WorldWideScience

Sample records for subject matter general

  1. Changes in Dictionary Subject Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2003-01-01

    The general content of the three editions of the Duden dictionary has undergone few changes. The most substantial changes are the addition of syllabification and the deletion of antonomy in respect of lemmata in the second and third editions. The concept of dictionary subject matter is questioned......, and it is argued that it is more appropriate to consider how the relationships between the classes of items interact with the function of the dictionary....

  2. Does Variation in the Extent of Generalized Trust, Individual Education and Extensiveness of Social Security Policies Matter for Maximization of Subjective Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeeva, Rania F.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I examine whether generalized trust and education, as well as social security policies of welfare state institutions matter for cross-national differences in subjective well-being (SWB), because knowledge on this issue is still lacking. For this purpose I integrated the insights of two sociological theories: Social Function…

  3. Matter in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Two theories of matter in general relativity, the fluid theory and the kinetic theory, were studied. Results include: (1) a discussion of various methods of completing the fluid equations; (2) a method of constructing charged general relativistic solutions in kinetic theory; and (3) a proof and discussion of the incompatibility of perfect fluid solutions in anisotropic cosmologies. Interpretations of NASA gravitational experiments using the above mentioned results were started. Two papers were prepared for publications based on this work.

  4. Subjective or objective? What matters?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sunega, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2014), s. 35-43 ISSN 2336-2839 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP404/12/1446 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : comparative housing policy * globalisation Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  5. Conditioning audience patronage using subject matters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conditioning audience patronage using subject matters in Nollywood films: the example of 30 days in Atlanta. ... Abstract. Films are subject-based and when producers set out to communicate their viewpoints, some do it flamboyantly while others take the subtle path. Unlike live theatre before it, the possibility of a virile spiral ...

  6. Subject Matter Expert Workshop to Identify Cybersecurity ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report In recognition of the growing need to better address cyber risk and cyber management, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) held a Subject Matter Expert Workshop to Identify Cybersecurity Research Gaps and Needs of the Nation’s Water and Wastewater Systems Sector on March 30th and 31st, 2016, at the Ronald Reagan Building in Washington, D.C. The workshop was designed to create a forum for subject matter experts (SMEs) to exchange ideas and address important cybersecurity challenges facing the water sector.

  7. Primary teachers' subject matter knowledge: decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubuz, Behiye; Yayan, Betül

    2010-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate primary teachers' subject matter knowledge in the domain of decimals and more elaborately to investigate their performance and difficulties in reading scale, ordering numbers, finding the nearest decimal and doing operations, such as addition and subtraction. The difficulties in these particular areas are analysed and suggestions are made regarding their causes. Further, factors that influence this knowledge were explored. The sample of the study was 63 primary teachers. A decimal concepts test including 18 tasks was administered and the total scores for the 63 primary teachers ranged from 3 to 18 with a mean and median of 12. Fifty per cent of the teachers were above the mean score. The detailed investigation of the responses revealed that the primary teachers faced similar difficulties that students and pre-service teachers faced. Discrepancy on teachers' knowledge revealed important differences based on educational level attained, but not the number of years of teaching experience and experience in teaching decimals. Some suggestions have been made regarding the implications for pre- and in-service teacher training.

  8. General relativity and dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestov, A.B.

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that from the first principles of General Relativity it follows that there exists a new type of interactions which are tightly connected with the gravitational interactions. New particles representing a new form of interactions do not interact electromagnetically, strongly and weakly with the known elementary particles. Physics of the new particles is defined by the Planck scales. (author.). 9 refs

  9. Distinguishing medication-free subjects with unipolar disorder from subjects with bipolar disorder: state matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rive, Maria M; Redlich, Ronny; Schmaal, Lianne; Marquand, André F; Dannlowski, Udo; Grotegerd, Dominik; Veltman, Dick J; Schene, Aart H; Ruhé, Henricus G

    2016-11-01

    Recent studies have indicated that pattern recognition techniques of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data for individual classification may be valuable for distinguishing between major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Importantly, medication may have affected previous classification results as subjects with MDD and BD use different classes of medication. Furthermore, almost all studies have investigated only depressed subjects. Therefore, we focused on medication-free subjects. We additionally investigated whether classification would be mood state independent by including depressed and remitted subjects alike. We applied Gaussian process classifiers to investigate the discriminatory power of structural MRI (gray matter volumes of emotion regulation areas) and resting-state fMRI (resting-state networks implicated in mood disorders: default mode network [DMN], salience network [SN], and lateralized frontoparietal networks [FPNs]) in depressed (n=42) and remitted (n=49) medication-free subjects with MDD and BD. Depressed subjects with MDD and BD could be classified based on the gray matter volumes of emotion regulation areas as well as DMN functional connectivity with 69.1% prediction accuracy. Prediction accuracy using the FPNs and SN did not exceed chance level. It was not possible to discriminate between remitted subjects with MDD and BD. For the first time, we showed that medication-free subjects with MDD and BD can be differentiated based on structural MRI as well as resting-state functional connectivity. Importantly, the results indicated that research concerning diagnostic neuroimaging tools distinguishing between MDD and BD should consider mood state as only depressed subjects with MDD and BD could be correctly classified. Future studies, in larger samples are needed to investigate whether the results can be generalized to medication-naïve or first-episode subjects. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley

  10. Digital Literacy and Subject Matter Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm

    2015-01-01

    It is generally agreed that learners need to acquire digital literacy in order to be able to act as citizens, employees and entrepreneurs in an increasingly digitalized environment. It is also generally agreed that the educational system has to be responsible for educating towards digital literacy....... However, there is no shared conception of the scope and meaning of digital literacy. The overall picture shows two main approaches: The first aims at digital literacy in the sense of Buildung (general education) while the second addresses a wide range of specific skills and competences: From basic...... computer skills over multimodal analysis to social conventions for behavior in online environments. Consequently designs for teaching and learning that aim at learners acquiring digital literacy and the related learning objectives appear as weak defined. According to the Danish Ministry of Education Shared...

  11. students' perception of teacher's knowledge of subject matter

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ALEXANDER E. TIMOTHY

    COPYRIGHT© BACHUDO SCIENCE CO. ... students' perception of teachers' knowledge of subject matter as perceived by students on reading ... percent and above in English language (WAEC,. 2007). ... to the learners. ... mathematics.

  12. Neutron matter properties using generalized Skyrme force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, H.M.M.; Ramadan, Kh.A.

    2002-01-01

    The generalized Skyrme potential is used to calculate the properties of neutron matter in the form of the Thomas–Fermi model. The binding energy per particle, spin symmetry energy, free energy, pressure, entropy, sound velocity and magnetic susceptibility are calculated as a function of density ρ. The results are comparable with those obtained by Friedman and Pandharipande, who used the Urbana v 14 potential plus an effective repulsive three-body force. (author)

  13. Cortex Parcellation Associated Whole White Matter Parcellation in Individual Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schiffler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of specific white matter areas is a growing field in neurological research and is typically achieved through the use of atlases. However, the definition of anatomically based regions remains challenging for the white matter and thus hinders region-specific analysis in individual subjects. In this article, we focus on creating a whole white matter parcellation method for individual subjects where these areas can be associated to cortex regions. This is done by combining cortex parcellation and fiber tracking data. By tracking fibers out of each cortex region and labeling the fibers according to their origin, we populate a candidate image. We then derive the white matter parcellation by classifying each white matter voxel according to the distribution of labels in the corresponding voxel from the candidate image. The parcellation of the white matter with the presented method is highly reliable and is not as dependent on registration as with white matter atlases. This method allows for the parcellation of the whole white matter into individual cortex region associated areas and, therefore, associates white matter alterations to cortex regions. In addition, we compare the results from the presented method to existing atlases. The areas generated by the presented method are not as sharply defined as the areas in most existing atlases; however, they are computed directly in the DWI space of the subject and, therefore, do not suffer from distortion caused by registration. The presented approach might be a promising tool for clinical and basic research to investigate modalities or system specific micro structural alterations of white matter areas in a quantitative manner.

  14. 22 CFR 61.6 - Consultation with subject matter specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FREE FLOW OF AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS § 61.6 Consultation with subject matter specialists. (a) The... assisting the Department in its determination of whether materials for which export certification or import authentication is sought contain widespread and gross misstatements of fact. (b) As necessary, the Department may...

  15. Does tutor subject-matter expertise influence student achievement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To establish whether or not tutor subject-matter expertise influences student achievement in content-based examinations in the problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum at the University of Transkei (UNITRA) Medical School. Design. A retrospective study of MB ChB III student achievement in end-of-block ...

  16. 12 CFR 791.6 - Subject matter of a meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....6 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING THE OPERATIONS OF THE... REGULATIONS; PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF NCUA BOARD MEETINGS Rules of NCUA Board Procedure § 791.6 Subject matter of... all Office Directors and President of the Central Liquidity Facility), and Regional Directors. [61 FR...

  17. Prospective Science Teachers' Subject-Matter Knowledge about Overflow Container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ültay, Eser

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine prospective science teachers' subject-matter knowledge (SMK) about overflow container. This study was carried out in the form of a case study in spring term of the academic year of 2013-2014 with seven sophomore prospective science teachers who were studying at Elementary Science Teaching Department in…

  18. Distinct white matter abnormalities in different idiopathic generalized epilepsy syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Concha, Luis; Beaulieu, Christian; Gross, Donald W

    2011-12-01

    By definition idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) is not associated with structural abnormalities on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, recent quantitative studies suggest white and gray matter alterations in IGE. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there are white and/or gray matter structural differences between controls and two subsets of IGE, namely juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) and IGE with generalized tonic-clonic seizures only (IGE-GTC). We assessed white matter integrity and gray matter volume using diffusion tensor tractography-based analysis of fractional anisotropy and voxel-based morphometry, respectively, in 25 patients with IGE, all of whom had experienced generalized tonic-clonic convulsions. Specifically, 15 patients with JME and 10 patients with IGE-GTC were compared to two groups of similarly matched controls separately. Correlations between total lifetime generalized tonic-clonic seizures and fractional anisotropy were investigated for both groups. Tractography revealed lower fractional anisotropy in specific tracts including the crus of the fornix, body of corpus callosum, uncinate fasciculi, superior longitudinal fasciculi, anterior limb of internal capsule, and corticospinal tracts in JME with respect to controls, whereas there were no fractional anisotropy differences in IGE-GTC. No correlation was found between fractional anisotropy and total lifetime generalized tonic-clonic seizures for either JME or IGE-GTC. Although false discovery rate-corrected voxel-based morphometry (VBM) showed no gray matter volume differences between patient and control groups, spatial extent cluster-corrected VBM analysis suggested a trend of gray matter volume reduction in frontal and central regions in both patient groups, more lateral in JME and more medial in IGE-GTC. The findings support the idea that the clinical syndromes of JME and IGE-GTC have unique anatomic substrates. The fact that the primary clinical

  19. On indexes and subject matter of “global competitiveness”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Korotkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to analyze the subject matter of a country’s competitiveness and to characterize statistical indexes of competitiveness known in the international practice from the perspective of a more elaborated theory of market competition. This aim follows from the identified problems. First, there are no generally accepted interpretation and joint understanding of competition and competitiveness at country level. Even the international organizations giving estimations of global competitiveness disagree on definitions of competitiveness. Secondly, there is no relation to the theory of market competition in the available source materials on competitiveness of the country without original methodology. Thirdly, well-known statistical indexes of global competitiveness do not have enough theoretical justification and differ in sets of factors. All this highlights the incompleteness of the methodology and methodological support of studying competitiveness at country level.Materials and methods. The research is based on the methodology of statistics, economic theory and marketing. The authors followed the basic principle of statistical methodology – requirement of continuous combination of qualitative and quantitative analysis, when the research begins and ends with qualitative analysis. A most important section of statistical methodology is widely used – construction of statistical indexes. In the course of the analysis, a method of statistical classifications is applied. A significant role in the present research is given to the method of generalizing and analogue method, realizing that related terms should mean similar and almost similar contents. Modeling of competition and competitiveness is widely used in the present research, which made it possible to develop a logical model of competition following from the competition theory.Results. Based on the definitions’ survey the analysis of the subject matter of global

  20. Teachers mathematical communication profile in explaining subject matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umami, Rohmatul; Budayasa, I. Ketut; Suwarsono, St.

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to see a teachers mathematical communication profile in explaining a subject matter. It is a qualitative research. A high-school junior teacher (i.e., a teacher with 1- to 5-year experience) teaching mathematics at X-Social Class was selected as the subject of this study. The data was collected by observing the teachers mathematical communication in explaining a given material (i.e., the rule of sine) in class and an in-depth interview would be organized respectively. The result showed that the junior teacher explained the subject matter in systematic, complete, fluent, and centered manner. In this case, she began with reminding students on the previous material related to the current material to be learned, informing the current learning objectives, and finally delivering the subject matter. To support her explanation, the teacher also provided some related information, led the students attention into the given material by asking them particular related questions, and did not use any confusing terms. However, the study found that some of high-school teachers still used less appropriate language in explaining materials.

  1. Subjective time pressure: general or domain specific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Sibyl

    2014-09-01

    Chronic time pressure has been identified as a pervasive societal problem, exacerbated by high demands of the labor market and the home. Yet time pressure has not been disaggregated and examined separately across home and work contexts, leaving many unanswered questions regarding the sources and potentially stressful consequences of time pressure. Using data collected in the United States General Social Survey waves 2002 and 2004, this study disaggregates time pressure into the domains of home and work, and asks whether considering time pressures within distinct work and home contexts reveals distinct predictors or associations with stress. Findings show that both predictors and stress associations differ across work and home pressures, revealing both methodological and theoretical implications for the study of time pressure and work and family life more generally. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Medial frontal white and gray matter contributions to general intelligence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Ohtani

    Full Text Available The medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC and rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC are part of a wider neural network that plays an important role in general intelligence and executive function. We used structural brain imaging to quantify magnetic resonance gray matter volume and diffusion tensor white matter integrity of the mOFC-rACC network in 26 healthy participants who also completed neuropsychological tests of intellectual abilities and executive function. Stochastic tractography, the most effective Diffusion Tensor Imaging method for examining white matter connections between adjacent gray matter regions, was employed to assess the integrity of mOFC-rACC pathways. Fractional anisotropy (FA, which reflects the integrity of white matter connections, was calculated. Results indicated that higher intelligence correlated with greater gray matter volumes for both mOFC and rACC, as well as with increased FA for left posterior mOFC-rACC connectivity. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that DTI-derived FA of left posterior mOFC-rACC uniquely accounted for 29%-34% of the variance in IQ, in comparison to 11%-16% uniquely explained by gray matter volume of the left rACC. Together, left rACC gray matter volume and white matter connectivity between left posterior mOFC and rACC accounted for up to 50% of the variance in general intelligence. This study is to our knowledge the first to examine white matter connectivity between OFC and ACC, two gray matter regions of interests that are very close in physical proximity, and underscores the important independent contributions of variations in rACC gray matter volume and mOFC-rACC white matter connectivity to individual differences in general intelligence.

  3. Prescribing Behavior of General Practitioners : Competition Matters!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaumans, C.B.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: General Practitioners have limited means to compete. As quality is hard to observe by patients, GPs have incentives to signal quality by using instruments patients perceive as quality. Objectives: We investigate whether GPs exhibit different prescribing behavior (volume and value of

  4. Prescribing behavior of general practitioners : Competition matters!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaumans, C.B.C.

    Background General Practitioners (GP) have limited means to compete. As quality is hard to observe by patients, GPs have incentives to signal quality by using instruments patients perceive as quality. Objectives I investigate whether GPs prescribe more units when confronted with more competition. As

  5. The most general cosmological dynamics for ELKO matter fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbri, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Not long ago, the definition of eigenspinors of charge-conjugation belonging to a special Wigner class has lead to the unexpected theoretical discovery of a form of matter with spin 1/2 and mass dimension 1, called ELKO matter field; ELKO matter fields defined in flat spacetimes have been later extended to curved and twisted spacetimes, in order to include in their dynamics the coupling to gravitational fields possessing both metric and torsional degrees of freedom: the inclusion of non-commuting spinorial covariant derivatives allows for the introduction of more general dynamical terms influencing the behaviour of ELKO matter fields. In this Letter, we shall solve the theoretical problem of finding the most general dynamics for ELKO matter, and we will face the phenomenological issue concerning how the new dynamical terms may affect the behavior of ELKO matter; we will see that new effects will arise for which the very existence of ELKO matter will be endangered, due to the fact that ELKOs will turn incompatible with the cosmological principle. Thus we have that anisotropic universes must be taken into account if ELKOs are to be considered in their most general form.

  6. Transforming the Subject Matter: Examining the Intellectual Roots of Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zongyi

    2007-01-01

    This article questions the basic assumptions of pedagogical content knowledge by analyzing the ideas of Jerome Bruner, Joseph Schwab, and John Dewey concerning transforming the subject matter. It argues that transforming the subject matter is not only a pedagogical but also a complex curricular task in terms of developing a school subject or a…

  7. Scientific and General Subject Classifications in the Digital World

    CERN Document Server

    De Robbio, Antonella; Marini, A

    2001-01-01

    In the present work we discuss opportunities, problems, tools and techniques encountered when interconnecting discipline-specific subject classifications, primarily organized as search devices in bibliographic databases, with general classifications originally devised for book shelving in public libraries. We first state the fundamental distinction between topical (or subject) classifications and object classifications. Then we trace the structural limitations that have constrained subject classifications since their library origins, and the devices that were used to overcome the gap with genuine knowledge representation. After recalling some general notions on structure, dynamics and interferences of subject classifications and of the objects they refer to, we sketch a synthetic overview on discipline-specific classifications in Mathematics, Computing and Physics, on one hand, and on general classifications on the other. In this setting we present The Scientific Classifications Page, which collects groups of...

  8. Generalized calculus with applications to matter and forces

    CERN Document Server

    Campos, L M B C

    2014-01-01

    Combining mathematical theory, physical principles, and engineering problems, Generalized Calculus with Applications to Matter and Forces examines generalized functions, including the Heaviside unit jump and the Dirac unit impulse and its derivatives of all orders, in one and several dimensions. The text introduces the two main approaches to generalized functions: (1) as a nonuniform limit of a family of ordinary functions, and (2) as a functional over a set of test functions from which properties are inherited. The second approach is developed more extensively to encompass multidimensional generalized functions whose arguments are ordinary functions of several variables. As part of a series of books for engineers and scientists exploring advanced mathematics, Generalized Calculus with Applications to Matter and Forces presents generalized functions from an applied point of view, tackling problem classes such as: •Gauss and Stokes’ theorems in the differential geometry, tensor calculus, and theory of ...

  9. A Subject Matter Expert View of Curriculum Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, M. P.; Anderson, R. B.; Edgar, L. A.; Gaither, T. A.; Vaughan, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    In 2015, NASA selected for funding the PLANETS project: Planetary Learning that Advances the Nexus of Engineering, Technology, and Science. The PLANETS partnership develops planetary science and engineering curricula for out of classroom time (OST) education settings. This partnership is between planetary science Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) at the US Geological Survey (USGS), curriculum developers at the Boston Museum of Science (MOS) Engineering is Everywhere (EiE), science and engineering teacher professional development experts at Northern Arizona University (NAU) Center for Science Teaching and Learning (CSTL), and OST teacher networks across the world. For the 2016 and 2017 Fiscal Years, our focus was on creating science material for two OST modules designed for middle school students. We have begun development of a third module for elementary school students. The first model teaches about the science and engineering of the availability of water in the Solar System, finding accessible water, evaluating it for quality, treating it for impurities, initial use, a cycle of greywater treatment and re-use, and final treatment of blackwater. This module is described in more detail in the abstract by L. Edgar et al., Water in the Solar System: The Development of Science Education Curriculum Focused on Planetary Exploration (233008) The second module involves the science and engineering of remote sensing in planetary exploration. This includes discussion and activities related to the electromagnetic spectrum, spectroscopy and various remote sensing systems and techniques. In these activities and discussions, we include observation and measurement techniques and tools as well as collection and use of specific data of interest to scientists. This module is described in more detail in the abstract by R. Anderson et al., Remote Sensing Mars Landing Sites: An Out-of-School Time Planetary Science Education Activity for Middle School Students (232683) The third module

  10. Commutative deformations of general relativity: nonlocality, causality, and dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vegvar, P.G.N. [SWK Research, Bellingham, WA (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Hopf algebra methods are applied to study Drinfeld twists of (3+1)-diffeomorphisms and deformed general relativity on commutative manifolds. A classical nonlocality length scale is produced above which microcausality emerges. Matter fields are utilized to generate self-consistent Abelian Drinfeld twists in a background independent manner and their continuous and discrete symmetries are examined. There is negligible experimental effect on the standard model of particles. While baryonic twist producing matter would begin to behave acausally for rest masses above ∝1-10 TeV, other possibilities are viable dark matter candidates or a right-handed neutrino. First order deformed Maxwell equations are derived and yield immeasurably small cosmological dispersion and produce a propagation horizon only for photons at or above Planck energies. This model incorporates dark matter without any appeal to extra dimensions, supersymmetry, strings, grand unified theories, mirror worlds, or modifications of Newtonian dynamics. (orig.)

  11. Beyond "Either-Or" Thinking: John Dewey and Confucius on Subject Matter and the Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charlene

    2016-01-01

    This article compares the educational thought of John Dewey and Confucius on the nature of and relationship between subject matter and the learner. There is a common perception in the existing literature and discourse that Dewey advocates child- or learner-centred education whereas Confucius privileges subject matter via textual transmission.…

  12. 14 CFR 17.11 - Matters not subject to protest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Acquisition: (a) FAA purchases from or through, state, local, and tribal governments and public authorities...) Other transactions which do not fall into the category of procurement contracts subject to the AMS. ...

  13. Generalized Curvature-Matter Couplings in Modified Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu Harko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we review a plethora of modified theories of gravity with generalized curvature-matter couplings. The explicit nonminimal couplings, for instance, between an arbitrary function of the scalar curvature R and the Lagrangian density of matter, induces a non-vanishing covariant derivative of the energy-momentum tensor, implying non-geodesic motion and, consequently, leads to the appearance of an extra force. Applied to the cosmological context, these curvature-matter couplings lead to interesting phenomenology, where one can obtain a unified description of the cosmological epochs. We also consider the possibility that the behavior of the galactic flat rotation curves can be explained in the framework of the curvature-matter coupling models, where the extra terms in the gravitational field equations modify the equations of motion of test particles and induce a supplementary gravitational interaction. In addition to this, these models are extremely useful for describing dark energy-dark matter interactions and for explaining the late-time cosmic acceleration.

  14. Reheating via a generalized nonminimal coupling of curvature to matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolami, Orfeu; Frazao, Pedro; Paramos, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    In this work, one shows that a generalized nonminimal coupling between geometry and matter is compatible with Starobinsky inflation and leads to a successful process of preheating, a reheating scenario based on the production of massive particles via parametric resonance. The model naturally extends the usual preheating mechanism, which resorts to an ad hoc scalar curvature-dependent mass term for a scalar field χ, and also encompasses a previously studied preheating channel based upon a nonstandard kinetic term.

  15. The interrelationship between subject matter and school gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jacob Højgaard; Wistoft, Karen

    2018-01-01

    This article maps out existing research regarding the effectiveness of integrated teaching in school gardens, i.e. including the math, languages and science subjects with their related objectives and curricula in school garden teaching and vice versa. The article is based on a literature review...... that concludes that school gardens have a predominantly positive influence on students’ learning outcome. However, there are a few school garden programmes that have the same or even a less beneficial influence on students’ learning outcome than traditional teaching. Thus, school gardens do not have...... an unequivocally positive academic learning effect. The review extracts and discusses some of the factors that are consistently emphasized in the research literature as central to ensuring successful subject integration in school gardens. Taking these as a point of departure, it is concluded that developing...

  16. Do Subject Matter Knowledge, and Pedagogical Content Knowledge Constitute the Ideal Gas Law of Science Teaching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Norman G.; Gess-Newsome, Julie

    1992-01-01

    Describes Pedagogical Content Knowledge and focuses on the empirical research directly concerned with the relationship between science teachers' subject matter knowledge or structures and actual classroom practice. Concludes there is little evidence that a relationship exists. (PR)

  17. Subject matter of the All-Union Coordination Conference. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudkevich, M.I.; Tselik, M.P.; Belkina, T.V.

    1984-06-01

    Conference on reviewing plans for new research and experimental design projects in the coking industry for 1984-85 took place on 13-17 June 1983. Participants represented the Ministry of Ferrous Metallurgy, Institute for the Chemistry of Coal and other research institutes, technical schools and coking plants. The titles of the more important papers delivered at the conference are given. Main directions in research and development, test results of new processes and technology, automation and mechanization in the industry, preparation of coal batches for coking, studies on coals from the eastern deposits, methods for evaluating blast furnace cokes, and other subject areas related to the coking and chemical industry were covered in the papers delivered at the conference. Altogether 179 on-going and new projects were discussed at the conference.

  18. Objective versus subjective outcome measures of biofeedback: what really matters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Amanda; Rudick, Kristen; Richter, Meg; Zderic, Stephen

    2014-08-01

    Clinical epidemiologic studies suggest that once established, voiding dysfunction can become a lifelong condition if not treated correctly early on in life. Biofeedback is one component of a voiding retraining program to help children with voiding dysfunction. Our goal was to compare objective non-invasive urodynamic data obtained during office biofeedback sessions with patient reported voiding symptom scores. Charts of 55 children referred in 2010 for pelvic floor muscle biofeedback therapy for urinary incontinence were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with any anatomic diagnoses were excluded. Forty-seven (86%) females and eight males (14%) with a mean age of 8.2 years made up the cohort. Uroflow curves, voided volumes, and post-void residuals were recorded at each visit and served as objective data. Volumes were normalized as a percentage of expected bladder capacity according to age. The patient reported symptom score and patient reported outcome (improved, no change or worse) served as subjective measures of intervention. The primary referral diagnoses were day and night wetting in 37 (67%) and daytime incontinence in 18 (33%) children. A history of urinary tract infection (UTI) was noted in 32 (64%) patients, and 25% were maintained on antibiotic prophylaxis during the study period. Twenty-nine percent were maintained on anticholinergic medication. Patients attended an average of 2.5 biofeedback sessions. Voided volumes and post void residual volumes were unchanged, 50% of the abnormal uroflow curves normalized over the course of treatment (p biofeedback were rated an improved in 26 (47%), no change in 15 (27%), worse in three (5%) patients, and not rated in 11 patients (21%). Pelvic floor muscle biofeedback is associated with patient-reported improvement in symptoms, reduction in voiding symptom score, and normalization of uroflow curves, but these improvements are not correlated with objective parameters of voided volumes and post-void residual urine

  19. RAn Enlarged Conception of the Subject Matter of Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T. Kearns

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Una concepción ampliada del objeto de estudio de la lógica: El ensayo es una introducción a la lógica ilocucionaria, es decir a la lógica de los actos de habla. El autor propone una aproximación distinta a este campo de investigación con respecto al que han propuesto John Searle y Daniel Vanderveken. Ellos conciben la lógica ilocucionaria como un suplemento o un apéndice a la lógica estándar, la lógica de los enunciados, y se concentran en el estudio de leyes y principios muy generales que caracterizan todo tipo de actos ilocucionarios. Kearns, en cambio, concibe la lógica ilocucionaria como una disciplina muy comprensiva, con muchos subsistemas, que cobija a la lógica estándar como parte suya. El escrito describe brevemente el uso de los operadores ilocucionarios (de aseveración, de negación, de suposición de verdad o falsedad, explica la manera como se expande la concepción semántica en términos de condiciones de verdad para incluir los compromisos racionales del hablante y presenta un sistema de deducción para esta lógica. Como un ejemplo de lo que esta lógica puede hacer se ofrece una solución a la paradoja de Moore contenida en la aseveración “Está lloviendo, pero no lo creo”

  20. Experiential Learning of Electronics Subject Matter in Middle School Robotics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihtaršic, David; Avsec, Stanislav; Kocijancic, Slavko

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the experiential learning of electronics subject matter is effective in the middle school open learning of robotics. Electronics is often ignored in robotics courses. Since robotics courses are typically comprised of computer-related subjects, and mechanical and electrical engineering, these…

  1. One Health in food safety and security education: Subject matter outline for a curricular framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelos, John A; Arens, Amanda L; Johnson, Heather A; Cadriel, Jessica L; Osburn, Bennie I

    2017-06-01

    Educating students in the range of subjects encompassing food safety and security as approached from a One Health perspective requires consideration of a variety of different disciplines and the interrelationships among disciplines. The Western Institute for Food Safety and Security developed a subject matter outline to accompany a previously published One Health in food safety and security curricular framework. The subject matter covered in this outline encompasses a variety of topics and disciplines related to food safety and security including effects of food production on the environment. This subject matter outline should help guide curriculum development and education in One Health in food safety and security and provides useful information for educators, researchers, students, and public policy-makers facing the inherent challenges of maintaining and/or developing safe and secure food supplies without destroying Earth's natural resources.

  2. One Health in food safety and security education: Subject matter outline for a curricular framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Angelos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Educating students in the range of subjects encompassing food safety and security as approached from a One Health perspective requires consideration of a variety of different disciplines and the interrelationships among disciplines. The Western Institute for Food Safety and Security developed a subject matter outline to accompany a previously published One Health in food safety and security curricular framework. The subject matter covered in this outline encompasses a variety of topics and disciplines related to food safety and security including effects of food production on the environment. This subject matter outline should help guide curriculum development and education in One Health in food safety and security and provides useful information for educators, researchers, students, and public policy-makers facing the inherent challenges of maintaining and/or developing safe and secure food supplies without destroying Earth's natural resources.

  3. Generalized thermodynamics of phase equilibria in scalar active matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solon, Alexandre P.; Stenhammar, Joakim; Cates, Michael E.; Kafri, Yariv; Tailleur, Julien

    2018-02-01

    Motility-induced phase separation (MIPS) arises generically in fluids of self-propelled particles when interactions lead to a kinetic slowdown at high densities. Starting from a continuum description of scalar active matter akin to a generalized Cahn-Hilliard equation, we give a general prescription for the mean densities of coexisting phases in flux-free steady states that amounts, at a hydrodynamics scale, to extremizing an effective free energy. We illustrate our approach on two well-known models: self-propelled particles interacting either through a density-dependent propulsion speed or via direct pairwise forces. Our theory accounts quantitatively for their phase diagrams, providing a unified description of MIPS.

  4. Age-related changes of diffusional anisotropy in the cerebral white matter in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, Haruo; Asano, Tetsuichi; Ogawa, Kimikazu; Takasaki, Masaru; Shindo, Hiroaki; Kakizaki, Dai; Abe, Kimihiko

    1997-01-01

    To investigate age-related changes of diffusional anisotropy in the cerebral white matter, we performed diffusion-weighted MRI studies in 21 normal subjects aged 25 to 96 years. The anisotropic rations (ARs), defined as the apparent diffusion coefficients perpendicular to the nerve fibers to those parallel to the nerve fibers, were significantly higher in elderly than in young subjects in the anterior and posterior white matter surrounding the lateral ventricle. Moreover, significant correlation between age and AR was found in the anterior white matter. The ventricular index (VI) measured on MRI, as a quantitative indicator of brain atrophy, was significantly higher in elderly than younger subjects, and significantly correlated with AR in the anterior white matter. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the VI showed the highest correlation for AR. On the other hand, there was no significant correlations between ARs in the corpus callosum and age. These results suggest that morphological changes in the myelin and axon in the white matter occur in elderly normal subjects, probably due to neuronal loss with aging. (author)

  5. Supervising and Controlling Unmanned Systems: A Multi-Phase Study with Subject Matter Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porat, Talya; Oron-Gilad, Tal; Rottem-Hovev, Michal; Silbiger, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Proliferation in the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) in civil and military operations has presented a multitude of human factors challenges; from how to bridge the gap between demand and availability of trained operators, to how to organize and present data in meaningful ways. Utilizing the Design Research Methodology (DRM), a series of closely related studies with subject matter experts (SMEs) demonstrate how the focus of research gradually shifted from “how many systems can a single operator control” to “how to distribute missions among operators and systems in an efficient way”. The first set of studies aimed to explore the modal number, i.e., how many systems can a single operator supervise and control. It was found that an experienced operator can supervise up to 15 UASs efficiently using moderate levels of automation, and control (mission and payload management) up to three systems. Once this limit was reached, a single operator's performance was compared to a team controlling the same number of systems. In general, teams led to better performances. Hence, shifting design efforts toward developing tools that support teamwork environments of multiple operators with multiple UASs (MOMU). In MOMU settings, when the tasks are similar or when areas of interest overlap, one operator seems to have an advantage over a team who needs to collaborate and coordinate. However, in all other cases, a team was advantageous over a single operator. Other findings and implications, as well as future directions for research are discussed. PMID:27252662

  6. Supervising and Controlling Unmanned Systems: A Multi-Phase Study with Subject Matter Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porat, Talya; Oron-Gilad, Tal; Rottem-Hovev, Michal; Silbiger, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Proliferation in the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) in civil and military operations has presented a multitude of human factors challenges; from how to bridge the gap between demand and availability of trained operators, to how to organize and present data in meaningful ways. Utilizing the Design Research Methodology (DRM), a series of closely related studies with subject matter experts (SMEs) demonstrate how the focus of research gradually shifted from "how many systems can a single operator control" to "how to distribute missions among operators and systems in an efficient way". The first set of studies aimed to explore the modal number, i.e., how many systems can a single operator supervise and control. It was found that an experienced operator can supervise up to 15 UASs efficiently using moderate levels of automation, and control (mission and payload management) up to three systems. Once this limit was reached, a single operator's performance was compared to a team controlling the same number of systems. In general, teams led to better performances. Hence, shifting design efforts toward developing tools that support teamwork environments of multiple operators with multiple UASs (MOMU). In MOMU settings, when the tasks are similar or when areas of interest overlap, one operator seems to have an advantage over a team who needs to collaborate and coordinate. However, in all other cases, a team was advantageous over a single operator. Other findings and implications, as well as future directions for research are discussed.

  7. What Do Subject Matter Experts Have to Say about Participating in Education and Outreach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Colleen; NASA's Universe of Learning Team

    2018-01-01

    NASA’s Universe of Learning partners wish to actively engage with Subject Matter Experts (scientists and engineers) throughout the design, development, and delivery of products, programs, and professional development. In order to ensure these engagement efforts aligned with the needs of Subject Matter Experts, the external evaluators conducted an online survey. The subject pool included the scientists and engineers employed at the partner organizations as well as other scientists and engineers affiliated with NASA’s Astrophysics missions and research programs. This presentation will describe scientists’/engineers’ interest in various types of education/outreach, their availability to participate in education/outreach, factors that would encourage their participation in education/outreach, and the preparation and support they have for participation in education/outreach.

  8. General relativistic razor-thin disks with magnetically polarized matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Noguera, Anamaría; Lora-Clavijo, F. D.; González, Guillermo A.

    2018-06-01

    The origin of magnetic fields in the universe still remains unknown and constitutes one of the most intriguing questions in astronomy and astrophysics. Their significance is enormous since they have a strong influence on many astrophysical phenomena. In regards of this motivation, theoretical models of galactic disks with sources of magnetic field may contribute to understand the physics behind them. Inspired by this, we present a new family of analytical models for thin disks composed by magnetized material. The solutions are axially symmetric, conformastatic and are obtained by solving the Einstein-Maxwell Field Equations for continuum media without the test field approximation, and assuming that the sources are razor-thin disk of magnetically polarized matter. We find analytical expressions for the surface energy density, the pressure, the polarization vector, the electromagnetic fields, the mass and the rotational velocity for circular orbits, for two particular solutions. In each case, the energy-momentum tensor agrees with the energy conditions and also the convergence of the mass for all the solutions is proved. Since the solutions are well-behaved, they may be used to model astrophysical thin disks, and also may contribute as initial data in numerical simulations. In addition, the process to obtain the solutions is described in detail, which may be used as a guide to find solutions with magnetized material in General Relativity.

  9. Urban Extension: Aligning with the Needs of Urban Audiences Through Subject-Matter Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad Gaolach

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The educational program model is the principle approach Extension uses to deliver on its mission of “taking knowledge to the people.” However, with county-based faculty fully engaged in long-term program delivery, they may have little or no capacity to address emerging issues faced by urban communities. Urban governments often seek the research capacity of a university in addition to, or instead of, the traditional Extension programming model but sometimes turn first to other urban-serving universities. Washington State University Extension has addressed these challenges by establishing subject-matter centers. This article examines how subject-matter centers can add capacity to traditional Extension offices in order to be responsive to emerging local needs, suggesting models that other university Extension programs may use or adapt to their local communities. These models also foster more community engagement and articulate greater public value for the institution as a whole.

  10. Problems Faced By Elementary School Second Grade English Subject Matter Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belgin Bal Incebacak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of thisstudy isto determine the problems experienced by subject matter teachers while instructing English lessons in the second grade of elementary school. What are the problemsfaced by English subject matter teachers when they instruct in 2nd grade lessons? In this research the descriptive modeling, which is one of the qualitative research methods, was employed. In accordance with this objective, we worked with 8 subject matter teachers from 5 different schoolsinAtakum and Ilkadim districtslocated in downtown Samsun, through easily accessible case sampling. The semi-structured “English Course Interview Form’’was applied to the teachers. In the study, descriptive survey model was employed, since it was aimed to reveal the current status of qualitative research methods.According to the results obtained from the research, the content was configured and presented under 5 themes. They were categorized as: 1. the problems experienced in classroom management, 2. the problems in physical and cognitive readiness, 3. the problems experienced in the learning and teacher process, 4. the problems seen in counseling, 5. the problems experienced in assessment and evaluation. In conclusion, the teachers stated that they had problems with managing the classroom, especially with the second grade students, whom are younger than others. It is observed that the change for teaching English at a younger age has been appropriate. Our teachersstated that they required in-service training so as to adapt to this aforementioned change.

  11. General calculation of the cross section for dark matter annihilations into two photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Cely, Camilo [Service de Physique Théorique, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Boulevard du Triomphe, CP225, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Rivera, Andres, E-mail: Camilo.Alfredo.Garcia.Cely@ulb.ac.be, E-mail: afelipe.rivera@udea.edu.co [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)

    2017-03-01

    Assuming that the underlying model satisfies some general requirements such as renormalizability and CP conservation, we calculate the non-relativistic one-loop cross section for any self-conjugate dark matter particle annihilating into two photons. We accomplish this by carefully classifying all possible one-loop diagrams and, from them, reading off the dark matter interactions with the particles running in the loop. Our approach is general and leads to the same results found in the literature for popular dark matter candidates such as the neutralinos of the MSSM, minimal dark matter, inert Higgs and Kaluza-Klein dark matter.

  12. General calculation of the cross section for dark matter annihilations into two photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Cely, Camilo; Rivera, Andres

    2017-01-01

    Assuming that the underlying model satisfies some general requirements such as renormalizability and CP conservation, we calculate the non-relativistic one-loop cross section for any self-conjugate dark matter particle annihilating into two photons. We accomplish this by carefully classifying all possible one-loop diagrams and, from them, reading off the dark matter interactions with the particles running in the loop. Our approach is general and leads to the same results found in the literature for popular dark matter candidates such as the neutralinos of the MSSM, minimal dark matter, inert Higgs and Kaluza-Klein dark matter.

  13. Generalized Liquid Crystals: Giant Fluctuations and the Vestigial Chiral Order of I, O, and T Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Liu (刘科 子竞

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The physics of nematic liquid crystals has been the subject of intensive research since the late 19th century. However, the focus of this pursuit has been centered around uniaxial and biaxial nematics associated with constituents bearing a D_{∞h} or D_{2h} symmetry, respectively. In view of general symmetries, however, these are singularly special since nematic order can in principle involve any point-group symmetry. Given the progress in tailoring nanoparticles with particular shapes and interactions, this vast family of “generalized nematics” might become accessible in the laboratory. Little is known because the order parameter theories associated with the highly symmetric point groups are remarkably complicated, involving tensor order parameters of high rank. Here, we show that the generic features of the statistical physics of such systems can be studied in a highly flexible and efficient fashion using a mathematical tool borrowed from high-energy physics: discrete non-Abelian gauge theory. Explicitly, we construct a family of lattice gauge models encapsulating nematic ordering of general three-dimensional point-group symmetries. We find that the most symmetrical generalized nematics are subjected to thermal fluctuations of unprecedented severity. As a result, novel forms of fluctuation phenomena become possible. In particular, we demonstrate that a vestigial phase carrying no more than chiral order becomes ubiquitous departing from high point-group symmetry chiral building blocks, such as I, O, and T symmetric matter.

  14. Generalized Liquid Crystals: Giant Fluctuations and the Vestigial Chiral Order of I , O , and T Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ke; Nissinen, Jaakko; Slager, Robert-Jan; Wu, Kai; Zaanen, Jan

    2016-10-01

    The physics of nematic liquid crystals has been the subject of intensive research since the late 19th century. However, the focus of this pursuit has been centered around uniaxial and biaxial nematics associated with constituents bearing a D∞ h or D2 h symmetry, respectively. In view of general symmetries, however, these are singularly special since nematic order can in principle involve any point-group symmetry. Given the progress in tailoring nanoparticles with particular shapes and interactions, this vast family of "generalized nematics" might become accessible in the laboratory. Little is known because the order parameter theories associated with the highly symmetric point groups are remarkably complicated, involving tensor order parameters of high rank. Here, we show that the generic features of the statistical physics of such systems can be studied in a highly flexible and efficient fashion using a mathematical tool borrowed from high-energy physics: discrete non-Abelian gauge theory. Explicitly, we construct a family of lattice gauge models encapsulating nematic ordering of general three-dimensional point-group symmetries. We find that the most symmetrical generalized nematics are subjected to thermal fluctuations of unprecedented severity. As a result, novel forms of fluctuation phenomena become possible. In particular, we demonstrate that a vestigial phase carrying no more than chiral order becomes ubiquitous departing from high point-group symmetry chiral building blocks, such as I , O , and T symmetric matter.

  15. Incidental white-matter foci on MRI in ''healthy'' subjects: evidence of subtle cognitive dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, K.A.; Schulte, C.; Girke, W.; Reischies, F.M.; Felix, R.

    1996-01-01

    The clinical significance of incidental white-matter foci seen on MRI is controversial. Mainly using a computer-assisted neuropsychological test battery, we tested the hypothesis that there is a clinical correlate of these foci. We studied 41 individuals aged 45-65 years with no history of neurological or psychiatric disorder, in whom no indication of central nervous system abnormalities was found on standardised neurological examination. A computer-assisted neuropsychological test battery, with the advantage of precise measuring of both time and deviation (e. g. in position memory tests), and rating scales for emotional dysfunction were administered; selected soft neurological signs were assessed. In 16 subjects (39 %) MRI showed high-signal foci in the white matter on spin-echo sequences. White-matter foci not adjacent to the lateral ventricles were found to be related to performance on immediate visual memory/visuoperceptual skills, visuomotor tracking/psychomotor speed and, to a lesser degree, learning capacity and abstract and conceptual reasoning skills. Subtle cognitive dysfunction would appear to be a clinical correlate of punctate white-matter foci on MRI of otherwise ''healty'' individuals. (orig.). With 1 fig., 2 tabs

  16. Interaction of relativistic elementary atoms with matter. I. General formulas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrowczyn'ski, S.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of the interaction of relativistic elementary atoms (Coulomb bound states of elementary particles such as positronium, pionium, etc.) with matter is studied in the reference frame where the atom is initially at rest. An atom of matter is treated as a spinless structureless fast particle. The amplitudes of elementary-atom interaction are derived in the Born approximation under the assumption that a momentum transfer to the atom does not significantly exceed an inverse Bohr radius of the atom. The elementary-atom excitation and ionization processes are considered. The transitions where the spin projection of the atom component is reversed are also studied. In particular the matrix elements for para-ortho and ortho-para transitions are given. The spin structure of the amplitudes is discussed in detail. The sum rules, which allow the calculation of the cross sections summed over atom final states are found. Finally the formulas of the atom interaction cross sections are presented

  17. Developing a Democratic View of Academic Subject Matters: John Dewey, William Chandler Bagley, and Boyd Henry Bode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watras, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    In the first half of the twentieth century, the ideal of democracy influenced the conceptions people had of the academic subject matters. A common criticism was that abstract academic subjects served aristocratic societies. Although most theorists considered the academic subjects to be important, they had differing views on the conception of…

  18. Subject Matter Specialists and Organizational Effectiveness of Krishi Vigyan Kendras of Tamil Nadu and Kerala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimal Puthuparambil Bashir

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken with the objective of determining the socio-personal characteristics of Subject Matter Specialists (SMS of Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK and their relationship with organizational effectiveness. Altogether 65 SMS’ from 12 KVKs across Tamil Nadu and Kerala were selected. The study has concluded that most of respondents were middle aged with more than half of them being female. Majority of them was married, had work experience of below five years and had attended three to five trainings. Most of the respondents had high level of job satisfaction team-work and one-fourth felt a medium to high job stress. More than half of the respondents felt medium level of work load. There was a positive and significant correlation at one per cent level between job satisfaction / team work and organizational effectiveness of KVKs whereas job stress had a negative and significant correlation at five per cent level. Hence it may be concluded that team work, job satisfaction and job stress play a significant role in improving the organizational effectiveness of KVK. More emphasis must be given for team building enhance the job satisfaction level and reduce the job stress among Subject Matter Specialists of KVKs.

  19. Glucose metabolism, gray matter structure, and memory decline in subjective memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheef, Lukas; Spottke, Annika; Daerr, Moritz; Joe, Alexius; Striepens, Nadine; Kölsch, Heike; Popp, Julius; Daamen, Marcel; Gorris, Dominik; Heneka, Michael T; Boecker, Henning; Biersack, Hans J; Maier, Wolfgang; Schild, Hans H; Wagner, Michael; Jessen, Frank

    2012-09-25

    To identify biological evidence for Alzheimer disease (AD) in individuals with subjective memory impairment (SMI) and unimpaired cognitive performance and to investigate the longitudinal cognitive course in these subjects. [¹⁸F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose PET (FDG-PET) and structural MRI were acquired in 31 subjects with SMI and 56 controls. Cognitive follow-up testing was performed (average follow-up time: 35 months). Differences in baseline brain imaging data and in memory decline were assessed between both groups. Associations of memory decline with brain imaging data were tested. The SMI group showed hypometabolism in the right precuneus and hypermetabolism in the right medial temporal lobe. Gray matter volume was reduced in the right hippocampus in the SMI group. At follow-up, subjects with SMI showed a poorer performance than controls on measures of episodic memory. Longitudinal memory decline in the SMI group was associated with reduced glucose metabolism in the right precuneus at baseline. The cross-sectional difference in 2 independent neuroimaging modalities indicates early AD pathology in SMI. The poorer memory performance at follow-up and the association of reduced longitudinal memory performance with hypometabolism in the precuneus at baseline support the concept of SMI as the earliest manifestation of AD.

  20. Habitual sleep durations and subjective sleep quality predict white matter differences in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakh Khalsa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-imposed short sleep durations are increasingly commonplace in society, and have considerable health and performance implications for individuals. Reduced sleep duration over multiple nights has similar behavioural effects to those observed following acute total sleep deprivation, suggesting that lack of sleep affects brain function cumulatively. A link between habitual sleep patterns and functional connectivity has previously been observed, and the effect of sleep duration on the brain's intrinsic functional architecture may provide a link between sleep status and cognition. However, it is currently not known whether differences in habitual sleep patterns across individuals are related to changes in the brain's white matter, which underlies structural connectivity. In the present study we use diffusion–weighted imaging and a group comparison application of tract based spatial statistics (TBSS to investigate changes to fractional anisotropy (FA and mean diffusivity (MD in relation to sleep duration and quality, hypothesising that white matter metrics would be positively associated with sleep duration and quality. Diffusion weighted imaging data was acquired from a final cohort of 33 (23–29 years, 10 female, mean 25.4 years participants. Sleep patterns were assessed for a 14 day period using wrist actigraphs and sleep diaries, and subjective sleep quality with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. Median splits based on total sleep time and PSQI were used to create groups of shorter/longer and poorer/better sleepers, whose imaging data was compared using TBSS followed by post-hoc correlation analysis in regions identified as significantly different between the groups. There were significant positive correlations between sleep duration and FA in the left orbito-frontal region and the right superior corona radiata, and significant negative correlations between sleep duration and MD in right orbito-frontal white matter and the right

  1. 30 CFR 206.452 - Coal subject to royalties-general provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal subject to royalties-general provisions... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 206.452 Coal subject to royalties—general provisions. (a) All coal (except coal unavoidably lost as determined by BLM pursuant to 43 CFR group 3400...

  2. 30 CFR 206.253 - Coal subject to royalties-general provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal subject to royalties-general provisions... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 206.253 Coal subject to royalties—general provisions. (a) All coal (except coal unavoidably lost as determined by BLM under 43 CFR part 3400) from a...

  3. General aspects of the nucleon-nucleon interaction and nuclear matter properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plohl, Oliver

    2008-07-25

    The subject of the present thesis is at first the investigation of model independent properties of the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction in the vacuum concerning the relativistic structure and the implications for nuclear matter properties. Relativistic and non-relativistic meson-exchange potentials, phenomenological potentials s well as potentials based on effective field theory (EFT) are therefore mapped on a relativistic operator basis given by the Clifford Algebra. This allows to compare the various approaches at the level of covariant amplitudes where a remarkable agreement is found. Furthermore, the relativistic self-energy is determined in the Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation. The appearance of a scalar and vector field of several hundred MeV magnitude is a general feature of relativistic descriptions of nuclear matter. Within QCD sum rules these fields arise due to the density dependence of chiral condensates. We find that independent of the applied NN interaction large scalar and vector fields are generated when the symmetries of the Lorentz group are restored. In the framework of chiral EFT (chEFT) it is shown, that these fields are generated by short-range next-to-leading order (NLO) contact terms, which are connected to the spin-orbit interaction. To estimate the effect arising from NN correlations the equation of state of nuclear and neutron matter is calculated in the Brueckner-HF (BHF) approximation applying chEFT. Although, as expected, a clear over-binding is found (at NLO a saturating behavior is observed), the symmetry energy shows realistic properties when compared to phenomenological potentials (within the same approximation) and other approaches. The investigation of the pion mass dependence within chEFT at NLO shows that the magnitude of the scalar and vector fields persists in the chiral limit - nuclear matter is still bound. In contrast to the case of a pion mass larger than the physical one the binding energy and saturation density are

  4. General aspects of the nucleon-nucleon interaction and nuclear matter properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plohl, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    The subject of the present thesis is at first the investigation of model independent properties of the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction in the vacuum concerning the relativistic structure and the implications for nuclear matter properties. Relativistic and non-relativistic meson-exchange potentials, phenomenological potentials s well as potentials based on effective field theory (EFT) are therefore mapped on a relativistic operator basis given by the Clifford Algebra. This allows to compare the various approaches at the level of covariant amplitudes where a remarkable agreement is found. Furthermore, the relativistic self-energy is determined in the Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation. The appearance of a scalar and vector field of several hundred MeV magnitude is a general feature of relativistic descriptions of nuclear matter. Within QCD sum rules these fields arise due to the density dependence of chiral condensates. We find that independent of the applied NN interaction large scalar and vector fields are generated when the symmetries of the Lorentz group are restored. In the framework of chiral EFT (chEFT) it is shown, that these fields are generated by short-range next-to-leading order (NLO) contact terms, which are connected to the spin-orbit interaction. To estimate the effect arising from NN correlations the equation of state of nuclear and neutron matter is calculated in the Brueckner-HF (BHF) approximation applying chEFT. Although, as expected, a clear over-binding is found (at NLO a saturating behavior is observed), the symmetry energy shows realistic properties when compared to phenomenological potentials (within the same approximation) and other approaches. The investigation of the pion mass dependence within chEFT at NLO shows that the magnitude of the scalar and vector fields persists in the chiral limit - nuclear matter is still bound. In contrast to the case of a pion mass larger than the physical one the binding energy and saturation density are

  5. Small P Systems with Catalysts or Anti-Matter Simulating Generalized Register Machines and Generalized Counter Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artiom Alhazov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on two weak forms of cooperation in P systems, namely, catalytic rules and matter/anti-matter annihilation rules. These variants of P systems both are computationally complete, while the corresponding rule complexity turns out to be of special interest. For establishing considerably small universal P systems in both cases, we found two suitable tools: generalized register machines and generalized counter automata. Depending on the features used in the different variants, we construct several small universal P systems.

  6. Knot numbers used as labels for identifying subject matter of a khipu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Saez-Rodriguez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This investigation presents a new way to look at the numerical khipu, a knotted-string recording device from Pachacamac (Peru, and the types of information it contains. In addition to celestial coordinates, khipu knots apparently pertain to an early form of double-entry accounting. This study hypothesizes that the khipu sample has the recording capacity needed to register double-entry-like accounts. After the identification of its subject matter, the khipu sample was studied in an attempt to ascertain whether the knot values could represent instructions from the Inca state administration to a local accounting center. The results indicate that the numerical information in the pairing quadrants (determined by the distribution of S- and Z-knots should be read from top to bottom along the full length of the string and can then provide certain complementary details regarding the projected corn stocks of the Inca stat

  7. Bivariate generalized Pareto distribution for extreme atmospheric particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Nor Azrita Mohd; Adam, Mohd Bakri; Ibrahim, Noor Akma; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2015-02-01

    The high particulate matter (PM10) level is the prominent issue causing various impacts to human health and seriously affecting the economics. The asymptotic theory of extreme value is apply for analyzing the relation of extreme PM10 data from two nearby air quality monitoring stations. The series of daily maxima PM10 for Johor Bahru and Pasir Gudang stations are consider for year 2001 to 2010 databases. The 85% and 95% marginal quantile apply to determine the threshold values and hence construct the series of exceedances over the chosen threshold. The logistic, asymmetric logistic, negative logistic and asymmetric negative logistic models areconsidered as the dependence function to the joint distribution of a bivariate observation. Maximum likelihood estimation is employed for parameter estimations. The best fitted model is chosen based on the Akaike Information Criterion and the quantile plots. It is found that the asymmetric logistic model gives the best fitted model for bivariate extreme PM10 data and shows the weak dependence between two stations.

