WorldWideScience

Sample records for subject matter instruction

  1. Shared Knowledge among Graphic Designers, Instructional Designers and Subject Matter Experts in Designing Multimedia-Based Instructional Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Rafiza Abdul

    2013-01-01

    The research identified and explored the shared knowledge among the instructional multimedia design and development experts comprising of subject matter expert, graphic designer and instructional designer. The knowledge shared by the team was categorized into three groups of multimedia design principles encompasses of basic principles, authoring…

  2. Instructional Design: Impact of Subject Matter and Cognitive Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    processing, and the integration/synthesis of component parts. The haptic individual uses " bodily " perceptions, and is kinesthetically oriented. An...microcomputers, and the introduction of artificial intelligence techniques into training has permitted more effective use of computer-based instruction...instruction, the advent of more powerful and inexpensive microcomputers, and the introduction of artificial intelligence techniques into training, has permitted

  3. The Designer-by-Assignment in Practice: Instructional Design Thinking of Subject Matter Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, Sandra V.

    2012-01-01

    Designers-by-assignment, or subject matter experts (SMEs) who are pressed into training service, have become common in the workplace. A review of more than 24 studies on expert and novice instructional designers, however, revealed that little is known about how designers-by-assignment think about design and make design decisions in the field. A…

  4. The Effect of Applying Elements of Instructional Design on Teaching Material for the Subject of Classification of Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdilek, Zehra; Ozkan, Muhlis

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of instructional materials for the subject of classification of matter as solids, liquids and gases that were developed using a holistic instructional design model on student achievement. In the study a pre-test/post-test with control group experimental design was used. The study was conducted in the…

  5. Subject matter knowledge, classroom management, and instructional practices in middle school science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Okhee

    This study examined the interrelationships among three major components of classroom teaching: subject matter content knowledge, classroom management, and instructional practices. The study involved two middle school science classes of different achievement levels taught by the same female teacher. The teacher held an undergraduate degree with a major in social studies and a minor in mathematics and science from an elementary teacher education program. The findings indicated that the teacher's limited knowledge of science content and her strict classroom order resulted in heavy dependence on the textbook and students' individual activities (e.g., seatwork) and avoidance of whole-class activities (e.g., discussion) similarly in both classes. Implications for educational practices and further research are discussed.

  6. A Methodology for Investigating the Interactions of Individual Differences and Subject Matter Characteristics with Instructional Methods. ; Report 67.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigeluth, Charles M.

    This paper presents a general model for conceptualizing and testing the interactions of individual differences and subject-matter characteristics with instructional methods. The model postulates certain ways of classifying the variables of interest in such investigations and of conceptualizing the cause-and-effect relationships among those classes…

  7. The Structure of Subject Matter Content and Its Instructional Design Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigeluth, Charles M.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Four types of fundamental structures are briefly described and illustrated: the learning hierarchy, the procedural hierarchy, the taxonomy, and the model. Then a theoretical framework is presented for classifying types of subject matter content, and some implications of these content classifications are discussed. (VT)

  8. Computer-Based Instruction: Effect of Cognitive Style, Instructional Format, and Subject-Matter Content on Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    for this study. The test consists of 10 pairs of words (see Appendix B), ranked from easy to hard, selected from the Weschler Paired Associate Learning...facts and opinions on a current affairs topic. The decision-making task involved a maze problem. Subjects were tested immediately after training, 2...Screening Measures for Cognitive Style ........................ 5 The 4-Mat Test ......................................... 5 The Lateral Preference Test

  9. The Role of Teachers' Pedagogical and Subject-Matter Knowledge in Planning and Enacting Science-Inquiry Instruction, and in Assessing Students' Science-Inquiry Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birlean, Camelia

    This study explored the relation between pedagogical knowledge and subject-matter knowledge, in the context of inquiry-driven science instruction, and their relation to instructors' performance in the instructional process. This multiple case study focused on three distinct categories of teachers--Novice in Inquiry and in Science, Novice in Inquiry and Expert in Science, and Expert in Inquiry and in Science--and examined the commonalities and differences among them by exploring the cognitive processes these teachers used when planning and enacting an inquiry instructional situation, as well as when assessing students' learning resulting from this specific instructional event. Inquiry instruction varied across cases from largely structured to largely open. The Novice-Novice's science instruction, predominantly traditional in the approach, differed greatly from that of the Expert-Expert and of the Novice-Expert. The latter two emphasized--to various extents structured, guided, and open--inquiry strategy as part of their ongoing instruction. The open inquiry was an approach embraced solely by the Expert-Expert teacher throughout the Advanced Science Research instruction, emphasizing the creative aspect of problem generation. Edward teacher also distinguished himself from the other two participants in his view of planning and terminology used to describe it, both of which emphasized the dynamic and flexible feature of this instructional process. The Expert-Expert identified occasional planning, planning of specific skills and content critical to students' learning process during their independent inquiry. The observed teaching performance of the three participants partly reflected their planning; the alignment was least frequent for the Novice-Novice. The assessment of inquiry-based projects varied greatly across participants. Each teacher participant evaluated a set of three inquiry-based science projects that differed in their quality, and this variation increased

  10. Laboratory instruction and subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Barolli

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific aspects which determined the way some groups of students conducted their work in a university laboratory, made us understand the articulation of these groups´s dynamics, from elements that were beyond the reach of cognition. In more specific terms the conduction and the maintenance of the groups student´s dynamics were explicited based on a intergame between the non conscious strategies, shared anonymously, and the efforts of the individuals in working based on their most objective task. The results and issues we have reached so far, using a reference the work developed by W.R.Bion, with therapeutical groups, gave us the possibility for understanding the dynamics of the student´s experimental work through a new approach that approximates the fields of cognition and subjectivity. This approximation led us to a deeper reflection about the issues which may be involved in the teaching process, particularly in situations which the teacher deals with the class, organised in groups.

  11. Do CS-US pairings actually matter? A within-subject comparison of instructed fear conditioning with and without actual CS-US pairings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An K Raes

    Full Text Available Previous research showed that instructions about CS-US pairings can lead to fear of the CS even when the pairings are never presented. In the present study, we examined whether the experience of CS-US pairings adds to the effect of instructions by comparing instructed conditioning with and without actual CS-US pairings in a within-subject design. Thirty-two participants saw three fractals as CSs (CS(+1, CS(+2, CS(- and received electric shocks as USs. Before the start of a so-called training phase, participants were instructed that both CS(+1 and CS(+2 would be followed by the US, but only CS(+1 was actually paired with the US. The absence of the US after CS(+2 was explained in such a way that participants would not doubt the instructions about the CS(+2-US relation. After the training phase, a test phase was carried out. In this phase, participants expected the US after both CS(+s but none of the CS(+s was actually paired with the US. During test, self-reported fear was initially higher for CS(+1 than for CS(+2, which indicates that the experience of actual CS-US pairings adds to instructions about these pairings. On the other hand, the CS(+s elicited similar skin conductance responses and US expectancies. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

  12. Changes in Dictionary Subject Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2003-01-01

    The general content of the three editions of the Duden dictionary has undergone few changes. The most substantial changes are the addition of syllabification and the deletion of antonomy in respect of lemmata in the second and third editions. The concept of dictionary subject matter is questioned...

  13. Foodservice. Subject Matter Update 1986-87.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This publication recognizes the constantly changing requirements of the food service industry and varying conditions for employment opportunities. It addresses the goal of relevance in education by enabling the educator to make timely adjustments in the subject matter of the food service curriculum. There are six sections in this publication, each…

  14. 45 CFR 703.3 - Scope of subject matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope of subject matter. 703.3 Section 703.3... AND FUNCTIONS OF STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 703.3 Scope of subject matter. The scope of the subject matter to be dealt with by Advisory Committees shall be those subjects of inquiry or study with which the...

  15. The Programmed Instruction Era: When Effectiveness Mattered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenda, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Programmed instruction (PI) was devised to make the teaching-learning process more humane by making it more effective and customized to individual differences. B.F. Skinner's original prescription was modified by later innovators to incorporate more human interaction, social reinforcers and other forms of feedback, larger and more flexible chunks…

  16. The Effects of CLIL Education on the Subject Matter (Mathematics) and the Target Language (English)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouazizi, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of Content and Language Integrated Learning, CLIL for short, on both the attainment of the subject matter, mathematics in our case, hence the content aspect of CLIL. The second axes of research focuses on the effect of CLIL on the learners' proficiency vis-à-vis the language of instruction, epitomized here by…

  17. 49 CFR 1108.3 - Matters subject to arbitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Matters subject to arbitration. 1108.3 Section... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE ARBITRATION OF CERTAIN DISPUTES SUBJECT TO THE STATUTORY JURISDICTION OF THE SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD § 1108.3 Matters subject to arbitration. (a) Any...

  18. Florida Master Teacher Program: Testing Teacher Subject Matter Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavely, Carolyn; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The efforts of the Florida Institute for Instructional Research and Practice in designing, developing, and analyzing the subject area knowledge tests of the Florida Master Teacher Program are described. A total of 13 subject area examinations was developed in 1984-85, and 5 additional tests were developed the following year. For each subject area…

  19. Conditioning audience patronage using subject matters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Films are subject-based and when producers set out to communicate their viewpoints, some do it flamboyantly while others take the subtle path. Unlike live theatre before it, the possibility of a virile spiral regarding the themes treated in movies can be as much repugnant as they can be fascinating. In this case, the audience ...

  20. Cortex Parcellation Associated Whole White Matter Parcellation in Individual Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schiffler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of specific white matter areas is a growing field in neurological research and is typically achieved through the use of atlases. However, the definition of anatomically based regions remains challenging for the white matter and thus hinders region-specific analysis in individual subjects. In this article, we focus on creating a whole white matter parcellation method for individual subjects where these areas can be associated to cortex regions. This is done by combining cortex parcellation and fiber tracking data. By tracking fibers out of each cortex region and labeling the fibers according to their origin, we populate a candidate image. We then derive the white matter parcellation by classifying each white matter voxel according to the distribution of labels in the corresponding voxel from the candidate image. The parcellation of the white matter with the presented method is highly reliable and is not as dependent on registration as with white matter atlases. This method allows for the parcellation of the whole white matter into individual cortex region associated areas and, therefore, associates white matter alterations to cortex regions. In addition, we compare the results from the presented method to existing atlases. The areas generated by the presented method are not as sharply defined as the areas in most existing atlases; however, they are computed directly in the DWI space of the subject and, therefore, do not suffer from distortion caused by registration. The presented approach might be a promising tool for clinical and basic research to investigate modalities or system specific micro structural alterations of white matter areas in a quantitative manner.

  1. Problems Faced By Elementary School Second Grade English Subject Matter Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belgin Bal Incebacak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of thisstudy isto determine the problems experienced by subject matter teachers while instructing English lessons in the second grade of elementary school. What are the problemsfaced by English subject matter teachers when they instruct in 2nd grade lessons? In this research the descriptive modeling, which is one of the qualitative research methods, was employed. In accordance with this objective, we worked with 8 subject matter teachers from 5 different schoolsinAtakum and Ilkadim districtslocated in downtown Samsun, through easily accessible case sampling. The semi-structured “English Course Interview Form’’was applied to the teachers. In the study, descriptive survey model was employed, since it was aimed to reveal the current status of qualitative research methods.According to the results obtained from the research, the content was configured and presented under 5 themes. They were categorized as: 1. the problems experienced in classroom management, 2. the problems in physical and cognitive readiness, 3. the problems experienced in the learning and teacher process, 4. the problems seen in counseling, 5. the problems experienced in assessment and evaluation. In conclusion, the teachers stated that they had problems with managing the classroom, especially with the second grade students, whom are younger than others. It is observed that the change for teaching English at a younger age has been appropriate. Our teachersstated that they required in-service training so as to adapt to this aforementioned change.

  2. 22 CFR 61.6 - Consultation with subject matter specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FREE FLOW OF AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS § 61.6 Consultation with subject matter specialists. (a) The... assisting the Department in its determination of whether materials for which export certification or import... determine eligibility of material for certification or authentication based in part on the opinions obtained...

  3. students' perception of teacher's knowledge of subject matter and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ALEXANDER E. TIMOTHY

    The study used the ex post facto design to find out the influence of student's perception of teacher's knowledge of the subject matter on the Senior Secondary Three (SS 3) students' performance in reading comprehension. Questionnaires reading comprehension test were used in eliciting data. The data were subsequently ...

  4. Does tutor subject-matter expertise influence student achievement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To establish whether or not tutor subject-matter expertise influences student achievement in content-based examinations in the problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum at the University of Transkei (UNITRA) Medical School. Design. A retrospective study of MB ChB III student achievement in end-of-block ...

  5. Which Reading Lesson Instruction Characteristics Matter for Early Reading Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendum, Steven J.; Li, Yongmei; Hall, Leigh A.; Fitzgerald, Jill; Creamer, Kimberly H.; Head-Reeves, Darlene M.; Hollingsworth, Heidi L.

    2009-01-01

    Five reading lesson instruction characteristics were examined in relation to first and second graders' end-of-year instructional reading level: (a) teacher's preferred interaction style (indicated by extent of teacher telling and coaching); (b) teacher's preferred grouping (indicated by extent of whole class and small group instruction); (c)…

  6. Teachers mathematical communication profile in explaining subject matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umami, Rohmatul; Budayasa, I. Ketut; Suwarsono, St.

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to see a teachers mathematical communication profile in explaining a subject matter. It is a qualitative research. A high-school junior teacher (i.e., a teacher with 1- to 5-year experience) teaching mathematics at X-Social Class was selected as the subject of this study. The data was collected by observing the teachers mathematical communication in explaining a given material (i.e., the rule of sine) in class and an in-depth interview would be organized respectively. The result showed that the junior teacher explained the subject matter in systematic, complete, fluent, and centered manner. In this case, she began with reminding students on the previous material related to the current material to be learned, informing the current learning objectives, and finally delivering the subject matter. To support her explanation, the teacher also provided some related information, led the students attention into the given material by asking them particular related questions, and did not use any confusing terms. However, the study found that some of high-school teachers still used less appropriate language in explaining materials.

  7. Learning, knowledge building, and subject matter knowledge in school science

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aalst, Jan Cornelis Wouterus

    Following a theoretical analysis of constructivist approaches to collaborative learning, a curriculum development model, the Learning to Knowledge Building Model, is proposed. Two empirical studies of student work with Computer Supported Intentional Learning Environment (CSILE) are then presented; these lend support to the model and explicate in detail the nature and extent of the knowledge developed by elementary school students. The first study is a content analysis of a database developed by a combined Grade 5/6 class as part of a unit on heat and matter, conducted after the children completed their work; the analysis assumes the point of view of a subject matter specialist in the field of the students' inquiry. The second study was conducted while the students' investigation was in progress, and takes the point of view of curriculum coverage; it involved a teacher who used a different model of database use, as well as different subject matter. The proposed LKB model is based on a distinction Bereiter and Scardamalia (1996a) have made between learning and knowledge building (i.e., progressive collaborative problem solving); its aim is to support the design and planning of curriculum units and classroom practices in which knowledge building is central. An important feature of the model is the attention given to ensuring that students learn to evaluate their knowledge and to ask the questions that can advance shared knowledge. Among the findings of the first study are: (a) students who wrote more notes that explicated their commonsense knowledge early in the unit, by means of mixed framework notes, tended to write more notes of high scientific merit later; (b) some of the students in this category tried out their ideas in diverse problem contexts; and (c) they tended to dominate the discussions they started. The second study provides additional insight into the role of the teacher, and the potential role of subject matter specialists, in knowledge building; it

  8. Single-subject grey matter graphs in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijms, Betty M; Möller, Christiane; Vrenken, Hugo; Wink, Alle Meije; de Haan, Willem; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Stam, Cornelis J; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    Coordinated patterns of cortical morphology have been described as structural graphs and previous research has demonstrated that properties of such graphs are altered in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it remains unknown how these alterations are related to cognitive deficits in individuals, as such graphs are restricted to group-level analysis. In the present study we investigated this question in single-subject grey matter networks. This new method extracts large-scale structural graphs where nodes represent small cortical regions that are connected by edges when they show statistical similarity. Using this method, unweighted and undirected networks were extracted from T1 weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging scans of 38 AD patients (19 female, average age 72±4 years) and 38 controls (19 females, average age 72±4 years). Group comparisons of standard graph properties were performed after correcting for grey matter volumetric measurements and were correlated to scores of general cognitive functioning. AD networks were characterised by a more random topology as indicated by a decreased small world coefficient (p = 3.53×10(-5)), decreased normalized clustering coefficient (p = 7.25×10(-6)) and decreased normalized path length (p = 1.91×10(-7)). Reduced normalized path length explained significantly (p = 0.004) more variance in measurements of general cognitive decline (32%) in comparison to volumetric measurements (9%). Altered path length of the parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, fusiform gyrus and precuneus showed the strongest relationship with cognitive decline. The present results suggest that single-subject grey matter graphs provide a concise quantification of cortical structure that has clinical value, which might be of particular importance for disease prognosis. These findings contribute to a better understanding of structural alterations and cognitive dysfunction in AD.

  9. Inquiry-Based Instruction: Does School Environmental Context Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pea, Celestine H.

    2012-01-01

    In a larger study on teachers' beliefs about science teaching, one component looks at how school environmental context factors influence inquiry-based science instruction. Research shows that three broad categories of school environmental factors (human, sociocultural, design) impact inquiry-based teaching in some way. A mixed-method, sequential,…

  10. Landscape History and Theory: from Subject Matter to Analytical Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Birksted

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores how landscape history can engage methodologically with the adjacent disciplines of art history and visual/cultural studies. Central to the methodological problem is the mapping of the beholder - spatially, temporally and phenomenologically. In this mapping process, landscape history is transformed from subject matter to analytical tool. As a result, landscape history no longer simply imports and applies ideas from other disciplines but develops its own methodologies to engage and influence them. Landscape history, like art history, thereby takes on a creative cultural presence. Through that process, landscape architecture and garden design regains the cultural power now carried by the arts and museum studies, and has an effect on the innovative capabilities of contemporary landscape design.

  11. Knot numbers used as labels for identifying subject matter of a khipu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Saez-Rodriguez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This investigation presents a new way to look at the numerical khipu, a knotted-string recording device from Pachacamac (Peru, and the types of information it contains. In addition to celestial coordinates, khipu knots apparently pertain to an early form of double-entry accounting. This study hypothesizes that the khipu sample has the recording capacity needed to register double-entry-like accounts. After the identification of its subject matter, the khipu sample was studied in an attempt to ascertain whether the knot values could represent instructions from the Inca state administration to a local accounting center. The results indicate that the numerical information in the pairing quadrants (determined by the distribution of S- and Z-knots should be read from top to bottom along the full length of the string and can then provide certain complementary details regarding the projected corn stocks of the Inca stat

  12. OntoBrowser: a collaborative tool for curation of ontologies by subject matter experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravagli, Carlo; Pognan, Francois; Marc, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The lack of controlled terminology and ontology usage leads to incomplete search results and poor interoperability between databases. One of the major underlying challenges of data integration is curating data to adhere to controlled terminologies and/or ontologies. Finding subject matter experts with the time and skills required to perform data curation is often problematic. In addition, existing tools are not designed for continuous data integration and collaborative curation. This results in time-consuming curation workflows that often become unsustainable. The primary objective of OntoBrowser is to provide an easy-to-use online collaborative solution for subject matter experts to map reported terms to preferred ontology (or code list) terms and facilitate ontology evolution. Additional features include web service access to data, visualization of ontologies in hierarchical/graph format and a peer review/approval workflow with alerting. The source code is freely available under the Apache v2.0 license. Source code and installation instructions are available at http://opensource.nibr.com This software is designed to run on a Java EE application server and store data in a relational database. philippe.marc@novartis.com. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. On indexes and subject matter of “global competitiveness”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Korotkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to analyze the subject matter of a country’s competitiveness and to characterize statistical indexes of competitiveness known in the international practice from the perspective of a more elaborated theory of market competition. This aim follows from the identified problems. First, there are no generally accepted interpretation and joint understanding of competition and competitiveness at country level. Even the international organizations giving estimations of global competitiveness disagree on definitions of competitiveness. Secondly, there is no relation to the theory of market competition in the available source materials on competitiveness of the country without original methodology. Thirdly, well-known statistical indexes of global competitiveness do not have enough theoretical justification and differ in sets of factors. All this highlights the incompleteness of the methodology and methodological support of studying competitiveness at country level.Materials and methods. The research is based on the methodology of statistics, economic theory and marketing. The authors followed the basic principle of statistical methodology – requirement of continuous combination of qualitative and quantitative analysis, when the research begins and ends with qualitative analysis. A most important section of statistical methodology is widely used – construction of statistical indexes. In the course of the analysis, a method of statistical classifications is applied. A significant role in the present research is given to the method of generalizing and analogue method, realizing that related terms should mean similar and almost similar contents. Modeling of competition and competitiveness is widely used in the present research, which made it possible to develop a logical model of competition following from the competition theory.Results. Based on the definitions’ survey the analysis of the subject matter of global

  14. Does instruction of “Integers” subject with cartoons effect students’ mathematics anxiety?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Şengül, Sare; Dereli, Mehtap

    2010-01-01

    ... at www.sciencedirect.com WCES-2010 Does instruction of “Integers” subject with cartoons effect students’ mathematics anxiety? Sare �engül a *, Mehtap Dereli b a Atatürk...

  15. How Many Hours of Instruction Are Needed for Students to Become Competent in Engineering Subjects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdigones, Alicia; Benedicto, Susana; Sánchez-Espinosa, Elvira; Gallego, Eutiquio; García, José L.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the curricula of three different agricultural engineering courses and to determine the competence of graduating students in three subject areas in order to identify possible shortfalls in the number of hours of instruction (HI) required for full competence to be attained. A total of 132 students sat a voluntary…

  16. Cerebral white matter lesions and subjective cognitive dysfunction - The Rotterdam Scan Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, J.C.; de Leeuw, FE; Oudkerk, M; Hofman, A; Jolles, J; Breteler, MMB

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship between cerebral white matter lesions (WML) and subjective cognitive dysfunction. Background: Subjective cognitive dysfunction is present when a person perceives failures of cognitive function. When annoying enough, these failures will be expressed as

  17. 48 CFR 52.227-10 - Filing of Patent Applications-Classified Subject Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filing of Patent... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.227-10 Filing of Patent Applications—Classified Subject Matter. As prescribed at 27.203-2, insert the following clause: Filing of Patent Applications—Classified Subject Matter...

  18. Beyond "Either-Or" Thinking: John Dewey and Confucius on Subject Matter and the Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charlene

    2016-01-01

    This article compares the educational thought of John Dewey and Confucius on the nature of and relationship between subject matter and the learner. There is a common perception in the existing literature and discourse that Dewey advocates child- or learner-centred education whereas Confucius privileges subject matter via textual transmission.…

  19. Effects of instructions and cue subjectiveness on specificity of autobiographical memory recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge J. Ricarte-Trives

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The first aim of this study was to determine the power of instructions on the specificity of autobiographical memory as obtained with the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986 and the efficacy of cue word criteria selection based on subjective parameters obtained with a standardized lexical program. Results showed a high power of specific instructions in its written version in contrast to non-directed memory recall to the same list of words three weeks later in a counterbalanced repeated measures within-subjects design. This effect was stronger when subjects previously were faced to the non-specific recovery task. Matched word lists using the "Buscapalabras" program (Davis & Perea, 2005 showed a very similar behaviour. These results point out that the same stimuli can be used repeatedly to obtain voluntary and involuntary retrieval with changes at instructional level. Additionally, standardized lexical programs can be employed to adapt cue-words of memory recall systems controlling for subjective differences related to language parameters (frequency, imageability and familiarity.

  20. GP teachers' subject matter knowledge in the context of a tutorial: the preparation and delivery compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantillon, Peter; de Grave, Willem

    2012-05-01

    Clinical teachers use several different types of knowledge in the act of teaching. These include content knowledge (subject matter), knowledge of how to teach (pedagogy) and knowledge of learners (context). Most attention in faculty development has been on how to teach rather than what is taught. The quality of a teacher's subject matter knowledge is likely to be a critical determinant of how well a subject is presented, communicated and learned. We therefore set out to examine teachers' subject matter knowledge in the context of a general practice tutorial on grade 1 hypertension. This study is part of a larger study that employed a mixed method approach (concept mapping, phenomenological interviews and video-stimulated recall) to examine differences between clinical educators in subject matter knowledge, pedagogical knowledge and knowledge of the learning environment in the context of general practice education. This paper presents the concept map data findings from the larger study as well as the parts of the phenomenological interviews that relate to subject matter knowledge and beliefs. We found that there were marked differences in the quality and elaborative structure of GP teachers' knowledge in the concept maps completed prior to the tutorials. These differences were also predictive of differences in the content presented to learners in tutorials. Teachers' beliefs about subject matter were also likely to have affected what they chose to teach about and how they presented it. Subject matter knowledge varies considerably between GP teachers in the context of a common and relatively simple tutorial. Differences in the quality of subject matter knowledge matter because they have a profound effect on what is learned and how it is learned. Faculty development for clinical educators needs to pay heed to the quality of subject matter knowledge in addition to its more common pedagogical focus.

  1. The Elaboration Theory of Instruction: A Model for Sequencing and Synthesizing Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigeluth, Charles M.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the importance of models of instruction and the need to consider subject-matter structure in organizing instruction. The components of the elaboration model and variations in the model for different kinds of goals are described. (Author/CHC)

  2. Generating a non-English subjectivity lexicon: relations that matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jijkoun, V.; Hofmann, K.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a method for creating a non-English subjectivity lexicon based on an English lexicon, an online translation service and a general purpose thesaurus: Wordnet. We use a PageRank-like algorithm to bootstrap from the translation of the English lexicon and rank the words in the thesaurus by

  3. Preservice History Teachers' Perceptions of Subject Matter Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Tercan; Yazici, Fatih

    2017-01-01

    Teachers should be able to understand conceptual constructs, viewpoints, and principles related to their field and organize teaching process accordingly. This is valid also for history teachers. They are expected to comprehend the basic conceptions related to subject areas and reflect them on classroom practices. The association between subject…

  4. The interrelationship between subject matter and school gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jacob Højgaard; Wistoft, Karen

    2018-01-01

    This article maps out existing research regarding the effectiveness of integrated teaching in school gardens, i.e. including the math, languages and science subjects with their related objectives and curricula in school garden teaching and vice versa. The article is based on a literature review...... a standard garden curriculum is essential to planning, carrying out and evaluating effective school garden teaching in math, languages and science. Experiential learning and hands-on activities are teaching methods that immediately come to mind because they make the subject content less abstract, activate...... that concludes that school gardens have a predominantly positive influence on students’ learning outcome. However, there are a few school garden programmes that have the same or even a less beneficial influence on students’ learning outcome than traditional teaching. Thus, school gardens do not have...

  5. Didactic Matters in Teaching Subjects of Economics at the College

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Strazdienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been stated in Lithuania‘s National School Concept that the primary goal of the education of Lithuania is to secure the best possible comprehensive development of physical, psychological and spiritual human powers, to create conditions for the unfolding of the personal individuality. The subject of my teaching is economic theory. We face economic questions every day and in all areas of life. Therefore, my purpose is to acquaint college students, who do not study economics, with economic basics, to develop economic thinking and literacy. Greatest attention is paid to describe economic concepts and to use them in practice. Economics can not be learned through observing, one must work, analyse, solve practical exercises, search for correct answers. The purpose of the article is to assess the students‘ approach to the relevance of the subjects of economics. It is sought to identify the possibilities of applying new methods for teaching economic subjects and of selecting a teaching method in accordance with the students‘ level of preparation. The assessment of the research carried out enables to conclude that teaching economics forms students‘ capacities of a wide range, stimulates their self-expression, prepares young people to work in market conditions. The following methods of the research have been employed: pedagogic observation, questionnaire (survey, analysis of scientific literature and generalization.

  6. Subjectivity and Objectivity: A Matter of Life and Death?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrudis Van de Vijver

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it is argued that the question ldquo;What is life?rdquo; time and again emergesmdash;and within the confines of an objectivistic/subjectivistic frame of thought has to emergemdash;as a symptom, a non-deciphered, cryptic message that insists on being interpreted. br /Our hypothesis is that the failure to measure up the living to the standards of objectification has been taken too frequently from an objectivistic angle, leading to a simple postponement of an objective treatment of the living, and meanwhile confining it to the domain of the subjective, the relative and the metaphorical. As a consequence, the truly important question of the co-constitutive relation between objectivity and subjectivity is thereby evaded. A critical, transcendental account can be relevant in this regard, not only because of the fact that objectivity and subjectivity are seen as co-constitutive, but also because it addresses the question of the embeddedness of objectivity and subjectivity from within the living dynamics.br /This hypothesis will be articulated on the basis of Erwin Schrouml;dingerrsquo;s famous little book on ldquo;What is life?rdquo;, in dialogue with Robert Rosenrsquo;s critical reading of it. It appears that Schrouml;dinger considered the living as a genuine challenge for classical objectification procedures. However, it is doubtful whether this brought him to a critical reading of objectivity or to the acknowledgment of a constitutive role of subjectivity in relation to objectivity. We argue that his viewpoint has the merit ofnbsp; expressing the difficulty of the living within the field of the physical sciences, but does not really transcend the objectivism/subjectivism opposition. At this point, Rosenrsquo;s relational account takes up the challenge more radically by acknowledging the need for a new epistemology and a new metaphysics in relation to living systems, and by attributing a place to classical objectivity from within this

  7. Individualized Instruction in Science, Time-Space-Matter, Self-Directed Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczma, R. M.

    As a supplement to Learning Activity Packages (LAP) on the time-space-matter subject, details are presented for self-directed activities. Major descriptions are given on the background of LAP characteristics, metric system, profile graph construction, spectroscope operation, radiant energy measurement, sunspot effects, density determination,…

  8. 37 CFR 1.110 - Inventorship and date of invention of the subject matter of individual claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... invention of the subject matter of individual claims. 1.110 Section 1.110 Patents, Trademarks, and... invention of the subject matter of individual claims. When more than one inventor is named in an application... claim in the application or patent. Where appropriate, the invention dates of the subject matter of each...

  9. Experiential Learning of Electronics Subject Matter in Middle School Robotics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihtaršic, David; Avsec, Stanislav; Kocijancic, Slavko

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the experiential learning of electronics subject matter is effective in the middle school open learning of robotics. Electronics is often ignored in robotics courses. Since robotics courses are typically comprised of computer-related subjects, and mechanical and electrical engineering, these…

  10. One Health in food safety and security education: Subject matter outline for a curricular framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Angelos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Educating students in the range of subjects encompassing food safety and security as approached from a One Health perspective requires consideration of a variety of different disciplines and the interrelationships among disciplines. The Western Institute for Food Safety and Security developed a subject matter outline to accompany a previously published One Health in food safety and security curricular framework. The subject matter covered in this outline encompasses a variety of topics and disciplines related to food safety and security including effects of food production on the environment. This subject matter outline should help guide curriculum development and education in One Health in food safety and security and provides useful information for educators, researchers, students, and public policy-makers facing the inherent challenges of maintaining and/or developing safe and secure food supplies without destroying Earth's natural resources.

  11. Trends in the journal of nematology, 1969-2009: authors, States, nematodes, and subject matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSorley, R

    2011-06-01

    Issues of the Journal of Nematology from 1969-2009 were examined to determine trends in authorship and subject matter. Data were collected on authors, affiliations, locations, funding, nematodes, and nematological subject matter, and then compared among the 4 decades involved. Some of the more prominent changes noted included: a decrease (P Journal of Nematology in the 1990s and 2000s from a peak in the 1980s; an increase (P Journal of Nematology from 1969-2009. The greatest changes in subject matter were increases in papers on biological control and resistance in the 1990s and 2000s compared to the 1970s and 1980s. Additional trends and subjects are discussed, and data are provided comparing differences among the 4 decades for various aspects of nematology.

  12. One Health in food safety and security education: Subject matter outline for a curricular framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelos, John A; Arens, Amanda L; Johnson, Heather A; Cadriel, Jessica L; Osburn, Bennie I

    2017-06-01

    Educating students in the range of subjects encompassing food safety and security as approached from a One Health perspective requires consideration of a variety of different disciplines and the interrelationships among disciplines. The Western Institute for Food Safety and Security developed a subject matter outline to accompany a previously published One Health in food safety and security curricular framework. The subject matter covered in this outline encompasses a variety of topics and disciplines related to food safety and security including effects of food production on the environment. This subject matter outline should help guide curriculum development and education in One Health in food safety and security and provides useful information for educators, researchers, students, and public policy-makers facing the inherent challenges of maintaining and/or developing safe and secure food supplies without destroying Earth's natural resources.

  13. Fiberprint: A subject fingerprint based on sparse code pooling for white matter fiber analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kuldeep; Desrosiers, Christian; Siddiqi, Kaleem; Colliot, Olivier; Toews, Matthew

    2017-09-01

    White matter characterization studies use the information provided by diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) to draw cross-population inferences. However, the structure, function, and white matter geometry vary across individuals. Here, we propose a subject fingerprint, called Fiberprint, to quantify the individual uniqueness in white matter geometry using fiber trajectories. We learn a sparse coding representation for fiber trajectories by mapping them to a common space defined by a dictionary. A subject fingerprint is then generated by applying a pooling function for each bundle, thus providing a vector of bundle-wise features describing a particular subject's white matter geometry. These features encode unique properties of fiber trajectories, such as their density along prominent bundles. An analysis of data from 861 Human Connectome Project subjects reveals that a fingerprint based on approximately 3000 fiber trajectories can uniquely identify exemplars from the same individual. We also use fingerprints for twin/sibling identification, our observations consistent with the twin data studies of white matter integrity. Our results demonstrate that the proposed Fiberprint can effectively capture the variability in white matter fiber geometry across individuals, using a compact feature vector (dimension of 50), making this framework particularly attractive for handling large datasets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Engaging Students with Subject Matter Experts and Science Content Through Classroom Connection Webinars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, P. V.; Rampe, E.; Stefanov, W. L.; Vanderbloemen, L.; Higgins, M.

    2015-01-01

    Connecting students and teachers in classrooms with science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) experts provides an invaluable opportunity. Subject matter experts can share exciting science and science-related events as well as help to "translate" science being conducted by professionals. The Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) Program, facilitated by the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center, has been providing virtual access to subject matter experts through classroom connection webinars for the last five years. Each year, the reach of these events has grown considerably, especially over the last nine months. These virtual connections not only help engage students with role models, but are also designed to help teachers address concepts and content standards they are required to teach. These events also enable scientists and subject matter experts to help "translate" current science in an engaging and understandable manner while actively involving classrooms in the journey of science and exploration.

  15. TEACHERS PERSPECTIVE OF USING ENGLISH AS A MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION IN MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norudin Mansor

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The policy of changing the medium of instruction in the teaching of mathematics and science from Bahasa Melayu to English is an important innovation affecting teachers of mathematics and science. It poses special challenges not only for teachers who have been trained in the Malay medium but also for those trained in English. This investigation seeks to find out the achievement of students in mathematic and science subjects after considering the impact of prominent independent variables such as, the school, class and home environment, the teaching methodology and the teachers’ attitude. Analysis of the development in the state of Terengganu has been carried out by the distribution of questionnaires to teachers involved. Result of the correlation and multiple regressions indicated that all the three factors are significantly associated towards students’ achievement. However, the teaching methodology indicated a low level of moderate correlation which is believed to be the immediate issue that needed to be addressed in the new system.

  16. Visual art as means and subject of instruction: Various approaches and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Marija M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at various approaches and strategies of using visual art in nursery schools and elementary schools in accordance with theory-based concepts of the abilities and interests of children in these age groups. The teaching of younger children which emphasizes gaining experience through creative work and other age-appropriate approaches and strategies helps children learn about the visual arts, but also about content from other subjects of study. On the other hand, with older children the focus shifts to gaining knowledge about art, though this does not exclude creative work as well as the integration of visual arts content with the content of other subjects, thus leading to the achievement of more general educational goals. Therefore, drawing on the relevant literature from educational practice and museum and gallery work, and in accordance with what is known about the developmental competences of nursery age and elementary school age children, this paper aims to promote the adoption of adequate approaches and strategies in teaching, using visual art as the subject or as a means of instruction.

  17. Trends in the Journal of Nematology, 1969-2009: Authors, States, Nematodes, and Subject Matter

    OpenAIRE

    McSorley, R.

    2011-01-01

    Issues of the Journal of Nematology from 1969-2009 were examined to determine trends in authorship and subject matter. Data were collected on authors, affiliations, locations, funding, nematodes, and nematological subject matter, and then compared among the 4 decades involved. Some of the more prominent changes noted included: a decrease (P < 0.05) in the number of papers published in the Journal of Nematology in the 1990s and 2000s from a peak in the 1980s; an increase (P < 0.05) in number o...

  18. Using Concept Maps as Instructional Materials to Foster the Understanding of the Atomic Model and Matter-Energy Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Joana G.; Correia, Paulo R. M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the use of concept maps (Cmaps) as instructional materials prepared by teachers, to foster the understanding of chemistry. We choose fireworks as a macroscopic event to teach basic chemical principles related to the Bohr atomic model and matter-energy interaction. During teachers' Cmap navigation, students can experience…

  19. On the Importance of Subject Matter in Mathematics Education: A Conversation with Erich Christian Wittmann

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinwunmi, Kathrin; Höveler, Karina; Schnell, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Erich Christian Wittmann is one of the primary founders of mathematics education research as an autonomous field of work and research in Germany. The interview presented here reflects on his role in promoting mathematics education as a design science. The interview addresses the following topics: (1) The importance of subject matter in…

  20. Pre-Service Geography Teachers' Confidence in Geographical Subject Matter Knowledge and Teaching Geographical Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Wendy; Reitano, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This research tracked the confidence of 16 undergraduate and postgraduate pre-service geography teachers as they completed a single semester, senior phase geography curriculum course. The study focused specifically on the pre-service teachers' confidence in geographical subject matter knowledge and their confidence in teaching geographical skills.…

  1. The Dialectical Nature of Writing and Its Implications for Learning Subject Matter Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Males, Terry

    1997-01-01

    Looks at writing as a dialectical affair--"dialectic" refers both to the dialogical nature of writing and the opportunity it opens up for the writer in coming to a new understanding of the subject matter. Uses H. Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics as a starting point for developing writing as a dialectical process. (PA)

  2. Reclaiming the Subject Matter as a Guide to Mutual Understanding: Effectiveness and Ethics in Interpersonal Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deetz, Stanley

    1990-01-01

    Presents H. G. Gadamer's ontology of understanding as a developmental foundation for interpersonal system ethics. Conceptualizes interaction in terms of demand that the subject matter places on openly formed mutual understanding. Shows unethical interactions as practices which prohibit this development. Provides examples of processes by which…

  3. What Do Subject Matter Experts Have to Say about Participating in Education and Outreach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Colleen; NASA's Universe of Learning Team

    2018-01-01

    NASA’s Universe of Learning partners wish to actively engage with Subject Matter Experts (scientists and engineers) throughout the design, development, and delivery of products, programs, and professional development. In order to ensure these engagement efforts aligned with the needs of Subject Matter Experts, the external evaluators conducted an online survey. The subject pool included the scientists and engineers employed at the partner organizations as well as other scientists and engineers affiliated with NASA’s Astrophysics missions and research programs. This presentation will describe scientists’/engineers’ interest in various types of education/outreach, their availability to participate in education/outreach, factors that would encourage their participation in education/outreach, and the preparation and support they have for participation in education/outreach.

