Pereira, Carlos Silva; Teixeira, João; Figueiredo, Patrícia; Xavier, João; Castro, São Luís; Brattico, Elvira
The importance of music in our daily life has given rise to an increased number of studies addressing the brain regions involved in its appreciation. Some of these studies controlled only for the familiarity of the stimuli, while others relied on pleasantness ratings, and others still on musical preferences. With a listening test and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, we wished to clarify the role of familiarity in the brain correlates of music appreciation by controlling, in the same study, for both familiarity and musical preferences. First, we conducted a listening test, in which participants rated the familiarity and liking of song excerpts from the pop/rock repertoire, allowing us to select a personalized set of stimuli per subject. Then, we used a passive listening paradigm in fMRI to study music appreciation in a naturalistic condition with increased ecological value. Brain activation data revealed that broad emotion-related limbic and paralimbic regions as well as the reward circuitry were significantly more active for familiar relative to unfamiliar music. Smaller regions in the cingulate cortex and frontal lobe, including the motor cortex and Broca's area, were found to be more active in response to liked music when compared to disliked one. Hence, familiarity seems to be a crucial factor in making the listeners emotionally engaged with music, as revealed by fMRI data.
Carlos Silva Pereira
Full Text Available The importance of music in our daily life has given rise to an increased number of studies addressing the brain regions involved in its appreciation. Some of these studies controlled only for the familiarity of the stimuli, while others relied on pleasantness ratings, and others still on musical preferences. With a listening test and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiment, we wished to clarify the role of familiarity in the brain correlates of music appreciation by controlling, in the same study, for both familiarity and musical preferences. First, we conducted a listening test, in which participants rated the familiarity and liking of song excerpts from the pop/rock repertoire, allowing us to select a personalized set of stimuli per subject. Then, we used a passive listening paradigm in fMRI to study music appreciation in a naturalistic condition with increased ecological value. Brain activation data revealed that broad emotion-related limbic and paralimbic regions as well as the reward circuitry were significantly more active for familiar relative to unfamiliar music. Smaller regions in the cingulate cortex and frontal lobe, including the motor cortex and Broca's area, were found to be more active in response to liked music when compared to disliked one. Hence, familiarity seems to be a crucial factor in making the listeners emotionally engaged with music, as revealed by fMRI data.
Pereira, Carlos Silva; Teixeira, João; Figueiredo, Patrícia; Xavier, João; Castro, São Luís; Brattico, Elvira
The importance of music in our daily life has given rise to an increased number of studies addressing the brain regions involved in its appreciation. Some of these studies controlled only for the familiarity of the stimuli, while others relied on pleasantness ratings, and others still on musical preferences. With a listening test and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, we wished to clarify the role of familiarity in the brain correlates of music appreciation by controlling, in the same study, for both familiarity and musical preferences. First, we conducted a listening test, in which participants rated the familiarity and liking of song excerpts from the pop/rock repertoire, allowing us to select a personalized set of stimuli per subject. Then, we used a passive listening paradigm in fMRI to study music appreciation in a naturalistic condition with increased ecological value. Brain activation data revealed that broad emotion-related limbic and paralimbic regions as well as the reward circuitry were significantly more active for familiar relative to unfamiliar music. Smaller regions in the cingulate cortex and frontal lobe, including the motor cortex and Broca's area, were found to be more active in response to liked music when compared to disliked one. Hence, familiarity seems to be a crucial factor in making the listeners emotionally engaged with music, as revealed by fMRI data. PMID:22110619
The general content of the three editions of the Duden dictionary has undergone few changes. The most substantial changes are the addition of syllabification and the deletion of antonomy in respect of lemmata in the second and third editions. The concept of dictionary subject matter is questioned...
Senar, J C; Mateos-Gonzalez, F; Uribe, F; Arroyo, L
There is currently considerable controversy in evolutionary ecology revolving around whether social familiarity brings attraction when a female chooses a mate. The topic of familiarity is significant because by avoiding or preferring familiar individuals as mates, the potential for local adaptation may be reduced or favoured. The topic becomes even more interesting if we simultaneously analyse preferences for familiarity and sexual ornaments, because when familiarity influences female mating preferences, this could very significantly affect the strength of sexual selection on male ornamentation. Here, we have used mate-choice experiments in siskins Carduelis spinus to analyse how familiarity and patterns of ornamentation (i.e. the size of wing patches) interact to influence mating success. Our results show that females clearly prefer familiar individuals when choosing between familiar and unfamiliar males with similar-sized wing patches. Furthermore, when females were given the choice between a highly ornamented unfamiliar male and a less ornamented familiar male, half of the females still preferred the socially familiar birds as mates. Our finding suggests that male familiarity may be as important as sexual ornaments in affecting female behaviour in mate choice. Given that the potential for local adaptation may be favoured by preferring familiar individuals as mates, social familiarity as a mate-choice criterion may become a potential area of fruitful research on sympatric speciation processes.
For almost 30 years, subjective familiarity has been used in psycholinguistics as an explanatory variable, allegedly able to explain many phenomena that have no other obvious explanation (Gernsbacher in J Exp Psychol General 113:256-281, 1984). In this paper, the hypothesis tested is that the subjective familiarity of words is reflecting personal familiarity with or importance of the referents of words. Using an empirically-grounded model of affective force derived from Wundt (Grundriss der Psychologie [Outlines of Psychology]. Engelmann, Leibzig, 1896) and based in a co-occurrence model of semantics (which involves no human judgment), it is shown that affective force can account for the same variance in a large set of human subjective familiarity judgments as other human subjective familiarity judgments, can predict whether people will rate new words of the same objective frequency as more or less familiar, can predict lexical access as well as human subjective familiarity judgments do, and has a predicted relationship to age of acquisition norms. Individuals who have highly affective reactivity [as measured by Carver and White's (J Pers Soc Psychol 67(2):319-333, 1994) Behavioral Inhibition Scale and Behavioral Activation Scales] rate words as significantly more familiar than individuals who have low affective reactivity.
Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Div. of Vocational Education.
This publication recognizes the constantly changing requirements of the food service industry and varying conditions for employment opportunities. It addresses the goal of relevance in education by enabling the educator to make timely adjustments in the subject matter of the food service curriculum. There are six sections in this publication, each…
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope of subject matter. 703.3 Section 703.3... AND FUNCTIONS OF STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 703.3 Scope of subject matter. The scope of the subject matter to be dealt with by Advisory Committees shall be those subjects of inquiry or study with which the...
Alonso-Prieto, Esther; Pancaroglu, Raika; Dalrymple, Kirsten A; Handy, Todd; Barton, Jason J S; Oruc, Ipek
Prior event-related potential studies using group statistics within a priori selected time windows have yielded conflicting results about familiarity effects in face processing. Our goal was to evaluate the temporal dynamics of the familiarity effect at all time points at the single-subject level. Ten subjects were shown faces of anonymous people or celebrities. Individual results were analysed using a point-by-point bootstrap analysis. While familiarity effects were less consistent at later epochs, all subjects showed them between 130 and 195 ms in occipitotemporal electrodes. However, the relation between the time course of familiarity effects and the peak latency of the N170 was variable. We concluded that familiarity effects between 130 and 195 ms are robust and can be shown in single subjects. The variability of their relation to the timing of the N170 potential may lead to underestimation of familiarity effects in studies that use group-based statistics.
... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Matters subject to arbitration. 1108.3 Section... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE ARBITRATION OF CERTAIN DISPUTES SUBJECT TO THE STATUTORY JURISDICTION OF THE SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD § 1108.3 Matters subject to arbitration. (a) Any...
Boukadi, Mariem; Zouaidi, Cirine; Wilson, Maximiliano A
Normative databases for pictorial stimuli are widely used in research on language processing in order to control for a number of psycholinguistic variables in the selected stimuli. Such resources are lacking for Arabic and its dialectal varieties. In the present study, we aimed to provide Tunisian Arabic (TA) normative data for 348 line drawings taken from Cycowicz, Friedman, Rothstein, and Snodgrass (1997), which include Snodgrass and Vanderwart's (1980) 260 pictures. Norms were collected for the following psycholinguistic variables: name agreement, familiarity, subjective frequency, and imageability. Word length data (in numbers of phonemes and syllables) are also listed in the database. We investigated the effects of these variables on word reading in TA. We found that word length and frequency were the best predictors of word-reading latencies in TA. Name agreement was also a significant predictor of word-reading latencies. A particularly interesting finding was that the semantic variables, imageability and familiarity, affected word-reading latencies in TA. Thus, it would seem that TA readers rely on semantics even when reading individual Arabic words that are transparent in terms of orthography-to-phonology mappings. This database represents a precious and much-needed psycholinguistic resource for researchers investigating language processing in Arabic-speaking populations.
Films are subject-based and when producers set out to communicate their viewpoints, some do it flamboyantly while others take the subtle path. Unlike live theatre before it, the possibility of a virile spiral regarding the themes treated in movies can be as much repugnant as they can be fascinating. In this case, the audience ...
Full Text Available The investigation of specific white matter areas is a growing field in neurological research and is typically achieved through the use of atlases. However, the definition of anatomically based regions remains challenging for the white matter and thus hinders region-specific analysis in individual subjects. In this article, we focus on creating a whole white matter parcellation method for individual subjects where these areas can be associated to cortex regions. This is done by combining cortex parcellation and fiber tracking data. By tracking fibers out of each cortex region and labeling the fibers according to their origin, we populate a candidate image. We then derive the white matter parcellation by classifying each white matter voxel according to the distribution of labels in the corresponding voxel from the candidate image. The parcellation of the white matter with the presented method is highly reliable and is not as dependent on registration as with white matter atlases. This method allows for the parcellation of the whole white matter into individual cortex region associated areas and, therefore, associates white matter alterations to cortex regions. In addition, we compare the results from the presented method to existing atlases. The areas generated by the presented method are not as sharply defined as the areas in most existing atlases; however, they are computed directly in the DWI space of the subject and, therefore, do not suffer from distortion caused by registration. The presented approach might be a promising tool for clinical and basic research to investigate modalities or system specific micro structural alterations of white matter areas in a quantitative manner.
Seghier, M L; Lee, H L; Schofield, T; Ellis, C L; Price, C J
Cognitive models of reading predict that high frequency regular words can be read in more than one way. We investigated this hypothesis using functional MRI and covariance analysis in 43 healthy skilled readers. Our results dissociated two sets of regions that were differentially engaged across subjects who were reading the same familiar words. Some subjects showed more activation in left inferior frontal and anterior occipito-temporal regions while other subjects showed more activation in right inferior parietal and left posterior occipito-temporal regions. To explore the behavioural correlates of these systems, we measured the difference between reading speed for irregularly spelled words relative to pseudowords outside the scanner in fifteen of our subjects and correlated this measure with fMRI activation for reading familiar words. The faster the lexical reading the greater the activation in left posterior occipito-temporal and right inferior parietal regions. Conversely, the slower the lexical reading the greater the activation in left anterior occipito-temporal and left ventral inferior frontal regions. Thus, the double dissociation in irregular and pseudoword reading behaviour predicted the double dissociation in neuronal activation for reading familiar words. We discuss the implications of these results which may be important for understanding how reading is learnt in childhood or re-learnt following brain damage in adulthood.
... FREE FLOW OF AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS § 61.6 Consultation with subject matter specialists. (a) The... assisting the Department in its determination of whether materials for which export certification or import... determine eligibility of material for certification or authentication based in part on the opinions obtained...
ALEXANDER E. TIMOTHY
The study used the ex post facto design to find out the influence of student's perception of teacher's knowledge of the subject matter on the Senior Secondary Three (SS 3) students' performance in reading comprehension. Questionnaires reading comprehension test were used in eliciting data. The data were subsequently ...
Objective. To establish whether or not tutor subject-matter expertise influences student achievement in content-based examinations in the problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum at the University of Transkei (UNITRA) Medical School. Design. A retrospective study of MB ChB III student achievement in end-of-block ...
Full Text Available Our preferences are shaped by past experience in many ways, but a systematic understanding of the factors is yet to be achieved. For example, studies of the mere exposure effect show that experience with an item leads to increased liking (familiarity preference, but the exact opposite tendency is found in other studies utilizing dishabituation (novelty preference. Recently, it has been found that image category affects whether familiarity or novelty preference emerges from repeated stimulus exposure (Park, Shimojo, and Shimojo, PNAS 2010. Faces elicited familiarity preference, but natural scenes elicited novelty preference. In their task, preference judgments were made throughout all exposures, raising the question of whether the task-context during exposure was involved. We adapt their paradigm, testing if passive exposure or objective judgment task-contexts lead to different results. Results showed that after passive viewing, familiar faces were preferred, but no preference bias in either direction was found with natural scenes, or with geometric figures (control. After exposure during the objective judgment task, familiar faces were preferred, novel natural scenes were preferred, and no preference bias was found with geometric figures. The overall results replicate the segregation of preference biases across object categories and suggest that the preference for familiar faces and novel natural scenes are modulated by task-context memory at different processing levels or selection involvement. Possible underlying mechanisms of the two types of preferences are discussed.
Liao, Hsin-I; Yeh, Su-Ling; Shimojo, Shinsuke
Our preferences are shaped by past experience in many ways, but a systematic understanding of the factors is yet to be achieved. For example, studies of the mere exposure effect show that experience with an item leads to increased liking (familiarity preference), but the exact opposite tendency is found in other studies utilizing dishabituation (novelty preference). Recently, it has been found that image category affects whether familiarity or novelty preference emerges from repeated stimulus exposure (Park et al., 2010). Faces elicited familiarity preference, but natural scenes elicited novelty preference. In their task, preference judgments were made throughout all exposures, raising the question of whether the task-context during exposure was involved. We adapt their paradigm, testing if passive exposure or objective judgment task-contexts lead to different results. Results showed that after passive viewing, familiar faces were preferred, but no preference bias in either direction was found with natural scenes, or with geometric figures (control). After exposure during the objective judgment task, familiar faces were preferred, novel natural scenes were preferred, and no preference bias was found with geometric figures. The overall results replicate the segregation of preference biases across object categories and suggest that the preference for familiar faces and novel natural scenes are modulated by task-context memory at different processing levels or selection involvement. Possible underlying mechanisms of the two types of preferences are discussed.
Hinojosa, José A; Rincón-Pérez, Irene; Romero-Ferreiro, M Verónica; Martínez-García, Natalia; Villalba-García, Cristina; Montoro, Pedro R; Pozo, Miguel A
The current study presents ratings by 540 Spanish native speakers for dominance, familiarity, subjective age of acquisition (AoA), and sensory experience (SER) for the 875 Spanish words included in the Madrid Affective Database for Spanish (MADS). The norms can be downloaded as supplementary materials for this manuscript from https://figshare.com/s/8e7b445b729527262c88 These ratings may be of potential relevance to researches who are interested in characterizing the interplay between language and emotion. Additionally, with the aim of investigating how the affective features interact with the lexicosemantic properties of words, we performed correlational analyses between norms for familiarity, subjective AoA and SER, and scores for those affective variables which are currently included in the MADs. A distinct pattern of significant correlations with affective features was found for different lexicosemantic variables. These results show that familiarity, subjective AoA and SERs may have independent effects on the processing of emotional words. They also suggest that these psycholinguistic variables should be fully considered when formulating theoretical approaches to the processing of affective language.
Umami, Rohmatul; Budayasa, I. Ketut; Suwarsono, St.