  8. NASA’s Universe of Learning: Engaging Subject Matter Experts to Support Museum Alliance Science Briefings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcucci, Emma; Slivinski, Carolyn; Lawton, Brandon L.; Smith, Denise A.; Squires, Gordon K.; Biferno, Anya A.; Lestition, Kathleen; Cominsky, Lynn R.; Lee, Janice C.; Rivera, Thalia; Walker, Allyson; Spisak, Marilyn

    2018-06-01

    NASA's Universe of Learning creates and delivers science-driven, audience-driven resources and experiences designed to engage and immerse learners of all ages and backgrounds in exploring the universe for themselves. The project is a unique partnership between the Space Telescope Science Institute, Caltech/IPAC, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, and Sonoma State University and is part of the NASA SMD Science Activation Collective. The NASA’s Universe of Learning projects pull on the expertise of subject matter experts (scientist and engineers) from across the broad range of NASA Astrophysics themes and missions. One such project, which draws strongly on the expertise of the community, is the NASA’s Universe of Learning Science Briefings, which is done in collaboration with the NASA Museum Alliance. This collaboration presents a monthly hour-long discussion on relevant NASA astrophysics topics or events to an audience composed largely of informal educators from informal learning environments. These professional learning opportunities use experts and resources within the astronomical community to support increased interest and engagement of the informal learning community in NASA Astrophysics-related concepts and events. Briefings are designed to create a foundation for this audience using (1) broad science themes, (2) special events, or (3) breaking science news. The NASA’s Universe of Learning team engages subject matter experts to be speakers and present their science at these briefings to provide a direct connection to NASA Astrophysics science and provide the audience an opportunity to interact directly with scientists and engineers involved in NASA missions. To maximize the usefulness of the Museum Alliance Science Briefings, each briefing highlights resources related to the science theme to support informal educators in incorporating science content into their venues and/or interactions with the public. During this

  9. Analyzing Subject Disciplines of Knowledge Originality and Knowledge Generality for Library & Information Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-Hsuan Huang

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study used bibliometric methods to analyze subject disciplines of knowledge originality and knowledge generality for Library and Information Science (LIS by using citing and cited documents from 1997 to 2006. We found that the major subject disciplines of knowledge originality and generality are still LIS, and computer science and LIS interact and influence each other closely. It is evident that number of subject disciplines of knowledge originality is higher than that of knowledge generality. The interdisciplinary characteristics of LIS are illustrated by variety areas of knowledge originality and knowledge generality. Because the number of received subject disciplines is higher than that of given subject disciplines, it suggests that LIS is an application-oriented research area. [Article content in Chinese

  10. Subjective memory complaints in general practice predicts future dementia: a 4-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldorff, Frans Boch; Vogel, Asmus Mejling; Siersma, Volkert Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Many older patients in general practice have subjective memory complaints (SMC); however, not all share this information with their general practitioner (GP). The association between SMC and future cognitive decline or dementia is not clear, especially in a general practice population. The aim...

  11. Generalized dynamics of soft-matter quasicrystals mathematical models and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Tian-You

    2017-01-01

    The book systematically introduces the mathematical models and solutions of generalized hydrodynamics of soft-matter quasicrystals (SMQ). It provides methods for solving the initial-boundary value problems in these systems. The solutions obtained demonstrate the distribution, deformation and motion of the soft-matter quasicrystals, and determine the stress, velocity and displacement fields. The interactions between phonons, phasons and fluid phonons are discussed in some fundamental materials samples. Mathematical solutions for solid and soft-matter quasicrystals are compared, to help readers to better understand the featured properties of SMQ.

  12. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  13. Thermodynamic laws for generalized f(R) gravity with curvature-matter coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yabo; Zhao Yueyue; Cai Ronggen; Lu Jianbo; Lu Junwang; Gao Xiaojing

    2012-01-01

    The first law and the generalized second law (GSL) of thermodynamics for the generalized f(R) gravity with curvature-matter coupling are studied in the spatially homogeneous, isotropic FRW universe. The research results show that the field equations of the generalized f(R) gravity with curvature-matter coupling can be cast to the form of the first law of thermodynamics with the so-called the entropy production terms dS ¯ and the GSL can be given by considering the FRW universe filled only with ordinary matter enclosed by the dynamical apparent horizon with the Hawking temperature. Furthermore, as a concrete example, by utilizing the GSL the constraints on the gravitational model with f 1 (R)=R+αR l and f 2 (R)=R m are also discussed. It is worth noting these results given by us are quite general and can degenerate to the ones in Einstein's general relativity and pure f(R) gravity with non-coupling and non-minimal coupling as special cases. Comparing with the case of Einstein's general relativity, the appearance of the entropy production term dS ¯ in the first law of thermodynamics demonstrates that the horizon thermodynamics is non-equilibrium one for generalized f(R) gravity with curvature-matter coupling, which is consistent with the arguments given in Akbar and Cai (2007) [13] and Eling et al. (2006) [18].

  14. Average bit error probability of binary coherent signaling over generalized fading channels subject to additive generalized gaussian noise

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza

    2012-06-01

    This letter considers the average bit error probability of binary coherent signaling over flat fading channels subject to additive generalized Gaussian noise. More specifically, a generic closed form expression in terms of the Fox\\'s H function is offered for the extended generalized-K fading case. Simplifications for some special fading distributions such as generalized-K fading and Nakagami-m fading and special additive noise distributions such as Gaussian and Laplacian noise are then presented. Finally, the mathematical formalism is illustrated by some numerical examples verified by computer based simulations for a variety of fading and additive noise parameters. © 2012 IEEE.

  15. Exact Symbol Error Probability of Square M-QAM Signaling over Generalized Fading Channels subject to Additive Generalized Gaussian Noise

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza

    2013-07-01

    This paper considers the average symbol error probability of square Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) coherent signaling over flat fading channels subject to additive generalized Gaussian noise. More specifically, a generic closedform expression in terms of the Fox H function and the bivariate Fox H function is offered for the extended generalized-K fading case. Simplifications for some special fading distributions such as generalized-K fading, Nakagami-m fading, and Rayleigh fading and special additive noise distributions such as Gaussian and Laplacian noise are then presented. Finally, the mathematical formalism is illustrated by some numerical examples verified by computer based simulations for a variety of fading and additive noise parameters.

  16. Transferring and generalizing deep-learning-based neural encoding models across subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Haiguang; Shi, Junxing; Chen, Wei; Liu, Zhongming

    2018-08-01

    Recent studies have shown the value of using deep learning models for mapping and characterizing how the brain represents and organizes information for natural vision. However, modeling the relationship between deep learning models and the brain (or encoding models), requires measuring cortical responses to large and diverse sets of natural visual stimuli from single subjects. This requirement limits prior studies to few subjects, making it difficult to generalize findings across subjects or for a population. In this study, we developed new methods to transfer and generalize encoding models across subjects. To train encoding models specific to a target subject, the models trained for other subjects were used as the prior models and were refined efficiently using Bayesian inference with a limited amount of data from the target subject. To train encoding models for a population, the models were progressively trained and updated with incremental data from different subjects. For the proof of principle, we applied these methods to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from three subjects watching tens of hours of naturalistic videos, while a deep residual neural network driven by image recognition was used to model visual cortical processing. Results demonstrate that the methods developed herein provide an efficient and effective strategy to establish both subject-specific and population-wide predictive models of cortical representations of high-dimensional and hierarchical visual features. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 'The body does matter': Women as embodied social subjects in Angela Carter's Nights at the Circus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milosavljević Tatjana B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Postmodernism posed a crucial ontological challenge to reality, questioning what constitutes the real world, simultaneously interrogating the horizon of representation of this unstable reality in fiction. Feminism on the other hand equipped us with critical tools for interpreting the reality of being in the world in a gendered body, as well as with a conceptual apparatus for interpreting the manifold institutional and private oppressions of women's bodies that play out in women's daily lives and in the discourses that shape them, literary discourse being one of them. This paper argues that Angela Carter's 1984 novel Nights at the Circus, which is widely held as a postfeminist text due to its narrative commitment to transcending gender binaries, essentially uses the strategies of postmodern storytelling and characterization in order to explore women's embodied potentialities of agency i.e. their construction of subjectivity through body. We will argue that the hybrid magic realist narrative constructs Fevvers' body as a titillating postmodern performance, ontologically illusive and elusive, yet it grounds that same body in various socially effected predicaments and experiences that serve to show that even in the midst of a play of signifiers, in Patricia Waugh's words, 'the body does matter, at least to what has been the dominant perspective within British female fiction' (Waugh, 2006, p. 196. In other words, it may be argued that Carter's novel is invested in traditional second-wave feminist politics to the extent that it shows that a woman's body is an indispensable medium of being in the world with material consequences that bear on the formation of her subjectivity and possibility of agency, and through which she acts out her relationships to others and is acted upon.

  18. NASA's Universe of Learning: The Integral Role of Research Astronomers and Other Subject Matter Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Janice; Universe of Learning Team

    2018-01-01

    Astronomy seeks to understand the workings of the Universe on its largest scales, and to answer fundamental questions about the story of our origins. The science of astronomy thus naturally lends itself to informal education and public outreach activities, as it broadly captures the human imagination. There are at least three overall goals for investment of resources in Astronomy E/PO: to interest students in pursuing STEM education and careers; to develop Astronomy as context for teaching more basic physical and computer science in service of US National Education Goals; to help motivate continued public support of federally funded Astronomy research and technology development. Providing a full spectrum of opportunities for the public to learn about recent Astronomy discoveries is key to achieving these societal goals. Thus, the E/PO professional community must have an understanding of recent scientific/technological results, and engage with the researchers who are creating new knowledge to explicate that knowledge to the public. It stands to reason that researchers (or “subject matter experts, SMEs”) must be involved in and remain connected to the E/PO endeavor. In this talk, I will describe how research astronomers and other SMEs play an integral role in a full range of informal education programming developed by the NASA Universe of Learning collaboration, and opportunities to get involved.

  19. Information processing speed mediates the relationship between white matter and general intelligence in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloza, Clara; Cox, Simon R; Duff, Barbara; Semple, Scott I; Bastin, Mark E; Whalley, Heather C; Lawrie, Stephen M

    2016-08-30

    Several authors have proposed that schizophrenia is the result of impaired connectivity between specific brain regions rather than differences in local brain activity. White matter abnormalities have been suggested as the anatomical substrate for this dysconnectivity hypothesis. Information processing speed may act as a key cognitive resource facilitating higher order cognition by allowing multiple cognitive processes to be simultaneously available. However, there is a lack of established associations between these variables in schizophrenia. We hypothesised that the relationship between white matter and general intelligence would be mediated by processing speed. White matter water diffusion parameters were studied using Tract-based Spatial Statistics and computed within 46 regions-of-interest (ROI). Principal component analysis was conducted on these white matter ROI for fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity, and on neurocognitive subtests to extract general factors of white mater structure (gFA, gMD), general intelligence (g) and processing speed (gspeed). There was a positive correlation between g and gFA (r= 0.67, p =0.001) that was partially and significantly mediated by gspeed (56.22% CI: 0.10-0.62). These findings suggest a plausible model of structure-function relations in schizophrenia, whereby white matter structure may provide a neuroanatomical substrate for general intelligence, which is partly supported by speed of information processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. {sup 1}H and {sup 31}P magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging of white matter signal hyperintensity areas in elderly subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constans, J M [Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center and University of California Magnetic Resonance Unit, San Francisco, CA (United States); [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Meyerhoff, D J [Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center and University of California Magnetic Resonance Unit, San Francisco, CA (United States); [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Norman, D [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Fein, G [Department of Veterans Affairs Psychiatry Service, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); [University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Psychiatry; Weiner, M W [Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center and University of California Magnetic Resonance Unit, San Francisco, CA (United States); [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Medicine; [DVA Medical Center, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Unit, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    White matter signal hyperintensities (WMSH) are commonly seen on MRI of elderly subjects. The purpose of this study was to characterize metabolic changes in the white matter of elderly subjects with extensive WMSH. We used water-suppressed proton ({sup 1}H) magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) to compare six subjects with extensive WMSH with eight age-matched elderly subjects with minimal or absent WMSH, and phosphorus ({sup 31}P) MRSI to compare nine subjects with extensive WMSH and seven age-matched elderly subjects without extensive WMSH. Relative to region-matched tissue in elderly controls, extensive WMSH were associated with increased signal from choline-containing metabolites, no significant change of signal from N-acetylaspartate, and a trend to a decreased phosphomonoester (PME) resonance. These findings suggest that WMSH may be associated with an alteration of brain myelin phospholipids in the absence of axonal damage. There were no differences in energy phosphates, consistent with lack of ongoing brain ischemia. Within the group with extensive WMSH, PME resonance measures were significantly lower in WMSH than in contralateral normal-appearing white matter. These results provide information on pathophysiology of WMSH and a basis for comparison with WMSH in Alzheimer`s disease, vascular dementia, multiple sclerosis, and other diseases. (orig.). With 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Influence of tutors' subject-matter expertise on student effort and achievement in problem-based learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.G. Schmidt (Henk); A. van der Arend (Arie); J.H.C. Moust (Jos); I. Kokx (Irma); L. Boon (Louis)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractPurpose. To investigate the effects of tutors' subject-matter expertise on students' levels of academic achievement and study effort in a problem-based health sciences curriculum. Also, to study differences in turors' behaviors and the influences of these differences on students'

  2. Developing Pre-Service Teachers' Subject Matter Knowledge of Electromagnetism by Integrating Concept Maps and Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Nadaraj

    2015-01-01

    This case study explored the development of two pre-service teachers' subject matter knowledge (SMK) of electromagnetism while integrating the use of concept maps (CM) and collaborative learning (CL) strategies. The study aimed at capturing how these pre-service teachers' SMK in electromagnetism was enhanced after having been taught SMK in a…

  3. The Impact of Self-Perceived Subject Matter Knowledge on Pedagogical Decisions in EFL Grammar Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Hugo Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in language teacher cognition research highlight the need to explore subject matter knowledge in relation to classroom practice. This study examines the impact of two foreign language teachers' knowledge about grammar upon their pedagogical decisions. The primary database consisted of classroom observations and post-lesson…

  4. Cross-sectional variations of white and grey matter in older hypertensive patients with subjective memory complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Chetouani

    2018-01-01

    Altogether, our findings show that cross-sectional variations in overall white brain matter are linked to the metabolism of Alzheimer-like cortical areas and to cognitive performance in older hypertensive patients with only subjective memory complaints. Additional relationships with central BP strengthen the hypothesis of a contributing pathogenic role of hypertension.

  5. The Knowledge Base of Subject Matter Experts in Teaching: A Case Study of a Professional Scientist as a Beginning Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diezmann, Carmel M.; Watters, James J.

    2015-01-01

    One method of addressing the shortage of science and mathematics teachers is to train scientists and other science-related professionals to become teachers. Advocates argue that as discipline experts these career changers can relate the subject matter knowledge to various contexts and applications in teaching. In this paper, through interviews and…

  6. Rhetorical meta-language to promote the development of students' writing skills and subject matter understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelger, Susanne; Sigrell, Anders

    2016-01-01

    students' understanding of their subject matter.

  7. Girl Scouts and Subject Matter Experts: What’s the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Pamela; Girls Scouts of Northern California, Girl Scouts USA, Astronomical Society of the Pacifica, Univeristy of Arizona, and ARIES Scientific.

    2018-01-01

    Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts (Girl Scout Stars) fosters interaction between Girl Scouts and NASA Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), disseminates NASA STEM education-related resources, and engages Girl Scouts in NASA science and programs through space science badges and summer camps.A space science badge is in development for each of the six levels of Girl Scouts: Daisies, Grades K – 1; Brownies, Grades 2 -3; Juniors, Grades 4 -5; Cadettes, Grades 6 -8; Seniors, Grades 9 -10; and Ambassadors, Grades 11 -12. Indirectly, SMEs will reach tens of thousands of girls through the badges. SETI Institute SMEs Institute and SME Co-Is located at ARIES Scientific, Astronomical Society of the Pacific, University of Arizona, and Girl Scouts of Northern California developed and modified astronomy activities for the Girl Scouts USA badge writers to finesse into the Girl Scout formats. Revisions are reviewed by SMEs for accuracy. Each badge includes a step option that encourages girls to connect with SMEs, and recommendations for volunteers.A total of 127 girls from 31 states and the District of Columbia attendedTotal Eclipse Destination Camps at three locations. SMEs led activities and tours, inspiring girls to consider STEM careers. University of Arizona (U of A) SMEs lead Astronomy Camp for Volunteers, enabling volunteers to lead and inspire Girl Scouts in their respective Girl Scout Councils. A Destination Camp for Girl Scouts was also held at U of A. Girls experience authentic astronomy, learning how to collect and analyze data.Eleven teams comprised of two Girl Scouts, a volunteer or Council Staff, and an amateur astronomer attended Astronomy Club Camp, held at NASA GSFC. SMEs delivered science content. The girls will lead the formation of astronomy clubs in their councils, and will train their successors. SMEs will present and coach the clubs during monthly webinars.This presentation will highlight success and discuss lessons learned that are applicable

  8. Lack of gender effects on gray matter volumes in adolescent generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Mei; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Yan; He, Zhong; Su, Linyan; Li, Lingjiang

    2014-02-01

    Previous epidemiological and clinical studies have reported gender differences in prevalence and clinical features of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Such gender differences in clinical phenomenology suggest that the underlying neural circuitry of GAD could also be different in males and females. This study aimed to explore the possible gender effect on gray matter volumes in adolescents with GAD. Twenty-six adolescent GAD patients and 25 healthy controls participated and underwent high-resolution structural magnetic resonance scans. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to investigate gray matter alterations. Our study revealed a significant diagnosis main effect in the right putamen, with larger gray matter volumes in GAD patients compared to healthy controls, and a significant gender main effect in the left precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex, with larger gray matter volumes in males compared to females. No gender-by-diagnosis interaction effect was found in this study. The relatively small sample size in this study might result in a lack of power to demonstrate gender effects on brain structure in GAD. The results suggested that there are differences in gray matter volumes between males and females, but gray matter volumes in GAD are not influenced by gender. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Being in a romantic relationship is associated with reduced gray matter density in striatum and increased subjective happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kawamichi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that romantic relationship is associated with structural differences in the striatum related to the positive subjective experience of being in a romantic relationship. Because intimate romantic relationships contribute to perceived subjective happiness, this subjective enhancement of happiness might be accompanied by the experience of positive events related to being in a romantic relationship. To test this hypothesis and elucidate the structure involved, we compared subjective happiness, an indirect measure of the existence of positive experiences caused by being in a romantic relationship, of participants with or without romantic partners (N = 68. Furthermore, we also conducted a voxel-based morphometry (VBM study of the effects of being in a romantic relationship (N = 113. Being in a romantic relationship was associated with greater subjective happiness and reduced gray matter density within the right dorsal striatum. These results suggest that being in a romantic relationship enhances perceived subjective happiness via positive experiences. Furthermore, the observed reduction in gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum may reflect an increase in saliency of social reward within a romantic relationship. Thus, being in a romantic relationship is associated with positive experiences and a reduction of gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum, representing a modulation of social reward.

  10. Generalizing a unified model of dark matter, dark energy, and inflation with a noncanonical kinetic term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De-Santiago, Josue; Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L.

    2011-01-01

    We study a unification model for dark energy, dark matter, and inflation with a single scalar field with noncanonical kinetic term. In this model, the kinetic term of the Lagrangian accounts for the dark matter and dark energy, and at early epochs, a quadratic potential accounts for slow roll inflation. The present work is an extension to the work by Bose and Majumdar [Phys. Rev. D 79, 103517 (2009).] with a more general kinetic term that was proposed by Chimento in Phys. Rev. D 69, 123517 (2004). We demonstrate that the model is viable at the background and linear perturbation levels.

  11. Evaluation of dyspnoea in a sample of elderly subjects recruited from general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, F; Mehlsen, J; Raymond, I

    2007-01-01

    . Of 129 subjects with dyspnoea, 68 (53%) had signs of lung disease, 27 (21%) had heart disease, a total of 43 (33%) were obese, 20 (16%) were obese without other causes of dyspnoea and five (4%) had general physical deconditioning. Twelve per cent had none of the above-mentioned potential causes...

  12. Planetary Exploration Education: As Seen From the Point of View of Subject Matter Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, M. P.; Anderson, R. B.; Gaither, T. A.; Vaughan, R. G.

    2016-12-01

    Planetary Learning that Advances the Nexus of Engineering, Technology, and Science (PLANETS) was selected as one of 27 new projects to support the NASA Science Mission Directorate's Science Education Cooperative Agreement Notice. Our goal is to develop and disseminate out-of-school time (OST) curricular and related educator professional development modules that integrate planetary science, technology, and engineering. We are a partnership between planetary science Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), curriculum developers, science and engineering teacher professional development experts and OST teacher networks. The PLANETS team includes the Center for Science Teaching and Learning (CSTL) at Northern Arizona University (NAU); the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Science Center (Astrogeology), and the Boston Museum of Science (MOS). Here, we present the work and approach by the SMEs at Astrogeology. As part of this overarching project, we will create a model for improved integration of SMEs, curriculum developers, professional development experts, and educators. For the 2016 and 2017 Fiscal Years, our focus is on creating science material for two OST modules designed for middle school students. We will begin development of a third module for elementary school students in the latter part of FY2017. The first module focuses on water conservation and treatment as applied on Earth, the International Space Station, and at a fictional Mars base. This unit involves the science and engineering of finding accessible water, evaluating it for quality, treating it for impurities (i.e., dissolved and suspended), initial use, a cycle of greywater treatment and re-use, and final treatment of blackwater. The second module involves the science and engineering of remote sensing as it is related to Earth and planetary exploration. This includes discussion and activities related to the electromagnetic spectrum, spectroscopy and various remote sensing systems and techniques. In

  13. Generalizations of the subject-independent feature set for music-induced emotion recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Pin; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Duann, Jeng-Ren; Lin, Chin-Teng; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG)-based emotion recognition has been an intensely growing field. Yet, how to achieve acceptable accuracy on a practical system with as fewer electrodes as possible is less concerned. This study evaluates a set of subject-independent features, based on differential power asymmetry of symmetric electrode pairs [1], with emphasis on its applicability to subject variability in music-induced emotion classification problem. Results of this study have evidently validated the feasibility of using subject-independent EEG features to classify four emotional states with acceptable accuracy in second-scale temporal resolution. These features could be generalized across subjects to detect emotion induced by music excerpts not limited to the music database that was used to derive the emotion-specific features.

  14. Higgs exotic decays in general NMSSM with self-interacting dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenyu; Zhang, Mengchao; Zhao, Jun

    2018-04-01

    Under current LHC and dark matter constraints, the general NMSSM can have self-interacting dark matter to explain the cosmological small structure. In this scenario, the dark matter is the light singlino-like neutralino (χ) which self-interacts through exchanging the light singlet-like scalars (h1,a1). These light scalars and neutralinos inevitably interact with the 125 GeV SM-like Higgs boson (hSM), which cause the Higgs exotic decays hSM → h1h1, a1a1, χχ. We first demonstrate the parameter space required by the explanation of the cosmological small structure and then display the Higgs exotic decays. We find that in such a parameter space the Higgs exotic decays can have branching ratios of a few percent, which should be accessible in the future e+e‑ colliders.

  15. Metabolic correlates of general cognitive function in nondemented elderly subjects: an FDG PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Kwak, Young Bin; Lee, Eun Ju; Ryu, Chang Hyung; Chey, Jean Yung; Kim, Sang Eun

    2004-01-01

    While many studies examined the neural correlates of individual cognitive functions, few made efforts to identify the neural networks associated with general cognitive function. General cognitive function decline in the elderly population is not infrequent. This study examined the brain areas associated with general cognitive function in the elderly subjects. Community-dwelling 116 elderly subjects without dementing illnesses (age, 71±5 y; 13 males and 103 females) participated. General cognitive ability was assessed with the Dementia Rating Scale (K-DRS), which is composed of five subtests of attention, initiation and perseveration, construction, conceptualization, and memory. The EVLT (Elderly Verbal Learning Test), a nine-word list learning test, was used for general memory assessment. Brain FDG PET scans were acquired in all subjects. Brain regions where metabolic levels are correlated with the total scores of K-DRS and EVLT were examined using SPM99. There was a significant positive correlation (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k=100) between the total score of K-DRS and glucose metabolism in the bilateral posterior cingulate gyri, bilateral inferior frontal gyri, left caudate, left inferior parietal lobule, right precuneus, bilateral unci, right parahippocampal gyrus, and right anterior cingulate gyrus. A significant positive correlation between the total score of EVLT and glucose metabolism was shown in the right precuneus, right posterior cingulate gyrus, left insula, bilateral inferior parietal lobules, left anterior cingulate gyrus, left caudate, right inferior frontal gyrus (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k=100). Our data showed the brain regions that are associated with general cognitive function in the elderly. Those regions may serve as the neural substrated of cognitive dysfunction associated with neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular diseases in elderly subjects

  16. White matter organization in cervical spinal cord relates differently to age and control of grip force in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Påvel G; Feydy, Antoine; Maier, Marc A

    2010-03-17

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can be used to elucidate relations between CNS structure and function. We hypothesized that the degree of spinal white matter organization relates to the accuracy of control of grip force. Healthy subjects of different age were studied using DTI and visuomotor tracking of precision grip force. The latter is a prime component of manual dexterity. A regional analysis of spinal white matter [fractional anisotropy (FA)] across multiple cervical levels (C2-C3, C4-C5, and C6-C7) and in different regions of interest (left and right lateral or medial spinal cord) was performed. FA was highest at the C2-C3 level, higher on the right than the left side, and higher in the lateral than in the medial spinal cord (p level in the lateral spinal cord, in which the corticospinal tract innervates spinal circuitry controlling hand and digit muscles. FA of the medial spinal cord correlated consistently with age across all cervical levels, whereas FA of the lateral spinal cord did not. The results suggest (1) a functionally relevant specialization of lateral spinal cord white matter and (2) an increased sensitivity to age-related decline in medial spinal cord white matter in healthy subjects.

  17. Subjective discount rates in the general population and their predictive power for energy saving behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruderer Enzler, Heidi; Diekmann, Andreas; Meyer, Reto

    2014-01-01

    Why do people sometimes refrain from saving energy even if it would pay off in monetary terms? Subjective discount rates present one possible explanation for this lack of foresight, but little is known about their level and reliability in the general population. With regard to behavior, persons with lower discount rates are expected to accept additional costs upfront more readily than those with higher discount rates. Based on a representative nation-wide study, the Swiss Environmental Survey 2007, and a follow-up survey, our analyses reveal that on average subjective discount rates are well above market interest rates and moderately stable over a time interval of four years. Income and education are negatively correlated with discount rates. Contrary to expectations, we did not find convincing support for an impact of discount rates on energy saving behavior. - Highlights: • Results of a large panel study in Switzerland. • Mean subjective discount rates in population are well above market interest rates. • Subjective discount rates are moderately stable over four years. • Theory suggests impact of subjective discount rates on energy saving behavior. • However, subjective discount rates do not contribute to explanation of energy saving behavior

  18. White Matter Injury and General Movements in High-Risk Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyton, C; Yang, E; Msall, M E; Adde, L; Støen, R; Fjørtoft, T; Bos, A F; Einspieler, C; Zhou, Y; Schreiber, M D; Marks, J D; Drobyshevsky, A

    2017-01-01

    Very preterm infants (birth weight, cognitive and motor impairment, including cerebral palsy. These adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes are associated with white matter abnormalities on MR imaging at term-equivalent age. Cerebral palsy has been predicted by analysis of spontaneous movements in the infant termed "General Movement Assessment." The goal of this study was to determine the utility of General Movement Assessment in predicting adverse cognitive, language, and motor outcomes in very preterm infants and to identify brain imaging markers associated with both adverse outcomes and aberrant general movements. In this prospective study of 47 preterm infants of 24-30 weeks' gestation, brain MR imaging was performed at term-equivalent age. Infants underwent T1- and T2-weighted imaging for volumetric analysis and DTI. General movements were assessed at 10-15 weeks' postterm age, and neurodevelopmental outcomes were evaluated at 2 years by using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III. Nine infants had aberrant general movements and were more likely to have adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes, compared with infants with normal movements. In infants with aberrant movements, Tract-Based Spatial Statistics analysis identified significantly lower fractional anisotropy in widespread white matter tracts, including the corpus callosum, inferior longitudinal and fronto-occipital fasciculi, internal capsule, and optic radiation. The subset of infants having both aberrant movements and abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes in cognitive, language, and motor skills had significantly lower fractional anisotropy in specific brain regions. Aberrant general movements at 10-15 weeks' postterm are associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes and specific white matter microstructure abnormalities for cognitive, language, and motor delays. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  19. Leadership in Diversity Organizations, and Immigrants' Organizational Commitment and Subjective General Health

    OpenAIRE

    Huynh, Victoria Tran

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine leadership styles in managing cultural diversity from the LIDO-model at workplaces in Norway, and investigate the relationships between perceived leadership styles with immigrants’ organizational commitment and subjective general health through online survey. The leadership styles from the LIDO-model are diversity leadership, assimilation leadership, separation leadership, and laissez-faire leadership. The relationships were measured by t...

  20. General f(R and conformal inflation from minimal supergravity plus matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horatiu Nastase

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We embed general f(R inflationary models in minimal supergravity plus matter, a single chiral superfield Φ, with or without another superfield S, via a Jordan frame Einstein+scalar description. In particular, inflationary models like a generalized Starobinsky one are analyzed and constraints on them are found. We also embed the related models of conformal inflation, also described as Jordan frame Einstein+scalar models, in particular the conformal inflation from the Higgs model, and analyze the inflationary constraints on them.

  1. Dark matter annihilations into two light fermions and one gauge boson. General analysis and antiproton constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garny, Mathias; Ibarra, Alejandro; Vogl, Stefan

    2011-12-01

    We study in this paper the scenario where the dark matter is constituted by Majo- rana particles which couple to a light Standard Model fermion and an extra scalar via a Yukawa coupling. In this scenario, the annihilation rate into the light fermions with the mediation of the scalar particle is strongly suppressed by the mass of the fermion. Nevertheless, the helicity suppression is lifted by the associated emission of a gauge boson, yielding annihilation rates which could be large enough to allow the indirect detection of the dark matter particles. We perform a general analysis of this scenario, calculating the annihilation cross section of the processes χχ → f anti fV when the dark matter particle is a SU(2) L singlet or doublet, f is a lepton or a quark, and V is a photon, a weak gauge boson or a gluon. We point out that the annihilation rate is particularly enhanced when the dark matter particle is degenerate in mass to the intermediate scalar particle, which is a scenario barely constrained by collider searches of exotic charged or colored particles. Lastly, we derive upper limits on the relevant cross sections from the non-observation of an excess in the cosmic antiproton-to-proton ratio measured by PAMELA. (orig.)

  2. Dark matter annihilations into two light fermions and one gauge boson. General analysis and antiproton constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garny, Mathias [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Ibarra, Alejandro; Vogl, Stefan [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department

    2011-12-15

    We study in this paper the scenario where the dark matter is constituted by Majo- rana particles which couple to a light Standard Model fermion and an extra scalar via a Yukawa coupling. In this scenario, the annihilation rate into the light fermions with the mediation of the scalar particle is strongly suppressed by the mass of the fermion. Nevertheless, the helicity suppression is lifted by the associated emission of a gauge boson, yielding annihilation rates which could be large enough to allow the indirect detection of the dark matter particles. We perform a general analysis of this scenario, calculating the annihilation cross section of the processes {chi}{chi} {yields} f anti fV when the dark matter particle is a SU(2){sub L} singlet or doublet, f is a lepton or a quark, and V is a photon, a weak gauge boson or a gluon. We point out that the annihilation rate is particularly enhanced when the dark matter particle is degenerate in mass to the intermediate scalar particle, which is a scenario barely constrained by collider searches of exotic charged or colored particles. Lastly, we derive upper limits on the relevant cross sections from the non-observation of an excess in the cosmic antiproton-to-proton ratio measured by PAMELA. (orig.)

  3. Development Of Phisyics Learning Documents Based Student's Learning Style In The Matter Of Temperature And Heat Subjects Of Class X High School

    OpenAIRE

    Resty Noriwita, Indah Resty Noriwita Indah; Nasir, Muhammad Nasir Muhammad; Ma’aruf, Zuhdi Ma’aruf Zuhdi

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to produce a learning documents physicsbased learning styles of students in the matter of temperature and heat of class subjectS X SMA valid. The subjects were learning documents that consists of a lesson plan (RPP), worksheets (LKS), medium of learning and achievement test of cognitive, affective, process, and psychomotor. Data collection instrument in this study is an instrument validity device physics-based learning students' learning styles in the matter of temperature and...

  4. Aging of Holocaust Survivors: Discrepancies Between Subjective and General Health in the greater Tel Aviv Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohana, Irit; Golander, Hava; Barak, Yoram

    2018-04-01

    Aging has been associated with perceived lowering of health, especially in post-traumatic individuals. The effects may be more complex or even different for Holocaust survivors as they age due to their inherited resilience and life perspective. A cross-sectional study was conducted of Holocaust survivors and a matched comparison group recruited from the general Israeli population. All participants underwent a personal interview and completed the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale and a survey of subjective Likert-scale questions about perceived health. The study comprised 214 older adults: 107 Holocaust survivors and 107 comparison participants; 101 women and 113 men. The mean age for the participants was 80.7 ± 4.7 years (range 68-93). Holocaust survivors did not differ from comparison subjects in general health measures (mean 51.50 ± 3.06 vs. 52.27 ± 3.24, respectively). However, the Holocaust survivors' subjective health was significantly lower, F (2,211) = 4.18, P Holocaust survivors to achieve successful aging.

  5. Bromatological composition and dry matter digestibility of millet cultivars subjected to nitrogen doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.H.D. Buso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The bromatological composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of millet cultivars were assessed for different nitrogen doses and two sowing seasons in the Ceres municipality of Goiás state, Brazil. The treatments consisted of three millet cultivars (ADR-7010, ADR-500 and BRS-1501, four nitrogen (N doses (0, 50, 100 and 200kg ha-1 of N and two sowing seasons. Three replicates and a randomised block design with a 3 x 4 x 2 factorial scheme were used. Two cuttings were performed in each season when plants reached an average height of 0.70 cm. No significant interactions were observed between or among cultivars for N doses and dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fibre (NDF and acid detergent fibre (ADF contents. The DM, CP, NDF and ADF contents were significantly different between N doses. The DM and CP contents increased as the N dose increased to 100kg ha-1. The maximum DM and CP contents were 11.14 and 22.53%, respectively. The NDF and ADF contents were higher in the control treatment (60.11 and 30.01%, respectively. In addition, the lowest ADF and NDF concentrations occurred at an N dose of 50kg ha-1 (56.33 and 30.23%, respectively. The DM contents were higher for the February sowing, with an average of 10.59%. The highest CP and ADF contents were found for the December sowing (22.46 and 31.58%, respectively. No significant differences were found for millet cultivars, N doses or sowing seasons. A significant interaction was found between sowing season and millet cultivar. The BRS-1501 cultivar had a higher in vitro dry matter digestibility in the December/2010 sowing (73.88%.

  6. On general features of warm dark matter with reduced relativistic gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipólito-Ricaldi, W. S.; vom Marttens, R. F.; Fabris, J. C.; Shapiro, I. L.; Casarini, L.

    2018-05-01

    Reduced relativistic gas (RRG) is a useful approach to describe the warm dark matter (WDM) or the warmness of baryonic matter in the approximation when the interaction between the particles is irrelevant. The use of Maxwell distribution leads to the complicated equation of state of the Jüttner model of relativistic ideal gas. The RRG enables one to reproduce the same physical situation but in a much simpler form. For this reason RRG can be a useful tool for the theories with some sort of a "new Physics". On the other hand, even without the qualitatively new physical implementations, the RRG can be useful to describe the general features of WDM in a model-independent way. In this sense one can see, in particular, to which extent the cosmological manifestations of WDM may be dependent on its Particle Physics background. In the present work RRG is used as a complementary approach to derive the main observational features for the WDM in a model-independent way. The only assumption concerns a non-negligible velocity v for dark matter particles which is parameterized by the warmness parameter b. The relatively high values of b ( b^2˜ 10^{-6}) erase the radiation (photons and neutrinos) dominated epoch and cause an early warm matter domination after inflation. Furthermore, RRG approach enables one to quantify the lack of power in linear matter spectrum at small scales and in particular, reproduces the relative transfer function commonly used in context of WDM with accuracy of ≲ 1%. A warmness with b^2≲ 10^{-6} (equivalent to v≲ 300 km/s) does not alter significantly the CMB power spectrum and is in agreement with the background observational tests.

  7. Generalized cardassian expansion: a model in which the universe is flat, matter dominated, and accelerating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freese, Katherine

    2003-01-01

    The Cardassian universe is a proposed modification to the Friedmann Robertson Walker equation (FRW) in which the universe is flat, matter dominated, and accelerating. In this presentation, we generalize the original Cardassian proposal to include additional variants on the FRW equation, specific examples are presented. In the ordinary FRW equation, the right hand side is a linear function of the energy density, H 2 ∼ ρ. Here, instead, the right hand side of the FRW equation is a different function of the energy density, H 2 ∼ g(ρ). This function returns to ordinary FRW at early times, but modifies the expansion at a late epoch of the universe. The only ingredients in this universe are matter and radiation: in particular, there is NO vacuum contribution. Currently the modification of the FRW equation is such that the universe accelerates; we call this period of acceleration the Cardassian era. The universe can be flat and yet consist of only matter and radiation, and still be compatible with observations. The energy density required to close the universe is much smaller than in a standard cosmology, so that matter can be sufficient to provide a flat geometry. The new term required may arise, e.g., as a consequence of our observable universe living as a 3-dimensional brane in a higher dimensional universe. The Cardassian model survives several observational tests, including the cosmic background radiation, the age of the universe, the Friedmann Robertson , and structure formation. As will be shown in future work, he predictions for observational tests of the generalized Cardassian models can be very different from generic quintessence models, whether the equation of state is constant or time dependent

  8. Insight on AV-45 binding in white and grey matter from histogram analysis: a study on early Alzheimer's disease patients and healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemmi, Federico; Saint-Aubert, Laure; Adel, Djilali; Salabert, Anne-Sophie; Pariente, Jérémie; Barbeau, Emmanuel; Payoux, Pierre; Péran, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Purpose AV-45 amyloid biomarker is known to show uptake in white matter in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) but also in healthy population. This binding; thought to be of a non-specific lipophilic nature has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the differential pattern of AV-45 binding in healthy and pathological populations in white matter. Methods We recruited 24 patients presenting with AD at early stage and 17 matched, healthy subjects. We used an optimized PET-MRI registration method and an approach based on intensity histogram using several indexes. We compared the results of the intensity histogram analyses with a more canonical approach based on target-to-cerebellum Standard Uptake Value (SUVr) in white and grey matters using MANOVA and discriminant analyses. A cluster analysis on white and grey matter histograms was also performed. Results White matter histogram analysis revealed significant differences between AD and healthy subjects, which were not revealed by SUVr analysis. However, white matter histograms was not decisive to discriminate groups, and indexes based on grey matter only showed better discriminative power than SUVr. The cluster analysis divided our sample in two clusters, showing different uptakes in grey but also in white matter. Conclusion These results demonstrate that AV-45 binding in white matter conveys subtle information not detectable using SUVr approach. Although it is not better than standard SUVr to discriminate AD patients from healthy subjects, this information could reveal white matter modifications. PMID:24573658

  9. Relationship between mathematics teacher subject matter knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge and professional development needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajudin, Nor'ain Mohd; Chinnappan, Mohan; Saad, Noor Shah

    2017-05-01

    Two key variables emerged from the literature review is that Specific Matter Knowledge [SMK] and Pedagogical Content Knowledge [PCK] can influence the mathematics teachers' Professional Development [PD] needs. However, the key variables of SMK and PCK that were being investigated were not defined clearly. Empirical evidence that support relationship between SMK and PD and PCK and PD were not verified. In addition, how does PCK mediate SMK and PD is not clear and somewhat lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to examine the relationship between primary mathematics teacher's SMK, PCK and PD needs. Results of path analysis with SmartPLS indicated that the direct effect of SMK on PD was mediated via PCK. This data provide support for the claim that PD programs for future teachers of primary mathematics should be driven by a more nuanced understanding of the link between SMK and PCK.

  10. White Matter Microstructure in Subjects with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Their Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Katherine E.; Levitt, Jennifer G.; Loo, Sandra K.; Ly, Ronald; Yee, Victor; O'Neill, Joseph; Alger, Jeffry; Narr, Katherine L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Previous voxel-based and regions-of-interest (ROI)-based diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have found above-normal mean diffusivity (MD) and below-normal fractional anisotropy (FA) in subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, findings remain mixed, and few studies have examined the contribution of ADHD…

  11. The Work of the Prince's Teaching Institute--Insisting that Established Subjects Matter to All Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The Prince's Teaching Institute (PTI), which has evolved out of the Summer Schools for English Literature and History which The Prince of Wales inaugurated in 2002, now provides a variety of courses in the major subjects of the secondary curriculum. In partnership with Cambridge University it enables teachers to update and extend their subject…

  12. Subjective Evaluations of Alcohol-Related Consequences among College Students: Experience with Consequences Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavens, Eleanor L.; Leffingwell, Thad R.; Miller, Mary Beth; Brett, Emma I.; Lombardi, Nathaniel

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Research suggests college students rate some alcohol-related consequences less negatively than others, yet it is unclear how or when these differences in perception develop. The current study compared college students' subjective evaluations of alcohol-related consequences that they had and had not experienced in order to test the…

  13. Diffusion tensor imaging identifies deficits in white matter microstructure in subjects with type 1 diabetes that correlate with reduced neurocognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodl, Christopher T; Franc, Daniel T; Rao, Jyothi P; Anderson, Fiona S; Thomas, William; Mueller, Bryon A; Lim, Kelvin O; Seaquist, Elizabeth R

    2008-11-01

    Long-standing type 1 diabetes is associated with deficits on neurocognitive testing that suggest central white matter dysfunction. This study investigated whether diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a type of magnetic resonance imaging that measures white matter integrity quantitatively, could identify white matter microstructural deficits in patients with long-standing type 1 diabetes and whether these differences would be associated with deficits found by neurocognitive tests. Twenty-five subjects with type 1 diabetes for at least 15 years and 25 age- and sex-matched control subjects completed DTI on a 3.0 Tesla scanner and a battery of neurocognitive tests. Fractional anisotropy was calculated for the major white matter tracts of the brain. Diabetic subjects had significantly lower mean fractional anisotropy than control subjects in the posterior corona radiata and the optic radiation (P < 0.002). In type 1 diabetic subjects, reduced fractional anisotropy correlated with poorer performance on the copy portion of the Rey-Osterreith Complex Figure Drawing Test and the Grooved Peg Board Test, both of which are believed to assess white matter function. Reduced fractional anisotropy also correlated with duration of diabetes and increased A1C. A history of severe hypoglycemia did not correlate with fractional anisotropy. DTI can detect white matter microstructural deficits in subjects with long-standing type 1 diabetes. These deficits correlate with poorer performance on selected neurocognitive tests of white matter function.

  14. Subjective happiness levels of staff working in provincial organization of general directorate of sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer YAZICI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was investigate to level of subjective happiness levels of staff who works in provincial organization of General Directorate of Sport. Material and Methods: The study group of the research consisted of 400 staff (164 female, 236 male who works in General Directorate of Sport’s İstanbul, Trabzon, Malatya and Tokat Youth Services and Sport provincial directorates. In the study as data collection tool; Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS which developed by Lyubomirsky & Lepper (1999 and adapted to Turkish by Akın and Satıcı (2011 was used. And also “personal data form” which created by the researchers was used. The data analyzed by descriptive statistics, T-test and Anova test. Also, Scheffe test was used to find out the significant differences of groups. Results: In accordance with t-test results obtained from the present study, there are significant differences with respect to variables such as marital status, income state and sport participation (p<0.05. Conclusion: As a result, it was determined that married staff is happier than single staff. Also, the staff who determined themselves in moderate income level is happier than the staff who determined themselves in lower income level.

  15. "Non-cold" dark matter at small scales: a general approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, R.; Merle, A.; Viel, M.; Totzauer, M.; Schneider, A.

    2017-11-01

    Structure formation at small cosmological scales provides an important frontier for dark matter (DM) research. Scenarios with small DM particle masses, large momenta or hidden interactions tend to suppress the gravitational clustering at small scales. The details of this suppression depend on the DM particle nature, allowing for a direct link between DM models and astrophysical observations. However, most of the astrophysical constraints obtained so far refer to a very specific shape of the power suppression, corresponding to thermal warm dark matter (WDM), i.e., candidates with a Fermi-Dirac or Bose-Einstein momentum distribution. In this work we introduce a new analytical fitting formula for the power spectrum, which is simple yet flexible enough to reproduce the clustering signal of large classes of non-thermal DM models, which are not at all adequately described by the oversimplified notion of WDM . We show that the formula is able to fully cover the parameter space of sterile neutrinos (whether resonantly produced or from particle decay), mixed cold and warm models, fuzzy dark matter, as well as other models suggested by effective theory of structure formation (ETHOS). Based on this fitting formula, we perform a large suite of N-body simulations and we extract important nonlinear statistics, such as the matter power spectrum and the halo mass function. Finally, we present first preliminary astrophysical constraints, based on linear theory, from both the number of Milky Way satellites and the Lyman-α forest. This paper is a first step towards a general and comprehensive modeling of small-scale departures from the standard cold DM model.

  16. Investigation of Psychophysiological and Subjective Effects of Long Working Hours - Do Age and Hearing Impairment Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Hartl, Verena; Kallus, K Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Following current prognosis, demographic development raises expectations of an aging of the working population. Therefore, keeping employees healthy and strengthening their ability to work, becomes more and more important. When employees become older, dealing with age-related impairments of sensory functions, such as hearing impairment, is a central issue. Recent evidence suggests that negative effects that are associated with reduced hearing can have a strong impact at work. Especially under exhausting working situations such as working overtime hours, age and hearing impairment might influence employees' well-being. Until now, neither the problem of aged workers and long working hours, nor the problem of hearing impairment and prolonged working time has been addressed explicitly. Therefore, a laboratory study was examined to answer the research question: Do age and hearing impairment have an impact on psychophysiological and subjective effects of long working hours. In total, 51 white-collar workers, aged between 24 and 63 years, participated in the laboratory study. The results show no significant effects for age and hearing impairment on the intensity of subjective consequences (perceived recovery and fatigue, subjective emotional well-being and physical symptoms) of long working hours. However, the psychophysiological response (the saliva cortisol level) to long working hours differs significantly between hearing impaired and normal hearing employees. Interestingly, the results suggest that from a psychophysiological point of view long working hours were more demanding for normal hearing employees.

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyl serum levels in subjects with hepatocellular carcinoma as compared with the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Zani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs have been recognized as human carcinogens and cause liver cancer in animal experimental studies. However, no study investigated their association with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC so far.  This study aimed to evaluate the serum PCB concentration in HCC patients and in healthy subjects of the general population living in Brescia, North Italy, a highly industrialized area with heavy PCB environmental pollution due to the presence of a PCB producing factory. Methods. Lipid-adjusted PCB concentrations, computed as the sum of 24 congeners, were measured in the serum of 101 HCC patients and in 101 healthy subjects of the same age and gender.Results. Hepatitis B and C virus infection and history of heavy alcohol intake were found, alone and combined, in 87% of HCC patients. No difference was found in PCB serum concentration of HCC patients with and without, and according to, the major risk factors for liver disease. No significant difference was observed in serum total PCB concentration between HCC patients (median: 1081; range: 287.0-3182.0 ng/g lipid and healthy subjects (median: 1199.3; range: 225.7-22825 ng/g lipid. PCB congeners 118, 138, 153, 156, 180 and 194 were the only ones found over the detection limit in at least 30% of HCC patients. The serum level of PCB 118, but not that of other congeners, was higher in HCC patients than in healthy subjects.Conclusion. These findings  do not support the hypothesis that PCBs play an important role in HCC development, although a contribution by some specific congeners cannot be ruled out. 

  18. A generalized Bethe-Weizsaecker mass formula for strange hadronic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dover, C.B.; Washington Univ., Seattle, WA; Gal, A.; Washington Univ., Seattle, WA

    1992-12-01

    The Bethe-Weizsaecker nuclear mass formula is extended to strange hadronic matter composed of nucleons, lambdas and cascade hyperons. The generalized formula contains several volume and symmetry terms constrained by phenomenologically determined λ-nuclear, ξ-nuclear and λλ interaction parameters and by hyperon-hyperon (λλ, λξ, ξξ) interaction parameters suggested by One-Boson-Exchange models. We find that hypernuclei are generally unstable to λλ → ξN conversion. For strange hadronic matter, as function of the baryon number A, the line of strong-interaction stability, along which a large strangeness fraction |S|/A ∼ 0.5 - 1.1 and a low charge fraction q/A approx-lt 0.2 hold, and no fission occurs, is determined. The binding energy per baryon increases monotonically to its bulk limit, B/A → 38 MeV, |S|/A → 1.1 and q/A → 0 for the parameters adopted here assuming that the hyperon species saturate at densities similar to those of protons and neutrons in nuclei. Even in the extreme limit of vanishingly small hyperon-hyperon interaction strengths, strange hadronic matter with B/A → 15 MeV, |S|/A → 0.7 and q/A → 0 in the bulk limit should exist; the mass formula reproduces semi-quantitatively recent mean-field calculations which implicitly assumed weak hyperon-hyperon interactions

  19. A generalized Bethe-Weizaecker mass formula for strange hadronic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dover, C.B.; Gal, A.

    1993-01-01

    We extend the Bethe- Weizsaecker nuclear mass formula to strange hadronic matter composed of nucleons, lambdas and cascade hyperons. The generalized formula contains several volume and symmetry terms constrained by phenomenologically determined Λ-nuclear, Ξ-nuclear and ΛΛ interaction parameters and by hyperon-hyperon (ΛΛ, ΛΞ, ΞΞ) interaction parameters suggested by one-boson-exchange models. We confirm that multi-Λ hypernuclei are generally unstable to ΛΛ→ΞN conversion. For strange hadronic matter we determine, as function of the baryon number A, the line of strong-interaction stability, along which a large strangeness fraction vertical stroke /Svertical stroke /A∝0.5-1.1 and a low charge fraction q/A< or ∼0.2 hold, and no fission occurs. The binding energy per baryon increases monotonically to its bulk limit, B/A→38 MeV, vertical stroke /Svertical stroke /A→ 1.1 and q/A→0 for the parameters adopted here assuming that the hyperon species saturate at densities similar to those of protons and neutrons in nuclei. Even in the extreme limit of vanishingly small hyperon-hyperon interaction strengths, strange hadronic matter with B/A→15 MeV, vertical stroke /Svertical stroke /A→0.7 and q/A→0 in the bulk limit should exist and our mass formula reproduces semi-quantitatively recent mean-field calculations which implicitly assumed weak hyperon-hyperon interactions. (orig.)

  20. Relative activity of cerebral subcortical gray matter in varying states of attention and awareness in normal subjects and patient studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.; Levy, J.; Wagner, N.; Spire, J.P.; Jacobsen, J.; Meltzer, H.; Metz, J.; Beck, R.N.