  4. All Aboard! The Polar Express Is Traveling to Science--Understanding the States of Matter While Differentiating Instruction for Young Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vowell, Julie; Phillips, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    This standards-based science lesson introduces young learners to scientific inquiry and critical thinking by using activities to demonstrate three phases of matter (solid, liquid, and gas). By learning about the states of matter through a 5E instructional approach, students are encouraged to observe changes in the states of matter and to discuss…

  5. John Dewey on theory of learning and inquiry: The scientific method and subject matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Nien

    This study examines the educational debate between Dewey and some of his critics on the merits of learning the scientific method. Four of Dewey's critics---Hutchins, Hirsch, Hirst, and Scheffler criticize Dewey for over-emphasizing the importance of the scientific method and under-emphasizing the importance of subject matter in education. This dissertation argues that these critics misunderstand Dewey's use of the scientific method and its importance in education. It argues that Dewey conceives of the scientific method in two different ways: first as an attitude and second as a tool. It also argues that, by failing to understand this critical distinction, these critics misunderstand the role of the scientific method in education. The dissertation concludes by showing that, educationally, Dewey's ideas of the scientific method have different meanings in different context. It analyzes the scientific method as empirical method, critical thinking, cooperative learning, and creative thinking, and shows the place of subject matter in each of them.

  6. White Matter Hyperintensity Associations with Cerebral Blood Flow in Elderly Subjects Stratified by Cerebrovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Ahmed A; Powell, David K; Yu, Guoquiang; Johnson, Eleanor S; Jicha, Gregory A; Smith, Charles D

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to add clarity to the relationship between deep and periventricular brain white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and cerebrovascular risk in older persons. Deep white matter hyperintensity (dWMH) and periventricular white matter hyperintensity (pWMH) and regional gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) blood flow from arterial spin labeling were quantified from magnetic resonance imaging scans of 26 cognitively normal elderly subjects stratified by cerebrovascular disease (CVD) risk. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images were acquired using a high-resolution 3-dimensional (3-D) sequence that reduced partial volume effects seen with slice-based techniques. dWMHs but not pWMHs were increased in patients at high risk of CVD; pWMHs but not dWMHs were associated with decreased regional cortical (GM) blood flow. We also found that blood flow in WM is decreased in regions of both pWMH and dWMH, with a greater degree of decrease in pWMH areas. WMHs are usefully divided into dWMH and pWMH regions because they demonstrate differential effects. 3-D regional WMH volume is a potentially valuable marker for CVD based on associations with cortical CBF and WM CBF. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Your teaching strategy matters: how engagement impacts application in health information literacy instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Heather A; Barrett, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two pedagogical methods, active learning and passive instruction, to determine which is more useful in helping students to achieve the learning outcomes in a one-hour research skills instructional session. Two groups of high school students attended an instructional session to learn about consumer health resources and strategies to enhance their searching skills. The first group received passive instruction, and the second engaged in active learning. We assessed both groups' learning using 2 methods with differing complexity. A total of 59 students attended the instructional sessions (passive instruction, n=28; active learning, n=31). We found that the active learning group scored more favorably in four assessment categories. Active learning may help students engage with and develop a meaningful understanding of several resources in a single session. Moreover, when using a complex teaching strategy, librarians should be mindful to gauge learning using an equally complex assessment method.

  8. A Matter of Size: Flipping Library Instruction in Various Engineering Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddison, Tasha

    2015-01-01

    This case study explores the use of flipped teaching in three different undergraduate engineering courses, discussing the advantages and disadvantages of class size and how it affects the delivery of information literacy instruction as observed through student engagement and the perceived helpfulness of the instruction. A flipped classroom was…

  9. Supplemental Literacy Instruction in High School: What Students Say Matters for Reading Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Susan Chambers; Pennington, Jessica; Rintamaa, Margaret; Osborne, Monica; Parker, Cindy; Rudd, Mary

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we describe a model for reading engagement that emerged from interviews with high school students who participated in a yearlong supplemental intervention course. The course focused on motivation, strategies, content learning, and communication within the context of themed instruction. We sought to ascertain instructional factors,…

  10. Effects of visual demonstration, verbal instructions, and prompted verbal descriptions on the performance of human subjects in conditional discriminations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribes-Iñesta, Emilio; Cepeda, Ma. Luisa; Hickman, Hortencia; Moreno, Diana; Peñalosa, Eduardo

    1992-01-01

    A study was conducted to confirm prior results concerning the role of prompted verbal descriptions of visually demonstrated stimulus relations in the acquisition and transfer of identity, difference, and similarity-matching relations (Ribes et al., 1988). Four groups of human adults were trained with these three matching relations under four different procedures: (1) visual demonstration without response requirement, (2) verbal instructions, (3) visual demonstration plus prompted verbal description, and (4) visual demonstration plus verbal instructions. These procedures were presented at the beginning of the training period before subjects could respond to the experimental task. Although most subjects in the four groups acquired the conditional discrimination under the three matching relations, only those in the two instruction-related groups showed some intramodal and extramodal transfer in tests with stimuli that had not been used in training. These results suggest the importance of measuring extra-situational and trans-situational generalization, and raise the need to distinguish between formal and functional verbal factors in the regulation of human behavior. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:22477044

  11. Does instructional approach matter? How elaboration plays a crucial role in multimedia learning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eysink, Tessa H.S.; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the affordances of 4 multimedia learning environments for specific learning processes. The environments covered the same domain but used different instructional approaches: (a) hypermedia learning, (b) observational learning, (c) self-explanation-based learning, and (d) inquiry

  12. Are Individual Differences Undertreated in Instructional Design?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropper, George L.

    2015-01-01

    Instructional design can be more effective if it is as fixedly dedicated to the accommodation of individual differences as it currently is to the accommodation of subject matters. That is the hypothesis. A menu of accommodation options is provided that is applicable at each of three stages of instructional development or administration: before,…

  13. Habitual sleep durations and subjective sleep quality predict white matter differences in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakh Khalsa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-imposed short sleep durations are increasingly commonplace in society, and have considerable health and performance implications for individuals. Reduced sleep duration over multiple nights has similar behavioural effects to those observed following acute total sleep deprivation, suggesting that lack of sleep affects brain function cumulatively. A link between habitual sleep patterns and functional connectivity has previously been observed, and the effect of sleep duration on the brain's intrinsic functional architecture may provide a link between sleep status and cognition. However, it is currently not known whether differences in habitual sleep patterns across individuals are related to changes in the brain's white matter, which underlies structural connectivity. In the present study we use diffusion–weighted imaging and a group comparison application of tract based spatial statistics (TBSS to investigate changes to fractional anisotropy (FA and mean diffusivity (MD in relation to sleep duration and quality, hypothesising that white matter metrics would be positively associated with sleep duration and quality. Diffusion weighted imaging data was acquired from a final cohort of 33 (23–29 years, 10 female, mean 25.4 years participants. Sleep patterns were assessed for a 14 day period using wrist actigraphs and sleep diaries, and subjective sleep quality with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. Median splits based on total sleep time and PSQI were used to create groups of shorter/longer and poorer/better sleepers, whose imaging data was compared using TBSS followed by post-hoc correlation analysis in regions identified as significantly different between the groups. There were significant positive correlations between sleep duration and FA in the left orbito-frontal region and the right superior corona radiata, and significant negative correlations between sleep duration and MD in right orbito-frontal white matter and the right

  14. Relative effectiveness of reading practice or word-level instruction in supplemental tutoring: how text matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadasy, Patricia F; Sanders, Elizabeth A; Peyton, Julia A

    2005-01-01

    In this quasi-experimental study, which is part of a series of investigations on supplemental reading tutoring variations, the relative effectiveness of more intense decoding instruction or text reading practice was examined. Fifty-seven first-grade students scoring in the lowest quartile for reading skills received either classroom reading instruction or one of two treatments: tutoring in word study with text reading practice, or word study tutoring alone. Individual instruction was provided by trained paraprofessional tutors. At the end of first grade, treatment students significantly outperformed their nontutored peers on measures of reading accuracy, reading comprehension, reading efficiency, passage reading fluency, and spelling. Differential treatment effects on passage reading fluency are examined, taking into consideration pretest skill levels and text reading practice characteristics.

  15. The Effects of Verbal Rewards and Punishment on Subject-Matter Growth of Culturally Disadvantaged First Grade Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, Joan K.; Soar, Robert S.

    The purpose of this study was to extend a relationship between teacher verbal rewarding and punishing behavior and subject matter growth previously obtained with middle-class postprimary children, with a different population; namely, first-grade, lower-class children. The subjects were 366 children and 20 teachers from first-grade classes…

  16. Grammar Instruction and Error Correction: A Matter of Iranian Students' Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjabi, Mahyar

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: So far the role of grammar instruction and error correction has been mainly analyzed from the teachers' perspectives. However, learners' attitudes can also affect the effectiveness of any type of learning, especially language learning. Therefore, language learners' attitudes and beliefs should also be considered as a determining…

  17. Universal Design for Instruction: A Matter of Equitable Access to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, Simone; Stuart, Shannon; Riall, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Universal design for instruction is an inclusive teaching model that the authors advocate for responding to the diverse learning needs of students in today's postsecondary classrooms. The goal of universally designed courses is to allow all students to have available a menu of choices by which they can access curriculum content, engage in learning…

  18. Does Instructional Approach Matter? How Elaboration Plays a Crucial Role in Multimedia Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysink, Tessa H. S.; de Jong, Ton

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the affordances of 4 multimedia learning environments for specific learning processes. The environments covered the same domain but used different instructional approaches: (a) hypermedia learning, (b) observational learning, (c) self-explanation-based learning, and (d) inquiry learning. Although they all promote an active…

  19. Attitudes towards mathematics as a subject and mathematics learning and instruction in a trans-disciplinary engineering study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafyllou, Evangelia; Misfeldt, Morten; Timcenko, Olga

    2016-01-01

    This article explores student attitudes and preferences in learning and teaching of mathematics in engineering studies that transcend the division between technical, scientific and artistic disciplines. For observing such attitudes, we have developed a model that relates the attitude towards...... mathematics as a subject with the attitude towards mathematics learning and instruction. Data comes from a study at the Media technology educational program of Aalborg university. The study used attitude and preference questionnaires, and observations and interviews with students. The results show that media...... technology students are not confident in mathematics and consider mathematics to be a difficult subject. Nevertheless, they recognize the importance of mathematics both in their studies and in general. Moreover, students favour learning on their own or together with their peers over learning supported...

  20. A case study of full integration of the arts into core subject area instruction in one East Texas secondary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leysath, Maggie

    This exploratory phenomenological case study investigated the influence the full integration of the arts into core subject instruction has on classroom environment, student academic achievement, and student engagement as perceived by administrators, teachers, and students in one East Texas secondary school. Participant interviews were analyzed using Creswell's (2012) six-step method for analyzing phenomenological studies. The researcher implemented three learning activities in which ceramics learning objectives were fully integrated with chemistry learning objectives. The first activity combined clay properties and pottery wheel throwing with significant numbers. The second activity combined glaze formulation with moles. The third combined stoichiometry with the increased glaze formula for students to glaze the bowls they made. Findings suggest the full integration of art in core subject area instruction has numerous positive effects. Participants reported improved academic achievement for all students including reluctant learners. Students, teachers, and the administrator reported greater participation in the art integrated activities. Participants perceived a need for further training for teachers and administrators for greater success.

  1. Differentiated Instruction: Understanding the personal factors and organizational conditions that facilitate differentiated instruction in elementary mathematics classrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Abbati, Diana Guglielmo

    2012-01-01

    Differentiated instruction is a widely held practice used by teachers to provide diverse learners with complex learning opportunities in the area of mathematics. Research on differentiated instruction shows a multitude of factors that support high quality instruction in mixed-ability elementary classrooms. These factors include small-class size, extra time and resources that allow for a highly individualized approach to instruction, teacher commitment, and subject-matter competency in mathema...

  2. The Effect of Different Attentional Focus Instructions during Finger Movement Tasks in Healthy Subjects: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Rossettini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available External focus of attention (EFA and internal focus of attention (IFA represent commonly used strategies to instruct subjects during exercise. Several studies showed EFA to be more effective than IFA to improve motor performance and learning. To date the role of these strategies on motor performance during finger movement was less studied. The objective of the study was to investigate motor performance, patient’s preference induced by IFA and EFA, and the focus during control condition. Ten healthy right-handed participants performed a finger movement task in control, EFA, and IFA conditions (counterbalanced. Errors, patient’s preference, and type of attentional focus spontaneously adopted during the control condition were recorded. EFA determined less error (p<0.01 compared to control and IFA. Participants preferred EFA against IFA and control condition. In the control group 10% of subjects adopted a purely EFA, 70% of subjects adopted a purely IFA, and 20% of subjects adopted a mixture of the two foci. Our results confirm that EFA is more effective than IFA and control in finger movement task. Due its clinical relevance, the interaction between attention and finger movement should be further investigated.

  3. Organizing English Learner Instruction in New Immigrant Destinations: District Infrastructure and Subject-Specific School Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Megan; Lowenhaupt, Rebecca; Sweet, Tracy M.

    2015-01-01

    In the context of shifting demographics and standards-based reform, school districts in new immigrant destinations are charged with designing infrastructures that support teaching and learning for English learners (ELs) in core academic subjects. This article uses qualitative data and social network analysis to examine how one district in the…

  4. Grey-Matter Metabolism in Relation with White-Matter Lesions in Older Hypertensive Patients with Subjective Memory Complaints: A Pilot Voxel-Based Analysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Antoine; Hossu, Gabriela; Kearney-Schwartz, Anna; Bracard, Serge; Roch, Veronique; Van der Gucht, Axel; Fay, Renaud; Benetos, Athanase; Marie, Pierre-Yves; Joly, Laure

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the changes in brain metabolism related to white-matter magnetic resonance (MR) hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin, with a voxel-based quantitative analysis of (18F)-fluorodesoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging. Sixty older hypertensive patients with subjective memory complaints (75 ± 5 years, 34 women) were prospectively referred to FDG-PET and MRI brain imaging. The Statistical Parametric Mapping software was used to assess the correlation between brain distribution of FDG and white-matter hyperintensities assessed by the Fazekas score on MRI images. The Fazekas score was inversely related to FDG uptake, independently of age and gender, within 14 Brodmann areas located mainly in the frontal lobe but also in certain limbic, insular and temporal areas. This relationship was also found to be largely independent of the volume of grey matter expressed in percentage of cranial volume, an index of atrophy. White-matter MR hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin are cross-sectionally associated with a lower grey-matter metabolism, mainly but not only within frontal areas and independently of age, gender and grey-matter atrophy. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. 'The body does matter': Women as embodied social subjects in Angela Carter's Nights at the Circus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milosavljević Tatjana B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Postmodernism posed a crucial ontological challenge to reality, questioning what constitutes the real world, simultaneously interrogating the horizon of representation of this unstable reality in fiction. Feminism on the other hand equipped us with critical tools for interpreting the reality of being in the world in a gendered body, as well as with a conceptual apparatus for interpreting the manifold institutional and private oppressions of women's bodies that play out in women's daily lives and in the discourses that shape them, literary discourse being one of them. This paper argues that Angela Carter's 1984 novel Nights at the Circus, which is widely held as a postfeminist text due to its narrative commitment to transcending gender binaries, essentially uses the strategies of postmodern storytelling and characterization in order to explore women's embodied potentialities of agency i.e. their construction of subjectivity through body. We will argue that the hybrid magic realist narrative constructs Fevvers' body as a titillating postmodern performance, ontologically illusive and elusive, yet it grounds that same body in various socially effected predicaments and experiences that serve to show that even in the midst of a play of signifiers, in Patricia Waugh's words, 'the body does matter, at least to what has been the dominant perspective within British female fiction' (Waugh, 2006, p. 196. In other words, it may be argued that Carter's novel is invested in traditional second-wave feminist politics to the extent that it shows that a woman's body is an indispensable medium of being in the world with material consequences that bear on the formation of her subjectivity and possibility of agency, and through which she acts out her relationships to others and is acted upon.

  6. NASA's Universe of Learning: The Integral Role of Research Astronomers and Other Subject Matter Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Janice; Universe of Learning Team

    2018-01-01

    Astronomy seeks to understand the workings of the Universe on its largest scales, and to answer fundamental questions about the story of our origins. The science of astronomy thus naturally lends itself to informal education and public outreach activities, as it broadly captures the human imagination. There are at least three overall goals for investment of resources in Astronomy E/PO: to interest students in pursuing STEM education and careers; to develop Astronomy as context for teaching more basic physical and computer science in service of US National Education Goals; to help motivate continued public support of federally funded Astronomy research and technology development. Providing a full spectrum of opportunities for the public to learn about recent Astronomy discoveries is key to achieving these societal goals. Thus, the E/PO professional community must have an understanding of recent scientific/technological results, and engage with the researchers who are creating new knowledge to explicate that knowledge to the public. It stands to reason that researchers (or “subject matter experts, SMEs”) must be involved in and remain connected to the E/PO endeavor. In this talk, I will describe how research astronomers and other SMEs play an integral role in a full range of informal education programming developed by the NASA Universe of Learning collaboration, and opportunities to get involved.

  7. Cognitive Control and White Matter Callosal Microstructure in Methamphetamine Dependent Subjects: A DTI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Ruth; Nordahl, Thomas E; Buonocore, Michael H; Natsuaki, Yutaka; Waters, Christy; Moore, Charles D; Galloway, Gantt P; Leamon, Martin H

    2009-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine (MA) abuse causes damage to structures within the human cerebrum, with particular susceptibility to white matter (WM). Abnormalities have been reported in anterior regions with less evidence of changes in posterior regions. MA abusers have also shown deficits on attention tests that measure response conflict and cognitive control. Methods We examined cognitive control using a computerized measure of the Stroop selective attention task and indices of WM microstructure obtained from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the callosal genu and splenium of 37 currently abstinent MA abusers and 17 non-substance abusing controls. Measurements of Fractional Anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of callosal fibers and diffusion tensor eigenvalues were obtained in all subjects. Results The MA abusers exhibited greater Stroop reaction time interference (i.e., reduced cognitive control) [p=.04] compared to controls. After correcting for multiple comparisons, FA within the genu correlated significantly with measures of cognitive control in the MA abusers [p=.04, bonferroni corrected] but not in controls [p=.26]. Group differences in genu, but not splenium, FA were trend significant [p=.09]. Conclusions MA abuse appears to alter anterior callosal WM microstructure with less evidence of change within posterior callosal WM microstructure. DTI indices within the genu, but not splenium, correlated with measures of cognitive control in chronic MA abusers. PMID:18814867

  8. Instruction Matters: Spelling of Vowels by Children in England and the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Rebecca; Stothard, Susan E; Snowling, Margaret J

    2013-03-01

    Letter names are stressed in informal and formal literacy instruction with young children in the US, whereas letters sounds are stressed in England. We examined the impact of these differences on English children of about 5 and 6 years of age (in reception year and Year 1, respectively) and US 6 year olds (in kindergarten). Children in both countries spelled short vowels, as in bag , more accurately than long vowels, as in gate . The superiority for short vowels was larger for children from England, consistent with the instructional emphasis on letter sounds. Errors such as gat for words with long vowels such as gate were more common among US children, reflecting these children's use of vowels' names as a guide to spelling. The English children's performance on a letter knowledge task was influenced by the fact that they are often taught letter sounds with reference to lowercase letters and letter names with reference to uppercase letters, and their spellings showed some effects of this practice. Although emphasis on letter sounds as opposed to letter names influences children's patterns of performance and types of errors, it does not make the difficult English writing system markedly easier to master.

  9. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  10. What Subject Matter Knowledge Do Second-Level Teachers Need to Know to Teach Trigonometry? An Exploration and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Richard; Fitzmaurice, Olivia; O'Donoghue, John

    2017-01-01

    This study reports on the level of trigonometry Subject Matter Knowledge (SMK) of third and final-year pre-service second-level mathematics teachers () at an Irish third-level institution. The aim of the study was to determine if this sample of prospective teachers has an appropriate level of SMK to teach second-level trigonometric concepts. The…

  11. Which One Is Better? Jigsaw II versus Jigsaw IV on the Subject of the Building Blocks of Matter and Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkmen, Hakan; Buyukaltay, Didem

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effect of using Jigsaw II and Jigsaw IV techniques on the subject of "Atoms-The Basic Unit of Matter" in science course of 6th grade on academic achievement was examined. Pre-test post-test control group research was used in the study. Study population is all secondary schools in Turgutlu district of Manisa province…

  12. "Frustrated" or "Surprised?" An Examination of the Perspectives of Spanish Teacher Candidates regarding the Praxis II Subject-Matter Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Researchers (Sandarg & Schomber, 2009; Wilkerson, Schomber, & Sandarg, 2004) have urged the profession to develop a new subject-matter licensure test to reflect the best practices in the foreign language classroom. In October 2010, the Praxis II: World Language Test joined the Praxis Series. Given that this standards-driven test differs…

  13. Reflective Pedagogy: The Integration of Methodology and Subject-Matter Content in a Graduate-Level Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakeman, Rick C.; Henderson, Markesha M.; Howard, Lionel C.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a critical reflection on how we, instructors of a graduate-level course in higher education administration, sought to integrate theoretical and subject-matter content and research methodology. Our reflection, guided by autoethnography and teacher reflection, challenged both our assumptions about curriculum design and our…

  14. The Knowledge Base of Subject Matter Experts in Teaching: A Case Study of a Professional Scientist as a Beginning Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diezmann, Carmel M.; Watters, James J.

    2015-01-01

    One method of addressing the shortage of science and mathematics teachers is to train scientists and other science-related professionals to become teachers. Advocates argue that as discipline experts these career changers can relate the subject matter knowledge to various contexts and applications in teaching. In this paper, through interviews and…

  15. The Impact of Self-Perceived Subject Matter Knowledge on Pedagogical Decisions in EFL Grammar Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Hugo Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in language teacher cognition research highlight the need to explore subject matter knowledge in relation to classroom practice. This study examines the impact of two foreign language teachers' knowledge about grammar upon their pedagogical decisions. The primary database consisted of classroom observations and post-lesson…

  16. In Search of a Better Way to Organize Instruction: The Elaboration Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigeluth, Charles M.

    The Elaboration Theory of Instruction is an alternative to organizing instruction in terms of a hierarchical task analysis. The hierarchical organization results in an instructional sequence that begins with highly fragmented, small pieces of the subject-matter content, which many educators have found to be demotivating. The elaboration theory…

  17. Resting state cortical electroencephalographic rhythms are related to gray matter volume in subjects with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiloni, Claudio; Carducci, Filippo; Lizio, Roberta; Vecchio, Fabrizio; Baglieri, Annalisa; Bernardini, Silvia; Cavedo, Enrica; Bozzao, Alessandro; Buttinelli, Carla; Esposito, Fabrizio; Giubilei, Franco; Guizzaro, Antonio; Marino, Silvia; Montella, Patrizia; Quattrocchi, Carlo C; Redolfi, Alberto; Soricelli, Andrea; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Ferri, Raffaele; Rossi-Fedele, Giancarlo; Ursini, Francesca; Scrascia, Federica; Vernieri, Fabrizio; Pedersen, Torleif Jan; Hardemark, Hans-Goran; Rossini, Paolo M; Frisoni, Giovanni B

    2013-06-01

    Cortical gray matter volume and resting state cortical electroencephalographic rhythms are typically abnormal in subjects with amnesic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we tested the hypothesis that in amnesic MCI and AD subjects, abnormalities of EEG rhythms are a functional reflection of cortical atrophy across the disease. Eyes-closed resting state EEG data were recorded in 57 healthy elderly (Nold), 102 amnesic MCI, and 108 AD patients. Cortical gray matter volume was indexed by magnetic resonance imaging recorded in the MCI and AD subjects according to Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative project (http://www.adni-info.org/). EEG rhythms of interest were delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha1 (8-10.5 Hz), alpha2 (10.5-13 Hz), beta1 (13-20 Hz), beta2 (20-30 Hz), and gamma (30-40 Hz). These rhythms were indexed by LORETA. Compared with the Nold, the MCI showed a decrease in amplitude of alpha 1 sources. With respect to the Nold and MCI, the AD showed an amplitude increase of delta sources, along with a strong amplitude reduction of alpha 1 sources. In the MCI and AD subjects as a whole group, the lower the cortical gray matter volume, the higher the delta sources, the lower the alpha 1 sources. The better the score to cognitive tests the higher the gray matter volume, the lower the pathological delta sources, and the higher the alpha sources. These results suggest that in amnesic MCI and AD subjects, abnormalities of resting state cortical EEG rhythms are not epiphenomena but are strictly related to neurodegeneration (atrophy of cortical gray matter) and cognition. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Rhetorical meta-language to promote the development of students' writing skills and subject matter understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelger, Susanne; Sigrell, Anders

    2016-01-01

    students' understanding of their subject matter.

  19. Girl Scouts and Subject Matter Experts: What’s the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Pamela; Girls Scouts of Northern California, Girl Scouts USA, Astronomical Society of the Pacifica, Univeristy of Arizona, and ARIES Scientific.

    2018-01-01

    Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts (Girl Scout Stars) fosters interaction between Girl Scouts and NASA Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), disseminates NASA STEM education-related resources, and engages Girl Scouts in NASA science and programs through space science badges and summer camps.A space science badge is in development for each of the six levels of Girl Scouts: Daisies, Grades K – 1; Brownies, Grades 2 -3; Juniors, Grades 4 -5; Cadettes, Grades 6 -8; Seniors, Grades 9 -10; and Ambassadors, Grades 11 -12. Indirectly, SMEs will reach tens of thousands of girls through the badges. SETI Institute SMEs Institute and SME Co-Is located at ARIES Scientific, Astronomical Society of the Pacific, University of Arizona, and Girl Scouts of Northern California developed and modified astronomy activities for the Girl Scouts USA badge writers to finesse into the Girl Scout formats. Revisions are reviewed by SMEs for accuracy. Each badge includes a step option that encourages girls to connect with SMEs, and recommendations for volunteers.A total of 127 girls from 31 states and the District of Columbia attendedTotal Eclipse Destination Camps at three locations. SMEs led activities and tours, inspiring girls to consider STEM careers. University of Arizona (U of A) SMEs lead Astronomy Camp for Volunteers, enabling volunteers to lead and inspire Girl Scouts in their respective Girl Scout Councils. A Destination Camp for Girl Scouts was also held at U of A. Girls experience authentic astronomy, learning how to collect and analyze data.Eleven teams comprised of two Girl Scouts, a volunteer or Council Staff, and an amateur astronomer attended Astronomy Club Camp, held at NASA GSFC. SMEs delivered science content. The girls will lead the formation of astronomy clubs in their councils, and will train their successors. SMEs will present and coach the clubs during monthly webinars.This presentation will highlight success and discuss lessons learned that are applicable

  20. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Written Dry Powder Inhaler Instructions and Health Literacy in Subjects Diagnosed With COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsomali, Hana J; Vines, David L; Stein, Brian D; Becker, Ellen A

    2017-02-01

    Improper inhaler use results in decreased drug deposition in the lungs. The impact of health literacy and poor vision on the patient's ability to learn inhaler technique by reading instructions has not been confirmed. This study evaluated the effectiveness of learning inhaler technique from written instructions and the impact of health literacy for patients diagnosed with COPD who used a dry powder inhaler (DPI). This pilot study recruited subjects diagnosed with COPD. A trained assessor scored subjects' inhaler technique before and after reading the appropriate American College of Chest Physicians handouts. Peak inspiratory flows (PIFs) were measured using an InCheck Dial. Health literacy was measured by the S-TOFHLA (Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults), and visual acuity was measured by a Snellen chart. Associations between health literacy and visual acuity and changes in subjects' inhaler technique scores were assessed by Spearman's rho. Inhaler technique change scores were assessed by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test at P = .05. Of the 24 participants enrolled, 63% were female, mean age was 65.6 y, and 83% were Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease air-flow limitation 2 or 3. Wilcoxon scores were significant for improved total scores for both the Diskus and HandiHaler, with medians improving from 6.5 to 7.0 (interquartile range 6.0-7.8) (P = .047) and from 6.0 to 7.5 (interquartile range 7.0-9.0) (P = .002), respectively. The minimum required PIF was achieved by 93.8% of the Diskus and 94.4% of the HandiHaler groups. There were no associations detected between the handout intervention (Diskus and HandiHaler) and health literacy level and vision. The educational handouts for DPIs helped participants already using a DPI to improve their inhaler technique. Stable participants diagnosed with COPD are able to generate appropriate PIFs to properly use DPIs. Neither vision nor health literacy was associated with the inability to learn

  1. Being in a romantic relationship is associated with reduced gray matter density in striatum and increased subjective happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kawamichi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that romantic relationship is associated with structural differences in the striatum related to the positive subjective experience of being in a romantic relationship. Because intimate romantic relationships contribute to perceived subjective happiness, this subjective enhancement of happiness might be accompanied by the experience of positive events related to being in a romantic relationship. To test this hypothesis and elucidate the structure involved, we compared subjective happiness, an indirect measure of the existence of positive experiences caused by being in a romantic relationship, of participants with or without romantic partners (N = 68. Furthermore, we also conducted a voxel-based morphometry (VBM study of the effects of being in a romantic relationship (N = 113. Being in a romantic relationship was associated with greater subjective happiness and reduced gray matter density within the right dorsal striatum. These results suggest that being in a romantic relationship enhances perceived subjective happiness via positive experiences. Furthermore, the observed reduction in gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum may reflect an increase in saliency of social reward within a romantic relationship. Thus, being in a romantic relationship is associated with positive experiences and a reduction of gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum, representing a modulation of social reward.

  2. Being in a Romantic Relationship Is Associated with Reduced Gray Matter Density in Striatum and Increased Subjective Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Sugawara, Sho K; Hamano, Yuki H; Makita, Kai; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Ogino, Yuichi; Saito, Shigeru; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that romantic relationship is associated with structural differences in the striatum related to the positive subjective experience of being in a romantic relationship. Because intimate romantic relationships contribute to perceived subjective happiness, this subjective enhancement of happiness might be accompanied by the experience of positive events related to being in a romantic relationship. To test this hypothesis and elucidate the structure involved, we compared subjective happiness, an indirect measure of the existence of positive experiences caused by being in a romantic relationship, of participants with or without romantic partners (N = 68). Furthermore, we also conducted a voxel-based morphometry study of the effects of being in a romantic relationship (N = 113). Being in a romantic relationship was associated with greater subjective happiness and reduced gray matter density within the right dorsal striatum. These results suggest that being in a romantic relationship enhances perceived subjective happiness via positive experiences. Furthermore, the observed reduction in gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum may reflect an increase in saliency of social reward within a romantic relationship. Thus, being in a romantic relationship is associated with positive experiences and a reduction of gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum, representing a modulation of social reward.

  3. Toward Fluent Instructional Design in the Context of People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomonson, William L.

    2008-01-01

    The instructional designer faces the dual task of driving the instructional design process while managing a positive relationship with the subject matter expert. It is this latter task of relationship management that is often overlooked in practice and research in the field of human performance technology. (Contains 4 tables and 1 figure.)

  4. Planetary Exploration Education: As Seen From the Point of View of Subject Matter Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, M. P.; Anderson, R. B.; Gaither, T. A.; Vaughan, R. G.

    2016-12-01

    Planetary Learning that Advances the Nexus of Engineering, Technology, and Science (PLANETS) was selected as one of 27 new projects to support the NASA Science Mission Directorate's Science Education Cooperative Agreement Notice. Our goal is to develop and disseminate out-of-school time (OST) curricular and related educator professional development modules that integrate planetary science, technology, and engineering. We are a partnership between planetary science Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), curriculum developers, science and engineering teacher professional development experts and OST teacher networks. The PLANETS team includes the Center for Science Teaching and Learning (CSTL) at Northern Arizona University (NAU); the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Science Center (Astrogeology), and the Boston Museum of Science (MOS). Here, we present the work and approach by the SMEs at Astrogeology. As part of this overarching project, we will create a model for improved integration of SMEs, curriculum developers, professional development experts, and educators. For the 2016 and 2017 Fiscal Years, our focus is on creating science material for two OST modules designed for middle school students. We will begin development of a third module for elementary school students in the latter part of FY2017. The first module focuses on water conservation and treatment as applied on Earth, the International Space Station, and at a fictional Mars base. This unit involves the science and engineering of finding accessible water, evaluating it for quality, treating it for impurities (i.e., dissolved and suspended), initial use, a cycle of greywater treatment and re-use, and final treatment of blackwater. The second module involves the science and engineering of remote sensing as it is related to Earth and planetary exploration. This includes discussion and activities related to the electromagnetic spectrum, spectroscopy and various remote sensing systems and techniques. In

  5. Methods to model particulate matter clarification of unit operations subject to unsteady loadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelman, David; Sansalone, John J

    2017-05-15

    Stormwater, and also wastewater unit operations (UOs) to a much lower extent, are subject to unsteady hydrodynamic and particulate matter (PM) fluxes. Simulating fully transient clarification of hetero-disperse PM requires much greater computational expense compared to steady simulations. An alternative to fully unsteady methods are stepwise steady (SS) methods which use stepwise steady flow transport and fate to approximate unsteady PM clarification of a UO during transient hydraulic loadings such as rainfall-runoff. The rationale is reduced computational effort for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) compared to simulating continuous unsteadiness of such events. An implicit solution stepwise steady (IS3) method is one approach which builds upon previous SS methods. The IS3 method computes steady flows that are representative of unsteady PM transport throughout an unsteady loading. This method departs from some previous SS methods that assume PM fate can be simulated with an instantaneous clarifier (basin) influent flowrate coupled with a PM input. In this study, various SS methods were tested for basins of varying size and residence time to examine PM fate. Differences between SS methods were a function of turnover fraction indicating the role of unsteady flowrates on PM transport for larger basins of longer residence times. The breakpoint turnover fraction was between two and three. The IS3 method best approximated unsteady behavior of larger basins. These methods identified limitations when utilizing standard event-based loading analysis for larger basins. For basins with a turnover fraction less than two, the majority of effluent PM did not originate from the event-based flow; originating from previous event loadings or existing storage. Inter- and multiple event processes and interactions, that are dependent on this inflow turnover fraction, are not accounted for by single event-based inflow models. Results suggest the use of long-term continuous modeling

  6. Integrating Multicultural Subject Matters into Teaching Strategies of Elementary School Teachers (The U.S. State of Kansas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanka Lunder Verlič

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The following academic article is based on a PhD thesis that is currently being completed, titled Education and Qualifications of Elementary School Teachers in the U.S. State of Kansas and Slovenia for teaching in classes with immigrant children. The research study titled Integrating Multicultural Subject Matters into Teaching Strategies of Elementary School Teachers (The U.S. State of Kansas, conducted in 2007 based on a sample of 89 elementary school teachers in the U.S. State of Kansas, represents one aspect of assessing the adequacy of undergraduate education regarding multicultural subject matters for elementary school teachers in Slovenia and the U.S. (State of Kansas as well as the qualifications of elementary school teachers of both countries for working with immigrant children. Despite the long-standing tradition of multicultural education in western countries, the research results for Kansas elementary school teachers showed a presence of significant discrepancies between the actual and optimal integration of multicultural subject matters. These results indicate that future undergraduate study programs will have to invest more time in developing multicultural skills and providing practical experiences for working in a diverse environment.

  7. Exploring shamanic journeying: repetitive drumming with shamanic instructions induces specific subjective experiences but no larger cortisol decrease than instrumental meditation music.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Gingras

    Full Text Available Exposure to repetitive drumming combined with instructions for shamanic journeying has been associated with physiological and therapeutic effects, such as an increase in salivary immunoglobulin A. In order to assess whether the combination of repetitive drumming and shamanic instructions is specifically associated with these effects, we compared the effect of listening to either repetitive drumming or instrumental meditation music for 15 minutes on salivary cortisol concentration and on self-reported physiological and psychological states. For each musical style, two groups of participants were exposed to two conditions: instructions for shamanic journeying or relaxation instructions. A total of 39 participants (24 females inexperienced in shamanic journeying completed the experiment. Salivary cortisol concentrations were measured before and after exposure to music. In addition, participants filled out a mood questionnaire before and after the experiment and completed a post experiment questionnaire on their experiences. A significant decrease in the concentration in salivary cortisol was observed across all musical styles and instructions, indicating that exposure to 15 minutes of either repetitive drumming or instrumental meditation music, while lying down, was sufficient to induce a decrease in cortisol levels. However, no differences were observed across conditions. Significant differences in reported emotional states and subjective experiences were observed between the groups. Notably, participants exposed to repetitive drumming combined with shamanic instructions reported experiencing heaviness, decreased heart rate, and dreamlike experiences significantly more often than participants exposed to repetitive drumming combined with relaxation instructions. Our findings suggest that the subjective effects specifically attributed to repetitive drumming and shamanic journeying may not be reflected in differential endocrine responses.

  8. Exploring shamanic journeying: repetitive drumming with shamanic instructions induces specific subjective experiences but no larger cortisol decrease than instrumental meditation music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingras, Bruno; Pohler, Gerald; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to repetitive drumming combined with instructions for shamanic journeying has been associated with physiological and therapeutic effects, such as an increase in salivary immunoglobulin A. In order to assess whether the combination of repetitive drumming and shamanic instructions is specifically associated with these effects, we compared the effect of listening to either repetitive drumming or instrumental meditation music for 15 minutes on salivary cortisol concentration and on self-reported physiological and psychological states. For each musical style, two groups of participants were exposed to two conditions: instructions for shamanic journeying or relaxation instructions. A total of 39 participants (24 females) inexperienced in shamanic journeying completed the experiment. Salivary cortisol concentrations were measured before and after exposure to music. In addition, participants filled out a mood questionnaire before and after the experiment and completed a post experiment questionnaire on their experiences. A significant decrease in the concentration in salivary cortisol was observed across all musical styles and instructions, indicating that exposure to 15 minutes of either repetitive drumming or instrumental meditation music, while lying down, was sufficient to induce a decrease in cortisol levels. However, no differences were observed across conditions. Significant differences in reported emotional states and subjective experiences were observed between the groups. Notably, participants exposed to repetitive drumming combined with shamanic instructions reported experiencing heaviness, decreased heart rate, and dreamlike experiences significantly more often than participants exposed to repetitive drumming combined with relaxation instructions. Our findings suggest that the subjective effects specifically attributed to repetitive drumming and shamanic journeying may not be reflected in differential endocrine responses.

