as in the devaluation of academic competencies and in the avoidance orientation which, taken together, can

  14. “To be or not to be Retained … That’s the Question!” Retention, Self-esteem, Self-concept, Achievement Goals, and Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Francisco; Monteiro, Vera; Mata, Lourdes; Sanches, Cristina; Pipa, Joana; Almeida, Leandro S.

    2016-01-01

    Keeping students back in the same grade – retention – has always been a controversial issue in Education, with some defending it as a beneficial remedial practice and others arguing against its detrimental effects. This paper undertakes an analysis of this issue, focusing on the differences in student motivation and self-related variables according to their retention related status, and the interrelationship between retention and these variables. The participants were 695 students selected from two cohorts (5th and 7th graders) of a larger group of students followed over a 3-year project. The students were assigned to four groups according to their retention-related status over time: (1) students with past and recent retention; (2) students with past but no recent retention; (3) students with no past but recent retention; (4) students with no past or recent retention. Measures of achievement goal orientations, self-concept, self-esteem, importance given to school subjects and Grade Point Average (GPA) were collected for all students. Repeated measures MANCOVA analyses were carried out showing group differences in self-esteem, academic self-concept, importance attributed to academic competencies, task and avoidance orientation and academic achievement. To attain a deeper understanding of these results and to identify profiles across variables, a cluster analysis based on achievement goals was conducted and four clusters were identified. Students who were retained at the end of the school year are mainly represented in clusters with less adaptive motivational profiles and almost absent from clusters exhibiting more adaptive ones. Findings highlight that retention leaves a significant mark that remains even when students recover academic achievement and retention is in the distant past. This is reflected in the low academic self-concept as well as in the devaluation of academic competencies and in the avoidance orientation which, taken together, can undermine

  15. "To be or not to be Retained … That's the Question!" Retention, Self-esteem, Self-concept, Achievement Goals, and Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Francisco; Monteiro, Vera; Mata, Lourdes; Sanches, Cristina; Pipa, Joana; Almeida, Leandro S

    2016-01-01

    Keeping students back in the same grade - retention - has always been a controversial issue in Education, with some defending it as a beneficial remedial practice and others arguing against its detrimental effects. This paper undertakes an analysis of this issue, focusing on the differences in student motivation and self-related variables according to their retention related status, and the interrelationship between retention and these variables. The participants were 695 students selected from two cohorts (5th and 7th graders) of a larger group of students followed over a 3-year project. The students were assigned to four groups according to their retention-related status over time: (1) students with past and recent retention; (2) students with past but no recent retention; (3) students with no past but recent retention; (4) students with no past or recent retention. Measures of achievement goal orientations, self-concept, self-esteem, importance given to school subjects and Grade Point Average (GPA) were collected for all students. Repeated measures MANCOVA analyses were carried out showing group differences in self-esteem, academic self-concept, importance attributed to academic competencies, task and avoidance orientation and academic achievement. To attain a deeper understanding of these results and to identify profiles across variables, a cluster analysis based on achievement goals was conducted and four clusters were identified. Students who were retained at the end of the school year are mainly represented in clusters with less adaptive motivational profiles and almost absent from clusters exhibiting more adaptive ones. Findings highlight that retention leaves a significant mark that remains even when students recover academic achievement and retention is in the distant past. This is reflected in the low academic self-concept as well as in the devaluation of academic competencies and in the avoidance orientation which, taken together, can undermine students

  16. From vigilance to violence: mate retention tactics in married couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, D M; Shackelford, T K

    1997-02-01

    Although much research has explored the adaptive problems of mate selection and mate attraction, little research has investigated the adaptive problem of mate retention. We tested several evolutionary psychological hypotheses about the determinants of mate retention in 214 married people. We assessed the usage of 19 mate retention tactics ranging from vigilance to violence. Key hypothesized findings include the following: Men's, but not women's, mate retention positively covaried with partner's youth and physical attractiveness. Women's, but not men's, mate retention positively covaried with partner's income and status striving. Men's mate retention positively covaried with perceived probability of partner's infidelity. Men, more than women, reported using resource display, submission and debasement, and intrasexual threats to retain their mates. Women, more than men, reported using appearance enhancement and verbal signals of possession. Discussion includes an evolutionary psychological analysis of mate retention in married couples.