    1985-01-01

    An important aspect of the study of brain function involves measurement of the relationships; between activities in the subcortical gray matter of the caudate and of the thalamus; and between these structures and functional cortical areas. The authors have studied these relationships in 22 subjects under different conditions of activation, sleep and sensory deprivation using a PET VI system and F-18-2DG to determine regional cerebral metabolism. Subject activating conditions were maintained throughout the period of equilibration of F-18-2DG and E.E.G.'s were monitored. Multiple tomographic slices of 1-2 million counts were obtained simultaneously with slice separation of 14mm and each plane parallel to the cantho-meatal line. In activated and non-activated awake conditions for normal subjects, left and right thalmus-to-caudate ratios were similar and greater than unity. This relationship was maintained in non-REM sleep, but was reversed and divergent in REM sleep and sensory deprivation; this was also evident in 3/4 narcoleptics awake and asleep in non-REM and REM and 2/3 schizophrenics and affective disorder, subjects. This approach appears to have potential for characterizating normal and disordered regional cerebral function

  1. A modified generalized Chaplygin gas as the unified dark matter-dark energy revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Xue-Mei, E-mail: xmd@pmo.ac.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China)

    2011-12-15

    A modified generalized Chaplygin gas (MGCG) is considered as the unified dark matter-dark energy revisited. The character of MGCG is endued with the dual role, which behaves as matter at early times and as a quiescence dark energy at late times. The equation of state for MGCG is p = -{alpha}{rho}/(1 + {alpha}) - {upsilon}(z){rho}{sup -{alpha}/(1 + {alpha})}, where {upsilon}(z) = -[{rho}0{sub c}(1 + z){sup 3}] {sup (1+{alpha})} (1 - {Omega}{sub 0B}){sup {alpha} {l_brace}{alpha}{Omega}0{sub DM} + {Omega}{sub 0DE} [{omega}{sub DE} + {alpha}(1 +{omega}{sub DE})](1 + z){sup 3}{omega}DE(1+{alpha}){r_brace}}. Some cosmological quantities, such as the densities of different components of the universe {Omega}{sub i} (i, respectively, denotes baryons, dark matter, and dark energy) and the deceleration parameter q, are obtained. The present deceleration parameter q{sub 0}, the transition redshift z{sub T}, and the redshift z{sub eq}, which describes the epoch when the densities in dark matter and dark energy are equal, are also calculated. To distinguish MGCG from others, we then apply the Statefinder diagnostic. Later on, the parameters ({alpha} and {omega}{sub DE}) of MGCG are constrained by combination of the sound speed c{sup 2}{sub s} , the age of the universe t{sub 0}, the growth factor m, and the bias parameter b. It yields {alpha} = -3.07{sup +5.66} {sub -4.98} x 10{sup -2} and {omega}{sub DE} = -1.05 {sup +0.06} {sub -0.11}. Through the analysis of the growth of density perturbations for MGCG, it is found that the energy will transfer from dark matter to dark energy which reach equal at z{sub e}{approx} 0.48 and the density fluctuations start deviating from the linear behavior at z {approx} 0.25 caused by the dominance of dark energy. (author)

  2. A general symplectic method for the response analysis of infinitely periodic structures subjected to random excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available A general symplectic method for the random response analysis of infinitely periodic structures subjected to stationary/non-stationary random excitations is developed using symplectic mathematics in conjunction with variable separation and the pseudo-excitation method (PEM. Starting from the equation of motion for a single loaded substructure, symplectic analysis is firstly used to eliminate the dependent degrees of the freedom through condensation. A Fourier expansion of the condensed equation of motion is then applied to separate the variables of time and wave number, thus enabling the necessary recurrence scheme to be developed. The random response is finally determined by implementing PEM. The proposed method is justified by comparison with results available in the literature and is then applied to a more complicated time-dependent coupled system.

  3. General neutralino NLSP with gravitino dark matter vs. big bang nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenkamp, Jasper

    2009-08-01

    We study the scenario of gravitino dark matter with a general neutralino being the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle (NLSP). Therefore, we compute analytically all 2- and 3-body decays of the neutralino NLSP to determine the lifetime and the electromagnetic and hadronic branching ratio of the neutralino decaying into the gravitino and Standard Model particles. We constrain the gravitino and neutralino NLSP mass via big bang nucleosynthesis and see how those bounds are relaxed for a Higgsino or a wino NLSP in comparison to the bino neutralino case. At neutralino masses >or similar 1 TeV, a wino NLSP is favoured, since it decays rapidly via a newly found 4-vertex. The Higgsino component becomes important, when resonant annihilation via heavy Higgses can occur. We provide the full analytic results for the decay widths and the complete set of Feynman rules necessary for these computations. This thesis closes any gap in the study of gravitino dark matter scenarios with neutralino NLSP coming from approximations in the calculation of the neutralino decay rates and its hadronic branching ratio. (orig.)

  4. General neutralino NLSP with gravitino dark matter vs. big bang nucleosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasenkamp, Jasper

    2009-08-15

    We study the scenario of gravitino dark matter with a general neutralino being the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle (NLSP). Therefore, we compute analytically all 2- and 3-body decays of the neutralino NLSP to determine the lifetime and the electromagnetic and hadronic branching ratio of the neutralino decaying into the gravitino and Standard Model particles. We constrain the gravitino and neutralino NLSP mass via big bang nucleosynthesis and see how those bounds are relaxed for a Higgsino or a wino NLSP in comparison to the bino neutralino case. At neutralino masses >or similar 1 TeV, a wino NLSP is favoured, since it decays rapidly via a newly found 4-vertex. The Higgsino component becomes important, when resonant annihilation via heavy Higgses can occur. We provide the full analytic results for the decay widths and the complete set of Feynman rules necessary for these computations. This thesis closes any gap in the study of gravitino dark matter scenarios with neutralino NLSP coming from approximations in the calculation of the neutralino decay rates and its hadronic branching ratio. (orig.)

  5. Physical and psychosocial prerequisites of functioning in relation to work ability and general subjective well-being among office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjögren-Rönkä, Tuulikki; Ojanen, Markku T; Leskinen, Esko K; Tmustalampi, Sirpa; Mälkiä, Esko A

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the physical and psychological prerequisites of functioning, as well as the social environment at work and personal factors, in relation to work ability and general subjective well-being in a group of office workers. The study was a descriptive cross-sectional investigation, using path analysis, of office workers. The subjects comprised 88 volunteers, 24 men and 64 women, from the same workplace [mean age 45.7 (SD 8.6) years]. The independent variables were measured using psychosocial and physical questionnaires and physical measurements. The first dependent variable, work ability, was measured by a work ability index. The second dependent variable, general subjective well-being, was assessed by life satisfaction and meaning of life. The variables were structured according to a modified version of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Forward flexion of the spine, intensity of musculoskeletal symptoms, self-confidence, and mental stress at work explained 58% of work ability and had indirect effects on general subjective well-being. Self-confidence, mood, and work ability had a direct effect on general subjective well-being. The model developed explained 68% of general subjective well-being. Age played a significant role in this study population. The prerequisites of physical functioning are important in maintaining work ability, particularly among aging workers, and psychological prerequisites of functioning are of even greater importance in maintaining general subjective well-being.

  6. Selected Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Vegetarians and Subjects of General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valachovičová, Martina; Príbojová, Jana; Urbánek, Vladimír; Bírošová, Lucia

    2017-12-01

    Besides genetic factors there are environmental effects including nutritional habits which can influence the risk of age-related diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the age dependence of selected cardiovascular risk markers in two groups of subjects with different nutritional pattern. In 470 long-term vegetarians and 478 subjects of general population the following indicators were measured: total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerol, glucose, insulin concentrations, LDL-cholesterol, atherogenic index and insulin resistance IR(HOMA) were also calculated in studied subjects. Obtained data were evaluated according to age decades. Vegetarian vs. non-vegetarian concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, insulin, and values of atherogenic index and IR(HOMA) were significantly reduced in all age decades. Vegetarian vs. non-vegetarian triacalglycerol concentrations were significantly reduced from 4th–7th decade. Vegetarian average decade values of all lipid parameters were in reference range. In non-vegetarian group, the risk average values of total cholesterol (>5.2 mmol/l) were found from 5th–7th decade, LDL-cholesterol (>3.3 mmol/l) in 7th decade and atherogenic index (>4) in 6th–7th decade. In vegetarians vs. non-vegetarians were noted the average decade values for total cholesterol ranging from 4.01–4.59 vs. 4.48–5.67 mmol/l, for triacylglycerols 1.00–1.33 vs. 1.13–1.74 mmol/l, for LDL-cholesterol 2.03–2.58 vs. 2.43–3.49 mmol/l, for atherogenic index 2.72–3.31 vs. 3.05–4.21 and for IR(HOMA) 0.99–1.15 vs. 1.15–1.84. Our data show significantly reduced mean age decade values of lipid and non-lipid cardiovascular risk markers in all adult vegetarians. Smaller changes of markers between decades compared to non-vegetarians document a protective effect of vegetarian nutrition in prevention of cardiovascular disease. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2017

  7. Insight on AV-45 binding in white and grey matter from histogram analysis: a study on early Alzheimer's disease patients and healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemmi, Federico; Saint-Aubert, Laure; Peran, Patrice; Adel, Djilali; Salabert, Anne-Sophie; Payoux, Pierre; Pariente, Jeremie; Barbeau, Emmanuel J.

    2014-01-01

    AV-45 amyloid biomarker is known to show uptake in white matter in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), but also in the healthy population. This binding, thought to be of a non-specific lipophilic nature, has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the differential pattern of AV-45 binding in white matter in healthy and pathological populations. We recruited 24 patients presenting with AD at an early stage and 17 matched, healthy subjects. We used an optimized positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI) registration method and an approach based on an intensity histogram using several indices. We compared the results of the intensity histogram analyses with a more canonical approach based on target-to-cerebellum Standard Uptake Value (SUVr) in white and grey matter using MANOVA and discriminant analyses. A cluster analysis on white and grey matter histograms was also performed. White matter histogram analysis revealed significant differences between AD and healthy subjects, which were not revealed by SUVr analysis. However, white matter histograms were not decisive to discriminate groups, and indices based on grey matter only showed better discriminative power than SUVr. The cluster analysis divided our sample into two clusters, showing different uptakes in grey, but also in white matter. These results demonstrate that AV-45 binding in white matter conveys subtle information not detectable using the SUVr approach. Although it is not more efficient than standard SUVr in discriminating AD patients from healthy subjects, this information could reveal white matter modifications. (orig.)

  8. Insight on AV-45 binding in white and grey matter from histogram analysis: a study on early Alzheimer's disease patients and healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemmi, Federico; Saint-Aubert, Laure; Peran, Patrice [Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Adel, Djilali; Salabert, Anne-Sophie; Payoux, Pierre [Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Pole Imagerie, Toulouse (France); Pariente, Jeremie [Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Service de Neurologie, Pole Neurosciences, Toulouse (France); Barbeau, Emmanuel J. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Service de Neurologie, Pole Neurosciences, Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition, CNRS, CerCo, Toulouse (France)

    2014-07-15

    AV-45 amyloid biomarker is known to show uptake in white matter in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), but also in the healthy population. This binding, thought to be of a non-specific lipophilic nature, has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the differential pattern of AV-45 binding in white matter in healthy and pathological populations. We recruited 24 patients presenting with AD at an early stage and 17 matched, healthy subjects. We used an optimized positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI) registration method and an approach based on an intensity histogram using several indices. We compared the results of the intensity histogram analyses with a more canonical approach based on target-to-cerebellum Standard Uptake Value (SUVr) in white and grey matter using MANOVA and discriminant analyses. A cluster analysis on white and grey matter histograms was also performed. White matter histogram analysis revealed significant differences between AD and healthy subjects, which were not revealed by SUVr analysis. However, white matter histograms were not decisive to discriminate groups, and indices based on grey matter only showed better discriminative power than SUVr. The cluster analysis divided our sample into two clusters, showing different uptakes in grey, but also in white matter. These results demonstrate that AV-45 binding in white matter conveys subtle information not detectable using the SUVr approach. Although it is not more efficient than standard SUVr in discriminating AD patients from healthy subjects, this information could reveal white matter modifications. (orig.)

  9. The Effect of 7E Learning Model on Conceptual Understandings of Prospective Science Teachers on 'de Broglie Matter Waves' Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem Gorecek Baybars

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study is to determine the conceptual understanding that prospective Science teachers have relating "de Broglie: Matter waves" and to investigate the effect of the instruction performed, on the conceptual understanding. This study was performed at a state university located in the western part of Turkey, with the Faculty of Education-Science Teaching students (2nd year / 48 individual in the academic year of 2010-2011. The study was planned as a single group pretest-posttest design. A two-step question was used in the study, prior to and after the instruction. Lessons were conducted using the 7E learning model in the instruction process. When all these results are evaluated, it can be said that the conceptual understanding of the prospective teachers regarding "de Broglie; matter waves" has been taken place. In general, when all the sections are examined, it has been observed that the prospective teachers have more alternative concepts prior to the instruction and more scientific concepts after the instruction. In this process, besides instruction, the prospective teachers have not taken any place in a different application regarding the basic concepts of quantum physics. Therefore, it has been determined that the 7E learning model used in the research and the activities included in the 7E learning model are effective in conceptual understanding.

  10. The Subjective Well-Being Method of Valuation: An Application to General Health Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Timothy T

    2015-12-01

    To introduce the subjective well-being (SWB) method of valuation and provide an example by valuing health status. The SWB method allows monetary valuations to be performed in the absence of market relationships. Data are from the 1975-2010 General Social Survey. The value of health status is determined via the estimation of an implicit derivative based on a happiness equation. Two-stage least-squares was used to estimate happiness as a function of poor-to-fair health status, annual household income adjusted for household size, age, sex, race, marital status, education, year, and season. Poor-to-fair health status and annual household income are instrumented using a proxy for intelligence, a temporal version of the classic distance instrument, and the average health status of individuals who are demographically similar but geographically separated. Instrument validity is evaluated. Moving from good/excellent health to poor/fair health (1 year of lower health status) is equivalent to the loss of $41,654 of equivalized household income (2010 constant dollars) per annum, which is larger than median equivalized household income. The SWB method may be useful in making monetary valuations where fundamental market relationships are not present. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  11. Developmental Dynamics of General and School-Subject-Specific Components of Academic Self-Concept, Academic Interest, and Academic Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogol, Katarzyna; Brunner, Martin; Preckel, Franzis; Goetz, Thomas; Martin, Romain

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the developmental dynamics of general and subject-specific (i.e., mathematics, French, and German) components of students' academic self-concept, anxiety, and interest. To this end, the authors integrated three lines of research: (a) hierarchical and multidimensional approaches to the conceptualization of each construct, (b) longitudinal analyses of bottom-up and top-down developmental processes across hierarchical levels, and (c) developmental processes across subjects. The data stemmed from two longitudinal large-scale samples (N = 3498 and N = 3863) of students attending Grades 7 and 9 in Luxembourgish schools. Nested-factor models were applied to represent each construct at each grade level. The analyses demonstrated that several characteristics were shared across constructs. All constructs were multidimensional in nature with respect to the different subjects, showed a hierarchical organization with a general component at the apex of the hierarchy, and had a strong separation between the subject-specific components at both grade levels. Further, all constructs showed moderate differential stabilities at both the general (0.42 < r < 0.55) and subject-specific levels (0.45 < r < 0.73). Further, little evidence was found for top-down or bottom-up developmental processes. Rather, general and subject-specific components in Grade 9 proved to be primarily a function of the corresponding components in Grade 7. Finally, change in several subject-specific components could be explained by negative effects across subjects.

  12. Developmental Dynamics of General and School-Subject-Specific Components of Academic Self-Concept, Academic Interest, and Academic Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna eGogol

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the developmental dynamics of general and subject-specific (i.e., mathematics, French, and German components of students’ academic self-concept, anxiety, and interest. To this end, the authors integrated three lines of research: (a hierarchical and multidimensional approaches to the conceptualization of each construct, (b longitudinal analyses of bottom-up and top-down developmental processes across hierarchical levels, and (c ipsative developmental processes across subjects. The data stemmed from two longitudinal large-scale samples (N = 3,498 and N = 3,863 of students attending Grades 7 and 9 in Luxembourgish schools. Nested-factor models were applied to represent each construct at each grade level. The analyses demonstrated that several characteristics were shared across constructs. All constructs were multidimensional in nature with respect to the different subjects, showed a hierarchical organization with a general component at the apex of the hierarchy, and had a strong separation between the subject-specific components at both grade levels. Further, all constructs showed moderate differential stabilities at both the general (.42 < r < .55 and subject-specific levels (.45 < r < .73. Further, little evidence was found for top-down or bottom-up developmental processes. Rather, general and subject-specific components in Grade 9 proved to be primarily a function of the corresponding components in Grade 7. Finally, change in several subject-specific components could be explained by negative, ipsative effects across subjects.

  13. Developmental Dynamics of General and School-Subject-Specific Components of Academic Self-Concept, Academic Interest, and Academic Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogol, Katarzyna; Brunner, Martin; Preckel, Franzis; Goetz, Thomas; Martin, Romain

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the developmental dynamics of general and subject-specific (i.e., mathematics, French, and German) components of students' academic self-concept, anxiety, and interest. To this end, the authors integrated three lines of research: (a) hierarchical and multidimensional approaches to the conceptualization of each construct, (b) longitudinal analyses of bottom-up and top-down developmental processes across hierarchical levels, and (c) developmental processes across subjects. The data stemmed from two longitudinal large-scale samples (N = 3498 and N = 3863) of students attending Grades 7 and 9 in Luxembourgish schools. Nested-factor models were applied to represent each construct at each grade level. The analyses demonstrated that several characteristics were shared across constructs. All constructs were multidimensional in nature with respect to the different subjects, showed a hierarchical organization with a general component at the apex of the hierarchy, and had a strong separation between the subject-specific components at both grade levels. Further, all constructs showed moderate differential stabilities at both the general (0.42 < r < 0.55) and subject-specific levels (0.45 < r < 0.73). Further, little evidence was found for top-down or bottom-up developmental processes. Rather, general and subject-specific components in Grade 9 proved to be primarily a function of the corresponding components in Grade 7. Finally, change in several subject-specific components could be explained by negative effects across subjects. PMID:27014162

  14. Hypertension and white matter lesions are independently associated with apathetic behavior in healthy elderly subjects. The Sefuri brain MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Hiroshi; Takashima, Yuki; Mori, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Manabu; Yuzuriha, Takefumi; Uchino, Akira; Miwa, Yoshikazu; Sasaguri, Toshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    Apathy is defined as a syndrome of primary loss of motivation not attributable to emotional distress, intellectual impairment or consciousness disturbance. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of vascular risk factors and silent ischemic brain lesions on apathetic behavior of community-dwelling elderly subjects. Brain MRI and other medical examinations were performed on 222 non-demented community-dwelling elderly subjects (96 men and 126 women, average age 70.1 years). The apathy group was defined as the most apathetic quintile determined by Starkstein's apathy scale. Silent infarction, deep white matter lesions (DWMLs) and periventricular hyperintensities were detected in 12.2, 39.2 and 22.5%, respectively. Linear regression analysis (Pearson) revealed that the scores on the apathy scale correlated slightly but significantly with logarithmically transformed scores of the Modified Stroop Test (r=0.135, P=0.045), but not with the Mini-Mental State Examination. The apathy group tended to have more high blood pressure (141.6/82.6 vs. 136.1/79.6 mmHg), less prevalent hyperlipidemia (18 vs. 35%) and lower serum albumin. Multivariate analysis (the forward stepwise method of logistic analysis) revealed an independent correlation between the apathy and grade of DWMLs (odds ratio 1.826, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.129-2.953 per grade) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (odds ratio 1.055, 95% CI 1.0 14-1.098 per mmHg) after adjusting for possible confounders. The mean apathy scale score in the DBP≥90 mmHg group was significantly lower (more apathetic) than that in the DBP<80 group (P=0.011, analysis of covariance). This study showed that hypertension and DWMLs are independently associated with apathy in healthy elderly subjects. (author)

  15. The Subject's Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The body may be the object we know the best. It is the only object from which we constantly receive a flow of information through sight and touch; and it is the only object we can experience from the inside, through our proprioceptive, vestibular, and visceral senses. Yet there have been very few...

  16. Alterations in white matter volume and its correlation with clinical characteristics in patients with generalized anxiety disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Chung-Man [Chonnam National University Hospital, Research Institute for Medical Imaging, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Gwang-Woo [Chonnam National University Hospital, Research Institute for Medical Imaging, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Chonnam National University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Only a few morphological studies have focused on changes in white matter (WM) volume in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). We evaluated alterations in WM volume and its correlation with symptom severity and duration of illness in adults with GAD. The 44 subjects were comprised of 22 patients with GAD (13 males and nine females) diagnosed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) and 22 age-matched healthy controls (13 males and nine females). High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were processed by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis based on diffeomorphic anatomical registration using the exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) algorithm in SPM8. Patients with GAD showed significantly reduced WM volume, particularly in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC), and midbrain. In addition, DLPFC volume was negatively correlated with GAD-7 score and illness duration. ALIC volume was negatively correlated with GAD-7 score. Female patients had significantly less orbitofrontal cortex volume compared to that in male patients. The findings demonstrate localized changes in WM volume associated with cognitive and emotional dysfunction in patients with GAD. The finding will be helpful for understanding the neuropathology in patients with GAD. (orig.)

  17. Alterations in white matter volume and its correlation with clinical characteristics in patients with generalized anxiety disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Chung-Man; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Only a few morphological studies have focused on changes in white matter (WM) volume in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). We evaluated alterations in WM volume and its correlation with symptom severity and duration of illness in adults with GAD. The 44 subjects were comprised of 22 patients with GAD (13 males and nine females) diagnosed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) and 22 age-matched healthy controls (13 males and nine females). High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were processed by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis based on diffeomorphic anatomical registration using the exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) algorithm in SPM8. Patients with GAD showed significantly reduced WM volume, particularly in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC), and midbrain. In addition, DLPFC volume was negatively correlated with GAD-7 score and illness duration. ALIC volume was negatively correlated with GAD-7 score. Female patients had significantly less orbitofrontal cortex volume compared to that in male patients. The findings demonstrate localized changes in WM volume associated with cognitive and emotional dysfunction in patients with GAD. The finding will be helpful for understanding the neuropathology in patients with GAD. (orig.)

  18. Subclinical Disease Burden as Assessed by Whole-Body MRI in Subjects With Prediabetes, Subjects With Diabetes, and Normal Control Subjects From the General Population: The KORA-MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberg, Fabian; Hetterich, Holger; Rospleszcz, Susanne; Lorbeer, Roberto; Auweter, Sigrid D; Schlett, Christopher L; Schafnitzel, Anina; Bayerl, Christian; Schindler, Andreas; Saam, Tobias; Müller-Peltzer, Katharina; Sommer, Wieland; Zitzelsberger, Tanja; Machann, Jürgen; Ingrisch, Michael; Selder, Sonja; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Heier, Margit; Linkohr, Birgit; Meisinger, Christa; Weber, Christian; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Massberg, Steffen; Reiser, Maximilian F; Peters, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Detailed pathophysiological manifestations of early disease in the context of prediabetes are poorly understood. This study aimed to evaluate the extent of early signs of metabolic and cardio-cerebrovascular complications affecting multiple organs in individuals with prediabetes. Subjects without a history of stroke, coronary artery disease, or peripheral artery disease were enrolled in a case-control study nested within the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) FF4 cohort and underwent comprehensive MRI assessment to characterize cerebral parameters (white matter lesions, microbleeds), cardiovascular parameters (carotid plaque, left ventricular function, and myocardial late gadolinium enhancement [LGE]), and metabolic parameters (hepatic proton-density fat fraction [PDFF] and subcutaneous and visceral abdominal fat). Among 400 subjects who underwent MRI, 103 subjects had prediabetes and 54 had established diabetes. Subjects with prediabetes had an increased risk for carotid plaque and adverse functional cardiac parameters, including reduced early diastolic filling rates as well as a higher prevalence of LGE compared with healthy control subjects. In addition, people with prediabetes had significantly elevated levels of PDFF and total and visceral fat. Thus, subjects with prediabetes show early signs of subclinical disease that include vascular, cardiac, and metabolic changes, as measured by whole-body MRI after adjusting for cardiometabolic risk factors. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  19. Extended ΛCDM: generalized non-minimal coupling for dark matter fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettoni, Dario; Liberati, Stefano; Sindoni, Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a class of models that address the issue of explaining the gravitational dynamics at the galactic scale starting from a geometric point of view. Instead of claiming the existence of some hidden coupling between dark matter and baryons, or abandoning the existence of dark matter itself, we consider the possibility that dark matter and gravity have some non trivial interaction able to modify the dynamics at astrophysical scales. This interaction is implemented assuming that dark matter gets non-minimally coupled with gravity at suitably small scales and late times. After showing the predictions of the model in the Newtonian limit we also discuss the possible origin of it non-minimal coupling. This investigation seems to suggest that phenomenological mechanisms envisaged for the dark matter dynamics, such as the Bose-Einstein condensation of dark matter halos, could be connected to this class of models

  20. Towards a generalized Landau theory of quasi-particles for hot dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leermakers, R.

    1985-01-01

    In this thesis it is tried to construct a Landau quasi-particle theory for relativistic systems, using field-theoretical methods. It includes a perturbative calculation of the pressure of a quark-gluon plasma. It reports the existence of a hitherto unnoticed plasmon contribution of the order g 3 due to transverse quasi-gluons. A new and Lorentz covariant formulation of the Landau theory is being developed, for a general relativistic system. A detailed calculation is presented of the observables of a quantum electrodynamical (QED) plasma, in lowest orders of perturbation theory. A transverse plasmon effect is discovered, both analytically and numerically. In addition, the analysis shows quasi-electrons and positrons to be stable excitations at any temperature. This is proven in all orders of perturbation theory. Along with a Landau theory for quark-gluon matter, a linearized kinetic equation is derived for the singlet quark distribution function, with a collision term for soft encounters between quasi-quarks. (Auth.)

  1. Incidence of lumbar spondylolysis in the general population in Japan based on multidetector computed tomography scans from two thousand subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Toshinori; Sairyo, Koichi; Takao, Shoichiro; Nishitani, Hiromu; Yasui, Natsuo

    2009-10-01

    Epidemiological analysis using CTs. To investigate the true incidence of lumbar spondylolysis in the general population in Japan. Although there have been several reports on the incidence of lumbar spondylolysis, they had some weakness. One of them concerns the subjects investigated, because the incidence of lumbar spondylolysis varies considerably, and some patients are asymptomatic. In addition, most of the past studies used plain radiograph films or skeletal investigation. Therefore, the past reported incidence may not correspond to that of the general population. We reviewed the computed tomography (CT) scans of 2000 subjects (age: 20-92 years) who had undergone abdominal and pelvic CT on a single multidetector CT scanner for reasons unrelated to low back pain. We reviewed them for spondylolysis, spondylolytic spondylolisthesis, and spina bifida occulta (SBO) in the lumbosacral region. The grade (I-IV) of spondylolisthesis was measured using midsagittal reconstructions. Lumbar spondylolysis was found in 117 subjects (5.9%). Their male-female ratio was 2:1. Multiple-level spondylolysis was found in 5 subjects (0.3%). Among these 117 subjects, there were 124 vertebrae with spondylolysis. Of them, 112 (90.3%) corresponded to L5, and 26 (21.0%) had unilateral spondylolysis.SBO was found in 154 subjects. Of them, 25 had spondylolysis (16.2%), whereas, in 1846 subjects without SBO, 92 had spondylolysis (5.0%). The incidence of spondylolysis among the patients with SBO was significantly higher than that in subjects without SBO (Odd ratio was 3.7-fold).Of 124 vertebrae with spondylolysis, 75 (60.5%) showed low-grade (Meyerding grade I or II) spondylolisthesis, and no subject presented high-grade spondylolisthesis. Spondylolisthesis was found in 74.5% of the subjects with bilateral spondylolysis, and in 7.7% of those with unilateral spondylolysis. The incidence of lumbar spondylolysis in the Japanese general population was 5.9% (males: 7.9%, females: 3.9%).

  2. A general holographic insulator/superconductor model with dark matter sector away from the probe limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Yan, E-mail: yanpengphy@163.com [School of Mathematical Sciences, Qufu Normal University, Qufu, Shandong 273165 (China); School of Mathematics and Computer Science, Shaanxi Sci-Tech University, Hanzhong, Shaanxi 723000 (China); Pan, Qiyuan, E-mail: panqiyuan@126.com [Department of Physics, Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Liu, Yunqi, E-mail: liuyunqi@hust.edu.cn [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2017-02-15

    We investigate holographic phase transitions with dark matter sector in the AdS soliton background away from the probe limit. In cases of weak backreaction, we find that the larger coupling parameter α makes the gap of condensation shallower and the critical chemical potential keeps as a constant. In contrast, for very heavy backreaction, the dark matter sector could affect the critical chemical potential and the order of phase transitions. We also find the jump of the holographic topological entanglement entropy corresponds to a first order transition between superconducting states in this model with dark matter sector. More importantly, for certain sets of parameters, we observe novel phenomenon of retrograde condensation. In a word, the dark matter sector provides richer physics in the phase structure and the holographic superconductor properties are helpful in understanding dark matter.

  3. A general holographic insulator/superconductor model with dark matter sector away from the probe limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Yan; Pan, Qiyuan; Liu, Yunqi

    2017-01-01

    We investigate holographic phase transitions with dark matter sector in the AdS soliton background away from the probe limit. In cases of weak backreaction, we find that the larger coupling parameter α makes the gap of condensation shallower and the critical chemical potential keeps as a constant. In contrast, for very heavy backreaction, the dark matter sector could affect the critical chemical potential and the order of phase transitions. We also find the jump of the holographic topological entanglement entropy corresponds to a first order transition between superconducting states in this model with dark matter sector. More importantly, for certain sets of parameters, we observe novel phenomenon of retrograde condensation. In a word, the dark matter sector provides richer physics in the phase structure and the holographic superconductor properties are helpful in understanding dark matter.

  4. A general holographic insulator/superconductor model with dark matter sector away from the probe limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Peng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigate holographic phase transitions with dark matter sector in the AdS soliton background away from the probe limit. In cases of weak backreaction, we find that the larger coupling parameter α makes the gap of condensation shallower and the critical chemical potential keeps as a constant. In contrast, for very heavy backreaction, the dark matter sector could affect the critical chemical potential and the order of phase transitions. We also find the jump of the holographic topological entanglement entropy corresponds to a first order transition between superconducting states in this model with dark matter sector. More importantly, for certain sets of parameters, we observe novel phenomenon of retrograde condensation. In a word, the dark matter sector provides richer physics in the phase structure and the holographic superconductor properties are helpful in understanding dark matter.

  5. Diet in subjects with irritable bowel syndrome: A cross-sectional study in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligaarden Solveig C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS often relate symptoms to the intake of certain foods. This study assesses differences in diet in subjects with and without IBS. Methods The cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted in Norway in 2001. Out of 11078 invited subjects, 4621 completed a survey about abdominal complaints and intake of common food items. IBS and IBS subgroups were classified according to Rome II criteria. Results IBS was diagnosed in 388 subjects (8.4% and, of these, 26.5% had constipation-predominant IBS (C-IBS, 44.8% alternating IBS (A-IBS, and 28.6% diarrhoea-predominant IBS (D-IBS. Low intake of dairy products (portions/day (Odds Ratio 0.85 [CI 0.78 to 0.93], p = 0.001 and high intake of water (100 ml/day (1.08 [1.02 to 1.15], p = 0.002, tea (1.05 [1.01 to 1.10], p = 0.019 and carbonated beverages (1.07 [1.01 to 1.14], p = 0.023 were associated with IBS. A lower intake of dairy products and a higher intake of alcohol and carbonated beverages were associated with D-IBS and a higher intake of water and tea was associated with A-IBS. In subjects with IBS the severity of symptoms was associated with a higher intake of vegetables and potatoes in subjects with C-IBS, with a higher intake of vegetables in subjects with A-IBS, and with a higher intake of fruits and berries, carbonated beverages and alcohol in subjects with D-IBS. Conclusions In this study, the diet differed in subjects with and without IBS and between IBS subgroups and was associated with the severity of symptoms.

  6. Exploring the Relationship between Secondary Science Teachers' Subject Matter Knowledge and Knowledge of Student Conceptions While Teaching Evolution by Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Margaret M.; Petrosino, Anthony J.; Delgado, Cesar

    2017-01-01

    The fundamental scientific concept of evolution occurring by natural selection is home to many deeply held alternative conceptions and considered difficult to teach. Science teachers' subject matter knowledge (SMK) and the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) component of knowledge of students' conceptions (KOSC) can be valuable resources for…

  7. Middle-School Teachers' Understanding and Teaching of the Engineering Design Process: A Look at Subject Matter and Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Morgan M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on research investigating six middle school teachers without engineering degrees as they taught an engineering unit on the engineering design process. Videotaped classroom sessions and teacher interviews were analyzed to understand the subject matter and pedagogical content knowledge the teachers used and developed as they…

  8. The effect of productive classroom talk and metacommunication on young children's oral communicative competence and subject matter knowledge: An intervention study in early childhood education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, C.; de Mey, J.R.P.B.; van Kruistum, C.J.; van Oers, B.

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of productive classroom talk and metacommunication on the development of young children's oral communicative competence and subject matter knowledge. This study can be characterized as a quasi-experimental study with a

  9. A Case Study of Beginning Science Teachers' Subject Matter (SMK) and Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) of Teaching Chemical Reaction in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usak, Muhammet; Ozden, Mustafa; Eilks, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a case study focusing on the subject matter knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and beliefs about science teaching of student teachers in Turkey at the start of their university education. The topic of interest was that of teaching chemical reactions in secondary chemistry education. A written test was developed which…

  10. The Place of Subject Matter Knowledge in Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A Case Study of South African Teachers Teaching the Amount of Substance and Chemical Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollnick, Marissa; Bennett, Judith; Rhemtula, Mariam; Dharsey, Nadine; Ndlovu, Thandi

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents two South African case studies designed to explore the influence of subject matter knowledge on pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). In the first case study on teaching the mole in two township schools, the findings illustrate that the participant teachers favoured procedural approaches at the expense of conceptual…

  11. White matter fibertracking in first-episode schizophrenia, schizoaffective patients and subjects at ultra-high risk of psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Bart D.; de Haan, Lieuwe; Dekker, Nienke; Blaas, Jorik; Becker, Hiske E.; Dingemans, Peter M.; Akkerman, Erik M.; Majoie, Charles B.; van Amelsvoort, Therèse; den Heeten, Gerard J.; Linszen, Don H.

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of white matter pathology in schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to examine whether white matter abnormalities found with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in previous schizophrenia studies are present in the early phase of the illness. DTI was performed at 3 T on 10

  12. Tract-specific analysis of white matter pathways in healthy subjects: a pilot study using diffusion tensor MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasmin, Hasina; Abe, Osamu; Nakata, Yasuhiro; Hayashi, Naoto; Masutani, Yoshitaka; Goto, Masami; Ohtomo, Kuni [University of Tokyo, Department of Radiology, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Aoki, Shigeki [Juntendo University, Department of Radiology, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    To date, very scant data is available regarding normal diffusion properties of white matter (WM) fibers. The present study aimed to initiate the establishment of a database of normal diffusion tensor metrics of cerebral WM fibers, including the uncinate fasciculus (UF), posterior cingulum (PC), fornix, and corticospinal tract (CST) for healthy adults using tract-specific analysis by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). We also attempted to clarify whether age and laterality exerted any effects on this study group. DTT of WM fibers were generated for 100 healthy subjects, then mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) of the tracts were measured. Pearson correlation analysis was used to evaluate age relationships. Paired t testing was used to compare hemispheric asymmetry. Interobserver correlation tests were also performed. Our results showed FA values for UF (right, 0.42 {+-} 0.03; left, 0.40{+-}0.03), PC (0.51 {+-} 0.06, 0.52 {+-} 0.06), fornix (0.37 {+-} 0.06, 0.38 {+-} 0.06), CST (0.70 {+-} 0.06, 0.69 {+-} 0.07), and MD values for UF (0.81 {+-} 0.03, 0.82 {+-} 0.04), PC (0.72 {+-} 0.03, 0.72 {+-} 0.04), fornix (1.86 {+-} 0.32, 1.94 {+-} 0.37), and CST (0.72 {+-} 0.03, 0.74 {+-} 0.04). We identified a significant positive correlation between age and MD in the right UF and bilateral fornices, and a negative correlation between age and FA in bilateral fornices. Hemispheric asymmetry was observed in FA of UF (right > left) and MD of CST (left > right). The results constitute a normative dataset for diffusion parameters of four WM tracts that can be used to identify, characterize, and establish the significance of changes in diseases affecting specific tracts. (orig.)

  13. CosmoQuest: Supporting Subject Matter Experts in Broadening the Impacts of their Work beyond their Institutional Walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel-Storr, J.; Buxner, S.; Grier, J.; Gay, P.

    2016-12-01

    CosmoQuest is a virtual research facility, which, like its physical counterparts, provides tools for scientists to acquire reduced data products (thanks to our cadre of citizen scientists working to analyze images and produce results online), and also to participate in education and outreach activities either directly through CosmoQuest activities (such as CosmoAcademy and the Educators' Zone) or with the support of CosmoQuest. Here, we present our strategies to inspire, engage and support Subject Matter Experts (SMEs - Scientists, Engineers, Technologists and Mathematicians) in activities outside of their institutions, and beyond college classroom teaching. We provide support for SMEs who are interested in increasing the impacts of their science knowledge and expertise by interacting with people online, or in other venues outside of their normal work environment. This includes a broad spectrum of opportunities for those interested in hosting webinars; running short courses for the public; using Facebook, Twitter or other social media to communicate science; or other diverse activities such as supporting an open house, science fair, or star party. As noted by Katheryn Woods-Townsend and colleagues, "...face-to-face interactions with scientists allowed students to view scientists as approachable and normal people, and to begin to understand the range of scientific areas and careers that exist. Scientists viewed the scientist-student interactions as a vehicle for science communication" (2015). As CosmoQuest fosters these relationships, it We present a framework for SMEs which combine opportunities for continuing professional development (virtually and in person at conferences) with ongoing online support, creating a dynamic professional learning network. The goal of this is to deepen SME capacity-knowledge, attitudes and behaviors-both encouraging and empowering them to connect to broader audiences in new ways.

  14. Transport and solubility of Hetero-disperse dry deposition particulate matter subject to urban source area rainfall-runoff processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, G.; Sansalone, J.

    2010-03-01

    SummaryWith respect to hydrologic processes, the impervious pavement interface significantly alters relationships between rainfall and runoff. Commensurate with alteration of hydrologic processes the pavement also facilitates transport and solubility of dry deposition particulate matter (PM) in runoff. This study examines dry depositional flux rates, granulometric modification by runoff transport, as well as generation of total dissolved solids (TDS), alkalinity and conductivity in source area runoff resulting from PM solubility. PM is collected from a paved source area transportation corridor (I-10) in Baton Rouge, Louisiana encompassing 17 dry deposition and 8 runoff events. The mass-based granulometric particle size distribution (PSD) is measured and modeled through a cumulative gamma function, while PM surface area distributions across the PSD follow a log-normal distribution. Dry deposition flux rates are modeled as separate first-order exponential functions of previous dry hours (PDH) for PM and suspended, settleable and sediment fractions. When trans-located from dry deposition into runoff, PSDs are modified, with a d50m decreasing from 331 to 14 μm after transport and 60 min of settling. Solubility experiments as a function of pH, contact time and particle size using source area rainfall generate constitutive models to reproduce pH, alkalinity, TDS and alkalinity for historical events. Equilibrium pH, alkalinity and TDS are strongly influenced by particle size and contact times. The constitutive leaching models are combined with measured PSDs from a series of rainfall-runoff events to demonstrate that the model results replicate alkalinity and TDS in runoff from the subject watershed. Results illustrate the granulometry of dry deposition PM, modification of PSDs along the drainage pathway, and the role of PM solubility for generation of TDS, alkalinity and conductivity in urban source area rainfall-runoff.

  15. A tale of three blind men on the proper subject matter of clinical science and practice: commentary on Plaud's behaviorism vs. Ilardi and Feldman's cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, J P; Kelly, M M

    2001-09-01

    Plaud (J Clin Psychol 57, 1089-1102, 1109-1111, 1119-1120) and Ilardi and Feldman (J Clin Psychol 57, 1067-1088, 1103-1107, 1113-1117, 1121-1124) argue for two very different approaches to clinical science and practice (i.e., behavior analysis and cognitive neuroscience, respectively). We comment on the assets and liabilities of both perspectives as presented and attempt to achieve some semblance of balance between the three protagonists embroiled in this current debate. The vision of clinical science we articulate is more ecumenical and evolutionary, rather than paradigmatic and revolutionary. As we see it, the problem clinical psychology faces is much larger than the authors let on; namely, how best to make clinical science meaningful and relevant to practitioners, consumers, the general public, and the behavioral health-care community. Clinical psychology's immediate internal problem is not pluralism with regard to subject matter, worldview, methodology, or school of thought, but pluralism in clinical psychologists' adherence to a scientific epistemology as the only legitimate form of clinical psychology. On this latter point, we still have a very long way to go. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  16. Evaluation of dyspnoea in a sample of elderly subjects recruited from general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, F; Mehlsen, J; Raymond, I

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the cause of dyspnoea in a sample of elderly individuals and to assess the diagnostic yield of a three-step examination algorithm for the evaluation of dyspnoea paired with a cost analysis. A total of 152 subjects were examined. A predefined diagno...

  17. Pilates versus general exercise effectiveness on pain and functionality in non-specific chronic low back pain subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostagi, Fernanda Queiroz Ribeiro Cerci; Dias, Josilainne Marcelino; Pereira, Ligia Maxwell; Obara, Karen; Mazuquin, Bruno Fles; Silva, Mariana Felipe; Silva, Monica Angelica Cardoso; de Campos, Renata Rosa; Barreto, Maria Simone Tavares; Nogueira, Jéssyca Fernandes; Lima, Tarcísio Brandão; Carregaro, Rodrigo Luiz; Cardoso, Jefferson Rosa

    2015-10-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common causes of disability, and the Pilates method has been associated with improvements in symptoms. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the Pilates method, when compared to general exercises, on pain and functionality after eight weeks (16 sessions, 2×/week) and a follow-up of three months, in subjects with non-specific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP). A randomised controlled trial composed of 22 subjects was proposed. Subjects were allocated into two groups: the Pilates group (PG) (n = 11) and the general exercise group (GEG) (n = 11). The PG protocol was based on the Pilates method and the GEG performed exercises to manage NSCLBP. There were no differences between the groups. When analysed over time, the GEG demonstrated improvements in functionality between baseline and the end of treatment (P = .02; Cohen'sd¯ = 0.34) and baseline and follow-up (P = .04; Cohen'sd¯ = 0.31). There were no differences between the Pilates and general exercises with regard to pain and functionality in NSCLBP subjects but general exercises were better than Pilates for increasing functionality and flexibility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. General health assessment vs. job satisfaction : The relationship of indicators of subjective well-being with self-reported absenteeism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sczesny, S; Thau, S; Scesnzy, S.

    2004-01-01

    The present study was based on the assumption that people are motivated to gain or maintain their well-being. Being absent from work is conceptualized as a means to this end. We investigated which one of two indicators of subjective well-being - general health assessment versus job satisfaction - is

  19. Image size invariant visual cryptography for general access structures subject to display quality constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kai-Hui; Chiu, Pei-Ling

    2013-10-01

    Conventional visual cryptography (VC) suffers from a pixel-expansion problem, or an uncontrollable display quality problem for recovered images, and lacks a general approach to construct visual secret sharing schemes for general access structures. We propose a general and systematic approach to address these issues without sophisticated codebook design. This approach can be used for binary secret images in non-computer-aided decryption environments. To avoid pixel expansion, we design a set of column vectors to encrypt secret pixels rather than using the conventional VC-based approach. We begin by formulating a mathematic model for the VC construction problem to find the column vectors for the optimal VC construction, after which we develop a simulated-annealing-based algorithm to solve the problem. The experimental results show that the display quality of the recovered image is superior to that of previous papers.

  20. Microalbuminuria reflects a generalized transvascular albumin leakiness in clinically healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K; Jensen, G

    1995-01-01

    1. In epidemiological studies microalbuminuria, i.e. slightly elevated urinary albumin excretion rate, predicts increased atherosclerotic vascular morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that microalbuminuria in clinically healthy subjects is associated with a systemic...... transvascular albumin leakiness. In animal experiments the outflux of albumin and lipids to the arterial wall are highly correlated, and both are elevated in atherosclerosis. 2. All participants were recruited at random from a population-based epidemiological study, where the upper decile of urinary albumin...... excretion rate was 6.6 micrograms/min. Twenty-seven patients with persistent microalbuminuria (urinary albumin excretion rate 6.6-150 micrograms/min), and 56 age- and sex-matched control subjects with persistent normoalbuminuria (UAER

  1. General characteristics and types of subjective duties in corporate legal relations

    OpenAIRE

    Надьон, Вікторія Валентинівна

    2017-01-01

    The processes of reforming social relations in the conditions of integration ofUkraine's economic system into the European community call for the improvement of domestic legislation in this area and the scientific substantiation of the legal problems that arise there. One of these problems is the essence of subjective responsibility in corporate legal relations.Legislative regulation of corporate legal relations takes place through the establishment of certain rights and responsibilities for ...

  2. Usability of teleshopping systems by young and older adults : General performance, task analysis and subjective evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Raad, KJE; Dekker, MR; Sikken, J.A.; den Brinker, P.B.L.M.; Beek, PJ; Brand, AN; Maarse, FJ; Mulder, LJM

    1999-01-01

    Older people generally experience more difficulty learning to work with new information technologies than younger people. This may be partly due to age-related impairments of memory and information processing. To determine which aspects of user interfaces pose too high demands on order users, an

  3. Dark matter self-interactions from a general spin-0 mediator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahlhoefer, Felix; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai; Wild, Sebastian, E-mail: felix.kahlhoefer@desy.de, E-mail: kai.schmidt-hoberg@desy.de, E-mail: sebastian.wild@desy.de [DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-08-01

    Dark matter particles interacting via the exchange of very light spin-0 mediators can have large self-interaction rates and obtain their relic abundance from thermal freeze-out. At the same time, these models face strong bounds from direct and indirect probes of dark matter as well as a number of constraints on the properties of the mediator. We investigate whether these constraints can be consistent with having observable effects from dark matter self-interactions in astrophysical systems. For the case of a mediator with purely scalar couplings we point out the highly relevant impact of low-threshold direct detection experiments like CRESST-II, which essentially rule out the simplest realization of this model. These constraints can be significantly relaxed if the mediator has CP-violating couplings, but then the model faces strong constraints from CMB measurements, which can only be avoided in special regions of parameter space.

  4. Dark matter self-interactions from a general spin-0 mediator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlhoefer, Felix; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai; Wild, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Dark matter particles interacting via the exchange of very light spin-0 mediators can have large self-interaction rates and obtain their relic abundance from thermal freeze-out. At the same time, these models face strong bounds from direct and indirect probes of dark matter as well as a number of constraints on the properties of the mediator. We investigate whether these constraints can be consistent with having observable effects from dark matter self-interactions in astrophysical systems. For the case of a mediator with purely scalar couplings we point out the highly relevant impact of low-threshold direct detection experiments like CRESST-II, which essentially rule out the simplest realization of this model. These constraints can be significantly relaxed if the mediator has CP-violating couplings, but then the model faces strong constraints from CMB measurements, which can only be avoided in special regions of parameter space.

  5. Dark matter self-interactions from a general spin-0 mediator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahlhoefer, Felix; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai; Wild, Sebastian

    2017-04-15

    Dark matter particles interacting via the exchange of very light spin-0 mediators can have large self-interaction rates and obtain their relic abundance from thermal freeze-out. At the same time, these models face strong bounds from direct and indirect probes of dark matter as well as a number of constraints on the properties of the mediator. We investigate whether these constraints can be consistent with having observable effects from dark matter self-interactions in astrophysical systems. For the case of a mediator with purely scalar couplings we point out the highly relevant impact of low-threshold direct detection experiments like CRESST-II, which essentially rule out the simplest realization of this model. These constraints can be significantly relaxed if the mediator has CP-violating couplings, but then the model faces strong constraints from CMB measurements, which can only be avoided in special regions of parameter space.

  6. General analysis for experimental studies of time-reversal-violating effects in slow neutron propagation through polarized matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamoreaux, S.K.; Golub, R.

    1994-01-01

    A general technique is developed for the analysis of proposed experimental studies of possible P,T-violating effects in the neutron-nucleus interaction based on low-energy neutron transmission through polarized matter. The analysis is applied to proposed experimental schemes and we determine the levels at which the absolute neutron polarization, magnetic fields, and target polarization must be controlled in order for these experiments to obtain a given sensitivity to P,T-violating effects

  7. General characteristics and technical subjects on helium closed cycle gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomura, Hiroaki

    1996-06-01

    Making the subjects clarified on nuclear-heated gas turbine that will apply the inherent features of HTGR, the present paper discusses the difference of the helium closed cycle gas turbine, which is a candidate of nuclear gas turbine, with the open cycle gas turbine and indicates inherent problems of closed cycle gas turbine, its effects onto thermal efficiency and turbine output and difficulties due to the pressure ratio and specific speed from use of helium. The paper also discusses effects of the external pressure losses onto the efficiencies of compressor and turbine that are major components of the gas turbine. According to the discussions above, the paper concludes indicating the key idea on heat exchangers for the closed cycle gas turbine and design basis to solve the problems and finally offers new gas turbine conception using nitrogen or air that is changeable into open cycle gas turbine. (author)

  8. Comorbid subjective health complaints in patients with sciatica: a prospective study including comparison with the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grøvle, Lars; Haugen, Anne J; Ihlebaek, Camilla M; Keller, Anne; Natvig, Bård; Brox, Jens I; Grotle, Margreth

    2011-06-01

    Chronic nonspecific low back pain is accompanied by high rates of comorbid mental and physical conditions. The aims of this study were to investigate if patients with specific back pain, that is, sciatica caused by lumbar herniation, report higher rates of subjective health complaints (SHCs) than the general population and if there is an association between change in sciatica symptoms and change in SHCs over a 12-month period. A multicenter cohort study of 466 sciatica patients was conducted with follow-up at 3 months and 1 year. Comorbid SHCs were measured by 27 items of the SHC inventory. Odds ratios (ORs) for each SHC were calculated with comparison to a general population sample (n=928) by logistic regression. The SHC number was calculated by summing all complaints present. At baseline, the ORs for reporting SHCs for the sciatica patients were significantly elevated in 15 of the 27 items with a mean (S.D.) SHC number of 7.5 (4.4), compared to 5.2 (4.4) in the general population (Psciatica, the SHC number was reduced to normal levels. Among those with persisting or worsening sciatica, the number increased to a level almost double that of the general population. Compared to the general population, the prevalence of subjective health complaints in sciatica is increased. During follow-up, the number of health complaints increased in patients with persisting or worsening sciatica. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Generalized projective chaos synchronization of gyroscope systems subjected to dead-zone nonlinear inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yau, H.-T.

    2008-01-01

    This Letter presents a robust control scheme to generalized projective synchronization between two identical two-degrees-of-freedom heavy symmetric gyroscopes with dead zone nonlinear inputs. Because of the nonlinear terms of the gyroscope system, the system exhibits complex and chaotic motions. By the Lyapunov stability theory with control terms, two suitable sliding surfaces are proposed to ensure the stability of the controlled closed-loop system in sliding mode. Then, two sliding mode controllers (SMC) are designed to guarantee the hitting of the sliding surfaces even when the control inputs contain dead-zone nonlinearity. This method allows us to arbitrarily direct the scaling factor onto a desired value. Numerical simulations show that this method works very well for the proposed controller

  10. A more randomly organized grey matter network is associated with deteriorating language and global cognition in individuals with subjective cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verfaillie, Sander C J; Slot, Rosalinde E R; Dicks, Ellen; Prins, Niels D; Overbeek, Jozefien M; Teunissen, Charlotte E; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Tijms, Betty M

    2018-03-30

    Grey matter network disruptions in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with worse cognitive impairment cross-sectionally. Our aim was to investigate whether indications of a more random network organization are associated with longitudinal decline in specific cognitive functions in individuals with subjective cognitive decline (SCD). We included 231 individuals with SCD who had annually repeated neuropsychological assessment (3 ± 1 years; n = 646 neuropsychological investigations) available from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort (54% male, age: 63 ± 9, MMSE: 28 ± 2). Single-subject grey matter networks were extracted from baseline 3D-T1 MRI scans and we computed basic network (size, degree, connectivity density) and higher-order (path length, clustering, betweenness centrality, normalized path length [lambda] and normalized clustering [gamma]) parameters at whole brain and/or regional levels. We tested associations of network parameters with baseline and annual cognition (memory, attention, executive functioning, language composite scores, and global cognition [all domains with MMSE]) using linear mixed models, adjusted for age, sex, education, scanner and total gray matter volume. Lower network size was associated with steeper decline in language (β ± SE = 0.12 ± 0.05, p organized grey matter network was associated with a steeper decline of cognitive functioning, possibly indicating the start of cognitive impairment. © 2018 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Matter bounce cosmology with a generalized single field: non-Gaussianity and an extended no-go theorem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yu-Bin; Cai, Yi-Fu [CAS Key Laboratory for Researches in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Quintin, Jerome [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montréal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Wang, Dong-Gang, E-mail: lyb2166@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: jquintin@physics.mcgill.ca, E-mail: wdgang@strw.leidenuniv.nl, E-mail: yifucai@ustc.edu.cn [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2017-03-01

    We extend the matter bounce scenario to a more general theory in which the background dynamics and cosmological perturbations are generated by a k -essence scalar field with an arbitrary sound speed. When the sound speed is small, the curvature perturbation is enhanced, and the tensor-to-scalar ratio, which is excessively large in the original model, can be sufficiently suppressed to be consistent with observational bounds. Then, we study the primordial three-point correlation function generated during the matter-dominated contraction stage and find that it only depends on the sound speed parameter. Similar to the canonical case, the shape of the bispectrum is mainly dominated by a local form, though for some specific sound speed values a new shape emerges and the scaling behaviour changes. Meanwhile, a small sound speed also results in a large amplitude of non-Gaussianities, which is disfavored by current observations. As a result, it does not seem possible to suppress the tensor-to-scalar ratio without amplifying the production of non-Gaussianities beyond current observational constraints (and vice versa). This suggests an extension of the previously conjectured no-go theorem in single field nonsingular matter bounce cosmologies, which rules out a large class of models. However, the non-Gaussianity results remain as a distinguishable signature of matter bounce cosmology and have the potential to be detected by observations in the near future.