This study aimed to see a teachers mathematical communication profile in explaining a subject matter. It is a qualitative research. A high-school junior teacher (i.e., a teacher with 1- to 5-year experience) teaching mathematics at X-Social Class was selected as the subject of this study. The data was collected by observing the teachers mathematical communication in explaining a given material (i.e., the rule of sine) in class and an in-depth interview would be organized respectively. The result showed that the junior teacher explained the subject matter in systematic, complete, fluent, and centered manner. In this case, she began with reminding students on the previous material related to the current material to be learned, informing the current learning objectives, and finally delivering the subject matter. To support her explanation, the teacher also provided some related information, led the students attention into the given material by asking them particular related questions, and did not use any confusing terms. However, the study found that some of high-school teachers still used less appropriate language in explaining materials.
van Aalst, Jan Cornelis Wouterus
Following a theoretical analysis of constructivist approaches to collaborative learning, a curriculum development model, the Learning to Knowledge Building Model, is proposed. Two empirical studies of student work with Computer Supported Intentional Learning Environment (CSILE) are then presented; these lend support to the model and explicate in detail the nature and extent of the knowledge developed by elementary school students. The first study is a content analysis of a database developed by a combined Grade 5/6 class as part of a unit on heat and matter, conducted after the children completed their work; the analysis assumes the point of view of a subject matter specialist in the field of the students' inquiry. The second study was conducted while the students' investigation was in progress, and takes the point of view of curriculum coverage; it involved a teacher who used a different model of database use, as well as different subject matter. The proposed LKB model is based on a distinction Bereiter and Scardamalia (1996a) have made between learning and knowledge building (i.e., progressive collaborative problem solving); its aim is to support the design and planning of curriculum units and classroom practices in which knowledge building is central. An important feature of the model is the attention given to ensuring that students learn to evaluate their knowledge and to ask the questions that can advance shared knowledge. Among the findings of the first study are: (a) students who wrote more notes that explicated their commonsense knowledge early in the unit, by means of mixed framework notes, tended to write more notes of high scientific merit later; (b) some of the students in this category tried out their ideas in diverse problem contexts; and (c) they tended to dominate the discussions they started. The second study provides additional insight into the role of the teacher, and the potential role of subject matter specialists, in knowledge building; it
Tijms, Betty M; Möller, Christiane; Vrenken, Hugo; Wink, Alle Meije; de Haan, Willem; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Stam, Cornelis J; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik
Coordinated patterns of cortical morphology have been described as structural graphs and previous research has demonstrated that properties of such graphs are altered in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it remains unknown how these alterations are related to cognitive deficits in individuals, as such graphs are restricted to group-level analysis. In the present study we investigated this question in single-subject grey matter networks. This new method extracts large-scale structural graphs where nodes represent small cortical regions that are connected by edges when they show statistical similarity. Using this method, unweighted and undirected networks were extracted from T1 weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging scans of 38 AD patients (19 female, average age 72±4 years) and 38 controls (19 females, average age 72±4 years). Group comparisons of standard graph properties were performed after correcting for grey matter volumetric measurements and were correlated to scores of general cognitive functioning. AD networks were characterised by a more random topology as indicated by a decreased small world coefficient (p = 3.53×10(-5)), decreased normalized clustering coefficient (p = 7.25×10(-6)) and decreased normalized path length (p = 1.91×10(-7)). Reduced normalized path length explained significantly (p = 0.004) more variance in measurements of general cognitive decline (32%) in comparison to volumetric measurements (9%). Altered path length of the parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, fusiform gyrus and precuneus showed the strongest relationship with cognitive decline. The present results suggest that single-subject grey matter graphs provide a concise quantification of cortical structure that has clinical value, which might be of particular importance for disease prognosis. These findings contribute to a better understanding of structural alterations and cognitive dysfunction in AD.
Full Text Available This essay explores how landscape history can engage methodologically with the adjacent disciplines of art history and visual/cultural studies. Central to the methodological problem is the mapping of the beholder - spatially, temporally and phenomenologically. In this mapping process, landscape history is transformed from subject matter to analytical tool. As a result, landscape history no longer simply imports and applies ideas from other disciplines but develops its own methodologies to engage and influence them. Landscape history, like art history, thereby takes on a creative cultural presence. Through that process, landscape architecture and garden design regains the cultural power now carried by the arts and museum studies, and has an effect on the innovative capabilities of contemporary landscape design.
A. V. Korotkov
Full Text Available The aim of the research is to analyze the subject matter of a country’s competitiveness and to characterize statistical indexes of competitiveness known in the international practice from the perspective of a more elaborated theory of market competition. This aim follows from the identified problems. First, there are no generally accepted interpretation and joint understanding of competition and competitiveness at country level. Even the international organizations giving estimations of global competitiveness disagree on definitions of competitiveness. Secondly, there is no relation to the theory of market competition in the available source materials on competitiveness of the country without original methodology. Thirdly, well-known statistical indexes of global competitiveness do not have enough theoretical justification and differ in sets of factors. All this highlights the incompleteness of the methodology and methodological support of studying competitiveness at country level.Materials and methods. The research is based on the methodology of statistics, economic theory and marketing. The authors followed the basic principle of statistical methodology – requirement of continuous combination of qualitative and quantitative analysis, when the research begins and ends with qualitative analysis. A most important section of statistical methodology is widely used – construction of statistical indexes. In the course of the analysis, a method of statistical classifications is applied. A significant role in the present research is given to the method of generalizing and analogue method, realizing that related terms should mean similar and almost similar contents. Modeling of competition and competitiveness is widely used in the present research, which made it possible to develop a logical model of competition following from the competition theory.Results. Based on the definitions’ survey the analysis of the subject matter of global
de Groot, J.C.; de Leeuw, FE; Oudkerk, M; Hofman, A; Jolles, J; Breteler, MMB
Objective: To determine the relationship between cerebral white matter lesions (WML) and subjective cognitive dysfunction. Background: Subjective cognitive dysfunction is present when a person perceives failures of cognitive function. When annoying enough, these failures will be expressed as
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filing of Patent... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.227-10 Filing of Patent Applications—Classified Subject Matter. As prescribed at 27.203-2, insert the following clause: Filing of Patent Applications—Classified Subject Matter...
This article compares the educational thought of John Dewey and Confucius on the nature of and relationship between subject matter and the learner. There is a common perception in the existing literature and discourse that Dewey advocates child- or learner-centred education whereas Confucius privileges subject matter via textual transmission.…
Lavely, Carolyn; And Others
The efforts of the Florida Institute for Instructional Research and Practice in designing, developing, and analyzing the subject area knowledge tests of the Florida Master Teacher Program are described. A total of 13 subject area examinations was developed in 1984-85, and 5 additional tests were developed the following year. For each subject area…
Cantillon, Peter; de Grave, Willem
Clinical teachers use several different types of knowledge in the act of teaching. These include content knowledge (subject matter), knowledge of how to teach (pedagogy) and knowledge of learners (context). Most attention in faculty development has been on how to teach rather than what is taught. The quality of a teacher's subject matter knowledge is likely to be a critical determinant of how well a subject is presented, communicated and learned. We therefore set out to examine teachers' subject matter knowledge in the context of a general practice tutorial on grade 1 hypertension. This study is part of a larger study that employed a mixed method approach (concept mapping, phenomenological interviews and video-stimulated recall) to examine differences between clinical educators in subject matter knowledge, pedagogical knowledge and knowledge of the learning environment in the context of general practice education. This paper presents the concept map data findings from the larger study as well as the parts of the phenomenological interviews that relate to subject matter knowledge and beliefs. We found that there were marked differences in the quality and elaborative structure of GP teachers' knowledge in the concept maps completed prior to the tutorials. These differences were also predictive of differences in the content presented to learners in tutorials. Teachers' beliefs about subject matter were also likely to have affected what they chose to teach about and how they presented it. Subject matter knowledge varies considerably between GP teachers in the context of a common and relatively simple tutorial. Differences in the quality of subject matter knowledge matter because they have a profound effect on what is learned and how it is learned. Faculty development for clinical educators needs to pay heed to the quality of subject matter knowledge in addition to its more common pedagogical focus.
Jijkoun, V.; Hofmann, K.
We describe a method for creating a non-English subjectivity lexicon based on an English lexicon, an online translation service and a general purpose thesaurus: Wordnet. We use a PageRank-like algorithm to bootstrap from the translation of the English lexicon and rank the words in the thesaurus by
Yildirim, Tercan; Yazici, Fatih
Teachers should be able to understand conceptual constructs, viewpoints, and principles related to their field and organize teaching process accordingly. This is valid also for history teachers. They are expected to comprehend the basic conceptions related to subject areas and reflect them on classroom practices. The association between subject…
Christensen, Jacob Højgaard; Wistoft, Karen
This article maps out existing research regarding the effectiveness of integrated teaching in school gardens, i.e. including the math, languages and science subjects with their related objectives and curricula in school garden teaching and vice versa. The article is based on a literature review...... a standard garden curriculum is essential to planning, carrying out and evaluating effective school garden teaching in math, languages and science. Experiential learning and hands-on activities are teaching methods that immediately come to mind because they make the subject content less abstract, activate...... that concludes that school gardens have a predominantly positive influence on students’ learning outcome. However, there are a few school garden programmes that have the same or even a less beneficial influence on students’ learning outcome than traditional teaching. Thus, school gardens do not have...
Full Text Available It has been stated in Lithuania‘s National School Concept that the primary goal of the education of Lithuania is to secure the best possible comprehensive development of physical, psychological and spiritual human powers, to create conditions for the unfolding of the personal individuality. The subject of my teaching is economic theory. We face economic questions every day and in all areas of life. Therefore, my purpose is to acquaint college students, who do not study economics, with economic basics, to develop economic thinking and literacy. Greatest attention is paid to describe economic concepts and to use them in practice. Economics can not be learned through observing, one must work, analyse, solve practical exercises, search for correct answers. The purpose of the article is to assess the students‘ approach to the relevance of the subjects of economics. It is sought to identify the possibilities of applying new methods for teaching economic subjects and of selecting a teaching method in accordance with the students‘ level of preparation. The assessment of the research carried out enables to conclude that teaching economics forms students‘ capacities of a wide range, stimulates their self-expression, prepares young people to work in market conditions. The following methods of the research have been employed: pedagogic observation, questionnaire (survey, analysis of scientific literature and generalization.
Gertrudis Van de Vijver
Full Text Available In this paper, it is argued that the question ldquo;What is life?rdquo; time and again emergesmdash;and within the confines of an objectivistic/subjectivistic frame of thought has to emergemdash;as a symptom, a non-deciphered, cryptic message that insists on being interpreted. br /Our hypothesis is that the failure to measure up the living to the standards of objectification has been taken too frequently from an objectivistic angle, leading to a simple postponement of an objective treatment of the living, and meanwhile confining it to the domain of the subjective, the relative and the metaphorical. As a consequence, the truly important question of the co-constitutive relation between objectivity and subjectivity is thereby evaded. A critical, transcendental account can be relevant in this regard, not only because of the fact that objectivity and subjectivity are seen as co-constitutive, but also because it addresses the question of the embeddedness of objectivity and subjectivity from within the living dynamics.br /This hypothesis will be articulated on the basis of Erwin Schrouml;dingerrsquo;s famous little book on ldquo;What is life?rdquo;, in dialogue with Robert Rosenrsquo;s critical reading of it. It appears that Schrouml;dinger considered the living as a genuine challenge for classical objectification procedures. However, it is doubtful whether this brought him to a critical reading of objectivity or to the acknowledgment of a constitutive role of subjectivity in relation to objectivity. We argue that his viewpoint has the merit ofnbsp; expressing the difficulty of the living within the field of the physical sciences, but does not really transcend the objectivism/subjectivism opposition. At this point, Rosenrsquo;s relational account takes up the challenge more radically by acknowledging the need for a new epistemology and a new metaphysics in relation to living systems, and by attributing a place to classical objectivity from within this
... invention of the subject matter of individual claims. 1.110 Section 1.110 Patents, Trademarks, and... invention of the subject matter of individual claims. When more than one inventor is named in an application... claim in the application or patent. Where appropriate, the invention dates of the subject matter of each...
Full Text Available Research on familiar face recognition has largely focused on the neural correlates of recognizing a beloved partner or family member. However, no research has explored the effect of marriage style on the recognition of a beloved partner’s face, especially in matriarchal societies. Here, we examined the time course of event-related potentials (ERP in response to the face of a beloved partner, sibling, or unknown person in a sample of individuals from the matriarchal Mosuo tribe. Two groups were assessed: intermarriage and walking marriage groups (i.e., couples in a committed relationship who do not cohabitate during the daytime. In agreement with previous reports, ERP results revealed more positive VPP, N250, and P300 waveforms for beloved faces than sibling faces in both groups. Moreover, P300 was more positive for beloved partner versus sibling faces; however, this difference emerged at fronto-central sites for the walking marriage group and at posterior sites for the intermarriage group. Overall, we observed that marriage style affects the later stage processing of a beloved partner’s face, and this may be associated with greater affective arousal and familiarity.
Wu, Haiyan; Luo, Li; Dai, Junqiang; Yang, Suyong; Wang, Naiyi; Luo, Yue-jia
Research on familiar face recognition has largely focused on the neural correlates of recognizing a beloved partner or family member. However, no research has explored the effect of marriage style on the recognition of a beloved partner’s face, especially in matriarchal societies. Here, we examined the time course of event-related potentials (ERP) in response to the face of a beloved partner, sibling, or unknown person in a sample of individuals from the matriarchal Mosuo tribe. Two groups were assessed: intermarriage and walking marriage groups (i.e., couples in a committed relationship who do not cohabitate during the daytime). In agreement with previous reports, ERP results revealed more positive VPP, N250, and P300 waveforms for beloved faces than sibling faces in both groups. Moreover, P300 was more positive for beloved partner versus sibling faces; however, this difference emerged at fronto-central sites for the walking marriage group and at posterior sites for the intermarriage group. Overall, we observed that marriage style affects the later stage processing of a beloved partner’s face, and this may be associated with greater affective arousal and familiarity. PMID:26925002
Rihtaršic, David; Avsec, Stanislav; Kocijancic, Slavko
The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the experiential learning of electronics subject matter is effective in the middle school open learning of robotics. Electronics is often ignored in robotics courses. Since robotics courses are typically comprised of computer-related subjects, and mechanical and electrical engineering, these…
John A. Angelos
Full Text Available Educating students in the range of subjects encompassing food safety and security as approached from a One Health perspective requires consideration of a variety of different disciplines and the interrelationships among disciplines. The Western Institute for Food Safety and Security developed a subject matter outline to accompany a previously published One Health in food safety and security curricular framework. The subject matter covered in this outline encompasses a variety of topics and disciplines related to food safety and security including effects of food production on the environment. This subject matter outline should help guide curriculum development and education in One Health in food safety and security and provides useful information for educators, researchers, students, and public policy-makers facing the inherent challenges of maintaining and/or developing safe and secure food supplies without destroying Earth's natural resources.
Issues of the Journal of Nematology from 1969-2009 were examined to determine trends in authorship and subject matter. Data were collected on authors, affiliations, locations, funding, nematodes, and nematological subject matter, and then compared among the 4 decades involved. Some of the more prominent changes noted included: a decrease (P Journal of Nematology in the 1990s and 2000s from a peak in the 1980s; an increase (P Journal of Nematology from 1969-2009. The greatest changes in subject matter were increases in papers on biological control and resistance in the 1990s and 2000s compared to the 1970s and 1980s. Additional trends and subjects are discussed, and data are provided comparing differences among the 4 decades for various aspects of nematology.
Angelos, John A; Arens, Amanda L; Johnson, Heather A; Cadriel, Jessica L; Osburn, Bennie I
Educating students in the range of subjects encompassing food safety and security as approached from a One Health perspective requires consideration of a variety of different disciplines and the interrelationships among disciplines. The Western Institute for Food Safety and Security developed a subject matter outline to accompany a previously published One Health in food safety and security curricular framework. The subject matter covered in this outline encompasses a variety of topics and disciplines related to food safety and security including effects of food production on the environment. This subject matter outline should help guide curriculum development and education in One Health in food safety and security and provides useful information for educators, researchers, students, and public policy-makers facing the inherent challenges of maintaining and/or developing safe and secure food supplies without destroying Earth's natural resources.