  17. GABAA receptors determine the temporal dynamics of memory retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Gavan P.; Augustyn, Katarzyna A.; Richardson, Rick

    2008-01-01

    Four experiments studied the role of GABAA receptors in the temporal dynamics of memory retention. Memory for an active avoidance response was a nonmonotonic function of the retention interval. When rats were tested shortly (2 min) or some time (24 h) after training, retention was excellent, but when they were tested at intermediate intervals (1–4 h), retention was poor. Activity at GABAA receptors was critical for impairing memory retention at the intermediate intervals because injection of the GABAA receptor partial inverse agonist FG7142 prior to test significantly improved performance. These retention enhancing effects of FG7142 were dose-dependent and not due to any nonspecific effects of FG7142 on activity. Our results suggest that the temporal dynamics of memory retention may be caused by variations in neurotransmission through the GABAA receptor in the post-training period. PMID:18285469

  18. Evaluation of retention of pit and fissure sealants placed with and without air abrasion pretreatment in 6-8 year old children – An in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Mridula

    2017-01-01

    Background The success of pit and fissure sealants is directly related to their retention. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the retention of pit and fissure sealants placed using acid etch alone and a combination of air abrasion and acid etch techniques. Material and Methods 50 subjects aged 6-8 years were included in the study. Primary second molars and permanent first molars were sealed in all four quadrants using split mouth design. The right maxillary and mandibular molars (Group A) were treated by acid etching alone while the left maxillary and mandibular molars (Group B) were pretreated with air abrasion followed by acid etching before application of pit and fissure sealant. Retention of sealants was checked using Simonsen’s criteria of sealant retention after three and six months of sealant application. Results There was no significant difference in retention of sealants in Group A and Group B (psealant retention in primary and permanent molars was not significant (p>0.05). Maxillary molars showed superior retention compared to mandibular molars, which was statistically significant at both three and six months (psealant retention compared to acid etching alone in both primary and permanent molars after 3 and 6 months follow up. An additional air abrasion pretreatment step can be avoided in pediatric patients when placing sealants and the procedure can be completed faster with better behavior management using acid etching alone. Key words:Pit and fissure sealant, acid etching, air abrasion. PMID:28210438

  19. Evaluation of retention of pit and fissure sealants placed with and without air abrasion pretreatment in 6-8 year old children - An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Urvashi; Goswami, Mridula

    2017-02-01

    The success of pit and fissure sealants is directly related to their retention. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the retention of pit and fissure sealants placed using acid etch alone and a combination of air abrasion and acid etch techniques. 50 subjects aged 6-8 years were included in the study. Primary second molars and permanent first molars were sealed in all four quadrants using split mouth design. The right maxillary and mandibular molars (Group A) were treated by acid etching alone while the left maxillary and mandibular molars (Group B) were pretreated with air abrasion followed by acid etching before application of pit and fissure sealant. Retention of sealants was checked using Simonsen's criteria of sealant retention after three and six months of sealant application. There was no significant difference in retention of sealants in Group A and Group B (psealant retention in primary and permanent molars was not significant (p>0.05). Maxillary molars showed superior retention compared to mandibular molars, which was statistically significant at both three and six months (psealant retention compared to acid etching alone in both primary and permanent molars after 3 and 6 months follow up. An additional air abrasion pretreatment step can be avoided in pediatric patients when placing sealants and the procedure can be completed faster with better behavior management using acid etching alone. Key words:Pit and fissure sealant, acid etching, air abrasion.