  12. General guidelines for safe and expeditious international transport of samples subjected to biological dosimetry assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giorgio, Marina; Radl, Analía; Taja, María R; Bubniak, Ruth; Deminge, Mayra; Sapienza, Carla; Vázquez, Marina; Baciu, Florian; Kenny, Pat

    2014-06-01

    It has been observed that victims of accidental overexposures show better chance of survival if they receive medical treatment early. The increased risk of scenarios involving mass casualties has stimulated the scientific community to develop tools that would help the medical doctors to treat victims. The biological dosimetry has become a routine test to estimate the dose, supplementing physical and clinical dosimetry. In case of radiation emergencies, in order to provide timely and effectively biological dosimetry assistance it is essential to guarantee an adequate transport of blood samples in principal, for providing support to countries that do not have biodosimetry laboratories. The objective of the present paper is to provide general guidelines, summarised in 10 points, for timely and proper receiving and sending of blood samples under National and International regulations, for safe and expeditious international transport. These guidelines cover the classification, packaging, marking, labelling, refrigeration and documentation requirements for the international shipping of blood samples and pellets, to provide assistance missions with a tool that would contribute with the preparedness for an effective biodosimetric response in cases of radiological or nuclear emergencies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. The QOL-DASS Model to Estimate Overall Quality of Life and General Subjective Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, Mehrdad

    2011-01-01

    In Order to find how rating the WHOQOL-BREF and DASS scales are combined to produce an overall measure of quality of life and satisfaction with health rating, a QOL-DASS model was designed; and the strength of this hypothesized model was examined using the structural equation modeling. Participants included a sample of 103 voluntary males who were divided into two groups of unhealthy (N=55) and healthy (N=48). To assess satisfaction and negative emotions of depression, anxiety and stress among the participants, they were asked to fill out the WHOQOL-BREF and The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-42). Our findings on running the hypothesized model of QOL-DASS indicated that the proposed model of QOL-DASS fitted the data well for the both healthy and unhealthy groups. Our findings with CFA to evaluate the hypothesized model of QOL-DASS indicated that the different satisfaction domain ratings and the negative emotions of depression, anxiety and stress as the observed variables can represent the underlying constructs of general health and quality of life on both healthy and unhealthy groups.

  14. Degradation data analysis based on a generalized Wiener process subject to measurement error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junxing; Wang, Zhihua; Zhang, Yongbo; Fu, Huimin; Liu, Chengrui; Krishnaswamy, Sridhar

    2017-09-01

    Wiener processes have received considerable attention in degradation modeling over the last two decades. In this paper, we propose a generalized Wiener process degradation model that takes unit-to-unit variation, time-correlated structure and measurement error into considerations simultaneously. The constructed methodology subsumes a series of models studied in the literature as limiting cases. A simple method is given to determine the transformed time scale forms of the Wiener process degradation model. Then model parameters can be estimated based on a maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method. The cumulative distribution function (CDF) and the probability distribution function (PDF) of the Wiener process with measurement errors are given based on the concept of the first hitting time (FHT). The percentiles of performance degradation (PD) and failure time distribution (FTD) are also obtained. Finally, a comprehensive simulation study is accomplished to demonstrate the necessity of incorporating measurement errors in the degradation model and the efficiency of the proposed model. Two illustrative real applications involving the degradation of carbon-film resistors and the wear of sliding metal are given. The comparative results show that the constructed approach can derive a reasonable result and an enhanced inference precision.

  15. The Implementation of APIQ Creative Mathematics Game Method in the Subject Matter of Greatest Common Factor and Least Common Multiple in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Abdul; Saleh Ahmar, Ansari; Arifin, A. Nurani M.; Upu, Hamzah; Mulbar, Usman; Alimuddin; Arsyad, Nurdin; Ruslan; Rusli; Djadir; Sutamrin; Hamda; Minggi, Ilham; Awi; Zaki, Ahmad; Ahmad, Asdar; Ihsan, Hisyam

    2018-01-01

    One of causal factors for uninterested feeling of the students in learning mathematics is a monotonous learning method, like in traditional learning method. One of the ways for motivating students to learn mathematics is by implementing APIQ (Aritmetika Plus Intelegensi Quantum) creative mathematics game method. The purposes of this research are (1) to describe students’ responses toward the implementation of APIQ creative mathematics game method on the subject matter of Greatest Common Factor (GCF) and Least Common Multiple (LCM) and (2) to find out whether by implementing this method, the student’s learning completeness will improve or not. Based on the results of this research, it is shown that the responses of the students toward the implementation of APIQ creative mathematics game method in the subject matters of GCF and LCM were good. It is seen in the percentage of the responses were between 76-100%. (2) The implementation of APIQ creative mathematics game method on the subject matters of GCF and LCM improved the students’ learning.

  16. Gray matter changes in subjects at high risk for developing psychosis and first-episode schizophrenia: a voxel-based structural MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazue eNakamura

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the present study was to use a voxel-based MRI method to investigate the neuroanatomical characteristics in subjects at high risk of developing psychosis compared with those of healthy controls and first-episode schizophrenia patients. Methods: This study included 14 subjects with at-risk mental state (ARMS, 34 patients with first-episode schizophrenia, and 51 healthy controls. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM with the Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra (DARTEL tools to investigate the whole-brain difference in gray matter volume among the three groups. Results: Compared with the healthy controls, the schizophrenia patients showed significant gray matter reduction in the left anterior cingulate gyrus. There was no significant difference in the gray matter volume between the ARMS and other groups. Conclusion: The present study suggests that alteration of the anterior cingulate gyrus may be associated with development of frank psychosis. Further studies with a larger ARMS subjects would be required to examine the potential role of neuroimaging methods in the prediction of future transition into psychosis.

  17. The Effect of 7E Learning Model on Conceptual Understandings of Prospective Science Teachers on "de Broglie Matter Waves" Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorecek Baybars, Meryem; Kucukozer, Huseyin

    2018-01-01

    The object of this study is to determine the conceptual understanding that prospective Science teachers have relating "de Broglie: Matter waves" and to investigate the effect of the instruction performed, on the conceptual understanding. This study was performed at a state university located in the western part of Turkey, with the…

  18. Being in a romantic relationship is associated with reduced gray matter density in striatum and increased subjective happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroaki Kawamichi; Hiroaki Kawamichi; Hiroaki Kawamichi; Sho K Sugawara; Yuki H Hamano; Yuki H Hamano; Kai Makita; Masahiro Matsunaga; Hiroki C Tanabe; Yuichi Ogino; Shigeru Saito; Norihiro Sadato; Norihiro Sadato

    2016-01-01

    Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that ro...

  19. Being in a Romantic Relationship Is Associated with Reduced Gray Matter Density in Striatum and Increased Subjective Happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Sugawara, Sho K.; Hamano, Yuki H.; Makita, Kai; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Ogino, Yuichi; Saito, Shigeru; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that ro...

  20. White matter microstructural changes of thalamocortical networks in photosensitivity and idiopathic generalized epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groppa, Sergiu; Moeller, Friederike; Siebner, Hartwig

    2012-01-01

    Photosensitivity or photoparoxysmal response (PPR) is an electroencephalography trait that is highly associated with idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGEs) and characterized by changes in cortical excitability in response to photic stimulation. Studying functional and structural changes of PPR ...

  1. Subjective memory impairment in general practice : Short overview and design of a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentzek, Michael; Leve, Verena; Leucht, Verena

    2017-05-01

    Public awareness for dementia is rising and patients with concerns about forgetfulness are not uncommon in general practice. For the general practitioner (GP) subjectively perceived memory impairment (SMI) also offers a chance to broach the issue of cognitive function with the patient. This may support GPs' patient-centered care in terms of a broader frailty concept. What is SMI (definition, operationalization, prevalence and burden)? Which conceptions and approaches do GPs have regarding SMI? Narrative overview of recent SMI criteria and results, selective utilization of results from a systematic literature search on GP dementia care, non-systematic search regarding SMI in general practice, deduction of a study design from the overview and development according to international standards. Studies revealed that approximately 60% of GP patients aged >74 reported a declining memory, every sixth person had concerns about this aspect and only relatively few seek medical advice. Concerns about SMI are considered a risk factor for future dementia. Specific general practice conceptions about SMI could not be identified in the literature. Using guidelines for mixed methods research, the design of an exploratory sequential mixed methods study is presented, which should reveal different attitudes of GPs towards SMI. Subjective memory impairment (SMI) is a common feature and troubles a considerable proportion of patients. Neuropsychiatric research is progressing, but for the transfer of the SMI concept into routine practice, involvement of GP research is necessary. A new study aims to make a contribution to this.

  2. Background history and cosmic perturbations for a general system of self-conserved dynamical dark energy and matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Valent, Adrià; Karimkhani, Elahe; Solà, Joan

    2015-01-01

    We determine the Hubble expansion and the general cosmic perturbation equations for a general system consisting of self-conserved matter, ρ m , and self-conserved dark energy (DE), ρ D . While at the background level the two components are non-interacting, they do interact at the perturbations level. We show that the coupled system of matter and DE perturbations can be transformed into a single, third order, matter perturbation equation, which reduces to the (derivative of the) standard one in the case that the DE is just a cosmological constant. As a nontrivial application we analyze a class of dynamical models whose DE density ρ D (H) consists of a constant term, C 0 , and a series of powers of the Hubble rate. These models were previously analyzed from the point of view of dynamical vacuum models, but here we treat them as self-conserved DE models with a dynamical equation of state. We fit them to the wealth of expansion history and linear structure formation data and compare their fit quality with that of the concordance ΛCDM model. Those with C 0 =0 include the so-called ''entropic-force'' and ''QCD-ghost'' DE models, as well as the pure linear model ρ D ∼H, all of which appear strongly disfavored. The models with C 0 ≠0 , in contrast, emerge as promising dynamical DE candidates whose phenomenological performance is highly competitive with the rigid Λ-term inherent to the ΛCDM

  3. Background history and cosmic perturbations for a general system of self-conserved dynamical dark energy and matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez-Valent, Adrià; Karimkhani, Elahe; Solà, Joan, E-mail: adriagova@ecm.ub.edu, E-mail: e.karimkhani91@basu.ac.ir, E-mail: sola@ecm.ub.edu [High Energy Physics Group, Dept. ECM, and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2015-12-01

    We determine the Hubble expansion and the general cosmic perturbation equations for a general system consisting of self-conserved matter, ρ{sub m}, and self-conserved dark energy (DE), ρ{sub D}. While at the background level the two components are non-interacting, they do interact at the perturbations level. We show that the coupled system of matter and DE perturbations can be transformed into a single, third order, matter perturbation equation, which reduces to the (derivative of the) standard one in the case that the DE is just a cosmological constant. As a nontrivial application we analyze a class of dynamical models whose DE density ρ{sub D}(H) consists of a constant term, C{sub 0}, and a series of powers of the Hubble rate. These models were previously analyzed from the point of view of dynamical vacuum models, but here we treat them as self-conserved DE models with a dynamical equation of state. We fit them to the wealth of expansion history and linear structure formation data and compare their fit quality with that of the concordance ΛCDM model. Those with C{sub 0}=0 include the so-called ''entropic-force'' and ''QCD-ghost'' DE models, as well as the pure linear model ρ{sub D}∼H, all of which appear strongly disfavored. The models with C{sub 0}≠0 , in contrast, emerge as promising dynamical DE candidates whose phenomenological performance is highly competitive with the rigid Λ-term inherent to the ΛCDM.

  4. Target size matters: target errors contribute to the generalization of implicit visuomotor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenthal, Maayan; Avraham, Guy; Karniel, Amir; Shmuelof, Lior

    2016-08-01

    The process of sensorimotor adaptation is considered to be driven by errors. While sensory prediction errors, defined as the difference between the planned and the actual movement of the cursor, drive implicit learning processes, target errors (e.g., the distance of the cursor from the target) are thought to drive explicit learning mechanisms. This distinction was mainly studied in the context of arm reaching tasks where the position and the size of the target were constant. We hypothesize that in a dynamic reaching environment, where subjects have to hit moving targets and the targets' dynamic characteristics affect task success, implicit processes will benefit from target errors as well. We examine the effect of target errors on learning of an unnoticed perturbation during unconstrained reaching movements. Subjects played a Pong game, in which they had to hit a moving ball by moving a paddle controlled by their hand. During the game, the movement of the paddle was gradually rotated with respect to the hand, reaching a final rotation of 25°. Subjects were assigned to one of two groups: The high-target error group played the Pong with a small ball, and the low-target error group played with a big ball. Before and after the Pong game, subjects performed open-loop reaching movements toward static targets with no visual feedback. While both groups adapted to the rotation, the postrotation reaching movements were directionally biased only in the small-ball group. This result provides evidence that implicit adaptation is sensitive to target errors. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  5. US Medical Student Performance on the NBME Subject Examination in Internal Medicine: Do Clerkship Sequence and Clerkship Length Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wenli; Cuddy, Monica M; Swanson, David B

    2015-09-01

    Prior to graduation, US medical students are required to complete clinical clerkship rotations, most commonly in the specialty areas of family medicine, internal medicine, obstetrics and gynecology (ob/gyn), pediatrics, psychiatry, and surgery. Within a school, the sequence in which students complete these clerkships varies. In addition, the length of these rotations varies, both within a school for different clerkships and between schools for the same clerkship. The present study investigated the effects of clerkship sequence and length on performance on the National Board of Medical Examiner's subject examination in internal medicine. The study sample included 16,091 students from 67 US Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME)-accredited medical schools who graduated in 2012 or 2013. Student-level measures included first-attempt internal medicine subject examination scores, first-attempt USMLE Step 1 scores, and five dichotomous variables capturing whether or not students completed rotations in family medicine, ob/gyn, pediatrics, psychiatry, and surgery prior to taking the internal medicine rotation. School-level measures included clerkship length and average Step 1 score. Multilevel models with students nested in schools were estimated with internal medicine subject examination scores as the dependent measure. Step 1 scores and the five dichotomous variables were treated as student-level predictors. Internal medicine clerkship length and average Step 1 score were used to predict school-to-school variation in average internal medicine subject examination scores. Completion of rotations in surgery, pediatrics and family medicine prior to taking the internal medicine examination significantly improved scores, with the largest benefit observed for surgery (coefficient = 1.58 points; p value internal medicine subject examination performance. At the school level, longer internal medicine clerkships were associated with higher scores on the internal medicine

  6. Specific or general exercise strategy for subacromial impingement syndrome-does it matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shire, Alison R; Stæhr, Thor A B; Overby, Jesper B

    2017-01-01

    Background Exercise is frequently suggested as a treatment option for patients presenting with symptoms of subacromial impingement syndrome. Some would argue implementing a specific exercise strategy with special focus on correction of kinematic deficits would be superior to general exercise stra...

  7. Preparation for College General Chemistry: More than Just a Matter of Content Knowledge Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cracolice, Mark S.; Busby, Brittany D.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the potential of five factors that may be predictive of success in college general chemistry courses: prior knowledge of common alternate conceptions, intelligence, scientific reasoning ability, proportional reasoning ability, and attitude toward chemistry. We found that both prior knowledge and scientific reasoning ability…

  8. White Matter Injury and General Movements in High-Risk Preterm Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peyton, C.; Yang, E.; Msall, M. E.; Adde, L.; Stoen, R.; Fjortoft, T.; Bos, Arie; Einspieler, C.; Zhou, Y; Schreiber, M. D.; Marks, J. D.; Drobyshevsky, A.

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Very preterm infants (birth weight, MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study of 47 preterm infants of 24-30 weeks' gestation, brain MR imaging was performed at term-equivalent age. Infants underwent T1- and T2-weighted imaging for volumetric analysis and DTI. General

  9. General characteristics of the institute of bringing senior officials of the subjects of the Russian Federation to justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chepus A.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical and practical aspects of the problem of bringing senior officials of the RF subjects to criminal liability are analyzed. Legal immunity as the most important feature of their legal status is considered. General characteristic of the liability of such senior officials in the context of the institute of state and law enforcement is provided. The current Russian legislation and judicial practice in this area are analyzed. Special attention is paid to the history of the issue of bringing senior officials to justice, on the example of the Federation Council member status. Basing on the other authors’ researches, the author proposes his own view on the issues of senior officials’ immunity. It’s suggested that in modern legal science the problems of the liability of senior officials of the RF regions aren’t given due attention. There’s no clear understanding of what should be the grounds of such liability, its procedures and application, the legal nature of its sanctions. The author substantiates the position that it’s not necessary to include the regional leaders or heads of executive authorities of the RF subjects in the list of persons having immunity from criminal or administrative prosecution. The arguments are the federal practice – the ministers of the RF Government don’t possess the immunity, and the recent practice – dismissal as a result of loss of confidence. The need to control the activities of the senior officials of the RF subjects and other persons holding the highest positions in the authorities of the RF subjects is substantiated.

  10. Investigation of Psychophysiological and Subjective Effects of Long Working Hours – Do Age and Hearing Impairment Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Hartl, Verena; Kallus, K. Wolfgang

    2018-01-01

    Following current prognosis, demographic development raises expectations of an aging of the working population. Therefore, keeping employees healthy and strengthening their ability to work, becomes more and more important. When employees become older, dealing with age-related impairments of sensory functions, such as hearing impairment, is a central issue. Recent evidence suggests that negative effects that are associated with reduced hearing can have a strong impact at work. Especially under exhausting working situations such as working overtime hours, age and hearing impairment might influence employees’ well-being. Until now, neither the problem of aged workers and long working hours, nor the problem of hearing impairment and prolonged working time has been addressed explicitly. Therefore, a laboratory study was examined to answer the research question: Do age and hearing impairment have an impact on psychophysiological and subjective effects of long working hours. In total, 51 white-collar workers, aged between 24 and 63 years, participated in the laboratory study. The results show no significant effects for age and hearing impairment on the intensity of subjective consequences (perceived recovery and fatigue, subjective emotional well-being and physical symptoms) of long working hours. However, the psychophysiological response (the saliva cortisol level) to long working hours differs significantly between hearing impaired and normal hearing employees. Interestingly, the results suggest that from a psychophysiological point of view long working hours were more demanding for normal hearing employees. PMID:29379452

  11. Investigation of Psychophysiological and Subjective Effects of Long Working Hours – Do Age and Hearing Impairment Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Wagner-Hartl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Following current prognosis, demographic development raises expectations of an aging of the working population. Therefore, keeping employees healthy and strengthening their ability to work, becomes more and more important. When employees become older, dealing with age-related impairments of sensory functions, such as hearing impairment, is a central issue. Recent evidence suggests that negative effects that are associated with reduced hearing can have a strong impact at work. Especially under exhausting working situations such as working overtime hours, age and hearing impairment might influence employees’ well-being. Until now, neither the problem of aged workers and long working hours, nor the problem of hearing impairment and prolonged working time has been addressed explicitly. Therefore, a laboratory study was examined to answer the research question: Do age and hearing impairment have an impact on psychophysiological and subjective effects of long working hours. In total, 51 white-collar workers, aged between 24 and 63 years, participated in the laboratory study. The results show no significant effects for age and hearing impairment on the intensity of subjective consequences (perceived recovery and fatigue, subjective emotional well-being and physical symptoms of long working hours. However, the psychophysiological response (the saliva cortisol level to long working hours differs significantly between hearing impaired and normal hearing employees. Interestingly, the results suggest that from a psychophysiological point of view long working hours were more demanding for normal hearing employees.

  12. Numerical generalized vibration density of states evaluation for inelastic neutron scattering in solid matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kazmianec, V; Aranghel, D

    2002-01-01

    A computational method for improved evaluation of the generalized vibration density of states (GVDS) is proposed. It is based on Fast Fourier Transform (FPT) technique and gives the possibility for more precise analyses of the neutron double differential scattering cross section. The method was applied to zirconium hydride investigation. The results were presented for ZrH sub 1 sub . sub 6 U sub 0 sub . sub 3 sub 2 sample at various temperatures on time-of-flight (TOF) Spectrometry at IBR-2 reactor of JINR-Dubna and were compared to GVDS values obtained by traditional single-phonon approximation method

  13. The influence of discovery learning model application to the higher order thinking skills student of Srijaya Negara Senior High School Palembang on the animal kingdom subject matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riandari, F.; Susanti, R.; Suratmi

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to find out the information in concerning the influence of discovery learning model application to the higher order thinking skills at the tenth grade students of Srijaya Negara senior high school Palembang on the animal kingdom subject matter. The research method used was pre-experimental with one-group pretest-posttest design. The researchconducted at Srijaya Negara senior high school Palembang academic year 2016/2017. The population sample of this research was tenth grade students of natural science 2. Purposive sampling techniquewas applied in this research. Data was collected by(1) the written test, consist of pretest to determine the initial ability and posttest to determine higher order thinking skills of students after learning by using discovery learning models. (2) Questionnaire sheet, aimed to investigate the response of the students during the learning process by using discovery learning models. The t-test result indicated there was significant increasement of higher order thinking skills students. Thus, it can be concluded that the application of discovery learning modelhad a significant effect and increased to higher order thinking skills students of Srijaya Negara senior high school Palembang on the animal kingdom subject matter.

  14. Effects of worry on physiological and subjective reactivity to emotional stimuli in generalized anxiety disorder and nonanxious control participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llera, Sandra J; Newman, Michelle G

    2010-10-01

    The present study examined the effect of worry versus relaxation and neutral thought activity on both physiological and subjective responding to positive and negative emotional stimuli. Thirty-eight participants with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and 35 nonanxious control participants were randomly assigned to engage in worry, relaxation, or neutral inductions prior to sequential exposure to each of four emotion-inducing film clips. The clips were designed to elicit fear, sadness, happiness, and calm emotions. Self reported negative and positive affect was assessed following each induction and exposure, and vagal activity was measured throughout. Results indicate that worry (vs. relaxation) led to reduced vagal tone for the GAD group, as well as higher negative affect levels for both groups. Additionally, prior worry resulted in less physiological and subjective responding to the fearful film clip, and reduced negative affect in response to the sad clip. This suggests that worry may facilitate avoidance of processing negative emotions by way of preventing a negative emotional contrast. Implications for the role of worry in emotion avoidance are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Generalized linear mixed model for binary outcomes when covariates are subject to measurement errors and detection limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xianhong; Xue, Xiaonan; Strickler, Howard D

    2018-01-15

    Longitudinal measurement of biomarkers is important in determining risk factors for binary endpoints such as infection or disease. However, biomarkers are subject to measurement error, and some are also subject to left-censoring due to a lower limit of detection. Statistical methods to address these issues are few. We herein propose a generalized linear mixed model and estimate the model parameters using the Monte Carlo Newton-Raphson (MCNR) method. Inferences regarding the parameters are made by applying Louis's method and the delta method. Simulation studies were conducted to compare the proposed MCNR method with existing methods including the maximum likelihood (ML) method and the ad hoc approach of replacing the left-censored values with half of the detection limit (HDL). The results showed that the performance of the MCNR method is superior to ML and HDL with respect to the empirical standard error, as well as the coverage probability for the 95% confidence interval. The HDL method uses an incorrect imputation method, and the computation is constrained by the number of quadrature points; while the ML method also suffers from the constrain for the number of quadrature points, the MCNR method does not have this limitation and approximates the likelihood function better than the other methods. The improvement of the MCNR method is further illustrated with real-world data from a longitudinal study of local cervicovaginal HIV viral load and its effects on oncogenic HPV detection in HIV-positive women. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Psychometrics Matter in Health Behavior: A Long-term Reliability Generalization Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Andrew C; Valdez, Danny; Barry, Adam E

    2017-09-01

    Despite numerous calls for increased understanding and reporting of reliability estimates, social science research, including the field of health behavior, has been slow to respond and adopt such practices. Therefore, we offer a brief overview of reliability and common reporting errors; we then perform analyses to examine and demonstrate the variability of reliability estimates by sample and over time. Using meta-analytic reliability generalization, we examined the variability of coefficient alpha scores for a well-designed, consistent, nationwide health study, covering a span of nearly 40 years. For each year and sample, reliability varied. Furthermore, reliability was predicted by a sample characteristic that differed among age groups within each administration. We demonstrated that reliability is influenced by the methods and individuals from which a given sample is drawn. Our work echoes previous calls that psychometric properties, particularly reliability of scores, are important and must be considered and reported before drawing statistical conclusions.

  17. Retaining the general practitioner workforce in England: what matters to GPs? A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Jeremy; Potter, Rachel; Owen, Katherine; Parsons, Nicholas; Realpe, Alba; Leach, Jonathan

    2015-10-16

    The general practice (GP) workforce in England is in crisis, reflected in increasing rates of early retirement and intentions to reduce hours of working. This study aimed to investigate underlying factors and how these might be mitigated. GPs in central England were invited to participate in an on-line survey exploring career plans and views and experiences of work-related pressures. Quantitative data were analysed using logistic regression analysis and principal components analysis. Qualitative data were analysed using a thematic framework approach. Of 1,192 GPs who participated, 978 (82.0 %) stated that they intend to leave general practice, take a career break and/or reduce clinical hours of work within the next five years. This included 488 (41.9 %) who intend to leave practice, and almost a quarter (279; 23.2 %) intending to take a career break. Only 67 (5.6 %) planned to increase their hours of clinical work. For participants planning to leave practice, the issues that most influenced intentions were volume and intensity of workload, time spent on "unimportant tasks", introduction of seven-day working and lack of job satisfaction. Four hundred fifty five participants responded to open questions (39128 words in total). The main themes were the cumulative impact of work-related pressures, the changing and growing nature of the workload, and the consequent stress. Reducing workload intensity, workload volume, administrative activities, with increased time for patient care, no out-of-hour commitments, more flexible working conditions and greater clinical autonomy were identified as the most important requirements to address the workforce crisis. In addition, incentive payments, increased pay and protected time for education and training were also rated as important. New models of professionalism and organisational arrangements may be needed to address the issues described here. Without urgent action, the GP workforce crisis in England seems set to worsen.

  18. Up-to-date subject matter of world research in the field of materials for power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    New approach to the problem of composition of present-day materials, which are working in high temperatures assumes that their microstructure becomes a subject of analysis-not an object-as it was before. Nowadays many industrial and university laboratories deal with these problems, individually or in the cooperation, in framework of the different types of projects, financed by the international organizations. In the report, research realized over the last 20 years in USA, Europe and japan have been reviewed. This research focused on the working in high temperatures steels as a constructional materials for pipes and other units of the power plants. According to the newest achievement in this domain we could expect that the ferritic and ferro-martensitic alloy steels will become new generation of the high-temperature creep-resisting steels (author)

  19. What matters to the rich and the poor? Subjective well-being, financial satisfaction, and postmaterialist needs across the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Weiting; Diener, Ed

    2014-08-01

    This study explored the importance of financial satisfaction versus postmaterialist needs for subjective well-being (SWB). Using the Gallup World Poll, we examined whether financial satisfaction and postmaterialist needs (pertaining to autonomy, social support, and respect) were universal predictors of the different components of SWB across the world, and whether their effects were moderated by national affluence. Results showed that financial satisfaction was the strongest predictor of life evaluation, whereas respect was the strongest predictor of positive feelings. Both measures predicted negative feelings to some extent. Multilevel analyses also revealed moderating effects of societal wealth. The association between financial satisfaction and SWB and that between postmaterialist needs and SWB were stronger in richer nations compared with poorer ones. This suggests that developed economies should continue to focus on both material and psychological aspects, and not disregard economic gains, as both measures are essential to well-being.

  20. Generalized regression neural network (GRNN)-based approach for colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) retrieval: case study of Connecticut River at Middle Haddam Station, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heddam, Salim

    2014-11-01

    The prediction of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) using artificial neural network approaches has received little attention in the past few decades. In this study, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) was modeled using generalized regression neural network (GRNN) and multiple linear regression (MLR) models as a function of Water temperature (TE), pH, specific conductance (SC), and turbidity (TU). Evaluation of the prediction accuracy of the models is based on the root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), coefficient of correlation (CC), and Willmott's index of agreement (d). The results indicated that GRNN can be applied successfully for prediction of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM).

  1. Learning, awareness, and instruction: subjective contingency awareness does matter in the colour-word contingency learning paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, James R; De Houwer, Jan

    2012-12-01

    In three experiments, each of a set colour-unrelated distracting words was presented most often in a particular target print colour (e.g., "month" most often in red). In Experiment 1, half of the participants were told the word-colour contingencies in advance (instructed) and half were not (control). The instructed group showed a larger learning effect. This instruction effect was fully explained by increases in subjective awareness with instruction. In Experiment 2, contingency instructions were again given, but no contingencies were actually present. Although many participants claimed to be aware of these (non-existent) contingencies, they did not produce an instructed contingency effect. In Experiment 3, half of the participants were given contingency instructions that did not correspond to the correct contingencies. Participants with these false instructions learned the actual contingencies worse than controls. Collectively, our results suggest that conscious contingency knowledge might play a moderating role in the strength of implicit learning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cross-national differences in the gender gap in subjective health in Europe: does country-level gender equality matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, Johanna; Härkönen, Juho

    2013-12-01

    Multiple studies have found that women report being in worse health despite living longer. Gender gaps vary cross-nationally, but relatively little is known about the causes of comparative differences. Existing literature is inconclusive as to whether gender gaps in health are smaller in more gender equal societies. We analyze gender gaps in self-rated health (SRH) and limiting longstanding illness (LLI) with five waves of European Social Survey data for 191,104 respondents from 28 countries. We use means, odds ratios, logistic regressions, and multilevel random slopes logistic regressions. Gender gaps in subjective health vary visibly across Europe. In many countries (especially in Eastern and Southern Europe), women report distinctly worse health, while in others (such as Estonia, Finland, and Great Britain) there are small or no differences. Logistic regressions ran separately for each country revealed that individual-level socioeconomic and demographic variables explain a majority of these gaps in some countries, but contribute little to their understanding in most countries. In yet other countries, men had worse health when these variables were controlled for. Cross-national variation in the gender gaps exists after accounting for individual-level factors. Against expectations, the remaining gaps are not systematically related to societal-level gender inequality in the multilevel analyses. Our findings stress persistent cross-national variability in gender gaps in health and call for further analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Results on the gravity of quantum Fermi pressure of localized matter: A new test of general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnikrishnan, C.S.; Gillies, G.T.

    2006-01-01

    Recently Ehlers, Ozsvath, and Schucking discussed whether pressure contributes to active gravitational mass as required by general relativity. They pointed out that there is no experimental information on this available, though precision measurement of the gravitational constant should provide a test of this foundational aspect of gravity. We had used a similar argument earlier to test the contribution of leptons to the active gravitational mass. In this paper we use the result from the Zuerich gravitational constant experiment to provide the first adequate experimental input regarding the active gravitational mass of Fermi pressure. Apart from confirming the equality of the passive and active gravitational roles of the pressure term in general relativity within an accuracy of 5%, our results are consistent with the theoretical expectation of the cancellation of the gravity of pressure by the gravity of the surface tension of confined matter. This result on the active gravitational mass of the quantum zero-point Fermi pressure in the atomic nucleus is also interesting from the point of view of studying the interplay between quantum physics and classical gravity

  4. Culture confirmation of gonococcal infection by recall of subjects found to be positive by nucleic acid amplification tests in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jens Kjølseth

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate a routine notification of general practitioners to recall nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)-positive subjects for culture of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to confirm gonococcal infection in the community....

  5. Abnormalities in gray and white matter volumes associated with explicit memory dysfunction in patients with generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Chung-Man; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

    2017-03-01

    Background The neuroanatomical abnormalities associated with behavioral dysfunction on explicit memory in patients generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) have not yet been clearly identified. Purpose To investigate the regional gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume alterations over the whole brain in patients with GAD, as well as the correlation between the brain structural abnormality and explicit memory dysfunction. Material and Methods Twenty patients with GAD and 20 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and education level underwent high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The participants performed the explicit memory tasks with the neutral and anxiety-inducing words. Results Patients with GAD showed significantly reduced GM volumes in the midbrain (MB), thalamus, hippocampus (Hip), insula, and superior temporal gyrus (STG); and reduced WM volumes in the MB, anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and precentral gyrus (PrG). It is important to note that the GM volume of the Hip and the WM volume of the DLPFC were positively correlated with the recognition accuracy (%) in the explicit memory tasks with neutral and anxiety-inducing words, respectively. On the other hand, the WM volume of the PrG was negatively correlated with the reaction time in the same memory tasks. Conclusion This study demonstrated the regional volume changes on whole-brain GM and WM and the correlation between the brain structural alteration and explicit memory dysfunction in GAD patients. These findings would be helpful to understand the association between the brain structure abnormality and the functional deficit in the explicit memory in GAD.

  6. [Health services research: subject matter and objectives of a field at the intersection of economics, medicine and ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, M

    2003-07-01

    In analogy to the famous saying that war is too serious to leave it to the generals, one could say that the provision of medical care is too serious and too costly to leave it to doctors. This, however.would give the impression of an incongruity which does not exist as an actual factor or as a standpoint in research on the healthcare system. Having said that, there are differences in the methods of observation used: doctors always base their observations on their experiences at the doctor/patient level. In these situations, they are influenced by the therapeutic imperative of wanting to help and their convictions do not allow them to take into account competing requirements or to feel dependent on the higher-level conditions; and the realm of research on the health care system bases its observations more or less on findings derived by means of analysing what is often highly aggregated data, be it of a medical, economic or epidemiological nature. Even though the insights gained at the macrolevel ultimately have to be applied at the microlevel of the doctor/patient relationship, there remains an internal distance from the problems of care which is conducive to proper judgement. From this distant vantage point, researchers attempt to prove the relationship between effort and yield, to indicate weak spots which individual doctors cannot recognise and to define capacity, structure and incentive conditions which guarantee maxi-mum medical care quality. There is, for instance, evidence of astonishing dependence between the medical care provided and incentives for the number of doctor/patient contacts, use of medicines, surgery rates and number of diagnoses. This evidence can be used to draw up recommendations for self-governing bodies in the health care sector and for the political sphere as to how the health care system could be enhanced to achieve a high level of efficiency and quality.

  7. OCCIPITAL SOURCES OF RESTING STATE ALPHA RHYTHMS ARE RELATED TO LOCAL GRAY MATTER DENSITY IN SUBJECTS WITH AMNESIC MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT AND ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudio, Babiloni; Claudio, Del Percio; Marina, Boccardi; Roberta, Lizio; Susanna, Lopez; Filippo, Carducci; Nicola, Marzano; Andrea, Soricelli; Raffaele, Ferri; Ivano, Triggiani Antonio; Annapaola, Prestia; Serenella, Salinari; Rasser Paul, E; Erol, Basar; Francesco, Famà; Flavio, Nobili; Görsev, Yener; Durusu, Emek-Savaş Derya; Gesualdo, Loreto; Ciro, Mundi; Thompson Paul, M; Rossini Paolo, M.; Frisoni Giovanni, B

    2014-01-01

    Occipital sources of resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha rhythms are abnormal, at the group level, in patients with amnesic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here we evaluated the hypothesis that amplitude of these occipital sources is related to neurodegeneration in occipital lobe as measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Resting-state eyes-closed EEG rhythms were recorded in 45 healthy elderly (Nold), 100 MCI, and 90 AD subjects. Neurodegeneration of occipital lobe was indexed by weighted averages of gray matter density (GMD), estimated from structural MRIs. EEG rhythms of interest were alpha 1 (8–10.5 Hz) and alpha 2 (10.5–13 Hz). EEG cortical sources were estimated by low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). Results showed a positive correlation between occipital GMD and amplitude of occipital alpha 1 sources in Nold, MCI and AD subjects as a whole group (r=0.3, p=0.000004, N=235). Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between amplitude of occipital alpha 1 sources and cognitive status as revealed by Mini Mental State Evaluation (MMSE) score across all subjects (r=0.38, p=0.000001, N=235). Finally, amplitude of occipital alpha 1 sources allowed a moderate classification of individual Nold and AD subjects (sensitivity: 87.8%; specificity: 66.7%; area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve: 0.81). These results suggest that the amplitude of occipital sources of resting state alpha rhythms is related to AD neurodegeneration in occipital lobe along pathological aging. PMID:25442118

  8. Chemical characterization and sources of personal exposure to fine particulate matter in the general population of Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Cui; Jahn, Heiko J.; Engling, Guenter; Ward, Tony J.; Kraemer, Alexander; Ho, Kin-Fai; Hung-Lam Yim, Steve; Chan, Chuen-Yu

    2017-04-01

    Fine particulate matter pollution severely deteriorates the environmental conditions and negatively impacts human health in the Chinese megacity Guangzhou. Concurrent ambient and personal measurements of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were conducted in Guangzhou, China. Personal-to-ambient (P-C) relationships of PM2.5 chemical components were determined and sources of personal PM2.5 exposure were evaluated using principal component analysis along with a mixed-effects model. Water-soluble inorganic ions (mainly secondary inorganic ions) and anhydrosugars exhibited median personal-to-ambient (P/C) ratios < 1 accompanied by strong P-C correlations, indicating that these constituents in personal PM2.5 were significantly affected by ambient sources. Conversely, elemental carbon (EC) and calcium (Ca2+) showed median P/C ratios greater than unity, which indicated that among subjects who spent a great amount of time indoors, aside from particles of ambient origin, individual's total exposure to PM2.5 includes contributions of non-ambient exposure while indoors and outdoors (e.g., local traffic, indoor sources, personal activities). SO42- displayed very low coefficient of divergence (COD) values coupled with strong P-C correlations, implying a uniform distribution of SO42- in the urban area of Guangzhou. EC, Ca2+, and levoglucosan were otherwise heterogeneously distributed across individuals in different districts. Regional air pollution (50.4 ± 0.9%), traffic-related particles (8.6 ± 0.7%), dust-related particles (5.8 ± 0.7%), and biomass burning emissions (2.0 ± 0.2%) were moderate to high positive sources of personal PM2.5 exposure in Guangzhou. The observed positive and significant contribution of Ca2+ to personal PM2.5 exposure, highlighting indoor sources and/or personal activities, were driving factors determining personal exposure to dust-related particles. Considerable discrepancies (COD values ranging from 0.42 to 0.50) were shown between ambient

  9. Prediabetes is associated with lower brain gray matter volume in the general population. The Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, M R P; Ittermann, T; Wittfeld, K; Schipf, S; Siewert-Markus, U; Bahls, M; Bülow, R; Werner, N; Janowitz, D; Baumeister, S E; Felix, S B; Dörr, M; Rathmann, W; Völzke, H; Grabe, H J

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the associations of fasting (FG) and 2-h postload (2HG) plasma glucose from oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with gray (GMV) and white (WMV) matter volume. We analyzed data from 1330 subjects without known diabetes mellitus, aged 21 to 81, from the second cohort (SHIP-Trend-0) of the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP). Following the OGTT, individuals were classified in five groups (according to the American Diabetes Association criteria): normal glucose tolerance (NGT), isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG), isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT), combined IFG and IGT (IFG + IGT) and unknown type 2 diabetes mellitus (UDM). GMV and WMV were determined by magnetic resonance imaging. FG, 2HG and OGTT groups were associated with GMV and WMV by linear regression models adjusted for confounders. FG and 2HG were inversely associated with GMV. The adjusted mean GMV, when compared with the NGT group (584 ml [95% CI: 581 to 587]), was significantly lower in the groups i-IFG (578 ml [95% CI: 573 to 582]; p = 0.035) and UDM (562 ml [95% CI: 551 to 573]; p < 0.001), but not different in the i-IGT (586 ml [95% CI: 576 to 596]; p = 0.688) and IFG + IGT (579 ml [95% CI: 571 to 586]; p = 0.209) groups. There were no associations of FG, 2HG and OGTT parameters with WMV. Our findings suggest that elevated FG levels, even within the prediabetic range, might already have some harmful effects on GMV. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Patterns of Gray Matter Abnormalities in Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy: A Meta-Analysis of Voxel-Based Morphology Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Bin

    Full Text Available We aimed to identify the consistent regions of gray matter volume (GMV abnormalities in idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE, and to study the difference of GMV abnormalities among IGE subsyndromes by applying activation likelihood estimation (ALE meta-analysis.A systematic review of VBM studies on GMV of patients with absence epilepsy (AE, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME, IGE and controls indexed in PubMed and ScienceDirect from January 1999 to June 2016 was conducted. A total of 12 IGE studies, including 7 JME and 3 AE studies, were selected. Meta-analysis was performed on these studies by using the pooled and within-subtypes analysis (www.brainmap.org. Based on the above results, between-subtypes contrast analysis was carried out to detect the abnormal GMV regions common in and unique to each subtype as well.IGE demonstrated significant GMV increase in right ventral lateral nucleus (VL and right medial frontal gyrus, and significant GMV decrease in bilateral pulvinar. For JME, significant GMV increase was seen in right medial frontal gyrus, right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, while significant GMV decrease was found in right pulvinar. In AE, the most significant GMV increase was found in right VL, and slight GMV reduction was seen in right medial dorsal nucleus, right subcallosal gyrus, left caudate and left precuneus. No overlapped and unique regions with significant GMV abnormalities were found between JME and AE.This meta-analysis demonstrated that thalamo-frontal network was a structure with significant GMV abnormality in IGE, and the IGE subsyndromes showed different GMV abnormal regions. These observations may provide instructions on the clinical diagnosis of IGE.

  11. Teacher interpersonal behavior and students’ subject-related attitudes in general and vocational science classes in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brok, den P.J.; Telli, S.; Cakiroglu, J.; Szymanski Sunal, C.; Mutua, K.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine differences between Turkish vocational and general education students’ perceptions of their science teachers’ interpersonal behavior and the associations between these perceptions and their attitudes towards science taking into account other background

  12. Comparative Analyses of the Teaching Methods and Evaluation Practices in English Subject at Secondary School Certificate (SSC) and General Certificate of Education (GCE O-Level) in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behlol, Malik Ghulam; Anwar, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to compare the teaching methods and evaluation practices in English subject at secondary school certificate (SSC) and general certificate of education GCE-O-level in Pakistan. The population of the study was students, teachers and experts at SSC and 0-level in the Punjab province. Purposive and random sampling techniques…

  13. Challenges Associated with the Content of the Art History Component in the General Knowledge in Art Subject: Implications for Art History Education in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adom, Dickson; Kquofi, Steve; Agyem, Joe Adu

    2016-01-01

    The content of the Art History component in the General Knowledge in Art subject studied by various Senior High Schools in West Africa is largely of foreign art histories at the expense of the histories of African indigenous arts which are shallowly presented in the teaching syllabus to be taught students. This makes the students appreciate more…

  14. Transnational Cooperation in Criminal Matters and the Guarantee of a Fair Trial: Approaches to a General Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Gless

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The right to a fair trial has grown in importance over the past few decades as criminal procedures and human rights law have aligned themselves more and more closely. A core aspect of our current European understanding of a ‘fair criminal trial’ is the so-called ‘equality of arms’, which requires that each party be given a reasonable opportunity to present his case under conditions that do not place him at a substantial disadvantage vis-à-vis his opponent. In cases which affect more than one jurisdiction – either because an alleged crime causes damage in different countries, evidence is located abroad or for some other reason – the accused and his defence lawyer may be left without any such a guarantee in the legal ‘black hole’ between the protections that are normally offered by each of the jurisdictions involved, albeit separately.The situation is not one of a dramatic alteration of legal frameworks; instead, it is the small encroachments caused by transnational cooperation that matter and which can be summed up on the basis that domestic and foreign prosecution authorities have, effectively, closed the circuit between them. These authorities are now embedded in formal networks which would have, for instance, the possibility to forum shop (i.e. to choose the ‘best place’ to prosecute. The emerging EU legal framework that has been built on mutual recognition and installing new central agencies has added to the problems faced by the defence. Moreover, the existing legal regimes designed to protect do not grant ‘equality of arms’ in the space between jurisdictions: national law usually provides few answers and international law, including the likes of the ECHR or the EU Charter on Fundamental Rights, do not offer many solutions, either.This article therefore argues that an aspiring ‘right to a fair trial’ or, rather, an entitlement to equality of arms as a general principle of transnational criminal justice that would

  15. Human subjects and experimental irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, R.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years the public has expressed concern about the use of human subjects in scientific research. Some professional institutions have adopted codes of practice to guide them in this matter. At the University of New South Wales, where human subjects are used in teaching and research programmes, a committee ensures that high ethical standards are maintained. As the volunteer subjects do not gain any benefit themselves from the procedures, their level of risk is kept low. One type of procedure in which risk is becoming quantifiable, is the irradiation of human subjects. To assist peer review groups, the ICRP, WHO and the National Health and Medical Research Council have enunciated principles which should be followed in the irradiation of human volunteer subjects. In general the role of the Committee is advisory to protect the rights of the investigator, the subject, and the institution. Some of the inherent problems are discussed

  16. [Is health really the most important value? - Results of a representative survey of the German general population concerning the subjective meaning of health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, A; Hübscher, U; Brähler, E; Berth, H

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate which meaning is attributed to health by the general population. Furthermore, the relationship between health satisfaction and health importance was also analysed. A sample of 4,808 representatively selected subjects from the general German population judged the importance and the satisfaction with several life domains, including health, using the questions on life satisfaction FLZ (M). Moreover, sociodemographic variables (sex, age, socioeconomic status) and psychological variables (self-esteem, resilience, anxiety and depression) were collected. Health is the most important life domain. The importance of health increases with increasing age. However, there are no sex differences and SES (socio-economic status) differences concerning the importance of health. Subjective satisfaction with health and health importance are only marginally correlated (r=0.08). High degrees of self-esteem and resilience are associated with a high importance of health. Anxiety and depression show only weak relationships to the importance of health. In the German general population health has a very high subjective significance. This is not only true for handicapped or ill people, but for all subsamples of the society. Therefore, a general plea for an understanding of the importance of health is not necessary, not even for subgroups. Preventive activity can be based on the general understanding of the meaning of health, but it should pursue specific health- related goals for target groups. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Short term (14 days) consumption of insoluble wheat bran fibre-containing breakfast cereals improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function in a dose dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Clare L; Walton, Jenny; Hoyland, Alexa; Howarth, Elaine; Allan, Peter; Chesters, David; Dye, Louise

    2013-04-22

    This study investigated whether increasing insoluble (predominantly wheat bran) fibre over 14 days improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function. A single centre, multi-site, open, within subjects design with a 14 day non-intervention (baseline) monitoring period followed by a 14 day fibre consumption (intervention) period was performed. 153 low fibre consumers (breakfast cereal containing at least 5.4 g fibre (3.5 g from wheat bran) for 14 days and completed a daily symptom diary. Significant improvements were demonstrated in subjective perception of bowel function (e.g., ease of defecation) and digestive feelings (bloating, constipation, feeling sluggish and digestive discomfort). Significant improvements were also found in subjective perception of general wellbeing (feeling less fat, more mentally alert, slim, happy and energetic whilst experiencing less stress, mental and physical tiredness, difficulty concentrating and fewer headaches). In general, improvements in study outcomes increased with increasing cereal/fibre consumption. However, consuming an additional minimum 5.4 g of fibre (3.5 g wheat bran) per day was shown to deliver measurable and significant benefits for digestive health, comfort and wellbeing. Encouraging consumption of relatively small amounts of wheat bran could also provide an effective method of increasing overall fibre consumption.

  18. Short Term (14 Days Consumption of Insoluble Wheat Bran Fibre-Containing Breakfast Cereals Improves Subjective Digestive Feelings, General Wellbeing and Bowel Function in a Dose Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Dye

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether increasing insoluble (predominantly wheat bran fibre over 14 days improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function. A single centre, multi-site, open, within subjects design with a 14 day non-intervention (baseline monitoring period followed by a 14 day fibre consumption (intervention period was performed. 153 low fibre consumers (<15 g/day AOAC 985.29 completed a daily symptom diary for 14 days after which they consumed one bowl of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal containing at least 5.4 g fibre (3.5 g from wheat bran for 14 days and completed a daily symptom diary. Significant improvements were demonstrated in subjective perception of bowel function (e.g., ease of defecation and digestive feelings (bloating, constipation, feeling sluggish and digestive discomfort. Significant improvements were also found in subjective perception of general wellbeing (feeling less fat, more mentally alert, slim, happy and energetic whilst experiencing less stress, mental and physical tiredness, difficulty concentrating and fewer headaches. In general, improvements in study outcomes increased with increasing cereal/fibre consumption. However, consuming an additional minimum 5.4 g of fibre (3.5 g wheat bran per day was shown to deliver measurable and significant benefits for digestive health, comfort and wellbeing. Encouraging consumption of relatively small amounts of wheat bran could also provide an effective method of increasing overall fibre consumption.

  19. Short Term (14 Days) Consumption of Insoluble Wheat Bran Fibre-Containing Breakfast Cereals Improves Subjective Digestive Feelings, General Wellbeing and Bowel Function in a Dose Dependent Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Clare L.; Walton, Jenny; Hoyland, Alexa; Howarth, Elaine; Allan, Peter; Chesters, David; Dye, Louise

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether increasing insoluble (predominantly wheat bran) fibre over 14 days improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function. A single centre, multi-site, open, within subjects design with a 14 day non-intervention (baseline) monitoring period followed by a 14 day fibre consumption (intervention) period was performed. 153 low fibre consumers (<15 g/day AOAC 985.29) completed a daily symptom diary for 14 days after which they consumed one bowl of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal containing at least 5.4 g fibre (3.5 g from wheat bran) for 14 days and completed a daily symptom diary. Significant improvements were demonstrated in subjective perception of bowel function (e.g., ease of defecation) and digestive feelings (bloating, constipation, feeling sluggish and digestive discomfort). Significant improvements were also found in subjective perception of general wellbeing (feeling less fat, more mentally alert, slim, happy and energetic whilst experiencing less stress, mental and physical tiredness, difficulty concentrating and fewer headaches). In general, improvements in study outcomes increased with increasing cereal/fibre consumption. However, consuming an additional minimum 5.4 g of fibre (3.5 g wheat bran) per day was shown to deliver measurable and significant benefits for digestive health, comfort and wellbeing. Encouraging consumption of relatively small amounts of wheat bran could also provide an effective method of increasing overall fibre consumption. PMID:23609776

  20. Some opinions about matter and material substances: from inanimate system -- to living according to A. Einstein general theory of relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topuria, T; Gogebashvili, N; Korsantia, B

    2005-11-01

    During transformation from inanimate to living, change of the space position of the matter causes the change of the field, as the space does not exist without the field, therefore the time-space as the properties of material substances, should undergo certain changes. The outside inanimate system, in this case a matrix, has its own time. The living system, in this case a cell, where the matter undergoes space conformation with the change of field and space-time, has its own time and it has begun to flow more rapidly than in matrix. From the surface of the body, from different energetic reservoirs oppositely charged matter substances following from special transport systems from the life system transmitted into lifeless one and change their matter space conformation, create transmission gradient that is the gradient border of time from lifeless system into live. In the case of a human, hypothetically, the gradient system of time must be of a complex scheme counting the inter-transformation and interaction gradients of outer and inner abdominal systems. Subconscious and consciousness by means of special links and messages, information selection interact and form unique connection between the systems. Subconscious serves for accelerated time system. Conscious by means of permanent contact with the environment collects and reacts in matrix time system By interconnection of these two systems ideal adaptation with the environment takes place. Time difference gradient system is an additional energy factor, by means of which respective ordered geometrical structures special for the given types are formed. The living organism is an inter-regulated interconnection global system resulting from the changes of matter and material substances space configuration.

  1. Numerical modelling of thin-walled Z-columns made of general laminates subjected to uniform shortening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, Andrzej; Kolakowski, Zbigniew

    2018-01-01

    The numerical modelling of a plate structure was performed with the finite element method and a one-mode approach based on Koiter's method. The first order approximation of Koiter's method enables one to solve the eigenvalue problem. The second order approximation describes post-buckling equilibrium paths. In the finite element analysis, the Lanczos method was used to solve the linear problem of buckling. Simulations of the non-linear problem were performed with the Newton-Raphson method. Detailed calculations were carried out for a short Z-column made of general laminates. Configurations of laminated layers were non-symmetric. Due to possibilities of its application, the general laminate is very interesting. The length of the samples was chosen to obtain the lowest value of local buckling load. The amplitude of initial imperfections was 10% of the wall thickness. Thin-walled structures were simply supported on both ends. The numerical results were verified in experimental tests. A strain-gauge technique was applied. A static compression test was performed on a universal testing machine and a special grip, which consisted of two rigid steel plates and clamping sleeves, was used. Specimens were obtained with an autoclave technique. Tests were performed at a constant velocity of the cross-bar equal to 2 mm/min. The compressive load was less than 150% of the bifurcation load. Additionally, soft and thin pads were used to reduce inaccuracy of the sample ends.

  2. Disrupted subject-specific gray matter network properties and cognitive dysfunction in type 1 diabetes patients with and without proliferative retinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duinkerken, Eelco; Ijzerman, Richard G.; Klein, Martin; Moll, Annette C.; Snoek, Frank J.; Scheltens, Philip; Pouwels, Petra J. W.; Barkhof, Frederik; Diamant, Michaela; Tijms, Betty M.

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients, especially with concomitant microvascular disease, such as proliferative retinopathy, have an increased risk of cognitive deficits. Local cortical gray matter volume reductions only partially explain these cognitive dysfunctions, possibly because volume

  3. 12th general conference of the condensed matter division of the E.P.S. V.16A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velicky, B.; Vorlicek, V.; Zaveta, K.

    1992-01-01

    The proceedings contain 630 abstracts of contributions and posters presented at the conference, out of which 35 have been inputted in INIS. They deal with the application of the dispersion and diffraction of X-rays and neutrons to the investigation of the structure of matter, crystals in particular; with spin-lattice relaxation and superlattices; and with electron spin resonance, nuclear magnetic resonance and Moessbauer spectroscopy. (M.D.)