Kumar, Kuldeep; Desrosiers, Christian; Siddiqi, Kaleem; Colliot, Olivier; Toews, Matthew
White matter characterization studies use the information provided by diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) to draw cross-population inferences. However, the structure, function, and white matter geometry vary across individuals. Here, we propose a subject fingerprint, called Fiberprint, to quantify the individual uniqueness in white matter geometry using fiber trajectories. We learn a sparse coding representation for fiber trajectories by mapping them to a common space defined by a dictionary. A subject fingerprint is then generated by applying a pooling function for each bundle, thus providing a vector of bundle-wise features describing a particular subject's white matter geometry. These features encode unique properties of fiber trajectories, such as their density along prominent bundles. An analysis of data from 861 Human Connectome Project subjects reveals that a fingerprint based on approximately 3000 fiber trajectories can uniquely identify exemplars from the same individual. We also use fingerprints for twin/sibling identification, our observations consistent with the twin data studies of white matter integrity. Our results demonstrate that the proposed Fiberprint can effectively capture the variability in white matter fiber geometry across individuals, using a compact feature vector (dimension of 50), making this framework particularly attractive for handling large datasets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Graff, P. V.; Rampe, E.; Stefanov, W. L.; Vanderbloemen, L.; Higgins, M.
Connecting students and teachers in classrooms with science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) experts provides an invaluable opportunity. Subject matter experts can share exciting science and science-related events as well as help to "translate" science being conducted by professionals. The Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) Program, facilitated by the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center, has been providing virtual access to subject matter experts through classroom connection webinars for the last five years. Each year, the reach of these events has grown considerably, especially over the last nine months. These virtual connections not only help engage students with role models, but are also designed to help teachers address concepts and content standards they are required to teach. These events also enable scientists and subject matter experts to help "translate" current science in an engaging and understandable manner while actively involving classrooms in the journey of science and exploration.
Issues of the Journal of Nematology from 1969-2009 were examined to determine trends in authorship and subject matter. Data were collected on authors, affiliations, locations, funding, nematodes, and nematological subject matter, and then compared among the 4 decades involved. Some of the more prominent changes noted included: a decrease (P < 0.05) in the number of papers published in the Journal of Nematology in the 1990s and 2000s from a peak in the 1980s; an increase (P < 0.05) in number o...
This paper investigates the effects of Content and Language Integrated Learning, CLIL for short, on both the attainment of the subject matter, mathematics in our case, hence the content aspect of CLIL. The second axes of research focuses on the effect of CLIL on the learners' proficiency vis-à-vis the language of instruction, epitomized here by…
Akinwunmi, Kathrin; Höveler, Karina; Schnell, Susanne
Erich Christian Wittmann is one of the primary founders of mathematics education research as an autonomous field of work and research in Germany. The interview presented here reflects on his role in promoting mathematics education as a design science. The interview addresses the following topics: (1) The importance of subject matter in…
Reigeluth, Charles M.; And Others
Four types of fundamental structures are briefly described and illustrated: the learning hierarchy, the procedural hierarchy, the taxonomy, and the model. Then a theoretical framework is presented for classifying types of subject matter content, and some implications of these content classifications are discussed. (VT)
Harte, Wendy; Reitano, Paul
This research tracked the confidence of 16 undergraduate and postgraduate pre-service geography teachers as they completed a single semester, senior phase geography curriculum course. The study focused specifically on the pre-service teachers' confidence in geographical subject matter knowledge and their confidence in teaching geographical skills.…
Pesce, Sandra V.
Designers-by-assignment, or subject matter experts (SMEs) who are pressed into training service, have become common in the workplace. A review of more than 24 studies on expert and novice instructional designers, however, revealed that little is known about how designers-by-assignment think about design and make design decisions in the field. A…
Looks at writing as a dialectical affair--"dialectic" refers both to the dialogical nature of writing and the opportunity it opens up for the writer in coming to a new understanding of the subject matter. Uses H. Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics as a starting point for developing writing as a dialectical process. (PA)
Presents H. G. Gadamer's ontology of understanding as a developmental foundation for interpersonal system ethics. Conceptualizes interaction in terms of demand that the subject matter places on openly formed mutual understanding. Shows unethical interactions as practices which prohibit this development. Provides examples of processes by which…
Manning, Colleen; NASA's Universe of Learning Team
NASA’s Universe of Learning partners wish to actively engage with Subject Matter Experts (scientists and engineers) throughout the design, development, and delivery of products, programs, and professional development. In order to ensure these engagement efforts aligned with the needs of Subject Matter Experts, the external evaluators conducted an online survey. The subject pool included the scientists and engineers employed at the partner organizations as well as other scientists and engineers affiliated with NASA’s Astrophysics missions and research programs. This presentation will describe scientists’/engineers’ interest in various types of education/outreach, their availability to participate in education/outreach, factors that would encourage their participation in education/outreach, and the preparation and support they have for participation in education/outreach.
Ana Maria Costa
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: verificar as condições de acesso das mulheres às atividades de atenção e aos métodos contraceptivos no Brasil. MÉTODOS: inquérito exploratório por questionário auto-aplicado em amostra de municípios, probabilística, aleatória e estratificada por região geográfica e por dimensão populacional. RESULTADOS: os resultados, obtidos por aplicação de fatores de expansão da amostra, abrangem 5507 municípios. Destaca-se a elevada priorização do planejamento familiar associado à região geográfica e ao tamanho do município. A estimativa de cobertura atendida está associada à modalidade de gestão.O diafragma não é oferecido por 79,5% de 5.358 municípios e apenas 6,6% deles atendem à demanda por diafragma superior a 75%, contrastando com os injetáveis, para os quais 13,4% de 5314 municípios conseguem atender a mais que 75% da demanda. A atenção à infertilidade não é realizada em 72,9% dos municípios brasileiros (n=5349 e, em apenas 5,9% deles, são atendidas demandas superiores a 75%. CONCLUSÕES: os resultados encontrados denunciam a dissociação entre as práticas educativas e a rotina de atenção ao planejamento familiar; restrições qualitativas e quantitativas de acesso aos métodos contraceptivos e ainda a baixa oferta de atenção à infertilidade. Ficam evidentes as condições de comprometimento do exercício da autonomia das mulheres quanto a livre escolha dos métodos contraceptivos.OBJECTIVES: to investigate women's access to contraceptive methods. METHODS: inquiry through a self-applied survey of a random sample (divided into geographic regions and population size. The study comprised all 5507 Brazilian municipalities. RESULTS: an outstanding number of municipalities place a high priority on family planning in relation to geographic region and size. As for contraception availability, 79.5% of 5358 municipalities do not provide diaphragms, and only 6.6% meet over 75% of the demand. In contrast
Visconti di Oleggio Castello, Matteo; Wheeler, Kelsey G; Cipolli, Carlo; Gobbini, M Ida
Recognition of personally familiar faces is remarkably efficient, effortless and robust. We asked if feature-based face processing facilitates detection of familiar faces by testing the effect of face inversion on a visual search task for familiar and unfamiliar faces. Because face inversion disrupts configural and holistic face processing, we hypothesized that inversion would diminish the familiarity advantage to the extent that it is mediated by such processing. Subjects detected personally familiar and stranger target faces in arrays of two, four, or six face images. Subjects showed significant facilitation of personally familiar face detection for both upright and inverted faces. The effect of familiarity on target absent trials, which involved only rejection of unfamiliar face distractors, suggests that familiarity facilitates rejection of unfamiliar distractors as well as detection of familiar targets. The preserved familiarity effect for inverted faces suggests that facilitation of face detection afforded by familiarity reflects mostly feature-based processes.
This study examines the educational debate between Dewey and some of his critics on the merits of learning the scientific method. Four of Dewey's critics---Hutchins, Hirsch, Hirst, and Scheffler criticize Dewey for over-emphasizing the importance of the scientific method and under-emphasizing the importance of subject matter in education. This dissertation argues that these critics misunderstand Dewey's use of the scientific method and its importance in education. It argues that Dewey conceives of the scientific method in two different ways: first as an attitude and second as a tool. It also argues that, by failing to understand this critical distinction, these critics misunderstand the role of the scientific method in education. The dissertation concludes by showing that, educationally, Dewey's ideas of the scientific method have different meanings in different context. It analyzes the scientific method as empirical method, critical thinking, cooperative learning, and creative thinking, and shows the place of subject matter in each of them.
Bahrani, Ahmed A; Powell, David K; Yu, Guoquiang; Johnson, Eleanor S; Jicha, Gregory A; Smith, Charles D
This study aims to add clarity to the relationship between deep and periventricular brain white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and cerebrovascular risk in older persons. Deep white matter hyperintensity (dWMH) and periventricular white matter hyperintensity (pWMH) and regional gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) blood flow from arterial spin labeling were quantified from magnetic resonance imaging scans of 26 cognitively normal elderly subjects stratified by cerebrovascular disease (CVD) risk. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images were acquired using a high-resolution 3-dimensional (3-D) sequence that reduced partial volume effects seen with slice-based techniques. dWMHs but not pWMHs were increased in patients at high risk of CVD; pWMHs but not dWMHs were associated with decreased regional cortical (GM) blood flow. We also found that blood flow in WM is decreased in regions of both pWMH and dWMH, with a greater degree of decrease in pWMH areas. WMHs are usefully divided into dWMH and pWMH regions because they demonstrate differential effects. 3-D regional WMH volume is a potentially valuable marker for CVD based on associations with cortical CBF and WM CBF. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Belgin Bal Incebacak
Full Text Available The objective of thisstudy isto determine the problems experienced by subject matter teachers while instructing English lessons in the second grade of elementary school. What are the problemsfaced by English subject matter teachers when they instruct in 2nd grade lessons? In this research the descriptive modeling, which is one of the qualitative research methods, was employed. In accordance with this objective, we worked with 8 subject matter teachers from 5 different schoolsinAtakum and Ilkadim districtslocated in downtown Samsun, through easily accessible case sampling. The semi-structured “English Course Interview Form’’was applied to the teachers. In the study, descriptive survey model was employed, since it was aimed to reveal the current status of qualitative research methods.According to the results obtained from the research, the content was configured and presented under 5 themes. They were categorized as: 1. the problems experienced in classroom management, 2. the problems in physical and cognitive readiness, 3. the problems experienced in the learning and teacher process, 4. the problems seen in counseling, 5. the problems experienced in assessment and evaluation. In conclusion, the teachers stated that they had problems with managing the classroom, especially with the second grade students, whom are younger than others. It is observed that the change for teaching English at a younger age has been appropriate. Our teachersstated that they required in-service training so as to adapt to this aforementioned change.
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Siendo los padres uno de los agentes fundamentales en el desarrollo, en muchos casos también son los responsables, junto con los maestros y la sociedad, de la aparición de conductas violentas en el sujeto. Por ello, el presente trabajo analiza la percepción de los padres (incluyendo en este término a los padres, las madres, el tutor o tutora, así como todo adulto que esté a cargo de un menor a cerca de aspectos familiares que pueden ser susceptibles de ser consideradas causa u origen de la violencia en los jóvenes y concretamente, de la violencia entre los escolares. La muestra está compuesta por un total de 414 sujetos padres/madres/tutores, con una edad comprendida entre los 23 y 60 años. Los resultados muestran que los padres destacan, como aspectos que más influyen en el origen o génesis de las conductas violentas en la escuela son: la escasa educación en el respeto a los demás y a las cosas; y la falta de educación en valores. Como elementos de menor influencia señalan: que ambos padres/tutores trabajen y la ausencia de incentivos por parte de los padres/tutores. Tanto hombres como mujeres, coinciden en considerar como menos influyente, el que ambos padres/tutores trabajen. La importancia dada a este ítem, es significativamente menor en aquellos grupos donde trabaja fuera de casa la madre/tutora y donde ambos trabajan fuera de casa, con respecto al grupo donde es el padre/tutor quien trabaja fuera de la casa.
Palabras clave: Violencia Escolar, padres, etiología, aspectos familiares.
Since parents are one of the essential agents in the child development, in many cases they are responsible, together with teachers and society, of the emerging violent conduct in the individual. Consequently, this research analyses the parents’ perception (including fathers, mothers, guardians and any other adult in charge of a minor about family matters susceptible of being considered the reason or origin of violence in youths
Ravagli, Carlo; Pognan, Francois; Marc, Philippe
The lack of controlled terminology and ontology usage leads to incomplete search results and poor interoperability between databases. One of the major underlying challenges of data integration is curating data to adhere to controlled terminologies and/or ontologies. Finding subject matter experts with the time and skills required to perform data curation is often problematic. In addition, existing tools are not designed for continuous data integration and collaborative curation. This results in time-consuming curation workflows that often become unsustainable. The primary objective of OntoBrowser is to provide an easy-to-use online collaborative solution for subject matter experts to map reported terms to preferred ontology (or code list) terms and facilitate ontology evolution. Additional features include web service access to data, visualization of ontologies in hierarchical/graph format and a peer review/approval workflow with alerting. The source code is freely available under the Apache v2.0 license. Source code and installation instructions are available at http://opensource.nibr.com This software is designed to run on a Java EE application server and store data in a relational database. firstname.lastname@example.org. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.
Full Text Available Self-imposed short sleep durations are increasingly commonplace in society, and have considerable health and performance implications for individuals. Reduced sleep duration over multiple nights has similar behavioural effects to those observed following acute total sleep deprivation, suggesting that lack of sleep affects brain function cumulatively. A link between habitual sleep patterns and functional connectivity has previously been observed, and the effect of sleep duration on the brain's intrinsic functional architecture may provide a link between sleep status and cognition. However, it is currently not known whether differences in habitual sleep patterns across individuals are related to changes in the brain's white matter, which underlies structural connectivity. In the present study we use diffusion–weighted imaging and a group comparison application of tract based spatial statistics (TBSS to investigate changes to fractional anisotropy (FA and mean diffusivity (MD in relation to sleep duration and quality, hypothesising that white matter metrics would be positively associated with sleep duration and quality. Diffusion weighted imaging data was acquired from a final cohort of 33 (23–29 years, 10 female, mean 25.4 years participants. Sleep patterns were assessed for a 14 day period using wrist actigraphs and sleep diaries, and subjective sleep quality with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. Median splits based on total sleep time and PSQI were used to create groups of shorter/longer and poorer/better sleepers, whose imaging data was compared using TBSS followed by post-hoc correlation analysis in regions identified as significantly different between the groups. There were significant positive correlations between sleep duration and FA in the left orbito-frontal region and the right superior corona radiata, and significant negative correlations between sleep duration and MD in right orbito-frontal white matter and the right
Beyes, Timon; Stayert, Chris
or other spaces but through a process of relating intensively with the conventional places, streets and squares that form the backdrop to everyday life. We also make use of the notion of 'unsiting' to show how organizational research is able to enhance our appreciation of the aesthetic dimension...... of organization in ways that expose and undermine that which has become familiar and taken-for-granted. Based on an artistic intervention by the theatre collective Rimini Protokoll, we encounter and analyse such processes of unsiting through the affective and spatial doublings at work in the organization of urban...
Richard Arrieta; María Teresa Garcés; Nelly Ordóñez; Santiago Fadul; Rafael Pinto; Gerzaín Rodríguez
La lepra es entre cinco y diez veces más frecuente entre los convivientes de enfermos multibacilares. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar el estudio de una mujer de 22 años con lepra lepromatosa, que condujo a la investigación de la enfermedad en sus hijos, sobrinos y familiares. Mediante el interrogatorio de la enferma, consulta médica de convivientes y visita domiciliaria, se pudieron demostrar nueve casos adicionales de lepra, por clínica e histopatología. Entre los diez niños habitan...