  20. Effect of eugenol-containing sealer and post diameter on the retention of fiber reinforced composite posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Alireza; Azarsina, Mohadese; Kasraei, Shahin

    2013-01-01

    Fiber reinforced composite (FRC) posts are cemented with resin cements. It is reported that using resin cements in canals sealed with eugenol-containing sealers reduces the post retention. However, there is controversy on the subject. The aim was to investigate the influence of eugenol-containing sealers and the amount of dentin removal from root canal with different post diameters on retention of FRC posts. It was an in vitro study The roots of sixty teeth were cut with 14 mm distance from the apex and were instrumented to the working-length of 13 mm. The teeth were randomly distributed into 2 groups (n = 30). Following storage in normal saline for 7 days, the samples in both the groups were further divided into 3 subgroups (n = 10). Canals in the experimental subgroups (I, II, III) were obturated by gutta-percha and eugenol-containing sealer; and in the control subgroups (IV, V, VI) without any sealer. After storage in normal saline for 7 days, the post space was prepared by #3, #2, and #1 drills of DT Light-Post system. Post was cemented with Panavia-F2.0 resin-cement. A composite core was built for each sample. All samples were thermo cycled for 1000 cycles. The samples were tested for post retention with a mechanical testing machine. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey-HSD test. There was not a significant difference in retention between FRC posts #1 and #2 (P > 0.05). Post #3 was more retentive than posts #1and #2 (P posts (P = 0.024), however, increasing post-space diameter significantly increased post retention in canals coated with ZOE sealer (P = 0.002). Eugenol-containing sealer reduced the retention of FRC posts cemented with resin cement. Removing more dentin from root-canals treated with eugenol-containing sealer for placing larger diameter posts caused an increase in post retention.

  1. Controlled high meat diets do not affect calcium retention or indices of bone status in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roughead, Zamzam K; Johnson, LuAnn K; Lykken, Glenn I; Hunt, Janet R

    2003-04-01

    Calcium balance is decreased by an increased intake of purified proteins, although the effects of common dietary sources of protein (like meat) on calcium economy remain controversial. We compared the effects of several weeks of controlled high and low meat diets on body calcium retention, using sensitive radiotracer and whole body scintillation counting methodology. Healthy postmenopausal women (n = 15) consumed diets with similar calcium content (approximately 600 mg), but either low or high in meat (12 vs. 20% of energy as protein) for 8 wk each, in a randomized crossover design. After 4 wk of equilibration of each diet, calcium retention was measured by extrinsically labeling the 2-d menu with (47)Ca, followed by whole body scintillation counting for 28 d. Urinary and blood indicators of bone metabolism were also determined for each diet. Calcium retention was not different during the high and low meat dietary periods (d 28, mean +/- pooled SD: 17.1 and 15.6%, +/-0.6%, respectively; P = 0.09). An initially higher renal acid excretion in subjects consuming the high meat compared with the low meat diet decreased significantly with time. The diets did not affect urinary calcium loss or indicators of bone metabolism. In conclusion, under controlled conditions, a high meat compared with a low meat diet for 8 wk did not affect calcium retention or biomarkers of bone metabolism in healthy postmenopausal women. Calcium retention is not reduced when subjects consume a high protein diet from common dietary sources such as meat.

  2. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions, and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must...

  3. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2014-01-01

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must ...

  4. Subjective meaning: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen-Huitink, Janneke; van Wijbergen-Huitink, Janneke; Meier, Cécile

    This introductory chapter traces some of the considerations on the basis of which relativistic approaches to subjective meaning became en vogue. In doing so, the chapter provides an overview of the relevant linguistic and philosophical issues when developing a treatment of subjectivity. In addition,

  5. Subjective safety in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The term ‘subjective safety in traffic’ refers to people feeling unsafe in traffic or, more generally, to anxiety regarding being unsafe in traffic for oneself and/or others. Subjective safety in traffic can lead to road users limiting their mobility and social activities, which is one of the