  4. A general explanation on the correlation of dark matter halo spin with the large-scale environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Kang, Xi

    2017-06-01

    Both simulations and observations have found that the spin of halo/galaxy is correlated with the large-scale environment, and particularly the spin of halo flips in filament. A consistent picture of halo spin evolution in different environments is still lacked. Using N-body simulation, we find that halo spin with its environment evolves continuously from sheet to cluster, and the flip of halo spin happens both in filament and nodes. The flip in filament can be explained by halo formation time and migrating time when its environment changes from sheet to filament. For low-mass haloes, they form first in sheets and migrate into filaments later, so their mass and spin growth inside filament are lower, and the original spin is still parallel to filament. For high-mass haloes, they migrate into filaments first, and most of their mass and spin growth are obtained in filaments, so the resulted spin is perpendicular to filament. Our results well explain the overall evolution of cosmic web in the cold dark matter model and can be tested using high-redshift data. The scenario can also be tested against alternative models of dark matter, such as warm/hot dark matter, where the structure formation will proceed in a different way.

  5. Contenidos teóricos de las materias generales y especializadas en los planes de estudios de las diplomaturas de ciencias de la salud Theoretic contents of general and specialized subjects in core curricula of health sciences professions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Arias Navalón

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar cuantitativamente los contenidos teóricos, generales y especializados, de los planes de estudios de las diplomaturas de ciencias de la salud en España. A partir de esos datos se harán algunas recomendaciones y se destacarán aspectos que podrían necesitar modificaciones. Diseño: Revisión sistemática. Emplazamiento y material de estudio: Planes de estudios de las diplomaturas de ciencias de la salud en España: Enfermería, Fisioterapia, Logopedia, Nutrición humana y dietética, Óptica y optometría, Podología y Terapia ocupacional. Mediciones: Número de horas teóricas dedicadas a materias troncales, detallando su carácter general o especializado. Resultados y conclusiones: En conjunto, los contenidos especializados y generales suponen, respectivamente, el 66,7 y el 33,3%. La mayoría de las carreras tienen más horas asignadas a materias especializadas. Los resultados oscilan entre la ausencia de materias troncales generales en las carreras de Óptica y optometría y de Logopedia y el 71,4% de carga lectiva de carácter general en la carrera de Terapia ocupacional. La carencia de conocimientos generales sobre la salud y la enfermedad puede tener consecuencias negativas en la práctica diaria y en las expectativas que tienen para hacer investigación los profesionales implicados.Objective: To assess general and specialized theoretic contents of core curricula of health professions in Spain, in order to make some recommendations to improve these curricula and to highlight some areas needing further modifications. Design: Systematic revision. Setting and study selection: Core curricula of health professions in Spain: Nursing, Physical therapy, Speech-language pathology, Nutrition and dietetics, Optometry, Podiatry and Occupational therapy. Measurements: Number of theoretic hours devoted to both general and specialized subjects. Results and conclusions: Overall, specialized and general contents are 66.7% and 33

  6. A 9-year analysis of bibliographical trends for journals in the subject category of general and internal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Jong Yong Abdiel

    2009-05-01

    For academic research outcomes, an important bibliometric scoring termed as the journal impact factor (JIF) is used when assessment of the quality of research is required. No known study has been conducted to explore the bibliographical trends of 'Medicine, General & Internal' journals indexed by the annual Journal Citation Reports. Data from the Journal Citation Reports and Web of Science database were extracted to formulate a comprehensive analysis. In this study, the trends of 15 journals (5 top ranked and 10 low ranked; 5 English and 5 non-English based) were selected and analysed over a 9-year period (starting from year 1999 to 2007). Using the year 1999 as the base year, the results showed that the JIF rose significantly for the selected top ranked journals (up to 180.9%) while the low ranked ones slipped in their JIF value (down to -44.4%). The observed upward or downward trend was caused by a combination of other bibliographical measures like citations, number of citable, and total items published. It is postulated that changes in bibliographical trends can be classified as editorial and non-editorial influences. The impacts of these influences on the 15 selected journals over the 9-year period were also discussed retrospectively.

  7. Characterization of dissolved organic matter in a coral reef ecosystem subjected to anthropogenic pressures (La Réunion Island, Indian Ocean) using multi-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedetti, Marc; Cuet, Pascale; Guigue, Catherine; Goutx, Madeleine

    2011-05-01

    La Saline fringing reef is the most important coral reef complex of La Réunion Island (southwestern Indian Ocean; 21°07'S, 55°32'E). This ecosystem is subjected to anthropogenic pressures through river inputs and submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). The goal of this study was to characterize the pool of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) in different water bodies of La Saline fringing reef ecosystem using excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectrofluorometry. From EEMs, we identified the different fluorophores by the peak picking technique and determined two fluorescence indices issued from the literature: the humification index (HIX) and the biological index (BIX). The main known fluorophores were present within the sample set: humic-like A, humic-like C, marine humic-like M, tryptophan-like T1 and T2, and tyrosine-like B1 and B2. In some samples, unknown fluorophores ("U") were also detected. The surface oceanic waters located beyond the reef front displayed a typical oligotrophic marine signature, with a dominance of autochthonous/biological material (presence of peaks: T1>B1>A>T2>M>C; HIX: 0.9±0.4; BIX: 2.3±1.1). In the reef waters, the autochthonous/biological fingerprint also dominated even though the content in humic substances was higher (same relative distribution of peaks; HIX: 1.6±0.6; BIX: 1.0±0.1). Sedimentary and volcanic SGD showed very different patterns with a strong terrestrial source for the former (A>T1>C>B1 and A>C>B1; HIX: 9.8±2.0; BIX: 0.8±0.0) and a weak terrestrial source for the latter (A>B1>U3>B2>C and A>U4>C; HIX: 2.4±0.3; BIX: 0.9±0.0). In the Hermitage River, both humic substances and protein-like material were abundant (T1>A>U5>B1>C>B2; HIX: 2.3; BIX: 1.4). We provide evidences for the presence of anthropogenic DOM in some of these water bodies. Some oceanic samples (presence of peaks U1 and U2) were likely contaminated by oil-derived PAHs from ships navigating around the reef front, whereas the Hermitage River was

  8. Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic characterization of soil organic matter fractions in a forest ecosystem subjected to prescribed burning and thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescribed burning and thinning are gaining popularity as low-cost forest protection measures. Such field management practices could alter the chemical properties of soil organic matter (SOM), especially humic substances. In this work, we collected surface soil samples from the Bankhead National For...

  9. Children's Comprehension of Object Relative Sentences: It's Extant Language Knowledge That Matters, Not Domain-General Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusli, Yazmin Ahmad; Montgomery, James W

    2017-10-17

    The aim of this study was to determine whether extant language (lexical) knowledge or domain-general working memory is the better predictor of comprehension of object relative sentences for children with typical development. We hypothesized that extant language knowledge, not domain-general working memory, is the better predictor. Fifty-three children (ages 9-11 years) completed a word-level verbal working-memory task, indexing extant language (lexical) knowledge; an analog nonverbal working-memory task, representing domain-general working memory; and a hybrid sentence comprehension task incorporating elements of both agent selection and cross-modal picture-priming paradigms. Images of the agent and patient were displayed at the syntactic gap in the object relative sentences, and the children were asked to select the agent of the sentence. Results of general linear modeling revealed that extant language knowledge accounted for a unique 21.3% of variance in the children's object relative sentence comprehension over and above age (8.3%). Domain-general working memory accounted for a nonsignificant 1.6% of variance. We interpret the results to suggest that extant language knowledge and not domain-general working memory is a critically important contributor to children's object relative sentence comprehension. Results support a connectionist view of the association between working memory and object relative sentence comprehension. https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.5404573.

  10. 23 March 2015 - Tree planting ceremony Chemin Auguer, by His Holiness the XIIth Gyalwang Drukpa and CERN Director-General, on the occasion of the event Connecting Worlds: Science Meets Buddhism Great Minds, Great Matters.

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2015-01-01

    23 March 2015 - Tree planting ceremony Chemin Auguer, by His Holiness the XIIth Gyalwang Drukpa and CERN Director-General, on the occasion of the event Connecting Worlds: Science Meets Buddhism Great Minds, Great Matters.

  11. Gray and white matter changes in subjective cognitive impairment, amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: a voxel-based analysis study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuniaki Kiuchi

    Full Text Available Subjective cognitive impairment may be a very early at-risk period of the continuum of dementia. However, it is difficult to discriminate at-risk states from normal aging. Thus, detection of the early pathological changes in the subjective cognitive impairment period is needed. To elucidate these changes, we employed diffusion tensor imaging and volumetry analysis, and compared subjective cognitive impairment with normal, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The subjects in this study were 39 Alzheimer's disease, 43 mild cognitive impairment, 28 subjective cognitive impairment and 41 normal controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the normal control and subjective cognitive impairment groups in all measures. Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment had the same extent of brain atrophy and diffusion changes. These results are consistent with the hypothetical model of the dynamic biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease.

  12. "Saying no is no easy matter" A qualitative study of competing concerns in rationing decisions in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norheim Ole

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The general practitioner in Norway is expected to ensure equity and effectiveness through fair rationing. At the same time, due to recent reforms of the Norwegian health care sector, both the role of economic incentives and patient autonomy have been strengthened. Studies indicate that modern general practitioners, both in Norway and in other countries are uncomfortable with the gatekeeper role, but there is little knowledge about how general practitioners experience rationing in practice. Methods Through focus group interviews with Norwegian general practitioners, we explore physicians' attitudes toward factors of influence on medical decision making and how rationing dilemmas are experienced in everyday practice. Results Four major concerns appeared in the group discussions: The obligation to ration health care, professional autonomy, patient autonomy, and competition. A central finding was that the physicians find rationing difficult because saying no in face to face relations often is felt uncomfortable and in conflict with other important objectives for the general practitioner. Conclusion It is important to understand the association between using economic incentives in the management of health care, increasing patient autonomy, and the willingness among physicians to contribute to efficient, fair and legitimate resource allocation.

  13. General U(1)xU(1) F-theory Compactifications and Beyond: Geometry of unHiggsings and novel Matter Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Cvetic, Mirjam; Piragua, Hernan; Taylor, Washington

    2015-01-01

    We construct the general form of an F-theory compactification with two U(1) factors based on a general elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau manifold with Mordell-Weil group of rank two. This construction produces broad classes of models with diverse matter spectra, including many that are not realized in earlier F-theory constructions with U(1)xU(1) gauge symmetry. Generic U(1)xU(1) models can be related to a Higgsed non-Abelian model with gauge group SU(2)xSU(2)xSU(3), SU(2)^3xSU(3), or a subgroup thereof. The nonlocal horizontal divisors of the Mordell-Weil group are replaced with local vertical divisors associated with the Cartan generators of non-Abelian gauge groups from Kodaira singularities. We give a global resolution of codimension two singularities of the Abelian model; we identify the full anomaly free matter content, and match it to the unHiggsed non-Abelian model. The non-Abelian Weierstrass model exhibits a new algebraic description of the singularities in the fibration that results in the first expl...

  14. Location of lacunar infarcts correlates with cognition in a sample of non-disabled subjects with age-related white-matter changes: the LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benisty, S; Gouw, A A; Porcher, R

    2009-01-01

    evaluation was based on the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE), a modified Alzheimer Diseases Assessment Scale for global cognitive functions, and compound Z scores for memory, executive functions, speed and motor control. WMH were rated according to the Fazekas scale; the number of lacunes was assessed...... a significant negative association between the presence of lacunes in putamen/pallidum and the memory compound Z score (beta = -0.13; p = 0.038). By contrast, no significant negative association was found between cognitive parameters and the presence of lacunes in internal capsule, lobar white matter......OBJECTIVES: In cerebral small vessel disease, white-matter hyperintensities (WMH) and lacunes are both related to cognition. Still, their respective contribution in older people remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to assess the topographic distribution of lacunes and determine whether...

  15. Accounting for graduate medical education production of primary care physicians and general surgeons: timing of measurement matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petterson, Stephen; Burke, Matthew; Phillips, Robert; Teevan, Bridget

    2011-05-01

    Legislation proposed in 2009 to expand GME set institutional primary care and general surgery production eligibility thresholds at 25% at entry into training. The authors measured institutions' production of primary care physicians and general surgeons on completion of first residency versus two to four years after graduation to inform debate and explore residency expansion and physician workforce implications. Production of primary care physicians and general surgeons was assessed by retrospective analysis of the 2009 American Medical Association Masterfile, which includes physicians' training institution, residency specialty, and year of completion for up to six training experiences. The authors measured production rates for each institution based on physicians completing their first residency during 2005-2007 in family or internal medicine, pediatrics, or general surgery. They then reassessed rates to account for those who completed additional training. They compared these rates with proposed expansion eligibility thresholds and current workforce needs. Of 116,004 physicians completing their first residency, 54,245 (46.8%) were in primary care and general surgery. Of 683 training institutions, 586 met the 25% threshold for expansion eligibility. At two to four years out, only 29,963 physicians (25.8%) remained in primary care or general surgery, and 135 institutions lost eligibility. A 35% threshold eliminated 314 institutions collectively training 93,774 residents (80.8%). Residency expansion thresholds that do not account for production at least two to four years after completion of first residency overestimate eligibility. The overall primary care production rate from GME will not sustain the current physician workforce composition. Copyright © by the Association of American medical Colleges.

  16. 75 FR 62141 - In the Matter of Certain Energy Drink Products; Notice of Issuance of a Corrected General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... during official business hours (8:45 a.m. to 5:15 p.m.) in the Office of the Secretary, U.S..., Florida; Avalon International General Trading, LLC of Dubai, United Arab Emirates; and Central Supply, Inc...

  17. Low episodic memory performance in cognitively normal elderly subjects is associated with increased posterior cingulate gray matter N-acetylaspartate: a 1H MRSI study at 7 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Simon J; Kirchner, Thomas; Wyss, Michael; Van Bergen, Jiri M G; Quevenco, Frances C; Steininger, Stefanie C; Griffith, Erica Y; Meier, Irene; Michels, Lars; Gietl, Anton F; Leh, Sandra E; Brickman, Adam M; Hock, Christoph; Nitsch, Roger M; Pruessmann, Klaas P; Henning, Anke; Unschuld, Paul G

    2016-12-01

    Low episodic memory performance characterizes elderly subjects at increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may reflect neuronal dysfunction within the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus (PCP) region. To investigate a potential association between cerebral neurometabolism and low episodic memory in the absence of cognitive impairment, tissue-specific magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging at ultrahigh field strength of 7 Tesla was used to investigate the PCP region in a healthy elderly study population (n = 30, age 70 ± 5.7 years, Mini-Mental State Examination 29.4 ± 4.1). The Verbal Learning and Memory Test (VLMT) was administered as part of a neuropsychological battery for assessment of episodic memory performance. Significant differences between PCP gray and white matter could be observed for glutamate-glutamine (p = 0.001), choline (p = 0.01), and myo-inositol (p = 0.02). Low Verbal Learning and Memory Test performance was associated with high N-acetylaspartate in PCP gray matter (p = 0.01) but not in PCP white matter. Our data suggest that subtle decreases in episodic memory performance in the elderly may be associated with increased levels of N-acetylaspartate as a reflection of increased mitochondrial energy capacity in PCP gray matter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Health related quality of life in rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, diabetes mellitus, end stage renal disease and geriatric subjects. Experience from a General Hospital in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambriz Murillo, Yesenia; Menor Almagro, Raul; Campos-González, Israel David; Cardiel, Mario H

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diseases have a great impact in the morbidity and mortality and in the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients around the world. The impact of rheumatic diseases has not been fully recognized. We conducted a comparative study to evaluate the HRQoL in different chronic diseases. The aim of the present study was to assess the HRQoL and identify specific areas affected in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoarthritis (OA), diabetes mellitus, end-stage renal disease, geriatric subjects and a control group. We conducted a cross-sectional study, in a General Hospital in Morelia, Mexico. All patients met classification criteria for RA, OA, diabetes mellitus, end-stage renal disease; the geriatric subjects group was≥65 years, and the control group≥30 years. Demographic characteristics were recorded, different instruments were applied: SF-36, visual analogue scale for pain, patient's and physician's global assessments, Beck Depression Inventory and specific instruments (DAS-28, HAQ-Di, WOMAC, Diabetes Quality of Life [DQOL] and Kidney Disease Questionnaire of Life [KDQOL]). Biochemical measures: erythrocyte sedimentation rate, blood count, glucose, HbA1C, serum creatinine and urea. We evaluated 290 subjects (control group: 100; geriatric subjects: 30 and 160 for the rest of groups). Differences were detected in baseline characteristics (Prenal disease group (±SD: 48.06±18.84 x/SD). The general health was the principal affected area in RA. The pain was higher in rheumatic diseases: OA (5.2±2.4) and RA (5.1±3). HAQ was higher in OA compared to RA (1.12±0.76 vs 0.82±0.82, respectively; P=.001). Forty five percent of all subjects had depression. The HRQoL in RA patients is poor and comparable to other chronic diseases (end-stage renal disease and diabetes mellitus). Rheumatic diseases should be considered high impact diseases and therefore should receive more attention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Strengthening Medicare: Will increasing the bulk-billing rate and supply of general practitioners increase access to Medicare-funded general practitioner services and does rurality matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Susan E; Alford, Katrina; Dunt, David; Peacock, Stuart; Gurrin, Lyle; Voaklander, Don

    2005-01-01

    Background Recent increases in the bulk-billing rate have been taken as an indication that the Federal government's Strengthening Medicare initiative, and particularly the bulk-billing incentives, are 'working'. Given the enduring geographic differences in the supply of general practitioners (GPs) it is timely to reconsider the impact that this increase in the provision of 'free care' will have on access to Medicare-funded GP services in rural and urban areas of Australia. Utilisation has been modelled as two different stochastic processes: the decision to consult and the frequency of consultation. Results In the decision to consult model the supply of FFS GPs is a more important predictor of utilisation than the bulk-billing rate. Paradoxically the modelling predicts that ceteris paribus increases in either GP supply or the bulk-billing rate appear to have perverse effects in some areas by decreasing utilisation. In the frequency of consultation model, GP density is not a predictor and increasing the bulk-billing rate will unambiguously increase the frequency of consultation across all areas. In both models, the positive impacts associated with changes in supply and cost are constrained outside the inner metropolitan area by reduced geographic accessibility to Medicare-funded GP services. The modelling also shows that people are more likely to consult a GP in areas of high socioeconomic disadvantage, although socioeconomic status is not a predictor of frequency of consultation. Conclusion Bulk-billing rates and the supply of FFS GPs are important features of the Australian health care system that are, potentially, amenable to policy manipulation. The implications of this research are that government policies designed to achieve similarity in these characteristics across geographic areas will not result in equity of access because they fail to address problems caused by geographic inaccessibility in rural and remote areas. Attempting to increase bulk-billing rates

  20. Allele frequencies of hemojuvelin gene (HJV I222N and G320V missense mutations in white and African American subjects from the general Alabama population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohannon Sean B

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homozygosity or compound heterozygosity for coding region mutations of the hemojuvelin gene (HJV in whites is a cause of early age-of-onset iron overload (juvenile hemochromatosis, and of hemochromatosis phenotypes in some young or middle-aged adults. HJV coding region mutations have also been identified recently in African American primary iron overload and control subjects. Primary iron overload unexplained by typical hemochromatosis-associated HFE genotypes is common in white and black adults in Alabama, and HJV I222N and G320V were detected in a white Alabama juvenile hemochromatosis index patient. Thus, we estimated the frequency of the HJV missense mutations I222N and G320V in adult whites and African Americans from Alabama general population convenience samples. Methods We evaluated the genomic DNA of 241 Alabama white and 124 African American adults who reported no history of hemochromatosis or iron overload to detect HJV missense mutations I222N and G320V using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP technique. Analysis for HJV I222N was performed in 240 whites and 124 African Americans. Analysis for HJV G320V was performed in 241 whites and 118 African Americans. Results One of 240 white control subjects was heterozygous for HJV I222N; she was also heterozygous for HFE C282Y, but had normal serum iron measures and bone marrow iron stores. HJV I222N was not detected in 124 African American subjects. HJV G320V was not detected in 241 white or 118 African American subjects. Conclusions HJV I222N and G320V are probably uncommon causes or modifiers of primary iron overload in adult whites and African Americans in Alabama. Double heterozygosity for HJV I222N and HFE C282Y may not promote increased iron absorption.

  1. New light on a dark subject: On the use of fluorescence data to deduce redox states of natural organic matter (NOM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macalady, Donald L.; Walton-Day, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the use of excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (EEMS), parallel factor statistical analysis (PARAFAC), and oxidation-reduction experiments to examine the effect of redox conditions on PARAFAC model results for aqueous samples rich in natural organic matter. Fifty-four aqueous samples from 11 different geographic locations and two plant extracts were analyzed untreated and after chemical treatments or irradiation were used in attempts to change the redox status of the natural organic matter. The EEMS spectra were generated and modeled using a PARAFAC package developed by Cory and McKnight (2005). The PARAFAC model output was examined for consistency with previously reported relations and with changes expected to occur upon experimental oxidation and reduction of aqueous samples. Results indicate the implied fraction of total sample fluorescence attributed to quinone-like moieties was consistent (0.64 to 0.78) and greater than that observed by Cory and McKnight (2005). The fraction of the quinone-like moieties that was reduced (the reducing index, RI) showed relatively little variation (0.46 to 0.71) despite attempts to alter the redox status of the natural organic matter. The RI changed little after reducing samples using zinc metal, oxidizing at high pH with air, or irradiating with a Xenon lamp. Our results, however, are consistent with the correlations between the fluorescence indices (FI) of samples and the ratio of PARAFAC fitting parameters suggested by Cory and McKnight (2005), though we used samples with a much narrower range of FI values.

  2. Late-time cosmological evolution of a general class of f(R, T) gravity with minimal curvature-matter coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabani, Hamid [University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, Zahedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ziaie, Amir Hadi [Islamic Azad University, Department of Physics, Kahnooj Branch, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    In this work, we study the late-time cosmological solutions of f(R, T) = g(R) + h(-T) models assuming that the conservation of the energy-momentum tensor (EMT) is violated. We perform our analysis through constructing an autonomous dynamical system for the equations of motion. We study the stability properties of solutions via considering linear perturbations about the related equilibrium points. Moreover, we parameterize the Lagrangian by introducing the parameters m(r) and n(s). These parameters which are constructed out of the functions g(R) and h(-T) play the main role in finding the late-time behavior of the solutions. We find that there exist, in general, three classes of solutions; all models with n > 0 include a proper transition from a prolonged matter era to a de Sitter solution. Models with -0.5 < n < 0 and n{sup '} > 1, for at least a root of equation n(s) = s - 1, include an unphysical dark energy solution preceding an improper matter era. Finally, for n < -1/2 there is a transient accelerated expansion era with -1/2 < w{sup (eff)} < -1/3 before a de Sitter phase. For all cases, in order to have a long enough matter dominated epoch, the condition m{sup '} → 0{sup +} for r

  3. Explanation of Rotation Curves in Galaxies and Clusters of them, by Generalization of Schwarzschild Metric and Combination with MOND, eliminating Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossos, Spyridon; Vossos, Elias

    2017-12-01

    Schwarzschild Metric is the first and the most important solution of Einstein vacuum field equations. This is associated with Lorentz metric of flat spacetime and produces the relativistic potential (Φ) and the field strength (g) outside a spherically symmetric mass or a non-rotating black hole. It has many applications such as gravitational red shift, the precession of Mercury’s orbit, Shapiro time delay etc. However, it is inefficient to explain the rotation curves in large galaxies and clusters of them, causing the necessity for dark matter. On the other hand, Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) has already explained these rotation curves in many cases, using suitable interpolating function (μ) in Milgrom’s Law. In this presentation, we initially produce a Generalized Schwarzschild potential and the corresponding Metric of spacetime, in order to be in accordance with any isotropic metric of flat spacetime (including Galilean Metric of spacetime which is associated with Galilean Transformation of spacetime). From this Generalized Schwarzschild potential (Φ), we calculate the corresponding field strength (g), which is associated with the interpolating function (μ). In this way, a new relativistic potential is obtained (let us call 2nd Generalized Schwarzschild potential) which describes the gravitational interaction at any distance and for any metric of flat spacetime. Thus, not only the necessity for Dark Matter is eliminated, but also MOND becomes a pure Relativistic Theory of Gravitational Interaction. Then, we pass to the case of flat spacetime with Lorentz metric (Minkowski space), because the experimental data have been extracted using the Relativistic Doppler Shift and the gravitational red shift of Classic Relativity (CR). Thus, we Explain the Rotation Curves in Galaxies (e.g. NGC 3198) and Clusters of them as well as the Solar system, eliminating Dark Matter. This relativistic potential and the corresponding metric of spacetime have been obtained

  4. [Changes in phospholipids of the brain grey and white matter during in vitro autolysis in rats subjected to acute hypobaric hypoxic hypoxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribanov, G A; Leshchenko, D V; Golovko, M Iu

    2004-01-01

    The development of autolysis in grey brain matter of albino rats was accompanied by desintegration of aminophospholipids with parallel increase of glycerophosphates (GLP) and phosphatidic acids (PA) on early stages of incubation and lysophospholipids (LPL) on later stages. Acute hypobaric hypoxic hypoxia decreased the level of phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) with simultaneous accumulation of PA. Previous hypoxia altered the character of autolytic reorganizations of phospholipids. Oscillatory reciprocal reorganizations in the system PE > PS (phosphatidylserine) were observed at early stage (1 h) and at late stages of autolysis (24 h). At the same time increased transformation of phosphatidylcholines (PC) into sphingomyelins (SM) with simultaneous accumulation GLP was registered. During autolysis of brain white matter of control rats opposite oscillatory reorganizations of PE, PC, SM, PA with reduction of PE and simultaneous increase of LPL and PA level after 1 hour of incubation were observed. Reciprocal reactions of biotransformation in system PS > PE were revealed at 4th hour. Previous hypobaric hypoxic hypoxia reduced the level of total phospholipids as well as PS at simultaneous increase of LPL. Acute hypobaric hypoxic hypoxia increased autolytic transformations in system PC > SM and induced hydrolysis of PE, PC into LPL at late stages of autolysis.

  5. Treatment options for subjective tinnitus: Self reports from a sample of general practitioners and ENT physicians within Europe and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Deborah A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tinnitus affects about 10-15% of the general population and risks for developing tinnitus are rising through increased exposure to leisure noise through listening to personal music players at high volume. The disorder has a considerable heterogeneity and so no single mechanism is likely to explain the presence of tinnitus in all those affected. As such there is no standardized management pathway nor singly effective treatment for the condition. Choice of clinical intervention is a multi-factorial decision based on many factors, including assessment of patient needs and the healthcare context. The present research surveyed clinicians working in six Westernized countries with the aims: a to establish the range of referral pathways, b to evaluate the typical treatment options for categories of subjective tinnitus defined as acute or chronic, and c to seek clinical opinion about levels of satisfaction with current standards of practice. Methods A structured online questionnaire was conducted with 712 physicians who reported seeing at least one tinnitus patients in the previous three months. They were 370 general practitioners (GPs and 365 ear-nose-throat specialists (ENTs from the US, Germany, UK, France, Italy and Spain. Results Our international comparison of health systems for tinnitus revealed that although the characteristics of tinnitus appeared broadly similar across countries, the patient's experience of clinical services differed widely. GPs and ENTs were always involved in referral and management to some degree, but multi-disciplinary teams engaged either neurology (Germany, Italy and Spain or audiology (UK and US professionals. For acute subjective tinnitus, pharmacological prescriptions were common, while audiological and psychological approaches were more typical for chronic subjective tinnitus; with several specific treatment options being highly country specific. All therapy options were associated with low levels

  6. Does Gender Matter in Explaining Delinquency and Suicidal Thoughts? An Examination of General Strain Theory in South Korean Youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Minwoo; Kim, Eunyoung

    2017-06-01

    This study attempts to explore the potential extension of general strain theory (GST) by applying the hypotheses proposed by Broidy and Agnew to a sample of South Korean youths. Specifically, this study examines whether particular forms of strain and stressors have differential effects across genders on various deviant outcomes, delinquency, and suicidal thoughts. Multiple regression analyses using longitudinal data of 3,125 South Korean youths revealed mixed support for the GST proposition. Females experienced a higher level of both anger and depression than males. However, the experience of negative emotions is partly gendered in general. This study also found that different negative emotions and strain/stress factors are important and demonstrate gendered pathways in the case of delinquency. However, it also revealed that similar types of strains and stressors and negative emotions were significant and positive for suicidal thoughts for both males and females. Furthermore, a model examining the impacts of conditioning variables on suicidal thoughts highlighted that depression is particularly important in females. These findings indicate that various types of deviant outcomes and strain-stressors provide a fuller understanding of both similarities and differences by gender.

  7. Body Mass Index and Mortality in the General Population and in Subjects with Chronic Disease in Korea: A Nationwide Cohort Study (2002-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Hoon Kim

    Full Text Available The association between body mass index (BMI and mortality is not conclusive, especially in East Asian populations. Furthermore, the association has been neither supported by recent data, nor assessed after controlling for weight changes.We evaluated the relationship between BMI and all-cause or cause-specific mortality, using prospective cohort data by the National Health Insurance Service in Korea, which consisted of more than one million subjects. A total of 153,484 Korean adults over 30 years of age without pre-existing cardiovascular disease or cancer at baseline were followed-up until 2010 (mean follow-up period = 7.91 ± 0.59 years. Study subjects repeatedly measured body weight 3.99 times, on average.During follow-up, 3,937 total deaths occurred; 557 deaths from cardiovascular disease, and 1,224 from cancer. In multiple-adjusted analyses, U-shaped associations were found between BMI and mortality from any cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer after adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, socioeconomic status, and weight change. Subjects with a BMI < 23 kg/m2 and ≥ 30 kg/m2 had higher risks of all-cause and cause-specific mortality compared with the reference group (BMI 23-24.9 kg/m2. The lowest risk of all-cause mortality was observed in subjects with a BMI of 25-26.4 kg/m2 (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.86; 95% CI 0.77 to 0.97. In subgroup analyses, including the elderly and those with chronic diseases (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease, subjects with a BMI of 25-29.9 kg/m2 (moderate obesity had a lower risk of mortality compared with the reference. However, this association has been attenuated in younger individuals, in those with higher socioeconomic status, and those without chronic diseases.Moderate obesity was associated more strongly with a lower risk of mortality than with normal, underweight, and overweight groups in the general population of South Korea

  8. Educational role of art history as a school subject area in programmes of formal education in Slovenia: the aspect of vzgoja, according to general European guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjana Dolšina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Programmes of formal education establish a systematic transfer of knowledge as well as universal values from one generation to another. By that, they ensure the survival of social structures, prevent radical disruptions in their continuity, and serve as basis for general development of a society. Their content and didactic arrangements include interweaving of two basic aspects: the cognitive one and the one related to vzgoja (i.e. upbringing, moral/value education etc.. The latter aims to achieve the ideals of a tolerant, just and lifelong learning society, but seems to be facing increasing challenges, mainly emerging from neoliberal capitalist mentality. Art history as a school subject area in elementary and secondary education may provide an insight beneath the surface of historical events. Thus, it helps develop a critical view towards them and consequently towards the present real-life situations, which contributes to ascending the taxonomic scale of conative educational goals.

  9. Development of the complex general linear model in the Fourier domain: application to fMRI multiple input-output evoked responses for single subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, Daniel E; Rawlings, Robert R; Woltz, Lawrence A; Gilman, Jodi; Hommer, Daniel W

    2013-01-01

    A linear time-invariant model based on statistical time series analysis in the Fourier domain for single subjects is further developed and applied to functional MRI (fMRI) blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) multivariate data. This methodology was originally developed to analyze multiple stimulus input evoked response BOLD data. However, to analyze clinical data generated using a repeated measures experimental design, the model has been extended to handle multivariate time series data and demonstrated on control and alcoholic subjects taken from data previously analyzed in the temporal domain. Analysis of BOLD data is typically carried out in the time domain where the data has a high temporal correlation. These analyses generally employ parametric models of the hemodynamic response function (HRF) where prewhitening of the data is attempted using autoregressive (AR) models for the noise. However, this data can be analyzed in the Fourier domain. Here, assumptions made on the noise structure are less restrictive, and hypothesis tests can be constructed based on voxel-specific nonparametric estimates of the hemodynamic transfer function (HRF in the Fourier domain). This is especially important for experimental designs involving multiple states (either stimulus or drug induced) that may alter the form of the response function.

  10. Age, Cumulative Trauma and Stressful Life Events, and Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms among Older Adults in Prison: Do Subjective Impressions Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschi, Tina; Morgen, Keith; Zgoba, Kristen; Courtney, Deborah; Ristow, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aging prison population in the United States presents a significant public health challenge with high rates of trauma and mental health issues that the correctional system alone is ill-prepared to address. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of age, objective, and subjective measures of trauma and stressful…

  11. Using Academic Journals to Help Students Learn Subject Matter Content, Develop and Practice Critical Reasoning Skills, and Reflect on Personal Values in Food Science and Human Nutrition Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaoka, Wayne T.; Crosetti, Lea M.

    2008-01-01

    It has been reported that students learn best when they use a wide variety of techniques to understand the information of the discipline, be it visual, auditory, discussion with others, metacognition, hands-on activities, or writing about the subject. We report in this article the use of academic journals not only as an aid for students to learn…

  12. Self-compassion matters: The relationships between perceived social support, self-compassion, and subjective well-being among LGB individuals in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toplu-Demirtaş, Ezgi; Kemer, Gülşah; Pope, Amber L; Moe, Jeffry L

    2018-04-01

    Research on the well-being of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people has predominately focused on Western (-ized) societies where individualism, and not collectivism, is emphasized. In the present study, we utilized a mediator model via Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to examine the relationships between self-compassion (i.e., self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness), perceived social support (i.e., family, friends, and significant others), and subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) in a sample of LGB-identified individuals living in Turkey, a traditionally collectivistic culture (Hofstede, 2001). A sample of 291 LGB individuals (67 lesbian, 128 gay, and 96 bisexual) completed an online survey including the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support Scale, and Self-kindness, Common Humanity, and Mindfulness subscales of the Self-Compassion Scale. The results of SEM for the hypothesized mediator model revealed that self-compassion mediated the relationships between perceived social support from family and significant others and subjective well-being, explaining the 77% of the variance in subjective well-being. Implications for the literature base on LGB well-being are discussed, with a focus on the cross-cultural applications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Dark Matter Effective Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Nobile, Eugenio; Sannino, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    We organize the effective (self)interaction terms for complex scalar dark matter candidates which are either an isosinglet, isodoublet or an isotriplet with respect to the weak interactions. The classification has been performed ordering the operators in inverse powers of the dark matter cutoff...... scale. We assume Lorentz invariance, color and charge neutrality. We also introduce potentially interesting dark matter induced flavor-changing operators. Our general framework allows for model independent investigations of dark matter properties....

  14. Characterization and sources of colored dissolved organic matter in a coral reef ecosystem subject to ultramafic erosion pressure (New Caledonia, Southwest Pacific).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martias, Chloé; Tedetti, Marc; Lantoine, François; Jamet, Léocadie; Dupouy, Cécile

    2018-03-01

    The eastern lagoon of New Caledonia (NC, Southwest Pacific), listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site, hosts the world's second longest double-barrier coral reef. This lagoon receives river inputs, oceanic water arrivals, and erosion pressure from ultramafic rocks, enriched in nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co). The aim of this study was to characterize colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), as well as to determine its main sources and its possible relationships (through the use of Pearson correlation coefficients, r) with biogeochemical parameters, plankton communities and trace metals in the NC eastern lagoon. Water samples were collected in March 2016 along a series of river/lagoon/open-ocean transects. The absorption coefficient at 350nm (a 350 ) revealed the influence of river inputs on the CDOM distribution. The high values of spectral slope (S 275-295 , >0.03m -1 ) and the low values of specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA 254 , CDOM in surface waters. The application of parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) on excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) allowed the identification of four CDOM components: (1) one humic- and one tyrosine-like fluorophores. They had terrestrial origin, exported through rivers and undergoing photo- and bio-degradation in the lagoon. These two fluorophores were linked to manganese (Mn) in southern rivers (r=0.46-0.50, n=21, pCDOM sources in the NC eastern lagoon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Topology general & algebraic

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, D

    2007-01-01

    About the Book: This book provides exposition of the subject both in its general and algebraic aspects. It deals with the notions of topological spaces, compactness, connectedness, completeness including metrizability and compactification, algebraic aspects of topological spaces through homotopy groups and homology groups. It begins with the basic notions of topological spaces but soon going beyond them reaches the domain of algebra through the notions of homotopy, homology and cohomology. How these approaches work in harmony is the subject matter of this book. The book finally arrives at the

  16. Changes in EEG spectral power on perception of neutral and emotional words in patients with schizophrenia, their relatives, and healthy subjects from the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfimova, M V; Uvarova, L G

    2008-06-01

    EEG correlates of impairments in the processing of emotiogenic information which might reflect a genetic predisposition to schizophrenia were sought by studying the dynamics of EEG rhythm powers on presentation of neutral and emotional words in 36 patients with schizophrenia, 50 of their unaffected first-degree relatives, and 47 healthy subjects without any inherited predisposition to psychoses. In controls, passive hearing of neutral words produced minimal changes in cortical rhythms, predominantly in the form of increases in the power levels of slow and fast waves, while perception of emotional words was accompanied by generalized reductions in the power of the alpha and beta(1) rhythms and regionally specific suppression of theta and beta(2) activity. Patients and their relatives demonstrated reductions in power of alpha and beta(1) activity, with an increase in delta power on hearing both groups of words. Thus, differences in responses to neutral and emotional words in patients and their relatives were weaker, because of increased reactions to neutral words. These results may identify EEG reflections of pathology of involuntary attention, which is familial and, evidently, inherited in nature. No reduction in reactions to emotiogenic stimuli was seen in patients' families.

  17. Respiratory effects of particulate matter air pollution: studies on diesel exhaust, road tunnel, subway and wood smoke exposure in human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehlstedt, Maria

    2011-07-01

    Background: Ambient air pollution is associated with adverse health effects, but the sources and components, which cause these effects is still incompletely understood. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the pulmonary effects of a variety of common air pollutants, including diesel exhaust, biomass smoke, and road tunnel and subway station environments. Healthy non-smoking volunteers were exposed in random order to the specific air pollutants and air/control, during intermittent exercise, followed by bronchoscopy. Methods and results: In study I, exposures were performed with diesel exhaust (DE) generated at transient engine load and air for 1 hour with bronchoscopy at 6 hours post-exposure. Immunohistochemical analyses of bronchial mucosal biopsies showed that DE exposure significantly increased the endothelial adhesion molecule expression of p-selectin and VCAM-1, together with increased bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) eosinophils. In study II, the subjects were exposed for 1 hour to DE generated during idling with bronchoscopy at 6 hours. The bronchial mucosal biopsies showed significant increases in neutrophils, mast cells and lymphocytes together with bronchial wash neutrophils. Additionally, DE exposure significantly increased the nuclear translocation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and phosphorylated c-jun in the bronchial epithelium. In contrast, the phase II enzyme NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) decreased after DE. In study III, the 2-hour exposures took place in a road tunnel with bronchoscopy 14 hours later. The road tunnel exposure significantly increased the total numbers of lymphocytes and alveolar macrophages in BAL, whereas NK cell and CD56+/T cell numbers significantly decreased. Additionally, the nuclear expression of phosphorylated c-jun in the bronchial epithelium was significantly increased after road tunnel exposure. In study IV, the subjects were exposed to metal-rich particulate aerosol for 2 hours at a subway station

  18. Influence of subject matter discipline and science content knowledge on National Board Certified science teachers' conceptions, enactment, and goals for inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslyn, Wayne Gene

    The present study investigated differences in the continuing development of National Board Certified Science Teachers' (NBCSTs) conceptions of inquiry across the disciplines of biology, chemistry, earth science, and physics. The central research question of the study was, "How does a NBCST's science discipline (biology, chemistry, earth science, or physics) influence their conceptions, enactment, and goals for inquiry-based teaching and learning?" A mixed methods approach was used that included an analysis of the National Board portfolio entry, Active Scientific Inquiry, for participants (n=48) achieving certification in the 2007 cohort. The portfolio entry provided detailed documentation of teachers' goals and enactment of an inquiry lesson taught in their classroom. Based on the results from portfolio analysis, participant interviews were conducted with science teachers (n=12) from the 2008 NBCST cohort who represented the science disciplines of biology, chemistry, earth science, and physics. The interviews provided a broader range of contexts to explore teachers' conceptions, enactment, and goals of inquiry. Other factors studied were disciplinary differences in NBCSTs' views of the nature of science, the relation between their science content knowledge and use of inquiry, and changes in their conceptions of inquiry as result of the NB certification process. Findings, based on a situated cognitive framework, suggested that differences exist between biology, chemistry, and earth science teachers' conceptions, enactment, and goals for inquiry. Further, individuals teaching in more than one discipline often held different conceptions of inquiry depending on the discipline in which they were teaching. Implications for the research community include being aware of disciplinary differences in studies on inquiry and exercising caution in generalizing findings across disciplines. In addition, teachers who teach in more than one discipline can highlight the contextual

  19. Quantifying Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying Matter explains how scientists learned to measure matter and quantify some of its most fascinating and useful properties. It presents many of the most important intellectual achievements and technical developments that led to the scientific interpretation of substance. Complete with full-color photographs, this exciting new volume describes the basic characteristics and properties of matter. Chapters include:. -Exploring the Nature of Matter. -The Origin of Matter. -The Search for Substance. -Quantifying Matter During the Scientific Revolution. -Understanding Matter's Electromagnet

  20. A Comparison of Chronic Periodontitis in HIV-Seropositive Subjects and the General Population in the Ga-Rankuwa Area, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razia Khammissa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of HIV infection on the prevalence and the rate of progression of chronic periodontitis is not clear. The aim of this study was to compare parameters associated with the severity of chronic periodontitis in terms of periodontal probing depths, gingival recession, plaque indexes, and bleeding indexes of HIV-seropositive subjects and healthy age-matched control subjects, and of HIV-seropositive subjects on highly active antiretroviral therapy and those not receiving such treatment. Two cohorts of subjects with chronic periodontitis were recruited for this study over a period of six months. There were 30 HIV-seropositive subjects, and 30 control subjects. Periodontal probing depths, gingival marginal recession, plaque indexes, and bleeding indexes were compared by HIV serostatus, the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy, and CD4+ T-cell counts. All participants were black persons between the age of 18 and 45 and were of a similar socioeconomic status and age. The results of this study indicate that chronic periodontitis in HIV-seropositive subjects is similar in terms of mean periodontal probing depth, gingival marginal recession, plaque index, and bleeding index to that in healthy age-matched control subjects, and a low CD4+ T-cell count does not appear to be a risk factor for increased severity of chronic periodontitis.

  1. Work ethics and general work attitudes in adolescents are related to quality of life, sense of coherence and subjective health – a Swedish questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkansson Anders

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Working life is an important arena in most people's lives, and the working line concept is important for the development of welfare in a society. For young people, the period before permanent establishment in working life has become longer during the last two decades. Knowledge about attitudes towards work can help us to understand young people's transition to the labour market. Adolescents are the future workforce, so it seems especially important to notice their attitudes towards work, including attitudes towards the welfare system. The aim of this study was to describe and analyse upper secondary school students' work attitudes, and to explore factors related to these attitudes. Methods The sample consisted of 606 upper secondary school students. They all received a questionnaire including questions about quality of life (QOL, sense of coherence (SOC, subjective health and attitudes towards work. The response rate was 91%. A factor analysis established two dimensions of work attitudes. Multivariate analyses were carried out by means of logistic regression models. Results Work ethics (WE and general work attitudes (GWA were found to be two separate dimensions of attitudes towards work. Concerning WE the picture was similar regardless of gender or study programme. Males in theoretical programmes appeared to have more unfavourable GWA than others. Multivariate analyses revealed that good QOL, high SOC and good health were significantly related to positive WE, and high SOC was positively related to GWA. Being female was positively connected to WE and GWA, while studying on a practical programme was positively related to GWA only. Among those who received good parental support, GWA seemed more favourable. Conclusion Assuming that attitudes towards work are important to the working line concept, this study points out positive factors of importance for the future welfare of the society. Individual factors such as female gender

  2. Sterile neutrino dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Merle, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    This book is a new look at one of the hottest topics in contemporary science, Dark Matter. It is the pioneering text dedicated to sterile neutrinos as candidate particles for Dark Matter, challenging some of the standard assumptions which may be true for some Dark Matter candidates but not for all. So, this can be seen either as an introduction to a specialized topic or an out-of-the-box introduction to the field of Dark Matter in general. No matter if you are a theoretical particle physicist, an observational astronomer, or a ground based experimentalist, no matter if you are a grad student or an active researcher, you can benefit from this text, for a simple reason: a non-standard candidate for Dark Matter can teach you a lot about what we truly know about our standard picture of how the Universe works.

  3. PCK: How Teachers Transform Subject Matter Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veal, William R.; van Driel, Jan; Hulshof, Hans

    2001-01-01

    Review of book on the concept of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), including chapters reviewing an extensive body of research on the knowledge base for teaching, especially science, and the application of PCK to the design of elementary and secondary school science teacher-education programs. (PKP)

  4. Meeting the Challenge: Teaching Sensitive Subject Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Dorian B.

    2012-01-01

    When teaching diversity courses that discuss sensitive issues, such as racial, gender, sexuality, religious, and ethnic discrimination, it is possible to encounter student resistance, which can subsequently prevent students from comprehending the content. While teaching an introductory course on African American history in a Black Studies…

  5. The effect of the 4MAT learning model on the achievement and motivation of 7th grade students on the subject of particulate nature of matter and an examination of student opinions on the model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, İdris; Bılgın, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    Background:Many researchers agree that students, especially primary students, have learning difficulties on the 'Particulate Nature of Matter' unit. One reason for this difficulty is not considering individual differences for teaching science. In 4MAT model learning, environment is arranged according to individual differences. Purpose:The purpose of this study is to examine (1) the effects of the 4MAT learning model on the7th grade students' academic achievement and motivation on the 'Particulate Nature of Matter' unit and (2) identify student opinions on the 4MAT model. Sample:The sample consists of 235 students (115 experimental, 120 control) in Turkey. Design and methods:Experimental groups were instructed with the 4MAT model while control groups were instructed with a traditional method. Achievement Test (AchToM) and Motivation Scale (MotScl) were administered to students as pre- and post-tests. Moreover, the opinions of students in the experimental groups on the 4MAT model were ascertained through open-ended questions after the application. Results:According to independent t-test results, statistical difference in favour of the experimental groups was detected between the post-AchToM (ES = 1.43; p motivation and participation in the lesson, lessons are more amusing and enjoyable, and the self-confidence of the students increases. Besides these positive opinions, however, a few students stated that the method took too much time, they were not motivated and it did not help them in understanding the subject. Conclusions:The 4MAT model is more effective than traditional method in terms of increasing achievement and motivation. The model takes all learners into account. Thus, the teacher or educator should use the 4MAT model to ensure all students' learning in their classroom.

  6. Dark matter and rotation curves of spiral galaxies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křížek, Michal; Křížek, Filip; Somer, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, April (2016), s. 64-77 ISSN 1313-2709 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG15052 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : red dwarf * dark matter * spiral galaxy Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.astro.bas.bg/AIJ/issues/n25/MKrizek.pdf

  7. 1 CFR 21.21 - General requirements: References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General requirements: References. 21.21 Section... to test methods or consensus standards produced by a Federal agency that have replaced or preempted private or voluntary test methods or consensus standards in a subject matter area. (5) The reference is to...

  8. Dark matter search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabei, R.

    2003-01-01

    Some general arguments on the particle Dark Matter search are addressed. The WIMP direct detection technique is mainly considered and recent results obtained by exploiting the annual modulation signature are summarized. (author)

  9. Dark matter search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabei, R [Dipto. di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' and INFN, sez. Roma2, Rome (Italy)

    2003-08-15

    Some general arguments on the particle Dark Matter search are addressed. The WIMP direct detection technique is mainly considered and recent results obtained by exploiting the annual modulation signature are summarized. (author)

  10. Subject (of documents)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    This article presents and discuss the concept “subject” or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document......-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts...

  11. Comprehensive understanding of mole concept subject matter according to the tetrahedral chemistry education (empirical study on the first-year chemistry students of Technische Universität Dresden)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabowo, D. W.; Mulyani, S.; van Pée, K.-H.; Indriyanti, N. Y.

    2018-05-01

    This research aims to apprehend: (1) the shape of tetrahedral chemistry education which is called the future of chemistry education, (2) comprehensive understanding of chemistry first-year students of Technische Universität Dresden according to the chemistry education’s tetrahedral shape on mole concept subject matter. This research used quantitative and qualitative; paper and pencil test and interview. The former was conducted in the form of test containing objective test instrument. The results of this study are (1) learning based on tetrahedral shape of chemistry education put the chemical substance (macroscopic), symbolic representation (symbol), and its process (molecular) in the context of human beings (human element) by integrating content and context, without emphasis on one thing and weaken another, (2) first-year chemistry students of Technische Universität Dresden have comprehensively understood the mole concept associated with the context of everyday life, whereby students are able to find out macroscopic information from statements that are contextual to human life and then by using symbols and formulas are able to comprehend the molecular components as well as to interpret and analyse problems effectively.

  12. Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einasto J.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available I give a review of the development of the concept of dark matter. The dark matter story passed through several stages from a minor observational puzzle to a major challenge for theory of elementary particles. Modern data suggest that dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe, and that it consists of some unknown non-baryonic particles. Dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe, thus properties of dark matter particles determine the structure of the cosmic web.

  13. The place of confusional arousals in sleep and mental disorders - Findings in a general population sample of 13,057 subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohayon, MM; Priest, RG; Zulley, J; Smirne, S

    Confusional arousals, or sleep drunkenness, occur upon awakening and remain un studied in the general population. We selected a representative sample from the United Kingdom. Germany, and Italy (N = 13,0.57) and conducted telephone interviews. Confusional arousals were reported by 2.9% of the

  14. A Generic Simulation Approach for the Fast and Accurate Estimation of the Outage Probability of Single Hop and Multihop FSO Links Subject to Generalized Pointing Errors

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Issaid, Chaouki; Park, Kihong; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    When assessing the performance of the free space optical (FSO) communication systems, the outage probability encountered is generally very small, and thereby the use of nave Monte Carlo simulations becomes prohibitively expensive. To estimate these rare event probabilities, we propose in this work an importance sampling approach which is based on the exponential twisting technique to offer fast and accurate results. In fact, we consider a variety of turbulence regimes, and we investigate the outage probability of FSO communication systems, under a generalized pointing error model based on the Beckmann distribution, for both single and multihop scenarios. Selected numerical simulations are presented to show the accuracy and the efficiency of our approach compared to naive Monte Carlo.

  15. A Generic Simulation Approach for the Fast and Accurate Estimation of the Outage Probability of Single Hop and Multihop FSO Links Subject to Generalized Pointing Errors

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Issaid, Chaouki

    2017-07-28

    When assessing the performance of the free space optical (FSO) communication systems, the outage probability encountered is generally very small, and thereby the use of nave Monte Carlo simulations becomes prohibitively expensive. To estimate these rare event probabilities, we propose in this work an importance sampling approach which is based on the exponential twisting technique to offer fast and accurate results. In fact, we consider a variety of turbulence regimes, and we investigate the outage probability of FSO communication systems, under a generalized pointing error model based on the Beckmann distribution, for both single and multihop scenarios. Selected numerical simulations are presented to show the accuracy and the efficiency of our approach compared to naive Monte Carlo.

  16. Subsyndromal delirium compared with delirium, dementia, and subjects without delirium or dementia in elderly general hospital admissions and nursing home residents

    OpenAIRE

    Sepulveda, Esteban; Leonard, Maeve; Franco, Jose G.; Adamis, Dimitrios; McCarthy, Geraldine; Dunne, Colum; Trzepacz, Paula T.; Gaviria, Ana M.; de Pablo, Joan; Vilella, Elisabet; Meagher, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Subsyndromal delirium (SSD) complicates diagnosis of delirium and dementia, although there is little research comparing their symptom profiles. Methods Cross-sectional study of 400 elderly patients' admission to a general hospital or nursing home diagnosed with delirium, SSD, dementia, or no-delirium/no-dementia (NDND). Symptom profiles were assessed using the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS-R98). Results Twenty percent patients had delirium, 19.3% had SSD, 29.8% had dement...

  17. CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT READING COMPREHENSION IN THE SUBJECT ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES / CONSIDERACIONES SOBRE LA COMPRENSIÓN LECTORA EN LA ASIGNATURA INGLÉS CON FINES GENERALES

    OpenAIRE

    Graciela Feliciana Mayo Castro; Yanelis Karina Ávila Pavón

    2013-01-01

    Reading comprehension is one of the general abilities of English language in the teaching-learning process. This skill constitutes a cultural and a work device, and it is the basis that helps to acquire of a great amount of knowledge. This methodological suggestion facilitates the development of reading comprehension due to that it is a system of exercises which are organized in a hierarchical way that leads the students to better decode the message expressed in a text. Reading comprehension ...

  18. The association of psychological factors and healthcare use with the discrepancy between subjective and objective respiratory-health complaints in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selinheimo, Sanna; Vasankari, Tuula; Jokela, Markus; Kanervisto, Merja; Pirkola, Sami; Suvisaari, Jaana; Paunio, Tiina

    2018-03-20

    We examined the prevalence of self-perceived respiratory symptoms (SRS) in the absence of any objective findings of respiratory pathology, and the association of such prevalence with psychological factors and healthcare use in the general population. The study was conducted among a nationally representative sample of Finnish adults (BRIF8901). Respiratory functioning was measured by a spirometry test. Structured questionnaires were used to measure SRS, physician visits and psychological factors of alexithymia, sense of coherence, illness worry and common mental disorders. Individuals with a diagnosed respiratory disease or a severe psychiatric disorder, determined in a diagnostic interview, were excluded, giving a sample comprising 4544 participants. Twenty-six per cent of the general population and 36% of those with no diagnosed severe psychiatric disorder or respiratory disease experienced SRS despite a normal spirometry result. Psychological factors were associated with SRS (0.0001 Respiratory symptoms without objective findings are common in the general population. The study results underline the role of psychological factors in the reporting of respiratory symptoms and the associated medical burden, thereby indicating the functional nature of the symptomatology.