  9. Subject Matter Expert Evaluation of Multi-Flight Common Route Advisories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilimoria, Karl D.; Hayashi, Miwa; Sheth, Kapil

    2017-01-01

    manager finds the advisory to be operationally appropriate, he or she would coordinate with the Area Supervisor(s) of the sectors that currently control the flights in the advisory. When the traffic manager accepts the MFCR advisory via the user interface, the corresponding flight plan amendments would be sent to the displays of the appropriate sector controllers, using the Airborne Re-Routing (ABRR) capability which is scheduled for nationwide operation in 2017. The sector controllers would then offer this time-saving route modification to the pilots of the affected flights via datalink (or voice), and implement the corresponding flight plan amendment if the pilots accept it. MFCR is implemented as an application in the software environment of the Future Air traffic management Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET). This paper focuses on an initial subject matter expert (SME) evaluation of MFCR. The evaluation covers MFCRs operational concept, algorithm, and user interface.

  10. Bromatological composition and dry matter digestibility of millet cultivars subjected to nitrogen doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.H.D. Buso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The bromatological composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of millet cultivars were assessed for different nitrogen doses and two sowing seasons in the Ceres municipality of Goiás state, Brazil. The treatments consisted of three millet cultivars (ADR-7010, ADR-500 and BRS-1501, four nitrogen (N doses (0, 50, 100 and 200kg ha-1 of N and two sowing seasons. Three replicates and a randomised block design with a 3 x 4 x 2 factorial scheme were used. Two cuttings were performed in each season when plants reached an average height of 0.70 cm. No significant interactions were observed between or among cultivars for N doses and dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fibre (NDF and acid detergent fibre (ADF contents. The DM, CP, NDF and ADF contents were significantly different between N doses. The DM and CP contents increased as the N dose increased to 100kg ha-1. The maximum DM and CP contents were 11.14 and 22.53%, respectively. The NDF and ADF contents were higher in the control treatment (60.11 and 30.01%, respectively. In addition, the lowest ADF and NDF concentrations occurred at an N dose of 50kg ha-1 (56.33 and 30.23%, respectively. The DM contents were higher for the February sowing, with an average of 10.59%. The highest CP and ADF contents were found for the December sowing (22.46 and 31.58%, respectively. No significant differences were found for millet cultivars, N doses or sowing seasons. A significant interaction was found between sowing season and millet cultivar. The BRS-1501 cultivar had a higher in vitro dry matter digestibility in the December/2010 sowing (73.88%.

  11. Individualized Gaussian process-based prediction and detection of local and global gray matter abnormalities in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, G; Ridgway, G R; Dahnke, R; Gaser, C

    2014-08-15

    Structural imaging based on MRI is an integral component of the clinical assessment of patients with potential dementia. We here propose an individualized Gaussian process-based inference scheme for clinical decision support in healthy and pathological aging elderly subjects using MRI. The approach aims at quantitative and transparent support for clinicians who aim to detect structural abnormalities in patients at risk of Alzheimer's disease or other types of dementia. Firstly, we introduce a generative model incorporating our knowledge about normative decline of local and global gray matter volume across the brain in elderly. By supposing smooth structural trajectories the models account for the general course of age-related structural decline as well as late-life accelerated loss. Considering healthy subjects' demography and global brain parameters as informative about normal brain aging variability affords individualized predictions in single cases. Using Gaussian process models as a normative reference, we predict new subjects' brain scans and quantify the local gray matter abnormalities in terms of Normative Probability Maps (NPM) and global z-scores. By integrating the observed expectation error and the predictive uncertainty, the local maps and global scores exploit the advantages of Bayesian inference for clinical decisions and provide a valuable extension of diagnostic information about pathological aging. We validate the approach in simulated data and real MRI data. We train the GP framework using 1238 healthy subjects with ages 18-94 years, and predict in 415 independent test subjects diagnosed as healthy controls, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Teacher Use of Instructional Materials and Other Matters Related to Special Education IMC/LRC Collections. Theoretical Paper No. 59.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Glenn

    Presented is the report of a study -- involving 1150 special education teachers and 25 instructional materials centers (IMCs) and learning resource centers (LRCs) -- to investigate the needs for, uses of, and priorities for instructional materials for teaching handicapped children. Listed are three methods of data collection: the use of materials…

  13. A common NTRK2 variant is associated with emotional arousal and brain white-matter integrity in healthy young subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalek, K; Coynel, D; Freytag, V; Hartmann, F; Heck, A; Milnik, A; de Quervain, D; Papassotiropoulos, A

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of emotional arousal is observed in many psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders. The neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 2 gene (NTRK2) has been associated with these disorders. Here we investigated the relation between genetic variability of NTRK2 and emotional arousal in healthy young subjects in two independent samples (n1=1171; n2=707). In addition, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data in a subgroup of 342 participants were used to identify NTRK2-related white-matter structure differences. After correction for multiple testing, we identified a NTRK2 single nucleotide polymorphism associated with emotional arousal in both samples (n1: Pnominal=0.0003, Pcorrected=0.048; n2: Pnominal=0.0141, Pcorrected=0.036). DTI revealed significant, whole-brain corrected correlations between emotional arousal and brain white-matter mean diffusivity (MD), as well as significant, whole-brain corrected NTRK2 genotype-related differences in MD (PFWE<0.05). Our study demonstrates that genetic variability of NTRK2, a susceptibility gene for psychiatric disorders, is related to emotional arousal and—independently—to brain white-matter properties in healthy individuals. PMID:26978740

  14. A common NTRK2 variant is associated with emotional arousal and brain white-matter integrity in healthy young subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalek, K; Coynel, D; Freytag, V; Hartmann, F; Heck, A; Milnik, A; de Quervain, D; Papassotiropoulos, A

    2016-03-15

    Dysregulation of emotional arousal is observed in many psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders. The neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 2 gene (NTRK2) has been associated with these disorders. Here we investigated the relation between genetic variability of NTRK2 and emotional arousal in healthy young subjects in two independent samples (n1=1171; n2=707). In addition, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data in a subgroup of 342 participants were used to identify NTRK2-related white-matter structure differences. After correction for multiple testing, we identified a NTRK2 single nucleotide polymorphism associated with emotional arousal in both samples (n1: Pnominal=0.0003, Pcorrected=0.048; n2: Pnominal=0.0141, Pcorrected=0.036). DTI revealed significant, whole-brain corrected correlations between emotional arousal and brain white-matter mean diffusivity (MD), as well as significant, whole-brain corrected NTRK2 genotype-related differences in MD (PFWEemotional arousal and-independently-to brain white-matter properties in healthy individuals.

  15. Relationship between mathematics teacher subject matter knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge and professional development needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajudin, Nor'ain Mohd; Chinnappan, Mohan; Saad, Noor Shah

    2017-05-01

    Two key variables emerged from the literature review is that Specific Matter Knowledge [SMK] and Pedagogical Content Knowledge [PCK] can influence the mathematics teachers' Professional Development [PD] needs. However, the key variables of SMK and PCK that were being investigated were not defined clearly. Empirical evidence that support relationship between SMK and PD and PCK and PD were not verified. In addition, how does PCK mediate SMK and PD is not clear and somewhat lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to examine the relationship between primary mathematics teacher's SMK, PCK and PD needs. Results of path analysis with SmartPLS indicated that the direct effect of SMK on PD was mediated via PCK. This data provide support for the claim that PD programs for future teachers of primary mathematics should be driven by a more nuanced understanding of the link between SMK and PCK.

  16. The Role of Reading Comprehension in Large-Scale Subject-Matter Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed with the overall goal of understanding how difficulties in reading comprehension are associated with early adolescents' performance in large-scale assessments in subject domains including science and civic-related social studies. The current study extended previous research by taking a cognition-centered approach based on…

  17. Subjective Evaluations of Alcohol-Related Consequences among College Students: Experience with Consequences Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavens, Eleanor L.; Leffingwell, Thad R.; Miller, Mary Beth; Brett, Emma I.; Lombardi, Nathaniel

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Research suggests college students rate some alcohol-related consequences less negatively than others, yet it is unclear how or when these differences in perception develop. The current study compared college students' subjective evaluations of alcohol-related consequences that they had and had not experienced in order to test the…

  18. Relative activity of cerebral subcortical gray matter in varying states of attention and awareness in normal subjects and patient studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.; Levy, J.; Wagner, N.; Spire, J.P.; Jacobsen, J.; Meltzer, H.; Metz, J.; Beck, R.N.

    1985-05-01

    An important aspect of the study of brain function involves measurement of the relationships; between activities in the subcortical gray matter of the caudate and of the thalamus; and between these structures and functional cortical areas. The authors have studied these relationships in 22 subjects under different conditions of activation, sleep and sensory deprivation using a PET VI system and F-18-2DG to determine regional cerebral metabolism. Subject activating conditions were maintained throughout the period of equilibration of F-18-2DG and E.E.G.'s were monitored. Multiple tomographic slices of 1-2 million counts were obtained simultaneously with slice separation of 14mm and each plane parallel to the cantho-meatal line. In activated and non-activated awake conditions for normal subjects, left and right thalmus-to-caudate ratios were similar and greater than unity. This relationship was maintained in non-REM sleep, but was reversed and divergent in REM sleep and sensory deprivation; this was also evident in 3/4 narcoleptics awake and asleep in non-REM and REM and 2/3 schizophrenics and affective disorder, subjects. This approach appears to have potential for characterizating normal and disordered regional cerebral function.

  19. Concentration dynamics and biodegradability of dissolved organic matter in wetland soils subjected to experimental warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hang; Holden, Joseph; Zhang, Zhijian; Li, Meng; Li, Xia

    2014-02-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is the most bioavailable soil organic pool. Understanding how DOM responds to elevated temperature is important for forecasting soil carbon (C) dynamics under climate warming. Here a 4.5-year field microcosm experiment was carried out to examine temporal DOM concentration dynamics in soil pore-water from six different subtropical wetlands. Results are compared between control (ambient temperature) and warmed (+5°C) treatments. UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy was performed to reveal DOM structural complexity at the end of the warming incubation. Elevated temperature resulted in initially (1 to 2.5 years) high pore-water DOM concentrations in warmed samples. These effects gradually diminished over longer time periods. Of the spectral indices, specific UV absorbance at 280 nm and humification index were significantly higher, while the signal intensity ratio of the fulvic-like to humic-like fluorescence peak was lower in warmed samples, compared to the control. Fluorescence regional integration analysis further suggested that warming enhanced the contribution of humic-like substances to DOM composition for all tested wetlands. These spectral fingerprints implied a declined fraction of readily available substrates in DOM allocated to microbial utilization in response to 4.5 years of warming. As a negative feedback, decreased DOM biodegradability may have the potential to counteract initial DOM increases and alleviate C loss in water-saturated wetland soils. © 2013.

  20. Effects of visual demonstration, verbal instructions, and prompted verbal descriptions on the performance of human subjects in conditional discriminations

    OpenAIRE

    Ribes-Iñesta, Emilio; Cepeda, Ma. Luisa; Hickman, Hortencia; Moreno, Diana; Peñalosa, Eduardo

    1992-01-01

    A study was conducted to confirm prior results concerning the role of prompted verbal descriptions of visually demonstrated stimulus relations in the acquisition and transfer of identity, difference, and similarity-matching relations (Ribes et al., 1988). Four groups of human adults were trained with these three matching relations under four different procedures: (1) visual demonstration without response requirement, (2) verbal instructions, (3) visual demonstration plus prompted verbal descr...

  1. How to foster student-student learning of science? The student, the teacher and the subject matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Julie A.

    2011-12-01

    In this response to Konstantinos Alexakos, Jayson K. Jones, and Victor H. Rodriguez's study, I discuss ways attending to student membership in groups can both inform research on equity and diversity in science education and improve the teaching of science to all students. My comments are organized into three sections: how underrepresented students' experiences in science classrooms are shaped by their peers; how science teachers can help students listen to and learn from one another; and how the subject matter can invite or discourage student participation in science. More specifically, I underscore the need for teachers and students to listen to one another to promote student learning of science. I also highlight the importance of science education researchers and science teachers viewing students both as individuals and as members of multiple groups; women of color, for example, should be understood as similar to and different from each other, from European American women and from ethnic minorities in general.

  2. Generative Computer-Assisted Instruction and Artificial Intelligence. Report No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnott, Loraine T.

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in generative computer-assisted instruction and artificial intelligence. It divides relevant research into three areas of instructional modeling: models of the subject matter; models of the learner's state of knowledge; and models of teaching strategies. Within these areas, work sponsored by Advanced…

  3. Bridging the Gap between Experts in Designing Multimedia-Based Instructional Media for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Rafiza Abdul

    2013-01-01

    The research identified and explored the cognitive knowledge among the instructional multimedia design and development experts comprising of multimedia designer, graphic designer, subject-matter expert and instructional designer. A critical need exists for a solid understanding of the factors that influence team decision making and performance in…

  4. The Seminar Practicum: A Community Based Instructional System for Paraprofessional Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Thomas F.; And Others

    The instructional system which emerged from the Pennsylvania State University three-year project was a seminar practicum for Hotel and Food Service paraprofessional workers which provides work experience, a set of self-instructional modules, subject matter, a weekly seminar discussion, and encourages minority/lower income students. A summary of…

  5. Insight on AV-45 binding in white and grey matter from histogram analysis: a study on early Alzheimer's disease patients and healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemmi, Federico; Saint-Aubert, Laure; Peran, Patrice [Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Adel, Djilali; Salabert, Anne-Sophie; Payoux, Pierre [Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Pole Imagerie, Toulouse (France); Pariente, Jeremie [Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Service de Neurologie, Pole Neurosciences, Toulouse (France); Barbeau, Emmanuel J. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Service de Neurologie, Pole Neurosciences, Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition, CNRS, CerCo, Toulouse (France)

    2014-07-15

    AV-45 amyloid biomarker is known to show uptake in white matter in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), but also in the healthy population. This binding, thought to be of a non-specific lipophilic nature, has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the differential pattern of AV-45 binding in white matter in healthy and pathological populations. We recruited 24 patients presenting with AD at an early stage and 17 matched, healthy subjects. We used an optimized positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI) registration method and an approach based on an intensity histogram using several indices. We compared the results of the intensity histogram analyses with a more canonical approach based on target-to-cerebellum Standard Uptake Value (SUVr) in white and grey matter using MANOVA and discriminant analyses. A cluster analysis on white and grey matter histograms was also performed. White matter histogram analysis revealed significant differences between AD and healthy subjects, which were not revealed by SUVr analysis. However, white matter histograms were not decisive to discriminate groups, and indices based on grey matter only showed better discriminative power than SUVr. The cluster analysis divided our sample into two clusters, showing different uptakes in grey, but also in white matter. These results demonstrate that AV-45 binding in white matter conveys subtle information not detectable using the SUVr approach. Although it is not more efficient than standard SUVr in discriminating AD patients from healthy subjects, this information could reveal white matter modifications. (orig.)

  6. Elevated leukocyte count in asymptomatic subjects is associated with a higher risk for cerebral white matter lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chi Kyung; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Beom Joon; Ryu, Wi-Sun; Choi, Seung Ho; Oh, Byung-Hee; Yoon, Byung-Woo

    2011-04-01

    Cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) are radiologic markers of small vessel disease in brain, and inflammatory processes were related to WMLs. We propose to determine if elevated leukocyte count was associated with a higher risk of WMLs. 1586 asymptomatic subjects who visited our hospital for a routine health check-up were enrolled. Leukocyte counts were measured and the presence of moderate to severe WMLs was determined by brain MRI. Thirty (1.9%) had moderate to severe WMLs, and a significant greater proportion (4.1%) of subjects in the highest leukocyte count quartile had moderate to severe WMLs. After adjusting by C-reactive protein, aspirin use and cardiovascular risk factors, the highest quartile of leukocyte count (≥6.7×10⁹/L) was significantly associated with moderate to severe WMLs compared with the lowest quartile [adjusted odds ratio, 4.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-15.5]. The authors report for the first time that an elevated leukocyte count is independently associated with moderate to severe WMLs. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. An Investigation of Strategies for Integrated Learning Experiences and Instruction in the Teaching of Creative Art Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nompula, Yolisa

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the integrating possibilities within each creative arts subject. The objective was to optimize the limited teaching time, generally allocated to each art subject in schools, by developing a pedagogical strategy for its successful implementation. While the study was limited to South African schools, the results have global…

  8. The Relevance of Accent in L2 Pronunciation Instruction: A Matter of Teaching Cultures or Language Ideologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkert, Anika

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to offer a critical discussion of the role of native and foreign accents in L2 pronunciation teaching. Several studies concluded that classroom practices of grammar instruction are strongly influenced by teaching cultures. We will examine whether this is also the case for pronunciation teaching. While the CEFR…

  9. Purpose, Passion and Conviction: Three Traits that Matter Most When the Going Gets Tough in Instructional Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Nancy L.

    Currently, California education leaders face the task of implementing and sustaining proven practices that increase student achievement. Teachers who are able to sustain change in their classroom practices possess purpose for the cause for improving student learning, passion for implementing quality instruction, and conviction to stay focused over…

  10. NPY mRNA Expression in the Prefrontal Cortex: Selective Reduction in the Superficial White Matter of Subjects with Schizoaffective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Harvey M.; Stopczynski, Rachelle E.; Lewis, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Alterations in the inhibitory circuitry of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in schizophrenia include reduced expression of the messenger RNA (mRNA) for somatostatin (SST), a neuropeptide present in a subpopulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is expressed in a subset of SST-containing interneurons and lower levels of NPY mRNA have also been reported in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. However, whether the alterations in these two transcripts identify the same, particularly vulnerable, subset of GABA neurons has not been examined. Methods We used in situ hybridization to quantify NPY mRNA levels in DLPFC gray and white matter from 23 pairs of subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and matched normal control subjects; results were compared to those from a previous study of SST mRNA expression in the same subjects. Results In contrast to SST mRNA, NPY mRNA levels were not significantly lower in the gray matter of subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. However, NPY, but not SST, mRNA expression was significantly lower in the superficial white matter of subjects with schizoaffective disorder. Conclusion These findings suggest that the alterations in SST-containing interneurons in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder are selective for the subset that do not express NPY mRNA, and that lower NPY mRNA expression in the superficial white matter may distinguish subjects with schizoaffective disorder from those with schizophrenia. PMID:19804960

  11. The Subject's Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in the significance of the body in our mental life. The sixteen specially commissioned essays in this book reflect the advances in these fields. The book is divided into three parts, each part covering a topic central to an explanation of bodily self-awareness: representation of the body; the sense of bodily......The body may be the object we know the best. It is the only object from which we constantly receive a flow of information through sight and touch; and it is the only object we can experience from the inside, through our proprioceptive, vestibular, and visceral senses. Yet there have been very few...... books that have attempted to consolidate our understanding of the body as it figures in our experience and self-awareness. This volume offers an interdisciplinary and comprehensive treatment of bodily self-awareness, the first book to do so since the landmark 1995 collection The Body and the Self...

  12. DNA as patentable subject matter and a narrow framework for addressing the perceived problems caused by gene patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Stephen H

    2011-12-01

    Concerns about the alleged harmful effects of gene patents--including hindered research and innovation and impeded patient access to high-quality genetic diagnostic tests--have resulted in overreactions from the public and throughout the legal profession. These overreactions are exemplified by Association for Molecular Pathology v. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, a 2010 case in the Southern District of New York that held that isolated DNA is unpatentable subject matter under 35 U.S.C. § 101. The problem with these responses is that they fail to adequately consider the role that gene patents and patents on similar biomolecules play in facilitating investment in the costly and risky developmental processes required to transform the underlying inventions into marketable products. Accordingly, a more precisely refined solution is advisable. This Note proposes a narrowly tailored set of solutions to address the concerns about gene patents without destroying the incentives for companies to create and commercialize inventions derived from these and similar patents.

  13. Developing Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Teaching a New Topic: More Than Teaching Experience and Subject Matter Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kennedy Kam Ho; Yung, Benny Hin Wai

    2017-03-01

    Teaching experience has been identified as an important factor in pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) development. However, little is known about how experienced teachers may draw on their previous experience to facilitate their PCK development. This study examined how two experienced high school biology teachers approached the teaching of a newly introduced topic in the curriculum, polymerase chain reaction and their PCK development from the pre-lesson planning phase through the interactive phase to the post-lesson reflection phase. Multiple data sources included classroom observations, field notes, semi-structured interviews and classroom artefacts. It was found that the teachers' previous experience informed their planning for teaching the new topic, but in qualitatively different ways. This, in turn, had a bearing on their new PCK development. Subject matter knowledge (SMK) can not only facilitate but may also hinder this development. Our findings identify two types of experienced teachers: those who can capitalise on their previous teaching experiences and SMK to develop new PCK and those who do not. The critical difference is whether in the lesson planning stage, the teacher shows the disposition to draw on a generalised mental framework that enables the teacher to capitalise on his existing SMK to develop new PCK. Helping teachers to acquire this disposition should be a focus for teacher training in light of continuous curriculum changes.

  14. An investigation of strategies for integrated learning experiences and instruction in the teaching of creative art subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolisa Nompula

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the integrating possibilities within each creative arts subject. The objective was to optimize the limited teaching time, generally allocated to each art subject in schools, by developing a pedagogical strategy for its successful implementation. While the study was limited to South African schools, the results have global relevance and significance in the ongoing global trendsetting and discourse on arts education. In South Africa the previous National Curriculum Statement (NCS, 2002 integrated music, dance, drama and visual arts where possible, while the new Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS, 2011 offers two elective art subjects in the senior phase (Grades 7-9, each taught separately an hour per week during school hours and one hour per week after school, thereby attempting to extend the teaching time. This qualitative enquiry used documentary analyses, teacher interviews, and student group discussions for the collection of data. Pre-determined and emergent codes based on grounded theory showed that it is possible to integrate theory with practice within one art subject by teaching theoretical work in the context of practical work, thus optimizing the limited time allocated to arts and culture education in school timetables.

  15. The effect of the 4MAT learning model on the achievement and motivation of 7th grade students on the subject of particulate nature of matter and an examination of student opinions on the model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, İdris; Bılgın, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    Background:Many researchers agree that students, especially primary students, have learning difficulties on the 'Particulate Nature of Matter' unit. One reason for this difficulty is not considering individual differences for teaching science. In 4MAT model learning, environment is arranged according to individual differences. Purpose:The purpose of this study is to examine (1) the effects of the 4MAT learning model on the7th grade students' academic achievement and motivation on the 'Particulate Nature of Matter' unit and (2) identify student opinions on the 4MAT model. Sample:The sample consists of 235 students (115 experimental, 120 control) in Turkey. Design and methods:Experimental groups were instructed with the 4MAT model while control groups were instructed with a traditional method. Achievement Test (AchToM) and Motivation Scale (MotScl) were administered to students as pre- and post-tests. Moreover, the opinions of students in the experimental groups on the 4MAT model were ascertained through open-ended questions after the application. Results:According to independent t-test results, statistical difference in favour of the experimental groups was detected between the post-AchToM (ES = 1.43; p motivation and participation in the lesson, lessons are more amusing and enjoyable, and the self-confidence of the students increases. Besides these positive opinions, however, a few students stated that the method took too much time, they were not motivated and it did not help them in understanding the subject. Conclusions:The 4MAT model is more effective than traditional method in terms of increasing achievement and motivation. The model takes all learners into account. Thus, the teacher or educator should use the 4MAT model to ensure all students' learning in their classroom.

  16. The effect of productive classroom talk and metacommunication on young children's oral communicative competence and subject matter knowledge: An intervention study in early childhood education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, C.; de Mey, J.R.P.B.; van Kruistum, C.J.; van Oers, B.

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of productive classroom talk and metacommunication on the development of young children's oral communicative competence and subject matter knowledge. This study can be characterized as a quasi-experimental study with a

  17. A Case Study of Beginning Science Teachers' Subject Matter (SMK) and Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) of Teaching Chemical Reaction in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usak, Muhammet; Ozden, Mustafa; Eilks, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a case study focusing on the subject matter knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and beliefs about science teaching of student teachers in Turkey at the start of their university education. The topic of interest was that of teaching chemical reactions in secondary chemistry education. A written test was developed which…

  18. Exploring the Relationship between Secondary Science Teachers' Subject Matter Knowledge and Knowledge of Student Conceptions While Teaching Evolution by Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Margaret M.; Petrosino, Anthony J.; Delgado, Cesar

    2017-01-01

    The fundamental scientific concept of evolution occurring by natural selection is home to many deeply held alternative conceptions and considered difficult to teach. Science teachers' subject matter knowledge (SMK) and the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) component of knowledge of students' conceptions (KOSC) can be valuable resources for…

  19. Is Practical Subject Matter Knowledge Still Important? Examining the Siedentopian Perspective on the Role of Content Knowledge in Physical Education Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Frank; Waring, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background: The role that content knowledge, an important component of practical subject matter knowledge, plays for pre-service teachers (PSTs) in physical education teacher education (PETE) remains contested and unclear. Whilst some researchers emphasise the facilitative nature of such knowledge, others criticise that too much focus on content…

  20. Does Variation in the Extent of Generalized Trust, Individual Education and Extensiveness of Social Security Policies Matter for Maximization of Subjective Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeeva, Rania F.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I examine whether generalized trust and education, as well as social security policies of welfare state institutions matter for cross-national differences in subjective well-being (SWB), because knowledge on this issue is still lacking. For this purpose I integrated the insights of two sociological theories: Social Function…

  1. The Examination of Secondary Education Chemistry Curricula Published between 1957-2007 in Terms of the Dimensions of Rationale, Goals, and Subject-Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekdag, Bulent; Erol, Hilal

    2013-01-01

    Fifteen secondary education chemistry curricula published from 1957 until 2007 were examined based on the dimensions of rationale, goals, and subject matter. An examination of documents in the scope of qualitative research was carried out in the study. The goals included in the examined chemistry curricula were analyzed according to the cognitive,…

  2. Interactive effects between gaze direction and facial expression on attentional resources deployment: the task instruction and context matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardelli, Paola; Lugli, Luisa; Pellicano, Antonello; Iani, Cristina; Nicoletti, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    In three experiments, we tested whether the amount of attentional resources needed to process a face displaying neutral/angry/fearful facial expressions with direct or averted gaze depends on task instructions, and face presentation. To this end, we used a Rapid Serial Visual Presentation paradigm in which participants in Experiment 1 were first explicitly asked to discriminate whether the expression of a target face (T1) with direct or averted gaze was angry or neutral, and then to judge the orientation of a landscape (T2). Experiment 2 was identical to Experiment 1 except that participants had to discriminate the gender of the face of T1 and fearful faces were also presented randomly inter-mixed within each block of trials. Experiment 3 differed from Experiment 2 only because angry and fearful faces were never presented within the same block. The findings indicated that the presence of the attentional blink (AB) for face stimuli depends on specific combinations of gaze direction and emotional facial expressions and crucially revealed that the contextual factors (e.g., explicit instruction to process the facial expression and the presence of other emotional faces) can modify and even reverse the AB, suggesting a flexible and more contextualized deployment of attentional resources in face processing. PMID:26898473

  3. Inclusive differentiated instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerković Ljiljana S.

    2017-01-01

    expressive reading and information reception and comprehension; and C critical and creative reading and creative information processing. The students assigned to the experimental group learnt about and acquired literary theory concepts and special characteristics of literary genres within their 'zones of proximal development,' while the lessons taught to the control group were structured to suit an average or imaginary student. The same requirements were set on all students in the control group, regardless of their individual level of familiarity with literary theory notions and concepts and the degree to which they were capable of comprehending and experiencing a literary text. The results of the experiment carried out with such parallel groups show that the achievement of the students included in the experimental group, who were taught according to individualized instruction plans, was better in a way that was statistically significant, in comparison with both their knowledge of the subject matter before the experiment and the control group, whose members attended classes organized in a predominantly traditional, non-individualistic way.

  4. CosmoQuest: Supporting Subject Matter Experts in Broadening the Impacts of their Work beyond their Institutional Walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel-Storr, J.; Buxner, S.; Grier, J.; Gay, P.

    2016-12-01

    CosmoQuest is a virtual research facility, which, like its physical counterparts, provides tools for scientists to acquire reduced data products (thanks to our cadre of citizen scientists working to analyze images and produce results online), and also to participate in education and outreach activities either directly through CosmoQuest activities (such as CosmoAcademy and the Educators' Zone) or with the support of CosmoQuest. Here, we present our strategies to inspire, engage and support Subject Matter Experts (SMEs - Scientists, Engineers, Technologists and Mathematicians) in activities outside of their institutions, and beyond college classroom teaching. We provide support for SMEs who are interested in increasing the impacts of their science knowledge and expertise by interacting with people online, or in other venues outside of their normal work environment. This includes a broad spectrum of opportunities for those interested in hosting webinars; running short courses for the public; using Facebook, Twitter or other social media to communicate science; or other diverse activities such as supporting an open house, science fair, or star party. As noted by Katheryn Woods-Townsend and colleagues, "...face-to-face interactions with scientists allowed students to view scientists as approachable and normal people, and to begin to understand the range of scientific areas and careers that exist. Scientists viewed the scientist-student interactions as a vehicle for science communication" (2015). As CosmoQuest fosters these relationships, it We present a framework for SMEs which combine opportunities for continuing professional development (virtually and in person at conferences) with ongoing online support, creating a dynamic professional learning network. The goal of this is to deepen SME capacity-knowledge, attitudes and behaviors-both encouraging and empowering them to connect to broader audiences in new ways.

  5. Location of lacunar infarcts correlates with cognition in a sample of non-disabled subjects with age-related white-matter changes: the LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benisty, S; Gouw, A A; Porcher, R

    2009-01-01

    in the following areas: lobar white matter, putamen/pallidum, thalamus, caudate nucleus, internal/external capsule, infratentorial areas. An analysis of covariance was performed after adjustment for possible confounders. RESULTS: Among 633 subjects, 47% had at least one lacune (31% at least one within basal...... a significant negative association between the presence of lacunes in putamen/pallidum and the memory compound Z score (beta = -0.13; p = 0.038). By contrast, no significant negative association was found between cognitive parameters and the presence of lacunes in internal capsule, lobar white matter...

  6. The Respon of IKIP BUDI UTOMO Students Toward The Instructional Book of Cell Biology Subject Aided by Interactive Multimedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Asih Wahyu Hartati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of Science and Technology (Science and Technology takes place very rapidly. The development of science and technology will impact on graduate competency changes desired by the industry. This change of course will be followed by updating the curriculum, learning resources and teaching materials are used, one of them teaching materials on the subjects of Cell Biology. In the course of Cell Biology, the students only take textbooks without the support of interactive multimedia. Good teaching materials is the teaching materials arranged in a systematic, according to the needs and character of students, as well as validated by the teaching materials. The purpose of this study was to determine response students Biology Education IKIP Budi Utomo against Cell Biology course textbook aided interactive multimedia. The development method used is the 4D model consisting of stages define, design, develop, and disseminate. This study is limited to the stages develop. Legibility test results showed that students responded well teaching materials and provide proper assessment of the teaching materials.

  7. The Use of Instructional Materials in the Teaching and Learning of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Again, the study revealed that inability of teachers to use instructional materials leads to: pupils becoming passive listeners in class, boredom, poor participation in lesson, lack of interest in the subject, absenteeism and finally poor performance in the subject matter. Some suggestions are made to enhance the effective use ...

  8. Perfection of methods of training to the technics of throws and catching of gymnastic subject matters at a stage of special base preparation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreeva N.O.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of performances gymnasts at competitions of a different level shows, that the system of training in rhythmic gymnastics at a stage of special-purpose base preparation requires entering of the corrective amendments which have been directed on perfection of its forms and procedures. One of such innovations may be use in training process of innovative methods of perfection of work on gymnastic subject matters. In article initial theoretical positions and ways of perfection of process of training to throws and catching of a ball and other subject matters as basic means of progress at gymnasts impellent qualities and the skills necessary for achievement of high results in competitive activity are considered.

  9. Being in a romantic relationship is associated with reduced gray matter density in striatum and increased subjective happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroaki Kawamichi; Sugawara, Sho K.; Hamano, Yuki H.; Kai Makita; Masahiro Matsunaga; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Yuichi Ogino; Shigeru Saito; Norihiro Sadato

    2016-01-01

    Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that ro...

  10. Being in a Romantic Relationship Is Associated with Reduced Gray Matter Density in Striatum and Increased Subjective Happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Sugawara, Sho K.; Hamano, Yuki H.; Makita, Kai; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Ogino, Yuichi; Saito, Shigeru; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that ro...

  11. Effect of dimethyl fumarate on gray and white matter pathology in subjects with relapsing multiple sclerosis: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivadinov, R; Hagemeier, J; Bergsland, N; Tavazzi, E; Weinstock-Guttman, B

    2018-03-01

    Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is an oral treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) with anti-inflammatory and possible neuroprotective properties. Its effect on white matter and gray matter pathology is still not fully understood. The aim of the study was to characterize the effect of DMF on normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and thalamic pathology longitudinally. In this observational, longitudinal, 24-month magnetic resonance imaging study, 75 patients with relapsing-remitting MS treated with DMF and 40 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals were enrolled. Regional diffusion tensor imaging metrics and tract-based spatial statistics analyses were used to assess differences between groups. Mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, radial diffusivity and fractional anisotropy were measured in the thalamus and NAWM. Baseline differences and changes over time were evaluated within and between study groups. At baseline, patients with MS showed significantly increased diffusivity and decreased fractional anisotropy in the thalamus (P < 0.001 for mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity) and NAWM (all P < 0.016) compared with healthy individuals. No significant within-group difference was found in diffusion tensor imaging measures over 24 months in either group. Healthy individuals showed a significantly greater rate of increased diffusivity parameters in the thalamus and NAWM compared with patients with MS, over 24 months (P < 0.05). The lack of changes in diffusion tensor imaging metrics in patients with MS over 24 months possibly indicates a neuroprotective role of DMF. These findings provide additional evidence of the beneficial effect of DMF on MS-related pathology. © 2018 EAN.

  12. Les phenomenes migratoires et l'urbanisation comme objet d'enseignement: La Mauritanie (The Phenomena of Migration and Urbanization as Subjects of Instruction: Mauritania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahem, Abdel Kader

    1993-01-01

    Outlines the recent social history of Mauritania, focusing on the effects of sedentarization and rapid urbanization on a primarily nomadic people. Offers an instructional approach for teaching young people about these social phenomena, highlighting particular cognitive and attitudinal objectives. (DMM)

  13. Comments on Professor Gagne's Paper Entitled "Instructional Variables and Learning Outcomes." Center for the Study of Evaluation of Instructional Programs Occasional Report No. 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Richard

    This paper comments on Gagne's classification scheme with respect to learning outcomes, and offers a research design appropriate for instructional research studies. It challenges certain assumptions concerning correspondence between subject matter and categories, and asserts that the logic of experimental analysis should be applied to…

  14. Corpus callosum atrophy is associated with mental slowing and executive deficits in subjects with age-related white matter hyperintensities: the LADIS Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokinen, Hanna; Ryberg, Charlotte; Kalska, Hely

    2007-01-01

    , attention and executive functions in subjects with age-related white matter hyperintensities (WMH). METHODS: In the Leukoaraiosis and Disability Study, 567 subjects with age-related WMH were examined with a detailed neuropsychological assessment and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging. The relationships...... processing--namely, trail making A and Stroop test parts I and II. Anterior, but not posterior, corpus callosum atrophy was associated with deficits of attention and executive functions as reflected by the symbol digit modalities and digit cancellation tests, as well as by the subtraction scores in the trail...... is related to the frontal-lobe-mediated executive functions and attention, whereas overall corpus callosum atrophy is associated with the slowing of processing speed. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-May...

  15. It matters how old you feel: Antecedents and performance consequences of average relative subjective age in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Florian; Raes, Anneloes M L; Bruch, Heike

    2015-09-01

    This article extends the conceptual knowledge of average relative subjective age in organizations by exploring organizational-level antecedents and consequences of employees, on average, feeling younger than their chronological age. We draw from the theories of selection-optimization-compensation and socioemotional selectivity to build a theoretical framework for relative subjective age in organizations. We hypothesize that companies in which employees, on average, perceive themselves to be younger than they actually are have a higher average individual goal accomplishment and, in turn, experience higher company performance. We further hypothesize that employees' average experience of high work-related meaning relates to a lower subjective age in organizations. In addition, we assess the role of environmental dynamism and age-inclusive human resource management as moderators in this theoretical model. Through empirically testing this model in a multisource dataset, including 107 companies with 15,164 participating employees, we received support for the hypothesized relationships. Our results contribute to current debates in the scientific literature on age and have important practical implications in light of the demographic changes faced by many companies. This research indicates to both researchers and practitioners that it is not employees' chronological age but their subjective age, a factor that can be influenced, which drives organizational performance outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Single-subject gray matter graph properties and their relationship with cognitive impairment in early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijms, Betty M; Yeung, Hiu M; Sikkes, Sietske A M; Möller, Christiane; Smits, Lieke L; Stam, Cornelis J; Scheltens, Philip; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Barkhof, Frederik

    2014-06-01

    Abstract We investigated the relationships between gray matter graph properties and cognitive impairment in a sample of 215 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and also whether age of disease onset modifies such relationships. We expected that more severe cognitive impairment in AD would be related to more random graph topologies. Single-subject gray matter graphs were constructed from T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans. The following global and local graph properties were calculated: betweenness centrality, normalized clustering coefficient γ, and normalized path length λ. Local clustering, path length, and betweenness centrality measures were determined for 90 anatomically defined areas. Regression models with as interaction term age of onset (i.e., early onset when patients were ≤65 years old and late onset when they were >65 years old at the time of diagnosis)×graph property were used to assess the relationships between cognitive functioning in five domains (memory, language, visuospatial, attention, and executive). Worse cognitive impairment was associated with more random graphs, as indicated by low γ, λ, and betweenness centrality values. Three interaction effects for age of onset×global graph property were found: Low γ and λ values more strongly related to memory impairment in early-onset patients; low beta values were significantly related to impaired visuospatial functioning in late-onset patients. For the local graph properties, language impairment showed the strongest relationship with decreased clustering coefficient in the left superior temporal gyrus across the entire sample. Our study shows that single-subject gray matter graph properties are associated with individual differences in cognitive impairment.

  17. Investigation of Psychophysiological and Subjective Effects of Long Working Hours – Do Age and Hearing Impairment Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Wagner-Hartl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Following current prognosis, demographic development raises expectations of an aging of the working population. Therefore, keeping employees healthy and strengthening their ability to work, becomes more and more important. When employees become older, dealing with age-related impairments of sensory functions, such as hearing impairment, is a central issue. Recent evidence suggests that negative effects that are associated with reduced hearing can have a strong impact at work. Especially under exhausting working situations such as working overtime hours, age and hearing impairment might influence employees’ well-being. Until now, neither the problem of aged workers and long working hours, nor the problem of hearing impairment and prolonged working time has been addressed explicitly. Therefore, a laboratory study was examined to answer the research question: Do age and hearing impairment have an impact on psychophysiological and subjective effects of long working hours. In total, 51 white-collar workers, aged between 24 and 63 years, participated in the laboratory study. The results show no significant effects for age and hearing impairment on the intensity of subjective consequences (perceived recovery and fatigue, subjective emotional well-being and physical symptoms of long working hours. However, the psychophysiological response (the saliva cortisol level to long working hours differs significantly between hearing impaired and normal hearing employees. Interestingly, the results suggest that from a psychophysiological point of view long working hours were more demanding for normal hearing employees.