Honeycutt, Joan K.; Soar, Robert S.
The purpose of this study was to extend a relationship between teacher verbal rewarding and punishing behavior and subject matter growth previously obtained with middle-class postprimary children, with a different population; namely, first-grade, lower-class children. The subjects were 366 children and 20 teachers from first-grade classes…
Full Text Available This investigation presents a new way to look at the numerical khipu, a knotted-string recording device from Pachacamac (Peru, and the types of information it contains. In addition to celestial coordinates, khipu knots apparently pertain to an early form of double-entry accounting. This study hypothesizes that the khipu sample has the recording capacity needed to register double-entry-like accounts. After the identification of its subject matter, the khipu sample was studied in an attempt to ascertain whether the knot values could represent instructions from the Inca state administration to a local accounting center. The results indicate that the numerical information in the pairing quadrants (determined by the distribution of S- and Z-knots should be read from top to bottom along the full length of the string and can then provide certain complementary details regarding the projected corn stocks of the Inca stat
This study examined the interrelationships among three major components of classroom teaching: subject matter content knowledge, classroom management, and instructional practices. The study involved two middle school science classes of different achievement levels taught by the same female teacher. The teacher held an undergraduate degree with a major in social studies and a minor in mathematics and science from an elementary teacher education program. The findings indicated that the teacher's limited knowledge of science content and her strict classroom order resulted in heavy dependence on the textbook and students' individual activities (e.g., seatwork) and avoidance of whole-class activities (e.g., discussion) similarly in both classes. Implications for educational practices and further research are discussed.
Verger, Antoine; Hossu, Gabriela; Kearney-Schwartz, Anna; Bracard, Serge; Roch, Veronique; Van der Gucht, Axel; Fay, Renaud; Benetos, Athanase; Marie, Pierre-Yves; Joly, Laure
This study aimed at assessing the changes in brain metabolism related to white-matter magnetic resonance (MR) hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin, with a voxel-based quantitative analysis of (18F)-fluorodesoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging. Sixty older hypertensive patients with subjective memory complaints (75 ± 5 years, 34 women) were prospectively referred to FDG-PET and MRI brain imaging. The Statistical Parametric Mapping software was used to assess the correlation between brain distribution of FDG and white-matter hyperintensities assessed by the Fazekas score on MRI images. The Fazekas score was inversely related to FDG uptake, independently of age and gender, within 14 Brodmann areas located mainly in the frontal lobe but also in certain limbic, insular and temporal areas. This relationship was also found to be largely independent of the volume of grey matter expressed in percentage of cranial volume, an index of atrophy. White-matter MR hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin are cross-sectionally associated with a lower grey-matter metabolism, mainly but not only within frontal areas and independently of age, gender and grey-matter atrophy. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Milosavljević Tatjana B.
Full Text Available Postmodernism posed a crucial ontological challenge to reality, questioning what constitutes the real world, simultaneously interrogating the horizon of representation of this unstable reality in fiction. Feminism on the other hand equipped us with critical tools for interpreting the reality of being in the world in a gendered body, as well as with a conceptual apparatus for interpreting the manifold institutional and private oppressions of women's bodies that play out in women's daily lives and in the discourses that shape them, literary discourse being one of them. This paper argues that Angela Carter's 1984 novel Nights at the Circus, which is widely held as a postfeminist text due to its narrative commitment to transcending gender binaries, essentially uses the strategies of postmodern storytelling and characterization in order to explore women's embodied potentialities of agency i.e. their construction of subjectivity through body. We will argue that the hybrid magic realist narrative constructs Fevvers' body as a titillating postmodern performance, ontologically illusive and elusive, yet it grounds that same body in various socially effected predicaments and experiences that serve to show that even in the midst of a play of signifiers, in Patricia Waugh's words, 'the body does matter, at least to what has been the dominant perspective within British female fiction' (Waugh, 2006, p. 196. In other words, it may be argued that Carter's novel is invested in traditional second-wave feminist politics to the extent that it shows that a woman's body is an indispensable medium of being in the world with material consequences that bear on the formation of her subjectivity and possibility of agency, and through which she acts out her relationships to others and is acted upon.
Lee, Janice; Universe of Learning Team
Astronomy seeks to understand the workings of the Universe on its largest scales, and to answer fundamental questions about the story of our origins. The science of astronomy thus naturally lends itself to informal education and public outreach activities, as it broadly captures the human imagination. There are at least three overall goals for investment of resources in Astronomy E/PO: to interest students in pursuing STEM education and careers; to develop Astronomy as context for teaching more basic physical and computer science in service of US National Education Goals; to help motivate continued public support of federally funded Astronomy research and technology development. Providing a full spectrum of opportunities for the public to learn about recent Astronomy discoveries is key to achieving these societal goals. Thus, the E/PO professional community must have an understanding of recent scientific/technological results, and engage with the researchers who are creating new knowledge to explicate that knowledge to the public. It stands to reason that researchers (or “subject matter experts, SMEs”) must be involved in and remain connected to the E/PO endeavor. In this talk, I will describe how research astronomers and other SMEs play an integral role in a full range of informal education programming developed by the NASA Universe of Learning collaboration, and opportunities to get involved.
Salo, Ruth; Nordahl, Thomas E; Buonocore, Michael H; Natsuaki, Yutaka; Waters, Christy; Moore, Charles D; Galloway, Gantt P; Leamon, Martin H
Background Methamphetamine (MA) abuse causes damage to structures within the human cerebrum, with particular susceptibility to white matter (WM). Abnormalities have been reported in anterior regions with less evidence of changes in posterior regions. MA abusers have also shown deficits on attention tests that measure response conflict and cognitive control. Methods We examined cognitive control using a computerized measure of the Stroop selective attention task and indices of WM microstructure obtained from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the callosal genu and splenium of 37 currently abstinent MA abusers and 17 non-substance abusing controls. Measurements of Fractional Anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of callosal fibers and diffusion tensor eigenvalues were obtained in all subjects. Results The MA abusers exhibited greater Stroop reaction time interference (i.e., reduced cognitive control) [p=.04] compared to controls. After correcting for multiple comparisons, FA within the genu correlated significantly with measures of cognitive control in the MA abusers [p=.04, bonferroni corrected] but not in controls [p=.26]. Group differences in genu, but not splenium, FA were trend significant [p=.09]. Conclusions MA abuse appears to alter anterior callosal WM microstructure with less evidence of change within posterior callosal WM microstructure. DTI indices within the genu, but not splenium, correlated with measures of cognitive control in chronic MA abusers. PMID:18814867
Jesús Vega Encabo
Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation.
Walsh, Richard; Fitzmaurice, Olivia; O'Donoghue, John
This study reports on the level of trigonometry Subject Matter Knowledge (SMK) of third and final-year pre-service second-level mathematics teachers () at an Irish third-level institution. The aim of the study was to determine if this sample of prospective teachers has an appropriate level of SMK to teach second-level trigonometric concepts. The…
Reigeluth, Charles M.
This paper presents a general model for conceptualizing and testing the interactions of individual differences and subject-matter characteristics with instructional methods. The model postulates certain ways of classifying the variables of interest in such investigations and of conceptualizing the cause-and-effect relationships among those classes…
Turkmen, Hakan; Buyukaltay, Didem
In this study, the effect of using Jigsaw II and Jigsaw IV techniques on the subject of "Atoms-The Basic Unit of Matter" in science course of 6th grade on academic achievement was examined. Pre-test post-test control group research was used in the study. Study population is all secondary schools in Turgutlu district of Manisa province…
Researchers (Sandarg & Schomber, 2009; Wilkerson, Schomber, & Sandarg, 2004) have urged the profession to develop a new subject-matter licensure test to reflect the best practices in the foreign language classroom. In October 2010, the Praxis II: World Language Test joined the Praxis Series. Given that this standards-driven test differs…
Jakeman, Rick C.; Henderson, Markesha M.; Howard, Lionel C.
This article presents a critical reflection on how we, instructors of a graduate-level course in higher education administration, sought to integrate theoretical and subject-matter content and research methodology. Our reflection, guided by autoethnography and teacher reflection, challenged both our assumptions about curriculum design and our…
Diezmann, Carmel M.; Watters, James J.
One method of addressing the shortage of science and mathematics teachers is to train scientists and other science-related professionals to become teachers. Advocates argue that as discipline experts these career changers can relate the subject matter knowledge to various contexts and applications in teaching. In this paper, through interviews and…
Razak, Rafiza Abdul
The research identified and explored the shared knowledge among the instructional multimedia design and development experts comprising of subject matter expert, graphic designer and instructional designer. The knowledge shared by the team was categorized into three groups of multimedia design principles encompasses of basic principles, authoring…
Sanchez, Hugo Santiago
Recent developments in language teacher cognition research highlight the need to explore subject matter knowledge in relation to classroom practice. This study examines the impact of two foreign language teachers' knowledge about grammar upon their pedagogical decisions. The primary database consisted of classroom observations and post-lesson…
Ozdilek, Zehra; Ozkan, Muhlis
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of instructional materials for the subject of classification of matter as solids, liquids and gases that were developed using a holistic instructional design model on student achievement. In the study a pre-test/post-test with control group experimental design was used. The study was conducted in the…
Akira Robert O'Connor
Full Text Available Recent neuropsychological and neuroscientific research suggests that people who experience more déjà vu display characteristic patterns in normal recognition memory. We conducted a large individual differences study (n = 206 to test these predictions using recollection and familiarity parameters recovered from a standard memory task. Participants reported déjà vu frequency and a number of its correlates, and completed a recognition memory task analogous to a Remember-Know procedure. The individual difference measures replicated an established correlation between déjà vu frequency and frequency of travel, and recognition performance showed well-established word frequency and accuracy effects. Contrary to predictions, no relationships were found between déjà vu frequency and recollection or familiarity memory parameters from the recognition test. We suggest that déjà vu in the healthy population reflects a mismatch between errant memory signalling and memory monitoring processes not easily characterised by standard recognition memory task performance.
Full Text Available La lepra es entre cinco y diez veces más frecuente entre los convivientes de enfermos multibacilares. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar el estudio de una mujer de 22 años con lepra lepromatosa, que condujo a la investigación de la enfermedad en sus hijos, sobrinos y familiares. Mediante el interrogatorio de la enferma, consulta médica de convivientes y visita domiciliaria, se pudieron demostrar nueve casos adicionales de lepra, por clínica e histopatología. Entre los diez niños habitantes de la misma casa, con edades entre los 3 meses y los 10 años, 7 tenían diversas formas de lepra. Una hermana de 30 años y un cuñado del caso índice, convivientes, tenían lepra indeterminada (LI. Los niños con lepra eran tres hijos de la primera paciente, su hermana de ocho años de edad y tres sobrinos, hijos de los padres con LI Cinco niños tenían lepra paucibacilar y dos, lepra multibacilar, dimoria lepromatosa; estos últimos, hijos de la madre lepromatosa. Todos son desplazados y viven en condiciones de hacinamiento y pobreza extremas. Presentaban signos de desnutrición moderada. Sólo uno de los niños tenía cicatriz de BCG. Los pacientes recibieron tratamiento con poliquimioterapia y los libres de lepra, vacunación con BCG. La fuente de contagio en una madre lepromatosa y las condiciones de pobreza extrema favorecieron la presentación de este brote intrafamiliar de lepra con serio compromiso de los niños. Todo diagnóstico de lepra debe llevar a la búsqueda de otros casos entre contactos y convivientes para lograr la detección precoz, el tratamiento oportuno y la prevención de discapacidades, objetivos básicos del Programa Nacional de Control de la Lepra.
Babiloni, Claudio; Carducci, Filippo; Lizio, Roberta; Vecchio, Fabrizio; Baglieri, Annalisa; Bernardini, Silvia; Cavedo, Enrica; Bozzao, Alessandro; Buttinelli, Carla; Esposito, Fabrizio; Giubilei, Franco; Guizzaro, Antonio; Marino, Silvia; Montella, Patrizia; Quattrocchi, Carlo C; Redolfi, Alberto; Soricelli, Andrea; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Ferri, Raffaele; Rossi-Fedele, Giancarlo; Ursini, Francesca; Scrascia, Federica; Vernieri, Fabrizio; Pedersen, Torleif Jan; Hardemark, Hans-Goran; Rossini, Paolo M; Frisoni, Giovanni B
Cortical gray matter volume and resting state cortical electroencephalographic rhythms are typically abnormal in subjects with amnesic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we tested the hypothesis that in amnesic MCI and AD subjects, abnormalities of EEG rhythms are a functional reflection of cortical atrophy across the disease. Eyes-closed resting state EEG data were recorded in 57 healthy elderly (Nold), 102 amnesic MCI, and 108 AD patients. Cortical gray matter volume was indexed by magnetic resonance imaging recorded in the MCI and AD subjects according to Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative project (http://www.adni-info.org/). EEG rhythms of interest were delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha1 (8-10.5 Hz), alpha2 (10.5-13 Hz), beta1 (13-20 Hz), beta2 (20-30 Hz), and gamma (30-40 Hz). These rhythms were indexed by LORETA. Compared with the Nold, the MCI showed a decrease in amplitude of alpha 1 sources. With respect to the Nold and MCI, the AD showed an amplitude increase of delta sources, along with a strong amplitude reduction of alpha 1 sources. In the MCI and AD subjects as a whole group, the lower the cortical gray matter volume, the higher the delta sources, the lower the alpha 1 sources. The better the score to cognitive tests the higher the gray matter volume, the lower the pathological delta sources, and the higher the alpha sources. These results suggest that in amnesic MCI and AD subjects, abnormalities of resting state cortical EEG rhythms are not epiphenomena but are strictly related to neurodegeneration (atrophy of cortical gray matter) and cognition. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pelger, Susanne; Sigrell, Anders
students' understanding of their subject matter.
Harman, Pamela; Girls Scouts of Northern California, Girl Scouts USA, Astronomical Society of the Pacifica, Univeristy of Arizona, and ARIES Scientific.
Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts (Girl Scout Stars) fosters interaction between Girl Scouts and NASA Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), disseminates NASA STEM education-related resources, and engages Girl Scouts in NASA science and programs through space science badges and summer camps.A space science badge is in development for each of the six levels of Girl Scouts: Daisies, Grades K – 1; Brownies, Grades 2 -3; Juniors, Grades 4 -5; Cadettes, Grades 6 -8; Seniors, Grades 9 -10; and Ambassadors, Grades 11 -12. Indirectly, SMEs will reach tens of thousands of girls through the badges. SETI Institute SMEs Institute and SME Co-Is located at ARIES Scientific, Astronomical Society of the Pacific, University of Arizona, and Girl Scouts of Northern California developed and modified astronomy activities for the Girl Scouts USA badge writers to finesse into the Girl Scout formats. Revisions are reviewed by SMEs for accuracy. Each badge includes a step option that encourages girls to connect with SMEs, and recommendations for volunteers.A total of 127 girls from 31 states and the District of Columbia attendedTotal Eclipse Destination Camps at three locations. SMEs led activities and tours, inspiring girls to consider STEM careers. University of Arizona (U of A) SMEs lead Astronomy Camp for Volunteers, enabling volunteers to lead and inspire Girl Scouts in their respective Girl Scout Councils. A Destination Camp for Girl Scouts was also held at U of A. Girls experience authentic astronomy, learning how to collect and analyze data.Eleven teams comprised of two Girl Scouts, a volunteer or Council Staff, and an amateur astronomer attended Astronomy Club Camp, held at NASA GSFC. SMEs delivered science content. The girls will lead the formation of astronomy clubs in their councils, and will train their successors. SMEs will present and coach the clubs during monthly webinars.This presentation will highlight success and discuss lessons learned that are applicable
Full Text Available Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that romantic relationship is associated with structural differences in the striatum related to the positive subjective experience of being in a romantic relationship. Because intimate romantic relationships contribute to perceived subjective happiness, this subjective enhancement of happiness might be accompanied by the experience of positive events related to being in a romantic relationship. To test this hypothesis and elucidate the structure involved, we compared subjective happiness, an indirect measure of the existence of positive experiences caused by being in a romantic relationship, of participants with or without romantic partners (N = 68. Furthermore, we also conducted a voxel-based morphometry (VBM study of the effects of being in a romantic relationship (N = 113. Being in a romantic relationship was associated with greater subjective happiness and reduced gray matter density within the right dorsal striatum. These results suggest that being in a romantic relationship enhances perceived subjective happiness via positive experiences. Furthermore, the observed reduction in gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum may reflect an increase in saliency of social reward within a romantic relationship. Thus, being in a romantic relationship is associated with positive experiences and a reduction of gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum, representing a modulation of social reward.
Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Sugawara, Sho K; Hamano, Yuki H; Makita, Kai; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Ogino, Yuichi; Saito, Shigeru; Sadato, Norihiro
Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that romantic relationship is associated with structural differences in the striatum related to the positive subjective experience of being in a romantic relationship. Because intimate romantic relationships contribute to perceived subjective happiness, this subjective enhancement of happiness might be accompanied by the experience of positive events related to being in a romantic relationship. To test this hypothesis and elucidate the structure involved, we compared subjective happiness, an indirect measure of the existence of positive experiences caused by being in a romantic relationship, of participants with or without romantic partners (N = 68). Furthermore, we also conducted a voxel-based morphometry study of the effects of being in a romantic relationship (N = 113). Being in a romantic relationship was associated with greater subjective happiness and reduced gray matter density within the right dorsal striatum. These results suggest that being in a romantic relationship enhances perceived subjective happiness via positive experiences. Furthermore, the observed reduction in gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum may reflect an increase in saliency of social reward within a romantic relationship. Thus, being in a romantic relationship is associated with positive experiences and a reduction of gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum, representing a modulation of social reward.
Nazario Yuste; Mª del Carmen Pérez
Siendo los padres uno de los agentes fundamentales en el desarrollo, en muchos casos también son los responsables, junto con los maestros y la sociedad, de la aparición de conductas violentas en el sujeto. Por ello, el presente trabajo analiza la percepción de los padres (incluyendo en este término a los padres, las madres, el tutor o tutora, así como todo adulto que esté a cargo de un menor) a cerca de aspectos familiares que pueden ser susceptibles de ser consideradas causa u orige...
Milazzo, M. P.; Anderson, R. B.; Gaither, T. A.; Vaughan, R. G.
Planetary Learning that Advances the Nexus of Engineering, Technology, and Science (PLANETS) was selected as one of 27 new projects to support the NASA Science Mission Directorate's Science Education Cooperative Agreement Notice. Our goal is to develop and disseminate out-of-school time (OST) curricular and related educator professional development modules that integrate planetary science, technology, and engineering. We are a partnership between planetary science Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), curriculum developers, science and engineering teacher professional development experts and OST teacher networks. The PLANETS team includes the Center for Science Teaching and Learning (CSTL) at Northern Arizona University (NAU); the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Science Center (Astrogeology), and the Boston Museum of Science (MOS). Here, we present the work and approach by the SMEs at Astrogeology. As part of this overarching project, we will create a model for improved integration of SMEs, curriculum developers, professional development experts, and educators. For the 2016 and 2017 Fiscal Years, our focus is on creating science material for two OST modules designed for middle school students. We will begin development of a third module for elementary school students in the latter part of FY2017. The first module focuses on water conservation and treatment as applied on Earth, the International Space Station, and at a fictional Mars base. This unit involves the science and engineering of finding accessible water, evaluating it for quality, treating it for impurities (i.e., dissolved and suspended), initial use, a cycle of greywater treatment and re-use, and final treatment of blackwater. The second module involves the science and engineering of remote sensing as it is related to Earth and planetary exploration. This includes discussion and activities related to the electromagnetic spectrum, spectroscopy and various remote sensing systems and techniques. In
Spelman, David; Sansalone, John J
Stormwater, and also wastewater unit operations (UOs) to a much lower extent, are subject to unsteady hydrodynamic and particulate matter (PM) fluxes. Simulating fully transient clarification of hetero-disperse PM requires much greater computational expense compared to steady simulations. An alternative to fully unsteady methods are stepwise steady (SS) methods which use stepwise steady flow transport and fate to approximate unsteady PM clarification of a UO during transient hydraulic loadings such as rainfall-runoff. The rationale is reduced computational effort for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) compared to simulating continuous unsteadiness of such events. An implicit solution stepwise steady (IS3) method is one approach which builds upon previous SS methods. The IS3 method computes steady flows that are representative of unsteady PM transport throughout an unsteady loading. This method departs from some previous SS methods that assume PM fate can be simulated with an instantaneous clarifier (basin) influent flowrate coupled with a PM input. In this study, various SS methods were tested for basins of varying size and residence time to examine PM fate. Differences between SS methods were a function of turnover fraction indicating the role of unsteady flowrates on PM transport for larger basins of longer residence times. The breakpoint turnover fraction was between two and three. The IS3 method best approximated unsteady behavior of larger basins. These methods identified limitations when utilizing standard event-based loading analysis for larger basins. For basins with a turnover fraction less than two, the majority of effluent PM did not originate from the event-based flow; originating from previous event loadings or existing storage. Inter- and multiple event processes and interactions, that are dependent on this inflow turnover fraction, are not accounted for by single event-based inflow models. Results suggest the use of long-term continuous modeling
Stanka Lunder Verlič
Full Text Available The following academic article is based on a PhD thesis that is currently being completed, titled Education and Qualifications of Elementary School Teachers in the U.S. State of Kansas and Slovenia for teaching in classes with immigrant children. The research study titled Integrating Multicultural Subject Matters into Teaching Strategies of Elementary School Teachers (The U.S. State of Kansas, conducted in 2007 based on a sample of 89 elementary school teachers in the U.S. State of Kansas, represents one aspect of assessing the adequacy of undergraduate education regarding multicultural subject matters for elementary school teachers in Slovenia and the U.S. (State of Kansas as well as the qualifications of elementary school teachers of both countries for working with immigrant children. Despite the long-standing tradition of multicultural education in western countries, the research results for Kansas elementary school teachers showed a presence of significant discrepancies between the actual and optimal integration of multicultural subject matters. These results indicate that future undergraduate study programs will have to invest more time in developing multicultural skills and providing practical experiences for working in a diverse environment.
Liao, Hsin-I; Shimojo, Shinsuke; Yeh, Su-Ling
Familiarity leads to preference (e.g., the mere exposure effect), yet it remains unknown whether it is objective familiarity, that is, repetitive exposure, or subjective familiarity that contributes to preference. In addition, it is unexplored whether and how different emotions influence familiarity-related preference. The authors investigated whether happy or sad faces are preferred or perceived as more familiar and whether this subjective familiarity judgment correlates with preference for different emotional faces. An emotional face--happy or sad--was paired with a neutral face, and participants rated the relative preference and familiarity of each of the paired faces. For preference judgment, happy faces were preferred and sad faces were less preferred, compared with neutral faces. For familiarity judgment, happy faces did not show any bias, but sad faces were perceived as less familiar than neutral faces. Item-by-item correlational analyses show preference for sad faces--but not happy faces--positively correlate with familiarity. These results suggest a direct link between positive emotion and preference, and argue at least partly against a common cause for familiarity and preference. Instead, facial expression of different emotional valence modulates the link between familiarity and preference.
Bilimoria, Karl D.; Hayashi, Miwa; Sheth, Kapil
manager finds the advisory to be operationally appropriate, he or she would coordinate with the Area Supervisor(s) of the sectors that currently control the flights in the advisory. When the traffic manager accepts the MFCR advisory via the user interface, the corresponding flight plan amendments would be sent to the displays of the appropriate sector controllers, using the Airborne Re-Routing (ABRR) capability which is scheduled for nationwide operation in 2017. The sector controllers would then offer this time-saving route modification to the pilots of the affected flights via datalink (or voice), and implement the corresponding flight plan amendment if the pilots accept it. MFCR is implemented as an application in the software environment of the Future Air traffic management Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET). This paper focuses on an initial subject matter expert (SME) evaluation of MFCR. The evaluation covers MFCRs operational concept, algorithm, and user interface.
Full Text Available ObjectiveFamiliarity is a subjective sensation that contributes to person recognition. This process is described as an emotion-based memory-trace of previous meetings and could be disrupted in schizophrenia. Consequently, familiarity disorders could be involved in the impaired social interactions observed in patients with schizophrenia. Previous studies have primarily focused on famous people recognition. Our aim was to identify underlying features, such as emotional disturbances, that may contribute to familiarity disorders in schizophrenia. We hypothesize that patients with familiarity disorders will exhibit a lack of familiarity that could be detected by a flattened skin conductance response (SCR.MethodThe SCR was recorded to test the hypothesis that emotional reactivity disturbances occur in patients with schizophrenia during the categorization of specific familiar, famous and unknown faces as male or female. Forty-eight subjects were divided into the following 3 matched groups with 16 subjects per group: control subjects, schizophrenic people with familiarity disorder, and schizophrenic people without familiarity disorders.ResultsEmotional arousal is reflected by the skin conductance measures. The control subjects and the patients without familiarity disorders experienced a differential emotional response to the specific familiar faces compared with that to the unknown faces. Nevertheless, overall, the schizophrenic patients without familiarity disorders showed a weaker response across conditions compared with the control subjects. In contrast, the patients with familiarity disorders did not show any significant differences in their emotional response to the faces, regardless of the condition.ConclusionOnly patients with familiarity disorders fail to exhibit a difference in emotional response between familiar and non-familiar faces. These patients likely emotionally process familiar faces similarly to unknown faces. Hence, the lower
Wilfredo Guibert Reyes
Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio analítico retrospectivo de corte transversal del tipo caso control con el objetivo de caracterizar el funcionamiento familiar diferencial de los individuos que realizaron intentos suicida en un área de salud de la Habana Vieja, durante los meses de enero a mayo de 2000. La muestra estuvo conformada por 62 individuos y sus respectivas familias, 31 del grupo estudio e igual cantidad de controles. Se les aplicó la entrevista familiar semiestructurada circular, la prueba de funcionamiento familiar FF-SIL y se observaron sus interacciones familiares. Se encontró que el funcionamiento familiar (FF en los individuos que realizaron intento suicida es predominantemente disfuncional, que las características diferenciales del funcionamiento familiar en las suicidas fueron la poca adaptabilidad (67,7 %, la baja cohesión (70,9 %, y la desarmonía (87,1 % y que en las familias de los suicidas predominaron significativamente todos los factores familiares de riesgo esenciales que predisponen al suicidioA case-control crosswise retrospective and analytical study was made from January to May, 2000 to characterize the family performance in individual who attempted to commit suicide in a health area located in Habana Vieja municipality. The sample was composed by 62 subjects and their respective families, 31 of them belonged to the study group and the rest to the control group. The circular semi-structured family interview and the family performance test were applied whereas family interactions were observed. It was found that family performance in individuals with attempted suicides was predominantly dysfunctional; the differential characteristics of family performance in suicidal persons were low adaptability(67.7%, low cohesion (70.9% and lack of harmony (87.1% and that all the essential family risk factors that are conductive to suicide were significantly present in the families of the suicides
Visconti di Oleggio Castello, Matteo; Gobbini, M Ida
The visual system is tuned for rapid detection of faces, with the fastest choice saccade to a face at 100 ms. Familiar faces have a more robust representation than do unfamiliar faces, and are detected faster in the absence of awareness and with reduced attentional resources. Faces of family and close friends become familiar over a protracted period involving learning the unique visual appearance, including a view-invariant representation, as well as person knowledge. We investigated the effect of personal familiarity on the earliest stages of face processing by using a saccadic-choice task to measure how fast familiar face detection can happen. Subjects made correct and reliable saccades to familiar faces when unfamiliar faces were distractors at 180 ms--very rapid saccades that are 30 to 70 ms earlier than the earliest evoked potential modulated by familiarity. By contrast, accuracy of saccades to unfamiliar faces with familiar faces as distractors did not exceed chance. Saccades to faces with object distractors were even faster (110 to 120 ms) and equivalent for familiar and unfamiliar faces, indicating that familiarity does not affect ultra-rapid saccades. We propose that detectors of diagnostic facial features for familiar faces develop in visual cortices through learning and allow rapid detection that precedes explicit recognition of identity.
Full Text Available The bromatological composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of millet cultivars were assessed for different nitrogen doses and two sowing seasons in the Ceres municipality of Goiás state, Brazil. The treatments consisted of three millet cultivars (ADR-7010, ADR-500 and BRS-1501, four nitrogen (N doses (0, 50, 100 and 200kg ha-1 of N and two sowing seasons. Three replicates and a randomised block design with a 3 x 4 x 2 factorial scheme were used. Two cuttings were performed in each season when plants reached an average height of 0.70 cm. No significant interactions were observed between or among cultivars for N doses and dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fibre (NDF and acid detergent fibre (ADF contents. The DM, CP, NDF and ADF contents were significantly different between N doses. The DM and CP contents increased as the N dose increased to 100kg ha-1. The maximum DM and CP contents were 11.14 and 22.53%, respectively. The NDF and ADF contents were higher in the control treatment (60.11 and 30.01%, respectively. In addition, the lowest ADF and NDF concentrations occurred at an N dose of 50kg ha-1 (56.33 and 30.23%, respectively. The DM contents were higher for the February sowing, with an average of 10.59%. The highest CP and ADF contents were found for the December sowing (22.46 and 31.58%, respectively. No significant differences were found for millet cultivars, N doses or sowing seasons. A significant interaction was found between sowing season and millet cultivar. The BRS-1501 cultivar had a higher in vitro dry matter digestibility in the December/2010 sowing (73.88%.
Justin F Shaffer
Full Text Available Prerequisites are embedded in most STEM curricula. However, the assumption that the content presented in these courses will improve learning in later courses has not been verified. Because a direct comparison of performance between students with and without required prerequisites is logistically difficult to arrange in a randomized fashion, we developed a novel familiarity scale, and used this to determine whether concepts introduced in a prerequisite course improved student learning in a later course (in two biology disciplines. Exam questions in the latter courses were classified into three categories, based on the degree to which the tested concept had been taught in the prerequisite course. If content familiarity mattered, it would be expected that exam scores on topics covered in the prerequisite would be higher than scores on novel topics. We found this to be partially true for "Very Familiar" questions (concepts covered in depth in the prerequisite. However, scores for concepts only briefly discussed in the prerequisite ("Familiar" were indistinguishable from performance on topics that were "Not Familiar" (concepts only taught in the later course. These results imply that merely "covering" topics in a prerequisite course does not result in improved future performance, and that some topics may be able to removed from a course thereby freeing up class time. Our results may therefore support the implementation of student-centered teaching methods such as active learning, as the time-intensive nature of active learning has been cited as a barrier to its adoption. In addition, we propose that our familiarity system could be broadly utilized to aid in the assessment of the effectiveness of prerequisites.