  19. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool......-Saxon and continental traditions, this special issue provides examples of the use of researcher subjectivity, informed by psychoanalytic thinking, in expanding research understanding....

  20. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  1. CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT READING COMPREHENSION IN THE SUBJECT ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES / CONSIDERACIONES SOBRE LA COMPRENSIÓN LECTORA EN LA ASIGNATURA INGLÉS CON FINES GENERALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Feliciana Mayo Castro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reading comprehension is one of the general abilities of English language in the teaching-learning process. This skill constitutes a cultural and a work device, and it is the basis that helps to acquire of a great amount of knowledge. This methodological suggestion facilitates the development of reading comprehension due to that it is a system of exercises which are organized in a hierarchical way that leads the students to better decode the message expressed in a text. Reading comprehension ability makes easier to decode a message not only in English language but in Spanish language as well. LA COMPRENSIÓN LECTORA EN LA ASIGNATURA INGLÉS CON FINES GENERALES AUTORAS: DIRECCIÓN PARA CORRESPONDENCIA: Departamento de Idiomas. Universidad de Las Tunas, Cuba. E-mail graciela@ult.edu.cu Fecha de recepción: 21\t-\t08\t-\t2013 Fecha de aceptación:\t30\t-\t11\t-\t2013 RESUMEN La comprensión lectora es una de las habilidades generales en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje del idioma inglés, esta constituye un instrumento de trabajo y de cultura y es la base que facilita el aprendizaje de un gran cúmulo de conocimientos. La presente alternativa metodológica facilita el desarrollo de la habilidad de comprensión lectora pues parte de un sistema de ejercicios jerárquicamente organizados, lo que conllevan al estudiante a una decodificación más acertada del mensaje expresado en los textos. El desarrollo de esta habilidad les permite la decodificación de información tanto en la lengua inglesa como en la lengua materna.

  2. A generalized modal shock spectra method for spacecraft loads analysis. [internal loads in a spacecraft structure subjected to a dynamic launch environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubert, M.; Salama, M.

    1979-01-01

    Unlike an earlier shock spectra approach, generalization permits an accurate elastic interaction between the spacecraft and launch vehicle to obtain accurate bounds on the spacecraft response and structural loads. In addition, the modal response from a previous launch vehicle transient analysis with or without a dummy spacecraft - is exploited to define a modal impulse as a simple idealization of the actual forcing function. The idealized modal forcing function is then used to derive explicit expressions for an estimate of the bound on the spacecraft structural response and forces. Greater accuracy is achieved with the present method over the earlier shock spectra, while saving much computational effort over the transient analysis.

  3. The quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, Mannque.

    1980-04-01

    The present status of our understanding of the physics of hadronic (nuclear or neutron) matter under extreme conditions, in particular at high densities is discussed. This is a problem which challenges three disciplines of physics: nuclear physics, astrophysics and particle physics. It is generally believed that we now have a correct and perhaps ultimate theory of the strong interactions, namely quantum chromodynamics (QCD). The constituents of this theory are quarks and gluons, so highly dense matters should be describable in terms of these constituents alone. This is a question that addresses directly to the phenomenon of quark confinement, one of the least understood aspects in particle physics. For nuclear physics, the possibility of a phase change between nuclear matter and quark matter introduces entirely new degrees of freedom in the description of nuclei and will bring perhaps a deeper understanding of nuclear dynamics. In astrophysics, the properties of neutron stars will be properly understood only when the equation of state of 'neutron' matter at densities exceeding that of nuclear matter can be realiably calculated. Most fascinating is the possibility of quark stars existing in nature, not entirely an absurd idea. Finally the quark matter - nuclear matter phase transition must have occured in the early stage of universe when matter expanded from high temperature and density; this could be an essential ingredient in the big-bang cosmology

  4. General report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicklisch, F.

    1984-01-01

    Growing complexity of technical matter has meant that technical expertise is called upon in more and more legal proceedings. The technical expert is, in general terms, the mediator between technology and the law, he is also entrusted with the task of pointing up the differences in approach and in the nature of authority in these two areas and thus paving the way for mutual understanding. The evaluation of the technical expert's opinion is one of the cardinal problems bound up with the role of the expert in legal procedure. After the presentation of the expert's opinion, the judge is supposed to possess so much specialised knowledge that he can assess the opinion itself in scientific and technical respects and put his finger on any errors the expert may have made. This problem can only be solved via an assessment opinion. First of all, the opinion can be assessed indirectly via evaluation of the credentials and the neutrality and independence of the expert. In direct terms, the opinion can be subjected to a certain - albeit restricted - scrutiny, whether it is generally convincing, as far as the layman is competent to judge. This interpretation alone makes it possible to classify and integrate legally the technical standards and regulations represent expert statements on the scientific and technical theorems based on the knowledge and experience gained in a given area. They are designed to reflect prevailing opinion among leading representatives of the profession and can thus themselves be regarded as expert opinions. As a rule, these opinions will have such weight that - other than in exceptional cases - they will not be invalidated in procedure by deviating opinions from individual experts. (orig./HSCH) [de

  5. Speech Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse Jørgensen, Stina

    2011-01-01

    About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011.......About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011....

  6. Memory Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Memory Matters KidsHealth / For Kids / Memory Matters What's in ... of your complex and multitalented brain. What Is Memory? When an event happens, when you learn something, ...

  7. Water Matters - Making a Difference with Nuclear Techniques, 20 September 2011, Vienna, Austria. 14th Scientific Forum during the 55th Session of the IAEA General Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text: I am very pleased to welcome you to the 2011 IAEA Scientific Forum, which is devoted to the issue of nuclear techniques related to water. It is a special pleasure for me to be joined by such a distinguished panel in the opening session: Secretary Chu, Mr Banerjee and Vice Minister Bourrouet Vargas. I know you will be anxious to hear what these very knowledgeable speakers have to say, so I will be brief. The IAEA Scientific Forum is a valuable platform to highlight the important work which the Agency does in sustainable development. This side of the Agency's work does not get the same attention as our activities in nuclear safeguards, safety and security - but it is just as important, and of great value to the countries which benefit. Having focussed on cancer control last year, I thought nuclear techniques related to water would be an appropriate subject for this year's Forum. To quote the title of this event, Water Matters. There is virtually no area of human activity that does not depend on water. It is vital for human health, for agriculture, for industrial production, for technological development. Water is the stuff of life, but in so many parts of the world it is a source of serious problems. Many regions face acute water shortages, of which the current African drought is just the latest tragic example. One billion people have no access to adequate drinking water. Five million - mainly children - die each year due to water-borne diseases. Those numbers are expected to rise. By contrast, Pakistan is once again grappling with serious flooding, which has caused hundreds of deaths, forced millions of people from their homes and washed away vital crops. In many regions, pollution is a threat to the world's most precious natural resource - our oceans and seas. These are the source of much of our food and are vital for maintaining global climate balance. For over half a century, the IAEA has been deploying its unique expertise in using nuclear techniques

  8. Major Superficial White Matter Abnormalities in Huntington's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Owen R.; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Squitieri, Ferdinando; Sanchez-Castaneda, Cristina; Narr, Katherine; Shattuck, David W.; Caltagirone, Carlo; Sabatini, Umberto; Di Paola, Margherita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The late myelinating superficial white matter at the juncture of the cortical gray and white matter comprising the intracortical myelin and short-range association fibers has not received attention in Huntington's disease. It is an area of the brain that is late myelinating and is sensitive to both normal aging and neurodegenerative disease effects. Therefore, it may be sensitive to Huntington's disease processes. Methods: Structural MRI data from 25 Pre-symptomatic subjects, 24 Huntington's disease patients and 49 healthy controls was run through a cortical pattern-matching program. The surface corresponding to the white matter directly below the cortical gray matter was then extracted. Individual subject's Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data was aligned to their structural MRI data. Diffusivity values along the white matter surface were then sampled at each vertex point. DTI measures with high spatial resolution across the superficial white matter surface were then analyzed with the General Linear Model to test for the effects of disease. Results: There was an overall increase in the axial and radial diffusivity across much of the superficial white matter (p < 0.001) in Pre-symptomatic subjects compared to controls. In Huntington's disease patients increased diffusivity covered essentially the whole brain (p < 0.001). Changes are correlated with genotype (CAG repeat number) and disease burden (p < 0.001). Conclusions: This study showed broad abnormalities in superficial white matter even before symptoms are present in Huntington's disease. Since, the superficial white matter has a unique microstructure and function these abnormalities suggest it plays an important role in the disease. PMID:27242403

  9. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    What You See Ain't What. You Got, Resonance, Vol.4,. No.9,1999. Dark Matter. 2. Dark Matter in the Universe. Bikram Phookun and Biman Nath. In Part 11 of this article we learnt that there are compelling evidences from dynamics of spiral galaxies, like our own, that there must be non-luminous matter in them. In this.

  10. Nonlocal gravity simulates dark matter

    OpenAIRE

    Hehl, Friedrich W.; Mashhoon, Bahram

    2009-01-01

    A nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation is constructed within the framework of the translational gauge theory of gravity. In the linear approximation, the nonlocal theory can be interpreted as linearized general relativity but in the presence of "dark matter" that can be simply expressed as an integral transform of matter. It is shown that this approach can accommodate the Tohline-Kuhn treatment of the astrophysical evidence for dark matter.

  11. Macro Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobs, David M; Lynn, Bryan W.

    2015-01-01

    Dark matter is a vital component of the current best model of our universe, $\\Lambda$CDM. There are leading candidates for what the dark matter could be (e.g. weakly-interacting massive particles, or axions), but no compelling observational or experimental evidence exists to support these particular candidates, nor any beyond-the-Standard-Model physics that might produce such candidates. This suggests that other dark matter candidates, including ones that might arise in the Standard Model, should receive increased attention. Here we consider a general class of dark matter candidates with characteristic masses and interaction cross-sections characterized in units of grams and cm$^2$, respectively -- we therefore dub these macroscopic objects as Macros. Such dark matter candidates could potentially be assembled out of Standard Model particles (quarks and leptons) in the early universe. A combination of earth-based, astrophysical, and cosmological observations constrain a portion of the Macro parameter space; ho...

  12. Fiscal 1996 survey of the base arrangement promotion for foreign coal import. Potentiality of the general coal market and the subjects; 1996 nendo kaigaitan yunyu kiban seibi sokushin chosa. Ippantan shijo no kanosei to sono kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The paper examined thoughts of a method to determine the general coal price based on the hearing from coal users and coal suppliers and considered a potentiality of the general coal market in the Asia/Pacific area and the subjects. Electric power companies of Japan and coal companies of Australia which now own long-term contracts for general coal consider continuing the benchmark system also in the future. At New York Commodity Exchange and Sidney Futures Transaction, the listing of futures of general coal is studied, and Barlow Jonker opened a membership futures transaction system for general coal/PCI coal using internet. The paper investigated response of the industry circle to such moves of market trade/futures transaction of general coal. In the hearing, comments were mostly negative. It was pointed out that with the development of the spot market of coal, there is a possibility of the market trade form developing. In the future, the spot market is steadily developing, but it is thought that supplying to major general coal users in Japan, Korea and Taiwan will continue to be based mostly on long-term contracts. 42 refs., 38 figs., 26 tabs.

  13. Comparing a disease-specific and a generic health-related quality of life instrument in subjects with asthma from the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochat Thierry

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few epidemiologic studies have assessed health-related quality of life (HRQL of asthma patients from a general population and it is unclear which instrument is best suitable for this purpose. We investigated the validity of the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ and the SF-36 completed by individuals with asthma from the population-based SAPALDIA (Swiss study on air pollution and lung diseases in adults cohort. Methods The study included 258 participants with a physician-diagnosed asthma who had completed the AQLQ and SF-36. We assessed floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency reliability and cross-sectional validity with a priori hypotheses that correlations between the specific HRQL domains (e.g. "symptoms" or "physical functioning" and the corresponding external validation measures (respiratory symptoms, need for doctor visits, limitation in activities due to asthma and lung function would capture similar aspects and be correlated moderately (≥ 0.3 to strongly (≥ 0.5, whereas non-corresponding domains be correlated weakly with each other ( Results The AQLQ showed pronounced ceiling effects with all median domain scores above 6 (scores varied from 1–7. For the SF-36, ceiling effects were present in 5 out of 8 domains. Cronbach's alpha was >0.7 for all AQLQ and SF-36 domains. Correlations between the AQLQ domains "respiratory symptoms", "activity limitation" and "environmental exposure", and the validation measures ranged from 0.29–0.57. Correlations between the "emotional function" domain and the validation measures were also in this range (0.31–0.55 and not as low as we hypothesized. For the SF-36, correlations between "physical functioning" and "role physical", and the validation measures ranged from 0.25–0.56, whereas "role emotional" and "mental health" correlated with these measures from 0.01–0.23. Conclusion The AQLQ and the SF-36 showed fairly good internal consistency. Both instruments

  14. A within-subject longitudinal study of the effects of positive job experiences and generalized workplace harassment on well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoobler, Jenny M; Rospenda, Kathleen M; Lemmon, Grace; Rosa, Jose A

    2010-10-01

    Drawing on the mobilization-minimization hypothesis, this research examines the influence of positive job experiences and generalized workplace harassment (GWH) on employee job stress and well-being over time, postulating declines in the adverse influence of GWH between Time 1 and 2 and less pronounced declines in the influence of positive job experiences over this same timeframe of approximately one year. A national sample of 1,167 workers polled via telephone at two time periods illustrates that negative job experiences weigh more heavily on mental health than do positive job experiences in the short-term. In the long-term, GWH's association with mental health and job stress was diminished. But its effects on job stress, and mental health, and physical health persist over one year, and, in the case of long-term mental health, GWH overshadows the positive mental health effects of positive job experiences. The research also argues for a reconceptualization of GWH and positive job experiences as formative latent variables on theoretical grounds. © 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. 75 FR 22864 - In the Matter of CAN USA, Inc., Harvey, Louisiana; General License Pursuant to 10 CFR 150.20...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... CAN USA, Inc., Harvey, Louisiana; General License Pursuant to 10 CFR 150.20; Confirmatory Order (Effective Immediately) I CAN USA, Inc. (CAN USA or Licensee) is the holder of State of Louisiana Materials..., pursuant to 10 CFR 150.20(a)(1), CAN USA is granted a general license by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory...

  16. Children's Comprehension of Object Relative Sentences: It's Extant Language Knowledge That Matters, Not Domain-General Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusli, Yazmin Ahmad; Montgomery, James W.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine whether extant language (lexical) knowledge or domain-general working memory is the better predictor of comprehension of object relative sentences for children with typical development. We hypothesized that extant language knowledge, not domain-general working memory, is the better predictor. Method:…

  17. Healthy imperfect dark matter from effective theory of mimetic cosmological perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Shin'ichi; Nishi, Sakine; Kobayashi, Tsutomu

    2017-01-01

    We study the stability of a recently proposed model of scalar-field matter called mimetic dark matter or imperfect dark matter. It has been known that mimetic matter with higher derivative terms suffers from gradient instabilities in scalar perturbations. To seek for an instability-free extension of imperfect dark matter, we develop an effective theory of cosmological perturbations subject to the constraint on the scalar field's kinetic term. This is done by using the unifying framework of general scalar-tensor theories based on the ADM formalism. We demonstrate that it is indeed possible to construct a model of imperfect dark matter which is free from ghost and gradient instabilities. As a side remark, we also show that mimetic F (R) theory is plagued with the Ostrogradsky instability.

  18. Healthy imperfect dark matter from effective theory of mimetic cosmological perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, Shin' ichi; Nishi, Sakine; Kobayashi, Tsutomu, E-mail: s.hirano@rikkyo.ac.jp, E-mail: sakine@rikkyo.ac.jp, E-mail: tsutomu@rikkyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Rikkyo University, Toshima, Tokyo 171-8501 (Japan)

    2017-07-01

    We study the stability of a recently proposed model of scalar-field matter called mimetic dark matter or imperfect dark matter. It has been known that mimetic matter with higher derivative terms suffers from gradient instabilities in scalar perturbations. To seek for an instability-free extension of imperfect dark matter, we develop an effective theory of cosmological perturbations subject to the constraint on the scalar field's kinetic term. This is done by using the unifying framework of general scalar-tensor theories based on the ADM formalism. We demonstrate that it is indeed possible to construct a model of imperfect dark matter which is free from ghost and gradient instabilities. As a side remark, we also show that mimetic F (R) theory is plagued with the Ostrogradsky instability.

  19. Generalized hypothesis of the origin of the living-matter simplest elements, transformation of the Archean atmosphere, and the formation of methane-hydrate deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrovskii, Viktor E; Kadyshevich, Elena A

    2007-01-01

    The original hydrate hypothesis of the origin of living-matter simplest elements (LMSEs), i.e., the 'Life Origination Hydrate hypothesis,' abbreviated as the LOH hypothesis, is discussed. It includes notions of the interdependence and interconditionality of processes leading to the life origin, to the transformation of the primary atmosphere, and to the underground methane-hydrate formation. Saturation of the young earth's crust with nebular hydrogen is taken into consideration for the first time. The origin of LMSEs is regarded as a result of regular and thermodynamically caused inevitable chemical transformations and of the universal physical and chemical laws. According to the LOH hypothesis, LMSEs originated repeatedly and, maybe, are now originating from methane (or other simple hydrocarbons), niter, and phosphate within boundary layers of the solid phases of the hydrates of the simplest hydrocarbons. It is assumed that the phenomenon of monochirality of nucleic acids is caused by geometric features of the structure matrix. (reviews of topical problems)

  20. Dark matter in the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kormendy, J.; Knapp, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    Until recently little more was known than that dark matter appears to exist; there was little systematic information about its properties. Only in the past several years was progress made to the point where dark matter density distributions can be measured. For example, with accurate rotation curves extending over large ranges in radius, decomposing the effects of visible and dark matter to measure dark matter density profiles can be tried. Some regularities in dark matter behaviour have already turned up. This volume includes review and invited papers, poster papers, and the two general discussions. (Auth.)

  1. D matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiu, Gary; Wang Liantao

    2004-01-01

    We study the properties and phenomenology of particlelike states originating from D branes whose spatial dimensions are all compactified. They are nonperturbative states in string theory and we refer to them as D matter. In contrast to other nonperturbative objects such as 't Hooft-Polyakov monopoles, D-matter states could have perturbative couplings among themselves and with ordinary matter. The lightest D particle (LDP) could be stable because it is the lightest state carrying certain (integer or discrete) quantum numbers. Depending on the string scale, they could be cold dark matter candidates with properties similar to that of WIMPs or wimpzillas. The spectrum of excited states of D matter exhibits an interesting pattern which could be distinguished from that of Kaluza-Klein modes, winding states, and string resonances. We speculate about possible signatures of D matter from ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and colliders

  2. Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, S. S.; Bennett, C. L.

    1995-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the Astrophysics conference in Maryland, organized by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Maryland. The topics covered included low mass stars as dark matter, dark matter in galaxies and clusters, cosmic microwave background anisotropy, cold and hot dark matter, and the large scale distribution and motions of galaxies. There were eighty five papers presented. Out of these, 10 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  3. Dark matter universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahcall, Neta A

    2015-10-06

    Most of the mass in the universe is in the form of dark matter--a new type of nonbaryonic particle not yet detected in the laboratory or in other detection experiments. The evidence for the existence of dark matter through its gravitational impact is clear in astronomical observations--from the early observations of the large motions of galaxies in clusters and the motions of stars and gas in galaxies, to observations of the large-scale structure in the universe, gravitational lensing, and the cosmic microwave background. The extensive data consistently show the dominance of dark matter and quantify its amount and distribution, assuming general relativity is valid. The data inform us that the dark matter is nonbaryonic, is "cold" (i.e., moves nonrelativistically in the early universe), and interacts only weakly with matter other than by gravity. The current Lambda cold dark matter cosmology--a simple (but strange) flat cold dark matter model dominated by a cosmological constant Lambda, with only six basic parameters (including the density of matter and of baryons, the initial mass fluctuations amplitude and its scale dependence, and the age of the universe and of the first stars)--fits remarkably well all the accumulated data. However, what is the dark matter? This is one of the most fundamental open questions in cosmology and particle physics. Its existence requires an extension of our current understanding of particle physics or otherwise point to a modification of gravity on cosmological scales. The exploration and ultimate detection of dark matter are led by experiments for direct and indirect detection of this yet mysterious particle.

  4. Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, A.; Cotti, U.; De Leon, C. L.; Raya, A; Villasenor, L.

    2008-01-01

    One of the biggest scientific mysteries of our time resides in the identification of the particles that constitute a large fraction of the mass of our Universe, generically known as dark matter. We review the observations and the experimental data that imply the existence of dark matter. We briefly discuss the properties of the two best dark-matter candidate particles and the experimental techniques presently used to try to discover them. Finally, we mention a proposed project that has recently emerged within the Mexican community to look for dark matter

  5. Factor structure and internal consistency of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 and the Subjective Vitality Scale (VS, and the relationship between them: a study from France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismaïl Amany

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objectives of this study were to test the factor structure and internal consistency of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 and the Subjective Vitality Scale (VS in elderly French people, and to test the relationship between these two questionnaires. Methods Using a standard 'forward-backward' translation procedure, the English language versions of the two instruments (i.e. the 12-item General Health Questionnaire and the Subjective Vitality Scale were translated into French. A sample of adults aged 58–72 years then completed both questionnaires. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The factor structures of the two instruments were extracted by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. Finally, the relationship between the two instruments was assessed by correlation analysis. Results In all, 217 elderly adults participated in the study. The mean age of the respondents was 61.7 (SD = 6.2 years. The mean GHQ-12 score was 17.4 (SD = 8.0, and analysis showed satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient = 0.78. The mean VS score was 22.4 (SD = 7.4 and its internal consistency was found to be good (Cronbach's alpha coefficient = 0.83. While CFA showed that the VS was uni-dimensional, analysis for the GHQ-12 demonstrated a good fit not only to the two-factor model (positive vs. negative items but also to a three-factor model. As expected, there was a strong and significant negative correlation between the GHQ-12 and the VS (r = -0.71, P Conclusion The results showed that the French versions of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 and the Subjective Vitality Scale (VS are reliable measures of psychological distress and vitality. They also confirm a significant negative correlation between these two instruments, lending support to their convergent validity in an elderly French population. The findings indicate that both measures have good structural

  6. Generalized hypothesis of the origin of the living-matter simplest elements, transformation of the Archean atmosphere, and the formation of methane-hydrate deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrovskii, Viktor E [L. Ya. Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kadyshevich, Elena A [A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-02-28

    The original hydrate hypothesis of the origin of living-matter simplest elements (LMSEs), i.e., the 'Life Origination Hydrate hypothesis,' abbreviated as the LOH hypothesis, is discussed. It includes notions of the interdependence and interconditionality of processes leading to the life origin, to the transformation of the primary atmosphere, and to the underground methane-hydrate formation. Saturation of the young earth's crust with nebular hydrogen is taken into consideration for the first time. The origin of LMSEs is regarded as a result of regular and thermodynamically caused inevitable chemical transformations and of the universal physical and chemical laws. According to the LOH hypothesis, LMSEs originated repeatedly and, maybe, are now originating from methane (or other simple hydrocarbons), niter, and phosphate within boundary layers of the solid phases of the hydrates of the simplest hydrocarbons. It is assumed that the phenomenon of monochirality of nucleic acids is caused by geometric features of the structure matrix. (reviews of topical problems)

  7. Interchange Instability and Transport in Matter-Antimatter Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendl, Alexander; Danler, Gregor; Wiesenberger, Matthias; Held, Markus

    2017-06-01

    Symmetric electron-positron plasmas in inhomogeneous magnetic fields are intrinsically subject to interchange instability and transport. Scaling relations for the propagation velocity of density perturbations relevant to transport in isothermal magnetically confined electron-positron plasmas are deduced, including damping effects when Debye lengths are large compared to Larmor radii. The relations are verified by nonlinear full-F gyrofluid computations. Results are analyzed with respect to planned magnetically confined electron-positron plasma experiments. The model is generalized to other matter-antimatter plasmas. Magnetized electron-positron-proton-antiproton plasmas are susceptible to interchange-driven local matter-antimatter separation, which can impede sustained laboratory magnetic confinement.

  8. Interchange Instability and Transport in Matter-Antimatter Plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendl, Alexander; Danler, Gregor; Wiesenberger, Matthias; Held, Markus

    2017-06-09

    Symmetric electron-positron plasmas in inhomogeneous magnetic fields are intrinsically subject to interchange instability and transport. Scaling relations for the propagation velocity of density perturbations relevant to transport in isothermal magnetically confined electron-positron plasmas are deduced, including damping effects when Debye lengths are large compared to Larmor radii. The relations are verified by nonlinear full-F gyrofluid computations. Results are analyzed with respect to planned magnetically confined electron-positron plasma experiments. The model is generalized to other matter-antimatter plasmas. Magnetized electron-positron-proton-antiproton plasmas are susceptible to interchange-driven local matter-antimatter separation, which can impede sustained laboratory magnetic confinement.

  9. Inflatable Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Hooper, Dan; McDermott, Samuel D

    2016-01-22

    We describe a general scenario, dubbed "inflatable dark matter," in which the density of dark matter particles can be reduced through a short period of late-time inflation in the early Universe. The overproduction of dark matter that is predicted within many, otherwise, well-motivated models of new physics can be elegantly remedied within this context. Thermal relics that would, otherwise, be disfavored can easily be accommodated within this class of scenarios, including dark matter candidates that are very heavy or very light. Furthermore, the nonthermal abundance of grand unified theory or Planck scale axions can be brought to acceptable levels without invoking anthropic tuning of initial conditions. A period of late-time inflation could have occurred over a wide range of scales from ∼MeV to the weak scale or above, and could have been triggered by physics within a hidden sector, with small but not necessarily negligible couplings to the standard model.

  10. Front Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HLRC Editor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Higher Learning Research Communications (HLRC, ISSN: 2157-6254 [Online] is published collaboratively by Walden University (USA, Universidad Andrés Bello (Chile, Universidad Europea de Madrid (Spain and Istanbul Bilgi University (Turkey. Written communication to HLRC should be addressed to the office of the Executive Director at Laureate Education, Inc. 701 Brickell Ave Ste. 1700, Miami, FL 33131, USA. HLRC is designed for open access and online distribution through www.hlrcjournal.com. The views and statements expressed in this journal do not necessarily reflect the views of Laureate Education, Inc. or any of its affiliates (collectively “Laureate”. Laureate does not warrant the accuracy, reliability, currency or completeness of those views or statements and does not accept any legal liability arising from any reliance on the views, statements and subject matter of the journal. Acknowledgements The Guest Editors gratefully acknowledge the substantial contribution of the readers for the blind peer review of essays submitted for this special issue as exemplars of individuals from around the world who have come together in a collective endeavor for the common good: Robert Bringle (Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, US, Linda Buckley (University of the Pacific, US, Guillermo Calleja (Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Spain, Eva Egron-Polak (International Association of Universities, France, Heather Friesen (Abu Dhabi University, UAE, Saran Gill (National University of Malaysia, Malaysia, Chester Haskell (higher education consultant, US, Kanokkarn Kaewnuch (National Institute for Development Administration, Thailand, Gil Latz (Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, US, Molly Lee (higher education consultant, Malaysia, Deane Neubauer (East-West Center at University of Hawaii, US, Susan Sutton (Bryn Mawr College, US, Francis Wambalaba (United States International University, Kenya, and Richard Winn (higher education

  11. Dark matter universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahcall, Neta A.

    2015-01-01

    Most of the mass in the universe is in the form of dark matter—a new type of nonbaryonic particle not yet detected in the laboratory or in other detection experiments. The evidence for the existence of dark matter through its gravitational impact is clear in astronomical observations—from the early observations of the large motions of galaxies in clusters and the motions of stars and gas in galaxies, to observations of the large-scale structure in the universe, gravitational lensing, and the cosmic microwave background. The extensive data consistently show the dominance of dark matter and quantify its amount and distribution, assuming general relativity is valid. The data inform us that the dark matter is nonbaryonic, is “cold” (i.e., moves nonrelativistically in the early universe), and interacts only weakly with matter other than by gravity. The current Lambda cold dark matter cosmology—a simple (but strange) flat cold dark matter model dominated by a cosmological constant Lambda, with only six basic parameters (including the density of matter and of baryons, the initial mass fluctuations amplitude and its scale dependence, and the age of the universe and of the first stars)—fits remarkably well all the accumulated data. However, what is the dark matter? This is one of the most fundamental open questions in cosmology and particle physics. Its existence requires an extension of our current understanding of particle physics or otherwise point to a modification of gravity on cosmological scales. The exploration and ultimate detection of dark matter are led by experiments for direct and indirect detection of this yet mysterious particle. PMID:26417091

  12. Phase transitions in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1984-11-01

    The rather general circumstances under which a phase transition in hadronic matter at finite temperature to an abnormal phase in which baryon effective masses become small and in which copious baryon-antibaryon pairs appear is emphasized. A preview is also given of a soliton model of dense matter, in which at a density of about seven times nuclear density, matter ceases to be a color insulator and becomes increasingly color conducting. 22 references

  13. The Subjectivity of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    of a community of social/youth workers in Copenhagen between 1987 and 2003, who developed a pedagogy through creating collectives and mobilizing young people as participants. The theoretical and practical traditions are combined in a unique methodology viewing research as a contentious modeling of prototypical......What is a 'we' – a collective – and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity – and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas...

  14. Condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Isihara, A

    2007-01-01

    More than a graduate text and advanced research guide on condensed matter physics, this volume is useful to plasma physicists and polymer chemists, and their students. It emphasizes applications of statistical mechanics to a variety of systems in condensed matter physics rather than theoretical derivations of the principles of statistical mechanics and techniques. Isihara addresses a dozen different subjects in separate chapters, each designed to be directly accessible and used independently of previous chapters. Topics include simple liquids, electron systems and correlations, two-dimensional

  15. Effects of Workplace Generalized and Sexual Harassment on Abusive Drinking Among First Year Male and Female College Students: Does Prior Drinking Experience Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rospenda, Kathleen M; Fujishiro, Kaori; McGinley, Meredith; Wolff, Jennifer M; Richman, Judith A

    2017-06-07

    Workplace harassment, a known risk factor for adult drinking, is understudied in college samples, but may help explain observed gender differences in drinking patterns. We examine effects of sexual and generalized workplace harassment on changes in drinking behavior over the first semesters of college, and the extent to which these effects differ based on prematriculation drinking for men and women students. Data derive from two waves of a longitudinal study of eight Midwestern colleges and universities. Data were collected from 2080 employed students via a Web-based survey assessing sexual and generalized workplace harassment, stressful life events, drinking to intoxication, and binge drinking prior to freshman year (fall 2011) and approximately one year later (summer to fall 2012). At baseline, lifetime drinking status, frequency of alcohol consumption, and demographics were also assessed. Linear-mixed modeling indicated that employed women students who were frequent drinkers prematriculation were at risk for high levels of drinking associated with workplace harassment, while men who were nondrinkers were most at risk of increasing problem drinking over time when exposed to workplace harassment. Alcohol use prevention efforts directed towards employed students are needed both prior to and during college, to instruct students how to identify workplace harassment and cope in healthier ways with stressful workplace experiences. These efforts might be particularly useful in stemming problematic drinking among women who drink frequently prior to college, and preventing men who are nondrinkers upon college entry from initiating problematic drinking during subsequent enrollment years.

  16. Gaseous Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    aseous Matter focuses on the many important discoveries that led to the scientific interpretation of matter in the gaseous state. This new, full-color resource describes the basic characteristics and properties of several important gases, including air, hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and nitrogen. The nature and scope of the science of fluids is discussed in great detail, highlighting the most important scientific principles upon which the field is based. Chapters include:. Gaseous Matter An Initial Perspective. Physical Characteristics of Gases. The Rise of the Science of Gases. Kinetic Theory of

  17. Effects of workplace generalized and sexual harassment on abusive drinking among first year male and female college students: Does prior drinking experience matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Fujishiro, Kaori; McGinley, Meredith; Wolff, Jennifer M.; Richman, Judith A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Workplace harassment, a known risk factor for adult drinking, is understudied in college samples, but may help explain observed gender differences in drinking patterns. Objective We examine effects of sexual and generalized workplace harassment on changes in drinking behavior over the first semesters of college, and the extent to which these effects differ based on prematriculation drinking for men and women students. Method Data derive from two waves of a longitudinal study of eight Midwestern colleges and universities. Data were collected from 2080 employed students via a Web-based survey assessing sexual and generalized workplace harassment, stressful life events, drinking to intoxication, and binge drinking prior to freshman year (fall 2011) and approximately one year later (summer to fall 2012). At baseline, lifetime drinking status, frequency of alcohol consumption, and demographics were also assessed. Results Linear mixed modeling indicated that employed women students who were frequent drinkers prematriculation were at risk for high levels of drinking associated with workplace harassment, while men who were non-drinkers were most at risk of increasing problem drinking over time when exposed to workplace harassment. Conclusions Alcohol use prevention efforts directed towards employed students are needed both prior to and during college, to instruct students how to identify workplace harassment and cope in healthier ways with stressful workplace experiences. These efforts might be particularly useful in stemming problematic drinking among women who drink frequently prior to college, and preventing men who are non-drinkers upon college entry from initiating problematic drinking during subsequent enrollment years. PMID:28426358

  18. Dark matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    One of the greatest mysteries in the cosmos is that it is mostly dark. That is, not only is the night sky dark, but also most of the matter and the energy in the universe is dark. For every atom visible in planets, stars and galaxies today there exists at least five or six times as much 'Dark Matter' in the universe. Astronomers and particle physicists today are seeking to unravel the nature of this mysterious but pervasive dark matter, which has profoundly influenced the formation of structure in the universe. Dark energy remains even more elusive, as we lack candidate fields that emerge from well established physics. I will describe various attempts to measure dark matter by direct and indirect means, and discuss the prospects for progress in unravelling dark energy.

  19. Dirac matter

    CERN Document Server

    Rivasseau, Vincent; Fuchs, Jean-Nöel

    2017-01-01

    This fifteenth volume of the Poincare Seminar Series, Dirac Matter, describes the surprising resurgence, as a low-energy effective theory of conducting electrons in many condensed matter systems, including graphene and topological insulators, of the famous equation originally invented by P.A.M. Dirac for relativistic quantum mechanics. In five highly pedagogical articles, as befits their origin in lectures to a broad scientific audience, this book explains why Dirac matters. Highlights include the detailed "Graphene and Relativistic Quantum Physics", written by the experimental pioneer, Philip Kim, and devoted to graphene, a form of carbon crystallized in a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, from its discovery in 2004-2005 by the future Nobel prize winners Kostya Novoselov and Andre Geim to the so-called relativistic quantum Hall effect; the review entitled "Dirac Fermions in Condensed Matter and Beyond", written by two prominent theoreticians, Mark Goerbig and Gilles Montambaux, who consider many other mater...

  20. Topical subjects of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    The controversy as regards the introduction of nuclear energy to the energy supply of the Federal Republic of Germany has not subdued yet. However, the discussion has shifted from technical questions more to the field of political argumentation. In addition, questions concerning the back end cycle have come to the fore. The report at hand deals with the topical subjects of fuel reprocessing, ultimate storage of radioactive wastes, the impact of power plants in general and nuclear power plants in particular on the climate, safety and safeguard questions concerning nuclear facilities and fissionable materials, and with the properties and possibilities of plutonium. The authors tried to present technical know-how in an easy comprehensible way. Literature references enable the checking of facts and provide the possibility to deal in more detail with the matter. The seminar report is to give all those interested the opportunity to acquaint themselves with facts and know-how and to acquire knowledge on which to base a personal opinion. (orig.) [de

  1. Quark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csernai, L.; Kampert, K. H.

    1994-10-15

    Precisely one decade ago the GSI (Darmstadt)/LBL (Berkeley) Collaboration at the Berkeley Bevalac reported clear evidence for collective sidewards flow in high energy heavy ion collisions. This milestone observation clearly displayed the compression and heating up of nuclear matter, providing new insights into how the behaviour of nuclear matter changes under very different conditions. This year, evidence for azimuthally asymmetric transverse flow at ten times higher projectile energy (11 GeV per nucleon gold on gold collisions) was presented by the Brookhaven E877 collaboration at the recent European Research Conference on ''Physics of High Energy Heavy Ion Collisions'', held in Helsinki from 17-22 June.

  2. Questionnaire on Corporate Income Tax Subjects - Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Hansen, Søren; Nielsen, Jacob Graff

    In terms of tax policy, tax harmonization or coordination of corporate taxation in the EU is usually considered from two complementary points of view: tax base and tax rate. These two perspectives structure the debate whether EU Member States, and more broadly States belonging to the same economic...... area, should harmonize or coordinate their policies in tax matters. However, little attention has been paid so far to a more basic question: who are corporate taxpayers? Are they defined in the same way over Europe? This may be explained by the fact that the vast majority of tax systems accept the same...... fundamental idea: while companies limited by shares and limited liability companies should be subject to corporate income tax (CIT), partnerships should be considered fully or partly transparent for tax purposes. This general statement is nevertheless an oversimplification of reality. Comparative law indeed...

  3. Imperfect Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzagholi, Leila; Vikman, Alexander, E-mail: l.mirzagholi@physik.uni-muenchen.de, E-mail: alexander.vikman@lmu.de [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Ludwig Maximilian University Munich, Theresienstr. 37, Munich, D-80333 Germany (Germany)

    2015-06-01

    We consider cosmology of the recently introduced mimetic matter with higher derivatives (HD). Without HD this system describes irrotational dust—Dark Matter (DM) as we see it on cosmologically large scales. DM particles correspond to the shift-charges—Noether charges of the shifts in the field space. Higher derivative corrections usually describe a deviation from the thermodynamical equilibrium in the relativistic hydrodynamics. Thus we show that mimetic matter with HD corresponds to an imperfect DM which: i) renormalises the Newton's constant in the Friedmann equations, ii) has zero pressure when there is no extra matter in the universe, iii) survives the inflationary expansion which puts the system on a dynamical attractor with a vanishing shift-charge, iv) perfectly tracks any external matter on this attractor, v) can become the main (and possibly the only) source of DM, provided the shift-symmetry in the HD terms is broken during some small time interval in the radiation domination époque. In the second part of the paper we present a hydrodynamical description of general anisotropic and inhomogeneous configurations of the system. This imperfect mimetic fluid has an energy flow in the field's rest frame. We find that in the Eckart and in the Landau-Lifshitz frames the mimetic fluid possesses nonvanishing vorticity appearing already at the first order in the HD. Thus, the structure formation and gravitational collapse should proceed in a rather different fashion from the simple irrotational DM models.

  4. Entropy, matter, and cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigogine, I; Géhéniau, J

    1986-09-01

    The role of irreversible processes corresponding to creation of matter in general relativity is investigated. The use of Landau-Lifshitz pseudotensors together with conformal (Minkowski) coordinates suggests that this creation took place in the early universe at the stage of the variation of the conformal factor. The entropy production in this creation process is calculated. It is shown that these dissipative processes lead to the possibility of cosmological models that start from empty conditions and gradually build up matter and entropy. Gravitational entropy takes a simple meaning as associated to the entropy that is necessary to produce matter. This leads to an extension of the third law of thermodynamics, as now the zero point of entropy becomes the space-time structure out of which matter is generated. The theory can be put into a convenient form using a supplementary "C" field in Einstein's field equations. The role of the C field is to express the coupling between gravitation and matter leading to irreversible entropy production.

  5. Imperfect Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzagholi, Leila; Vikman, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We consider cosmology of the recently introduced mimetic matter with higher derivatives (HD). Without HD this system describes irrotational dust—Dark Matter (DM) as we see it on cosmologically large scales. DM particles correspond to the shift-charges—Noether charges of the shifts in the field space. Higher derivative corrections usually describe a deviation from the thermodynamical equilibrium in the relativistic hydrodynamics. Thus we show that mimetic matter with HD corresponds to an imperfect DM which: i) renormalises the Newton's constant in the Friedmann equations, ii) has zero pressure when there is no extra matter in the universe, iii) survives the inflationary expansion which puts the system on a dynamical attractor with a vanishing shift-charge, iv) perfectly tracks any external matter on this attractor, v) can become the main (and possibly the only) source of DM, provided the shift-symmetry in the HD terms is broken during some small time interval in the radiation domination époque. In the second part of the paper we present a hydrodynamical description of general anisotropic and inhomogeneous configurations of the system. This imperfect mimetic fluid has an energy flow in the field's rest frame. We find that in the Eckart and in the Landau-Lifshitz frames the mimetic fluid possesses nonvanishing vorticity appearing already at the first order in the HD. Thus, the structure formation and gravitational collapse should proceed in a rather different fashion from the simple irrotational DM models

  6. Asymmetric condensed dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre, Anthony; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto, E-mail: aguirre@scipp.ucsc.edu, E-mail: alberto.diez@fisica.ugto.mx [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA, 95064 (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We explore the viability of a boson dark matter candidate with an asymmetry between the number densities of particles and antiparticles. A simple thermal field theory analysis confirms that, under certain general conditions, this component would develop a Bose-Einstein condensate in the early universe that, for appropriate model parameters, could survive the ensuing cosmological evolution until now. The condensation of a dark matter component in equilibrium with the thermal plasma is a relativistic process, hence the amount of matter dictated by the charge asymmetry is complemented by a hot relic density frozen out at the time of decoupling. Contrary to the case of ordinary WIMPs, dark matter particles in a condensate must be lighter than a few tens of eV so that the density from thermal relics is not too large. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis constrains the temperature of decoupling to the scale of the QCD phase transition or above. This requires large dark matter-to-photon ratios and very weak interactions with standard model particles.

  7. Imperfect Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzagholi, Leila; Vikman, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    We consider cosmology of the recently introduced mimetic matter with higher derivatives (HD). Without HD this system describes irrotational dust—Dark Matter (DM) as we see it on cosmologically large scales. DM particles correspond to the shift-charges—Noether charges of the shifts in the field space. Higher derivative corrections usually describe a deviation from the thermodynamical equilibrium in the relativistic hydrodynamics. Thus we show that mimetic matter with HD corresponds to an imperfect DM which: i) renormalises the Newton's constant in the Friedmann equations, ii) has zero pressure when there is no extra matter in the universe, iii) survives the inflationary expansion which puts the system on a dynamical attractor with a vanishing shift-charge, iv) perfectly tracks any external matter on this attractor, v) can become the main (and possibly the only) source of DM, provided the shift-symmetry in the HD terms is broken during some small time interval in the radiation domination époque. In the second part of the paper we present a hydrodynamical description of general anisotropic and inhomogeneous configurations of the system. This imperfect mimetic fluid has an energy flow in the field's rest frame. We find that in the Eckart and in the Landau-Lifshitz frames the mimetic fluid possesses nonvanishing vorticity appearing already at the first order in the HD. Thus, the structure formation and gravitational collapse should proceed in a rather different fashion from the simple irrotational DM models.

  8. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    As if this was not enough, it turns out that if our knowledge of ... are thought to contain dark matter, although the evidences from them are the .... protons, electrons, neutrons ... ratio of protons to neutrons was close to unity then as they were in ...

  9. Quantum matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buechler, Hans Peter; Calcarco, Tommaso; Dressel, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Artificial atoms and molecules, tailored from solids, fractional flux quanta, molecular magnets, controlled interaction in quantum gases, the theory of quantum correlations in mott matter, cold gases, and mesoscopic systems, Bose-Einstein condensates on the chip, on the route to the quantum computer, a quantum computer in diamond. (HSI)

  10. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 4. Molecule Matters – van der Waals Molecules - History and Some Perspectives on Intermolecular Forces. E Arunan. Feature Article Volume 14 Issue 4 April 2009 pp 346-356 ...

  11. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 12. Molecule Matters - Dinitrogen. A G Samuelson J Jabadurai. Volume 16 Issue 12 ... Author Affiliations. A G Samuelson1 J Jabadurai1. Department of Inroganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  12. Interstellar matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezger, P.G.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of the formation of our galaxy is presented followed by a summary of recent work in star formation and related topics. Selected discussions are given on interstellar matter including absorption characteristics of dust, the fully ionised component of the ISM and the energy density of lyc-photons in the solar neighbourhood and the diffuse galactic IR radiation

  13. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study of gas clouds orbiting in the outer regions of spiral galaxies has revealed that their gravitational at- traction is much larger than the stars alone can provide. Over the last twenty years, astronomers have been forced to postulate the presence of large quantities of 'dark matter' to explain their observations. They are ...

  14. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 9. Molecule Matters - A Chromium Compound with a Quintuple Bond. K C Kumara Swamy. Feature Article Volume 11 Issue 9 September 2006 pp 72-75. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  15. Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audouze, J.; Tran Thanh Van, J.

    1988-01-01

    The book begins with the papers devoted to the experimental search of signatures of the dark matter which governs the evolution of the Universe as a whole. A series of contributions describe the presently considered experimental techniques (cryogenic detectors, supraconducting detectors...). A real dialogue concerning these techniques has been instaured between particle physicists and astrophysicists. After the progress report of the particle physicists, the book provides the reader with an updated situation concerning the research in cosmology. The second part of the book is devoted to the analysis of the backgrounds at different energies such as the possible role of the cooling flows in the constitution of massive galactic halos. Any search of dark matter implies necessarily the analysis of the spatial distributions of the large scale structures of the Universe. This report is followed by a series of statistical analyses of these distributions. These analyses concern mainly universes filled up with cold dark matter. The last paper of this third part concerns the search of clustering in the spatial distribution of QSOs. The presence of dark matter should affect the solar neighborhood and related to the existence of galactic haloes. The contributions are devoted to the search of such local dark matter. Primordial nucleosynthesis provides a very powerful tool to set up quite constraining limitations on the overall baryonic density. Even if on takes into account the inhomogeneities in density possibly induced by the Quark-Hadron transition, this baryonic density should be much lower than the overall density deduced from the dynamical models of Universe or the inflationary theories

  16. Double-blind randomised controlled trial of the independent and synergistic effect of Spirulina maxima with exercise (ISESE) on general fitness, lipid profile and redox status in overweight and obese subjects: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Lepe, Marco Antonio; López-Díaz, José Alberto; Rosa, Laura Alejandra de la; Hernández-Torres, Rosa Patricia; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Juarez-Oropeza, Marco Antonio; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Urquidez-Romero, Rene; Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo

    2017-06-23

    In order to reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors, a healthy diet must include dietary antioxidants from different sources (eg, Spirulina maxima ) and regular practice of exercise should be promoted. There is some evidence from animal studies that S. maxima and exercise decrease cardiovascular disease risks factors. However, very few studies have proved the independent or synergistic effect of S. maxima plus exercise in humans. This study attempts to address the independent and synergistic effects in overweight and obese subjects participating in a systematic physical exercise programme at moderate intensity on general fitness, plasma lipid profile and antioxidant capacity. Using a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced crossover study design, 80 healthy overweight and obese subjects will be evaluated during a 12-week isoenergetic diet accompanied by 4.5 g/day S. maxima intake and/or a physical systematic exercise programme at moderate intensity. Body composition, oxygen uptake, heart rate, capillary blood lactate, plasma concentrations of triacylglycerols, total, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, antioxidant status, lipid oxidation, protein carbonyls, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and paraoxonase will be assessed. This study and all the procedures have been approved by the Universidad Autonoma de Ciudad Juarez Bioethics Committee. Findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, national and international conferences. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02837666. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. General experiments concerning particle-matter interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauvergne, D.

    2006-07-01

    The author gathers in this document several papers he has already published in order to shed light on different aspects concerning ion-crystal interactions. This document is divided into 3 chapters. In the first chapter the author presents results obtained from experiments dedicated to charge exchanges and energy released by heavy ions in channeling conditions. Different processes involved in ion-electron interactions are considered: The tri-electronic recombination, the electron capture through nuclear excitation (NEEC), resonant transfer and excitation (RTE), resonant transfer and double excitation (RTDE) and electron impact ionization (EII). The second chapter deals with the measurement of nuclear fission times through crystal blocking experiments. The crystal blocking technique allows the measurement in a model-independent way of the recoil distance covered by the excited nucleus during the whole fission process (starting from the initial collision and ending at the scission point). The last chapter is dedicated to the photon impact ionization through the conversion of a high-energy photon into an electron-positron pair

  18. Disposal Of Waste Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Hyeon; Lee, Seung Mu

    1989-02-01

    This book deals with disposal of waste matter management of soiled waste matter in city with introduction, definition of waste matter, meaning of management of waste matter, management system of waste matter, current condition in the country, collect and transportation of waste matter disposal liquid waste matter, industrial waste matter like plastic, waste gas sludge, pulp and sulfuric acid, recycling technology of waste matter such as recycling system of Black clawson, Monroe and Rome.

  19. Balancing High Quality Subject-Matter Instruction with Positive Teacher-Student Relations in the Middle Grades: Effects of Departmentalization, Tracking and Block Scheduling on Learning Environments. Report No. 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, James M.

    This study tests the general hypothesis that there is no single best way to organize a middle school to meet the variety of needs of early adolescent students. Using data from a sample of 433 schools in the Pennsylvania Educational Quality Assessment, it examines the effects of self-contained classroom instruction and departmentalization on two…

  20. Quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csernai, L.; Kampert, K.H.

    1994-01-01

    Precisely one decade ago the GSI (Darmstadt)/LBL (Berkeley) Collaboration at the Berkeley Bevalac reported clear evidence for collective sidewards flow in high energy heavy ion collisions. This milestone observation clearly displayed the compression and heating up of nuclear matter, providing new insights into how the behaviour of nuclear matter changes under very different conditions. This year, evidence for azimuthally asymmetric transverse flow at ten times higher projectile energy (11 GeV per nucleon gold on gold collisions) was presented by the Brookhaven E877 collaboration at the recent European Research Conference on ''Physics of High Energy Heavy Ion Collisions'', held in Helsinki from 17-22 June

  1. 6d Conformal matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zotto, Michele Del; Heckman, Jonathan J.; Tomasiello, Alessandro; Vafa, Cumrun

    2015-01-01

    A single M5-brane probing G, an ADE-type singularity, leads to a system which has G×G global symmetry and can be viewed as “bifundamental” (G,G) matter. For the A N series, this leads to the usual notion of bifundamental matter. For the other cases it corresponds to a strongly interacting (1,0) superconformal system in six dimensions. Similarly, an ADE singularity intersecting the Hořava-Witten wall leads to a superconformal matter system with E 8 ×G global symmetry. Using the F-theory realization of these theories, we elucidate the Coulomb/tensor branch of (G,G ′ ) conformal matter. This leads to the notion of fractionalization of an M5-brane on an ADE singularity as well as fractionalization of the intersection point of the ADE singularity with the Hořava-Witten wall. Partial Higgsing of these theories leads to new 6d SCFTs in the infrared, which we also characterize. This generalizes the class of (1,0) theories which can be perturbatively realized by suspended branes in IIA string theory. By reducing on a circle, we arrive at novel duals for 5d affine quiver theories. Introducing many M5-branes leads to large N gravity duals.

  2. Mixed dark matter from technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belyaev, Alexander; T. Frandsen, Mads; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We study natural composite cold dark matter candidates which are pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons (pNGB) in models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. Some of these can have a significant thermal relic abundance, while others must be mainly asymmetric dark matter. By considering the thermal...... abundance alone we find a lower bound of MW on the pNGB mass when the (composite) Higgs is heavier than 115 GeV. Being pNGBs, the dark matter candidates are in general light enough to be produced at the LHC....

  3. Media Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Pötzsch

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution maps materialist advances in media studies. Based on the assumption that matter and materiality constitute significant aspects of communication processes and practices, I introduce four fields of inquiry - technology, political economy, ecology, and the body - and argue that these perspectives enable a more comprehensive understanding of the implications of contemporary technologically afforded forms of interaction. The article shows how each perspective can balance apologetic and apocalyptic approaches to the impact of in particular digital technologies, before it demonstrates the applicability of an integrated framework with reference to the techno-politics of NSA surveillance and the counter-practices of WikiLeaks.

  4. Play Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    ? In Play Matters, Miguel Sicart argues that to play is to be in the world; playing is a form of understanding what surrounds us and a way of engaging with others. Play goes beyond games; it is a mode of being human. We play games, but we also play with toys, on playgrounds, with technologies and design......, but not necessarily fun. Play can be dangerous, addictive, and destructive. Along the way, Sicart considers playfulness, the capacity to use play outside the context of play; toys, the materialization of play--instruments but also play pals; playgrounds, play spaces that enable all kinds of play; beauty...