  6. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  7. Vocation, friendship and resilience: a study exploring nursing student and staff views on retention and attrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Graham R; Health, Val; Proctor-Childs, Tracey

    2013-01-01

    There is international concern about retention of student nurses on undergraduate programmes. United Kingdom Higher Education Institutions are monitored on their attrition statistics and can be penalised financially, so they have an incentive to help students remain on their programmes beyond their moral duty to ensure students receive the best possible educational experience. to understand students' and staff concerns about programmes and placements as part of developing our retention strategies. This study reports qualitative data on retention and attrition collected as part of an action research study. One University School of Nursing and Midwifery in the South West of England. Staff, current third year and ex-student nurses from the adult field. Data were collected in focus groups, both face-to face and virtual, and individual telephone interviews. These were transcribed and subjected to qualitative content analysis. FOUR THEMES EMERGED: Academic support, Placements and mentors, Stresses and the reality of nursing life, and Dreams for a better programme. The themes Academic support, Placements and mentors and Stresses and the reality of nursing life, resonate with international literature. Dreams for a better programme included smaller group learning. Vocation, friendship and resilience seem instrumental in retaining students, and Higher Education Institutions should work to facilitate these. 'Vocation' has been overlooked in the retention discussions, and working more actively to foster vocation and belongingness could be important.

  8. Dark matter universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahcall, Neta A.

    2015-01-01

    Most of the mass in the universe is in the form of dark matter—a new type of nonbaryonic particle not yet detected in the laboratory or in other detection experiments. The evidence for the existence of dark matter through its gravitational impact is clear in astronomical observations—from the early observations of the large motions of galaxies in clusters and the motions of stars and gas in galaxies, to observations of the large-scale structure in the universe, gravitational lensing, and the cosmic microwave background. The extensive data consistently show the dominance of dark matter and quantify its amount and distribution, assuming general relativity is valid. The data inform us that the dark matter is nonbaryonic, is “cold” (i.e., moves nonrelativistically in the early universe), and interacts only weakly with matter other than by gravity. The current Lambda cold dark matter cosmology—a simple (but strange) flat cold dark matter model dominated by a cosmological constant Lambda, with only six basic parameters (including the density of matter and of baryons, the initial mass fluctuations amplitude and its scale dependence, and the age of the universe and of the first stars)—fits remarkably well all the accumulated data. However, what is the dark matter? This is one of the most fundamental open questions in cosmology and particle physics. Its existence requires an extension of our current understanding of particle physics or otherwise point to a modification of gravity on cosmological scales. The exploration and ultimate detection of dark matter are led by experiments for direct and indirect detection of this yet mysterious particle. PMID:26417091

  9. Acquisition and retention of basic pathophysiological knowledge in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarniero, Francisco; Dias, Alvaro; Troncon, Luiz; Alvarenga, Pedro; Rosa, Pedro; Busatto, Geraldo

    2014-06-01

    An important and yet underexplored issue in medical education concerns the extent to which students retain early taught theoretical knowledge during subsequent stages of their academic schooling. This study aimed to assess the degree to which medical students retain basic pathophysiological knowledge on biological psychiatry across different stages of medical education. A cross-sectional investigation was conducted using a multiple choice questionnaire (MCQ) of objective pathophysiological knowledge taught in a course given to second-year students, supplemented by questions measuring subjective interest and attributed importance to the content taught. Comparisons (ANOVA with post hoc Tukey tests) were carried out among five groups (n = 417): baseline (freshmen), pre-intervention group (second-year students attending the first day of the course), immediate tested group (second-year students on the final day of the course), 1-year delayed tested group (third-year students), and 3-years delayed tested group (interns). In comparison to the baseline and pre-intervention groups, the other three groups that received teaching displayed significantly better levels of knowledge (p knowledge retention, attributed importance, and interest within pre-intervention or post-intervention groups. The only modest loss of knowledge over time indicates that a large proportion of early taught content is retained throughout the later years of medical education. Nevertheless, retained knowledge does not seem to be associated with subjective interest and attributed importance to such early taught content.