  18. Allocating instruction time: How language instruction can affect multiple skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghans, L.; Diris, R.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    There exists substantial variation in how schools allocate instruction time to school subjects. The effectiveness of that allocation depends on the immediate effect of instruction in one subject on achievement in the same subject, on how skills further develop over time, and on possible spillover

  19. Use of the Flipped Classroom Instructional Model in Higher Education: Instructors' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Taotao; Cummins, John; Waugh, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The flipped classroom model is an instructional model in which students learn basic subject matter knowledge prior to in-class meetings, then come to the classroom for active learning experiences. Previous research has shown that the flipped classroom model can motivate students towards active learning, can improve their higher-order thinking…

  20. Cooperative Learning Instructional Methods for CS1: Design, Implementation, and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Leland; Chizhik, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Cooperative learning is a well-known instructional technique that has been applied with a wide variety of subject matter and a broad spectrum of populations. This article briefly reviews the principles of cooperative learning, and describes how these principles were incorporated into a comprehensive set of cooperative learning activities for a CS1…

  1. Public Supported Instruction in Economics of Farm Business Management in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Ted Durst

    As an outgrowth of a larger research effort in which six subject matter areas were compared, this doctoral thesis is an in-depth analysis of the content and emphasis placed on identified units of instruction in the economics of farm business management by personnel in Iowa's public supported institutions. The study involved a sample of 75…

  2. Instructional Media

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments on using Instructional Television. Most experiments compare instruction using TV, with the conventional classroom instruction by the teacher. The findings are clear. ... scientific reliability, and all of these showed no significant difference.

  3. Predictive Utility of Marketed Volumetric Software Tools in Subjects at Risk for Alzheimer Disease: Do Regions Outside the Hippocampus Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanpitukpongse, T P; Mazurowski, M A; Ikhena, J; Petrella, J R

    2017-03-01

    Alzheimer disease is a prevalent neurodegenerative disease. Computer assessment of brain atrophy patterns can help predict conversion to Alzheimer disease. Our aim was to assess the prognostic efficacy of individual-versus-combined regional volumetrics in 2 commercially available brain volumetric software packages for predicting conversion of patients with mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer disease. Data were obtained through the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. One hundred ninety-two subjects (mean age, 74.8 years; 39% female) diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment at baseline were studied. All had T1-weighted MR imaging sequences at baseline and 3-year clinical follow-up. Analysis was performed with NeuroQuant and Neuroreader. Receiver operating characteristic curves assessing the prognostic efficacy of each software package were generated by using a univariable approach using individual regional brain volumes and 2 multivariable approaches (multiple regression and random forest), combining multiple volumes. On univariable analysis of 11 NeuroQuant and 11 Neuroreader regional volumes, hippocampal volume had the highest area under the curve for both software packages (0.69, NeuroQuant; 0.68, Neuroreader) and was not significantly different ( P > .05) between packages. Multivariable analysis did not increase the area under the curve for either package (0.63, logistic regression; 0.60, random forest NeuroQuant; 0.65, logistic regression; 0.62, random forest Neuroreader). Of the multiple regional volume measures available in FDA-cleared brain volumetric software packages, hippocampal volume remains the best single predictor of conversion of mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer disease at 3-year follow-up. Combining volumetrics did not add additional prognostic efficacy. Therefore, future prognostic studies in mild cognitive impairment, combining such tools with demographic and other biomarker measures, are justified in using hippocampal volume as

  4. Instructional design for online course development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperman, Larry

    2007-01-01

    There is a big difference between preparing to teach in the classroom and preparing to teach online. The classroom environment is typically marked by a level of spontaneity in instruction; beyond the preparation-the course syllabus and the PowerPoint slides, for example-the delivery of the course is largely altered by both the dynamics of the class and the impromptu decisions of the professor. Mediating this dynamic is the nature of the subject matter itself-teaching a course in computer programming varies dramatically from a course in sociology. The goal of this article is to explain the uses and misuses of instructional design, its foundational frameworks, and its implications for online education.

  5. Simulation-based instruction of technical skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towne, Douglas M.; Munro, Allen

    1991-01-01

    A rapid intelligent tutoring development system (RAPIDS) was developed to facilitate the production of interactive, real-time graphical device models for use in instructing the operation and maintenance of complex systems. The tools allowed subject matter experts to produce device models by creating instances of previously defined objects and positioning them in the emerging device model. These simulation authoring functions, as well as those associated with demonstrating procedures and functional effects on the completed model, required no previous programming experience or use of frame-based instructional languages. Three large simulations were developed in RAPIDS, each involving more than a dozen screen-sized sections. Seven small, single-view applications were developed to explore the range of applicability. Three workshops were conducted to train others in the use of the authoring tools. Participants learned to employ the authoring tools in three to four days and were able to produce small working device models on the fifth day.

  6. The Development of Learning Processes by Direct Instruction Model and Peer – Assisted Learning achievement and attitude toward Thai Dancing Subject in Prathomsuksa 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saowari Phubanchuen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study was to.. 1 study the expert’s opinion about teaching technique, teaching processes and the development of instrumental learning process on Dramatic Arts. 2 to develop the instrumental lesson plans using Direct Instruction Model and Peer Tutoring approach 3 to study the students learning outcome after using the developed lesson plans. The sample consists of 35 fifth grade students studying in Mahasarakham University Demonstration School (Elementary in 2016 Academic year using Cluster Random Sampling technique. Research toolsconsisted of 1 8 lesson plans. 2 Practical skills test and 3 chievement test. The collected data was analyzed by percentage Mean standardize score and Dependent Sample t-test The result of the study were as follow: 1. The expert’s opinion toward teaching Dramatic Arts suggest that the learning purposes and the nature of the course is the most important. Learning process has to encourage children to participate, and has served as both the audience and the performers. The good performances have been trained so they have needed skills in order to be confident and assertive plus having ability to criticism the show creatively. 2. The developed instrumental lesson plans using Direct Instruction Model and Peer Tutoring approach are appropriate in the highest level ( = 4.60. 3. The students learning outcome after using the developed lesson plans 3.1 developed instrumental lesson plans using Direct Instruction Model and Peer Tutoring approach had the Efficiency (E1/ E2 of 88.11 / 87.483.2 students’ practical skills after learning are more advanced with an average overall very satisfactory. 3.3 student achievement after learning increased from the previous level of statistical significance at level.05. 3.4 student satisfaction with the learning process using the learning management improved overall in most.

  7. Dark matter in galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Zasov, A. V.; Saburova, A. S.; Khoperskov, A. V.; Khoperskov, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    Dark matter in galaxies, its abundance, and its distribution remain a subject of long-standing discussion, especially in view of the fact that neither dark matter particles nor dark matter bodies have yet been found. Experts' opinions range from a very large number of completely dark galaxies exist to nonbaryonic dark matter does not exist at all in any significant amounts. We discuss astronomical evidence for the existence of dark matter and its connection with visible matter and examine att...

  8. Train, teach; taught? How the content of specific science subject matter knowledge sessions impacts on trainee teachers’ classroom practice and children’s learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Kind

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The impact science sessions for trainee science teachers have on 11-14 year olds’ learning of science was assessed using questionnaires and a “Video-Interview (trainee –Interview (pupils” (V-I-I technique devised for this study. V-I-I involved: video-recording trainee-taught lessons; and two interviews – with a pupil group to probe learning occurring in the lesson and with the trainee.Eighty UK-based trainees taking a one-year postgraduate teacher education course completed the questionnaire probing perceptions about university- and school-based training sessions designed to develop science subject matter knowledge (SMK and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK. Six trainees participated in V-I-I.Most trainees saw all sessions as SMK-based, regardless of teacher educators’ intended purposes. Lesson videos revealed ”describing” activities, task completion and good behaviour as main focii. Explanation of key science ideas and use of materials and /ideas from training sessions were largely absent. Trainee interviews revealed contrasts: most perceived a lesson as “successful” when children completed tasks quietly. Other trainees realised their understanding impacted on pupils’ learning science concepts. Pupil interviews showed positive attitudes towards science and learning difficult ideas, but little specific learning of topics taught.

  9. A tale of three blind men on the proper subject matter of clinical science and practice: commentary on Plaud's behaviorism vs. Ilardi and Feldman's cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, J P; Kelly, M M

    2001-09-01

    Plaud (J Clin Psychol 57, 1089-1102, 1109-1111, 1119-1120) and Ilardi and Feldman (J Clin Psychol 57, 1067-1088, 1103-1107, 1113-1117, 1121-1124) argue for two very different approaches to clinical science and practice (i.e., behavior analysis and cognitive neuroscience, respectively). We comment on the assets and liabilities of both perspectives as presented and attempt to achieve some semblance of balance between the three protagonists embroiled in this current debate. The vision of clinical science we articulate is more ecumenical and evolutionary, rather than paradigmatic and revolutionary. As we see it, the problem clinical psychology faces is much larger than the authors let on; namely, how best to make clinical science meaningful and relevant to practitioners, consumers, the general public, and the behavioral health-care community. Clinical psychology's immediate internal problem is not pluralism with regard to subject matter, worldview, methodology, or school of thought, but pluralism in clinical psychologists' adherence to a scientific epistemology as the only legitimate form of clinical psychology. On this latter point, we still have a very long way to go. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. Instructions for the use of the CIVM-Jet 4C finite-strain computer code to calculate the transient structural responses of partial and/or complete arbitrarily-curved rings subjected to fragment impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodal, J. J. A.; French, S. E.; Witmer, E. A.; Stagliano, T. R.

    1979-01-01

    The CIVM-JET 4C computer program for the 'finite strain' analysis of 2 d transient structural responses of complete or partial rings and beams subjected to fragment impact stored on tape as a series of individual files. Which subroutines are found in these files are described in detail. All references to the CIVM-JET 4C program are made assuming that the user has a copy of NASA CR-134907 (ASRL TR 154-9) which serves as a user's guide to (1) the CIVM-JET 4B computer code and (2) the CIVM-JET 4C computer code 'with the use of the modified input instructions' attached hereto.

  11. The Application of Instructional Design in the National Open University of the Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosco Wen-Ruey Lee

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available 無Designing instruction through the systematic approach is a way to assure the efficiency and the effectiveness of teaching and learning. Since the institute was established in August 1986, the National Open University of R.O.C. has adapted this concept into her system. Experts in the university developed an eight-step model for the carrying out of this instructional design concept. Main tasks to be executed at each step are clearly identified and stated in this model. Each member of the course design team, which includes the subject matter experts, the instructional designer, the media specialist, and the team assistant, follows this model to perform his or her duties. In the past years, this ID model has been widely applied to all NOU courses. Though, many difficulties and problems encountered, it is leading the instructions of the National Open University up to the goal of efficiency and effectiveness.

  12. In Respect to the Cognitive Load Theory: Adjusting Instructional Guidance with Student Expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Jim

    2017-01-01

    The amount of guidance supplied by educators to students in allied health programs is a factor in student learning. According to the cognitive load theory of learning, without adequate instructional support, novice learners will be overwhelmed and unable to store information, while unnecessary guidance supplied to advanced students will cause extraneous cognitive load on the working memory system. Adjusting instructional guidance for students according to their level of expertise to minimize extraneous cognitive load and optimize working memory storage capacity will enhance learning effectiveness. Novice students presented with complex subject matter require significant guidance during the initial stages, using strategies such as worked examples. As students comprehend information, instructional guidance needs to gradually fade to avoid elevated extraneous cognitive load from the expertise reversal effect. An instructional strategy that utilizes a systemic (fixed) or adjustable (adaptive) tapering of guidance to students in allied health programs depending on their expertise will optimize learning capability.

  13. Developing Effective Instructional Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, Barbara; And Others

    A group of three conference papers, all addressing effective instructional programs, is presented in this document. The first paper, entitled "The Organization--A Viable Instrument for Progress" (Barbara Sizemore), addresses the subject of high-achieving, predominantly black elementary schools. Routines in these schools not present in…

  14. Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic characterization of soil organic matter fractions in a forest ecosystem subjected to prescribed burning and thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescribed burning and thinning are gaining popularity as low-cost forest protection measures. Such field management practices could alter the chemical properties of soil organic matter (SOM), especially humic substances. In this work, we collected surface soil samples from the Bankhead National For...

  15. Examining elementary teachers' knowledge and instruction of scientific explanations for fostering children's explanations in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebke, Heidi Lynn

    This study employed an embedded mixed methods multi-case study design (Creswell, 2014) with six early childhood (grades K-2) teachers to examine a) what changes occurred to their subject matter knowledge (SMK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for teaching scientific explanations while participating in a professional development program, b) how they planned for and implemented scientific explanation instruction within a teacher developed unit on properties of matter, and c) what affordances their instruction of scientific explanations had on fostering their students' abilities to generate explanations in science. Several quantitative and qualitative measures were collected and analyzed in accordance to this studies conceptual framework, which consisted of ten instructional practices teachers should consider assimilating or accommodating into their knowledge base (i.e., SMK & PCK) for teaching scientific explanations. Results of this study indicate there was little to no positive change in the teachers' substantive and syntactic SMK. However, all six teachers did make significant changes to all five components of their PCK for teaching explanations in science. While planning for scientific explanation instruction, all six teachers' contributed some ideas for how to incorporate seven of the ten instructional practices for scientific explanations within the properties of matter unit they co-developed. When enacting the unit, the six teachers' employed seven to nine of the instructional practices to varying levels of effectiveness, as measured by researcher developed rubrics. Given the six teachers' scientific explanation instruction, many students did show improvement in their ability to formulate a scientific explanation, particularly their ability to provide multiple pieces of evidence. Implications for professional developers, teacher educators, researchers, policy makers, and elementary teachers regarding how to prepare teachers for and support students

  16. Gray and white matter changes in subjective cognitive impairment, amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: a voxel-based analysis study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuniaki Kiuchi

    Full Text Available Subjective cognitive impairment may be a very early at-risk period of the continuum of dementia. However, it is difficult to discriminate at-risk states from normal aging. Thus, detection of the early pathological changes in the subjective cognitive impairment period is needed. To elucidate these changes, we employed diffusion tensor imaging and volumetry analysis, and compared subjective cognitive impairment with normal, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The subjects in this study were 39 Alzheimer's disease, 43 mild cognitive impairment, 28 subjective cognitive impairment and 41 normal controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the normal control and subjective cognitive impairment groups in all measures. Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment had the same extent of brain atrophy and diffusion changes. These results are consistent with the hypothetical model of the dynamic biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease.

  17. Low episodic memory performance in cognitively normal elderly subjects is associated with increased posterior cingulate gray matter N-acetylaspartate: a1H MRSI study at 7 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Simon J; Kirchner, Thomas; Wyss, Michael; Van Bergen, Jiri M G; Quevenco, Frances C; Steininger, Stefanie C; Griffith, Erica Y; Meier, Irene; Michels, Lars; Gietl, Anton F; Leh, Sandra E; Brickman, Adam M; Hock, Christoph; Nitsch, Roger M; Pruessmann, Klaas P; Henning, Anke; Unschuld, Paul G

    2016-12-01

    Low episodic memory performance characterizes elderly subjects at increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may reflect neuronal dysfunction within the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus (PCP) region. To investigate a potential association between cerebral neurometabolism and low episodic memory in the absence of cognitive impairment, tissue-specific magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging at ultrahigh field strength of 7 Tesla was used to investigate the PCP region in a healthy elderly study population (n = 30, age 70 ± 5.7 years, Mini-Mental State Examination 29.4 ± 4.1). The Verbal Learning and Memory Test (VLMT) was administered as part of a neuropsychological battery for assessment of episodic memory performance. Significant differences between PCP gray and white matter could be observed for glutamate-glutamine (p = 0.001), choline (p = 0.01), and myo-inositol (p = 0.02). Low Verbal Learning and Memory Test performance was associated with high N-acetylaspartate in PCP gray matter (p = 0.01) but not in PCP white matter. Our data suggest that subtle decreases in episodic memory performance in the elderly may be associated with increased levels of N-acetylaspartate as a reflection of increased mitochondrial energy capacity in PCP gray matter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effects of Inquiry-Based Integrated Information Literacy Instruction: Four-Year Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ching Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of four-year integrated information literacy instruction via a framework of inquiry-based learning on elementary students’ memory and comprehension. Moderating factors of students’ academic achievement was another focus of this study. The subjects were 72 students who have participated in this study since they entered an elementary school in Chiayi district. This elementary school adopted the integrated information literacy instruction, designed by the researchers and elementary school teachers, and integrated it into various subject matters via a framework of inquiry-based learning, such as Super 3 and Big6 models. A series of inquiry-based integrated information literacy instruction has been implemented since the second semester of the subjects’ first grade. A total of seven inquiry learning projects has been implemented from grade one through grade four. Fourteen instruments were used as pretests and posttests to assess students’ factual recall and conceptual understanding of subject contents in different projects. The results showed that inquiry-based integrated information literacy instruction couldhelp students memorize facts and comprehend concepts of subject contents. Regardless ofacademic achievements, if students would like to devote their efforts to inquiry processes, their memory and comprehension of subject contents improvedeffectively. However, students of low-academic achievement might need more time to be familiar with the inquiry-based learning strategy.

  19. Instructional Ventures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Prus

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Beyond promoting a mode of ethnographic inquiry that is conceptually informed and rigorously attentive to the actualities of human lived experience, this article encourages a more sustained, comparative analysis of the ways that administrators and instructors deal with education as a collectively developed venture. After (a establishing an analytic frame for a more comprehensive approach to education as a socially engaged process, this article focuses on (b the administration of educational programs and (c providing instruction as activity “in the making,” using an ethnographic study of two Protestant Christian seminaries as an empirical, illustrative case. While providing an agenda for examining the ways that people generate and sustain instructional ventures in any educational context, the material presented here also represents an important focal point for theoretically, conceptually, and methodologically integrating research that attends to the ways that instructional (administrative and teaching activities are accomplished in practice.

  20. An evaluation of factors that influence children's instruction following.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Jolene R; Donaldson, Jeanne M; Vollmer, Timothy R; Pizarro, Eliana

    2014-01-01

    Behavior that resembles instruction following might sometimes be under stimulus control of extraneous variables. We evaluated the effects of some of these variables (i.e., presence of relevant objects, associations between instructions and object sets) with 3 children with intellectual disabilities. In Experiment 1, we assessed whether subjects were more likely to follow instructions that required object manipulation and whether subjects were more likely to follow these instructions when only relevant objects were present. All subjects were more likely to follow instructions that required object manipulation when only relevant objects were present. In Experiment 2, we evaluated whether instruction following would be less likely if the same object set was associated with multiple instructions, and found this to be the case for 2 of 2 subjects. Findings highlight the need to train instruction following under different conditions to ensure that responding comes under stimulus control of the instructions. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  1. New light on a dark subject: On the use of fluorescence data to deduce redox states of natural organic matter (NOM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macalady, Donald L.; Walton-Day, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the use of excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (EEMS), parallel factor statistical analysis (PARAFAC), and oxidation-reduction experiments to examine the effect of redox conditions on PARAFAC model results for aqueous samples rich in natural organic matter. Fifty-four aqueous samples from 11 different geographic locations and two plant extracts were analyzed untreated and after chemical treatments or irradiation were used in attempts to change the redox status of the natural organic matter. The EEMS spectra were generated and modeled using a PARAFAC package developed by Cory and McKnight (2005). The PARAFAC model output was examined for consistency with previously reported relations and with changes expected to occur upon experimental oxidation and reduction of aqueous samples. Results indicate the implied fraction of total sample fluorescence attributed to quinone-like moieties was consistent (0.64 to 0.78) and greater than that observed by Cory and McKnight (2005). The fraction of the quinone-like moieties that was reduced (the reducing index, RI) showed relatively little variation (0.46 to 0.71) despite attempts to alter the redox status of the natural organic matter. The RI changed little after reducing samples using zinc metal, oxidizing at high pH with air, or irradiating with a Xenon lamp. Our results, however, are consistent with the correlations between the fluorescence indices (FI) of samples and the ratio of PARAFAC fitting parameters suggested by Cory and McKnight (2005), though we used samples with a much narrower range of FI values.

  2. Editorial - Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter; Grinsted, Annelise

    2007-01-01

    Why you may wonder - have we chosen a topic which at first glance may seem trivial, and even a bit dull? Well, looks can be deceiving, and in this case they are! There are many good reasons for taking a closer look at instructions.......Why you may wonder - have we chosen a topic which at first glance may seem trivial, and even a bit dull? Well, looks can be deceiving, and in this case they are! There are many good reasons for taking a closer look at instructions....

  3. Efforts in Improving Teachers’ Competencies Through Collaboration between Teacher Forum on Subject Matter (MGMP and Pre-Service Teacher Training Institution (LPTK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Purwoko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to improve high school chemistry teacher’s competency in terms of classroom instruction. This goal is achieved through the workshop and continuous assistance activities that enable teachers to improve their knowledge and skills in developing learning scenarios that reflect scientific methods (brain-based learning in the classroom instruction. The effect of teachers’ competence improvement was measured by a survey of student’s perception on the classroom teaching-learning process, using Likert-scale questionnaire. The first poll was conducted before the program was started, and the second one was after the program completion. The first observation shows that only 18% of students perceive that the chemistry learning process in the classroom are “good,” while the rest (82% say that it is “fair”. However, the second poll shows that there are 45% of students who perceive that the learning process is “good”; interestingly, there are 35%, and 20% of respondents say “excellent” and “fair,” respectively. Furthermore, data analyses using chi-square test conclude that the continuous teacher assistance activity significantly improves teachers’ competencies. This article describes detailed of collaboration program and the results of improvement of chemistry teachers’ competence in north Lombok regency. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New

  4. Context-model-based instruction in teaching EFL writing: A narrative inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Lin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to re-story the provision of the context-model-based instruction in teaching EFL writing, focusing especially on students’ development of the context model and learning to guide EFL writing with the context model. The research data have been collected from the audio recordings of the classroom instruction, the teacher-researcher’s memos, and the students’ reflections on their learning experience in the study. The findings that have resulted from this narrative inquiry show (1 the context-model-based instruction has helped students develop their context model; (2 students could learn to configure the four elements of the context model (i.e. “the purpose of communication, the subject matter, the relationship with the reader and the normal pattern of presentation”; and (3 students could learn to be mindful to proactively apply the context model in the process of EFL writing to manage the situated, dynamic and intercultural issues involved.

  5. Age, Cumulative Trauma and Stressful Life Events, and Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms among Older Adults in Prison: Do Subjective Impressions Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschi, Tina; Morgen, Keith; Zgoba, Kristen; Courtney, Deborah; Ristow, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aging prison population in the United States presents a significant public health challenge with high rates of trauma and mental health issues that the correctional system alone is ill-prepared to address. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of age, objective, and subjective measures of trauma and stressful…

  6. Using Academic Journals to Help Students Learn Subject Matter Content, Develop and Practice Critical Reasoning Skills, and Reflect on Personal Values in Food Science and Human Nutrition Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaoka, Wayne T.; Crosetti, Lea M.

    2008-01-01

    It has been reported that students learn best when they use a wide variety of techniques to understand the information of the discipline, be it visual, auditory, discussion with others, metacognition, hands-on activities, or writing about the subject. We report in this article the use of academic journals not only as an aid for students to learn…

  7. A Structural Equation Model Analyzing the Relationship of Student Achievement Motivations and Personality Factors in a Range of Academic Subject-Matter Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempelaar, Dirk T.; Gijselaers, Wim H.; Schim van der Loeff, Sybrand; Nijhuis, Jan F. H.

    2007-01-01

    The question of subject-specificity of achievement motivations is important, both for educational psychology, as well as for educational policy. This study contributes to the investigation of the heterogeneity in achievement motivations in the context of the expectancy-value model. Whereas existing research deals with middle and high school…

  8. Barron's SAT subject test

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, MA, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Includes one diagnostic test and three complete tests, all questions answered and explained, self-assessment guides, and subject reviews. Also features test strategies, QR codes to short instructional videos, and a detailed appendix with equations, physical constants, and a basic math review.

  9. White matter organization in relation to upper limb motor control in healthy subjects: exploring the added value of diffusion kurtosis imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooijers, J; Leemans, A; Van Cauter, S; Sunaert, S; Swinnen, S P; Caeyenberghs, K

    2014-09-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) characterizes white matter (WM) microstructure. In many brain regions, however, the assumption that the diffusion probability distribution is Gaussian may be invalid, even at low b values. Recently, diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) was suggested to more accurately estimate this distribution. We explored the added value of DKI in studying the relation between WM microstructure and upper limb coordination in healthy controls (N = 24). Performance on a complex bimanual tracking task was studied with respect to the conventional DTI measures (DKI or DTI derived) and kurtosis metrics of WM tracts/regions carrying efferent (motor) output from the brain, corpus callosum (CC) substructures and whole brain WM. For both estimation models, motor performance was associated with fractional anisotropy (FA) of the CC-genu, CC-body, the anterior limb of the internal capsule, and whole brain WM (r s range 0.42-0.63). Although DKI revealed higher mean, radial and axial diffusivity and lower FA than DTI (p motor performance was associated with increased mean and radial kurtosis and kurtosis anisotropy (r s range 0.43-0.55). In conclusion, DKI provided additional information, but did not show increased sensitivity to detect relations between WM microstructure and bimanual performance in healthy controls.

  10. Dark matter an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Majumdar, Debasish

    2015-01-01

    Dark Matter: An Introduction tackles the rather recent but fast-growing subject of astroparticle physics, encompassing three main areas of fundamental physics: cosmology, particle physics, and astrophysics. Accordingly, the book discusses symmetries, conservation laws, relativity, and cosmological parameters and measurements, as well as the astrophysical behaviors of galaxies and galaxy clusters that indicate the presence of dark matter and the possible nature of dark matter distribution.

  11. Respiratory effects of particulate matter air pollution: studies on diesel exhaust, road tunnel, subway and wood smoke exposure in human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehlstedt, Maria

    2011-07-01

    Background: Ambient air pollution is associated with adverse health effects, but the sources and components, which cause these effects is still incompletely understood. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the pulmonary effects of a variety of common air pollutants, including diesel exhaust, biomass smoke, and road tunnel and subway station environments. Healthy non-smoking volunteers were exposed in random order to the specific air pollutants and air/control, during intermittent exercise, followed by bronchoscopy. Methods and results: In study I, exposures were performed with diesel exhaust (DE) generated at transient engine load and air for 1 hour with bronchoscopy at 6 hours post-exposure. Immunohistochemical analyses of bronchial mucosal biopsies showed that DE exposure significantly increased the endothelial adhesion molecule expression of p-selectin and VCAM-1, together with increased bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) eosinophils. In study II, the subjects were exposed for 1 hour to DE generated during idling with bronchoscopy at 6 hours. The bronchial mucosal biopsies showed significant increases in neutrophils, mast cells and lymphocytes together with bronchial wash neutrophils. Additionally, DE exposure significantly increased the nuclear translocation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and phosphorylated c-jun in the bronchial epithelium. In contrast, the phase II enzyme NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) decreased after DE. In study III, the 2-hour exposures took place in a road tunnel with bronchoscopy 14 hours later. The road tunnel exposure significantly increased the total numbers of lymphocytes and alveolar macrophages in BAL, whereas NK cell and CD56+/T cell numbers significantly decreased. Additionally, the nuclear expression of phosphorylated c-jun in the bronchial epithelium was significantly increased after road tunnel exposure. In study IV, the subjects were exposed to metal-rich particulate aerosol for 2 hours at a subway station

  12. Benefits of multi-modal fusion analysis on a large-scale dataset: life-span patterns of inter-subject variability in cortical morphometry and white matter microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Adrian R; Smith, Stephen M; Fjell, Anders M; Tamnes, Christian K; Walhovd, Kristine B; Douaud, Gwenaëlle; Woolrich, Mark W; Westlye, Lars T

    2012-10-15

    Neuroimaging studies have become increasingly multimodal in recent years, with researchers typically acquiring several different types of MRI data and processing them along separate pipelines that provide a set of complementary windows into each subject's brain. However, few attempts have been made to integrate the various modalities in the same analysis. Linked ICA is a robust data fusion model that takes multi-modal data and characterizes inter-subject variability in terms of a set of multi-modal components. This paper examines the types of components found when running Linked ICA on a large magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) morphometric and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data set comprising 484 healthy subjects ranging from 8 to 85 years of age. We find several strong global features related to age, sex, and intracranial volume; in particular, one component predicts age to a high accuracy (r=0.95). Most of the remaining components describe spatially localized modes of variability in white or gray matter, with many components including both tissue types. The multimodal components tend to be located in anatomically-related brain areas, suggesting a morphological and possibly functional relationship. The local components show relationships between surface-based cortical thickness and arealization, voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and between three different DTI measures. Further, we report components related to artifacts (e.g. scanner software upgrades) which would be expected in a dataset of this size. Most of the 100 extracted components showed interpretable spatial patterns and were found to be reliable using split-half validation. This work provides novel information about normal inter-subject variability in brain structure, and demonstrates the potential of Linked ICA as a feature-extracting data fusion approach across modalities. This exploratory approach automatically generates models to explain structure in the data, and may prove especially powerful for large

  13. International Instructional Systems: Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, Jacek; Chapman, Arthur; Isaacs, Tina

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on research conducted as part of the International Instructional System Study that explored five subject areas across nine jurisdictions in six high-performing countries. The Study's overall aim was to understand what, if anything, there is in common in the curricula and assessment arrangements among the high-performing…

  14. THE WHATS, WHYS, HOWS AND WHOS OF CONTENT-BASED INSTRUCTION IN SECOND/FOREIGN LANGUAGE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dueñas

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available As an instructional practice in second and foreign language education, content-based instruction is not a fully revolutionary paradigm, but a spin-off approach which derives from the evolution of Communicative Language Teaching. Sharing with CLT the same fundamental principies, CBI bases its idiosyncrasy on promoting the use of subject matter for secondlforeign language teaching purposes. This article aims at exploring the nature and scope of the content-based methodological framework -the whats-, the theoretical foundations that support it -the whys-, and the different prototype models for application in compliance with parameters such as institutional requirements, educational leve], and the particular nature and object of instruction -the hows. Additionally, it will also undertake a review of a copious nurnber of references selected from the existing literature, mostly contributed by researchers and experienced practitioners in the field -the whos.

  15. AN INVESTIGATION OF TEACHERS’ PEDAGOGICAL SKILLS AND CONTENT KNOWLEDGE IN A CONTENT-BASED INSTRUCTION CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Nor Rizan Tengku Mohamad Maasum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Advocates of the content-based approach believed that a language can be learnt effectively when it is the medium of instruction rather than just a subject.  Integrating English and content as part of instruction has become one of the cornerstones of second language pedagogy. Researchers claimed that there are many benefits of integrating English and content instruction.  Among the benefits are the increase in students’ interest with content themes, meaningful input and understanding. In 2003, the Malaysian Ministry of Education introduced the teaching and learning of science and mathematics in English for Year One, Form One and Lower Six Form in all government public schools. This paper describes the challenges faced by teachers when they are required to teach content subjects such as science and mathematics in English.  The focus of the paper is on the teachers’ pedagogical skills  and content knowldge which comprises subject matter content, pedagogical approach, classroom management, use of resources, assessment, preparation of teaching materials, managing students, teachers’ compensatory communication strategies, use of first language and teachers’ perspectives of teaching content subjects in English. Data were obtained from a self-report questionnaire administered to 495 secondary school teachers in West Malaysia. Results from the study provide implications for school administrators in making decisions in assignment of  capable teachers to teach the various levels of classes. Suggestions for teacher self-development and life-long learning efforts are also provided.   Key words: Content-based instruction, ESL instruction, second language, first language and second language pedagogy

  16. Preservice elementary teachers' conceptions of science and science instruction during a methods course using the learning cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senneca, Faye

    This work investigated how preservice elementary teachers' conceptions of the nature of science and science instruction evolved during a science methods course using the learning cycle methodology. The preservice teachers' conceptions of science and science instruction were compared to their lesson plans to determine if their conceptions of science relate to how they plan for science instruction. Two assertions were made regarding this relationship. The first assertion was that preservice elementary teachers who view scientific knowledge as static will plan science lessons that are fact-based, whereas those who view scientific knowledge as dynamic will plan science lessons that are concept-based. The second assertion was that preservice elementary teachers who view learning as a process of transmission will plan science lessons involving teacher demonstrations and textbook explanations, whereas those who view learning as a process of construction will plan science lessons involving inquiry and discovery activities. Findings indicate that the learning cycle influenced preservice elementary teachers' conceptions of the nature of science and science instruction. At the beginning of the term, students viewed science primarily as a static body of knowledge. By the end of the term, students had more complete understandings of the dynamic nature of science and of the processes used to generate scientific knowledge. Regarding science instruction, students' conceptions evolved from traditional approaches to constructivist approaches using discovery and inquiry explorations. Findings also indicate that preservice elementary teachers' conceptions of science and science instruction do relate to how they plan for science instruction. However, the ability to apply their newly learned instructional strategies was influenced by subject matter knowledge. During mid-term interviews, the students cited the following factors as producing change in their beliefs of science and science

  17. Re-thinking instructional strategies for enhancing gender equity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The subjects were exposed to 5 weeks of instruction in selected science concepts from primary 5 curriculum module. Two modes of instruction used were the cooperative small group and the whole class instructional modes. Instrument for collecting the data was the Primary Science Achieve ment Test (PSAT). Data analysis ...

  18. Development of Digital Instruction for Environment for Global Warming Alleviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praneetham, Chuleewan; Thathong, Kongsak

    2016-01-01

    Technological education and instruction are widely used in the present education trend. Using of digital instruction for environmental subject can encourage students in learning and raise their awareness and attitude on environmental issues. The purposes of this research were: 1) to construct and develop the digital instruction for environment for…

  19. Cosmetology. Subject Matters, Volume 3, No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Susan

    2001-01-01

    "The Beauty of Cosmetology" discusses the employment outlook for cosmetologists. "High School Cosmetology with Great Style" describes the academic and career cosmetology curriculum at Great Oaks Institute of Technology and Career Development (Ohio). "More than Skin Deep" explores the job shadowing program at the American Academy of Hair Design.…

  20. Digital Literacy and Subject Matter Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm

    2015-01-01

    It is generally agreed that learners need to acquire digital literacy in order to be able to act as citizens, employees and entrepreneurs in an increasingly digitalized environment. It is also generally agreed that the educational system has to be responsible for educating towards digital literacy....... However, there is no shared conception of the scope and meaning of digital literacy. The overall picture shows two main approaches: The first aims at digital literacy in the sense of Buildung (general education) while the second addresses a wide range of specific skills and competences: From basic...... computer skills over multimodal analysis to social conventions for behavior in online environments. Consequently designs for teaching and learning that aim at learners acquiring digital literacy and the related learning objectives appear as weak defined. According to the Danish Ministry of Education Shared...

  1. Language and Composition: Does the Subject Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexis, Gerhard T.

    1968-01-01

    Attempts to combine language and composition in the freshman English course at Gustavus Adolphus College (St. Peter, Minnesota) should interest all teachers of English. One project utilized a single key word for several assignments. Students were asked to (1) think through the meaning of the word for a week and write definitions and associations,…

  2. Meeting the Challenge: Teaching Sensitive Subject Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Dorian B.

    2012-01-01

    When teaching diversity courses that discuss sensitive issues, such as racial, gender, sexuality, religious, and ethnic discrimination, it is possible to encounter student resistance, which can subsequently prevent students from comprehending the content. While teaching an introductory course on African American history in a Black Studies…

  3. When Matter Matters

    CERN Document Server

    Easson, Damien A.; Vikman, Alexander

    2013-07-10

    We study a recently proposed scenario for the early universe: Subluminal Galilean Genesis. We prove that without any other matter present in the spatially flat Friedmann universe, the perturbations of the Galileon scalar field propagate with a speed at most equal to the speed of light. This proof applies to all cosmological solutions -- to the whole phase space. However, in a more realistic situation, when one includes any matter which is not directly coupled to the Galileon, there always exists a region of phase space where these perturbations propagate superluminally, indeed with arbitrarily high speed. We illustrate our analytic proof with numerical computations. We discuss the implications of this result for the possible UV completion of the model.

  4. Designing the Instructional Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, L. L.

    2000-01-01

    Designing the instructional interface is a challenging endeavor requiring knowledge and skills in instructional and visual design, psychology, human-factors, ergonomic research, computer science, and editorial design. This paper describes the instructional interface, the challenges of its development, and an instructional systems approach to its…

  5. Response switching and self-efficacy in Peer Instruction classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kelly; Schell, Julie; Ho, Andrew; Lukoff, Brian; Mazur, Eric

    2015-06-01

    Peer Instruction, a well-known student-centered teaching method, engages students during class through structured, frequent questioning and is often facilitated by classroom response systems. The central feature of any Peer Instruction class is a conceptual question designed to help resolve student misconceptions about subject matter. We provide students two opportunities to answer each question—once after a round of individual reflection and then again after a discussion round with a peer. The second round provides students the choice to "switch" their original response to a different answer. The percentage of right answers typically increases after peer discussion: most students who answer incorrectly in the individual round switch to the correct answer after the peer discussion. However, for any given question there are also students who switch their initially right answer to a wrong answer and students who switch their initially wrong answer to a different wrong answer. In this study, we analyze response switching over one semester of an introductory electricity and magnetism course taught using Peer Instruction at Harvard University. Two key features emerge from our analysis: First, response switching correlates with academic self-efficacy. Students with low self-efficacy switch their responses more than students with high self-efficacy. Second, switching also correlates with the difficulty of the question; students switch to incorrect responses more often when the question is difficult. These findings indicate that instructors may need to provide greater support for difficult questions, such as supplying cues during lectures, increasing times for discussions, or ensuring effective pairing (such as having a student with one right answer in the pair). Additionally, the connection between response switching and self-efficacy motivates interventions to increase student self-efficacy at the beginning of the semester by helping students develop early mastery or

  6. Evaluation of pictorial assembly instructions for young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Cortney V; Smith-Jackson, Tonya L

    2008-08-01

    We examined the usability of common formats of pictorial toy assembly instructions for 6- and 9-year-old children. Interlocking building toys and models are increasingly prevalent and important for developing spatial abilities and fine motor skills among children. Little is known about how effectively the intended child users can interpret and carry out the instructions. Twenty-four children used five sets of manufacturer-supplied pictorial toy assembly instructions. We evaluated the impact of toy instruction set, age, gender, and previous experience on usability problems, assembly speed and accuracy, instruction gaze time, and subjective ratings. The children had difficulty with all but the simplest instructions and assemblies. As predicted, older participants assembled more quickly, with fewer errors and fewer instruction looks. However, the 6-year-old girls assembled the fewest parts correctly, and the 9-year-old girls reported having the least fun. Instruction look time and frequency revealed differences in instruction complexity and were correlated with subjective ratings of fun. Thirty-two usability problems were observed, and 10 are described in detail. Product age recommendations may not reflect developmentally appropriate instructions. Small design changes should contribute to improved instruction usability among young children. For instance, designers should avoid complex graphic syntax, depict colors accurately, select clear angles of view, and support natural tendencies to assemble top to bottom. This research provides pictorial assembly instruction guidelines to inform instruction designers and describes performance and look-time benchmarks for future usability studies.