Ziegler, G; Ridgway, G R; Dahnke, R; Gaser, C
Structural imaging based on MRI is an integral component of the clinical assessment of patients with potential dementia. We here propose an individualized Gaussian process-based inference scheme for clinical decision support in healthy and pathological aging elderly subjects using MRI. The approach aims at quantitative and transparent support for clinicians who aim to detect structural abnormalities in patients at risk of Alzheimer's disease or other types of dementia. Firstly, we introduce a generative model incorporating our knowledge about normative decline of local and global gray matter volume across the brain in elderly. By supposing smooth structural trajectories the models account for the general course of age-related structural decline as well as late-life accelerated loss. Considering healthy subjects' demography and global brain parameters as informative about normal brain aging variability affords individualized predictions in single cases. Using Gaussian process models as a normative reference, we predict new subjects' brain scans and quantify the local gray matter abnormalities in terms of Normative Probability Maps (NPM) and global z-scores. By integrating the observed expectation error and the predictive uncertainty, the local maps and global scores exploit the advantages of Bayesian inference for clinical decisions and provide a valuable extension of diagnostic information about pathological aging. We validate the approach in simulated data and real MRI data. We train the GP framework using 1238 healthy subjects with ages 18-94 years, and predict in 415 independent test subjects diagnosed as healthy controls, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Spalek, K; Coynel, D; Freytag, V; Hartmann, F; Heck, A; Milnik, A; de Quervain, D; Papassotiropoulos, A
Dysregulation of emotional arousal is observed in many psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders. The neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 2 gene (NTRK2) has been associated with these disorders. Here we investigated the relation between genetic variability of NTRK2 and emotional arousal in healthy young subjects in two independent samples (n1=1171; n2=707). In addition, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data in a subgroup of 342 participants were used to identify NTRK2-related white-matter structure differences. After correction for multiple testing, we identified a NTRK2 single nucleotide polymorphism associated with emotional arousal in both samples (n1: Pnominal=0.0003, Pcorrected=0.048; n2: Pnominal=0.0141, Pcorrected=0.036). DTI revealed significant, whole-brain corrected correlations between emotional arousal and brain white-matter mean diffusivity (MD), as well as significant, whole-brain corrected NTRK2 genotype-related differences in MD (PFWE<0.05). Our study demonstrates that genetic variability of NTRK2, a susceptibility gene for psychiatric disorders, is related to emotional arousal and—independently—to brain white-matter properties in healthy individuals. PMID:26978740
Spalek, K; Coynel, D; Freytag, V; Hartmann, F; Heck, A; Milnik, A; de Quervain, D; Papassotiropoulos, A
Dysregulation of emotional arousal is observed in many psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders. The neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 2 gene (NTRK2) has been associated with these disorders. Here we investigated the relation between genetic variability of NTRK2 and emotional arousal in healthy young subjects in two independent samples (n1=1171; n2=707). In addition, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data in a subgroup of 342 participants were used to identify NTRK2-related white-matter structure differences. After correction for multiple testing, we identified a NTRK2 single nucleotide polymorphism associated with emotional arousal in both samples (n1: Pnominal=0.0003, Pcorrected=0.048; n2: Pnominal=0.0141, Pcorrected=0.036). DTI revealed significant, whole-brain corrected correlations between emotional arousal and brain white-matter mean diffusivity (MD), as well as significant, whole-brain corrected NTRK2 genotype-related differences in MD (PFWEemotional arousal and-independently-to brain white-matter properties in healthy individuals.
Tajudin, Nor'ain Mohd; Chinnappan, Mohan; Saad, Noor Shah
Two key variables emerged from the literature review is that Specific Matter Knowledge [SMK] and Pedagogical Content Knowledge [PCK] can influence the mathematics teachers' Professional Development [PD] needs. However, the key variables of SMK and PCK that were being investigated were not defined clearly. Empirical evidence that support relationship between SMK and PD and PCK and PD were not verified. In addition, how does PCK mediate SMK and PD is not clear and somewhat lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to examine the relationship between primary mathematics teacher's SMK, PCK and PD needs. Results of path analysis with SmartPLS indicated that the direct effect of SMK on PD was mediated via PCK. This data provide support for the claim that PD programs for future teachers of primary mathematics should be driven by a more nuanced understanding of the link between SMK and PCK.
This study was designed with the overall goal of understanding how difficulties in reading comprehension are associated with early adolescents' performance in large-scale assessments in subject domains including science and civic-related social studies. The current study extended previous research by taking a cognition-centered approach based on…
Leavens, Eleanor L.; Leffingwell, Thad R.; Miller, Mary Beth; Brett, Emma I.; Lombardi, Nathaniel
Objective: Research suggests college students rate some alcohol-related consequences less negatively than others, yet it is unclear how or when these differences in perception develop. The current study compared college students' subjective evaluations of alcohol-related consequences that they had and had not experienced in order to test the…
Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.; Levy, J.; Wagner, N.; Spire, J.P.; Jacobsen, J.; Meltzer, H.; Metz, J.; Beck, R.N.
An important aspect of the study of brain function involves measurement of the relationships; between activities in the subcortical gray matter of the caudate and of the thalamus; and between these structures and functional cortical areas. The authors have studied these relationships in 22 subjects under different conditions of activation, sleep and sensory deprivation using a PET VI system and F-18-2DG to determine regional cerebral metabolism. Subject activating conditions were maintained throughout the period of equilibration of F-18-2DG and E.E.G.'s were monitored. Multiple tomographic slices of 1-2 million counts were obtained simultaneously with slice separation of 14mm and each plane parallel to the cantho-meatal line. In activated and non-activated awake conditions for normal subjects, left and right thalmus-to-caudate ratios were similar and greater than unity. This relationship was maintained in non-REM sleep, but was reversed and divergent in REM sleep and sensory deprivation; this was also evident in 3/4 narcoleptics awake and asleep in non-REM and REM and 2/3 schizophrenics and affective disorder, subjects. This approach appears to have potential for characterizating normal and disordered regional cerebral function.
Wang, Hang; Holden, Joseph; Zhang, Zhijian; Li, Meng; Li, Xia
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is the most bioavailable soil organic pool. Understanding how DOM responds to elevated temperature is important for forecasting soil carbon (C) dynamics under climate warming. Here a 4.5-year field microcosm experiment was carried out to examine temporal DOM concentration dynamics in soil pore-water from six different subtropical wetlands. Results are compared between control (ambient temperature) and warmed (+5°C) treatments. UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy was performed to reveal DOM structural complexity at the end of the warming incubation. Elevated temperature resulted in initially (1 to 2.5 years) high pore-water DOM concentrations in warmed samples. These effects gradually diminished over longer time periods. Of the spectral indices, specific UV absorbance at 280 nm and humification index were significantly higher, while the signal intensity ratio of the fulvic-like to humic-like fluorescence peak was lower in warmed samples, compared to the control. Fluorescence regional integration analysis further suggested that warming enhanced the contribution of humic-like substances to DOM composition for all tested wetlands. These spectral fingerprints implied a declined fraction of readily available substrates in DOM allocated to microbial utilization in response to 4.5 years of warming. As a negative feedback, decreased DOM biodegradability may have the potential to counteract initial DOM increases and alleviate C loss in water-saturated wetland soils. © 2013.
Sagredo Meneses, Maite
La importancia de las Empresas Familiares se pone de manifiesto al saber que el 85% de las empresas españolas son familiares y que aportan entre el 50 y el 70% del PIB. Las Empresas Familiares nacen por la iniciativa, esfuerzo y tesón de un emprendedor que arriesga todo lo que tiene en el negocio invirtiendo a veces también el afecto de su familia. Una empresa es familiar cuando existe una producción económica de bienes o servicios, dónde la propiedad esté mayoritariamente en manos de l...
Reimann, Martin; Castaño, Raquel; Zaichkowsky, Judith
Two experiments were conducted to analyze neurophysiological activation, response latency, and actual brand choice concerning novel and familiar brands. The results show that (1) the choice of novel brands (compared to the choice of familiar brands) is preceded by increased activation of both...... the cingulate gyrus and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, as measured by a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study; (2) novel brands are associated with longer choice response latency than familiar brands; and (3) positive mood enhances response latency of choosing novel brands compared to familiar...... brands....
Bianchini, Julie A.
In this response to Konstantinos Alexakos, Jayson K. Jones, and Victor H. Rodriguez's study, I discuss ways attending to student membership in groups can both inform research on equity and diversity in science education and improve the teaching of science to all students. My comments are organized into three sections: how underrepresented students' experiences in science classrooms are shaped by their peers; how science teachers can help students listen to and learn from one another; and how the subject matter can invite or discourage student participation in science. More specifically, I underscore the need for teachers and students to listen to one another to promote student learning of science. I also highlight the importance of science education researchers and science teachers viewing students both as individuals and as members of multiple groups; women of color, for example, should be understood as similar to and different from each other, from European American women and from ethnic minorities in general.
Full Text Available Highly social animals possess a well-developed ability to distinguish the faces of familiar from novel conspecifics to induce distinct behaviors for maintaining society. However, the behaviors of animals when they encounter ambiguous faces of familiar yet novel conspecifics, e.g., strangers with faces resembling known individuals, have not been well characterised. Using a morphing technique and preferential-looking paradigm, we address this question via the chimpanzee’s facial–recognition abilities. We presented eight subjects with three types of stimuli: (1 familiar faces, (2 novel faces and (3 intermediate morphed faces that were 50% familiar and 50% novel faces of conspecifics. We found that chimpanzees spent more time looking at novel faces and scanned novel faces more extensively than familiar or intermediate faces. Interestingly, chimpanzees looked at intermediate faces in a manner similar to familiar faces with regards to the fixation duration, fixation count, and saccade length for facial scanning, even though the participant was encountering the intermediate faces for the first time. We excluded the possibility that subjects merely detected and avoided traces of morphing in the intermediate faces. These findings suggest a bias for a feeling-of-familiarity that chimpanzees perceive familiarity with an intermediate face by detecting traces of a known individual, as 50% alternation is sufficient to perceive familiarity.
Nemmi, Federico; Saint-Aubert, Laure; Peran, Patrice [Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Adel, Djilali; Salabert, Anne-Sophie; Payoux, Pierre [Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Pole Imagerie, Toulouse (France); Pariente, Jeremie [Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Service de Neurologie, Pole Neurosciences, Toulouse (France); Barbeau, Emmanuel J. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Service de Neurologie, Pole Neurosciences, Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition, CNRS, CerCo, Toulouse (France)
AV-45 amyloid biomarker is known to show uptake in white matter in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), but also in the healthy population. This binding, thought to be of a non-specific lipophilic nature, has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the differential pattern of AV-45 binding in white matter in healthy and pathological populations. We recruited 24 patients presenting with AD at an early stage and 17 matched, healthy subjects. We used an optimized positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI) registration method and an approach based on an intensity histogram using several indices. We compared the results of the intensity histogram analyses with a more canonical approach based on target-to-cerebellum Standard Uptake Value (SUVr) in white and grey matter using MANOVA and discriminant analyses. A cluster analysis on white and grey matter histograms was also performed. White matter histogram analysis revealed significant differences between AD and healthy subjects, which were not revealed by SUVr analysis. However, white matter histograms were not decisive to discriminate groups, and indices based on grey matter only showed better discriminative power than SUVr. The cluster analysis divided our sample into two clusters, showing different uptakes in grey, but also in white matter. These results demonstrate that AV-45 binding in white matter conveys subtle information not detectable using the SUVr approach. Although it is not more efficient than standard SUVr in discriminating AD patients from healthy subjects, this information could reveal white matter modifications. (orig.)
Salvachúa Algar, María Jesús
La constelación familiar es un método de psicoterapia familiar sistémica, una potente herramienta fenomenológica que puede aplicarse de forma individual o en grupo, para conocer los vínculos y dinámicas que se establecen entre los miembros de la familia.
Kim, Chi Kyung; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Beom Joon; Ryu, Wi-Sun; Choi, Seung Ho; Oh, Byung-Hee; Yoon, Byung-Woo
Cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) are radiologic markers of small vessel disease in brain, and inflammatory processes were related to WMLs. We propose to determine if elevated leukocyte count was associated with a higher risk of WMLs. 1586 asymptomatic subjects who visited our hospital for a routine health check-up were enrolled. Leukocyte counts were measured and the presence of moderate to severe WMLs was determined by brain MRI. Thirty (1.9%) had moderate to severe WMLs, and a significant greater proportion (4.1%) of subjects in the highest leukocyte count quartile had moderate to severe WMLs. After adjusting by C-reactive protein, aspirin use and cardiovascular risk factors, the highest quartile of leukocyte count (≥6.7×10⁹/L) was significantly associated with moderate to severe WMLs compared with the lowest quartile [adjusted odds ratio, 4.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-15.5]. The authors report for the first time that an elevated leukocyte count is independently associated with moderate to severe WMLs. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Morris, Harvey M.; Stopczynski, Rachelle E.; Lewis, David A.
Background Alterations in the inhibitory circuitry of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in schizophrenia include reduced expression of the messenger RNA (mRNA) for somatostatin (SST), a neuropeptide present in a subpopulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is expressed in a subset of SST-containing interneurons and lower levels of NPY mRNA have also been reported in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. However, whether the alterations in these two transcripts identify the same, particularly vulnerable, subset of GABA neurons has not been examined. Methods We used in situ hybridization to quantify NPY mRNA levels in DLPFC gray and white matter from 23 pairs of subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and matched normal control subjects; results were compared to those from a previous study of SST mRNA expression in the same subjects. Results In contrast to SST mRNA, NPY mRNA levels were not significantly lower in the gray matter of subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. However, NPY, but not SST, mRNA expression was significantly lower in the superficial white matter of subjects with schizoaffective disorder. Conclusion These findings suggest that the alterations in SST-containing interneurons in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder are selective for the subset that do not express NPY mRNA, and that lower NPY mRNA expression in the superficial white matter may distinguish subjects with schizoaffective disorder from those with schizophrenia. PMID:19804960
Jairo Andrés Ortegón Suárez
Full Text Available A partir de los desarrollos del Trabajo Social y de distintos representantes de la profesión que han abordado la terapia familiar, Bárbara Zapata presenta en Trabajo Social Familiar una síntesis explicativa de los procesos de intervención con familias en situaciones críticas. En este texto, la autora subraya la importancia del trámite asertivo y productivo de los conflictos familiares mediante la emergencia de narrativas diferentes a las dominantes que deconstruyen los discursos opresivos naturalizados.
in the significance of the body in our mental life. The sixteen specially commissioned essays in this book reflect the advances in these fields. The book is divided into three parts, each part covering a topic central to an explanation of bodily self-awareness: representation of the body; the sense of bodily......The body may be the object we know the best. It is the only object from which we constantly receive a flow of information through sight and touch; and it is the only object we can experience from the inside, through our proprioceptive, vestibular, and visceral senses. Yet there have been very few...... books that have attempted to consolidate our understanding of the body as it figures in our experience and self-awareness. This volume offers an interdisciplinary and comprehensive treatment of bodily self-awareness, the first book to do so since the landmark 1995 collection The Body and the Self...
Schilling, Stephen H
Concerns about the alleged harmful effects of gene patents--including hindered research and innovation and impeded patient access to high-quality genetic diagnostic tests--have resulted in overreactions from the public and throughout the legal profession. These overreactions are exemplified by Association for Molecular Pathology v. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, a 2010 case in the Southern District of New York that held that isolated DNA is unpatentable subject matter under 35 U.S.C. § 101. The problem with these responses is that they fail to adequately consider the role that gene patents and patents on similar biomolecules play in facilitating investment in the costly and risky developmental processes required to transform the underlying inventions into marketable products. Accordingly, a more precisely refined solution is advisable. This Note proposes a narrowly tailored set of solutions to address the concerns about gene patents without destroying the incentives for companies to create and commercialize inventions derived from these and similar patents.