  10. Retention of Vaginal Breech Delivery Skills Taught in Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Heather; Crane, Joan; Johnston, Kathy; Craig, Catherine

    2018-02-01

    The optimal frequency of conducting simulation training for high-acuity, low-frequency events in obstetrics and gynaecology residency programs is unknown. This study evaluated retention over time of vaginal breech delivery skills taught in simulation, by comparing junior and senior residents. In addition, the residents' subjective comfort level to perform this skill clinically was assessed. This prospective cohort study included 22 obstetrics and gynaecology residents in a Canadian residency training program. Digital recordings were completed for pre-training, immediate post-training, and delayed (10-26 weeks later) post-training intervals of a vaginal breech delivery simulation, with skill assessment by a blinded observer using a binary checklist. Residents also completed questionnaires to assess their subjective comfort level at each interval. Junior and senior residents had significant improvements in vaginal breech delivery skills from the pre-training assessment to both the immediate post-training assessment (junior, P simulation 10-26 weeks later, although a decline in skills occurred over this time period. Comfort level was positively affected and retained. These results will aid in determining the frequency of simulation teaching for high-acuity, low-frequency events in a residency simulation curriculum. Copyright © 2018 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Physics of condensed matter

    CERN Document Server

    Misra, Prasanta K

    2012-01-01

    Physics of Condensed Matter is designed for a two-semester graduate course on condensed matter physics for students in physics and materials science. While the book offers fundamental ideas and topic areas of condensed matter physics, it also includes many recent topics of interest on which graduate students may choose to do further research. The text can also be used as a one-semester course for advanced undergraduate majors in physics, materials science, solid state chemistry, and electrical engineering, because it offers a breadth of topics applicable to these majors. The book be

  12. D-Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Shiu, Gary; Wang, Lian-Tao

    2003-01-01

    We study the properties and phenomenology of particle-like states originating from D-branes whose spatial dimensions are all compactified. They are non-perturbative states in string theory and we refer to them as D-matter. In contrast to other non-perturbative objects such as 't Hooft-Polyakov monopoles, D-matter states could have perturbative couplings among themselves and with ordinary matter. The lightest D-particle (LDP) could be stable because it is the lightest state carrying certain (i...

  13. Retention and transport of mecoprop on acid sandy-loam soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradelo Núñez, Remigio; Conde Cid, Manuel; Abad, Elodie Martin; Fernández Calviño, David; Nóvoa Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias Estévez, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    Interaction with soil components is one of the key processes governing the fate of agrochemicals in the environment. In this work, we have studied the adsorption/desorption and transport of mecoprop in four acid sandy-loam soils with different organic matter contents. Kinetics of adsorption and adsorption/desorption at equilibrium have been studied in batch experiments, whereas transport was studied in laboratory columns. Adsorption and desorption are linear or nearly-linear. The kinetics of mecoprop adsorption are relatively fast in all cases (less than 24 h). Adsorption and desorption were adequately described by the linear and Freundlich models, with KF values that ranged from 0.7 to 8.8 Ln µmol1-n kg-1 and KD values from 0.3 to 3.6 L kg-1. High desorption percentages (>50%) were found, indicative of a high reversibility of the adsorption process. The results of the transport experiments showed that the retention of mecoprop by soil was very low (less than 6.2%). The retention of mecoprop by the soils in all experiments increased with organic matter content. Overall, it was observed that mecoprop was weakly adsorbed by the soils, what would result in a high risk of leaching of this compound.