  7. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  8. Thinking outside ISD: A management model for instructional design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tony Dewayne

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of an instructional system management-level model proposed by the author designed to orchestrate the efficient development and implementation of customer requested curriculum. The three phases of systems-based model are designed to ensure delivery of high quality and timely instruction are: (1) the assessment and documentation of organizational training requirements; (2) project management control of curriculum development; and (3) the implementation of relevant instruction by competent instructors. This model also provides (4) measurable and quantifiable course evaluation results to justify return on investment and validate its importance with respect to the customer's organizational strategic objectives. The theoretical approach for this study was systems theory-based due to the nature of the instructional systems design model and the systematic design of the management model. The study was accomplished using single-case study application of qualitative style of inquiry as described by Patton (2002). Qualitative inquiry was selected to collect and analyze participant holistic perspective assessment of effectiveness, relevance, and timeliness of the instructional design management model. Participants for this study included five managers, five subject matter experts, and six students assigned to a military organization responsible for the collection of hydrographic data for the U.S. Navy. Triangulation of data sources within the qualitative framework of the study incorporated the three participant groups---managers, SMEs, and students---incorporated multiple views of the course development and implementation to validate the findings and the remove researcher bias. Qualitative coding was accomplished by importing transcribed interviews into Microsoft Excel and sorted using Auto-Filter. The coded interviews indicated effective functionality in the views of the model from each of the three participant groups

  9. How Experts and Nonexperts Operate Electronic Equipment from Instructions. Technical Report No. 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieras, David E.; And Others

    Three questions were addressed in a Navy experiment in which subjects followed instructions to complete tasks involving several pieces of electronic equipment. First, two instructional formats were compared; a hierarchical menu format containing natural chunks of instruction was not superior overall to a simple step-by-step instructional format.…

  10. Scientific reasoning during adolescence: The influence of instruction in science knowledge and reasoning strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, M. C.; Clement, C.; Pulos, S.; Sullivan, P.

    The mechanism linking instruction in scientific topics and instruction in logical reasoning strategies is not well understood. This study assesses the role of science topic instruction combined with logical reasoning strategy instruction in teaching adolescent students about blood pressure problems. Logical reasoning instruction for this study emphasizes the controlling-variables strategy. Science topic instruction emphasizes variables affecting blood pressure. Subjects receiving logical reasoning instruction link their knowledge of blood pressure variables to their knowledge of controlling variables more effectively than those receiving science topic instruction alone - their specific responses show how they attempt to integrate their understanding.Received: 15 April 1988

  11. Speech Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse Jørgensen, Stina

    2011-01-01

    About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011.......About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011....

  12. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    matter and that it must be of some exotic type. Before we discuss the evidences for dark matter in clusters of galaxies, let us point out that it is not just spiral galaxies which are thought to contain dark matter, although the evidences from them are the strongest. Other types of galaxies, like elliptical galaxies, are often seen to ...

  13. A Web-based Tutorial May Produce the Same Cognitive Outcomes as Face to Face Instruction. A review of: Beile, Penny M. and David N. Boote. “Does the Medium Matter?: A Comparison of a Web-Based Tutorial with Face-to-Face Library Instruction on Education Students’ Self-Efficacy Levels and Learning Outcomes.” Research Strategies 20 (2004: 57-68.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill Needham

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine whether library skills self-efficacy levels and learning outcomes of postgraduate education students varied with different instructional delivery methods, specifically Web-based or face to face. Design – Pre- and post-intervention survey comparing three groups receiving different types of instruction. Setting – Department of Educational Studies at a large U.S. urban university. Subjects – Forty-nine masters, doctoral, and certificate-seeking education students enrolled in one of three sections of a research methods course. There were 40 female and 9 male students. Methods – Immediately before receiving library instruction, the three student groups were asked to complete a library skills selfefficacy questionnaire, comprising 30 items designed to measure students’ perceptions of their ability to successfully perform library research. They also completed a library skills test, consisting of 20 multiple choice questions, designed to assess conceptual knowledge, knowledge of database searching, and institution-specific knowledge. The intervention groups were: • Group 1 (Sixteen students – an oncampus class that received a face to face instruction session comprised of a 70-minute demonstration of key library databases followed by an activity that allowed students to practice their skills. • Group 2 (Nineteen students – an on-campus class that received a Web-based tutorial comprised of four interactive modules, requiring an average 80 minutes to complete. • Group 3 (Nineteen students - a Web-based class that received the same Web-based tutorial as Group 2. The survey and test were repeated six weeks after the instruction. Main results – Both self‐efficacy scores and library skills test scores increased for all three groups post‐intervention. Average self-efficacy levels increased from a mean of 68.88 (SD=19.92 to a mean of 91.90 (SD=16.24; library skills scores increased from an average score of 58

  14. Classes of Instructional Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigeluth, Charles M.; Merrill, M. David

    1979-01-01

    Describes three classes of variables which should be considered when one is designing instructional materials, doing research on instruction, or developing better methods of instruction, and proposes a classification scheme which is summarized in the last of the 13 figures that illustrate the article. A blbliography is included. (Author/RAO)

  15. The Subjectivity of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    What is a 'we' – a collective – and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity – and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas...... practices. Through this dialogue, it develops an original trans-disciplinary critical theory and practice of collective subjectivity for which the ongoing construction and overcoming of common sense, or ideology, is central. It also points to ways of relating discourse with agency, and fertilizing insights...... from interactionism and ideology theories in a cultural-historical framework....

  16. Fluency Matters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Timothy Rasinski

    2014-01-01

      Although reading fluency has been dismissed and overlooked as an important component of effective reading instruction, the author makes that case that fluency continues to be essential for success in learning to read...

  17. Technical instructions and feedback reduce the shooting effectualy in no trained young subjects Las instrucciones técnicas y el feedback pueden reducir la efectividad del lanzamiento a canasta en jóvenes no entrenados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Claramunt

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    This study compares the shooting basketball efficacy from short, middle and long distance of two interventions applied to untrained youth: one without offering any type of information (NI and another with instructions and knowledge of performance feedback (I+CE. Two groups formed by 20 physical education students (E group and 17 young basketball players (B group were analysed. All participants shot 20 times from each distance in both experimental situations. Half of the participants followed the sequence NI – I+CE and the other I+CE – NI. In E group the efficacy in the NI intervention was 40,33% (±13,88% and in the I+CE intervention 34,42% (±13,97%, being the difference significantly different (t = 2,97; p<0,01. In the B group the efficacy of the NI intervention was 47,4% (±9,05% and in the I+CE intervention 44,12% (±12,06 %. The analysis by shooting positions show only significant differences (in both groups in short distances (p<0,05. The NI intervention is more effective, especially in short shooting distances, than the I+CE intervention in young specifically untrained population.
    Key Words: instructions, feedback, knowledge of performance, basketball shooting, dynamical systems theory.

    El estudio compara la efectividad del lanzamiento a canasta desde corta, media y larga distancia, respectivamente, de dos intervenciones aplicadas a población joven no entrenada: una sin ofrecer ninguna información (NI y otra con instrucciones y feedback sobre conocimiento de la ejecución (I+CE. Se analizaron 2 grupos formados por 20 estudiantes de ciencias de la actividad física (grupo E y 17 niños practicantes de baloncesto (grupo B. Los integrantes de ambos grupos realizaron 20 lanzamientos desde cada distancia, en cada una de las dos situaciones experimentales. La mitad de los participantes siguió la secuencia de intervención NI – I+CE y el otro I+CE – NI. En el grupo E el

  18. A voxel-based morphometric magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain detects age-related gray matter volume changes in healthy subjects of 21–45 years old

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Beltagi, Ahmed; Cherian, Jigi; Gejo, Grace; Al-Jazzaf, Abrar; Ismail, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Previous and more recent work of analyzing structural changes in the brain suggest that certain brain regions such as the frontal lobe are among the brain regions profoundly affected by the aging process across males and females. Also, a unified model of structural changes in a normally aging brain is still lacking. The present study investigated age-related structural brain changes in gray matter from young to early middle-age adulthood for males and females. Magnetic resonance images of 215 normal and healthy participants between the ages of 21–45 years were acquired. Changes in gray matter were assessed using voxel-based morphometry and gray matter volumetric analysis. The results showed significant decrease in gray matter volume between the youngest and oldest groups in the following brain regions: frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. Grey matter loss in the frontal lobe was among the most widespread of all brain regions across the comparison groups that showed significant age-related changes in grey matter for both males and females. This work provides a unique pattern of age-related decline of normal and healthy adult males and females that can aid in the future development of a unified model of normal brain aging. PMID:26306927

  19. A voxel-based morphometric magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain detects age-related gray matter volume changes in healthy subjects of 21-45 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourisly, Ali K; El-Beltagi, Ahmed; Cherian, Jigi; Gejo, Grace; Al-Jazzaf, Abrar; Ismail, Mohammad

    2015-10-01

    Previous and more recent work of analyzing structural changes in the brain suggest that certain brain regions such as the frontal lobe are among the brain regions profoundly affected by the aging process across males and females. Also, a unified model of structural changes in a normally aging brain is still lacking. The present study investigated age-related structural brain changes in gray matter from young to early middle-age adulthood for males and females. Magnetic resonance images of 215 normal and healthy participants between the ages of 21-45 years were acquired. Changes in gray matter were assessed using voxel-based morphometry and gray matter volumetric analysis. The results showed significant decrease in gray matter volume between the youngest and oldest groups in the following brain regions: frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. Grey matter loss in the frontal lobe was among the most widespread of all brain regions across the comparison groups that showed significant age-related changes in grey matter for both males and females. This work provides a unique pattern of age-related decline of normal and healthy adult males and females that can aid in the future development of a unified model of normal brain aging. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Antecedent and consequential control of derived instruction-following.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hora, Denis; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Stewart, Ian

    2014-07-01

    It is possible to understand instructions and yet not follow them. In the current study, participants responded in accordance with derived instructions and then this relational repertoire was brought under over-arching consequential control. Across two experiments, nine undergraduates, trained to respond in accordance with Same/Different and Before/After relations in the presence of arbitrary contextual cues, produced sequences of responses based on 'instructions' composed of novel stimuli and the previously trained relational cues. Consequences for following instructions were then manipulated. In Experiment 1, for all five participants that responded in accordance with derived relations, reinforcing and punishing instruction-following generalized to novel instructions. In Experiment 2, reinforcing and punishing consequences were varied systematically in the presence of two novel antecedent stimuli and antecedent control was observed for all three participants. These findings demonstrate that understanding instructions and following them may be subject to independent sources of stimulus control. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  1. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  2. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In Part 11 of this article we learnt that there are compelling evidences from dynamics of spiral galaxies, like our own, that there must be non-luminous matter in them. In this second part we will see that even clusters of galaxies must harbour dark matter. As if this was not enough, it turns out that if our knowledge of the ...

  3. Describing Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Krista; Feagin, Shannon

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a lesson that was designed to explore the scientific descriptions of matter through both the intensive and extensive properties that students successfully added to their vocabulary. Students' examples demonstrated that there were places where their reasoning about matter faltered as related to how the material is the same…

  4. Condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Isihara, A

    2007-01-01

    More than a graduate text and advanced research guide on condensed matter physics, this volume is useful to plasma physicists and polymer chemists, and their students. It emphasizes applications of statistical mechanics to a variety of systems in condensed matter physics rather than theoretical derivations of the principles of statistical mechanics and techniques. Isihara addresses a dozen different subjects in separate chapters, each designed to be directly accessible and used independently of previous chapters. Topics include simple liquids, electron systems and correlations, two-dimensional

  5. Subject (of documents)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    such as concepts, aboutness, topic, isness and ofness are also briefly presented. The conclusion is that the most fruitful way of defining “subject” (of a document) is the documents informative or epistemological potentials, that is, the documents potentials of informing users and advance the development......This article presents and discuss the concept “subject” or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document......-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts...

  6. Differentiating Mathematics Instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, Brett

    2016-01-01

    The importance of teaching students based on their levels of development and ability, or differentiated instruction, has been used in Language Arts classes increasingly over the last decade. However, it is only recently that attention in research has been given to the use of differentiated instruction in a mathematics lesson. This paper aims to explore what research is being done to not only improve mathematics instruction in the classroom, but to better prepare future teachers for teaching m...

  7. Transforming Instructional Designs in Earth Science (TIDES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, H.; McAuliffe, C.; Penuel, W.

    2008-12-01

    An enduring challenge in Earth system science education has been to prepare teachers to teach for deep understanding of subject matter. Standards and trade textbooks are often too broad to allow for in-depth treatment of specific topics, and many teachers have had limited exposure to how to plan instruction for the core concepts of Earth system science they are expected to teach. High-quality curriculum materials do exist that provide young people with opportunities to explore concepts in depth and to experience the inquiry process. At the same time, few programs provide teachers with the necessary skills and knowledge to enact and adapt those materials to the unique circumstances of their classrooms and schools. Our interdisciplinary team of curriculum and staff developers, researchers, and district personnel developed a program focused on preparing teachers to use a principled approach to curriculum adaptation in Earth system science. In this program, teachers learned how to use the Understanding by Design (UbD) approach developed by Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe to organize and adapt materials from an expert-designed curriculum. As part of the program, teachers learn to select or modify materials from the curriculum based on how likely the materials are to develop so-called "enduring understandings" of concepts in the district standards. Teachers also learn how to apply the approach in incorporating materials from other sources besides the expert-designed curriculum, which can include their textbook and materials they design on their own or with colleagues. Third, teachers learn how to collect and interpret evidence of student understanding by designing or adapting performance tasks that call for students to apply knowledge acquired during the unit to solve a problem or complete a project. Evidence from a randomized controlled trial indicates the program we created is effective in improving the quality of teacher assignments and in improving student achievement

  8. The Effects of Relaxation Instructions and EMG Biofeedback of Test Anxiety, General Anxiety, and Locus of Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Michael; Saslow, Carol

    1980-01-01

    Brief relaxation instruction alone and instructions plus electromyographic (EMG) feedback produced significant decreases in general and test-specific anxiety. EMG feedback added little to the effectiveness of relaxation instructions and practice. Relaxation instruction without EMG biofeedback shifted subjects toward a more internal locus of…

  9. Task Analysis in Instructional Design: Some Cases from Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Lauren B.

    Task analysis as a tool in the design of instruction is the subject of this paper. Some of the major historical approaches (associationist/behaviorist, gestalt, and Piagetian) are described using examples from mathematics. The usefulness of these approaches to instructional design is evaluated on the basis of four criteria: instructional…

  10. Psychometric and Instructional Validation of Hierarchical Domain Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, John R.; Stone, Clement A.

    1986-01-01

    Six hundred twenty-six subjects from the University of Arizona participated in an investigation designed to examine congruence of a math domain hierarchy validated psychometrically and validated instructionally. Three studies revealed congruence between hierarchies validated psychometrically and instructionally. Generalization and transfer were…

  11. Managing Large-Enrollment Courses in Hybrid Instruction Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    This essay addresses the hitches and glitches in the hybrid instruction system of teaching and learning for large-enrollment courses. This new instructional methodology asks facilitators to redesign their entire traditional teaching and learning practices. The nature of subject to be taught via the hybrid mode further affects the success rate of…

  12. Struggles for Legitimacy in Mother Tongue Instruction in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganuza, Natalia; Hedman, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the pedagogical beliefs, practices and ideological assumptions of 15 teachers who work with mother tongue instruction in Sweden. Despite support through provisions in Swedish laws, mother tongue instruction is clearly a marginalized subject, not least due to its non-mandatory status, the limited time allocated for it and…

  13. Gaseous Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    aseous Matter focuses on the many important discoveries that led to the scientific interpretation of matter in the gaseous state. This new, full-color resource describes the basic characteristics and properties of several important gases, including air, hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and nitrogen. The nature and scope of the science of fluids is discussed in great detail, highlighting the most important scientific principles upon which the field is based. Chapters include:. Gaseous Matter An Initial Perspective. Physical Characteristics of Gases. The Rise of the Science of Gases. Kinetic Theory of

  14. Evaluation of a Theory of Instructional Sequences for Physics Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackermann, Rainer; Trendel, Georg; Fischer, Hans E.

    2010-05-01

    The background of the study is the theory of basis models of teaching and learning, a comprehensive set of models of learning processes which includes, for example, learning through experience and problem-solving. The combined use of different models of learning processes has not been fully investigated and it is frequently not clear under what circumstances a particular model should be used by teachers. In contrast, the theory under investigation here gives guidelines for choosing a particular model and provides instructional sequences for each model. The aim is to investigate the implementation of the theory applied to physics instruction and to show if possible effects for the students may be attributed to the use of the theory. Therefore, a theory-oriented education programme for 18 physics teachers was developed and implemented in the 2005/06 school year. The main features of the intervention consisted of coaching physics lessons and video analysis according to the theory. The study follows a pre-treatment-post design with non-equivalent control group. Findings of repeated-measures ANOVAs show large effects for teachers' subjective beliefs, large effects for classroom actions, and small to medium effects for student outcomes such as perceived instructional quality and student emotions. The teachers/classes that applied the theory especially well according to video analysis showed the larger effects. The results showed that differentiating between different models of learning processes improves physics instruction. Effects can be followed through to student outcomes. The education programme effect was clearer for classroom actions and students' outcomes than for teachers' beliefs.

  15. The Relationship between Dry Matter Increase of Seed and Shoot during the Seed-Filling Period in Three Kinds of Soybeans with Different Growth Habits Subjected to Shading and Thinning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kakiuchi, Jin; Kobata, Tohru

    2006-01-01

    The ratio of dry-matter increase in seed (S) to that in shoot (W), referred to as RS/W, during the seed-filling period may reflect the balance between the assimilate supply and the sink capacity of harvest organs...

  16. Dirac matter

    CERN Document Server

    Rivasseau, Vincent; Fuchs, Jean-Nöel

    2017-01-01

    This fifteenth volume of the Poincare Seminar Series, Dirac Matter, describes the surprising resurgence, as a low-energy effective theory of conducting electrons in many condensed matter systems, including graphene and topological insulators, of the famous equation originally invented by P.A.M. Dirac for relativistic quantum mechanics. In five highly pedagogical articles, as befits their origin in lectures to a broad scientific audience, this book explains why Dirac matters. Highlights include the detailed "Graphene and Relativistic Quantum Physics", written by the experimental pioneer, Philip Kim, and devoted to graphene, a form of carbon crystallized in a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, from its discovery in 2004-2005 by the future Nobel prize winners Kostya Novoselov and Andre Geim to the so-called relativistic quantum Hall effect; the review entitled "Dirac Fermions in Condensed Matter and Beyond", written by two prominent theoreticians, Mark Goerbig and Gilles Montambaux, who consider many other mater...

  17. Antimatter Matters

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN

    2016-01-01

    This video is a teaser-introduction to the Antimatter Matters exhibtion at the Royal Society's Summer Science exhibition July 4-10 2016. The exhibition is jointly organised and hosted by UK members of the ALPHA and LHCb collaborations.

  18. Instructional Approaches in Teaching the Holocaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Holocaust education requires teachers to carefully determine which instructional approaches ensure effective teaching of the subject while avoiding potential difficulties. The article identifies several complicating factors that must be considered when making pedagogical decisions. It then examines five methodological approaches that can be used…

  19. Fluency Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasinski, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Although reading fluency has been dismissed and overlooked as an important component of effective reading instruction, the author makes that case that fluency continues to be essential for success in learning to read. Moreover, many students who struggle in reading manifest difficulties in reading fluency. After defining reading fluency, the…

  20. Promoting the 21st century scientific literacy skills through innovative chemistry instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, Sri

    2017-12-01

    Students need to be equipped with the 21st century skills/capabilities to ensure their competitiveness in the knowledge era. So, it is imperative that education at school should be changed in order to fulfill the need. However, there is not any specified approach on how to educate young students for the 21st century capabilities. Regardless the impediment for ts exist, we need to construct an innovative instruction that can develop the students' 21st century skills by incorporating the skills needed, based on contemporary theory of learning, necessary context of learning and appropriate assessment in a chemistry subject matter. This paper discuss the feasible skills to be promoted through chemistry course. Those skills/capabilities are scientific literacy, higher order thinking, communicationand collaboration and curiosity. The promoted are called the 21st century scientific literacy skills in which it emphasis on scientific literacy and embedded the other 21st century skills into the innovative chemistry instruction. The elements involve in the instruction such as inquiry and constructivist approach, nature of science, contemporary/socioscientific issues, critical thinking (higher order thinking).

  1. Instructional Leadership Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, James W., Ed.; Jenkins, John M., Ed.

    Instructional leadership is the principal's role in providing direction, resources, and support to teachers and students for the improvement of teaching and learning in the school. This handbook reviews factors affecting that role in four broad domains: keeping informed about trends, planning for instructional improvement, implementing…

  2. Supplemental instruction in chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundeberg, Mary A.

    This study was designed to measure some effects of supplemental instruction in chemistry. Supplemental instruction is a peer-led cooperative learning program that encourages students to develop conceptual understanding by articulating both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion. Supplemental instruction was offered three hours weekly outside of class and lab time for students in four classes of General Organic and Biological Chemistry. Over a two-year period 108 students volunteered to participate in this program; 45 students did not participate. As measured by final grades in chemistry and responses to a questionnaire, supplemental instruction was effective in increasing students' achievement in chemistry. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth effects of supplemental instruction on students' learning, problem solving, and self-esteem.

  3. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  4. A voxel-based morphometric magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain detects age-related gray matter volume changes in healthy subjects of 21–45 years old

    OpenAIRE

    Bourisly, Ali K; El-Beltagi, Ahmed; Cherian, Jigi; Gejo, Grace; Al-Jazzaf, Abrar; Ismail, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Previous and more recent work of analyzing structural changes in the brain suggest that certain brain regions such as the frontal lobe are among the brain regions profoundly affected by the aging process across males and females. Also, a unified model of structural changes in a normally aging brain is still lacking. The present study investigated age-related structural brain changes in gray matter from young to early middle-age adulthood for males and females. Magnetic resonance images of 215...

  5. The More, the Better? The Impact of Instructional Time on Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Maria A.; Oggenfuss, Chantal; Wolter, Stefan C.

    2017-01-01

    Building on earlier work that explored within-student variation in hours of instruction across school subjects, we investigate the impact of instruction time on student test scores in Switzerland, as measured by the PISA 2009 test. Our results confirm the results of previous studies of a positive effect of instruction time on student performance.…

  6. Fluency Matters

    OpenAIRE

    Rasinski, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Although reading fluency has been dismissed and overlooked as an important component of effective reading instruction, the author makes that case that fluency continues to be essential for success in learning to read. Moreover, many students who struggle in reading manifest difficulties in reading fluency. After defining reading fluency, the article explores proven methods for improving reading fluency, and finally explores questions regarding fluency that when answered may lead t...

  7. Children's Differentiation between Beliefs about Matters of Fact and Matters of Opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Robin; Yuill, Nicola; Larson, Christina; Easton, Kate; Robinson, Elizabeth; Rowley, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments investigated children's implicit and explicit differentiation between beliefs about matters of fact and matters of opinion. In Experiment 1, 8- to 9-year-olds' (n = 88) explicit understanding of the subjectivity of opinions was found to be limited, but their conformity to others' judgments on a matter of opinion was considerably…

  8. Instructional Design and the Importance of Instructional Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Florence

    2011-01-01

    This paper highlights the instructional design process followed by the Maricopa Community College faculty in the creation of instructional modules in Digital Visual Literacy. The paper categorizes 10 tasks that an instructional designer, a teacher, or a trainer performs during the design phase of the instructional design process. The importance of…

  9. The Impact of Culture on Instructional Design and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Afsaneh; Gisbert, Merce

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cultural differences, i.e. different contexts and backgrounds, on instructional designers' perspectives of quality in online environments. Using a questionnaire developed based on the Quality Matters rubric, we found designers in Canada focus slightly more on Learner Support strategies…

  10. Bibliographic Instruction : A Webliography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A Webliography about the Bibliographic Instruction, it collects a variety of internet resources divided to main categories; directories, articles, bibliographies, organization, mailing lists, and interest groups.

  11. Instructional Technology and Objectification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gur, Bekir S; Wiley, David A

    2008-01-01

    .... A critique of objectification in instructional technology is presented. In the context of Heidegger’s critique of technology, the authors claim that objectification in education is metaphysical in the sense that the intelligibility...

  12. Bootstrapping white matter segmentation, Eve++

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plassard, Andrew; Hinton, Kendra E.; Venkatraman, Vijay; Gonzalez, Christopher; Resnick, Susan M.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-03-01

    Multi-atlas labeling has come in wide spread use for whole brain labeling on magnetic resonance imaging. Recent challenges have shown that leading techniques are near (or at) human expert reproducibility for cortical gray matter labels. However, these approaches tend to treat white matter as essentially homogeneous (as white matter exhibits isointense signal on structural MRI). The state-of-the-art for white matter atlas is the single-subject Johns Hopkins Eve atlas. Numerous approaches have attempted to use tractography and/or orientation information to identify homologous white matter structures across subjects. Despite success with large tracts, these approaches have been plagued by difficulties in with subtle differences in course, low signal to noise, and complex structural relationships for smaller tracts. Here, we investigate use of atlas-based labeling to propagate the Eve atlas to unlabeled datasets. We evaluate single atlas labeling and multi-atlas labeling using synthetic atlases derived from the single manually labeled atlas. On 5 representative tracts for 10 subjects, we demonstrate that (1) single atlas labeling generally provides segmentations within 2mm mean surface distance, (2) morphologically constraining DTI labels within structural MRI white matter reduces variability, and (3) multi-atlas labeling did not improve accuracy. These efforts present a preliminary indication that single atlas labels with correction is reasonable, but caution should be applied. To purse multi-atlas labeling and more fully characterize overall performance, more labeled datasets would be necessary.

  13. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study of gas clouds orbiting in the outer regions of spiral galaxies has revealed that their gravitational at- traction is much larger than the stars alone can provide. Over the last twenty years, astronomers have been forced to postulate the presence of large quantities of 'dark matter' to explain their observations. They are ...

  14. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fluorescence usually originates from the lowest excited electronic state (singlet) irrespective of the excitation and hence, the fluorescence spectrum of a molecule is characterized by a single band. However, what makes DMABN a very special molecule is that it exhibits dual fluorescence (i.e. emission of. Molecule Matters.

  15. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 4. Molecule Matters – van der Waals Molecules - History and Some Perspectives on Intermolecular Forces. E Arunan. Feature Article Volume 14 Issue 4 April 2009 pp 346-356 ...

  16. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 9. Molecule Matters - A Chromium Compound with a Quintuple Bond. K C Kumara Swamy. Feature Article Volume 11 Issue 9 September 2006 pp 72-75. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  17. Science Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 2. Science Matters A Book for Curious Minds. Rohini Godbole. Book Review Volume 2 Issue 2 February 1997 pp 94-95. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/02/0094-0095 ...

  18. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 5. Molecule Matters - N-Heterocyclic Carbenes - The Stable Form of R2 C: Anil J Elias. Feature Article Volume 13 Issue 5 May 2008 pp 456-467. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  19. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 11. Molecule Matters - Carbon Dioxide: Molecular States and Beyond. T P Radhakrishnan. Feature Article Volume 11 Issue 11 November 2006 pp 88-92. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  20. Strengthening of competence planning truss through instructional media development details

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, Sri; Nurcahyono, M. Hadi

    2017-03-01

    Competency-Based Learning is a model of learning in which the planning, implementation, and assessment refers to the mastery of competencies. Learning in lectures conducted in the framework for comprehensively realizing student competency. Competence means the orientation of the learning activities in the classroom must be given to the students to be more active learning, active search for information themselves and explore alone or with friends in learning activities in pairs or in groups, learn to use a variety of learning resources and printed materials, electronic media, as well as environment. Analysis of learning wooden structure known weakness in the understanding of the truss detail. Hence the need for the development of media that can provide a clear picture of what the structure of the wooden horses and connection details. Development of instructional media consisted of three phases of activity, namely planning, production and assessment. Learning Media planning should be tailored to the needs and conditions necessary to provide reinforcement to the mastery of competencies, through the table material needs. The production process of learning media is done by using hardware (hardware) and software (software) to support the creation of a medium of learning. Assessment of the media poduk yan include feasibility studies, namely by subject matter experts, media experts, while testing was done according to the student's perception of the product. The results of the analysis of the materials for the instructional aspects of the results obtained 100% (very good) and media analysis for the design aspects of the media expressed very good with a percentage of 88.93%. While the analysis of student perceptions expressed very good with a percentage of 84.84%. Media Learning Truss Details feasible and can be used in the implementation of learning wooden structure to provide capacity-building in planning truss

  1. Fluency Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy RASINSKI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although reading fluency has been dismissed and overlooked as an important component of effective reading instruction, the author makes that case that fluency continues to be essential for success in learning to read. Moreover, many students who struggle in reading manifest difficulties in reading fluency. After defining reading fluency, the article explores proven methods for improving reading fluency, and finally explores questions regarding fluency that when answered may lead to a greater emphasis on and understanding of reading fluency as a necessary part of teaching reading.

  2. The Impact of Culture on Instructional Design and Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Sharif

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of cultural differences, i.e. different contexts and backgrounds, on instructional designers’ perspectives of quality in online environments. Using a questionnaire developed based on the Quality Matters rubric, we found designers in Canada focus slightly more on Learner Support strategies than designers in Spain. Despite differences in their contexts and some responsibilities, instructional designers in both countries consider the same features important and pay attention to them in their practices in order to develop good quality online courses. These features are institutional commitment, faculty support, student support, technology, course structure/instructional design, and assessment/evaluation and accessibility. Future research is required to improve the generalization of the results of the existing study while identifying other factors, such as budget and technology literacy that influence instructional designers’ approaches in developing high-quality online learning materials.

  3. Facilitating Conceptual Change in Understanding State of Matter and Solubility Concepts by Using 5E Learning Cycle Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Eren; Geban, Omer

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of 5E learning cycle model based instruction and traditionally designed chemistry instruction on 10th grade students' understanding of state of matter and solubility concepts. In this study, 119 tenth grade students from chemistry courses instructed by same teacher from an Anatolian…

  4. Uses and Effects of Learner Control of Context and Instructional Support in Computer-Based Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Steven M.; And Others

    Designed to develop a more practical model for adapting context to learner interests, this study used computer-based instruction to make alternative contexts for statistics problems--sports, business, education, or no-context--available for selection by individual learners. The subjects were 227 undergraduate students enrolled in required…

  5. Instructional control of reinforcement learning: a behavioral and neurocomputational investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Bradley B; Jacobs, W Jake; Sanfey, Alan G; Frank, Michael J

    2009-11-24

    Humans learn how to behave directly through environmental experience and indirectly through rules and instructions. Behavior analytic research has shown that instructions can control behavior, even when such behavior leads to sub-optimal outcomes (Hayes, S. (Ed.). 1989. Rule-governed behavior: cognition, contingencies, and instructional control. Plenum Press.). Here we examine the control of behavior through instructions in a reinforcement learning task known to depend on striatal dopaminergic function. Participants selected between probabilistically reinforced stimuli, and were (incorrectly) told that a specific stimulus had the highest (or lowest) reinforcement probability. Despite experience to the contrary, instructions drove choice behavior. We present neural network simulations that capture the interactions between instruction-driven and reinforcement-driven behavior via two potential neural circuits: one in which the striatum is inaccurately trained by instruction representations coming from prefrontal cortex/hippocampus (PFC/HC), and another in which the striatum learns the environmentally based reinforcement contingencies, but is "overridden" at decision output. Both models capture the core behavioral phenomena but, because they differ fundamentally on what is learned, make distinct predictions for subsequent behavioral and neuroimaging experiments. Finally, we attempt to distinguish between the proposed computational mechanisms governing instructed behavior by fitting a series of abstract "Q-learning" and Bayesian models to subject data. The best-fitting model supports one of the neural models, suggesting the existence of a "confirmation bias" in which the PFC/HC system trains the reinforcement system by amplifying outcomes that are consistent with instructions while diminishing inconsistent outcomes.

  6. Applying learning theories and instructional design models for effective instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed K; Elkhider, Ihsan A

    2016-06-01

    Faculty members in higher education are involved in many instructional design activities without formal training in learning theories and the science of instruction. Learning theories provide the foundation for the selection of instructional strategies and allow for reliable prediction of their effectiveness. To achieve effective learning outcomes, the science of instruction and instructional design models are used to guide the development of instructional design strategies that elicit appropriate cognitive processes. Here, the major learning theories are discussed and selected examples of instructional design models are explained. The main objective of this article is to present the science of learning and instruction as theoretical evidence for the design and delivery of instructional materials. In addition, this article provides a practical framework for implementing those theories in the classroom and laboratory. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  7. Cross Cultural Instruction: An Instructional Design Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica W. Tracey

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In an authentic example of linking design and development with learning and performance, an international real estate development firm defined a problem; implementing a cleaning system in the largest mall in the world with a cross-cultural unskilled work force in Dubai, UAE. Partnering with a university instructional design team employing a rapid prototyping methodology and the constructivist ID approach, Layers of Negotiation Model, a comprehensive curriculum was designed. This article describes the project background, initial design, the ID team's work in Dubai, illustrates the product, and summarizes the design experience.

  8. Instructional Model of Natural Science in Junior High Schools, Batu-Malang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantiwati, Yuni; Wahyuni, Sri; Permana, Fendy Hardian

    2017-01-01

    The instruction of Natural Science subject in junior high schools, as regulated by 2013 Curriculum, is to be taught in an integrated way, combining Biology, Physics, and Chemistry subjects. The assessment of which is called authentic assessment. This current study described the instructional system especially the assessment system of Natural…

  9. Bridging the Virtual Gap in Internet Based Music Instruction: A Feasibility Study in Trombone Performance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Aaron James

    2013-01-01

    Since being introduced into classrooms in the late 1990s, online instruction has grown substantially both in student enrollment and the number of programs offered at state, district, and multi-district levels. Although having been applied liberally to all core subjects and many supplemental subjects, online instruction has yet to be utilized…

  10. The interaction of response complexity and instructional set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidaway, B

    1994-03-01

    This study investigated the interaction of experimental instructions and response complexity in an attempt to provide a possible explanation for some of the equivocalness in the programming time literature. Response complexity was manipulated by varying the accuracy required of subjects striking circular targets in a simple reaction time paradigm. Subjects were tested on two days, one week apart, during which experimental instructions emphasized either leaving the start position as soon as possible (initiation emphasis) or completing the response with a rapid but smooth movement (form emphasis). Subjects had shorter reaction times but longer movement times when they performed under initiation-emphasis instructions rather than under form-emphasis instructions. Furthermore, in contrast to form-emphasis conditions, there was no effect of response complexity on reaction time in conditions of initiation emphasis. It appears that subtle changes in experimental instructions can lead to very different patterns of reaction time and movement time data. These findings highlight the need for caution in preparing subject instructions in response programming experiments.

  11. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Chuan-Bo, E-mail: send007@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); School of Neurosurgery, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishang Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Qian, Ruo-Bing, E-mail: rehomail@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Fu, Xian-Ming, E-mail: 506537677@qq.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Lin, Bin, E-mail: 274722758@qq.com [School of Neurosurgery, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishang Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Han, Xiao-Peng, E-mail: hanxiaopeng@163.com [Department of Psychology, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Niu, Chao-Shi, E-mail: niuchaoshi@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Wang, Ye-Han, E-mail: wangyehan@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China)

    2013-08-15

    Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA.

  12. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chuan-Bo; Qian, Ruo-Bing; Fu, Xian-Ming; Lin, Bin; Han, Xiao-Peng; Niu, Chao-Shi; Wang, Ye-Han

    2013-08-01

    Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effective Field Theory of Majorana Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Huayong; WU, HONGYAN; Zheng, Sibo

    2017-01-01

    Thermal Majorana dark matter is explored from the viewpoint of effective field theory. Completely analytic result for dark matter annihilation into standard model background is derived in order to account relic density. The parameter space subject to the latest LUX, PandaX-II and Xenon-1T limits is shown in a model-independent way. For illustration, applications to singlet-doublet and neutralino dark matter are work out.

  14. Service-Learning Instructional Design Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddrell, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the design of "service-learning" experiences to engage college students in the real-world application of course subject matter. Service learning is an educational approach that combines community service, academic coursework, and work-based applied learning. Based on data gathered during a series of recent interviews…

  15. Play Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    ? In Play Matters, Miguel Sicart argues that to play is to be in the world; playing is a form of understanding what surrounds us and a way of engaging with others. Play goes beyond games; it is a mode of being human. We play games, but we also play with toys, on playgrounds, with technologies and design......, but not necessarily fun. Play can be dangerous, addictive, and destructive. Along the way, Sicart considers playfulness, the capacity to use play outside the context of play; toys, the materialization of play--instruments but also play pals; playgrounds, play spaces that enable all kinds of play; beauty...

  16. Active matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Sriram

    2017-05-01

    The study of systems with sustained energy uptake and dissipation at the scale of the constituent particles is an area of central interest in nonequilibrium statistical physics. Identifying such systems as a distinct category—Active matter—unifies our understanding of autonomous collective movement in the living world and in some surprising inanimate imitations. In this article I present the active matter framework, briefly recall some early work, review our recent results on single-particle and collective behaviour, including experiments on active granular monolayers, and discuss new directions for the future.

  17. The GRE Subject Test in Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, B. C.

    Specific and detailed instructions to implement an environmental engineering approach to the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) Subject Test for Psychology are outlined. Focus is on helping students prepare for this test. Some universities use the GRE as a measure of achievement and aptitude and as a criterion test. In truth, such a test does not…

  18. Enhancing Instructional Design Efficiency: Methodologies Employed by Instructional Designers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roytek, Margaret A.

    2010-01-01

    Instructional systems design (ISD) has been frequently criticised as taking too long to implement, calling for a reduction in cycle time--the time that elapses between project initiation and delivery. While instructional design research has historically focused on increasing "learner" efficiencies, the study of what instructional designers do to…

  19. Applying Learning Theories and Instructional Design Models for Effective Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed K.; Elkhider, Ihsan A.