  5. Applications of General Systems Theory to the Development of an Adjustable Tutorial Software Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Hans J.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the construction of a model of computer-assisted instruction using a qualitative block diagram based on general systems theory (GST) as a framework. Subject matter representation is discussed, and appendices include system variables and system equations of the GST model, as well as an example of developing flexible courseware. (Contains…

  6. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Chuan-Bo; Qian, Ruo-Bing; Fu, Xian-Ming; Lin, Bin; Han, Xiao-Peng; Niu, Chao-Shi; Wang, Ye-Han

    2013-01-01

    Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA

  7. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Chuan-Bo, E-mail: send007@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); School of Neurosurgery, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishang Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Qian, Ruo-Bing, E-mail: rehomail@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Fu, Xian-Ming, E-mail: 506537677@qq.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Lin, Bin, E-mail: 274722758@qq.com [School of Neurosurgery, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishang Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Han, Xiao-Peng, E-mail: hanxiaopeng@163.com [Department of Psychology, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Niu, Chao-Shi, E-mail: niuchaoshi@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Wang, Ye-Han, E-mail: wangyehan@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China)

    2013-08-15

    Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA.

  8. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chuan-Bo; Qian, Ruo-Bing; Fu, Xian-Ming; Lin, Bin; Han, Xiao-Peng; Niu, Chao-Shi; Wang, Ye-Han

    2013-08-01

    Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. General conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.

    1993-01-01

    In conclusion, a general consensus of a number of points which the author endeavours to summarize in this article: -doctors are an excellent channel for passing on information to the public -doctors feel that they do not know enough about the subject and a training on radiobiology and radiation protection is a necessity for them -communication between doctors and the general public is poor in this field -research should be encouraged in numerous areas such as: carcinogenic effect of low doses of radiation, pedagogy and risk perception

  10. Kaons in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolomeitsev, E.E.

    1997-02-01

    The subject of the doctoral thesis is examination of the properties of kaons in nuclear matter. A specific method is explained that has been developed for the scientific objectives of the thesis and permits description of the kaon-nucleon interactions and kaon-nucleon scattering in a vacuum. The main challenge involved was to find approaches that would enable application of the derived relations out of the kaon mass shell, connected with the second objective, namely to possibly find methods which are independent of models. The way chosen to achieve this goal relied on application of reduction formulas as well as current algebra relations and the PCAC hypothesis. (orig./CB) [de

  11. Silicon quantum dots: surface matters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dohnalová, K.; Gregorkiewicz, T.; Kůsová, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 17 (2014), 1-28 ISSN 0953-8984 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP204/12/P235 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : silicon quantum dots * quantum dot * surface chemistry * quantum confinement Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.346, year: 2014

  12. Marginal Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hecke, Martin

    2013-03-01

    All around us, things are falling apart. The foam on our cappuccinos appears solid, but gentle stirring irreversibly changes its shape. Skin, a biological fiber network, is firm when you pinch it, but soft under light touch. Sand mimics a solid when we walk on the beach but a liquid when we pour it out of our shoes. Crucially, a marginal point separates the rigid or jammed state from the mechanical vacuum (freely flowing) state - at their marginal points, soft materials are neither solid nor liquid. Here I will show how the marginal point gives birth to a third sector of soft matter physics: intrinsically nonlinear mechanics. I will illustrate this with shock waves in weakly compressed granular media, the nonlinear rheology of foams, and the nonlinear mechanics of weakly connected elastic networks.

  13. Probes for dark matter physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlopov, Maxim Yu.

    The existence of cosmological dark matter is in the bedrock of the modern cosmology. The dark matter is assumed to be nonbaryonic and consists of new stable particles. Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) miracle appeals to search for neutral stable weakly interacting particles in underground experiments by their nuclear recoil and at colliders by missing energy and momentum, which they carry out. However, the lack of WIMP effects in their direct underground searches and at colliders can appeal to other forms of dark matter candidates. These candidates may be weakly interacting slim particles, superweakly interacting particles, or composite dark matter, in which new particles are bound. Their existence should lead to cosmological effects that can find probes in the astrophysical data. However, if composite dark matter contains stable electrically charged leptons and quarks bound by ordinary Coulomb interaction in elusive dark atoms, these charged constituents of dark atoms can be the subject of direct experimental test at the colliders. The models, predicting stable particles with charge ‑ 2 without stable particles with charges + 1 and ‑ 1 can avoid severe constraints on anomalous isotopes of light elements and provide solution for the puzzles of dark matter searches. In such models, the excessive ‑ 2 charged particles are bound with primordial helium in O-helium atoms, maintaining specific nuclear-interacting form of the dark matter. The successful development of composite dark matter scenarios appeals for experimental search for doubly charged constituents of dark atoms, making experimental search for exotic stable double charged particles experimentum crucis for dark atoms of composite dark matter.

  14. Dark matter and global symmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Mambrini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available General considerations in general relativity and quantum mechanics are known to potentially rule out continuous global symmetries in the context of any consistent theory of quantum gravity. Assuming the validity of such considerations, we derive stringent bounds from gamma-ray, X-ray, cosmic-ray, neutrino, and CMB data on models that invoke global symmetries to stabilize the dark matter particle. We compute up-to-date, robust model-independent limits on the dark matter lifetime for a variety of Planck-scale suppressed dimension-five effective operators. We then specialize our analysis and apply our bounds to specific models including the Two-Higgs-Doublet, Left–Right, Singlet Fermionic, Zee–Babu, 3-3-1 and Radiative See-Saw models. Assuming that (i global symmetries are broken at the Planck scale, that (ii the non-renormalizable operators mediating dark matter decay have O(1 couplings, that (iii the dark matter is a singlet field, and that (iv the dark matter density distribution is well described by a NFW profile, we are able to rule out fermionic, vector, and scalar dark matter candidates across a broad mass range (keV–TeV, including the WIMP regime.

  15. Displacive phase transformations and generalized stacking faults

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paidar, Václav; Ostapovets, Andriy; Duparc, O. H.; Khalfallah, O.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 3 (2012), s. 490-492 ISSN 0587-4246. [International Symposium on Physics of Materials, ISPMA /12./. Praha, 04.09.2011-08.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100920 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : ab-initio calculations * close-packed structures * generalized stacking faults * homogeneous deformation * lattice deformation * many-body potentials Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.531, year: 2012

  16. Thermalizing Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Rasmus S L; Vogl, Stefan

    2017-12-22

    Sterile neutrinos produced through oscillations are a well motivated dark matter candidate, but recent constraints from observations have ruled out most of the parameter space. We analyze the impact of new interactions on the evolution of keV sterile neutrino dark matter in the early Universe. Based on general considerations we find a mechanism which thermalizes the sterile neutrinos after an initial production by oscillations. The thermalization of sterile neutrinos is accompanied by dark entropy production which increases the yield of dark matter and leads to a lower characteristic momentum. This resolves the growing tensions with structure formation and x-ray observations and even revives simple nonresonant production as a viable way to produce sterile neutrino dark matter. We investigate the parameters required for the realization of the thermalization mechanism in a representative model and find that a simple estimate based on energy and entropy conservation describes the mechanism well.

  17. Thermalizing Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Rasmus S. L.; Vogl, Stefan

    2017-12-01

    Sterile neutrinos produced through oscillations are a well motivated dark matter candidate, but recent constraints from observations have ruled out most of the parameter space. We analyze the impact of new interactions on the evolution of keV sterile neutrino dark matter in the early Universe. Based on general considerations we find a mechanism which thermalizes the sterile neutrinos after an initial production by oscillations. The thermalization of sterile neutrinos is accompanied by dark entropy production which increases the yield of dark matter and leads to a lower characteristic momentum. This resolves the growing tensions with structure formation and x-ray observations and even revives simple nonresonant production as a viable way to produce sterile neutrino dark matter. We investigate the parameters required for the realization of the thermalization mechanism in a representative model and find that a simple estimate based on energy and entropy conservation describes the mechanism well.

  18. Matter and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.F.G. da

    1976-01-01

    Rutherford's and Bhor's atomic models are presented, as well as the general configuration of the atom. In the study of energy, emphasis is given to its forms and unities, to equivalence between mass and energy and to the energy levels of the atom. Electrons and nuclear constituents, nuclear forces, stability and nuclear potential barrier are studied. The concepts of radioactive state, activity and nuclear decay are analysed, as well as nuclear reactions, fission, radioisotope production and cosmic rays. Interactions between radiation and matter are also analysed [pt

  19. Cool quark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kurkela, Aleksi

    2016-07-20

    We generalize the state-of-the-art perturbative Equation of State of cold quark matter to nonzero temperatures, needed in the description of neutron star mergers and core collapse processes. The new result is accurate to order g^5 in the gauge coupling, and is based on a novel framework for dealing with the infrared sensitive soft field modes of the theory. The zero Matsubara mode sector is treated using a dimensionally reduced effective theory, while the soft non-zero modes are resummed using the Hard Thermal Loop approximation. This combination of known effective descriptions offers unprecedented access to small but nonzero temperatures, both in and out of beta equilibrium.

  20. Make dark matter charged again

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Prateek; Cyr-Racine, Francis-Yan; Randall, Lisa; Scholtz, Jakub, E-mail: prateekagrawal@fas.harvard.edu, E-mail: fcyrraci@physics.harvard.edu, E-mail: randall@physics.harvard.edu, E-mail: jscholtz@physics.harvard.edu [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-05-01

    We revisit constraints on dark matter that is charged under a U(1) gauge group in the dark sector, decoupled from Standard Model forces. We find that the strongest constraints in the literature are subject to a number of mitigating factors. For instance, the naive dark matter thermalization timescale in halos is corrected by saturation effects that slow down isotropization for modest ellipticities. The weakened bounds uncover interesting parameter space, making models with weak-scale charged dark matter viable, even with electromagnetic strength interaction. This also leads to the intriguing possibility that dark matter self-interactions within small dwarf galaxies are extremely large, a relatively unexplored regime in current simulations. Such strong interactions suppress heat transfer over scales larger than the dark matter mean free path, inducing a dynamical cutoff length scale above which the system appears to have only feeble interactions. These effects must be taken into account to assess the viability of darkly-charged dark matter. Future analyses and measurements should probe a promising region of parameter space for this model.

  1. Homothetic matter collineations of LRS Bianchi type I spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Tahir; Rahim, Waqas

    2017-12-01

    A complete classification of locally rotationally symmetric (LRS) Bianchi type I spacetimes via homothetic matter collineations (HMCs) is presented. For non-degenerate energy-momentum tensor, a general form of the vector field generating HMCs is found, subject to some integrability conditions. Solving the integrability conditions in different cases, it is found that the LRS Bianchi type I spacetimes admit 6-, 7-, 8-, 10- or 11-dimensional Lie algebra of HMCs. When the energy-momentum tensor is degenerate, two cases give 6 and 11 HMCs, while the remaining cases produce infinite number of HMCs. Some LRS Bianchi type I metrics are provided admitting HMCs.

  2. Interaction of radiation with matter

    CERN Document Server

    Nikjoo, Hooshang; Emfietzoglou, Dimitris

    2012-01-01

    Written for students approaching the subject for the first time, this text provides a solid grounding in the physics of the interactions of photons and particles with matter, which is the basis of radiological physics and radiation dosimetry. The authors first present the relevant atomic physics and then describe the interactions, emphasizing practical applications in health/medical physics and radiation biology. They cover such important topics as microdosimetry, interaction of photons with matter, electron energy loss, and dielectric response. Each chapter includes exercises and a summary.

  3. Generalized polygons

    CERN Document Server

    Van Maldeghem, Hendrik

    1998-01-01

    Generalized Polygons is the first book to cover, in a coherent manner, the theory of polygons from scratch. In particular, it fills elementary gaps in the literature and gives an up-to-date account of current research in this area, including most proofs, which are often unified and streamlined in comparison to the versions generally known. Generalized Polygons will be welcomed both by the student seeking an introduction to the subject as well as the researcher who will value the work as a reference. In particular, it will be of great value for specialists working in the field of generalized polygons (which are, incidentally, the rank 2 Tits-buildings) or in fields directly related to Tits-buildings, incidence geometry and finite geometry. The approach taken in the book is of geometric nature, but algebraic results are included and proven (in a geometric way!). A noteworthy feature is that the book unifies and generalizes notions, definitions and results that exist for quadrangles, hexagons, octagons - in the ...

  4. Baryonic matter and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Fukushima, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    We summarize recent developments in identifying the ground state of dense baryonic matter and beyond. The topics include deconfinement from baryonic matter to quark matter, a diquark mixture, topological effect coupled with chirality and density, and inhomogeneous chiral condensates.

  5. Generalized Superconductivity. Generalized Levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciobanu, B.; Agop, M.

    2004-01-01

    In the recent papers, the gravitational superconductivity is described. We introduce the concept of generalized superconductivity observing that any nongeodesic motion and, in particular, the motion in an electromagnetic field, can be transformed in a geodesic motion by a suitable choice of the connection. In the present paper, the gravitoelectromagnetic London equations have been obtained from the generalized Helmholtz vortex theorem using the generalized local equivalence principle. In this context, the gravitoelectromagnetic Meissner effect and, implicitly, the gravitoelectromagnetic levitation are given. (authors)

  6. General crystal in prebiotic context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, I.

    1993-09-01

    General crystal is an extension of the crystal concept to any form of matter which exhibit neighbour structure determination. This extension makes many results of solid state physics applicable to heterogeneous matter. Among other it includes the description of phase transition from random to unique structure. The advantage of the general crystal approach is demonstrated on globular protein, on of the most important macromolecules of life, which are capable to adopt unique 3D structure spontaneously, regardless of the heterogeneous character of their chemical structure and conformation. It is suggested that the use of general crystal concept may help to find candidates among heterogeneous matters capable to spontaneous self-organization in the same way as crystallization results in unique structure of homogeneous matter, and to apply some of the results of solid state physics to describe the phase transition and other behaviour of this matter. (author). 10 refs

  7. Nanomedicine a soft matter perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Dipanjan

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a broad introduction to soft matters for nanomedicinal applications, with a deeper discussion of the individual modalities for molecular imaging. It includes a general introduction to the opportunities provided by this technology in chemistry, materials, biology and nanomedicine. It is designed and written with the perspective that anyone, with or without previous knowledge of nanotechnology, would benefit.

  8. Modified gravity without dark matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Robert; Papantonopoulos, L

    2007-01-01

    On an empirical level, the most successful alternative to dark matter in bound gravitational systems is the modified Newtonian dynamics, or MOND, proposed by Milgrom. Here I discuss the attempts to formulate MOND as a modification of General Relativity. I begin with a summary of the phenomenological

  9. Which effects of galaxy clusters can reduce the amount of dark matter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křížek, Michal; Křížek, Filip; Somer, L.

    -, č. 21 (2014), s. 43-65 ISSN 1313-2709 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02067S; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0207 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : dark matter * gravitational lensing * Virial Theorem Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics; BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders (UJF-V) http://www.astro.bas.bg/AIJ/issues/n21/MKrizek.pdf

  10. Gender matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torm, Nina; Bjerge, Benedikte; Trifkovic, Neda

    such training may be in closing the gender wage gap. We use a matched employer–employee panel dataset to assess why firms train and whether formal training affects wage outcomes in Vietnamese SMEs. Training is generally found to be firm-sponsored and specific in nature. We find that training is associated......, firm-sponsored on-the-job training helps close the gender wage gap.......In many developing countries the skill base is a cause of concern with respect to international competition. Firm-provided training is generally seen as an important tool for bridging the skills gap between labour force and private sector demand. Yet little is known about how successful...

  11. Matter and antimatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schopper, H.

    1989-01-01

    For many years the physicist Herwig Schopper has been contributing in leading positions - either as director of DESY in Hamburg or as general director of CERN in Geneva - to the development of a fascinating field of modern physics. His book is the first comprehensive presentation of experimental particle physics for non-physicists. The search for the smallest constituents of matter, i.e. the exploration of the microcosmos, apart from the advance of the man into space belongs to the most exciting scientific-technical adventures of our century. Contrarily to the stars, atoms, atomic nuclei, and quarks cannot be seen. How objects are studied which are by thousands smaller than the smallest atomic nucleus? Can matter be decomposed in ever smaller constituents, or does there exist a limit? What is matter, and what is of consequence for the mysterious antimatter. Do the laws of the infinitely small also determine the development of the universe since its origin? Such and other questions - expressions of human curiosity - Schopper wants to answer with his generally understandable book. Thereby the 'machines' and the experiments of high-energy physics play a decicive role in the presentation. The author describes the development of the accelerators - in Europe, as well as in the Soviet Union, Japan, or in the USA -, and he shows, why for the investigation of the smallest immense experimental facilities - the 1989 finished LEP storage ring at CERN has a circumference of 27 kilometers - are necessary. Schopper explains how the 'machines' work and how the single experiments run. His book satisfies the curiosity of all those, who want to know more about the world of the quarks. (orig.) With 96 figs [de

  12. Mirror dark matter and large scale structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiev, A.Yu.; Volkas, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    Mirror matter is a dark matter candidate. In this paper, we reexamine the linear regime of density perturbation growth in a universe containing mirror dark matter. Taking adiabatic scale-invariant perturbations as the input, we confirm that the resulting processed power spectrum is richer than for the more familiar cases of cold, warm and hot dark matter. The new features include a maximum at a certain scale λ max , collisional damping below a smaller characteristic scale λ S ' , with oscillatory perturbations between the two. These scales are functions of the fundamental parameters of the theory. In particular, they decrease for decreasing x, the ratio of the mirror plasma temperature to that of the ordinary. For x∼0.2, the scale λ max becomes galactic. Mirror dark matter therefore leads to bottom-up large scale structure formation, similar to conventional cold dark matter, for x(less-or-similar sign)0.2. Indeed, the smaller the value of x, the closer mirror dark matter resembles standard cold dark matter during the linear regime. The differences pertain to scales smaller than λ S ' in the linear regime, and generally in the nonlinear regime because mirror dark matter is chemically complex and to some extent dissipative. Lyman-α forest data and the early reionization epoch established by WMAP may hold the key to distinguishing mirror dark matter from WIMP-style cold dark matter

  13. Gray matter alterations and correlation of nutritional intake with the gray matter volume in prediabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Yi-Cheng; Lai, Chien-Han; Wu, Yu-Te; Yang, Shwu-Huey

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The neurophysiology of prediabetes plays an important role in preventive medicine. The dysregulation of glucose metabolism is likely linked to changes in neuron-related gray matter. Therefore, we designed this study to investigate gray matter alterations in medication-naive prediabetic patients. We expected to find alterations in the gray matter of prediabetic patients. A total of 64 prediabetic patients and 54 controls were enrolled. All subjects received T1 scans using a 3-T magnet...

  14. Modified General Relativity and Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, A.-M. M.

    1997-10-01

    Aspects of the modified general relativity theory of Rastall, Al-Rawaf and Taha are discussed in both the radiation- and matter-dominated flat cosmological models. A nucleosynthesis constraint on the theory's free parameter is obtained and the implication for the age of the Universe is discussed. The consistency of the modified matter- dominated model with the neoclassical cosmological tests is demonstrated.

  15. Strange matter in compact stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klähn, Thomas; Blaschke, David B.

    2018-02-01

    We discuss possible scenarios for the existence of strange matter in compact stars. The appearance of hyperons leads to a hyperon puzzle in ab-initio approaches based on effective baryon-baryon potentials but is not a severe problem in relativistic mean field models. In general, the puzzle can be resolved in a natural way if hadronic matter gets stiffened at supersaturation densities, an effect based on the quark Pauli quenching between hadrons. We explain the conflict between the necessity to implement dynamical chiral symmetry breaking into a model description and the conditions for the appearance of absolutely stable strange quark matter that require both, approximately masslessness of quarks and a mechanism of confinement. The role of strangeness in compact stars (hadronic or quark matter realizations) remains unsettled. It is not excluded that strangeness plays no role in compact stars at all. To answer the question whether the case of absolutely stable strange quark matter can be excluded on theoretical grounds requires an understanding of dense matter that we have not yet reached.

  16. Strange matter in compact stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klähn Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss possible scenarios for the existence of strange matter in compact stars. The appearance of hyperons leads to a hyperon puzzle in ab-initio approaches based on effective baryon-baryon potentials but is not a severe problem in relativistic mean field models. In general, the puzzle can be resolved in a natural way if hadronic matter gets stiffened at supersaturation densities, an effect based on the quark Pauli quenching between hadrons. We explain the conflict between the necessity to implement dynamical chiral symmetry breaking into a model description and the conditions for the appearance of absolutely stable strange quark matter that require both, approximately masslessness of quarks and a mechanism of confinement. The role of strangeness in compact stars (hadronic or quark matter realizations remains unsettled. It is not excluded that strangeness plays no role in compact stars at all. To answer the question whether the case of absolutely stable strange quark matter can be excluded on theoretical grounds requires an understanding of dense matter that we have not yet reached.

  17. Brain gray matter structural network in myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuhiko Sugiyama

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate abnormalities in structural covariance network constructed from gray matter volume in myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1 patients by using graph theoretical analysis for further clarification of the underlying mechanisms of central nervous system involvement. Twenty-eight DM1 patients (4 childhood onset, 10 juvenile onset, 14 adult onset, excluding three cases from 31 consecutive patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging in a certain period, and 28 age- and sex- matched healthy control subjects were included in this study. The normalized gray matter images of both groups were subjected to voxel based morphometry (VBM and Graph Analysis Toolbox for graph theoretical analysis. VBM revealed extensive gray matter atrophy in DM1 patients, including cortical and subcortical structures. On graph theoretical analysis, there were no significant differences between DM1 and control groups in terms of the global measures of connectivity. Betweenness centrality was increased in several regions including the left fusiform gyrus, whereas it was decreased in the right striatum. The absence of significant differences between the groups in global network measurements on graph theoretical analysis is consistent with the fact that the general cognitive function is preserved in DM1 patients. In DM1 patients, increased connectivity in the left fusiform gyrus and decreased connectivity in the right striatum might be associated with impairment in face perception and theory of mind, and schizotypal-paranoid personality traits, respectively.

  18. K-Means Subject Matter Expert Refined Topic Model Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    computing environment the Visual Basic for Applications ( VBA ) programming language presents the option as our programming language of choice. We propose...background, or access to other computational programming environments, to build topic models from free text datasets using a familiar Excel based...environment the restricts access to other software based text analytic tools. Opportunities to deploy developmental versions of the methodology and

  19. Subjective matters: from image quality to image psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorovskaya, Elena A.; De Ridder, Huib

    2013-03-01

    From the advent of digital imaging through several decades of studies, the human vision research community systematically focused on perceived image quality and digital artifacts due to resolution, compression, gamma, dynamic range, capture and reproduction noise, blur, etc., to help overcome existing technological challenges and shortcomings. Technological advances made digital images and digital multimedia nearly flawless in quality, and ubiquitous and pervasive in usage, provide us with the exciting but at the same time demanding possibility to turn to the domain of human experience including higher psychological functions, such as cognition, emotion, awareness, social interaction, consciousness and Self. In this paper we will outline the evolution of human centered multidisciplinary studies related to imaging and propose steps and potential foci of future research.

  20. Classification of educational subject matter: the case of Home ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although it represents an individual view, this article was submitted to the Department of Education by the Cape Higher Education Consortium (CHEC) as an outcome of the review of the field of Home Economics in the Western Cape region. By presenting some history, it argues that the category of Home Economics is no ...

  1. The role of subject-matter analysis in science didactics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiklin, Seth

    Cultural-historical theory is primarily a psychological theory about and human action and development within meaningful contexts. As a psychologically-oriented theory, it can be relevant to science education research, even if it was not been developed or elaborated specifically in relation...... to problems within science education. STEM education research can be reduced (roughly) to four major problem areas: curriculum, empirical evaluation of existing practices and conditions, didactics, and professional development, where each of these categories can be concretised further according to grade...... paper is primarily on the didactics category, and slightly on the professional development category. The purpose of this paper is to outline three significant points that have been developed within the cultural-historical tradition that have consequences for these two categories: (a) the relation...

  2. Displaying Uncertainty: A Comparison Between Submarine Subject Matter Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    known as the “submarine capital of the world” and is the home for many of the schools relating to the submarine service. The administering officer for...and Woods, D. D. (1988). Aiding Human Performance: I. Cognitive Analysis, Le Travail Humain 51(1), 39-64. Roth, E. M., Patterson, E. S., and Mumaw

  3. Applying Subject Matter Expertise (SME) Elicitation Techniques to TRAC Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    prioritisation, budgeting and resource allocation with multi-criteria decision analysis and decision conferencing ”. English. In: Annals of Operations... electronically . Typically, in responding to survey items, experts are not expected to elaborate beyond providing responses in the format requested in the...between them, however irrelevant to probability Kynn and Ayyub.84 For example, an electronic jamming device might disrupt a cell phone signal at certain

  4. Stakeholders or subject matter experts, who should be consulted?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberts, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    The Energy Office of Michigan asked Lawrence Technological University (LTU) to conduct Delphi Inquires into wind turbine noise and wildlife issues. These inquiries collected and analyzed stakeholders' perceptions of how to address turbine noise and potential wildlife impacts in the Michigan Siting Guidelines for Wind Energy Systems. This paper uses Beierle and Cayford's conceptual framework for evaluating the success of public participation to compare the two inquiries. Beierle and Cayford's framework identifies five social goals for public participation in policy development: incorporating public values into decisions, improving the substantive quality of decisions, resolving conflict among competing interests, building trust in institutions, and educating and informing the public. The framework also identifies several process elements that contribute to the success of meeting those goals. This paper examines how the participants' prior experience with each issue influenced two important elements of the participation process: the participants' ability to engage in meaningful discourse and their ability to exert control over the process. This paper examines how some participants' inexperience prevented them from effectively participating in the process of developing wind energy policy; demonstrating that it can be more productive to seek input primarily from technical experts than to seek consensus from all stakeholders

  5. Correlation between white matter damage and gray matter lesions in multiple sclerosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-mei Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We observed the characteristics of white matter fibers and gray matter in multiple sclerosis patients, to identify changes in diffusion tensor imaging fractional anisotropy values following white matter fiber injury. We analyzed the correlation between fractional anisotropy values and changes in whole-brain gray matter volume. The participants included 20 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and 20 healthy volunteers as controls. All subjects underwent head magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Our results revealed that fractional anisotropy values decreased and gray matter volumes were reduced in the genu and splenium of corpus callosum, left anterior thalamic radiation, hippocampus, uncinate fasciculus, right corticospinal tract, bilateral cingulate gyri, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus in multiple sclerosis patients. Gray matter volumes were significantly different between the two groups in the right frontal lobe (superior frontal, middle frontal, precentral, and orbital gyri, right parietal lobe (postcentral and inferior parietal gyri, right temporal lobe (caudate nucleus, right occipital lobe (middle occipital gyrus, right insula, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left cingulate gyrus. The voxel sizes of atrophic gray matter positively correlated with fractional anisotropy values in white matter association fibers in the patient group. These findings suggest that white matter fiber bundles are extensively injured in multiple sclerosis patients. The main areas of gray matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis are the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, caudate nucleus, parahippocampal gyrus, and cingulate gyrus. Gray matter atrophy is strongly associated with white matter injury in multiple sclerosis patients, particularly with injury to association fibers.

  6. Introduction. Cosmology meets condensed matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, T W B; Pickett, G R

    2008-08-28

    At first sight, low-temperature condensed-matter physics and early Universe cosmology seem worlds apart. Yet, in the last few years a remarkable synergy has developed between the two. It has emerged that, in terms of their mathematical description, there are surprisingly close parallels between them. This interplay has been the subject of a very successful European Science Foundation (ESF) programme entitled COSLAB ('Cosmology in the Laboratory') that ran from 2001 to 2006, itself built on an earlier ESF network called TOPDEF ('Topological Defects: Non-equilibrium Field Theory in Particle Physics, Condensed Matter and Cosmology'). The articles presented in this issue of Philosophical Transactions A are based on talks given at the Royal Society Discussion Meeting 'Cosmology meets condensed matter', held on 28 and 29 January 2008. Many of the speakers had participated earlier in the COSLAB programme, but the strength of the field is illustrated by the presence also of quite a few new participants.

  7. Sirius Matters

    CERN Document Server

    Brosch, Noah

    2008-01-01

    Since very early times Sirius was a point of attraction in the night sky. It served to synchronize calendars in antiquity and was the subject of many myths and legends, including some modern ones. It was perceived as a red star for more than 400 years, but such reports were relegated to the Mediterranean region. Astronomically, Sirius is a very bright star. This, and its present close distance to us, argues in favor of it being the target of detailed studies of stellar structure and evolution. Its binary nature, with a companion that is one of the more massive white dwarfs, is an additional reason for such studies. This book collects the published information on Sirius in an attempt to derive a coherent picture of how this system came to look as it does.

  8. METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES IN THE USE OF GENERALIZED ADDITIVE MODELS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF PARTICULATE MATTER; CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS FOR 9TH INT'L. INHALATION SYMPOSIUM ON EFFECTS OF AIR CONTAMINANTS ON THE RESPIRATORY TRACT - INTERPRETATIONS FROM MOLECULES TO META ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Open cohort ("time-series") studies of the adverse health effects of short-term exposures to ambient particulate matter and gaseous co-pollutants have been essential in the standard setting process. Last year, a number of serious issues were raised concerning the fitting of Gener...

  9. General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Straumann, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a completely revised and expanded version of the previous classic edition ‘General Relativity and Relativistic Astrophysics’. In Part I the foundations of general relativity are thoroughly developed, while Part II is devoted to tests of general relativity and many of its applications. Binary pulsars – our best laboratories for general relativity – are studied in considerable detail. An introduction to gravitational lensing theory is included as well, so as to make the current literature on the subject accessible to readers. Considerable attention is devoted to the study of compact objects, especially to black holes. This includes a detailed derivation of the Kerr solution, Israel’s proof of his uniqueness theorem, and a derivation of the basic laws of black hole physics. Part II ends with Witten’s proof of the positive energy theorem, which is presented in detail, together with the required tools on spin structures and spinor analysis. In Part III, all of the differential geomet...

  10. Cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiological data have established an association between cardiovascular disease and psoriasis. Only one general population study has so far compared prevalences of cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with psoriasis and control subjects. We aimed to determine the prevalence...... of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with and without psoriasis in the general population. Methods During 2006-2008, a cross-sectional study was performed in the general population in Copenhagen, Denmark. A total of 3471 subjects participated in a general health examination that included assessment of current...... between subjects with and without psoriasis with regard to traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions Our results contrast with the hitherto-reported increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in subjects with psoriasis in the general US population. However, our results agree with those of other...

  11. Sterile neutrino dark matter with supersymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Bibhushan; Wells, James D.

    2017-08-01

    Sterile neutrino dark matter, a popular alternative to the WIMP paradigm, has generally been studied in non-supersymmetric setups. If the underlying theory is supersymmetric, we find that several interesting and novel dark matter features can arise. In particular, in scenarios of freeze-in production of sterile neutrino dark matter, its superpartner, the sterile sneutrino, can play a crucial role in early Universe cosmology as the dominant source of cold, warm, or hot dark matter, or of a subdominant relativistic population of sterile neutrinos that can contribute to the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom Neff during big bang nucleosynthesis.

  12. Features of Teaching Third-Year Students the Subject «Assessment of the General State of a Child. Anthropometry. Measuring and Recording Body Temperature. Work with Newborn Children» by the Module «Nursing in Pediatrics» at the Department of Propedeut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Koniushevska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the methodology of teaching at the department of propedeutics of pediatrics the subject «Assessment of the general state of a child. Anthropometry. Measuring and recording body temperature. Work with newborn children». Objectives of the lesson, the skills needed to achieve the goal are provided. Stages of lessons are presented.

  13. Emission of Electromagnetic Waves through Medium of Matter Waves, Correlation between Wavelengths and Temperatures in Radiation Series of Hydrogen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pekárek, Viktor

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2002), s. 139-149 ISSN 0001-7043 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2057903 Keywords : Matter waves * interference and surges of matter waves Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  14. Dark matter directional detection in non-relativistic effective theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catena, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    We extend the formalism of dark matter directional detection to arbitrary one-body dark matter-nucleon interactions. The new theoretical framework generalizes the one currently used, which is based on 2 types of dark matter-nucleon interaction only. It includes 14 dark matter-nucleon interaction operators, 8 isotope-dependent nuclear response functions, and the Radon transform of the first 2 moments of the dark matter velocity distribution. We calculate the recoil energy spectra at dark matter directional detectors made of CF 4 , CS 2 and 3 He for the 14 dark matter-nucleon interactions, using nuclear response functions recently obtained through numerical nuclear structure calculations. We highlight the new features of the proposed theoretical framework, and present our results for a spherical dark matter halo and for a stream of dark matter particles. This study lays the foundations for model independent analyses of dark matter directional detection experiments

  15. Invisible Higgs and Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikinheimo, Matti; Tuominen, Kimmo; Virkajärvi, Jussi Tuomas

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the possibility that a massive weakly interacting fermion simultaneously provides for a dominant component of the dark matter relic density and an invisible decay width of the Higgs boson at the LHC. As a concrete model realizing such dynamics we consider the minimal walking...... technicolor, although our results apply more generally. Taking into account the constraints from the electroweak precision measurements and current direct searches for dark matter particles, we find that such scenario is heavily constrained, and large portions of the parameter space are excluded....

  16. General general game AI

    OpenAIRE

    Togelius, Julian; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; 2016 IEEE Conference on Computational Intelligence and Games (CIG)

    2016-01-01

    Arguably the grand goal of artificial intelligence research is to produce machines with general intelligence: the capacity to solve multiple problems, not just one. Artificial intelligence (AI) has investigated the general intelligence capacity of machines within the domain of games more than any other domain given the ideal properties of games for that purpose: controlled yet interesting and computationally hard problems. This line of research, however, has so far focuse...

  17. Management does matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroustrup, Jonas

    studies approach the paper acknowledges that management and project management technologies does matter, but comes in many shapes, and is performed differently in various socio-technical settings. The field of STS offers a new ground for a participatory and practice oriented approach to the development......The positivist and managerialist approaches to project management research has historically defined practice as a ‘technical’ discipline. This has recently been challenged by critical project management studies, who advocates for an opening of the field research to also include the social...... and organizational dynamics of projects. Following the topic of the panel this paper will discuss how these two positions, although seemingly different, both places the project manager as an omnipotent subject of control. The consequences becomes either a priori explanations or ideological pitfalls. From a science...

  18. Scale matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, L. G.

    2018-04-01

    The applicability of Navier-Stokes equations is limited to near-equilibrium flows in which the gradients of density, velocity and energy are small. Here I propose an extension of the Chapman-Enskog approximation in which the velocity probability distribution function (PDF) is averaged in the coordinate phase space as well as the velocity phase space. I derive a PDF that depends on the gradients and represents a first-order generalization of local thermodynamic equilibrium. I then integrate this PDF to derive a hydrodynamic model. I discuss the properties of that model and its relation to the discrete equations of computational fluid dynamics. This article is part of the theme issue `Hilbert's sixth problem'.

  19. Media matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, L M

    1995-01-01

    The impact of the mass media on woman's status was addressed at two 1995 conferences: the Fourth World Conference on Women, held in Beijing, China, and the Congress of the World Association for Christian Communication, held in Puebla, Mexico. The globalization process facilitated by the mass media has served to increase the power of patriarchy, with no advantages to the cause of women's rights. Coverage of popular movements has been suppressed out of deference to male-controlled governments. Coverage of the Beijing Conference highlighted celebrities and personal stories, to the exclusion of the economic and political issues under debate. Television has commodified women, reinforcing their oppression. On the other hand, the alternative media, which tend to be decentralized, democratic, low-cost, and low in technology, are presenting women as subjects rather than objects and deconstructing gender stereotypes. Of concern, however, is the tendency of computer technology to widen the gap between social classes and developed and developing countries. Women must use information networks to disseminate information on women's rights and strengthen the links between women throughout the world.

  20. Generalized pure Lovelock gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, Patrick; Rodríguez, Evelyn

    2017-11-01

    We present a generalization of the n-dimensional (pure) Lovelock Gravity theory based on an enlarged Lorentz symmetry. In particular, we propose an alternative way to introduce a cosmological term. Interestingly, we show that the usual pure Lovelock gravity is recovered in a matter-free configuration. The five and six-dimensional cases are explicitly studied.

  1. Generalized pure Lovelock gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Concha

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a generalization of the n-dimensional (pure Lovelock Gravity theory based on an enlarged Lorentz symmetry. In particular, we propose an alternative way to introduce a cosmological term. Interestingly, we show that the usual pure Lovelock gravity is recovered in a matter-free configuration. The five and six-dimensional cases are explicitly studied.

  2. Conducting compositions of matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Tito (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The invention provides conductive compositions of matter, as well as methods for the preparation of the conductive compositions of matter, solutions comprising the conductive compositions of matter, and methods of preparing fibers or fabrics having improved anti-static properties employing the conductive compositions of matter.

  3. Quark Matter May Not Be Strange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdom, Bob; Ren, Jing; Zhang, Chen

    2018-06-01

    If quark matter is energetically favored over nuclear matter at zero temperature and pressure, then it has long been expected to take the form of strange quark matter (SQM), with comparable amounts of u, d, and s quarks. The possibility of quark matter with only u and d quarks (udQM) is usually dismissed because of the observed stability of ordinary nuclei. However, we find that udQM generally has lower bulk energy per baryon than normal nuclei and SQM. This emerges in a phenomenological model that describes the spectra of the lightest pseudoscalar and scalar meson nonets. Taking into account the finite size effects, udQM can be the ground state of baryonic matter only for baryon number A>A_{min} with A_{min}≳300. This ensures the stability of ordinary nuclei and points to a new form of stable matter just beyond the periodic table.

  4. Galactic signatures of decaying dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Le; Sigl, Guenter

    2009-05-01

    If dark matter decays into electrons and positrons, it can affect Galactic radio emissions and the local cosmic ray fluxes. We propose a new, more general analysis of constraints on dark matter. The constraints can be obtained for any decaying dark matter model by convolving the specific dark matter decay spectrum with a response function. We derive this response function from full-sky radio surveys at 408 MHz, 1.42 GHz and 23 GHz, as well as from the positron flux recently reported by PAMELA. We discuss the influence of astrophysical uncertainties on the response function, such as from propagation and from the profiles of the dark matter and the Galactic magnetic field. As an application, we find that some widely used dark matter decay scenarios can be ruled out under modest assumptions. (orig.)

  5. Natural Implementation of Neutralino Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    King, S F

    2006-01-01

    The prediction of neutralino dark matter is generally regarded as one of the successes of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). However the successful regions of parameter space allowed by WMAP and collider constraints are quite restricted. We discuss fine-tuning with respect to both dark matter and Electroweak Symmetry Breaking (EWSB) and explore regions of MSSM parameter space with non-universal gaugino and third family scalar masses in which neutralino dark matter may be implemented naturally. In particular allowing non-universal gauginos opens up the bulk region that allows Bino annihilation via t-channel slepton exchange, leading to ``supernatural dark matter'' corresponding to no fine-tuning at all with respect to dark matter. By contrast we find that the recently proposed ``well tempered neutralino'' regions involve substantial fine-tuning of MSSM parameters in order to satisfy the dark matter constraints, although the fine tuning may be ameliorated if several annihilation channels act simu...

  6. Galactic signatures of decaying dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Le; Sigl, Guenter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Redondo, Javier [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    If dark matter decays into electrons and positrons, it can affect Galactic radio emissions and the local cosmic ray fluxes. We propose a new, more general analysis of constraints on dark matter. The constraints can be obtained for any decaying dark matter model by convolving the specific dark matter decay spectrum with a response function. We derive this response function from full-sky radio surveys at 408 MHz, 1.42 GHz and 23 GHz, as well as from the positron flux recently reported by PAMELA. We discuss the influence of astrophysical uncertainties on the response function, such as from propagation and from the profiles of the dark matter and the Galactic magnetic field. As an application, we find that some widely used dark matter decay scenarios can be ruled out under modest assumptions. (orig.)

  7. Condensed elementary particle matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajantie, K.

    1996-01-01

    Quark matter is a special case of condensed elementary particle matter, matter governed by the laws of particle physics. The talk discusses how far one can get in the study of particle matter by reducing the problem to computations based on the action. As an example the computation of the phase diagram of electroweak matter is presented. It is quite possible that ultimately an antireductionist attitude will prevail: experiments will reveal unpredicted phenomena not obviously reducible to the study of the action. (orig.)

  8. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  9. Antiprotons are another matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hynes, M.V.

    1987-01-01

    Theories of gravity abound, whereas experiments in gravity are few in number. An important experiment in gravity that has not been performed is the measurement of the gravitational acceleration of antimatter. Although there have been attempts to infer these properties from those of normal matter, none of these theoretical arguments are compelling. Modern theories of gravity that attempt to unify gravity with the other forces of nature predict that in principle antimatter can fall differently than normal matter in the Earth's field. Some of these supergravity theories predict that antimatter will fall faster, and that normal matter will fall with a small Baryon-number dependance in the earth's field. All of these predictions violate the Weak Equivalence Principle, a cornerstone of General Relativity, but are consistent with CPT conservation. In our approved experiment at LEAR (PS-200) we will test the Weak Equivalence Principle for antimatter by measuring the gravitational acceleration of the antiproton. Through a series of deceleration stages, antiprotons from LEAR will be lowered in energy to ∼4 Kelvin at which energy the gravitational effect will be measureable. The measurement will employ the time-of-flight technique wherein the antiprotons are released vertically in a drift tube. The spectrum of time-of-flight measurements can be used to extract the gravitational acceleration experienced by the particles. The system will be calibrated using H - ions which simulates the electromagnetic behavior of the antiproton, yet is a baryon to ∼0.1%. To extract the gravitational acceleration of the antiproton relative to the H - ion with a statistical precision of 1% will require the release of ∼10 6 to 10 7 particles

  10. Antiprotons are another matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hynes, M.V.

    1988-01-01

    Theories of gravity abound whereas experiments in gravity are few in number. An important experiment in gravity that has not been performed is the measurement of the gravitational acceleration of antimatter. Although there have been attempts to infer this property from those of normal matter, none of these theoretical arguments are compelling. Modern theories of gravity that attempt to unify gravity with the other forces of nature predict that in principle antimatter can fall differently than normal matter in the Earth's field. Some of these supergravity theories predict that antimatter will fall faster and that normal matter will fall with a small Baryon-number dependence in the Earth's field. All of these predictions violate the Weak Equivalence Principle, a cornerstone of General Relativity, but are consistent with CPT conservation. In our approved experiment at LEAR (PS-200) we will test the Weak Equivalence Principle for antimatter by measuring the gravitational acceleration of the antiproton. Through a series of deceleration stages, antiprotons from LEAR will be lowered in energy to ≅ 4 Kelvin at which energy the gravitational effect will be measureable. The measurement will employ the time-of-flight technique wherein the antiprotons are released vertically in a drift tube. The spectrum of time-of-flight measurements can be used to extract the gravitational acceleration experienced by the particles. The system will be calibrated using H - ions which simulate the electromagnetic behavior of the antiproton yet are baryons to ≅ 0.1%. To extract the gravitational acceleration of the antiproton relative to the H - ion with a statistical precision of 1% will require the release of ≅ 10 6 -10 7 particles. (orig.)

  11. Contrast between white and grey matter: MRI appearance with ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnaldi, S.; Ukmar, M.; Vasciaveo, A.; Longo, R.; Pozzi-Mucelli, R.S.

    1993-01-01

    MRI contrast between white and grey matter appears to be higher in young normal subjects than in older patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible relationships between these changes in contrast and ageing. It consisted of two parts. In the first part we retrospectively evaluated 140 MRI brain examinations of healthy subjects, 20 per decade (age range 20-90 years), in whom the contrast was subjectively scored. In the second part we prospectively measured the actual T1, spin density (SD) and T2 values of white and grey matter in another 22 healthy subjects (age range 20-80 years). In the first group of subjects a progressive decrease in white/grey matter contrast was observed with ageing. In the second group of subjects the T1, SD and T2 values of white matter were always shorter than those of grey matter. There is a close relation among T1, SD and T2 values of white and grey matter with ageing. We suggest that there is a progressive loss of white/grey matter contrast with ageing. Such a phenomenon is possibly due to an increased water content in the white matter and the progressive neuronal loss in the grey matter that occurs with age. (orig.)

  12. Compact bifluid hybrid stars: hadronic matter mixed with self-interacting fermionic asymmetric dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, Somnath; Basu, D.N. [HBNI, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata (India); Atta, Debasis [HBNI, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata (India); Government General Degree College, West Bengal (India); Imam, Kouser [HBNI, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata (India); Aliah University, Department of Physics, Kolkata (India); Samanta, C. [Virginia Military Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lexington, VA (United States)

    2017-07-15

    The masses and radii of non-rotating and rotating configurations of pure hadronic stars mixed with self-interacting fermionic asymmetric dark matter are calculated within the two-fluid formalism of stellar structure equations in general relativity. The Equation of State (EoS) of nuclear matter is obtained from the density dependent M3Y effective nucleon-nucleon interaction. We consider the dark matter particle mass of 1 GeV. The EoS of self-interacting dark matter is taken from two-body repulsive interactions of the scale of strong interactions. We explore the conditions of equal and different rotational frequencies of nuclear matter and dark matter and find that the maximum mass of differentially rotating stars with self-interacting dark matter to be ∝1.94 M {sub CircleDot} with radius ∝10.4 km. (orig.)

  13. Spectral properties of nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozek, P

    2006-01-01

    We review self-consistent spectral methods for nuclear matter calculations. The in-medium T-matrix approach is conserving and thermodynamically consistent. It gives both the global and the single-particle properties the system. The T-matrix approximation allows to address the pairing phenomenon in cold nuclear matter. A generalization of nuclear matter calculations to the super.uid phase is discussed and numerical results are presented for this case. The linear response of a correlated system going beyond the Hartree-Fock+ Random-Phase-Approximation (RPA) scheme is studied. The polarization is obtained by solving a consistent Bethe-Salpeter (BS) equation for the coupling of dressed nucleons to an external field. We find that multipair contributions are important for the spin(isospin) response when the interaction is spin(isospin) dependent

  14. 32 CFR 776.66 - Bar admission and disciplinary matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bar admission and disciplinary matters. 776.66... ADVOCATE GENERAL Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.66 Bar admission and disciplinary matters. (a) Bar admission and disciplinary matters. A covered attorney, in connection with any application for bar admission...

  15. Commission on Legal Matters

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    What is a commission within the Staff Association (SA)? A commission is a working group of the CERN Staff Council, led by a staff representative. The commission is composed mainly of staff representatives, but interested members of the SA can apply to participate in the work of a commission. What is the commission on legal matters? The commission on legal matters works on texts governing the employment conditions of staff (Employed Members of Personnel and Associated Members of Personnel). This covers legal documents such as the Staff Rules and Regulations, administrative and operational circulars, as well as any other document relating to employment conditions. How is the work organised in this commission? The revision process of the text is generally done along following lines: The HR department, and its legal experts, proposes new texts or modifications to existing texts. A schedule for the study of these texts is established each year and this calendar by the commission to plan its work. The new or modi...

  16. Features of the Subject Domain of Historical Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    V A Koltsova

    2008-01-01

    The known psychologist, the author of a number of important works on methodology of psychological science as a whole and historical psychology, in particular, considers pressing matters of the formation of historical psychology. Her attention is drawn to such matters, as the subject, structure and method of arising intersubject branch of knowledge - historical psychology.

  17. The structural neural substrate of subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Kubota, Yasutaka; Sawada, Reiko; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-11-20

    Happiness is a subjective experience that is an ultimate goal for humans. Psychological studies have shown that subjective happiness can be measured reliably and consists of emotional and cognitive components. However, the neural substrates of subjective happiness remain unclear. To investigate this issue, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging and questionnaires that assessed subjective happiness, the intensity of positive and negative emotional experiences, and purpose in life. We found a positive relationship between the subjective happiness score and gray matter volume in the right precuneus. Moreover, the same region showed an association with the combined positive and negative emotional intensity and purpose in life scores. Our findings suggest that the precuneus mediates subjective happiness by integrating the emotional and cognitive components of happiness.

  18. Right Fronto-Subcortical White Matter Microstructure Predicts Cognitive Control Ability on the Go/No-go Task in a Community Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Kendra E; Lahey, Benjamin B; Villalta-Gil, Victoria; Boyd, Brian D; Yvernault, Benjamin C; Werts, Katherine B; Plassard, Andrew J; Applegate, Brooks; Woodward, Neil D; Landman, Bennett A; Zald, David H

    2018-01-01

    Go/no-go tasks are widely used to index cognitive control. This construct has been linked to white matter microstructure in a circuit connecting the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), subthalamic nucleus (STN), and pre-supplementary motor area. However, the specificity of this association has not been tested. A general factor of white matter has been identified that is related to processing speed. Given the strong processing speed component in successful performance on the go/no-go task, this general factor could contribute to task performance, but the general factor has often not been accounted for in past studies of cognitive control. Further, studies on cognitive control have generally employed small unrepresentative case-control designs. The present study examined the relationship between go/no-go performance and white matter microstructure in a large community sample of 378 subjects that included participants with a range of both clinical and subclinical nonpsychotic psychopathology. We found that white matter microstructure properties in the right IFG-STN tract significantly predicted task performance, and remained significant after controlling for dimensional psychopathology. The general factor of white matter only reached statistical significance when controlling for dimensional psychopathology. Although the IFG-STN and general factor tracts were highly correlated, when both were included in the model, only the IFG-STN remained a significant predictor of performance. Overall, these findings suggest that while a general factor of white matter can be identified in a young community sample, white matter microstructure properties in the right IFG-STN tract show a specific relationship to cognitive control. The findings highlight the importance of examining both specific and general correlates of cognition, especially in tasks with a speeded component.

  19. Molecular dynamics for dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Toshiki; Chiba, Satoshi; Watanabe, Gentaro

    2012-01-01

    We review a molecular dynamics method for nucleon many-body systems called quantum molecular dynamics (QMD), and our studies using this method. These studies address the structure and the dynamics of nuclear matter relevant to neutron star crusts, supernova cores, and heavy-ion collisions. A key advantage of QMD is that we can study dynamical processes of nucleon many-body systems without any assumptions about the nuclear structure. First, we focus on the inhomogeneous structures of low-density nuclear matter consisting not only of spherical nuclei but also of nuclear “pasta”, i.e., rod-like and slab-like nuclei. We show that pasta phases can appear in the ground and equilibrium states of nuclear matter without assuming nuclear shape. Next, we show our simulation of compression of nuclear matter which corresponds to the collapsing stage of supernovae. With the increase in density, a crystalline solid of spherical nuclei changes to a triangular lattice of rods by connecting neighboring nuclei. Finally, we discuss fragment formation in expanding nuclear matter. Our results suggest that a generally accepted scenario based on the liquid–gas phase transition is not plausible at lower temperatures. (author)

  20. Molecular dynamics for dense matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Toshiki; Watanabe, Gentaro; Chiba, Satoshi

    2012-08-01

    We review a molecular dynamics method for nucleon many-body systems called quantum molecular dynamics (QMD), and our studies using this method. These studies address the structure and the dynamics of nuclear matter relevant to neutron star crusts, supernova cores, and heavy-ion collisions. A key advantage of QMD is that we can study dynamical processes of nucleon many-body systems without any assumptions about the nuclear structure. First, we focus on the inhomogeneous structures of low-density nuclear matter consisting not only of spherical nuclei but also of nuclear "pasta", i.e., rod-like and slab-like nuclei. We show that pasta phases can appear in the ground and equilibrium states of nuclear matter without assuming nuclear shape. Next, we show our simulation of compression of nuclear matter which corresponds to the collapsing stage of supernovae. With the increase in density, a crystalline solid of spherical nuclei changes to a triangular lattice of rods by connecting neighboring nuclei. Finally, we discuss fragment formation in expanding nuclear matter. Our results suggest that a generally accepted scenario based on the liquid-gas phase transition is not plausible at lower temperatures.

  1. Supergravity and matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamietz, P.; Binetruy, P.; Girardi, G.; Grimm, R.

    1992-07-01

    The properties of a linear multiplet in interaction with supergravity and matter are presented, with a special emphasis on the coupling of Chern-Simons forms, relevant for the problem of the chiral and conformal anomalies in relation with Kaehler transformations and the corresponding anomaly cancellations. The linear supermultiplet describes an antisymmetric tensor gauge field together with a dilaton and a Majorana spinor. In particular, these fields are found among the massless modes of superstring theories. The general properties of this supermultiplet is reviewed in the Kaehler superspace formalism and the complete supersymmetric action is constructed. This includes the classically Kaehler invariant component field action for all the kinetic terms as well as a Green-Schwarz type action which exhibits a non-holomorphic gauge coupling function. (author) 32 refs

  2. Atrophy of gray and white matters in the brain during aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Shumpei; Matsuzawa, Taiju; Ito, Hisao.