  14. Methane Fermentation of Cattle Manure : Effects of Hydraulic Retention Time. Temperature and Substrate Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zennaki-Bensouda, Z.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has been undertaken in order to improve yield of methane production by anaerobic fermentation of cattle manure. Optimization of hydraulic retention time and organic concentration substrate were evaluated at 37°C and 55°C. The study of cattle manure fermentation process as well as that of methane production yield showed that methanogenic fermentation of these organic wastes may be conducted at low hydraulic retention time without stressing the fermentary process : 8 days at 37°C and 5 days at 55°C for a dry matter concentration of 43 g/1. The biogas yield increased, reaching 0.46 m3/(m3. d at 37°C and 0.68m3/(m3. d at 55°C with a methane content of 56 %> and 51 %> respectively. The best biogas yields occurred for dry matter concentrations between 7 and 9 %>. Kinetic models of Chen and Hashimoto (7 and of Monod (19 described well substrate depletion and methane production.

  15. Better retention through game-play - EcoChains: Arctic Crisis card game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Lee, J.; O'Garra, T.; Bachrach, E.

    2015-12-01

    article, they found it to be more fun, they were happier while playing than while reading, and they were more likely to recommend the game to others. These findings indicate that game-based learning can improve retention of new content knowledge as well as engagement in subject matter.

  16. Plasticity in food assimilation, retention time and coprophagy allow herbivorous cavies (Microcavia australis) to cope with low food quality in the Monte desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Paola L; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique; Anton, Rosa; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2010-03-01

    Energy balance depends on the efficiency with which organisms make use of their trophic resources, and has direct impact on their fitness. There are environmental variations that affect the availability as well as the quality of such resources; energy extraction also depends on the design of the digestive tract. It is expected that features associated with food utilization will be subjected to selective pressures and show some adjustment to the variability of the environment. Since energetic constraints challenge animals to display digestive compensatory mechanisms, the objective of this study is to determine the physiological and behavioral responses to spatial and seasonal heterogeneity in food quality. We investigated digestive strategies (digestive efficiency and coprophagy) in cavies inhabiting two different populations, and hence naturally experiencing different levels of diet quality. Cavies under experimentally different quality diets showed changes in dry matter digestibility and intake, digesta retention time and coprophagy. Our results partially support the expectations from theory and also reveal interpopulation differences in the ability to cope with changes in food quality, and may explain the capability of Microcavia australis to colonize extreme habitats. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Novel missense mutation of the FAM83H gene causes retention of amelogenin and a mild clinical phenotype of hypocalcified enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urzúa, Blanca; Martínez, Carolina; Ortega-Pinto, Ana; Adorno, Daniela; Morales-Bozo, Irene; Riadi, Gonzalo; Jara, Lilian; Plaza, Anita; Lefimil, Claudia; Lozano, Carla; Reyes, Monserrat

    2015-09-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous inherited conditions, causing alterations in the structure of enamel and chemical composition of enamel matrix during development. The objective of this study was to compare the clinical, radiographic, histological and immunohistochemical phenotypes of subjects affected with hypocalcified AI from three Chilean families and identify causal mutations in the FAM83H gene. The diagnosis was made using clinical, radiographic, histological and genealogical data from the patients, who were evaluated according to the classification criteria by Witkop. PCR and Sanger sequencing of the complete coding sequence and surrounding intron regions of the FAM83H gene were conducted. The structural study of the affected teeth was performed with light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. The probands of the three families were diagnosed with hypocalcified AI, but in only one of them the missense variant p.Gly557Cys was identified. This variant was not present in the SNP database or in 100 healthy controls and segregated with the disease in the affected family. Using light microscopy, a normal prismatic structure was observed in all three cases. However, the ultrastructure was found to be affected in two of the cases, showing persistence of organic matter including amelogenins. These results suggest that FAM83H missense mutation reported in one of the families analyzed in this study might cause a phenotype of hypocalcified enamel more attenuated with retention of amelogenin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. ASSOCIATIVE EFFECT OF MOLASSES-UREA BLOCK AND FORAGE QUALITY ON NUTRIENT DIGESTION AND NITROGEN RETENTION IN SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    lqbal Saeed. M. M. Siddiqui and G. I. Habib