    2016-01-01

    Faculty members in higher education are involved in many instructional design activities without formal training in learning theories and the science of instruction. Learning theories provide the foundation for the selection of instructional strategies and allow for reliable prediction of their effectiveness. To achieve effective learning…

  20. Instructional Conceptions: Analysis from an Instructional Design Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowyck, Joost; Elen, Jan; Clarebout, Geraldine

    2004-01-01

    Learners are active actors in learning environments and not mere consumers of instructional designers' products. In line with mediating paradigm instructional conceptions of students are analysed. These conceptions act as cognitive filters that affect students' use of both instructional interventions and support in learning environments. To gain…

  1. Instructional Guidelines. Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, H. L.; Doshier, Dale

    Using the standards of the American Welding Society and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, this welding instructional guidelines manual presents a course of study in accordance with the current practices in industry. Intended for use in welding programs now practiced within the Federal Prison System, the phases of the program are…

  2. Revitalizing Strategy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitalone-Raccaro, Nancy A.

    2017-01-01

    The national focus on teacher accountability and the resulting emphasis on raising the bar for teacher evaluations challenge teachers of students with learning disabilities (LD) to rethink instructional design and delivery. In response to these challenges, this article introduces a two-part protocol for planning and teaching strategy instruction…

  3. Psychologism and Instructional Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Bekir S.; Wiley, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Little of the work in critical and hermeneutical psychology has been linked to instructional technology (IT). This article provides a discussion in order to fill the gap in this direction. The article presents a brief genealogy of American IT in relation to the influence of psychology. It also provides a critical and hermeneutical framework for…

  4. Reviews in instructional video

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meij, Hans

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of a video tutorial for software training whose construction was based on a combination of insights from multimedia learning and Demonstration-Based Training. In the videos, a model of task performance was enhanced with instructional features that were

  5. Grammar Instruction and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacina, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Much of the research literature from the past 25 years has supported the importance of teaching grammar in the context of writing instruction (Calkins, 1980; DiStefano & Killion, 1984; Weaver, 1996,1998). Unlike other content areas, practice does not make perfect when learning grammar. While isolated drill and practice of grammatical concepts may…

  6. Instructional Psychology 1976 - 1981,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    includes evaluative essays on mental measurement and the contributions of E. L. Thorndike, Piaget, Freud , Skinner, and others. A recent book edited by...as a private audio visual aid. Instructional Science, 1980, 9, 295-309. Paolitto, D. P. The effect of cross-age tutoring on adolescence : An inquiry

  7. Instructional Guide for Cosmetology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg. Dept. of Education.

    Intended as a tool for cosmetology teachers in Virginia public and private schools, the document is an instructional guide which offers 12 units of study, arranged in a three year course. Materials covered help prepare students for licensure in the State of Virginia and the guide is designed to cover the 1,500 hours required to be spent in the…

  8. Safety Instruction No 43

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the Safety Instruction No 43 (IS 43) entitled "ASBESTOS - DANGERS AND PRECAUTIONS" is available on the web at the following URL: https://edms.cern.ch/document/335809/LAST_RELEASED/ Paper copies can also be obtained from the SC secretariat, e-mail: tis.secretariat@cern.ch. SC Secretariat

  9. Computers in writing instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, Helen J.; van der Geest, Thea; Smit-Kreuzen, Marlies

    1992-01-01

    For computers to be useful in writing instruction, innovations should be valuable for students and feasible for teachers to implement. Research findings yield contradictory results in measuring the effects of different uses of computers in writing, in part because of the methodological complexity of

  10. New instructional technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Sal; Odle, Teresa

    2008-09-01

    An ASRT task force on new educational delivery methods produced research and resources to guide publication of a white paper titled New Models, New Tools: The Role of Instructional Technology in Radiologic Science Education. This special report summarizes the white paper findings.

  11. Windows into Instructional Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbacher-Reed, Christina; Rotella, Sam A.

    2017-01-01

    Administrators are often removed from the daily instructional realities in classrooms, while teachers aren't given enough opportunities to lead in their schools, write Christina Steinbacher-Reed and Sam A. Rotella Jr. The result is a wall that prevents the two parties from collaborating in a way that improves school culture, teaching practices,…

  12. Nuclear Energy. Instructional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kenneth; Thessing, Dan

    This document is one of five learning packets on alternative energy (see note) developed as part of a descriptive curriculum research project in Arkansas. The overall objectives of the learning packets are to improve the level of instruction in the alternative energies by vocational exploration teachers, and to facilitate the integration of new…

  13. Learning, Instruction, and Hypermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Wayne A.; Palumbo, David B.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the psychological basis of hypermedia as a medium for learning, surveys the characteristics of current hypermedia systems, and suggests ways to make hypermedia systems more valuable as instructional environments. Highlights include parallels between human memory and hypermedia architectures; and hypermedia as knowledge presentation,…

  14. Wind Power. Instructional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kenneth; Thessing, Dan

    This document is one of five learning packets on alternative energy developed as part of a descriptive curriculum research project in Arkansas (see note). The overall objectives of the learning packets are to improve the level of instruction in the alternative energies by vocational exploration teachers, and to facilitate the integration of new…

  15. Guide to Instructional Videoconferencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Denise; Reiss, John G.

    An instructional videoconference (IVC) is an interactive delivery mechanism for long-distance communication and education, which uses 2-way audio and 1- or 2-way video to facilitate interaction between presenters and learners who are separated by significant distance. This guide, intended for the staff of federal, state, and local programs that…

  16. Characteristics of Instructional Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Mobina; Taspolat, Ata; Kaya, Omer Sami; Sapanca, Hamza Fatih

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, video plays a significant role in education in terms of its integration into traditional classes, the principal delivery system of information in classes particularly in online courses as well as serving as a foundation of many blended classes. Hence, education is adopting a modern approach of instruction with the target of moving away…

  17. Computer-assisted instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, J.; Fisser, P.; Wright, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    Since the early days of computer technology in education in the 1960s, it was claimed that computers can assist instructional practice and hence improve student learning. Since then computer technology has developed, and its potential for education has increased. In this article, we first discuss

  18. Gaze Interactive Building Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, John Paulin; Ahmed, Zaheer; Mardanbeigi, Diako

    We combine eye tracking technology and mobile tablets to support hands-free interaction with digital building instructions. As a proof-of-concept we have developed a small interactive 3D environment where one can interact with digital blocks by gaze, keystroke and head gestures. Blocks may be moved...

  19. Revisiting "Beyond Instructional Design"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Rod

    2015-01-01

    Since the article "Beyond Instructional Design: Making Learning Design a Reality" (Sims, 2006) was published, much has changed in the opportunities we have for learning, and Professor Rod Sims's thinking has evolved. In this article, Professor Rod Sims reflects upon his original article, and he offers an evolved model of learning design,…

  20. Individualistic Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Mehmet Can

    2007-01-01

    This study proposes a new approach to the Instructional Design field. By the constructivism, education systems are moving from a massive structure to the more learner centered and more individualist structure. So far, ID field has adopted and digested the individualism notion partly. This paper proposes an individualistic approach to the…

  1. Differentiated Instruction for Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Kym

    2010-01-01

    Gender based learning has become an acceptable facet of the differentiated classroom. The female learner has unique needs that can be addressed through differentiated instruction. There are distinct differences between men and women. These differences effect how females approach learning as well as how they retain information. "A fundamental…

  2. Paratransit: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalici, Anthony

    A concept-based introduction to paratransit is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of paratransit generally refers to modes of transportation other than mass transit and solo-driven automobiles. The…

  3. Orwell's Instructive Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Liam

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about George Orwell, his instructive errors, and the manner in which Orwell pierced worthless theory, faced facts and defended decency (with fluctuating success), and largely ignored the tradition of accumulated wisdom that has rendered him a timeless teacher--one whose inadvertent lessons, while infrequently…

  4. Coordinating Supplemental Reading Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeney, Theresa A.

    2008-01-01

    Although supplemental reading services are meant to improve reading achievement of struggling readers and students with reading disabilities, without concerted effort to ensure communication and coordination with in-school instruction, they may fall short of their desired mark. To promote learning, it is critical that any services provided outside…

  5. Teaching Evolution: Do State Standards Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Randy

    2002-01-01

    Explores the relationship of state standards for the teaching of evolution to the actual teaching of that subject. Compares a grading of states for their performance and discusses the question of whether state standards matter. (MM)

  6. Behavior-Analytic Instruction for Children with Autism: Philosophy Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Jonathan W.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the philosophical underpinnings of applied behavior analysis (ABA) for children with autism. It discusses the three interrelated levels of behavior analysis (technology, science, and philosophy), and the three pillars of behavioral philosophy: empiricism, pragmatism, and selectionism. The amelioration, rather than…

  7. Individual Differences, Computers, and Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayersman, David J.; Minden, Avril von

    1995-01-01

    Provides a conceptual foundation for the development of hypermedia as an instructional tool for addressing individual differences in learning styles. Highlights include a literature review; computers and instruction; individual differences, computers, and instruction; cognitive controls; cognitive styles and learning; personality types; and future…

  8. Motivational elements in user instructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loorbach, N.R.

    2013-01-01

    Concerning the design of user instructions, two view can be distinguished. The traditional view considers instructions as purely instrumental documents. The more and more emerging affective view still assumes that above all, instructions should enable readers to perform tasks. But in order to

  9. Intelligent Frameworks for Instructional Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, J. Michael; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents a taxonomy describing various uses of artificial intelligence techniques in automated instructional development systems. Instructional systems development is discussed in relation to the design of computer-based instructional courseware; two systems being developed at the Air Force Armstrong Laboratory are reviewed; and further research…

  10. Instructional Leadership Practices in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Foo Seong David; Nguyen, Thanh Dong; Wong, Koon Siak Benjamin; Choy, Kim Weng William

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the literature on principal instructional leadership in Singapore. The authors investigated the dimensions of instructional leadership in the practices of Singapore principals and highlighted the strategies these leaders adopt to enact their instructional roles. Singapore principals were found to play an active role…

  11. Mimicking Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Bel, Lluís

    2017-01-01

    I show that a very simple model in the context of Newtonian physics promoted to a first approximation of general relativity can mimic Dark matter and explain most of its intriguing properties. Namely: i) Dark matter is a halo associated to ordinary matter; ii) Dark matter does not interact with ordinary matter nor with itself; iii) Its influence grows with the size of the aggregate of ordinary matter that is considered, and iv) Dark matter influences the propagation of light.

  12. Preventive Dental Practices Motivational Model for Elementary Teachers in Training Institutions; Dental Health Instruction Project. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, Darwin

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effects of instruction upon the dental health behavior of university students. The experimental group of 68 subjects, all elementary education majors, were exposed to a three--stage dental health motivational model: Dental Health Skills Instruction (four hours of laboratory instruction), Cognitive…

  13. Direct Problem-Based Learning (DPBL): A Framework for Integrating Direct Instruction and Problem-Based Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winarno, Sri; Muthu, Kalaiarasi Sonai; Ling, Lew Sook

    2018-01-01

    Direct instruction approach has been widely used in higher education. Many studies revealed that direct instruction improved students' knowledge. The characteristics of direct instruction include the subject delivered through face-to-face interaction with the lecturers and materials that sequenced deliberately and taught explicitly. However,…

  14. Play Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    What do we think about when we think about play? A pastime? Games? Childish activities? The opposite of work? Think again: If we are happy and well rested, we may approach even our daily tasks in a playful way, taking the attitude of play without the activity of play. So what, then, is play......, but not necessarily fun. Play can be dangerous, addictive, and destructive. Along the way, Sicart considers playfulness, the capacity to use play outside the context of play; toys, the materialization of play--instruments but also play pals; playgrounds, play spaces that enable all kinds of play; beauty......? In Play Matters, Miguel Sicart argues that to play is to be in the world; playing is a form of understanding what surrounds us and a way of engaging with others. Play goes beyond games; it is a mode of being human. We play games, but we also play with toys, on playgrounds, with technologies and design...

  15. Maxwell Matters

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenberg, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Charges are everywhere because most atoms are charged. Chemical bonds are formed by electrons with their charge. Charges move and interact according to Maxwell's equations in space and in atoms where the equations of electrodynamics are embedded in Schroedinger's equation as the potential. Maxwell's equations are universal, valid inside atoms and between stars from times much shorter than those of atomic motion (0.1 femtoseconds) to years (32 mega-seconds). Maxwell's equations enforce the conservation of current. Analysis shows that the electric field can take on whatever value is needed to ensure conservation of current. The properties of matter rearrange themselves to satisfy Maxwell's equations and conservation of current. Conservation of current is as universal as Maxwell's equations themselves. Yet equations of electrodynamics find little place in the literature of material physics, chemistry, or biochemistry. Kinetic models of chemistry and Markov treatments of atomic motion are ordinary differential eq...

  16. Play Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    What do we think about when we think about play? A pastime? Games? Childish activities? The opposite of work? Think again: If we are happy and well rested, we may approach even our daily tasks in a playful way, taking the attitude of play without the activity of play. So what, then, is play......? In Play Matters, Miguel Sicart argues that to play is to be in the world; playing is a form of understanding what surrounds us and a way of engaging with others. Play goes beyond games; it is a mode of being human. We play games, but we also play with toys, on playgrounds, with technologies and design......, but not necessarily fun. Play can be dangerous, addictive, and destructive. Along the way, Sicart considers playfulness, the capacity to use play outside the context of play; toys, the materialization of play--instruments but also play pals; playgrounds, play spaces that enable all kinds of play; beauty...

  17. Acquisition and generalization of instruction following behavior in profoundly retarded individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, R; Dubin, W

    1979-08-01

    Four profoundly retarded male residents of a state institution learned to comply with the instructions "come here," "stay," and "sit." Acquisition occurred in a special therapy room and instructions were presented in a fixed sequence. All subjects learned to comply with the instructions in the training environment. Testing occurred in the subject's ward dayroom where instructions were presented in a random sequence. Despite dramatic changes in the stimulus conditions associated with the transfer to the testing situation the subjects performed close to their asymptotic level. Three experimentally naive subjects participated in a second experiment which was similar to the first, except that the number of acquisition sessions and the number of trials per session were reduced. The reduction in number of acquisition trials did not appear to affect performance in the testing environment. The possibility of terminating off-task behavior of institutionalized individuals by eliciting previously acquired instruction following behavior was discussed.

  18. Safety instruction No. 36

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Secretariat

    2005-01-01

    Please note that a revised version of Safety Instruction No. 36 (IS 36), entitled "Safety rules for the use of static magnetic fields at CERN" is available on the Web at the following url: https://edms.cern.ch/document/335801/LAST_RELEASED Paper copies can also be obtained from the SC unit secretariat (e-mail : sc.secretariat@cern.ch) SC Secretariat

  19. Effective Multicultural Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin T. Thompson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The reason why the Trayvon Martin murder trial and similar court cases create a philosophical rift in our nation is due in part to flaws in the delivery of multicultural education. Traditional multicultural instruction does not prepare citizens for the subtleties and complexities of race relations. This study investigates critical strategies and practices that address multicultural missing gaps. I also seek to fill a void in the literature created by a lack of student input regarding teaching strategies that encourage lifelong learning. Students (N = 337 enrolled at a Midwestern university were asked to rate the efficacy of selected instructional strategies. Utilizing a 9-point Likert-type scale, students gave themselves a personal growth rating of 7.15 (SD = 1.47. Variables important to predicting that growth (R2 = .56, p < .0005 were a six-factor variable known as a non-color-blind instructional approach (t = 10.509, p ≤ .0005, allowing students an opportunity to form their own opinions apart from the instructor (t = 4.797, p ≤ .0005, and a state law that mandated multicultural training (t = 3.234, p = .001. Results demonstrated that utilizing a 35% traditional and 65% critical pedagogy mixture when teaching multicultural education helped promote win/win scenarios for education candidates hoping to become difference makers.

  20. Interaction of radiation with matter

    CERN Document Server

    Nikjoo, Hooshang; Emfietzoglou, Dimitris

    2012-01-01

    Written for students approaching the subject for the first time, this text provides a solid grounding in the physics of the interactions of photons and particles with matter, which is the basis of radiological physics and radiation dosimetry. The authors first present the relevant atomic physics and then describe the interactions, emphasizing practical applications in health/medical physics and radiation biology. They cover such important topics as microdosimetry, interaction of photons with matter, electron energy loss, and dielectric response. Each chapter includes exercises and a summary.

  1. Prevention of incorrect responding for establishing instruction following behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duker, P C

    1981-03-01

    A comparison of two techniques for teaching instruction-following to severely retarded children was the purpose of the present study. The design consisted of a cross-over design involving a cross-over of techniques for each of the three subjects. Within the experimental condition the instructions were presented by physically preventing the subject from making an incorrect response, that is, interrupting an incorrect movement. The results were in favour of the experimental condition in comparison with a trial-and-error approach. The data obtained in this investigation provide further evidence for the notion of errorless-discrimination learning.

  2. Culture Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Warner-Søderholm

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Whether managers are concerned with financial issues, marketing, or human resource management (HRM, cultural values and practices do matter. The purpose of this article is to understand Norwegian managers’ cultural values within the cross-cultural landscape of her neighbors in the “Scandinavian cluster.” Clearly, subtle but disturbing differences may surface even when representatives from similar cultures work together. As a follow on from the GLOBE project, data based on the GLOBE instrument were collected on culture and communication values in Norway from 710 Norwegian middle managers for this present study. Although the Scandinavian cultures appear ostensibly similar, the results illustrate that research can reveal subtle but important cultural differences in nations that are similar yet dissimilar. All three Scandinavian societies appear intrinsically egalitarian; they appear to value low Power Distance, directness, and consensus in decision making and to promote Gender Egalitarianism. Nevertheless, there are significant differences in the degrees of commitment to these values by each individual Scandinavian partner. These differences need to be understood and appreciated to avoid misunderstandings.

  3. Instructions in learning skills: an integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, P D; Wallace, J; Bidgood, P

    1993-11-01

    The transition from school to university education and a medical school environment can be difficult even for the very best students. However, little appears to be done to assist students in making this transition and in developing study skills during the early stages of their training. This article outlines a scheme which has been called supplemental instruction. Although developed for medical students in the United States, it is particularly well suited to developing essential study skills in first-year medical students in the United Kingdom. The scheme has been successfully introduced into some degree and diploma subjects in this country, with improvement in course grades and lower attrition rates, but has yet to be introduced into medical education. Evaluation data for non-medical courses show that student participation in supplemental instruction significantly improves overall course marks and could be of significant value in the medical curriculum.

  4. Extent and modes of physics instruction in European dental schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letić, Milorad; Popović, Gorjana

    2013-01-01

    Changes in dental education towards integration of sciences and convergence of curricula have affected instruction in physics. Earlier studies of undergraduate curricula make possible comparisons in physics instruction. For this study, the websites of 245 European dental schools were explored, and information about the curriculum was found on 213 sites. Physics instruction in the form of a separate course was found in 63 percent of these schools, with eighty-two hours and 5.9 European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) credits on average. Physics integrated with other subjects or into modules was found in 19 percent of these schools. Half of these schools had on average sixty-one hours and 6.9 ECTS credits devoted to physics. Eighteen percent of the schools had no noticeable obligatory physics instruction, but in half of them physics was found to be required or accepted on admission, included in other subjects, or appeared as an elective course. In 122 dental schools, the extent of physics instruction was found to be between forty and 120 contact hours. Physics instruction has been reduced by up to 14 percent in the last fourteen years in the group of eleven countries that were members of the European Union (EU) in 1997, but by approximately 30 percent in last five years in the group of ten Accession Countries to the EU.

  5. Correlation between white matter damage and gray matter lesions in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue-Mei; Tian, Hong-Ji; Han, Zheng; Zhang, Ce; Liu, Ying; Gu, Jie-Bing; Bakshi, Rohit; Cao, Xia

    2017-05-01

    We observed the characteristics of white matter fibers and gray matter in multiple sclerosis patients, to identify changes in diffusion tensor imaging fractional anisotropy values following white matter fiber injury. We analyzed the correlation between fractional anisotropy values and changes in whole-brain gray matter volume. The participants included 20 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and 20 healthy volunteers as controls. All subjects underwent head magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Our results revealed that fractional anisotropy values decreased and gray matter volumes were reduced in the genu and splenium of corpus callosum, left anterior thalamic radiation, hippocampus, uncinate fasciculus, right corticospinal tract, bilateral cingulate gyri, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus in multiple sclerosis patients. Gray matter volumes were significantly different between the two groups in the right frontal lobe (superior frontal, middle frontal, precentral, and orbital gyri), right parietal lobe (postcentral and inferior parietal gyri), right temporal lobe (caudate nucleus), right occipital lobe (middle occipital gyrus), right insula, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left cingulate gyrus. The voxel sizes of atrophic gray matter positively correlated with fractional anisotropy values in white matter association fibers in the patient group. These findings suggest that white matter fiber bundles are extensively injured in multiple sclerosis patients. The main areas of gray matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis are the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, caudate nucleus, parahippocampal gyrus, and cingulate gyrus. Gray matter atrophy is strongly associated with white matter injury in multiple sclerosis patients, particularly with injury to association fibers.

  6. Reducing cognitive load while teaching complex instruction to occupational therapy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pociask, Fredrick D; DiZazzo-Miller, Rosanne; Samuel, Preethy S

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive load theory is a field of research used to improve the learning of complex cognitive tasks by matching instruction to the learner's cognitive architecture. We used an experimental posttest control-group design to test the effectiveness of instruction designed to reduce cognitive load (CL) and improve instructional effectiveness in teaching complex instruction to 24 first-year master's students under authentic classroom conditions. We modified historically taught instruction using an isolated-to-interacting-elements sequencing approach intended to reduce high CL levels. We compared control and modified instructional formats using written assessment scores, subjective ratings of CL, and task completion times. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences for postinstruction, posttest CL ratings, and delayed written posttest scores (p instructional efficiency in teaching human locomotion to occupational therapy students. Copyright © 2013 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  7. Introduction. Cosmology meets condensed matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, T W B; Pickett, G R

    2008-08-28

    At first sight, low-temperature condensed-matter physics and early Universe cosmology seem worlds apart. Yet, in the last few years a remarkable synergy has developed between the two. It has emerged that, in terms of their mathematical description, there are surprisingly close parallels between them. This interplay has been the subject of a very successful European Science Foundation (ESF) programme entitled COSLAB ('Cosmology in the Laboratory') that ran from 2001 to 2006, itself built on an earlier ESF network called TOPDEF ('Topological Defects: Non-equilibrium Field Theory in Particle Physics, Condensed Matter and Cosmology'). The articles presented in this issue of Philosophical Transactions A are based on talks given at the Royal Society Discussion Meeting 'Cosmology meets condensed matter', held on 28 and 29 January 2008. Many of the speakers had participated earlier in the COSLAB programme, but the strength of the field is illustrated by the presence also of quite a few new participants.

  8. USING GOOGLE+ FOR INSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin YEE

    Full Text Available Introduced in July, 2011 in a beta test of invited users only, the new social media service Google+ (or G+ quickly spread by word of mouth, and Google leader Larry Page (2011 blogged that within sixteen days it had 10 million users. By August, it had 25 million users (Cashmore, 2011. Even with slower growth ahead (still with no marketing budget, the service looks likely to crest 100 million users perhaps as early as ten months, a feat that took Facebook three years. Other social networks, most notably Facebook and Twitter, have been used increasingly as instructional tools, since they are platforms with which students are already familiar (Maloney, 2007; McLoughlin & Lee, 2007. Selwyn (2009 found that students often eschew official channels for communication in favor of less formal community-based formats such as Facebook, implying a growing need for instructional communication tools that will be used willingly by students. The question is whether Google+ can be used like Twitter or Facebook to augment instruction, or even, perhaps, to improve upon those predecessors for academic purposes. Google+ is like Twitter in that anyone can follow a given user’s posts. There is no direct “friend” relationship required to read the posts written by others. However, it also approximates some features of Facebook. Rather than friends sorted into “lists” like in Facebook, Google+ allows users to place feeds into one or more “circles,” the better to monitor (or control the flow of information to and from different audiences. Circles are more intuitive, and more central to the experience, than the Facebook lists. They provide an explicit organizational structure, compared to the less-obvious listing functionality, which feels like an afterthought, found in Facebook.

  9. Maps or analogies? A comparison of instructional aids for menu navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jayson M.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    1990-01-01

    The relative efficacy of a variety of spatial maps and analogies as instructional aids for the learning and navigation of hierachical data bases is studied. Subjects performed single- and multinode retrieval tasks with novel data bases. The results of one experiment indicated that subjects who studied an analogy prior to performing data-retrieval tasks were less affected by increasing search distance than were subjects who studied a spatial map. The second experiment suggested that the benefits of analogy relative to other instructional aids increased as time passed between initial instruction and interaction with the data base.

  10. Metabolic Instruction of Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Michael D; Sowell, Ryan T; Kaech, Susan M; Pearce, Erika L

    2017-05-04

    Choices have consequences. Immune cells survey and migrate throughout the body and sometimes take residence in niche environments with distinct communities of cells, extracellular matrix, and nutrients that may differ from those in which they matured. Imbedded in immune cell physiology are metabolic pathways and metabolites that not only provide energy and substrates for growth and survival, but also instruct effector functions, differentiation, and gene expression. This review of immunometabolism will reference the most recent literature to cover the choices that environments impose on the metabolism and function of immune cells and highlight their consequences during homeostasis and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. EST Vocabulary Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia D.S. Bell

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at contributing to the investigation on the instruction of EST (English for Science and Technology vocabulary, in terms of receptive use of the language. It evaluates the effectiveness of two teaching approaches to the acquisition of vocabulary. The first approach consisted of teaching vocabulary through the use of dictionaries, where the words were merely translated into the learners’ L1 or defined in the target language thus promoting superficial level of word processing. The second approach employed activities promoting deep level of word processing. Data were analysed quantitatively. Results indicated that the two approaches seem to have some equipotentiality, as far as EST vocabulary is concerned.

  12. Future development of instructional television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, H. J.; Denzau, A. T.; Dumolin, J. R.; Singh, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    The use of television in schools as an aid to instruction is proposed for individualized instruction, repetition for slow learners, acceleration for fast learners, and lectures from the best teachers for all students. A dedicated school district cable system, a 40 channel cable to each school and classroom, is considered. This innovation offers an opportunity for improving the quality and content of the school's instruction and for reducing the cost.

  13. Sirius Matters

    CERN Document Server

    Brosch, Noah

    2008-01-01

    Since very early times Sirius was a point of attraction in the night sky. It served to synchronize calendars in antiquity and was the subject of many myths and legends, including some modern ones. It was perceived as a red star for more than 400 years, but such reports were relegated to the Mediterranean region. Astronomically, Sirius is a very bright star. This, and its present close distance to us, argues in favor of it being the target of detailed studies of stellar structure and evolution. Its binary nature, with a companion that is one of the more massive white dwarfs, is an additional reason for such studies. This book collects the published information on Sirius in an attempt to derive a coherent picture of how this system came to look as it does.

  14. Industry Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Angie Ngoc; Jeppesen, Søren

    2018-01-01

    regulation and greater industry pressure with regard to quality and safety of products than to labour standards in both sectors. Most factories in the TGF sector assembled products for global supply chains and were under pressure by industry norms, while most companies in the FBP sector produced......This chapter draws on a study investigating what corporate social responsibility (CSR) means to Vietnam’s small- and medium-size enterprise (SME) owner/managers and workers, using Scott’s three-pillar (norms, regulation, cognition) institutional framework. The findings are based on factory visits...... for the domestic market and were subjected to greater state regulation. Moreover, contributing critical perspectives to Scott’s framework, we found an overlap between the normative and the regulatory, and between the cognitive and the industry norms, which reveals how institutional and cultural pressures...

  15. Language matters: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leap, William L; Provencher, Denis M

    2011-01-01

    That language and sexuality are closely connected is one of the enduring themes in human sexuality research. The articles in this special issue of the Journal of Homosexuality explore some of these language-centered insights as they apply to same-sex related desires, identities, and practices and to other dimensions of non-normative sexual experiences. The articles address language use over a range of geographic and social locations. The linguistic practices discussed are diverse, including the language associated with Santería, comments viewers make about gay pornography, homophobic discourse, coming out stories, stories where declarations of sexual identity are tacitly withheld, sexual messages in Black hip hop culture, assessments of urban AIDS ministries, and policies that limit transgender subjects' access to urban space. Taken together, these articles demonstrate that language matters in the everyday experience of sexual sameness and they model some of the approaches that are now being explored in language and sexuality studies.

  16. Tendon reflex asymmetry by voluntary mental effort in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, J.; Speelman, H. D.; van Crevel, H.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of voluntary mental influences on the tendon reflexes was examined in healthy subjects. The patellar reflexes were evoked by a method comparable with the clinical examination, and the reflexes were recorded by surface electrodes. Eighteen subjects were instructed to increase and then

  17. About Instruction Sequence Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Software testing is presented as a so-called theme within which different authors and groups have defined different subjects each of these subjects having a different focus on testing. A uniform concept of software testing is non-existent and the space of possible coherent perspectives on software

  18. Learning to use a word processor with concurrent computer-assisted instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, P.R.J.; Biemans, H.J.A.

    1992-01-01

    In this study the effects of 7embedding regulation questions and regulation hints in a concurrent computer-assisted instruction (CAI) program aimed at learning to use a word processor were examined. This instructional shell WP-DAGOGUE controlled the interaction between the subject and the word

  19. Effectiveness of Layered Instructional Strategy for Teaching English at Secondary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shafqat; Idrees, Muhammad; Ahmed, Iftikhar

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to find out the effectiveness of Layered Instructional Strategy (LIS) based on the Elaboration Theory given by Charles M. Reigeluth on the learning achievement of secondary school students in the subject of English. Main objectives were to develop an understanding about instructional strategy, to ascertain the difference…

  20. The Effects of Small Group Vocabulary Instruction on Second Grade Students' Expressive Vocabularies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariss, Laura Lester

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of small group vocabulary instruction above and beyond whole group, read aloud vocabulary instruction, on second grade students' expressive vocabularies. This experimental study reflected a between-subjects design as three treatment groups were compared using a pretest, posttest within…

  1. Higher Education Science Student Perspectives on Classroom Instructional Methods: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlscheid, Jeffri C.; Davis, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Constructivist-based inquiry instruction has been popularized for several decades in primary- and secondary-science education, with overwhelmingly positive results across all sciences. Importantly, higher education faculties have begun to embrace inquiry instruction in many subject areas. In fact, a growing body of literature illustrates the…

  2. Behold the Trojan Horse: Instructional vs. Productivity Computing in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loop, Liza

    This background paper for a symposium on the school of the future reviews the current instructional applications of computers in the classroom (the computer as a means or the subject of instruction), and suggests strategies that administrators might use to move toward viewing the computer as a productivity tool for students, i.e., its use for word…

  3. Effect of Music-Integrated Instruction on First Graders' Reading Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Kerry G.

    2012-01-01

    The study examined music-integrated (MI) instruction, framed by automatic information processing theory and elements of prosody. A quasi-experimental, pre- and posttest design was utilized to ascertain the effect of MI instruction on reading fluency among first grade students. Subjects were students in two public elementary schools in Georgia. To…

  4. The Instructional Effectiveness of Animated Signaling among Learners with High and Low Prior Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shanshan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the instructional effectiveness of animated signals among learners with high and low prior knowledge. Each of the two treatments was presented with animated instruction either with signals or without signals on the content of how an airplane achieves lift. Subjects were eighty-seven undergraduate…

  5. Effects of Applying Blogs to Assist Life Education Instruction for Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Shi-Jer; Kao, Mei-Chuan; Yen, Hsiu-Ling; Shih, Ru-Chu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study aims to explore the effects of applying blog-assisted life education instruction to fifth grade elementary school students. The subjects were 30 fifth-grade students from southern Taiwan. The teaching experiment lasted 10 weeks with three sessions conducted each week. In the experiment, instructional effectiveness and the…

  6. Effectiveness of Conceptual Change Text Oriented Instruction on Students' Understanding of Cellular Respiration Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Ozlem S.; Yuruk, Nejla; Geban, Omer

    The purpose of the study is to compare the effectiveness of conceptual change text oriented instruction and traditional instruction on students' understanding of cellular respiration concepts and their attitudes toward biology as a school subject. The sample of this study consisted of 84 eleventh-grade students from the 4 classes of a high school.…

  7. Effectiveness of Conceptual Change Text-Oriented Instruction on Students' Understanding of Cellular Respiration Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakirt, Ozlem S.; Geban, Omer; Yuruk, Nejla

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of conceptual change text-oriented instruction over traditional instruction on students' understanding of cellular respiration concepts and their attitudes toward biology as a school subject. The sample of this study consisted of 84 eleventh-grade students from four classes of a high school. Two of the classes…

  8. Cognitively Demanding Learning Materials with Texts and Instructional Pictures: Teachers' Diagnostic Skills, Pedagogical Beliefs and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElvany, Nele; Schroeder, Sascha; Baumert, Jurgen; Schnotz, Wolfgang; Horz, Holger; Ullrich, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Learning materials incorporating written texts as well as instructional pictures are the basis for learning in many subjects. However, text-picture integration makes high cognitive demands of learners, and it seems plausible that the development of this competence is influenced by teachers' instructional skills. The present studies investigated…

  9. The Instructional Network: Using Facebook to Enhance Undergraduate Mathematics Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Peter; Gregory, Karen; Eddy, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Facebook is a website with over one billion users worldwide that is synonymous with social-networking. However, in this study, Facebook is used as an "instructional network". Two sections of an undergraduate calculus course were used to study the effects of participating in a Facebook group devoted solely to instruction. One section was…

  10. Evaluation of Instructional Design Capabilities of Asynchronous and Synchronous Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Kristi N.; Benson, Angela D.

    2017-01-01

    From a quantitative perspective, this study examined the instructional design knowledge of higher education instructors and others within the instructional design/technology arena who are members of a global educational based Internet forum. Results showed significant difference in opinions between genders, where males were more inclined to…

  11. Media matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, L M

    1995-01-01

    The impact of the mass media on woman's status was addressed at two 1995 conferences: the Fourth World Conference on Women, held in Beijing, China, and the Congress of the World Association for Christian Communication, held in Puebla, Mexico. The globalization process facilitated by the mass media has served to increase the power of patriarchy, with no advantages to the cause of women's rights. Coverage of popular movements has been suppressed out of deference to male-controlled governments. Coverage of the Beijing Conference highlighted celebrities and personal stories, to the exclusion of the economic and political issues under debate. Television has commodified women, reinforcing their oppression. On the other hand, the alternative media, which tend to be decentralized, democratic, low-cost, and low in technology, are presenting women as subjects rather than objects and deconstructing gender stereotypes. Of concern, however, is the tendency of computer technology to widen the gap between social classes and developed and developing countries. Women must use information networks to disseminate information on women's rights and strengthen the links between women throughout the world.

  12. Brain correlates of subjective freedom of choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filevich, Elisa; Vanneste, Patricia; Brass, Marcel; Fias, Wim; Haggard, Patrick; Kühn, Simone

    2013-01-01

    The subjective feeling of free choice is an important feature of human experience. Experimental tasks have typically studied free choice by contrasting free and instructed selection of response alternatives. These tasks have been criticised, and it remains unclear how they relate to the subjective feeling of freely choosing. We replicated previous findings of the fMRI correlates of free choice, defined objectively. We introduced a novel task in which participants could experience and report a graded sense of free choice. BOLD responses for conditions subjectively experienced as free identified a postcentral area distinct from the areas typically considered to be involved in free action. Thus, the brain correlates of subjective feeling of free action were not directly related to any established brain correlates of objectively-defined free action. Our results call into question traditional assumptions about the relation between subjective experience of choosing and activity in the brain’s so-called voluntary motor areas. PMID:24021855

  13. ADAPTIVE OUTPUT CONTROL: SUBJECT MATTER, APPLICATION TASKS AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Bobtsov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of adaptive output control for parametric and functionally uncertain plants is considered. Application examples illustrating the practical use of the discussed theory are given along with the mathematical formulation of the problem. A brief review of adaptive output control methods, by both linear and non-linear systems, is presented and an extensive bibliography, in which the reader will find a detailed description of the specific algorithms and their properties, is represented. A new approach to the output control problem - a method of consecutive compensator - is considered in detail.

  14. K-Means Subject Matter Expert Refined Topic Model Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    implementations for Case 4 only. The accuracy results for all of the SMERT/KSMERT implantations are similar due to the user employing domain knowledge to...truck. 5 The supplier welded and misdimensioned the titanium offsite. 6 The inspector drilled plastic and overheated it at station2. 7 It was...drilled and overheated. 8 It was drilled and overheated. 9 The engineer and the manager at station3 and on the truck. 10 The welded titanium was

  15. Applying Subject Matter Expertise (SME) Elicitation Techniques to TRAC Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    in different ways. In the first case, CPR Analisys , we use the measures as way to derive effectiveness and uncertainty. In the second approach...means by which to overcome these capability gaps through the implementation of solutions, e.g., changes to doctrine, organizational structure , training...controlled through good elicitation practices, especially good question structuring , which we discuss in section C. (2) Modeling bias. This type of bias

  16. Writing for professional publication. Part 2: Subject matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, John

    Motivation is the first step in writing for professional publication: the next question is, what should you write about? Whatever your area of practice or level of experience, your writing will be suitable for one of the wealth of journals covering all aspects of healthcare and nursing. In this second part of a series of articles, John Fowler, an experienced nursing lecturer and author, presents some tips and suggestions to inspire you as you take your first steps on the road to writing for professional publication.

  17. Classification of educational subject matter: the case of Home ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although it represents an individual view, this article was submitted to the Department of Education by the Cape Higher Education Consortium (CHEC) as an outcome of the review of the field of Home Economics in the Western Cape region. By presenting some history, it argues that the category of Home Economics is no ...

  18. RAn Enlarged Conception of the Subject Matter of Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T. Kearns

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Una concepción ampliada del objeto de estudio de la lógica: El ensayo es una introducción a la lógica ilocucionaria, es decir a la lógica de los actos de habla. El autor propone una aproximación distinta a este campo de investigación con respecto al que han propuesto John Searle y Daniel Vanderveken. Ellos conciben la lógica ilocucionaria como un suplemento o un apéndice a la lógica estándar, la lógica de los enunciados, y se concentran en el estudio de leyes y principios muy generales que caracterizan todo tipo de actos ilocucionarios. Kearns, en cambio, concibe la lógica ilocucionaria como una disciplina muy comprensiva, con muchos subsistemas, que cobija a la lógica estándar como parte suya. El escrito describe brevemente el uso de los operadores ilocucionarios (de aseveración, de negación, de suposición de verdad o falsedad, explica la manera como se expande la concepción semántica en términos de condiciones de verdad para incluir los compromisos racionales del hablante y presenta un sistema de deducción para esta lógica. Como un ejemplo de lo que esta lógica puede hacer se ofrece una solución a la paradoja de Moore contenida en la aseveración “Está lloviendo, pero no lo creo”

  19. Occupational Listings Arranged by Cluster and Subject Matter Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Otto

    Approximately 850 occupations are listed under 27 occupational clusters. The Dictionary of Occupational Title (DOT) number is specified for occupations in the clusters of business training and distributive education, chemistry, general shop and industrial arts, home economics, foreign language, music, social studies, art, agriculture, physics, and…

  20. Does tutor subject-matter expertise influence student achievement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs.