Chan, Kennedy Kam Ho; Yung, Benny Hin Wai
Teaching experience has been identified as an important factor in pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) development. However, little is known about how experienced teachers may draw on their previous experience to facilitate their PCK development. This study examined how two experienced high school biology teachers approached the teaching of a newly introduced topic in the curriculum, polymerase chain reaction and their PCK development from the pre-lesson planning phase through the interactive phase to the post-lesson reflection phase. Multiple data sources included classroom observations, field notes, semi-structured interviews and classroom artefacts. It was found that the teachers' previous experience informed their planning for teaching the new topic, but in qualitatively different ways. This, in turn, had a bearing on their new PCK development. Subject matter knowledge (SMK) can not only facilitate but may also hinder this development. Our findings identify two types of experienced teachers: those who can capitalise on their previous teaching experiences and SMK to develop new PCK and those who do not. The critical difference is whether in the lesson planning stage, the teacher shows the disposition to draw on a generalised mental framework that enables the teacher to capitalise on his existing SMK to develop new PCK. Helping teachers to acquire this disposition should be a focus for teacher training in light of continuous curriculum changes.
van der Veen, C.; de Mey, J.R.P.B.; van Kruistum, C.J.; van Oers, B.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of productive classroom talk and metacommunication on the development of young children's oral communicative competence and subject matter knowledge. This study can be characterized as a quasi-experimental study with a
Usak, Muhammet; Ozden, Mustafa; Eilks, Ingo
This paper describes a case study focusing on the subject matter knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and beliefs about science teaching of student teachers in Turkey at the start of their university education. The topic of interest was that of teaching chemical reactions in secondary chemistry education. A written test was developed which…
Lucero, Margaret M.; Petrosino, Anthony J.; Delgado, Cesar
The fundamental scientific concept of evolution occurring by natural selection is home to many deeply held alternative conceptions and considered difficult to teach. Science teachers' subject matter knowledge (SMK) and the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) component of knowledge of students' conceptions (KOSC) can be valuable resources for…
Herold, Frank; Waring, Michael
Background: The role that content knowledge, an important component of practical subject matter knowledge, plays for pre-service teachers (PSTs) in physical education teacher education (PETE) remains contested and unclear. Whilst some researchers emphasise the facilitative nature of such knowledge, others criticise that too much focus on content…
Valeeva, Rania F.
In this paper, I examine whether generalized trust and education, as well as social security policies of welfare state institutions matter for cross-national differences in subjective well-being (SWB), because knowledge on this issue is still lacking. For this purpose I integrated the insights of two sociological theories: Social Function…
Pekdag, Bulent; Erol, Hilal
Fifteen secondary education chemistry curricula published from 1957 until 2007 were examined based on the dimensions of rationale, goals, and subject matter. An examination of documents in the scope of qualitative research was carried out in the study. The goals included in the examined chemistry curricula were analyzed according to the cognitive,…
Noel-Storr, J.; Buxner, S.; Grier, J.; Gay, P.
CosmoQuest is a virtual research facility, which, like its physical counterparts, provides tools for scientists to acquire reduced data products (thanks to our cadre of citizen scientists working to analyze images and produce results online), and also to participate in education and outreach activities either directly through CosmoQuest activities (such as CosmoAcademy and the Educators' Zone) or with the support of CosmoQuest. Here, we present our strategies to inspire, engage and support Subject Matter Experts (SMEs - Scientists, Engineers, Technologists and Mathematicians) in activities outside of their institutions, and beyond college classroom teaching. We provide support for SMEs who are interested in increasing the impacts of their science knowledge and expertise by interacting with people online, or in other venues outside of their normal work environment. This includes a broad spectrum of opportunities for those interested in hosting webinars; running short courses for the public; using Facebook, Twitter or other social media to communicate science; or other diverse activities such as supporting an open house, science fair, or star party. As noted by Katheryn Woods-Townsend and colleagues, "...face-to-face interactions with scientists allowed students to view scientists as approachable and normal people, and to begin to understand the range of scientific areas and careers that exist. Scientists viewed the scientist-student interactions as a vehicle for science communication" (2015). As CosmoQuest fosters these relationships, it We present a framework for SMEs which combine opportunities for continuing professional development (virtually and in person at conferences) with ongoing online support, creating a dynamic professional learning network. The goal of this is to deepen SME capacity-knowledge, attitudes and behaviors-both encouraging and empowering them to connect to broader audiences in new ways.
Benisty, S; Gouw, A A; Porcher, R
in the following areas: lobar white matter, putamen/pallidum, thalamus, caudate nucleus, internal/external capsule, infratentorial areas. An analysis of covariance was performed after adjustment for possible confounders. RESULTS: Among 633 subjects, 47% had at least one lacune (31% at least one within basal...... a significant negative association between the presence of lacunes in putamen/pallidum and the memory compound Z score (beta = -0.13; p = 0.038). By contrast, no significant negative association was found between cognitive parameters and the presence of lacunes in internal capsule, lobar white matter...
Qin, Xiaoyan Angela; Koutstaal, Wilma; Engel, Stephen A
Familiar items are found faster than unfamiliar ones in visual search tasks. This effect has important implications for cognitive theory, because it may reveal how mental representations of commonly encountered items are changed by experience to optimize performance. It remains unknown, however, whether everyday items with moderate levels of exposure would show benefits in visual search, and if so, what kind of experience would be required to produce them. Here, we tested whether familiar product logos were searched for faster than unfamiliar ones, and also familiarized subjects with previously unfamiliar logos. Subjects searched for preexperimentally familiar and unfamiliar logos, half of which were familiarized in the laboratory, amongst other, unfamiliar distractor logos. In three experiments, we used an N-back-like familiarization task, and in four others we used a task that asked detailed questions about the perceptual aspects of the logos. The number of familiarization exposures ranged from 30 to 84 per logo across experiments, with two experiments involving across-day familiarization. Preexperimentally familiar target logos were searched for faster than were unfamiliar, nonfamiliarized logos, by 8 % on average. This difference was reliable in all seven experiments. However, familiarization had little or no effect on search speeds; its average effect was to improve search times by 0.7 %, and its effect was significant in only one of the seven experiments. If priming, mere exposure, episodic memory, or relatively modest familiarity were responsible for familiarity's effects on search, then performance should have improved following familiarization. Our results suggest that the search-related advantage of familiar logos does not develop easily or rapidly.
Full Text Available The analysis of performances gymnasts at competitions of a different level shows, that the system of training in rhythmic gymnastics at a stage of special-purpose base preparation requires entering of the corrective amendments which have been directed on perfection of its forms and procedures. One of such innovations may be use in training process of innovative methods of perfection of work on gymnastic subject matters. In article initial theoretical positions and ways of perfection of process of training to throws and catching of a ball and other subject matters as basic means of progress at gymnasts impellent qualities and the skills necessary for achievement of high results in competitive activity are considered.
Muhr, Sara Louise
Employees working across multiple cultures are exposed to a vast number of different norms and values, and consequentially work is often a struggle to retain a coherent sense of self. However, when international workers travel, they also encounter more bland spaces where familiarity and similarity...... are important. These spaces appear culturally generic to the Western traveler, but are highly Westernized to bring comfort to Western employees traveling in foreign cultures. This paper argues that these spaces are important in cross-cultural identity work in the sense that international workers – professional...... strangers – need these places to belong and relate to familiarity and to regain a sense of identity. Drawing on an illustrative empirical vignette of an international consultant, I demonstrate how culturally generic spaces can be used in identity work of an international relations consultant....
Marinês Tambara Leite
Full Text Available Investigación de carácter cuantitativo, analítico, que tuvo por objetivo analizar el apoyo familiar y social de mayores residentes en la municipalidad de Alecrim, RS, Brasil. Del cual participaron 338 adultos mayores, siendo que la misma ocurrid los meses de marzo y abril de 2007. Fueron utilizados dos instrumentos para la recolección de datos; uno con cuestiones socios demográficos y el Medical Outcomes Study. Se realizó análisis estadística descriptiva y test de Kruskal-Wallis y Mann-Whitney y test de qui-cuadrado al nivel de 5% de significación. Los resultados mostrarán preponderancia de mayores del sexo femenino, unos (61,8%, con parejas, (61,5%, en la franja de edad entre 60 y 69 años, (56,2%, conviviendo con la pareja (49,7%, que tiene amigos, (99,1%, y, por fin, los que participan de grupos, (35,8%. Los datos indicaron que entre los mayores analizados, hay un significativo porcentaje (87% de aquéllos que poseen una red familiar y social que les da soporte de naturaleza emocional, material, afectiva e informativa, caracterizando, así, una interacción social positiva. Se concluye que estas personas mayores tienen una buena convivencia familiar y social, lo que les posibilita vivir con dignidad y con calidad de vida.
Idarmis González Benítez
Full Text Available Con este trabajo nos propusimos actualizar el tema de las crisis familiares. Se pone de manifiesto que tanto los eventos propios del desarrollo, como los accidentales, dan lugar a la aparición de crisis en la familia. Queda esclarecido, que no necesariamente han de tener implicaciones negativas para la familia. Se hace énfasis en la valoración del evento por la familia y su significación. Se destaca el papel de los recursos familiares como protectores y moduladores de las crisis. Por último se señalan algunos pasos a seguir en la intervención familiarWith this paper we intend to update the topic of the family crises. It is shown that the own events of development as well as the accidental ones bring about the appearance of crises in the family. It is made clear that they not always have negative implications for the family. Emphasis is made on the assessment of the event for the family and its significance. The role played by the family resources as protective and modulators of the crisis is stressed. Finally, some of the steps to be taken in family intervention are mentioned
Persistence as a family matter. Family relationships, succession and gender in agriculture and livestock farms in Buenos Aires SouthWest area (1987-2007Dossier: The place of the family in Argentina's agricultural production (1960-2008 Cuando la persistencia es una cuestión de familia. Relaciones familiares, traspaso y género en explotaciones agropecuarias del Sudoeste bonaerense (1987-2007
Natalia López Castro
Full Text Available The persistence of family farms in Agentina's Pampas in the last twenty years has been explained taking into account economic and productive matters. This kind of emphasis is coherent with the increasing importance of scale and capitalization required to stay in business that characterizes the current stage of agrarian capitalism. However, the very nature of this type of production units, the role family plays inside them, makes it necessary to look into subjective and cultural aspects also, in order to find more accurate and complex ways to analyse the paths to persistence. In this paper, using the data provided by interviews with ten agrifamilies of SouthWest Buenos Aires province's states Puán and Saavedra, we analyse the role relations between parents and children, gender and personal aspirations and expectations play in fundamental processes such as succession and in the construction and support of familial and productive strategies that have given this families the chance of staying active and producing in the last two decades.Las explicaciones del fenómeno de persistencia de la producción familiar en el sector agropecuario pampeano se han ensayado generalmente teniendo en cuenta aspectos económicos y productivos. Si bien ese énfasis coincide con la creciente importancia que la escala y la capitalización adquieren en la etapa actual de desarrollo del capitalismo agrario, por el propio carácter de estas unidades productivas -por el rol que juegan dentro de ellas las relaciones familiares- resulta necesario tomar en cuenta asimismo aspectos subjetivos y culturales, con el fin de lograr análisis más complejos y precisos sobre las estrategias que permitieron esa permanencia. En este trabajo indagamos en la influencia que las relaciones familiares y las concepciones culturales de las familias han tenido en las trayectorias de persistencia de un grupo de familias productoras del sudoeste bonaerense. En base al análisis de entrevistas
Thammasan, Nattapong; Moriyama, Koichi; Fukui, Ken-ichi; Numao, Masayuki
Although emotion detection using electroencephalogram (EEG) data has become a highly active area of research over the last decades, little attention has been paid to stimulus familiarity, a crucial subjectivity issue...
José Antonio Levy
Full Text Available Os autores relatam dois casos de atrofia muscular proximal familiar, moléstia caracterizada por déficit motor e atrofias musculares de distribuição proximal, secundárias a lesão de neurônios periféricos. Assim, como em outros casos descritos na literatura, foi feito inicialmente o diagnóstico de distrofia muscular progressiva. O diagnóstico correto foi conseguido com auxílio da eletromiografia e da biopsia muscular.
Delucca, Norma Edith; Rodríguez Durán, Adriana
Se presentará una síntesis del nuevo proyecto para el período 2010-2014, en el que se propone investigar las Modalidades de la diversidad, en el ejercicio de la parentalidad y la pareja. La búsqueda apuntará a una indagación en dos campos de problemáticas: 1) la diversidad en relación a las múltiples formas que adquieren hoy las configuraciones vinculares familiares y 2) la diversidad en relación a la conformación sexual de la pareja. Como objetivos específicos se plantea: - Investigar dif...
Hiroaki Kawamichi; Sugawara, Sho K.; Hamano, Yuki H.; Kai Makita; Masahiro Matsunaga; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Yuichi Ogino; Shigeru Saito; Norihiro Sadato
Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that ro...
Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Sugawara, Sho K.; Hamano, Yuki H.; Makita, Kai; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Ogino, Yuichi; Saito, Shigeru; Sadato, Norihiro
Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that ro...
Leticia Robles Silva
Full Text Available El objetivo es identificar las valoraciones sobre el cuidado no familiar desde la perspectiva de ancianos residentes en comunidad en condiciones de pobreza. Se realizó un estudio multicéntrico con metodología cualitativa con 92 ancianos residentes en cuatro estados en México de 2002 a 2004. Se realizaron entrevistas semi-estructuradas en los hogares de los ancianos y se hizo un análisis de contenido. La expectativa de los ancianos es ser cuidados por sus hijos en sus hogares, sin embargo, este cuidado familiar no se da cuando existen rupturas en el sistema de reciprocidad entre las generaciones. En estas condiciones, el cuidado por extraños en el hogar o la institucionalización en un asilo es la opción para estos ancianos. Ambas opciones son valoradas negativamente, la primera porque no reúne los rasgos del cuidado otorgado por los hijos, y en el asilo porque no existe realmente un cuidado.
Zivadinov, R; Hagemeier, J; Bergsland, N; Tavazzi, E; Weinstock-Guttman, B
Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is an oral treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) with anti-inflammatory and possible neuroprotective properties. Its effect on white matter and gray matter pathology is still not fully understood. The aim of the study was to characterize the effect of DMF on normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and thalamic pathology longitudinally. In this observational, longitudinal, 24-month magnetic resonance imaging study, 75 patients with relapsing-remitting MS treated with DMF and 40 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals were enrolled. Regional diffusion tensor imaging metrics and tract-based spatial statistics analyses were used to assess differences between groups. Mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, radial diffusivity and fractional anisotropy were measured in the thalamus and NAWM. Baseline differences and changes over time were evaluated within and between study groups. At baseline, patients with MS showed significantly increased diffusivity and decreased fractional anisotropy in the thalamus (P < 0.001 for mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity) and NAWM (all P < 0.016) compared with healthy individuals. No significant within-group difference was found in diffusion tensor imaging measures over 24 months in either group. Healthy individuals showed a significantly greater rate of increased diffusivity parameters in the thalamus and NAWM compared with patients with MS, over 24 months (P < 0.05). The lack of changes in diffusion tensor imaging metrics in patients with MS over 24 months possibly indicates a neuroprotective role of DMF. These findings provide additional evidence of the beneficial effect of DMF on MS-related pathology. © 2018 EAN.