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in a 4x4 Latin square design involving four adult crossbred (Kaghani x Rambouillet weather kept in individual metabolic crates and four experimental diets viz: maize stovers (Diet A, maize stovers with 150 g/d molasses-urea block (Diet B, lucerne hay (Diet Cand lucerne hay with 150 g/d molasses-urea block (Diet D. The forage intake was restricted to 2% of body weight. Each experimental period consisted 10 days of adaptation followed by five days of data collection. Total dry matter intake on molasses-urea block (MUB supplemented diets was higher (p<0.05 than unsupplemented diets. The daily quantity of total dry matter and water consumed by weathers was higher (p < 0.001 on MUB supplemented diets. Water consumption was positively co-related to nitrogen intake (r2 0.66: p< 0.00 I and varied due to diets (p < 0.00 I. in vivo dry matter digestibility (DMD and organic matter digestibility (OMD of lucerne hay-based diets were greater (P< 005 than those containing maize stovers. Supplementation of MUB did not affect the DMD or OMD of the diets. The interaction of MUB and forage (P = 0.06 revealed that MUB was effective in increasing (P< 0.05 the nitrogen digestibility of maize stovers from 30,59% on diet A to 51.33% on diet B but did not affect the nitrogen digestibility in animals fed lucerne hay. The wethers receiving lucerne hay-based diets retained more nitrogen (p< 0.001 than those given maize stovers (8.50 's 3,12 g/d. Molasses-urea block supplementation on both forages increased (p < 0.05 the nitrogen retention. Mean nitrogen retention was I 82. 4.41, 7 .19 and 9.82 gld in wethers receiving diets A. B. C and D. respectively. Mean rumen ammonia concentration (mg N/lOO ml in wethers receiving maize stovers. was 10.52. which increased (p< 0,05 to 17.87 in response to MUB supplementation. On lucerne hay. the rumen ammonia concentrations did not change due to MUB and the mean values on diets C and D were 24,24 and 29.88 mg N/100

  19. Unifying Subjectivity and Objectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Chandrasekaran

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of modern science to the progress of civilization is immeasurable. Even its tendency toward exclusive concentration on the objective world has had salutary effects of great value. Modern science has wiped away much that was merely superstitious or speculative. Its rejection of unfounded opinions and prejudices has helped the thinking mind question conventional beliefs, shed preferences and prejudices, and challenge established authority. But modern systems thinking inherited from natural science is the suppression of the subjective dimension of reality. Many complex systems are an attempt to define and represent all subjective experience in physical terms. The modern man has a bias towards objectivity. The powerful influence of sense impressions on his mind and thinking makes him ignore the subjective experience and consider only objective facts as a valid, legitimate and representation of reality. Observing objective factors that are physical is easier than observing subjective factors that are subtle. The mechanistic view of reality has led to the rejection of the role of the individual in social development as insignificant. The individuals determine the development of society. Their social power has its roots both in subjective factors and objective factors. Economy, politics, society, and culture are inseparable dimensions of a single integrated reality. Subject and object constitute an integrated whole. The mind sees them as separate and independent. Or it views one as completely subordinate to the other. Unbiased approach to the study of all human experiences may prove that subject and object are interdependent dimensions or elements of reality.

  20. Pattern of protein retention in growing boars of different breeds, and estimation of maximum protein retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, A H; Chwalibog, André; Jakobsen, K

    1998-01-01

    Protein and energy metabolism in boars of different breeds, 10 each of Hampshire, Duroc and Danish Landrace was measured in balance and respiration experiments by means of indirect calorimetry in an open-air circulation system. Measurements were performed in four periods (Period I-IV) covering...... and metabolic body weight, indicating that maximum protein retention was not reached until 135 kg BW. Differences in capacity for protein retention were recorded between boars of different breeds, with Duroc and Hampshire boars being superior to Danish Landrace boars. Additionally, the crucial importance...