  1. Subjective matters: from image quality to image psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorovskaya, Elena A.; De Ridder, Huib

    2013-03-01

    From the advent of digital imaging through several decades of studies, the human vision research community systematically focused on perceived image quality and digital artifacts due to resolution, compression, gamma, dynamic range, capture and reproduction noise, blur, etc., to help overcome existing technological challenges and shortcomings. Technological advances made digital images and digital multimedia nearly flawless in quality, and ubiquitous and pervasive in usage, provide us with the exciting but at the same time demanding possibility to turn to the domain of human experience including higher psychological functions, such as cognition, emotion, awareness, social interaction, consciousness and Self. In this paper we will outline the evolution of human centered multidisciplinary studies related to imaging and propose steps and potential foci of future research.

  2. The role of subject-matter analysis in science didactics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiklin, Seth

    to problems within science education. STEM education research can be reduced (roughly) to four major problem areas: curriculum, empirical evaluation of existing practices and conditions, didactics, and professional development, where each of these categories can be concretised further according to grade...... paper is primarily on the didactics category, and slightly on the professional development category. The purpose of this paper is to outline three significant points that have been developed within the cultural-historical tradition that have consequences for these two categories: (a) the relation...

  3. Blending critical thinking skills with the teaching of subject matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study draws on Piaget and Vygotsky's theory of (social) constructivism to advance approaches and practices that teachers can employ to promote critical thinking in learners. We develop a lesson plan that incorporates critical thinking skills and show how teachers can correct egocentric and sociocentric tendencies that ...

  4. Climate Change Misconceptions: Can Instruction Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCuin, J. L.; Hayhoe, K.; Hayhoe, D.

    2014-12-01

    Public understanding of climate change is fraught with misconceptions. In some cases, these may arise due to the complexity of the topic: the difference between personal experience of short-term weather events, for example, as compared to long-term analysis of a climate trend. In others, myths may be deliberately introduced: that climate has ceased to change, or that changes have been proven to be due to natural causes. Whatever their origin, these misconceptions hold powerful implications for education on climate change and related science topics. Conceptual change theory demonstrates how pre-existing misconceptions persist under regular instruction and interfere with student acquisition of correct concepts. Here, we assess the extent to which incorporating corrective instruction on misconceptions related to the greenhouse effect and on the role of human activities in climate change affects student acquisition and retention of key scientific concepts. We investigate the efficacy of this approach using two reading passages: one that simply discusses the science, and another that provides both science and misconceptions-related information. Study subjects were drawn from a first year Atmospheric Sciences course at a large public university, yielding 197 students who successfully completed the pretest, instructional treatment, immediate posttest, delayed posttest, and a background survey. While both treatments produced significant gains in the posttest and delayed posttest overall, only the treatment that directly targeted misconceptions produced long-term gains on misconception-related questions. Our results support the conceptual change model's basic claim that misconceptions may persist through concept-based instruction, but may be uprooted by even a relatively brief reading passage that addresses them directly. However, our results also contain a striking anomaly: for questions involving the phrase "global warming," misconceptions-based instruction did not

  5. Research on Instructional Leadership Competencies of School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulcan, Murat Gurkan

    2012-01-01

    The issue of leadership competencies has been the subject of scientific research since 1980s. Through this study, it is determined whether instructional competencies of school principals vary depending on the type of school they work at and their field. Data obtained as a result of this study were associated with the effect of the field and type…

  6. Optimizing Classroom Instruction through Self-Paced Learning Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Romiro G.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the learning impact of self-paced learning prototype in optimizing classroom instruction towards students' learning in Chemistry. Two sections of 64 Laboratory High School students in Chemistry were used as subjects of the study. The Quasi-Experimental and Correlation Research Design was used in the study: a pre-test was…

  7. Computer game assisted instruction and students' achievement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the effects of computer game assisted instructional method, student's achievement in social studies in Nigerian schools. An overview of the position of social studies subject in schools today is undertaken showing social studies teaching needs more attention, this is done by applying or integrating ...

  8. "Sticking Points": Effects of Instruction on NNS Refusal Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kendall A.; Silver, Rita Elaine

    1993-01-01

    The study described here investigated the refusal strategies of intermediate-level second language learners and the potential for developing sociolinguistic competence in nonnative speakers (NNS) through classroom instruction. Subjects were six college students of English as a Second Language, divided into treatment and control groups. The…

  9. Selecting and switching: some advantages of diagrams for presenting instructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekelder, A.W.B.M.; Boekelder, A.; Steehouder, M.F.

    1998-01-01

    Instructions for operating a control panel were presented in five different formats: flowchart, logical tree, yes/no tree, decision table, and list. Subjects had to choose one out of eight buttons, depending on the settings of the control panel. The results show that the decision table resulted in

  10. Effect of Instructional Medium on Students' Performance: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper was to compare students' performance based on these instructional mediums. Two studies using a between-subjects experimental design were conducted among Nigerian university students. Both studies included two conditions: lecture (oral) and reading (text). In both conditions, the same ...

  11. The Effectiveness of Differentiated Instruction in the Elementary Mathematics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine if differentiated instruction improved student growth. The overall effectiveness was studied as well as that of gender and the aptitude of average and above average students. The study was that of a quasi-experimental design using student subjects in the classrooms of three second-grade teachers. The school in…

  12. English medium of instruction: A situation analysis | Uys | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The majority of learners in southern Africa receive their education through the medium of a second language, English. Although teachers of English play a crucial role in helping learners to acquire language skills in the medium of instruction, we argue that subject content teachers' lack of attention to the teaching of the four ...

  13. The Language of Instruction of Immigrant Children: An Australian Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rado, Marta

    1978-01-01

    Australian education was strictly monolingual until 1970 when the implementation of the Commonwealth Child Migrant Education Program provided special English instruction for immigrant students. Immigrants' languages are now offered as school subjects, but the growing awareness of multiculturalism has not affected English as the language of school…

  14. Designing Instruction with Learning Objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Cheryl J.; Ryan-Jones, David

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of online learning and standards for web-based and computer-based courseware focuses on learning objects, defined here as small, stand-alone units of instruction that can be tagged with descriptors and stored for reuse in various instructional contexts. Presents principles of learning object design and guidelines for assuring that…

  15. Instructional Model for Concept Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Robert D.

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of applying research variables for concept acquisition into a generalized instructional model for teaching concepts. This paper does not present the methodology for the decision/selection stages in designing the actual instruction task, but offers references to other sources which give…

  16. Science Approach to Instructional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigeluth, Charles M.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Distinguishes between the process and products of science and describes the role of each in Instructional Development (ID). The observe, hypothesize, test components of the scientific process are examined as they apply to front-end analysis, instructional strategy description, and formative evaluation stages used in ID models. Thirty-four…

  17. Critical Analysis of Instructional Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Fen; Reigeluth, Charles M.

    The discussion of the critical analysis of instructional design is framed within Habermas' three fundamental human interests: technical, practical, and emancipatory. The primary goal of this paper is to explore alternative approaches for instructional designers' reflection and critique. Ultimately, this reflection and critique should shed light on…

  18. Professional Cosmetology Practices. Instructional Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopcus, Sharron; Armstrong, Ivan J.

    This publication is designed to assist the instructor and students in understanding the latest concepts and techniques of the instructional phase of cosmetology programs. The instructional units are in five areas: (1) orientation, (2) professional practices: hair, (3) professional practices: skin and nails, (4) cosmetology science, and (5)…

  19. Unpacking Corrections in Mobile Instruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Lena; Cromdal, Jakob; Broth, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with the organisation of correction in mobile instructional settings. Five sets of video data (>250 h) documenting how learners were instructed to fly aeroplanes, drive cars and ride bicycles in real life traffic were examined to reveal some common features of correction exchan...

  20. Instructional Theory for Teaching Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Jan R.; Dinham, Sarah M.

    Metatheoretical analysis of Ausubel's Theory of Meaningful Verbal Learning and Gagne's Theory of Instruction using the Dickoff and James paradigm produced two instructional systems for basic statistics. The systems were tested with a pretest-posttest control group design utilizing students enrolled in an introductory-level graduate statistics…

  1. PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION AND LANGUAGE LEARNING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LUELSDORFF, PHILIP A.

    PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION, A TEACHING METHOD WHICH INCORPORATES (1) A DETAILED SPECIFICATION OF TERMINAL BEHAVIOR, (2) A CAREFUL SEQUENCING OF THE MATERIAL INTO GRADED STEPS, AND (3) THE REINFORCEMENT OF STUDENT RESPONSE, WORKS MORE FAVORABLY IN CERTAIN INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA THAN IN OTHERS. CARROLL AND SKINNER BELIEVE THAT SUCCESS IN PROGRAMED…

  2. Using Microcomputers for Composition Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronnell, Bruce; Humes, Ann

    One of the most valuable uses of microcomputers and word processors in composition instruction is in the teaching of writing revision. A number of activities can be carried out with these tools; for example, (1) after appropriate instruction on revision, students can be given prewritten text and asked to revise it on the word processors; (2) after…

  3. Differentiated Instruction in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Gretchen

    2013-01-01

    Low achievement on standardized tests may be attributed to many factors, including teaching methods. Differentiated instruction has been identified as a teaching method using different learning modalities that appeal to varied student interests with individualized instruction. The purpose of this quantitative study was to compare whole-group…

  4. The white matter query language: a novel approach for describing human white matter anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassermann, Demian; Makris, Nikos; Rathi, Yogesh; Shenton, Martha; Kikinis, Ron; Kubicki, Marek; Westin, Carl-Fredrik

    2016-12-01

    We have developed a novel method to describe human white matter anatomy using an approach that is both intuitive and simple to use, and which automatically extracts white matter tracts from diffusion MRI volumes. Further, our method simplifies the quantification and statistical analysis of white matter tracts on large diffusion MRI databases. This work reflects the careful syntactical definition of major white matter fiber tracts in the human brain based on a neuroanatomist's expert knowledge. The framework is based on a novel query language with a near-to-English textual syntax. This query language makes it possible to construct a dictionary of anatomical definitions that describe white matter tracts. The definitions include adjacent gray and white matter regions, and rules for spatial relations. This novel method makes it possible to automatically label white matter anatomy across subjects. After describing this method, we provide an example of its implementation where we encode anatomical knowledge in human white matter for ten association and 15 projection tracts per hemisphere, along with seven commissural tracts. Importantly, this novel method is comparable in accuracy to manual labeling. Finally, we present results applying this method to create a white matter atlas from 77 healthy subjects, and we use this atlas in a small proof-of-concept study to detect changes in association tracts that characterize schizophrenia.

  5. Learning Theories in Instructional Multimedia for English Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Farani, Rizki

    2012-01-01

    Learning theory is the concept of human learning. This concept is one of the important components in instructional for learning, especially English learning. English subject becomes one of important subjects for students but learning English needs specific strategy since it is not our vernacular. Considering human learning process in English learning is expected to increase students' motivation to understand English better. Nowadays, the application of learning theories in English learning ha...

  6. 42 CFR 1008.15 - Facts subject to advisory opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facts subject to advisory opinions. 1008.15 Section... Requesting Party § 1008.15 Facts subject to advisory opinions. (a) The OIG will consider requests from a requesting party for advisory opinions regarding the application of specific facts to the subject matters set...

  7. Unaligned instruction relocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolli, Carlo; O' Brien, John K.; Sallenave, Olivier H.; Sura, Zehra N.

    2018-01-23

    In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes receiving source code to be compiled into an executable file for an unaligned instruction set architecture (ISA). Aligned assembled code is generated, by a computer processor. The aligned assembled code complies with an aligned ISA and includes aligned processor code for a processor and aligned accelerator code for an accelerator. A first linking pass is performed on the aligned assembled code, including relocating a first relocation target in the aligned accelerator code that refers to a first object outside the aligned accelerator code. Unaligned assembled code is generated in accordance with the unaligned ISA and includes unaligned accelerator code for the accelerator and unaligned processor code for the processor. A second linking pass is performed on the unaligned assembled code, including relocating a second relocation target outside the unaligned accelerator code that refers to an object in the unaligned accelerator code.

  8. Unaligned instruction relocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolli, Carlo; O' Brien, John K.; Sallenave, Olivier H.; Sura, Zehra N.

    2017-10-17

    In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes receiving source code to be compiled into an executable file for an unaligned instruction set architecture (ISA). Aligned assembled code is generated, by a computer processor. The aligned assembled code complies with an aligned ISA and includes aligned processor code for a processor and aligned accelerator code for an accelerator. A first linking pass is performed on the aligned assembled code, including relocating a first relocation target in the aligned accelerator code that refers to a first object outside the aligned accelerator code. Unaligned assembled code is generated in accordance with the unaligned ISA and includes unaligned accelerator code for the accelerator and unaligned processor code for the processor. A second linking pass is performed on the unaligned assembled code, including relocating a second relocation target outside the unaligned accelerator code that refers to an object in the unaligned accelerator code.

  9. ARS-Media for excel instruction manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARS-Media for Excel Instruction Manual is the instruction manual that explains how to use the Excel spreadsheet ARS-Media for Excel application. ARS-Media for Excel Instruction Manual is provided as a pdf file....

  10. Intelligent Educational Systems for Anchored Instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, David D.

    1995-01-01

    Explores the potential for using Intelligent Educational Systems (IES) for anchoring instruction in macro contexts in science education. Topics include anchored instruction; situated cognition; problem solving; cognitivism; interactive video environments; and examples of combining IES and anchored instruction. (LRW)

  11. The surgical learning and instructional portfolio: what residents at a single institution are learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Travis P; Merkley, Taylor R

    2011-03-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Learning Portfolio is recommended as a tool to develop and document reflective, practice-based learning and improvement. There is no consensus regarding the appropriate content of a learning portfolio in medical education. Studying lessons selected for inclusion in their learning portfolios by surgical trainees could help identify useful subject matter for this purpose. Each month, all residents in our surgery residency program submit entries into their individual Surgical Learning and Instructional Portfolio (SLIP). The SLIP entries from July 2008 to 2009 (n = 420) were deidentified and randomized using a random number generator. We conducted a thematic content analysis of 50 random portfolio entries to identify lessons learned. Two independent raters analyzed the "3 lessons learned" portion of the portfolio entries and identified themes and subthemes using the constant comparative method used in grounded theory. The collaborative coding process resulted in theme saturation after the identification of 7 themes and their subthemes. Themes in decreasing order of frequency included complications, disease epidemiology, disease presentation, surgical management of disease, medical management of disease, operative techniques, and pathophysiology. Junior residents chose to focus on a broad array of foundational topics including disease presentation, epidemiology, and overall management of diseases, whereas postgraduate year-4 (PGY-4) and PGY-5 residents most frequently chose to focus on complications as learning points. Lessons learned reflect perceived needs of the trainees based on training year. When given a template to follow, junior and senior residents choose to reflect on different subject matter to meet their learning goals.

  12. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN FOR TEACHERS: Improving classroom practice

    OpenAIRE

    Reviewed by Yavuz Akbulut

    2011-01-01

    The key to successful learning in most formal instructional settings is effective instructional design (ID). Instructional design for teachers serves as an organized source of directions, which can help classroom teachers to integrate available resources to improve students‘ acquisition of the instructional goals. The book is consisted of 151 pages (+xvii) covering eight chapters which address a commonsense model of instructional design to guide K-12 teachers during their unique instructional...

  13. Effect of lecture instruction on student performance on qualitative questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Paula R. L.

    2015-06-01

    The impact of lecture instruction on student conceptual understanding in physics has been the subject of research for several decades. Most studies have reported disappointingly small improvements in student performance on conceptual questions despite direct instruction on the relevant topics. These results have spurred a number of attempts to improve learning in physics courses through new curricula and instructional techniques. This paper contributes to the research base through a retrospective analysis of 20 randomly selected qualitative questions on topics in kinematics, dynamics, electrostatics, waves, and physical optics that have been given in introductory calculus-based physics at the University of Washington over a period of 15 years. In some classes, questions were administered after relevant lecture instruction had been completed; in others, it had yet to begin. Simple statistical tests indicate that the average performance of the "after lecture" classes was significantly better than that of the "before lecture" classes for 11 questions, significantly worse for two questions, and indistinguishable for the remaining seven. However, the classes had not been randomly assigned to be tested before or after lecture instruction. Multiple linear regression was therefore conducted with variables (such as class size) that could plausibly lead to systematic differences in performance and thus obscure (or artificially enhance) the effect of lecture instruction. The regression models support the results of the simple tests for all but four questions. In those cases, the effect of lecture instruction was reduced to a nonsignificant level, or increased to a significant, negative level when other variables were considered. Thus the results provide robust evidence that instruction in lecture can increase student ability to give correct answers to conceptual questions but does not necessarily do so; in some cases it can even lead to a decrease.

  14. Effect of Instructions on Selected Jump Squat Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpey, Scott W; Young, Warren B; Beseler, Bradley

    2016-09-01

    Talpey, SW, Young, WB, and Beseler, B. Effect of instructions on selected jump squat variables. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2508-2513, 2016-The purpose of this study was to compare 2 instructions on the performance of selected variables in a jump squat (JS) exercise. The second purpose was to determine the relationships between JS variables and sprint performance. Eighteen male subjects with resistance training experience performed 2 sets of 4 JS with no extra load with the instructions to concentrate on (a) jumping for maximum height and (b) extending the legs as fast as possible to maximize explosive force. Sprint performance was assessed at 0- to 10-m and 10- to 20-m distances. From the JS jump height, peak power, relative peak power, peak force, peak velocity, and countermovement distance were measured from a force platform and position transducer system. The JS variables under the 2 instructions were compared with paired t-tests, and the relationships between these variables and sprint performance were determined with Pearson's correlations. The jump height instruction produced greater mean jump height and peak velocity (p 0.05). Jump height was the variable that correlated most strongly with 10-m time and 10- to 20-m time under both instructions. The height instruction produced a stronger correlation with 10-m time (r = -0.455), but the fast leg extension JS produced a greater correlation with 10-20 time (r = -0.545). The results indicate that instructions have a meaningful influence on JS variables and therefore need to be taken into consideration when assessing or training athletes.

  15. Effect of lecture instruction on student performance on qualitative questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula R. L. Heron

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of lecture instruction on student conceptual understanding in physics has been the subject of research for several decades. Most studies have reported disappointingly small improvements in student performance on conceptual questions despite direct instruction on the relevant topics. These results have spurred a number of attempts to improve learning in physics courses through new curricula and instructional techniques. This paper contributes to the research base through a retrospective analysis of 20 randomly selected qualitative questions on topics in kinematics, dynamics, electrostatics, waves, and physical optics that have been given in introductory calculus-based physics at the University of Washington over a period of 15 years. In some classes, questions were administered after relevant lecture instruction had been completed; in others, it had yet to begin. Simple statistical tests indicate that the average performance of the “after lecture” classes was significantly better than that of the “before lecture” classes for 11 questions, significantly worse for two questions, and indistinguishable for the remaining seven. However, the classes had not been randomly assigned to be tested before or after lecture instruction. Multiple linear regression was therefore conducted with variables (such as class size that could plausibly lead to systematic differences in performance and thus obscure (or artificially enhance the effect of lecture instruction. The regression models support the results of the simple tests for all but four questions. In those cases, the effect of lecture instruction was reduced to a nonsignificant level, or increased to a significant, negative level when other variables were considered. Thus the results provide robust evidence that instruction in lecture can increase student ability to give correct answers to conceptual questions but does not necessarily do so; in some cases it can even lead to a decrease.

  16. The effect of minimalist footwear and instruction on running: an observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Linda; Palmer, Lisa J M; Ormond, Roisin M; Owen, Gwawr; Watson, Daniel J; Woledge, Roger; Newham, Di

    2017-01-01

    Background It is not known whether the effects on altered running style which are attributed to minimalist footwear can be achieved by verbal instructions in standard running shoes (SRS). Aim To explore the effect of Vibram FiveFingers (VFF) versus SRS plus running instruction on lower extremity spatiotemporal parameters and lower limb joint kinematics. Methods 35 healthy subjects (mean=30 years, 18 females) were assessed on two occasions with 3D motion analysis. At each session subjects ran on a treadmill (3.58 m/s) for 2 min in either VFF or SRS (randomised order); with and without running instruction. Differences between spatiotemporal parameters and lower limb joint kinematics between conditions were assessed using a 2x2 repeated-measures ANOVA. Results Wearing VFF significantly increased cadence (pfootwear. However, the kinematic adaptations observed following instruction suggests that changes in joint angles previously attributed to minimalist footwear alone may be similarly achieved with instruction. PMID:28761694

  17. The structural neural substrate of subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Kubota, Yasutaka; Sawada, Reiko; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-11-20

    Happiness is a subjective experience that is an ultimate goal for humans. Psychological studies have shown that subjective happiness can be measured reliably and consists of emotional and cognitive components. However, the neural substrates of subjective happiness remain unclear. To investigate this issue, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging and questionnaires that assessed subjective happiness, the intensity of positive and negative emotional experiences, and purpose in life. We found a positive relationship between the subjective happiness score and gray matter volume in the right precuneus. Moreover, the same region showed an association with the combined positive and negative emotional intensity and purpose in life scores. Our findings suggest that the precuneus mediates subjective happiness by integrating the emotional and cognitive components of happiness.

  18. The structural neural substrate of subjective happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Kubota, Yasutaka; Sawada, Reiko; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-01-01

    Happiness is a subjective experience that is an ultimate goal for humans. Psychological studies have shown that subjective happiness can be measured reliably and consists of emotional and cognitive components. However, the neural substrates of subjective happiness remain unclear. To investigate this issue, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging and questionnaires that assessed subjective happiness, the intensity of positive and negative emotional experiences, and purpose in life. We found a positive relationship between the subjective happiness score and gray matter volume in the right precuneus. Moreover, the same region showed an association with the combined positive and negative emotional intensity and purpose in life scores. Our findings suggest that the precuneus mediates subjective happiness by integrating the emotional and cognitive components of happiness. PMID:26586449

  19. Evidence for Functional Networks within the Human Brain's White Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, Michael; Nitzan, Mor; Bick, Atira S; Levin, Netta; Arzy, Shahar

    2017-07-05

    Investigation of the functional macro-scale organization of the human cortex is fundamental in modern neuroscience. Although numerous studies have identified networks of interacting functional modules in the gray-matter, limited research was directed to the functional organization of the white-matter. Recent studies have demonstrated that the white-matter exhibits blood oxygen level-dependent signal fluctuations similar to those of the gray-matter. Here we used these signal fluctuations to investigate whether the white-matter is organized as functional networks by applying a clustering analysis on resting-state functional MRI (RSfMRI) data from white-matter voxels, in 176 subjects (of both sexes). This analysis indicated the existence of 12 symmetrical white-matter functional networks, corresponding to combinations of white-matter tracts identified by diffusion tensor imaging. Six of the networks included interhemispheric commissural bridges traversing the corpus callosum. Signals in white-matter networks correlated with signals from functional gray-matter networks, providing missing knowledge on how these distributed networks communicate across large distances. These findings were replicated in an independent subject group and were corroborated by seed-based analysis in small groups and individual subjects. The identified white-matter functional atlases and analysis codes are available at http://mind.huji.ac.il/white-matter.aspx Our results demonstrate that the white-matter manifests an intrinsic functional organization as interacting networks of functional modules, similarly to the gray-matter, which can be investigated using RSfMRI. The discovery of functional networks within the white-matter may open new avenues of research in cognitive neuroscience and clinical neuropsychiatry.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In recent years, functional MRI (fMRI) has revolutionized all fields of neuroscience, enabling identifications of functional modules and networks in the human

  20. White matter injury detection in neonatal MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Irene; Hajari, Nasim; Firouzmanesh, Amirhossein; Shen, Rui; Miller, Steven; Poskitt, Ken; Basu, Anup

    2013-02-01

    Early detection of white matter injury in premature newborns can facilitate timely clinical treatments reducing the potential risk of later developmental deficits. It was reported that there were more than 5% premature newborns in British Columbia, Canada, among which 5-10% exhibited major motor deficits and 25-50% exhibited significant developmental and visual deficits. With the advancement of computer assisted detection systems, it is possible to automatically identify white matter injuries, which are found inside the grey matter region of the brain. Atlas registration has been suggested in the literature to distinguish grey matter from the soft tissues inside the skull. However, our subjects are premature newborns delivered at 24 to 32 weeks of gestation. During this period, the grey matter undergoes rapid changes and differs significantly from one to another. Besides, not all detected white spots represent injuries. Additional neighborhood information and expert input are required for verification. In this paper, we propose a white matter feature identification system for premature newborns, which is composed of several steps: (1) Candidate white matter segmentation; (2) Feature extraction from candidates; (3) Validation with data obtained at a later stage on the children; and (4) Feature confirmation for automated detection. The main challenge of this work lies in segmenting white matter injuries from noisy and low resolution data. Our approach integrates image fusion and contrast enhancement together with a fuzzy segmentation technique to achieve promising results. Other applications, such as brain tumor and intra-ventricular haemorrhage detection can also benefit from our approach.

  1. Instructional Quality Features in Videotaped Biology Lessons: Content-Independent Description of Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfner, Tobias; Förtsch, Christian; Boone, William; Neuhaus, Birgit J.

    2017-09-01

    A number of studies on single instructional quality features have been reported for mathematics and science instruction. For summarizing single instructional quality features, researchers have created a model of three basic dimensions (classroom management, supportive climate, and cognitive activation) of instructional quality mainly through observing mathematics instruction. Considering this model as valid for all subjects and as usable for describing instruction, we used it in this study which aimed to analyze characteristics of instructional quality in biology lessons of high-achieving and low-achieving classes, independently of content. Therefore, we used the data of three different previous video studies of biology instruction conducted in Germany. From each video study, we selected three high-achieving and three low-achieving classes (N = 18 teachers; 35 videos) for our multiple-case study, in which conspicuous characteristics of instructional quality features were qualitatively identified and qualitatively analyzed. The amount of these characteristics was counted in a quantitative way in all the videos. The characteristics we found could be categorized using the model of three basic dimensions of instructional quality despite some subject-specific differences for biology instruction. Our results revealed that many more characteristics were observable in high-achieving classes than in low-achieving classes. Thus, we believe that this model could be used to describe biology instruction independently of the content. We also make the claims about the qualities for biology instruction—working with concentration in a content-structured environment, getting challenged in higher order thinking, and getting praised for performance—that could have positive influence on students' achievement.

  2. Vanishing White Matter Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In Memory Of Obituaries Contact Us Donate Vanishing White Matter Disease What is Vanishing White Matter Disease? ... of the genetic basis of VWM was a great step forward. First of all, it allows genetic ...

  3. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution Contact Us Share Most PM particles form in ... and cause serious health effects. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution PM Basics What is PM, and how does ...

  4. Mind Over Matter: Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Term(s): Teachers / NIDA Teaching Guide / Mind Over Matter Teaching Guide and Series / Cocaine Mind Over Matter: Cocaine Print Order Free Publication in: English Spanish Download PDF 806.08 KB Cocaine is ...

  5. Mind Over Matter: Methamphetamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Term(s): Teachers / NIDA Teaching Guide / Mind Over Matter Teaching Guide and Series / Methamphetamine Mind Over Matter: Methamphetamine (Meth) Print Order Free Publication in: English Spanish Download PDF 739.54 KB Methamphetamine comes ...

  6. BARYONIC DARK MATTER ?

    OpenAIRE

    Rees, M J

    1986-01-01

    In the first two of these lectures, I present the evidence for baryonic dark matter and describe possible forms that it may take. The final lecture discusses formation of baryonic dark matter, and sets the cosmological context.

  7. Dark Matter Effective Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Nobile, Eugenio; Sannino, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    We organize the effective (self)interaction terms for complex scalar dark matter candidates which are either an isosinglet, isodoublet or an isotriplet with respect to the weak interactions. The classification has been performed ordering the operators in inverse powers of the dark matter cutoff...... scale. We assume Lorentz invariance, color and charge neutrality. We also introduce potentially interesting dark matter induced flavor-changing operators. Our general framework allows for model independent investigations of dark matter properties....

  8. Dence Cold Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavinskiy Alexey

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Possible way to create dense cold baryonic matter in the laboratory is discussed. The density of this matter is comparable or even larger than the density of neutron star core. The properties of this matter can be controlled by trigger conditions. Experimental program for the study of properties of dense cold matter for light and heavy ion collisions at initial energy range √sNN~2-3GeV is proposed..

  9. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  10. The Characteristics of Ernst Meyer's Group Instruction in Relation to Frontal Instruction

    OpenAIRE

    吉田, 茂孝

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify the characteristics of Ernst Meyer's group instruction in relation to frontal instruction. In this paper, the following three points are analyzed. (1) In the historical development of German didactics, how Ernst Meyer's group instruction is positioned is clarified. (2) Ernst Meyer's frontal instruction and the form of his instruction are clarified, and the position of Ernst Meyer's group instruction in the theory of the instructional form is analyzed. (...

  11. Elementary Students' Learning of Materials Science Practices through Instruction Based on Engineering Design Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell, Kristen Bethke; Lee, Hee-Sun

    2010-01-01

    Materials science, which entails the practices of selecting, testing, and characterizing materials, is an important discipline within the study of matter. This paper examines how third grade students' materials science performance changes over the course of instruction based on an engineering design challenge. We conducted a case study of nine…

  12. Articulation of Medium of Instruction Politics in the Malaysian Chinese Press

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Moses; Khan, Mahmud Hasan; Ng, Lee Luan; Cheang, Kin Wai

    2014-01-01

    In postcolonial multilingual societies, matters of education are deeply rooted in the discourse of ethnicity. In Malaysia, the interface between ethnicity and education is reflected in recent debates on the choice of medium of instruction (MOI). In 2002, the Malaysian government introduced English as MOI by replacing Malay, the national language,…

  13. States of Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    states of matter in school. Are these the only states of matter? What distinguishes different ... can be classified based on color, or electrical properties, or whether they are organic or inorganic, or conductors .... school textbooks continue to preach that there are three states of matter. Thus, I have reduced my problem from ...

  14. Matter and Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Karam, P Andrew

    2011-01-01

    In Matter and Energy, readers will learn about the many forms of energy, the wide variety of particles in nature, and Albert Einstein's world-changing realization of how matter can be changed into pure energy. The book also examines the recent discoveries of dark matter and dark energy and the future of the universe.

  15. Nonthermal Supermassive Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Kolb, Edward W.; Riotto, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    We discuss several cosmological production mechanisms for nonthermal supermassive dark matter and argue that dark matter may he elementary particles of mass much greater than the weak scale. Searches for dark matter should ma be limited to weakly interacting particles with mass of the order of the weak scale, but should extend into the supermassive range as well.

  16. A New Robotics Instructional Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Singer, Neal

    1985-01-01

    An instructional robotics laboratory that is unique in the United States was created in 1984 at the University of New Mexico. Descriptions of the laboratory, course work offered, student projects, and other areas are provided. (JN)

  17. Measurement control workshop instructional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Crawford, Cary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGinnis, Brent [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Insolves LLC, Piketon, OH (United States)

    2014-04-01

    A workshop to teach the essential elements of an effective nuclear materials control and accountability (MC&A) programs are outlined, along with the modes of Instruction, and the roles and responsibilities of participants in the workshop.

  18. Intelligent Tools and Instructional Simulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murray, William R; Sams, Michelle; Belleville, Michael

    2001-01-01

    This intelligent tools and instructional simulations project was an investigation into the utility of a knowledge-based performance support system to support learning and on-task performance for using...

  19. Zoology by Self-Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Keith; Hammond, Roger

    1976-01-01

    A historical account is given of how a conventional university first-year undergraduate course in zoology has been replaced by a self-instructional one. Advantages and problems are weighed, and successful student achievement and interest are described. (LBH)

  20. Hypermedia Environments and Adaptive Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, Pat-Anthony

    1999-01-01

    Reviews relevant professional literature concerning hypermedia environments and adaptive instruction for online learning for distance education and continuing education. Highlights include aptitude-treatment interaction; cognitive processes; navigational paths; log files; and intelligent tutors. Contains 125 references. (LRW)

  1. Designing Instruction for Distance Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Main, Robert

    1998-01-01

    .... While distance learning has been demonstrated to be an effective and efficient tool for increased access it also requires greater emphasis on instructional design and instructor training to obtain satisfactory results...

  2. The Integration of the Big6 Information Literacy and Reading Strategies Instruction in a Fourth Grade Inquiry-Based Learning Course, “Our Aquarium”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ching Chen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the student performance in an inquiry learning course which integrated information literacy and reading strategies in a fourth-grade science class. The curriculum design was based on the Big6 model, which includes the stages of task definition, information seeking strategies, location & access, use of information, synthesis, and evaluation. The study duration was one semester. The data was gathered through participant observations, interviews, surveys, tests, and from documents generated in the course implementation. The results showed that the integration of information literacy and reading strategies instruction was feasible. The students performed well in information seeking strategies, locating & accessing information, using and synthesizing information. In contrast, their abilities in task definition and evaluation needed further improvement. Also, while the students did acquire various reading strategies during the inquiry process, they needed more exercises to internalize the skills. The performance on the acquisition of subject knowledge was also improved through the inquiry learning. The participating instructors considered that the collaboration between teachers of different subject matters was the key to a successful integrated instruction [Article content in Chinese

  3. Caffeine expectancies influence the subjective and behavioral effects of caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Paul T; Juliano, Laura M

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated the independent and interactive effects of caffeine pharmacology and expected effects of caffeine on performance and subjective outcomes. Abstinent coffee drinkers (n = 60) consumed decaffeinated coffee with either 280 mg or 0 mg added caffeine. Caffeine dose was crossed with varying instructions that the coffee would either enhance or impair performance in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Performance, mood, caffeine withdrawal, and negative somatic effects were assessed. Relative to placebo, caffeine improved reaction time and accuracy on the rapid visual information processing task, a measure of vigilance. However, there was a significant dose by expectancy interaction that revealed that among participants given placebo coffee, "impair" instructions produced better performance than "enhance" instructions. Caffeine also improved psychomotor performance as indicated by a finger tapping task with no main effects of expectancy or interactions. Impair instructions produced greater reports of negative somatic effects than enhance instructions, but only when caffeine was administered. Manipulating the expected effects of caffeine altered the behavioral and subjective effects of caffeine. A significant dose by expectancy interaction revealed a somewhat paradoxical outcome in the placebo conditions whereby those told "impair" performed better than those told "enhance." This may reflect compensatory responding as has been observed in similar studies using alcohol (Fillmore et al. Psychopharmacology 115:383-388, 1994). Impair instructions led to greater negative somatic effects only when caffeine was administered supporting the active placebo hypothesis.

  4. Open Textbooks for Instructional Designers

    OpenAIRE

    Ernst, David

    2015-01-01

    Join a fellow instructional designer, Dr. Dave Ernst, now Chief Information Officer of the College of Education and Human Development at University of Minnesota, in exploring possibilities for incorporating open educational resources in your instructional design philosophy and work. Learn how you can make a difference by supporting faculty exploring or interested in developing or redesigning their courses. Discussion topics include: Open and OER - what it is and what it isn't; how to attribut...

  5. Distinguishing medication-free subjects with unipolar disorder from subjects with bipolar disorder : state matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rive, Maria M.; Redlich, Ronny; Schmaal, Lianne; Marquand, Andre F.; Dannlowski, Udo; Grotegerd, Dominik; Veltman, Dick J.; Schene, Aart H.; Ruhe, Henricus G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Recent studies have indicated that pattern recognition techniques of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data for individual classification may be valuable for distinguishing between major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Importantly, medication may have

  6. Distinguishing medication-free subjects with unipolar disorder from subjects with bipolar disorder: state matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rive, M.M.; Redlich, R.; Schmaal, L.; Marquand, A.F.; Dannlowski, U.; Grotegerd, D.; Veltman, D.J.; Schene, A.H.; Ruhe, H.G.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have indicated that pattern recognition techniques of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data for individual classification may be valuable for distinguishing between major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Importantly, medication may have

  7. Intelligent Instructional Systems in Military Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, J.D.; Zdybel, Frank

    Intelligent instructional systems can be distinguished from more conventional approaches by the automation of instructional interaction and choice of strategy. This approach promises to reduce the costs of instructional materials preparation and to increase the adaptability and individualization of the instruction delivered. Tutorial simulation…

  8. Instructional Technology Must Contribute to Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenda, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Those involved in instructional technology in higher education are urged to view instructional technology as a means of improving academic productivity. Instructional technology has been used for over forty years to analyze instructional problems and design solutions that reduce costs and improve learning outcomes. The Pew Program in Course…

  9. Changing Student Teachers' Views of Comprehension Instruction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reasons seem to include a lack of proper teacher training in comprehension instruction, teachers remaining unconvinced about the value of strategy instruction, and concerns that strategy instruction is time consuming and difficult to learn and teach. This article reports on the effect of a reading comprehension instruction ...

  10. Professional Development: Identifying Effective Instructional Coaching Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannino, Gina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the instructional coaching activities most used by instructional coaches in southeast Texas school districts and to test if there was a relationship between the use of instructional coaching and perceived improvement in the instructional practices of teachers and student achievement. The participants for…

  11. Improving Instructional Assistant Effectiveness in Inclusive Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Kimberly Beth

    2010-01-01

    As of 2007, 718,119 instructional assistants were employed in the United States (National Center for Education Statistics, 2009b). Of those instructional assistants, 373,466 were classified as full-time special education instructional assistants (Data Accountability Center, 2009a). As the employment of instructional assistants continues to grow,…

  12. Content, Process, and Product: Modeling Differentiated Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Barbara Kline

    2015-01-01

    Modeling differentiated instruction is one way to demonstrate how educators can incorporate instructional strategies to address students' needs, interests, and learning styles. This article discusses how secondary teacher candidates learn to focus on content--the "what" of instruction; process--the "how" of instruction;…

  13. Instructions for minipill users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, M; Hatcher, R A

    1985-01-01

    Guidelines are provided for women who use minipills. Minipills are low dose, progestin only oral contraceptives (OC), which are frequently prescribed for women who 1) experience estrogen related side effects if they take combined OCs; 2) are 35 years of age or older; 3) are 30 years of age or aver and smoke; 4) have a history of headaches, hypertension, or varicose veins; 5) desire immediate postpartum protection; or 6) are lactating. Minipills prevent pregnancy by inhibiting ovulation and implantation and by making the cervical mucus more impervious to sperm penetration. Minipills can be effective if they are used properly. Women who take minipills should be advised to carefully read and follow the instructions provided in the OC packet, initiate pill taking on the 1st day of menstrual bleeding, and take 1 pill every day without and breaks. A backup method should be used during the 1st month and subsequently, during each midcycle phase. If a woman misses 1 pill, she should immediately, upon remembering, take a pill, take her next day's pill at regular time, and use a backup method until menstruation reoccurs. If a woman misses 2 pills, she should immediately, upon remembering, take 2 pills, take 2 pills the following day, and use a backup method until menstruation begins. Women should be advised that many minipill users experience irregular menstural cycles, including amenorrhea and spotting between periods. If menstruation is delayed for 45 days, a pregnancy test is advisable. Women should be advised to immediately seek medical attention if they experience severe chest pain, shortness breath, severe headaches, vision problems, or severe leg pain. Minipill users should let their clinicians know if they experience and changes in mood or sexual drive. These problems can frequently be avoided by switching to another brand of minipills.