    1984-01-01

    We studied atrophy of gray and white matter during aging in 57 males and 44 females with no neurological disturbances using x-ray computed tomography. The ages ranged from 12 to 80 years. Brain atrophy was expressed as brain volume index: 100% x [(brain volume/cranial cavity volume) in individual subjects]/[(brain volume/cranial cavity volume) in normal subjects of 20-39 years]. Atrophy of gray and white matter volume was expressed as gray and white matter volume indices: 100% x (apparent gray or white matter volume index in individual subjects)/(apparent gray or white matter volume index in normal subjects whose brain volume index was greater than 98%), where apparent gray and white matter volume indices were expressed as 100% x [(gray or white matter volume/cranial cavity volume) in individual subjects]/[(gray or white matter volume/cranial cavity volume) in normal subjects of 20-39 years]. Both the gray and white matter volume indices changed proportionally to the brain volume index (p<0.001). As the brain atrophy advanced, the gray matter volume index decreased more than the white matter volume index (P<0.001). Decrease in the gray and white matter volume indices was statistically significant only in seventies (P<0.002 for gray matter, P<0.05 for white matter). (author)

  3. Soil organic matter studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A total of 77 papers were presented and discussed during this symposium, 37 are included in this Volume II. The topics covered in this volume include: biochemical transformation of organic matter in soils; bitumens in soil organic matter; characterization of humic acids; carbon dating of organic matter in soils; use of modern techniques in soil organic matter research; use of municipal sludge with special reference to heavy metals constituents, soil nitrogen, and physical and chemical properties of soils; relationship of soil organic matter and plant metabolism; interaction between agrochemicals and organic matter; and peat. Separate entries have been prepared for those 20 papers which discuss the use of nuclear techniques in these studies

  4. Generalized Garvan's formulas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zuevsky, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2016), s. 225-231 ISSN 1942-5600 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : modular discriminant * Fay's trisecant identities * modular forms Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics

  5. Anisotropic superfluidity of hadronic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela Flores, J.

    1977-10-01

    From a model of strong interactions with important general features (f-g model) and from recent experiments of Rudnick and co-workers on thin films of helium II, hadronic matter is considered as a new manifestation of anisotropic superfluidity. In order to test the validity of the suggestion, some qualitative features of multiparticle production of hadrons are considered, and found to have a natural explanation. A prediction is made following a recent experiment on π + p collisions

  6. Elementary Atom Interaction with Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Mrowczynski, Stanislaw

    1998-01-01

    The calculations of the elementary atom (the Coulomb bound state of elementary particles) interaction with the atom of matter, which are performed in the Born approximation, are reviewed. We first discuss the nonrelativistic approach and then its relativistic generalization. The cross section of the elementary atom excitation and ionization as well as the total cross section are considered. A specific selection rule, which applies for the atom formed as positronium by particle-antiparticle pa...

  7. Geometrization of the electromagnetic field and dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestov, I.B.

    2005-01-01

    A general concept of potential field is introduced. The potential field that one puts in correspondence with dark matter, has fundamental geometrical interpretation (parallel transport) and has intrinsically inherent local symmetry. The equations of dark matter field are derived that are invariant with respect to the local transformations. It is shown how to reduce these equations to the Maxwell equations. Thus, the dark matter field may be considered as generalized electromagnetic field and a simple solution of the old problem is given to connect electromagnetic field with geometrical properties of the physical manifold itself. It is shown that gauge fixing renders generalized electromagnetic field effectively massive while the Maxwell electromagnetic field remains massless. To learn more about interactions between matter and dark matter on the microscopical level (and to recognize the fundamental role of internal symmetry) the general covariant Dirac equation is derived in the Minkowski space-time which describes the interactions of spinor field with dark matter field

  8. Baryonic Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Silk, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    In the first two of these lectures, I present the evidence for baryonic dark matter and describe possible forms that it may take. The final lecture discusses formation of baryonic dark matter, and sets the cosmological context.

  9. Grammar of the matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the author describes the structure of the matter and presents the families of elementary particles (fermions) and the interaction messengers (bosons) with their properties. He presents the actual status and future trends of research on nuclear matter

  10. Dark matter detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, G.

    1995-01-01

    A fundamental question of astrophysics and cosmology is the nature of dark matter. Astrophysical observations show clearly the existence of some kind of dark matter, though they cannot yet reveal its nature. Dark matter can consist of baryonic particles, or of other (known or unknown) elementary particles. Baryonic dark matter probably exists in the form of dust, gas, or small stars. Other elementary particles constituting the dark matter can possibly be measured in terrestrial experiments. Possibilities for dark matter particles are neutrinos, axions and weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). While a direct detection of relic neutrinos seems at the moment impossible, there are experiments looking for baryonic dark matter in the form of Massive Compact Halo Objects, and for particle dark matter in the form of axions and WIMPS. (orig.)

  11. The pursuit of dark matter at colliders—an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penning, Björn

    2018-06-01

    Dark matter is one of the main puzzles in fundamental physics and the goal of a diverse, multi-pronged research programme. Underground and astrophysical searches look for dark matter particles in the cosmos, either by interacting directly or by searching for dark matter annihilation. Particle colliders, in contrast, might produce dark matter in the laboratory and are able to probe most basic dark-matter–matter interactions. They are sensitive to low dark matter masses, provide complementary information at higher masses and are subject to different systematic uncertainties. Collider searches are therefore an important part of an inter-disciplinary dark matter search strategy. This article highlights the experimental and phenomenological development in collider dark matter searches of recent years and their connection with the wider field.

  12. Dence Cold Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavinskiy Alexey

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Possible way to create dense cold baryonic matter in the laboratory is discussed. The density of this matter is comparable or even larger than the density of neutron star core. The properties of this matter can be controlled by trigger conditions. Experimental program for the study of properties of dense cold matter for light and heavy ion collisions at initial energy range √sNN~2-3GeV is proposed..

  13. 商業方法軟體專利之標的適格性研究 ― 以比較法之研究為中心 The Patentable Subject Matter of Business Method Patents: An Analysis from a Perspective on Comparative Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    吉玉成 Yuh-Cherng Jyi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available 本文於第2 部分先就商業方法軟體依軟體系統之架構予以定義,以觀察其特殊性,並作為發明專利標的適格分析之基礎。第3 部分則概述商業方法軟體之施以專利保護,對產業與專利審查實務所造成之影響。第4 部分係探討商業方法軟體是否得為發明專利之標的,而依次簡介美國法之規定與實務見解、日本特許法之規定與特許廳之態度、歐洲專利公約與專利局之立場,並由我國專利法之規定,論述絕大多數之商業方法軟體專利,其發明專利之標的適格性乃有欠缺;另就我國智慧財產局所公布之「電腦軟體相關發明專利審查基準」加以探討,及提出個人淺見,並就智慧財產局已核准商業方法軟體專利之實例,予以個案分析。第5 部分則提出個人對商業方法軟體專利之淺見及對我國未來專利保護方向之芻議,以為結 論。 This thesis first in Chapter II defines and identifies business method software under modern computer software architecture so as to form the foundation on which the patentable subject matter of business method software can be further analyzed. In Chapter III follows an overview of how patenting business method software impacts on industry and patent examination practice. Chapter IV analyzes whether business method software qualifies as patentable subject matter from a perspective on comparative legal research in American laws, Japanese laws and the European Patent Convention, and explicates that most of the business method patents granted are unqualified under the interpretation of current ROC Patent Law; this Chapter also reviews the “Examination Guidelines for Computer- Related Software Inventions” promulgated by the Intellectual Property Office from a different perspective and illustrates thereof with a business method patent granted by the Intellectual Property Office. Chapter V concludes this

  14. Nonthermal Supermassive Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Kolb, Edward W.; Riotto, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    We discuss several cosmological production mechanisms for nonthermal supermassive dark matter and argue that dark matter may he elementary particles of mass much greater than the weak scale. Searches for dark matter should ma be limited to weakly interacting particles with mass of the order of the weak scale, but should extend into the supermassive range as well.

  15. Nonthermal Supermassive Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, D.J.; Chung, D.J.; Kolb, E.W.; Kolb, E.W.; Riotto, A.

    1998-01-01

    We discuss several cosmological production mechanisms for nonthermal supermassive dark matter and argue that dark matter may be elementary particles of mass much greater than the weak scale. Searches for dark matter should not be limited to weakly interacting particles with mass of the order of the weak scale, but should extend into the supermassive range as well. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  16. Nonthermal Supermassive Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Kolb, Edward W.; Riotto, Antonio

    1998-01-01

    We discuss several cosmological production mechanisms for nonthermal supermassive dark matter and argue that dark matter may be elementary particles of mass much greater than the weak scale. Searches for dark matter should not be limited to weakly interacting particles with mass of the order of the weak scale, but should extend into the supermassive range as well.

  17. Matter and Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Karam, P Andrew

    2011-01-01

    In Matter and Energy, readers will learn about the many forms of energy, the wide variety of particles in nature, and Albert Einstein's world-changing realization of how matter can be changed into pure energy. The book also examines the recent discoveries of dark matter and dark energy and the future of the universe.

  18. Motives matter: a cultural historical approach to IT mediated subject matter teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenild, Kåre; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2011-01-01

    The contributors to this collection employ the analytic resources of cultural-historical theory to examine the relationship between childhood and children's development under different societal conditions. In particular they attend to relationships between development, emotions, motives and ident...... and identities, and the social practices in which children and young people may be learners. These practices are knowledge-laden, imbued with cultural values and emotionally freighted by those who already act in them.......The contributors to this collection employ the analytic resources of cultural-historical theory to examine the relationship between childhood and children's development under different societal conditions. In particular they attend to relationships between development, emotions, motives...

  19. Evidence for Functional Networks within the Human Brain's White Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, Michael; Nitzan, Mor; Bick, Atira S; Levin, Netta; Arzy, Shahar

    2017-07-05

    Investigation of the functional macro-scale organization of the human cortex is fundamental in modern neuroscience. Although numerous studies have identified networks of interacting functional modules in the gray-matter, limited research was directed to the functional organization of the white-matter. Recent studies have demonstrated that the white-matter exhibits blood oxygen level-dependent signal fluctuations similar to those of the gray-matter. Here we used these signal fluctuations to investigate whether the white-matter is organized as functional networks by applying a clustering analysis on resting-state functional MRI (RSfMRI) data from white-matter voxels, in 176 subjects (of both sexes). This analysis indicated the existence of 12 symmetrical white-matter functional networks, corresponding to combinations of white-matter tracts identified by diffusion tensor imaging. Six of the networks included interhemispheric commissural bridges traversing the corpus callosum. Signals in white-matter networks correlated with signals from functional gray-matter networks, providing missing knowledge on how these distributed networks communicate across large distances. These findings were replicated in an independent subject group and were corroborated by seed-based analysis in small groups and individual subjects. The identified white-matter functional atlases and analysis codes are available at http://mind.huji.ac.il/white-matter.aspx Our results demonstrate that the white-matter manifests an intrinsic functional organization as interacting networks of functional modules, similarly to the gray-matter, which can be investigated using RSfMRI. The discovery of functional networks within the white-matter may open new avenues of research in cognitive neuroscience and clinical neuropsychiatry. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In recent years, functional MRI (fMRI) has revolutionized all fields of neuroscience, enabling identifications of functional modules and networks in the human

  20. Dark matter influence on black objects thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogatko, Marek; Wojnar, Aneta

    2018-05-01

    Physical process version of the first law of black hole thermodynamics in Einstein-Maxwell dark matter gravity was derived. The dark matter sector is mimicked by the additional U(1)-gauge field coupled to the ordinary Maxwell one. By considering any cross section of the black hole event horizon to the future of the bifurcation surface, the equilibrium state version of the first law of black hole mechanics was achieved. The considerations were generalized to the case of Einstein-Yang-Mills dark matter gravity theory. The main conclusion is that the influence of dark matter is crucial in the formation process of black objects. This fact may constitute the explanation of the recent observations of the enormous mass of the super luminous quasars formed in a relatively short time after Big Bang. We also pay attention to the compact binaries thermodynamics, when dark matter sector enters the game.

  1. Ecosecent:: Essence, Subject and Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozachenko Hanna V.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that due to multi-laterality the knowledge about security is distributed by various branches, one of which is ecosestate, within which conditions of secure functioning of socio-economic systems and methods of their provision are studied. It shows the essence of ecosecent as a component of the “state – region (branch – subject of economic activity” ecosestate vertical – a set of knowledge about economic security of subjects of economic activity. It considers reasons that cause establishment of ecosecent: practical needs and a necessity to reconsider basic concepts of the essence, limits and factors of economy. It formulates the subject of ecosecent. It considers the status of the “economic security of the subject of economic activity” notion as its state, described with a set of parameters or characteristic features as characteristics of the subject of economic activity as a condition of its activity and as a set of actions that allow ensuring or preservation of the state of security, in other words, protection of the subject of economic activity. It presents general approaches to structuring of ecosecent by activity, functional and branch features.

  2. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  3. Cosmological tests of general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hut, P.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that the general relativity theory could be tested on a cosmological scale by measuring the Hubble constant and the deceleration parameter, if, in addition, everything could be known about the matter filling the universe. If, on the other hand, nothing could be presupposed about the matter content of the universe general relativity could not be tested by measuring any number of time derivatives of the scale factor. But upon making the assumption of a universe filled with non-interacting mixture of non-relativistic matter and radiation general relativity can in principle be tested by measuring the first five derivatives of the scale factor. Some general relations are here presented using this assumption. (author)

  4. Secretly asymmetric dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Prateek; Kilic, Can; Swaminathan, Sivaramakrishnan; Trendafilova, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    We study a mechanism where the dark matter number density today arises from asymmetries generated in the dark sector in the early Universe, even though the total dark matter number remains zero throughout the history of the Universe. The dark matter population today can be completely symmetric, with annihilation rates above those expected from thermal weakly interacting massive particles. We give a simple example of this mechanism using a benchmark model of flavored dark matter. We discuss the experimental signatures of this setup, which arise mainly from the sector that annihilates the symmetric component of dark matter.

  5. Dark Matter Caustics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, Aravind

    2010-01-01

    The continuous infall of dark matter with low velocity dispersion in galactic halos leads to the formation of high density structures called caustics. Dark matter caustics are of two kinds : outer and inner. Outer caustics are thin spherical shells surrounding galaxies while inner caustics have a more complicated structure that depends on the dark matter angular momentum distribution. The presence of a dark matter caustic in the plane of the galaxy modifies the gas density in its neighborhood which may lead to observable effects. Caustics are also relevant to direct and indirect dark matter searches.

  6. Dark Matter Searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Shigetaka

    2008-01-01

    Recent cosmological as well as historical observations of rotational curves of galaxies strongly suggest the existence of dark matter. It is also widely believed that dark matter consists of unknown elementary particles. However, astrophysical observations based on gravitational effects alone do not provide sufficient information on the properties of dark matter. In this study, the status of dark matter searches is investigated by observing high-energy neutrinos from the sun and the earth and by observing nuclear recoils in laboratory targets. The successful detection of dark matter by these methods facilitates systematic studies of its properties. Finally, the XMASS experiment, which is due to start at the Kamioka Observatory, is introduced

  7. Impeded Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence & Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics,Johannes Gutenberg University,Staudingerweg 7, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Slatyer, Tracy R. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Wang, Xiao-Ping [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence & Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics,Johannes Gutenberg University,Staudingerweg 7, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Xue, Wei [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-12-12

    We consider dark matter models in which the mass splitting between the dark matter particles and their annihilation products is tiny. Compared to the previously proposed Forbidden Dark Matter scenario, the mass splittings we consider are much smaller, and are allowed to be either positive or negative. To emphasize this modification, we dub our scenario “Impeded Dark Matter”. We demonstrate that Impeded Dark Matter can be easily realized without requiring tuning of model parameters. For negative mass splitting, we demonstrate that the annihilation cross-section for Impeded Dark Matter depends linearly on the dark matter velocity or may even be kinematically forbidden, making this scenario almost insensitive to constraints from the cosmic microwave background and from observations of dwarf galaxies. Accordingly, it may be possible for Impeded Dark Matter to yield observable signals in clusters or the Galactic center, with no corresponding signal in dwarfs. For positive mass splitting, we show that the annihilation cross-section is suppressed by the small mass splitting, which helps light dark matter to survive increasingly stringent constraints from indirect searches. As specific realizations for Impeded Dark Matter, we introduce a model of vector dark matter from a hidden SU(2) sector, and a composite dark matter scenario based on a QCD-like dark sector.

  8. Impeded Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia; Slatyer, Tracy R.; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Xue, Wei

    2016-01-01

    We consider dark matter models in which the mass splitting between the dark matter particles and their annihilation products is tiny. Compared to the previously proposed Forbidden Dark Matter scenario, the mass splittings we consider are much smaller, and are allowed to be either positive or negative. To emphasize this modification, we dub our scenario “Impeded Dark Matter”. We demonstrate that Impeded Dark Matter can be easily realized without requiring tuning of model parameters. For negative mass splitting, we demonstrate that the annihilation cross-section for Impeded Dark Matter depends linearly on the dark matter velocity or may even be kinematically forbidden, making this scenario almost insensitive to constraints from the cosmic microwave background and from observations of dwarf galaxies. Accordingly, it may be possible for Impeded Dark Matter to yield observable signals in clusters or the Galactic center, with no corresponding signal in dwarfs. For positive mass splitting, we show that the annihilation cross-section is suppressed by the small mass splitting, which helps light dark matter to survive increasingly stringent constraints from indirect searches. As specific realizations for Impeded Dark Matter, we introduce a model of vector dark matter from a hidden SU(2) sector, and a composite dark matter scenario based on a QCD-like dark sector.

  9. Collapsed Dark Matter Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Matthew R; DiFranzo, Anthony

    2018-02-02

    The distributions of dark matter and baryons in the Universe are known to be very different: The dark matter resides in extended halos, while a significant fraction of the baryons have radiated away much of their initial energy and fallen deep into the potential wells. This difference in morphology leads to the widely held conclusion that dark matter cannot cool and collapse on any scale. We revisit this assumption and show that a simple model where dark matter is charged under a "dark electromagnetism" can allow dark matter to form gravitationally collapsed objects with characteristic mass scales much smaller than that of a Milky-Way-type galaxy. Though the majority of the dark matter in spiral galaxies would remain in the halo, such a model opens the possibility that galaxies and their associated dark matter play host to a significant number of collapsed substructures. The observational signatures of such structures are not well explored but potentially interesting.

  10. Collapsed Dark Matter Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Matthew R.; DiFranzo, Anthony

    2018-02-01

    The distributions of dark matter and baryons in the Universe are known to be very different: The dark matter resides in extended halos, while a significant fraction of the baryons have radiated away much of their initial energy and fallen deep into the potential wells. This difference in morphology leads to the widely held conclusion that dark matter cannot cool and collapse on any scale. We revisit this assumption and show that a simple model where dark matter is charged under a "dark electromagnetism" can allow dark matter to form gravitationally collapsed objects with characteristic mass scales much smaller than that of a Milky-Way-type galaxy. Though the majority of the dark matter in spiral galaxies would remain in the halo, such a model opens the possibility that galaxies and their associated dark matter play host to a significant number of collapsed substructures. The observational signatures of such structures are not well explored but potentially interesting.

  11. A galaxy lacking dark matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dokkum, Pieter; Danieli, Shany; Cohen, Yotam; Merritt, Allison; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Abraham, Roberto; Brodie, Jean; Conroy, Charlie; Lokhorst, Deborah; Mowla, Lamiya; O'Sullivan, Ewan; Zhang, Jielai

    2018-03-28

    Studies of galaxy surveys in the context of the cold dark matter paradigm have shown that the mass of the dark matter halo and the total stellar mass are coupled through a function that varies smoothly with mass. Their average ratio M halo /M stars has a minimum of about 30 for galaxies with stellar masses near that of the Milky Way (approximately 5 × 10 10 solar masses) and increases both towards lower masses and towards higher masses. The scatter in this relation is not well known; it is generally thought to be less than a factor of two for massive galaxies but much larger for dwarf galaxies. Here we report the radial velocities of ten luminous globular-cluster-like objects in the ultra-diffuse galaxy NGC1052-DF2, which has a stellar mass of approximately 2 × 10 8 solar masses. We infer that its velocity dispersion is less than 10.5 kilometres per second with 90 per cent confidence, and we determine from this that its total mass within a radius of 7.6 kiloparsecs is less than 3.4 × 10 8 solar masses. This implies that the ratio M halo /M stars is of order unity (and consistent with zero), a factor of at least 400 lower than expected. NGC1052-DF2 demonstrates that dark matter is not always coupled with baryonic matter on galactic scales.

  12. A galaxy lacking dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dokkum, Pieter; Danieli, Shany; Cohen, Yotam; Merritt, Allison; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Abraham, Roberto; Brodie, Jean; Conroy, Charlie; Lokhorst, Deborah; Mowla, Lamiya; O'Sullivan, Ewan; Zhang, Jielai

    2018-03-01

    Studies of galaxy surveys in the context of the cold dark matter paradigm have shown that the mass of the dark matter halo and the total stellar mass are coupled through a function that varies smoothly with mass. Their average ratio Mhalo/Mstars has a minimum of about 30 for galaxies with stellar masses near that of the Milky Way (approximately 5 × 1010 solar masses) and increases both towards lower masses and towards higher masses. The scatter in this relation is not well known; it is generally thought to be less than a factor of two for massive galaxies but much larger for dwarf galaxies. Here we report the radial velocities of ten luminous globular-cluster-like objects in the ultra-diffuse galaxy NGC1052–DF2, which has a stellar mass of approximately 2 × 108 solar masses. We infer that its velocity dispersion is less than 10.5 kilometres per second with 90 per cent confidence, and we determine from this that its total mass within a radius of 7.6 kiloparsecs is less than 3.4 × 108 solar masses. This implies that the ratio Mhalo/Mstars is of order unity (and consistent with zero), a factor of at least 400 lower than expected. NGC1052–DF2 demonstrates that dark matter is not always coupled with baryonic matter on galactic scales.

  13. Constraints on hadronically decaying dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garny, Mathias [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Ibarra, Alejandro [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Tran, David [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States). School of Physics and Astronomy

    2012-05-15

    We present general constraints on dark matter stability in hadronic decay channels derived from measurements of cosmic-ray antiprotons.We analyze various hadronic decay modes in a model-independent manner by examining the lowest-order decays allowed by gauge and Lorentz invariance for scalar and fermionic dark matter particles and present the corresponding lower bounds on the partial decay lifetimes in those channels. We also investigate the complementarity between hadronic and gamma-ray constraints derived from searches for monochromatic lines in the sky, which can be produced at the quantum level if the dark matter decays into quark-antiquark pairs at leading order.

  14. Constraints on hadronically decaying dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garny, Mathias; Ibarra, Alejandro; Tran, David; Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN

    2012-05-01

    We present general constraints on dark matter stability in hadronic decay channels derived from measurements of cosmic-ray antiprotons.We analyze various hadronic decay modes in a model-independent manner by examining the lowest-order decays allowed by gauge and Lorentz invariance for scalar and fermionic dark matter particles and present the corresponding lower bounds on the partial decay lifetimes in those channels. We also investigate the complementarity between hadronic and gamma-ray constraints derived from searches for monochromatic lines in the sky, which can be produced at the quantum level if the dark matter decays into quark-antiquark pairs at leading order.

  15. Generalized elementary functions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Monteiro, Giselle Antunes; Slavík, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 411, č. 2 (2014), s. 838-852 ISSN 0022-247X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : elementary functions * Kurzweil-Stieltjes integral * generalized linear ordinary differential equations * time scale calculus Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.120, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022247X13009141

  16. Natural implementation of neutralino dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Steve F.; Roberts, Jonathan P.

    2006-01-01

    The prediction of neutralino dark matter is generally regarded as one of the successes of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). However the successful regions of parameter space allowed by WMAP and collider constraints are quite restricted. We discuss fine-tuning with respect to both dark matter and Electroweak Symmetry Breaking (EWSB) and explore regions of MSSM parameter space with non-universal gaugino and third family scalar masses in which neutralino dark matter may be implemented naturally. In particular allowing non-universal gauginos opens up the bulk region that allows Bino annihilation via t-channel slepton exchange, leading to 'supernatural dark matter' corresponding to no fine-tuning at all with respect to dark matter. By contrast we find that the recently proposed 'well tempered neutralino' regions involve substantial fine-tuning of MSSM parameters in order to satisfy the dark matter constraints, although the fine tuning may be ameliorated if several annihilation channels act simultaneously. Although we have identified regions of 'supernatural dark matter' in which there is no fine tuning to achieve successful dark matter, the usual MSSM fine tuning to achieve EWSB always remains

  17. Natural implementation of neutralino dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Steve F.; Roberts, Jonathan P.

    2006-09-01

    The prediction of neutralino dark matter is generally regarded as one of the successes of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). However the successful regions of parameter space allowed by WMAP and collider constraints are quite restricted. We discuss fine-tuning with respect to both dark matter and Electroweak Symmetry Breaking (EWSB) and explore regions of MSSM parameter space with non-universal gaugino and third family scalar masses in which neutralino dark matter may be implemented naturally. In particular allowing non-universal gauginos opens up the bulk region that allows Bino annihilation via t-channel slepton exchange, leading to ``supernatural dark matter'' corresponding to no fine-tuning at all with respect to dark matter. By contrast we find that the recently proposed ``well tempered neutralino'' regions involve substantial fine-tuning of MSSM parameters in order to satisfy the dark matter constraints, although the fine tuning may be ameliorated if several annihilation channels act simultaneously. Although we have identified regions of ``supernatural dark matter'' in which there is no fine tuning to achieve successful dark matter, the usual MSSM fine tuning to achieve EWSB always remains.

  18. General Relativity and Gravitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, J.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The General Theory of Relativity (GR), created by Albert Einstein between 1907 and 1915, is a theory both of gravitation and of spacetime structure. It is based on the assumption that matter, via its energy-momentum, interacts with the metric of spacetime, which is considered (in contrast to Newtonian physics and SPECIAL RELATIVITY) as a dynamical field having degrees of freedom of its own (GRAVI...

  19. Strategies for dark matter detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.

    1988-01-01

    The present status of alternative forms of dark matter, both baryonic and nonbaryonic, is reviewed. Alternative arguments are presented for the predominance of either cold dark matter (CDM) or of baryonic dark matter (BDM). Strategies are described for dark matter detection, both for dark matter that consists of weakly interacting relic particles and for dark matter that consists of dark stellar remnants

  20. White matter connectivity and Internet gaming disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Bum Seok; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Lee, Sang Won; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2017-01-01

    Internet use and on-line game play stimulate corticostriatal-limbic circuitry in both healthy subjects and subjects with Internet gaming disorder (IGD). We hypothesized that increased fractional anisotropy (FA) with decreased radial diffusivity (RD) would be observed in IGD subjects, compared with healthy control subjects, and that these white matter indices would be associated with clinical variables including duration of illness and executive function. We screened 181 male patients in order to recruit a large number (n = 58) of IGD subjects without psychiatric co-morbidity as well as 26 male healthy comparison subjects. Multiple diffusion-weighted images were acquired using a 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Tract-based spatial statistics was applied to compare group differences in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics between IGD and healthy comparison subjects. IGD subjects had increased FA values within forceps minor, right anterior thalamic radiation, right corticospinal tract, right inferior longitudinal fasciculus, right cingulum to hippocampus and right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) as well as parallel decreases in RD value within forceps minor, right anterior thalamic radiation and IFOF relative to healthy control subjects. In addition, the duration of illness in IGD subjects was positively correlated with the FA values (integrity of white matter fibers) and negatively correlated with RD scores (diffusivity of axonal density) of whole brain white matter. In IGD subjects without psychiatric co-morbidity, our DTI results suggest that increased myelination (increased FA and decreased RD values) in right-sided frontal fiber tracts may be the result of extended game play. PMID:25899390

  1. Stars of strange matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethe, H.A.; Brown, G.E.; Cooperstein, J.

    1987-01-01

    We investigate suggestions that quark matter with strangeness per baryon of order unity may be stable. We model this matter at nuclear matter densities as a gas of close packed Λ-particles. From the known mass of the Λ-particle we obtain an estimate of the energy and chemical potential of strange matter at nuclear densities. These are sufficiently high to preclude any phase transition from neutron matter to strange matter in the region near nucleon matter density. Including effects from gluon exchange phenomenologically, we investigate higher densities, consistently making approximations which underestimate the density of transition. In this way we find a transition density ρ tr > or approx.7ρ 0 , where ρ 0 is nuclear matter density. This is not far from the maximum density in the center of the most massive neutron stars that can be constructed. Since we have underestimated ρ tr and still find it to be ∝7ρ 0 , we do not believe that the transition from neutron to quark matter is likely in neutron stars. Moreover, measured masses of observed neutron stars are ≅1.4 M sun , where M sun is the solar mass. For such masses, the central (maximum) density is ρ c 0 . Transition to quark matter is certainly excluded for these densities. (orig.)

  2. Subjective sleep quality in sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse-Henck, Andrea; Wirtz, Hubert; Hinz, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Poor sleep is common among patients with medical disorders. Sleep disturbances can be a cause of fatigue and poor quality of life for patients suffering from sarcoidosis. Studies on subjective sleep quality or prevalence of insomnia have not been reported so far. The aim of this study was to investigate the subjectively reported sleep quality and its relation to psychological and physical factors in sarcoidosis patients. 1197 patients from Germany diagnosed with sarcoidosis were examined using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnea scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI). 802 patients (67%) had PSQI global scores >5, indicating subjectively poor quality of sleep. The mean PSQI score was 7.79 ± 4.00. Women reported a significantly inferior individual quality of sleep than men. The subjective quality of sleep was lowered significantly with increasing dyspnea for men and women. 294 patients (25%) had PSQI global scores >10 usually found in patients with clinically relevant insomnia. In this group 86% had high values for fatigue, 69% for anxiety, and 59% for depression. The prevalence of known sleep apnea was 8.7% and 15.7% for restless legs. Poor subjective sleep quality in sarcoidosis patients is about twice as common as in the general population and is associated with fatigue, anxiety, depression and dyspnea. Questions about sleep complaints should therefore be included in the management of sarcoidosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hidden charged dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jonathan L.; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Tu, Huitzu; Yu, Hai-Bo

    2009-01-01

    Can dark matter be stabilized by charge conservation, just as the electron is in the standard model? We examine the possibility that dark matter is hidden, that is, neutral under all standard model gauge interactions, but charged under an exact (\\rm U)(1) gauge symmetry of the hidden sector. Such candidates are predicted in WIMPless models, supersymmetric models in which hidden dark matter has the desired thermal relic density for a wide range of masses. Hidden charged dark matter has many novel properties not shared by neutral dark matter: (1) bound state formation and Sommerfeld-enhanced annihilation after chemical freeze out may reduce its relic density, (2) similar effects greatly enhance dark matter annihilation in protohalos at redshifts of z ∼ 30, (3) Compton scattering off hidden photons delays kinetic decoupling, suppressing small scale structure, and (4) Rutherford scattering makes such dark matter self-interacting and collisional, potentially impacting properties of the Bullet Cluster and the observed morphology of galactic halos. We analyze all of these effects in a WIMPless model in which the hidden sector is a simplified version of the minimal supersymmetric standard model and the dark matter is a hidden sector stau. We find that charged hidden dark matter is viable and consistent with the correct relic density for reasonable model parameters and dark matter masses in the range 1 GeV ∼ X ∼< 10 TeV. At the same time, in the preferred range of parameters, this model predicts cores in the dark matter halos of small galaxies and other halo properties that may be within the reach of future observations. These models therefore provide a viable and well-motivated framework for collisional dark matter with Sommerfeld enhancement, with novel implications for astrophysics and dark matter searches

  4. Thermodynamics of polarized relativistic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovtun, Pavel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria,PO Box 1700 STN CSC, Victoria BC, V8W 2Y2 (Canada)

    2016-07-05

    We give the free energy of equilibrium relativistic matter subject to external gravitational and electromagnetic fields, to one-derivative order in the gradients of the external fields. The free energy allows for a straightforward derivation of bound currents and bound momenta in equilibrium. At leading order, the energy-momentum tensor admits a simple expression in terms of the polarization tensor. Beyond the leading order, electric and magnetic polarization vectors are intrinsically ambiguous. The physical effects of polarization, such as the correlation between the magneto-vortically induced surface charge and the electro-vortically induced surface current, are not ambiguous.

  5. A general theory for gauge-free lifting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, P. J.

    2013-01-01

    A theory for lifting equations of motion for charged particle dynamics, subject to given electromagnetic like forces, up to a gauge-free system of coupled Hamiltonian Vlasov-Maxwell like equations is given. The theory provides very general expressions for the polarization and magnetization vector fields in terms of the particle dynamics description of matter. Thus, as is common in plasma physics, the particle dynamics replaces conventional constitutive relations for matter. Several examples are considered including the usual Vlasov-Maxwell theory, a guiding center kinetic theory, Vlasov-Maxwell theory with the inclusion of spin, and a Vlasov-Maxwell theory with the inclusion of Dirac's magnetic monopoles. All are shown to be Hamiltonian field theories and the Jacobi identity is proven directly.

  6. On uniform world models with matter and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojciulewitsch, E.

    1977-01-01

    Some properties of a universe containing matter with density and radiation with density have been investigated. The use of a density parameter for matter strongly suggests the use of an analogous parameter for radiation. Both parameters are associated with deceleration and their evolution in time can be calculated. The definition of a radiation density paramater allows for a generalization of the Stabell-Refsdal classification of uniform matter universes to universes containing both matter and radiation. In this paper no interaction between matter and radiation has been assumed. The effect of an interaction will be investigated in a future paper. (Author)

  7. Manual for subject analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series and also constitutes a part of the ETDE Procedures Manual. It presents the rules, guidelines and procedures to be adopted by centers submitting input to the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) or the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE). It is a manual for the subject analysis part of input preparation, meaning the selection, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing of relevant publications, and is to be used in conjunction with the Thesauruses, Subject Categories documents and the documents providing guidelines for the preparation of abstracts. The concept and structure of the new manual are intended to describe in a logical and efficient sequence all the steps comprising the subject analysis of documents to be reported to INIS or ETDE. The manual includes new chapters on preparatory analysis, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing, as well as rules, guidelines, procedures, examples and a special chapter on guidelines and examples for subject analysis in particular subject fields. (g.t.; a.n.)

  8. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2014-01-01

    either construct elicitation mechanisms that control for risk aversion, or construct elicitation mechanisms which undertake 'calibrating adjustments' to elicited reports. We illustrate how the joint estimation of risk attitudes and subjective probabilities can provide the calibration adjustments...... that theory calls for. We illustrate this approach using data from a controlled experiment with real monetary consequences to the subjects. This allows the observer to make inferences about the latent subjective probability, under virtually any well-specified model of choice under subjective risk, while still...

  9. White matter abnormalities of microstructure and physiological noise in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Hu; Newman, Sharlene D.; Kent, Jerillyn S.; Bolbecker, Amanda; Klaunig, Mallory J.; O'Donnell, Brian F.; Puce, Aina; Hetrick, William P.

    2015-01-01

    White matter abnormalities in schizophrenia have been revealed by many imaging techniques and analysis methods. One of the findings by diffusion tensor imaging is a decrease in fractional anisotropy (FA), which is an indicator of white matter integrity. On the other hand, elevation of metabolic rate in white matter was observed from positron emission tomography (PET) studies. In this report, we aim to compare the two structural and functional effects on the same subjects. Our comparison is ba...

  10. Codecaying Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Jeff Asaf; Kuflik, Eric; Ng, Wee Hao

    2016-11-18

    We propose a new mechanism for thermal dark matter freeze-out, called codecaying dark matter. Multicomponent dark sectors with degenerate particles and out-of-equilibrium decays can codecay to obtain the observed relic density. The dark matter density is exponentially depleted through the decay of nearly degenerate particles rather than from Boltzmann suppression. The relic abundance is set by the dark matter annihilation cross section, which is predicted to be boosted, and the decay rate of the dark sector particles. The mechanism is viable in a broad range of dark matter parameter space, with a robust prediction of an enhanced indirect detection signal. Finally, we present a simple model that realizes codecaying dark matter.

  11. Diseases of white matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    The diagnosis of white matter abnormalities was revolutionized by the advent of computed tomography (CT), which provided a noninvasive method of detection and assessment of progression of a variety of white matter processes. However, the inadequacies of CT were recognized early, including its relative insensitivity to small foci of abnormal myelin in the brain when correlated with autopsy findings and its inability to image directly white matter diseases of the spinal cord. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), on the other hand, sensitive to the slight difference in tissue composition of normal gray and white matter and to subtle increase in water content associated with myelin disorders, is uniquely suited for the examination of white matter pathology. Its clinical applications include the evaluation of the normal process of myelination in childhood and the various white matter diseases, including disorders of demyelination and dysmyelination

  12. Detecting dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, Roger L.

    2000-01-01

    Dark matter is one of the most pressing problems in modern cosmology and particle physic research. This talk will motivate the existence of dark matter by reviewing the main experimental evidence for its existence, the rotation curves of galaxies and the motions of galaxies about one another. It will then go on to review the corroborating theoretical motivations before combining all the supporting evidence to explore some of the possibilities for dark matter along with its expected properties. This will lay the ground work for dark matter detection. A number of differing techniques are being developed and used to detect dark matter. These will be briefly discussed before the focus turns to cryogenic detection techniques. Finally, some preliminary results and expectations will be given for the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment

  13. Going to the Heart of the Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Written as a conversational response to Rosa Luxemburg, this piece discusses the importance of going to the heart of the matter for education, seen here in terms of the actual flesh and blood subjects who are at the centre of a pedagogy of transformation.

  14. Condensed matter studies by nuclear methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolas, K.; Tomala, K.

    1988-01-01

    The separate abstract was prepared for 1 of the papers in this volume. The remaining 13 papers dealing with the use but not with advances in the use of nuclear methods in studies of condensed matter, were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (M.F.W.)

  15. Incompressibility of asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Liewen; Cai, Baojun; Shen, Chun; Ko, Cheming; Xu, Jun; Li, Baoan

    2010-01-01

    Using an isospin- and momentum-dependent modified Gogny (MDI) interaction, the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock (SHF) approach, and a phenomenological modified Skyrme-like (MSL) model, we have studied the incompressibility K sat (δ) of isospin asymmetric nuclear matter at its saturation density. Our results show that in the expansion of K sat (δ) in powers of isospin asymmetry δ, i.e., K sat (δ) = K 0 + K sat,2 δ 2 + K sat,4 δ 4 + O(δ 6 ), the magnitude of the 4th-order K sat,4 parameter is generally small. The 2nd-order K sat,2 parameter thus essentially characterizes the isospin dependence of the incompressibility of asymmetric nuclear matter at saturation density. Furthermore, the K sat,2 can be expressed as K sat,2 = K sym – 6L – J 0 /K 0 L in terms of the slope parameter L and the curvature parameter K sym of the symmetry energy and the third-order derivative parameter J 0 of the energy of symmetric nuclear matter at saturation density, and we find the higher order J 0 contribution to K sat,2 generally cannot be neglected. Also, we have found a linear correlation between K sym and L as well as between J 0 /K 0 and K 0 . Using these correlations together with the empirical constraints on K 0 and L, the nuclear symmetry energy E sym (ρ0) at normal nuclear density, and the nucleon effective mass, we have obtained an estimated value of K sat,2 = -370 ± 120 MeV for the 2nd-order parameter in the isospin asymmetry expansion of the incompressibility of asymmetric nuclear matter at its saturation density. (author)

  16. Clumpy cold dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joseph; Stebbins, Albert

    1993-01-01

    A study is conducted of cold dark matter (CDM) models in which clumpiness will inhere, using cosmic strings and textures suited to galaxy formation. CDM clumps of 10 million solar mass/cu pc density are generated at about z(eq) redshift, with a sizable fraction surviving. Observable implications encompass dark matter cores in globular clusters and in galactic nuclei. Results from terrestrial dark matter detection experiments may be affected by clumpiness in the Galactic halo.

  17. USING DIDACTIC EQUIPMENT IN VOCATIONAL SUBJECTS TEACHING

    OpenAIRE

    JIROUT, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Baccalaureate Work ?Using Didactic Equipment In Vocational Subjects Teaching? describes various methods of teaching and using didactic engineering in education. Theoretic part describes general aspects of using didactic engineering, teaching methods a and ways how to use didactic engineering in teaching vocational subjects. Practical part finds how students appreciate using modern didactic aids and engineering in education.

  18. 77 FR 269 - Matters Related to Patent Appeals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE United States Patent and Trademark Office Matters Related to Patent Appeals ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office... Matters Related to Patent Appeals comment'' in the subject line of the message. Mail: Susan K. Fawcett...

  19. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  20. Geometrization of the Electromagnetic Field and Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Pestov, I B

    2005-01-01

    A general concept of potential field is introduced. The potential field that one puts in correspondence with dark matter, has fundamental geometrical interpretation (parallel transport) and has intrinsically inherent local symmetry. The equations of dark matter field are derived that are invariant with respect to the local transformations. It is shown how to reduce these equations to the Maxwell equations. Thus, the dark matter field may be considered as generalized lectromagnetic field and a simple solution of the old problem is given to connect electromagnetic field with geometrical properties of the physical manifold itself. It is shown that gauge fixing renders generalized electromagnetic field effectively massive while the Maxwell electromagnetic field remains massless. To learn more about interactions between matter and dark matter on the microscopical level (and to recognize the fundamental role of internal symmetry) the general covariant Dirac equation is derived in the Minkowski space--time which des...

  1. Hybrid Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Dark matter can be produced in the early universe via the freeze-in or freeze-out mechanisms. Both scenarios were investigated in references, but the production of dark matters via the combination of these two mechanisms are not addressed. In this paper we propose a hybrid dark matter model where dark matters have two components with one component produced thermally and the other one produced non-thermally. We present for the first time the analytical calculation for the relic abundance of th...

  2. Soft matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Doi, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Soft matter (polymers, colloids, surfactants and liquid crystals) are an important class of materials in modern technology. They also form the basis of many future technologies, for example in medical and environmental applications. Soft matter shows complex behaviour between fluids and solids, and used to be a synonym of complex materials. Due to the developments of the past two decades, soft condensed matter can now be discussed on the same sound physical basis as solid condensedmatter. The purpose of this book is to provide an overview of soft matter for undergraduate and graduate students

  3. Searching for dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Mario

    1994-01-01

    Three teams of astronomers believe they have independently found evidence for dark matter in our galaxy. A brief history of the search for dark matter is presented. The use of microlensing-event observation for spotting dark matter is described. The equipment required to observe microlensing events and three groups working on dark matter detection are discussed. The three groups are the Massive Compact Halo Objects (MACHO) Project team, the Experience de Recherche d'Objets Sombres (EROS) team, and the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) team. The first apparent detections of microlensing events by the three teams are briefly reported.

  4. Dissipative neutrino oscillations in randomly fluctuating matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benatti, F.; Floreanini, R.

    2005-01-01

    The generalized dynamics describing the propagation of neutrinos in randomly fluctuating media is analyzed: It takes into account matter-induced, decoherence phenomena that go beyond the standard Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. A widely adopted density fluctuation pattern is found to be physically untenable: A more general model needs to be instead considered, leading to flavor changing effective neutrino-matter interactions. They induce new, dissipative effects that modify the neutrino oscillation pattern in a way amenable to a direct experimental analysis

  5. Dissipative neutrino oscillations in randomly fluctuating matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatti, F.; Floreanini, R.

    2005-01-01

    The generalized dynamics describing the propagation of neutrinos in randomly fluctuating media is analyzed: It takes into account matter-induced, decoherence phenomena that go beyond the standard Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. A widely adopted density fluctuation pattern is found to be physically untenable: A more general model needs to be instead considered, leading to flavor changing effective neutrino-matter interactions. They induce new, dissipative effects that modify the neutrino oscillation pattern in a way amenable to a direct experimental analysis.

  6. Flooded Dark Matter and S level rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, Lisa; Scholtz, Jakub; Unwin, James

    2016-01-01

    Most dark matter models set the dark matter relic density by some interaction with Standard Model particles. Such models generally assume the existence of Standard Model particles early on, with the dark matter relic density a later consequence of those interactions. Perhaps a more compelling assumption is that dark matter is not part of the Standard Model sector and a population of dark matter too is generated at the end of inflation. This democratic assumption about initial conditions does not necessarily provide a natural value for the dark matter relic density, and furthermore superficially leads to too much entropy in the dark sector relative to ordinary matter. We address the latter issue by the late decay of heavy particles produced at early times, thereby associating the dark matter relic density with the lifetime of a long-lived state. This paper investigates what it would take for this scenario to be compatible with observations in what we call Flooded Dark Matter (FDM) models and discusses several interesting consequences. One is that dark matter can be very light and furthermore, light dark matter is in some sense the most natural scenario in FDM as it is compatible with larger couplings of the decaying particle. A related consequence is that the decay of the field with the smallest coupling and hence the longest lifetime dominates the entropy and possibly the matter content of the Universe, a principle we refer to as “Maximum Baroqueness”. We also demonstrate that the dark sector should be colder than the ordinary sector, relaxing the most stringent free-streaming constraints on light dark matter candidates. We will discuss the potential implications for the core-cusp problem in a follow-up paper. The FDM framework will furthermore have interesting baryogenesis implications. One possibility is that dark matter is like the baryon asymmetry and both are simultaneously diluted by a late entropy dump. Alternatively, FDM is compatible with an elegant

  7. Flooded Dark Matter and S level rise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, Lisa; Scholtz, Jakub [Department of Physics, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Unwin, James [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago,Chicago, IL 60607 (United States)

    2016-03-03

    Most dark matter models set the dark matter relic density by some interaction with Standard Model particles. Such models generally assume the existence of Standard Model particles early on, with the dark matter relic density a later consequence of those interactions. Perhaps a more compelling assumption is that dark matter is not part of the Standard Model sector and a population of dark matter too is generated at the end of inflation. This democratic assumption about initial conditions does not necessarily provide a natural value for the dark matter relic density, and furthermore superficially leads to too much entropy in the dark sector relative to ordinary matter. We address the latter issue by the late decay of heavy particles produced at early times, thereby associating the dark matter relic density with the lifetime of a long-lived state. This paper investigates what it would take for this scenario to be compatible with observations in what we call Flooded Dark Matter (FDM) models and discusses several interesting consequences. One is that dark matter can be very light and furthermore, light dark matter is in some sense the most natural scenario in FDM as it is compatible with larger couplings of the decaying particle. A related consequence is that the decay of the field with the smallest coupling and hence the longest lifetime dominates the entropy and possibly the matter content of the Universe, a principle we refer to as “Maximum Baroqueness”. We also demonstrate that the dark sector should be colder than the ordinary sector, relaxing the most stringent free-streaming constraints on light dark matter candidates. We will discuss the potential implications for the core-cusp problem in a follow-up paper. The FDM framework will furthermore have interesting baryogenesis implications. One possibility is that dark matter is like the baryon asymmetry and both are simultaneously diluted by a late entropy dump. Alternatively, FDM is compatible with an elegant

  8. X-rays in the eye of the general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegie, R.; Guenther, D.; Stender, K.H.

    1979-01-01

    For a pilot study, a random sample of 181 office personnel in steel companies were interviewed about their knowledge and feelings on X-rays and other forms of ionizing radiation. The general knowledge about the beneficial and detrimental aspects of X-rays was good, with education at school and news media reports being the main sources of information (70%). In general, the news media are considered to give objective and correct reports on this matter. 85% of the interviewed held ionizing radiation to be at least somewhat dangerous. Those with higher education (college/university) were significantly more vocal on the dangerous aspects. Concerning personal fear of X-rays, 30% were at least somewhat fearful. A significant correlation was found between statements on the dangerous aspects and subjective feelings of fear (anxiety). Interestingly, there was no correlation between general fearfulness (manifest anxiety) and fear of X-rays. (orig.) [de

  9. African Journals Online: General Science (broad subject range)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 86 ... African Research Review (AFRREV) is a Peer Reviewed .... the Journal also enhances exchange of ideas among scientists engaged in research ... The Egyptian Journal of Natural History is now closed to all new submissions

  10. African Journals Online: General Science (broad subject range)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 86 of 86 ... It also publishes topical reviews on science and technology in development, arts, humanities and culture. .... construction or performance evaluation of technological systems. ... Such works either demonstrate a significant new discovery or other ... Rwanda Journal, Series H: Economics and Management.

  11. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 147 - General Curriculum Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... fittings. e. materials and processes (1) 14. Identify and select appropriate nondestructive testing methods. (2) 15. Perform dye penetrant, eddy current, ultrasonic, and magnetic particle inspections. (1) 16...

  12. African Journals Online: General Science (broad subject range)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 86 of 86 ... The Journal of Science and Technology (JUST) aims principally at publishing articles ... basic sciences, public health, social medicine and medical politics. .... The SWJ is a peer review on-line international journal of broad ...

  13. Simplified models of mixed dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Clifford; Sanford, David

    2014-01-01

    We explore simplified models of mixed dark matter (DM), defined here to be a stable relic composed of a singlet and an electroweak charged state. Our setup describes a broad spectrum of thermal DM candidates that can naturally accommodate the observed DM abundance but are subject to substantial constraints from current and upcoming direct detection experiments. We identify ''blind spots'' at which the DM-Higgs coupling is identically zero, thus nullifying direct detection constraints on spin independent scattering. Furthermore, we characterize the fine-tuning in mixing angles, i.e. well-tempering, required for thermal freeze-out to accommodate the observed abundance. Present and projected limits from LUX and XENON1T force many thermal relic models into blind spot tuning, well-tempering, or both. This simplified model framework generalizes bino-Higgsino DM in the MSSM, singlino-Higgsino DM in the NMSSM, and scalar DM candidates that appear in models of extended Higgs sectors

  14. Convexities move because they contain matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenholtz, Elan

    2010-09-22

    Figure-ground assignment to a contour is a fundamental stage in visual processing. The current paper introduces a novel, highly general dynamic cue to figure-ground assignment: "Convex Motion." Across six experiments, subjects showed a strong preference to assign figure and ground to a dynamically deforming contour such that the moving contour segment was convex rather than concave. Experiments 1 and 2 established the preference across two different kinds of deformational motion. Additional experiments determined that this preference was not due to fixation (Experiment 3) or attentional mechanisms (Experiment 4). Experiment 5 found a similar, but reduced bias for rigid-as opposed to deformational-motion, and Experiment 6 demonstrated that the phenomenon depends on the global motion of the effected contour. An explanation of this phenomenon is presented on the basis of typical natural deformational motion, which tends to involve convex contour projections that contain regions consisting of physical "matter," as opposed to concave contour indentations that contain empty space. These results highlight the fundamental relationship between figure and ground, perceived shape, and the inferred physical properties of an object.

  15. Gravitational closure of matter field equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düll, Maximilian; Schuller, Frederic P.; Stritzelberger, Nadine; Wolz, Florian

    2018-04-01

    The requirement that both the matter and the geometry of a spacetime canonically evolve together, starting and ending on shared Cauchy surfaces and independently of the intermediate foliation, leaves one with little choice for diffeomorphism-invariant gravitational dynamics that can equip the coefficients of a given system of matter field equations with causally compatible canonical dynamics. Concretely, we show how starting from any linear local matter field equations whose principal polynomial satisfies three physicality conditions, one may calculate coefficient functions which then enter an otherwise immutable set of countably many linear homogeneous partial differential equations. Any solution of these so-called gravitational closure equations then provides a Lagrangian density for any type of tensorial geometry that features ultralocally in the initially specified matter Lagrangian density. Thus the given system of matter field equations is indeed closed by the so obtained gravitational equations. In contrast to previous work, we build the theory on a suitable associated bundle encoding the canonical configuration degrees of freedom, which allows one to include necessary constraints on the geometry in practically tractable fashion. By virtue of the presented mechanism, one thus can practically calculate, rather than having to postulate, the gravitational theory that is required by specific matter field dynamics. For the special case of standard model matter one obtains general relativity.

  16. Single top quarks and dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Deborah; Zucchetta, Alberto; Buckley, Matthew R.; Canelli, Florencia

    2017-08-01

    Processes with dark matter interacting with the standard model fermions through new scalars or pseudoscalars with flavor-diagonal couplings proportional to fermion mass are well motivated theoretically, and provide a useful phenomenological model with which to interpret experimental results. Two modes of dark matter production from these models have been considered in the existing literature: pairs of dark matter produced through top quark loops with an associated monojet in the event, and pair production of dark matter with pairs of heavy flavored quarks (tops or bottoms). In this paper, we demonstrate that a third, previously overlooked channel yields a non-negligible contribution to LHC dark matter searches in these models. In spite of a generally lower production cross section at LHC when compared to the associated top-pair channel, non-flavor violating single top quark processes are kinematically favored and can significantly increase the sensitivity to these models. Including dark matter production in association with a single top quark through scalar or pseudoscalar mediators, the exclusion limit set by the LHC searches for dark matter can be improved by 30% up to a factor of two, depending on the mass assumed for the mediator particle.

  17. White matter integrity in kleptomania: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Jon E.; Correia, Stephen; Brennan-Krohn, Thea

    2006-01-01

    This study's goal was to examine microstructural organization of frontal white matter in kleptomania. Ten females with DSM-IV kleptomania and 10 female controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging. Inferior frontal white matter was the a priori region of interest. Trace and fractional anisotropy (FA) were also calculated for frontal and posterior cortical regions in both subject groups. Kleptomania subjects had significantly higher mean frontal Trace, and significantly lower mean frontal FA th...

  18. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  19. Writing and the 'Subject'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Charlotte

    /page. It is, moreover, an index pointing to the painting/writing subject; it is a special deictic mode of painting/writing. The handwriting of the Russian avant-garde books, the poetics of handwriting, and the way handwriting is represented in poetry emphasize the way the subject (the speaking and the viewing...... in the early as well as the contemporary avant-garde, it becomes clear that the ‘subject’ is an unstable category that can be exposed to manipulation and play. Handwriting is performing as a signature (as an index), but is at the same time similar to the signature of a subject (an icon) and a verbal construct...

  20. That’s a matter for ALICE!

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2010-01-01

    ALICE has launched a new online newsletter to report on developments at the detector: ALICE Matters. The fortnightly newsletter will keep members of the collaboration – and a wider readership – up-to-date with the latest news from the detector.   Screenshot of the ALICE Matters website. The new ALICE Matters newsletter highlights the work of ALICE collaborators through news, interviews and feature articles. Published online every fortnight, it will report the latest developments from the experiment, providing information about operation and data taking, installation work during technical stops, and news from ALICE members. The newsletter is aimed at members of the collaboration, but as an online publication it is also open to the general public. “We often receive questions from people who follow our progress and are interested in what's happening at ALICE,” explains Despina Hatzifotiadou, ALICE Outreach Coordinator. “With ALICE Matters, we can n...