  14. Adaptive Instructional Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    developed and implemented. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Event-Based Training, Adaptive Training, Artificial Intelligence, Virtual Reality , Intelligent Tutoring...into our OpenSkies virtual reality environment for both demonstration of the technolocy and fotr eventual commercialization of the product. 2.2 Model...student, while virtual nodes repr!esent non-fuwctional obects. However, virtual nodes actually have a pupo.ose, albeit a smnll on, Vitual nodes are used

  15. Impeded Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence & Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics,Johannes Gutenberg University,Staudingerweg 7, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Slatyer, Tracy R. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Wang, Xiao-Ping [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence & Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics,Johannes Gutenberg University,Staudingerweg 7, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Xue, Wei [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-12-12

    We consider dark matter models in which the mass splitting between the dark matter particles and their annihilation products is tiny. Compared to the previously proposed Forbidden Dark Matter scenario, the mass splittings we consider are much smaller, and are allowed to be either positive or negative. To emphasize this modification, we dub our scenario “Impeded Dark Matter”. We demonstrate that Impeded Dark Matter can be easily realized without requiring tuning of model parameters. For negative mass splitting, we demonstrate that the annihilation cross-section for Impeded Dark Matter depends linearly on the dark matter velocity or may even be kinematically forbidden, making this scenario almost insensitive to constraints from the cosmic microwave background and from observations of dwarf galaxies. Accordingly, it may be possible for Impeded Dark Matter to yield observable signals in clusters or the Galactic center, with no corresponding signal in dwarfs. For positive mass splitting, we show that the annihilation cross-section is suppressed by the small mass splitting, which helps light dark matter to survive increasingly stringent constraints from indirect searches. As specific realizations for Impeded Dark Matter, we introduce a model of vector dark matter from a hidden SU(2) sector, and a composite dark matter scenario based on a QCD-like dark sector.

  16. Collapsed Dark Matter Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Matthew R.; DiFranzo, Anthony

    2018-02-01

    The distributions of dark matter and baryons in the Universe are known to be very different: The dark matter resides in extended halos, while a significant fraction of the baryons have radiated away much of their initial energy and fallen deep into the potential wells. This difference in morphology leads to the widely held conclusion that dark matter cannot cool and collapse on any scale. We revisit this assumption and show that a simple model where dark matter is charged under a "dark electromagnetism" can allow dark matter to form gravitationally collapsed objects with characteristic mass scales much smaller than that of a Milky-Way-type galaxy. Though the majority of the dark matter in spiral galaxies would remain in the halo, such a model opens the possibility that galaxies and their associated dark matter play host to a significant number of collapsed substructures. The observational signatures of such structures are not well explored but potentially interesting.

  17. Collapsed Dark Matter Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Matthew R; DiFranzo, Anthony

    2018-02-02

    The distributions of dark matter and baryons in the Universe are known to be very different: The dark matter resides in extended halos, while a significant fraction of the baryons have radiated away much of their initial energy and fallen deep into the potential wells. This difference in morphology leads to the widely held conclusion that dark matter cannot cool and collapse on any scale. We revisit this assumption and show that a simple model where dark matter is charged under a "dark electromagnetism" can allow dark matter to form gravitationally collapsed objects with characteristic mass scales much smaller than that of a Milky-Way-type galaxy. Though the majority of the dark matter in spiral galaxies would remain in the halo, such a model opens the possibility that galaxies and their associated dark matter play host to a significant number of collapsed substructures. The observational signatures of such structures are not well explored but potentially interesting.

  18. How dark matter came to matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Swart, J. G.; Bertone, G.; van Dongen, J.

    2017-03-01

    The history of the dark matter problem can be traced back to at least the 1930s, but it was not until the early 1970s that the issue of 'missing matter' was widely recognized as problematic. In the latter period, previously separate issues involving missing mass were brought together in a single anomaly. We argue that reference to a straightforward accumulation of evidence alone is inadequate to comprehend this episode. Rather, the rise of cosmological research, the accompanying renewed interest in the theory of relativity and changes in the manpower division of astronomy in the 1960s are key to understanding how dark matter came to matter. At the same time, this story may also enlighten us on the methodological dimensions of past practices of physics and cosmology.

  19. 商業方法軟體專利之標的適格性研究 ― 以比較法之研究為中心 The Patentable Subject Matter of Business Method Patents: An Analysis from a Perspective on Comparative Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    吉玉成 Yuh-Cherng Jyi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available 本文於第2 部分先就商業方法軟體依軟體系統之架構予以定義,以觀察其特殊性,並作為發明專利標的適格分析之基礎。第3 部分則概述商業方法軟體之施以專利保護,對產業與專利審查實務所造成之影響。第4 部分係探討商業方法軟體是否得為發明專利之標的,而依次簡介美國法之規定與實務見解、日本特許法之規定與特許廳之態度、歐洲專利公約與專利局之立場,並由我國專利法之規定,論述絕大多數之商業方法軟體專利,其發明專利之標的適格性乃有欠缺;另就我國智慧財產局所公布之「電腦軟體相關發明專利審查基準」加以探討,及提出個人淺見,並就智慧財產局已核准商業方法軟體專利之實例,予以個案分析。第5 部分則提出個人對商業方法軟體專利之淺見及對我國未來專利保護方向之芻議,以為結 論。 This thesis first in Chapter II defines and identifies business method software under modern computer software architecture so as to form the foundation on which the patentable subject matter of business method software can be further analyzed. In Chapter III follows an overview of how patenting business method software impacts on industry and patent examination practice. Chapter IV analyzes whether business method software qualifies as patentable subject matter from a perspective on comparative legal research in American laws, Japanese laws and the European Patent Convention, and explicates that most of the business method patents granted are unqualified under the interpretation of current ROC Patent Law; this Chapter also reviews the “Examination Guidelines for Computer- Related Software Inventions” promulgated by the Intellectual Property Office from a different perspective and illustrates thereof with a business method patent granted by the Intellectual Property Office. Chapter V concludes this

  20. Explicit Instruction Elements in Core Reading Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Child, Angela R.

    2012-01-01

    Classroom teachers are provided instructional recommendations for teaching reading from their adopted core reading programs (CRPs). Explicit instruction elements or what is also called instructional moves, including direct explanation, modeling, guided practice, independent practice, discussion, feedback, and monitoring, were examined within CRP reading lessons. This study sought to answer the question: What elements of explicit instruction or instructional moves are included in the five most...

  1. Dark matter and LHC: Complementarities and limitations arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, G.; Arbey, A.; Boudaud, M.

    It is well known that dark matter density measurements, indirect and direct detection experiments, importantly complement the LHC in setting strong constraints on new physics scenarios. Yet, dark matter searches are subject to limitations which need to be considered for realistic analyses. For illustration, we explore the parameter space of the phenomenological MSSM and discuss the interplay of the constraints from dark matter searches and the LHC, and analyse the impact of the astrophysical uncertainties in some detail.

  2. Standardized instructions urged for OCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    FDA has developed standardized, simplified instructions for all brands of combined estrogen and progestogen oral contraceptives (OCs) to help reduce unplanned pregnancies. FDA asked manufacturers in April to incorporate these changes into patient package inserts as soon as possible. Since current instructions vary significantly from brand to brand, problems can occur when women switch brands and compare instructions. If they become confused, women may either take the pills incorrectly or stop altogether, risking an unwanted pregnancy. In addition to reducing patients' confusion about correct use, the new recommended instructions reflect current research on the effective use of OCs. An important change concerns when women should start taking pills. The new instructions provide only 2 options (current instructions provide more): either start on day 1 of the next normal menstrual cycle ("Day 1 Start") or on the 1st Sunday after the next cycle begins ("Sunday Start"). Although the "Sunday Start" option is popular, the "Day 1 Start" has been shown to be more effective since back-up contraceptive methods are not required for the 1st week, as they are for the "Sunday Start." Other changes in the patient package insert simplify and clarify the instructions when different numbers of pills are missed. Any patient who is unsure about what to do when pills are missed is told to use a back-up method of birth control and to keep taking pills with hormones until she van consult with a health professional. The new labeling also advises women to consult a health professional regarding other methods of contraception if taking a daily pill is a problem. These new directions for patients are for combination pills and do not apply to progestin-only OCs. FDA is still developing new labeling for them. FDA's Fertility and Maternal Health Advisory Committee recommended on FEb. 8, 1991, that the agency ask manufacturers of OCs to make these changes in the patient package insert. full text

  3. Motives matter: a cultural historical approach to IT mediated subject matter teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenild, Kåre; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2011-01-01

    The contributors to this collection employ the analytic resources of cultural-historical theory to examine the relationship between childhood and children's development under different societal conditions. In particular they attend to relationships between development, emotions, motives and ident......The contributors to this collection employ the analytic resources of cultural-historical theory to examine the relationship between childhood and children's development under different societal conditions. In particular they attend to relationships between development, emotions, motives...

  4. Instructions to authors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This section is to be used by authors of the special issue "Social media and language learning: (revolution?" who write their text in English. Please use the model article file attached when writing your text. 1. Submission and publication principles Authors whose texts have been accepted agree to transfer the associated rights permanently to the Alsic journal. They are free to re-publish these works (in printed or electronic form subject to the following conditions: they clearly indicate t...

  5. Matters of Life and Longing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Line

    of the ways that phenomenology can be used as a tool of critical social analysis. The book focuses on lived experience and subjective meaning within a life-world dominated by poverty and violence. Through a focus on the basic human need for recognition Dalsgaard describes women’s desire to be valuable...... from simplistic dichotomies of mind/body, history/biography in an effort to grasp human experience in its complexity. “Matters of Life and Longing” is a lucid and accessible work which will be of interest to a wide and varied audience with interest in Latin America, reproductive health, gender studies...

  6. Gender differences in sexual arousal and affective responses to erotica: the effects of type of film and fantasy instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Joana; Gomes, Ana Quinta; Laja, Pedro; Oliveira, Cátia; Vilarinho, Sandra; Janssen, Erick; Nobre, Pedro

    2013-08-01

    The present study examined men and women's sexual and affective responses to erotic film clips that were combined with different fantasy instructions. Men (n = 29) and women (n = 28) were presented with two types of erotic films (explicit vs. romantic) and two fantasy instructions (fantasizing about one's real-life partner vs. fantasizing about someone else). Genital response, subjective sexual arousal, and affective responses were assessed. Sexually explicit stimuli resulted in larger genital responses; women reported higher subjective sexual arousal than men; and fantasizing about one's partner resulted, overall, in higher subjective sexual arousal and higher levels of positive affect. Moreover, in women, the instruction to fantasize about one's partner resulted in stronger subjective sexual arousal to the explicit film than the instruction to fantasize about someone else. Results suggested that physiological, subjective, and affective responses to erotic film stimuli are impacted not only by stimulus characteristics but also by the viewer's interpretation of the depicted relationship.

  7. How Do Biology Teacher Candidates Know Particulate Movements & Random Nature of Matter and Their Effects to Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztas, Fulya; Oztas, Haydar

    2016-01-01

    The previous researches results seem to suggest that some aspects of learning of diffusion and osmosis concepts such as membranes, kinetic energy of matter, and elements of the particulate and random nature of matter could lead to misconceptions. The concept of diffusion is very common in science instruction, and understanding the concept is an…

  8. Silage quality, dry matter intake and digestibility by West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grass mixtures were subjected to silage for 42 days. Quality and chemical composition of the silage was assessed. Silage was also fed to WAD sheep to determine the dry matter intake (DMI) and dry matter digestibility (DMD). Crude protein for 4WGG was 17.5% higher than that of 12WGG. Silage colour was normal except ...

  9. Understanding Physical Educators' Perceptions of Mattering Questionnaire--Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, K. Andrew R.; Gaudreault, Karen Lux; Woods, Amelia Mays

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has illustrated that physical educators feel their subject is valued less than others in the context of schools. However, to date, no instruments have been developed to measure physical education teachers' perceptions of mattering. This study sought to propose and validate the Perceived Mattering Questionnaire--Physical Education…

  10. Instructional video for teaching venepuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Michael; Harcharik, Sara; Moskalenko, Marina; Luber, Adam; Bernardo, Sebastian; Levitt, Jacob

    2014-10-01

    Safe venepuncture technique is a critical skill for health care professionals, to avoid accidental occupational injury. This study investigates whether watching an instructional video improves medical students' ability to perform venepuncture safely. This was a randomised, controlled, assessor-blinded trial that evaluated the utility of an instructional video, with the primary outcome of the ability to perform venepuncture safely. Forty-two second-year medical students were recruited and randomised to receive either video instruction (group A, n = 20) or no intervention (group B, n = 22). Prior to the study, all students attended an instructor-led workshop on venepuncture. During the study, students were paired and instructed to perform venepuncture on a partner. Performance was assessed using a points-based checklist. Pre- and post-study surveys were conducted to assess confidence with technique. The mean total checklist score was higher in group A than in group B, with values of 14.15 and 9.18, respectively (p video performed venepuncture more effectively and reported greater confidence with the technique. Medical students can benefit from having access to an instructional video on venepuncture as an adjunct to the standard curriculum. Safe venepuncture technique is a critical skill for health care professionals. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A meta-analysis of instructional systems applied in science teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, John B.; Yamashita, June J. M.; Anderson, Ronald D.

    This article is a report of a meta-analysis on the question: What are the effects of different instructional systems used in science teaching? The studies utilized in this meta-analysis were identified by a process that included a systematic screening of all dissertations completed in the field of science education since 1950, an ERIC search of the literature, a systematic screening of selected research journals, and the standard procedure of identifying potentially relevant studies through examination of the bibliographies of the studies reviewed. In all, the 130 studies coded gave rise to 341 effect sizes. The mean effect size produced over all systems was 0.10 with a standard deviation of 0.41, indicating that, on the average, an innovative teaching system in this sample produced one-tenth of a standard deviation better performance than traditional science teaching. Particular kinds of teaching systems, however, produced results that varied from this overall result. Mean effect sizes were also computed by year of publication, form of publication, grade level, and subject matter.

  12. Codecaying Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Jeff Asaf; Kuflik, Eric; Ng, Wee Hao

    2016-11-18

    We propose a new mechanism for thermal dark matter freeze-out, called codecaying dark matter. Multicomponent dark sectors with degenerate particles and out-of-equilibrium decays can codecay to obtain the observed relic density. The dark matter density is exponentially depleted through the decay of nearly degenerate particles rather than from Boltzmann suppression. The relic abundance is set by the dark matter annihilation cross section, which is predicted to be boosted, and the decay rate of the dark sector particles. The mechanism is viable in a broad range of dark matter parameter space, with a robust prediction of an enhanced indirect detection signal. Finally, we present a simple model that realizes codecaying dark matter.

  13. Status of Integrated Science Instruction in Junior Secondary Schools of China: An exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Daner; Hao Wang, Zu; Xie, Wen Ting; Chye Boon, Chirn

    2014-03-01

    The last two decades have witnessed the gradual implementation of integrated science curriculum at the junior secondary level in China. However, in most provinces of China, the implementation is not as successful as expected. Challenges were reported, yet without fine-grained investigation, with respect to science teachers' instruction on integrated science. In this study, we aim to detect major problems by investigating the instruction of integrated science at the secondary level. Classroom observation focused on the teacher and student verbal behavior, teachers' competency of instructional organization, their presentation of instructional content, and the organization of learning activities. Findings revealed that students were provided with limited opportunities for participating and engaging in learning as science teachers were dominant in classroom talk. Teachers emphasized on the integration of knowledge within one subject (within-subject knowledge), but not the integration of knowledge between subjects (cross-subject knowledge), resulting in the unsuccessful instruction of the integrative content. What is more, teachers were inadequately competent in designing and delivering science, technology and society content, scientific inquiry and scientific experiments, which also affected the quality of instruction on integrated science.

  14. A Forced-Attention Dichotic Listening fMRI Study on 113 Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompus, Kristiina; Specht, Karsten; Ersland, Lars; Juvodden, Hilde T.; van Wageningen, Heidi; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Westerhausen, Rene

    2012-01-01

    We report fMRI and behavioral data from 113 subjects on attention and cognitive control using a variant of the classic dichotic listening paradigm with pairwise presentations of consonant-vowel syllables. The syllable stimuli were presented in a block-design while subjects were in the MR scanner. The subjects were instructed to pay attention to…

  15. Dark Matter Indirect Signatures

    OpenAIRE

    Lavalle, Julien; Salati, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The astronomical dark matter could be made of weakly interacting and massive particles. If so, these species would be abundant inside the Milky Way, where they would continuously annihilate and produce cosmic rays. Those annihilation products are potentially detectable at the Earth, and could provide indirect clues for the presence of dark matter species within the Galaxy. We will review here the various cosmic radiations which the dark matter can produce. We will examine how they propagate t...

  16. Clumpy cold dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joseph; Stebbins, Albert

    1993-01-01

    A study is conducted of cold dark matter (CDM) models in which clumpiness will inhere, using cosmic strings and textures suited to galaxy formation. CDM clumps of 10 million solar mass/cu pc density are generated at about z(eq) redshift, with a sizable fraction surviving. Observable implications encompass dark matter cores in globular clusters and in galactic nuclei. Results from terrestrial dark matter detection experiments may be affected by clumpiness in the Galactic halo.

  17. Through the Camera's Eye: A Phenomenological Analysis of Teacher Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwalt, Kyle A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand how preservice teachers experience a common university assignment: the videotaping and analysis of their own instruction. Using empirical data and the thought of the French philosophers Michel Foucault and Emmanuel Levinas, the study examines the difficulties in transitioning from student subjectivity to…

  18. Incorporating Library School Interns on Academic Library Subject Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Aloha R.; Becker, Bernd W.; Klingberg, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This case study analyzes the use of library school interns on subject-based teams for the social sciences, humanities, and sciences in the San Jose State University Library. Interns worked closely with team librarians on reference, collection development/management, and instruction activities. In a structured focus group, interns reported that the…

  19. Soft matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Doi, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Soft matter (polymers, colloids, surfactants and liquid crystals) are an important class of materials in modern technology. They also form the basis of many future technologies, for example in medical and environmental applications. Soft matter shows complex behaviour between fluids and solids, and used to be a synonym of complex materials. Due to the developments of the past two decades, soft condensed matter can now be discussed on the same sound physical basis as solid condensedmatter. The purpose of this book is to provide an overview of soft matter for undergraduate and graduate students

  20. Searches for dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Feinstein, Fabrice

    2000-01-01

    The fact that the mass of the visible stars could not account for the gravitational cohesion of the galaxies was the first sign of non-visible (i.e. dark) matter in the Universe. Since then, many observational evidences tell us that most of the matter is indeed dark. The nature of this dark matter is still unknown. There are good reasons to think that most of it is not composed of normal matter. These lectures will review the experimental methods, which have been developed to unravel this mystery and will compare their results with theoretical predictions.

  1. Front matter: Volume 10385

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assoufid, Lahsen; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Asundi, Anand K.

    2017-09-01

    This PDF file contains the front matter associated with SPIE Proceedings Volume 10385, including the Title Page, Copyright information, Table of Contents, Introduction, and Conference Committee listing.

  2. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  3. Does systematic reading instruction impede prediction of reading a shallow orthography?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALFRED SCHABMANN

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Different methods of reading instructions have been the subject of controversy. This study examined the influence of systematic phonics vs. non-systematic phonics methods of instruction on the prediction of reading. 443 kindergarten children were tested on phonological awareness, naming speed and visual word matching using the Bielefelder Screening (BISC. Children were retested in grades one and four. Results showed that although the prognostic validity of kindergarten measures was generally low, it was considerably higher for grade one children in classes with non-systematic phonics instruction. Children who received systematic phonics instruction scored significantly higher on measures of phonological decoding as compared to their peers who received less systematic instruction. Implications for the prediction of reading and early screenings are discussed.

  4. The effect of guided inquiry-based instruction in secondary science for students with learning disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliot, Michael H.

    conceptual understanding and process skills, while improving motivation and participation through hands-on learning. In addition, teachers may use performance tasks to better assess students' thought process, problem solving skills, and conceptual understanding. However, constructivist teaching methods require extra training, pedagogical skills, subject matter knowledge, physical resources, and support from all stakeholders.

  5. Best practices in writing instruction

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzgerald, Jill; MacArthur, Charles A

    2014-01-01

    An indispensable teacher resource and course text, this book presents evidence-based practices for helping all K-12 students develop their skills as writers. Every chapter draws clear connections to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Leading authorities describe how to teach the skills and strategies that students need to plan, draft, evaluate, and revise multiple types of texts. Also addressed are ways for teachers to integrate technology into the writing program, use assessment to inform instruction, teach writing in the content areas, and tailor instruction for English language learner

  6. The Role of Prosody and Explicit Instruction in Processing Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Nick; Jackson, Carrie N.; Dimidio, Jack

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the role of prosodic cues and explicit information (EI) in the acquisition of German accusative case markers. We compared 4 groups of 3rd-semester learners (low intermediate level) who completed 1 of 4 Processing Instruction (PI) treatments that manipulated the presence or absence of EI and focused prosody. The results…

  7. Using Videodiscs in Instruction: Realizing Their Potential through Instructional Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigeluth, Charles M.; Garfield, Joanne M.

    1984-01-01

    Examines the state-of-the-art of intelligent videodisc systems and of the aspects of instructional theory that have implications for design of hardware, software, and courseware for such systems. Some problems inhibiting the introduction of videodisc systems into education are discussed along with solutions to these inhibiting factors. (MBR)

  8. THE USE OF PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION WITH DISTURBED STUDENTS, JUNE, 1964 THROUGH MAY, 1965. SECOND PROGRESS REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELDRED, DONALD M.; AND OTHERS

    A THREE YEAR INVESTIGATION WAS UNDERTAKEN TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTS OF PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION ON CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS. THE 157 SUBJECTS WERE PUPILS FROM A STATE MENTAL HOSPITAL SCHOOL AND SLOW LEARNERS AND UNDERACHIEVERS IN ONE PAROCHIAL AND TWO PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS. ALTHOUGH NOT AVAILABLE FOR ALL SUBJECTS, RESULTS OF THE RORSCHACH TEST, THE…

  9. Understanding Evolutionary Potential in Virtual CPU Instruction Set Architectures

    OpenAIRE

    David M Bryson; Charles Ofria

    2013-01-01

    We investigate fundamental decisions in the design of instruction set architectures for linear genetic programs that are used as both model systems in evolutionary biology and underlying solution representations in evolutionary computation. We subjected digital organisms with each tested architecture to seven different computational environments designed to present a range of evolutionary challenges. Our goal was to engineer a general purpose architecture that would be effective under a broad...

  10. Artificial intelligence tools for grammar and spelling instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Pijls, F.; Daelemans, W.; Kempen, G.

    1987-01-01

    In The Netherlands, grammar teaching is an especially important subject in the curriculum of children aged 10-15 for several reasons. However, in spite of all attention and time invested, the results are poor. This article describes the problems and our attempt to overcome them by developing an intelligent computational instructional environment consisting of: a linguistic expert system, containing a module representing grammar and spelling rules and a number of modules to manipulate these ru...

  11. Relationships among science teacher qualifications, instructional practices, and student science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuelke, Laurie Ann

    2008-10-01

    Research has shown that teacher effectiveness is a key to student achievement. Indicators of teacher effectiveness also referred to as teacher quality, have been described as years of experience and subject matter certification. As national and state mandates continue the practice of high stakes testing and place pressure upon schools to increase the rate of student achievement, few studies explored the relationships between achievement and teacher quality. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a relationship between teacher qualities (experience, certification type, and science coursework) and student achievement on the eighth grade Science FCAT. Eighth grade Science FCAT scores of over 13,000 students and the data from 127 teachers regarding their experience, certification status (temporary or professional), and subject certification was collected from two Central Florida counties. Student and teacher data was separated into two groups based upon each school's student socioeconomic (SES) data. High SES schools were designated as those that had 24% to 50% of their students on free and reduce priced lunch, whereas low SES schools had 55% to 85% of their students on free and reduce priced lunch. Data from each SES group was analyzed independently. A one-way ANOVA was performed to compare the means of eighth grade student Science FCAT scores among teachers with 0 to 5 years of experience, 6 to 15 years of experience, and over 15 years of experience. Also compared were the eighth grade student mean Science FCAT scores among teachers with regular certification and temporary certification, and teachers with science subject certification or without science subject certification. Four eighth grade science teachers with varying years of experience, certification type, and science college coursework were interviewed and classroom instructional practices observed. Results of this study showed that there was a significant difference at the low SES level in

  12. Ecology of Missouri Forests. Instructional Unit. Conservation Education Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jim

    This unit is designed to help science, social studies, vocational agriculture, and other teachers incorporate forest ecology concepts into their subject matter. The unit includes: (1) topic outline; (2) unit objectives; (3) background information on climate and soils, levels of a deciduous forest, age classes, food and energy relationships, forest…

  13. Exploring the possibility of introducing Supplemental Instruction at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    Shulman (1987:4) defines PCK as “...the category most likely to distinguish the understanding of the content specialist from that of the pedagogue...” Pedagogical content knowledge embraces the com- prehension of what makes the understanding of certain subject matter effortless or complicated. This also includes the use ...

  14. Instructional Strategy: Didactic Media Presentation to Optimize Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Context: Subject matter is presented to athletic training students in the classroom using various modes of media. The specific type of mode and when to use it should be considered to maximize learning effectiveness. Other factors to consider in this process include a student's knowledge base and the complexity of material. Objective: To introduce…

  15. Computer Conversations: E-mail and Writing Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkead, Joyce

    1987-01-01

    Describes different kinds of student correspondence over the writing center network at a state university. Argues that the interaction between student and text via machine promotes good writing and improved motivation, even when the subject matter is as extracurricular as dating. Includes messages from student to student, student to teacher, and…

  16. Instructional Multiple Binaural Stethoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina C. Platon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The stethoscope is an acoustic medical device for auscultation where human ear plays significant part. Long before doctors practiced immediate auscultation meaning placing ear directly on patient’s body by Salinsky (1990, then monaural introduced by Laennec; later binaural, Comins’s invention and Cammann developed further. Several decades numerous innovations made predominantly over chestpiece some had drawbacks. Dr Littman introduced teaching stethoscope with two headset and researcher utilized as prior art.Experimental research method used and the study aimed to determine accuracy and measurement of speed of the device in terms of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and acceptability of user. The subjects were 19 clients and 27 nursing students, government /private registered nurses. The device are comparable to single binaural stethoscope in accuracy performance; speed of sound, former is slightly higher than the latter but still considered as normal; the device are acceptable to users; the utility model have no significant difference in accuracy performance and speed measurements of systolic and diastolic. The utility model may be tried in any acoustic activities and may be pilot tested to the Universities animal science courses, veterinary medicine other Colleges of Nursing and all health allied courses.

  17. Understanding evolutionary potential in virtual CPU instruction set architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, David M; Ofria, Charles

    2013-01-01

    We investigate fundamental decisions in the design of instruction set architectures for linear genetic programs that are used as both model systems in evolutionary biology and underlying solution representations in evolutionary computation. We subjected digital organisms with each tested architecture to seven different computational environments designed to present a range of evolutionary challenges. Our goal was to engineer a general purpose architecture that would be effective under a broad range of evolutionary conditions. We evaluated six different types of architectural features for the virtual CPUs: (1) genetic flexibility: we allowed digital organisms to more precisely modify the function of genetic instructions, (2) memory: we provided an increased number of registers in the virtual CPUs, (3) decoupled sensors and actuators: we separated input and output operations to enable greater control over data flow. We also tested a variety of methods to regulate expression: (4) explicit labels that allow programs to dynamically refer to specific genome positions, (5) position-relative search instructions, and (6) multiple new flow control instructions, including conditionals and jumps. Each of these features also adds complication to the instruction set and risks slowing evolution due to epistatic interactions. Two features (multiple argument specification and separated I/O) demonstrated substantial improvements in the majority of test environments, along with versions of each of the remaining architecture modifications that show significant improvements in multiple environments. However, some tested modifications were detrimental, though most exhibit no systematic effects on evolutionary potential, highlighting the robustness of digital evolution. Combined, these observations enhance our understanding of how instruction architecture impacts evolutionary potential, enabling the creation of architectures that support more rapid evolution of complex solutions to a

  18. Understanding evolutionary potential in virtual CPU instruction set architectures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Bryson

    Full Text Available We investigate fundamental decisions in the design of instruction set architectures for linear genetic programs that are used as both model systems in evolutionary biology and underlying solution representations in evolutionary computation. We subjected digital organisms with each tested architecture to seven different computational environments designed to present a range of evolutionary challenges. Our goal was to engineer a general purpose architecture that would be effective under a broad range of evolutionary conditions. We evaluated six different types of architectural features for the virtual CPUs: (1 genetic flexibility: we allowed digital organisms to more precisely modify the function of genetic instructions, (2 memory: we provided an increased number of registers in the virtual CPUs, (3 decoupled sensors and actuators: we separated input and output operations to enable greater control over data flow. We also tested a variety of methods to regulate expression: (4 explicit labels that allow programs to dynamically refer to specific genome positions, (5 position-relative search instructions, and (6 multiple new flow control instructions, including conditionals and jumps. Each of these features also adds complication to the instruction set and risks slowing evolution due to epistatic interactions. Two features (multiple argument specification and separated I/O demonstrated substantial improvements in the majority of test environments, along with versions of each of the remaining architecture modifications that show significant improvements in multiple environments. However, some tested modifications were detrimental, though most exhibit no systematic effects on evolutionary potential, highlighting the robustness of digital evolution. Combined, these observations enhance our understanding of how instruction architecture impacts evolutionary potential, enabling the creation of architectures that support more rapid evolution of complex

  19. Association between exercise habits and subcortical gray matter volumes in healthy elderly people: A population-based study in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikie Yamamoto

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Subjects with exercise habits show larger subcortical gray matter volumes than subjects without exercise habits in community-dwelling elderly subjects in Japan. Specifically, the volume of the nucleus accumbens correlates with both exercise habits and cognitive preservation.

  20. Asymptotically Safe Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Shoemaker, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new paradigm for dark matter (DM) interactions in which the interaction strength is asymptotically safe. In models of this type, the coupling strength is small at low energies but increases at higher energies, and asymptotically approaches a finite constant value. The resulting...... searches are the primary ways to constrain or discover asymptotically safe dark matter....

  1. Dark Matter Day

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Wessel Valkenburg, Research Fellow at the Theory Department at CERN will explain the how and why research is carried out on dark matter. The event will be in English with simultaneous interpretation into French. Dark Matter Day falls on Hallow...

  2. CORRELATION BETWEEN PARTICULATE MATTER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BIG TIMMY

    2017-03-21

    Mar 21, 2017 ... Measurement of atmospheric particulate matter was carried out with a view to establish the potential influence of meteorological parameters such as wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, rainfall, relative humidity and global radiation on the mass concentration. Particulate matter (PM) in two size ...

  3. Dark matter and cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1992-03-01

    The cosmological dark matter problem is reviewed. The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints on the baryon density are compared with the densities implied by visible matter, dark halos, dynamics of clusters, gravitational lenses, large-scale velocity flows, and the {Omega} = 1 flatness/inflation argument. It is shown that (1) the majority of baryons are dark; and (2) non-baryonic dark matter is probably required on large scales. It is also noted that halo dark matter could be either baryonic or non-baryonic. Descrimination between cold'' and hot'' non-baryonic candidates is shown to depend on the assumed seeds'' that stimulate structure formation. Gaussian density fluctuations, such as those induced by quantum fluctuations, favor cold dark matter, whereas topological defects such as strings, textures or domain walls may work equally or better with hot dark matter. A possible connection between cold dark matter, globular cluster ages and the Hubble constant is mentioned. Recent large-scale structure measurements, coupled with microwave anisotropy limits, are shown to raise some questions for the previously favored density fluctuation picture. Accelerator and underground limits on dark matter candidates are also reviewed.

  4. Dark matter and cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1992-03-01

    The cosmological dark matter problem is reviewed. The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints on the baryon density are compared with the densities implied by visible matter, dark halos, dynamics of clusters, gravitational lenses, large-scale velocity flows, and the {Omega} = 1 flatness/inflation argument. It is shown that (1) the majority of baryons are dark; and (2) non-baryonic dark matter is probably required on large scales. It is also noted that halo dark matter could be either baryonic or non-baryonic. Descrimination between ``cold`` and ``hot`` non-baryonic candidates is shown to depend on the assumed ``seeds`` that stimulate structure formation. Gaussian density fluctuations, such as those induced by quantum fluctuations, favor cold dark matter, whereas topological defects such as strings, textures or domain walls may work equally or better with hot dark matter. A possible connection between cold dark matter, globular cluster ages and the Hubble constant is mentioned. Recent large-scale structure measurements, coupled with microwave anisotropy limits, are shown to raise some questions for the previously favored density fluctuation picture. Accelerator and underground limits on dark matter candidates are also reviewed.

  5. The effect of minimalist footwear and instruction on running: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcellona, Massimo Giuseppe; Buckley, Linda; Palmer, Lisa J M; Ormond, Roisin M; Owen, Gwawr; Watson, Daniel J; Woledge, Roger; Newham, Di

    2017-01-01

    It is not known whether the effects on altered running style which are attributed to minimalist footwear can be achieved by verbal instructions in standard running shoes (SRS). To explore the effect of Vibram FiveFingers (VFF) versus SRS plus running instruction on lower extremity spatiotemporal parameters and lower limb joint kinematics. 35 healthy subjects (mean=30 years, 18 females) were assessed on two occasions with 3D motion analysis. At each session subjects ran on a treadmill (3.58 m/s) for 2 min in either VFF or SRS (randomised order); with and without running instruction. Differences between spatiotemporal parameters and lower limb joint kinematics between conditions were assessed using a 2x2 repeated-measures ANOVA. Wearing VFF significantly increased cadence (pinstruction and VFF significantly increased foot (pinstruction significantly increased knee flexion (p=0.04), and foot (p=0.001) and ankle (p=0.03) plantarflexion. At mid-stance and toe-off, instruction significantly increased knee flexion (p=0.048 and pInstruction had a greater effect on increasing knee flexion (p=0.007) and plantarflexion angle (pfollowing instruction suggests that changes in joint angles previously attributed to minimalist footwear alone may be similarly achieved with instruction.

  6. Employing Universal Design for Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Universal design for instruction (UDI) is an approach to course design that seeks to create an appropriate learning environment for all students, including those with disabilities. This approach also helps other students to learn the course material in ways most appropriate to their individual learning needs. When done well, this approach has…

  7. Gestalt Theory and Instructional Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Patrick; Fitz, Chad

    1993-01-01

    Offers a brief overview of Gestalt theory. Shows how six Gestalt principles (proximity, closure, symmetry, figure-ground segregation, good continuation, and similarity) can be applied to improve a reader's comprehension of a badly designed instruction module that uses several graphics. (SR)

  8. Assistant for instructional development (AID)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, J.P. van; Veldhuis, G.J.; Emmerik, M.L. van; Theunissen, N.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Due to periodical job rotation within the military, instructional developers are not always experts in their field and are consequently unaware of the types of educational concepts that are available to teach with (Jans & Frazer-Jans, 2004). These observations have led to the

  9. Alternative Approaches to Classroom Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, David

    1992-01-01

    Reexamines the notion of "teaching." Drawing on data from a range of classrooms, as well as from recently published teaching texts, particular attention is focused on the question: "What do we mean by teaching/instruction?" (eight references) (Author/JL)

  10. Instructional Prescriptions for Learner Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jaesam; Reigeluth, Charles M.

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of learner control in instructional management describes six learner control methods: (1) content control; (2) sequence control; (3) pace control; (4) display or strategy control; (5) internal processing control; and (6) advisor strategies. Relevant literature, both theoretical and empirical, is reviewed, and learner control and…

  11. Cement Mason's Curriculum. Instructional Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendirx, Laborn J.; Patton, Bob

    To assist cement mason instructors in providing comprehensive instruction to their students, this curriculum guide treats both the skills and information necessary for cement masons in commercial and industrial construction. Ten sections are included, as follow: related information, covering orientation, safety, the history of cement, and applying…

  12. Classic writings on instructional technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ely, D.P.; Ely, Donald P.; Plomp, T.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the selection process of 17 articles for inclusion in the book, "Classic Writings on Instructional Technology." The book brings together original "classic" educational technology articles into one volume to document the history of the field through its literature. It is also an

  13. Determination of Instructional Leadership Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öznacar, Behcet; Osma, Elif

    2016-01-01

    This research, based on observations of teacher candidates in prep school educations and secondary schools the instructional leaders of executive managers who aim at investigating a research study descriptive nature. General screening model is used for the study. The research population in the Near East University in the Faculty of Education,…

  14. Training Proctors for Personalized Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Arthur L.; Cook, Donald A.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a study which measured the effectiveness of a Personalized System of Instruction training package for proctors in undergraduate psychology courses. The package consisted of role-playing and a discussion between the proctor and an instructor-trainer, followed by feedback on actual proctoring experience in the classroom. (Author/AV)

  15. Instructional Materials Vocational Related English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater.

    This preliminary draft of instructional materials for an English curriculum offering vocational preparation focuses on grammar concepts, selected vocational English topics, and the use of resource materials. The unit plans contain general and specific behavioral objectives, student activities, and teaching procedures. Information sheets, student…

  16. Market Segmentation: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Peter H.

    A concept-based introduction to market segmentation is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses. The material can be used in many disciplines including engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of market segmentation is primarily a transportation planning technique by…

  17. Learning Strategy Instruction Innovation Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, Jean B.

    2011-01-01

    One way of helping students with learning disabilities and other struggling students to be independent life-long learners is to teach them how to use learning strategies in efficient ways. Learning strategy instruction can provide students the opportunity to succeed in today's schools and meet rigorous standards, transforming ineffective learners…

  18. Very Long Instruction Word Processors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 12. Very Long Instruction Word Processors. S Balakrishnan. General Article Volume 6 Issue 12 December 2001 pp 61-68. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/12/0061-0068 ...

  19. Transportation Brokerage: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Linda

    A concept-based introduction to transportation brokerage is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of transportation brokerage is defined as an assignment of the management of a specific element of a…

  20. Putting Pow into Art Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Jay; Packer, Todd

    2004-01-01

    How would you like to put some "Pow!" into your art instruction? A lesson in comic books--history, design, story, and production--can make your classes come alive. The authors present a new approach to using comics to build artistic skills and involve students in art appreciation. Why Comics? Many art teachers have students who say, "I hate art!"…