Fatores preditores da sobrecarga subjetiva de familiares de pacientes psiquiátricos atendidos na rede pública de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil Predictors of subjective burden for families of psychiatric patients treated in the public health care system in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil
Sabrina Martins Barroso
Full Text Available Foram investigados os fatores preditores da sobrecarga subjetiva em familiares de pacientes psiquiátricos, sendo entrevistados 150 familiares de pacientes selecionados aleatoriamente em quatro serviços de saúde mental de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Utilizou-se a Escala de Sobrecarga dos Familiares de Pacientes Psiquiátricos (FBIS-BR e um questionário sócio-demográfico para coleta dos dados. As variáveis foram agrupadas em categorias temáticas analisadas separadamente para determinar a importância relativa dos fatores preditores. Os resultados mostraram que a sobrecarga subjetiva associou-se à sobrecarga objetiva e a fatores relacionados às condições clínicas dos pacientes, às condições de vida, estado de saúde e condições financeiras do cuidador e do paciente e às informações sobre o transtorno mental. O grau de sobrecarga subjetiva era menor quando o cuidador tinha lazer, atividades religiosas, admitia cuidar e tinha sentimentos positivos pelo paciente. Constatou-se a necessidade de incluir o acompanhamento aos familiares no modelo comunitário de atendimento psiquiátrico.This study investigated the predictors of subjective burden for families of psychiatric patients. We interviewed 150 relatives of patients randomly selected in four mental health care services in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Subjects were interviewed with the Family Burden Interview Schedule (FBIS-BR and a standardized socio-demographic questionnaire. Variables were grouped into thematic categories and separately analyzed to determine the relative importance of predictive factors. The results showed that subjective burden is influenced by objective burden and by factors related to the patient's clinical condition, the caregiver's and patient's living and health conditions and financial status, and increased demand for information on mental illness. Subjective burden was less when the caregiver practiced leisure and religious
Nippold, Marilyn A.; Rudzinski, Mishelle
Students (n=150) ages 11, 14, and 17 were asked to explain the meanings of 24 different idiomatic expressions. Performance on the task gradually improved as subject age increased. High-familiarity idioms were easier to explain than moderate-familiarity or low-familiarity expressions. Easier idioms tended to be more transparent. (Author/JDD)
Jesús Muñoz Peinado
Full Text Available En este artículo sobre los Colegios Familiares Rurales, que se extendieron por gran parte de España durante tres décadas, analizamos el contexto económico, político social y cultural en el que nacieron y se desarrollaron. Presentamos a continuación los orígenes y antecedentes socioeducativos de los mismos. Para pasar a presentar después las señas de identidad que los caracterizaron. Por último, se destacan algunas de las dificultades a las que tuvieron que hacer frente, así como su declive y huellas que, a nuestro entender, dejaron.
Thammasan, Nattapong; Moriyama, Koichi; Fukui, Ken-Ichi; Numao, Masayuki
Although emotion detection using electroencephalogram (EEG) data has become a highly active area of research over the last decades, little attention has been paid to stimulus familiarity, a crucial subjectivity issue. Using both our experimental data and a sophisticated database (DEAP dataset), we investigated the effects of familiarity on brain activity based on EEG signals. Focusing on familiarity studies, we allowed subjects to select the same number of familiar and unfamiliar songs; both resulting datasets demonstrated the importance of reporting self-emotion based on the assumption that the emotional state when experiencing music is subjective. We found evidence that music familiarity influences both the power spectra of brainwaves and the brain functional connectivity to a certain level. We conducted an additional experiment using music familiarity in an attempt to recognize emotional states; our empirical results suggested that the use of only songs with low familiarity levels can enhance the performance of EEG-based emotion classification systems that adopt fractal dimension or power spectral density features and support vector machine, multilayer perceptron or C4.5 classifier. This suggests that unfamiliar songs are most appropriate for the construction of an emotion recognition system.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accessing information that defines personally familiar context in real-world situations is essential for the social interactions and the independent functioning of an individual. Personal familiarity is associated with the availability of semantic and episodic information as well as the emotional meaningfulness surrounding a stimulus. These features are known to be associated with neural activity in distinct brain regions across different stimulus conditions (e.g., when perceiving faces, voices, places, objects, which may reflect a shared neural basis. Although perceiving context-rich personal familiarity may appear unchanged in aging on the behavioral level, it has not yet been studied whether this can be supported by neuroimaging data. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural network associated with personal familiarity during the perception of personally familiar faces and places. Twelve young and twelve elderly cognitively healthy subjects participated in the study. Both age groups showed a similar activation pattern underlying personal familiarity, predominantly in anterior cingulate and posterior cingulate cortices, irrespective of the stimulus type. The young subjects, but not the elderly subjects demonstrated an additional anterior cingulate deactivation when perceiving unfamiliar stimuli. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although we found evidence for an age-dependent reduction in frontal cortical deactivation, our data show that there is a stimulus-independent neural network associated with personal familiarity of faces and places, which is less susceptible to aging-related changes.
Antolínez Cáceres Bertha Rebeca
En el primer contacto la enfermera puede identificar algunos rasgos de la comunicación familiar, a medida que la intervención progresa podrá examinar y explorar sobre la comunicación familiar y orientar el manejo de conflictos. El análisis de la disfunción familiar inicia entonces por el análisis de la comunicación y dónde falla ésta: En el emisor, transmisor y sus causas. Luego viene la exploración del sistema familiar que aclara las reglas que mantienen y los procesos individuales que instr...
Cisneros, Luis; Ramirez, Guillermo; Hernandez, Arturo
Las empresas familiares son organizaciones de enorme complejidad que recientemente se han convertido en objeto de estudio de diversas disciplinas, como la Administracion, Sociologia, Psicologia y Antropologia...
Jokinen, Hanna; Ryberg, Charlotte; Kalska, Hely
, attention and executive functions in subjects with age-related white matter hyperintensities (WMH). METHODS: In the Leukoaraiosis and Disability Study, 567 subjects with age-related WMH were examined with a detailed neuropsychological assessment and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging. The relationships...... processing--namely, trail making A and Stroop test parts I and II. Anterior, but not posterior, corpus callosum atrophy was associated with deficits of attention and executive functions as reflected by the symbol digit modalities and digit cancellation tests, as well as by the subtraction scores in the trail...... is related to the frontal-lobe-mediated executive functions and attention, whereas overall corpus callosum atrophy is associated with the slowing of processing speed. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-May...
Kunze, Florian; Raes, Anneloes M L; Bruch, Heike
This article extends the conceptual knowledge of average relative subjective age in organizations by exploring organizational-level antecedents and consequences of employees, on average, feeling younger than their chronological age. We draw from the theories of selection-optimization-compensation and socioemotional selectivity to build a theoretical framework for relative subjective age in organizations. We hypothesize that companies in which employees, on average, perceive themselves to be younger than they actually are have a higher average individual goal accomplishment and, in turn, experience higher company performance. We further hypothesize that employees' average experience of high work-related meaning relates to a lower subjective age in organizations. In addition, we assess the role of environmental dynamism and age-inclusive human resource management as moderators in this theoretical model. Through empirically testing this model in a multisource dataset, including 107 companies with 15,164 participating employees, we received support for the hypothesized relationships. Our results contribute to current debates in the scientific literature on age and have important practical implications in light of the demographic changes faced by many companies. This research indicates to both researchers and practitioners that it is not employees' chronological age but their subjective age, a factor that can be influenced, which drives organizational performance outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Tijms, Betty M; Yeung, Hiu M; Sikkes, Sietske A M; Möller, Christiane; Smits, Lieke L; Stam, Cornelis J; Scheltens, Philip; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Barkhof, Frederik
Abstract We investigated the relationships between gray matter graph properties and cognitive impairment in a sample of 215 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and also whether age of disease onset modifies such relationships. We expected that more severe cognitive impairment in AD would be related to more random graph topologies. Single-subject gray matter graphs were constructed from T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans. The following global and local graph properties were calculated: betweenness centrality, normalized clustering coefficient γ, and normalized path length λ. Local clustering, path length, and betweenness centrality measures were determined for 90 anatomically defined areas. Regression models with as interaction term age of onset (i.e., early onset when patients were ≤65 years old and late onset when they were >65 years old at the time of diagnosis)×graph property were used to assess the relationships between cognitive functioning in five domains (memory, language, visuospatial, attention, and executive). Worse cognitive impairment was associated with more random graphs, as indicated by low γ, λ, and betweenness centrality values. Three interaction effects for age of onset×global graph property were found: Low γ and λ values more strongly related to memory impairment in early-onset patients; low beta values were significantly related to impaired visuospatial functioning in late-onset patients. For the local graph properties, language impairment showed the strongest relationship with decreased clustering coefficient in the left superior temporal gyrus across the entire sample. Our study shows that single-subject gray matter graph properties are associated with individual differences in cognitive impairment.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When people are asked to adjust the color of familiar objects such as fruits until they appear achromatic, the subjective gray points of the objects are shifted away from the physical gray points in a direction opposite to the memory color (memory color effect. It is still unclear whether the discrepancy between memorized and actual colors of objects is dependent on the familiarity of the objects. Here, we conducted two experiments in order to examine the relationship between the degree of a subject's familiarity with objects and the degree of the memory color effect by using logographs of food and beverage companies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In Experiment 1, we measured the memory color effects of logos which varied in terms of their familiarity (high, middle, or low. Results demonstrate that the memory color effect occurs only in the high-familiarity condition, but not in the middle- and low-familiarity conditions. Furthermore, there is a positive correlation between the memory color effect and the actual number of domestic stores of the brand. In Experiment 2, we assessed the semantic association between logos and food/beverage names by using a semantic priming task to elucidate whether the memory color effect of logos relates to consumer brand cognition, and found that the semantic associations between logos and food/beverage names in the high-familiarity brands were stronger than those in the low-familiarity brands only when the logos were colored correctly, but not when they were appropriately or inappropriately colored, or achromatic. CONCLUSION: The current results provide behavioral evidence of the relationship between the familiarity of objects and the memory color effect and suggest that the memory color effect increases with the familiarity of objects, albeit not constantly.
for this study. The test consists of 10 pairs of words (see Appendix B), ranked from easy to hard, selected from the Weschler Paired Associate Learning...facts and opinions on a current affairs topic. The decision-making task involved a maze problem. Subjects were tested immediately after training, 2...Screening Measures for Cognitive Style ........................ 5 The 4-Mat Test ......................................... 5 The Lateral Preference Test
Full Text Available Following current prognosis, demographic development raises expectations of an aging of the working population. Therefore, keeping employees healthy and strengthening their ability to work, becomes more and more important. When employees become older, dealing with age-related impairments of sensory functions, such as hearing impairment, is a central issue. Recent evidence suggests that negative effects that are associated with reduced hearing can have a strong impact at work. Especially under exhausting working situations such as working overtime hours, age and hearing impairment might influence employees’ well-being. Until now, neither the problem of aged workers and long working hours, nor the problem of hearing impairment and prolonged working time has been addressed explicitly. Therefore, a laboratory study was examined to answer the research question: Do age and hearing impairment have an impact on psychophysiological and subjective effects of long working hours. In total, 51 white-collar workers, aged between 24 and 63 years, participated in the laboratory study. The results show no significant effects for age and hearing impairment on the intensity of subjective consequences (perceived recovery and fatigue, subjective emotional well-being and physical symptoms of long working hours. However, the psychophysiological response (the saliva cortisol level to long working hours differs significantly between hearing impaired and normal hearing employees. Interestingly, the results suggest that from a psychophysiological point of view long working hours were more demanding for normal hearing employees.
Ameller, Aurely; Picard, Aline; D’Hondt, Fabien; Vaiva, Guillaume; Thomas, Pierre; Pins, Delphine
Objective Familiarity is a subjective sensation that contributes to person recognition. This process is described as an emotion-based memory-trace of previous meetings and could be disrupted in schizophrenia. Consequently, familiarity disorders could be involved in the impaired social interactions observed in patients with schizophrenia. Previous studies have primarily focused on famous people recognition. Our aim was to identify underlying features, such as emotional disturbances, that may c...
Mônica Andrade Lotufo
Full Text Available El nevus blanco esponjoso (NBE es una rara condición autosómica dominante, caracterizada por placas blancas bilaterales en la mucosa, de aspecto esponjoso, blandas a la palpación y que pueden escamarse. Los tratamientos son paliativos; y el uso de antibióticos, en especial la tetraciclina, ha demostrando buenos resultados en su control. Este trabajo presenta tres casos clínicos de una familia afectada por NBE, donde se discuten los posibles diagnósticos diferenciales y conductas terapéuticas indicadas. Un paciente masculino de 52 años de edad acudió a la clínica aquejado de lesiones blancas bilaterales. El paciente notó las lesiones 30 años antes, sin lograr un diagnóstico final de las mismas. Después de la anamnesis y del examen clínico fue realizada una biopsia incisional. La reunión de los datos clínicos e histopatológicos llevó al diagnóstico de NBE. Se le solicitó al paciente que indagase entre sus familiares con respecto a lesiones semejantes. Se detectó que el hijo de 19 años y la hija de 25 eran portadores de placas blancas en la mucosa yugal. Como no había afectación estética, se optó por no intervenir en las lesiones. El nevus blanco esponjoso es una lesión genética que debe ser diferenciada de otras patologías localizadas y sistémicas importantes, que tienen repercusiones serias para el individuo. Como no hay un tratamiento curativo para el NBE, el papel del cirujano dentista es diagnosticar esta lesión, aclarar al paciente sobre la naturaleza benigna y autolimitante del NBE y si fuera necesario desde el punto de vista estético, aplicar diferentes modalidades terapéuticas.
Tanpitukpongse, T P; Mazurowski, M A; Ikhena, J; Petrella, J R
Alzheimer disease is a prevalent neurodegenerative disease. Computer assessment of brain atrophy patterns can help predict conversion to Alzheimer disease. Our aim was to assess the prognostic efficacy of individual-versus-combined regional volumetrics in 2 commercially available brain volumetric software packages for predicting conversion of patients with mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer disease. Data were obtained through the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. One hundred ninety-two subjects (mean age, 74.8 years; 39% female) diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment at baseline were studied. All had T1-weighted MR imaging sequences at baseline and 3-year clinical follow-up. Analysis was performed with NeuroQuant and Neuroreader. Receiver operating characteristic curves assessing the prognostic efficacy of each software package were generated by using a univariable approach using individual regional brain volumes and 2 multivariable approaches (multiple regression and random forest), combining multiple volumes. On univariable analysis of 11 NeuroQuant and 11 Neuroreader regional volumes, hippocampal volume had the highest area under the curve for both software packages (0.69, NeuroQuant; 0.68, Neuroreader) and was not significantly different ( P > .05) between packages. Multivariable analysis did not increase the area under the curve for either package (0.63, logistic regression; 0.60, random forest NeuroQuant; 0.65, logistic regression; 0.62, random forest Neuroreader). Of the multiple regional volume measures available in FDA-cleared brain volumetric software packages, hippocampal volume remains the best single predictor of conversion of mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer disease at 3-year follow-up. Combining volumetrics did not add additional prognostic efficacy. Therefore, future prognostic studies in mild cognitive impairment, combining such tools with demographic and other biomarker measures, are justified in using hippocampal volume as
Danovitch, Judith H; Mills, Candice M
Children are exposed to advertisements and products that incorporate familiar characters, such as Dora the Explorer and Bob the Builder, virtually from birth. How does the presence of these characters influence children's judgments about information and products? Three experiments (N=125) explored how 4-year-olds evaluate messages from familiar characters and how their trust in a familiar character's testimony relates to their product preferences. Children endorsed objective and subjective claims made by a familiar character more often than those made by a perceptually similar but unfamiliar character even in situations where they had evidence that the familiar character was unreliable. Children also preferred low-quality products bearing a familiar character's image over high-quality products without a character image up to 74% of the time (whereas control groups preferred the low-quality products less than 6% of the time when they did not include a character image). These findings suggest that young children are powerfully influenced by familiar characters encountered in the media, leaving them vulnerable to advertising messages and clouding their judgments about products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Goedele Van Belle
Full Text Available Previous studies recording eye movements have rendered inconclusive findings with respect to processing differences between familiar and unfamiliar faces. We argue that this can be attributed to a number of factors that differ across studies: the type and extent of familiarity with stimuli presented, the varying spatial resolution of visual information and/or specifics, the definition of areas of interest subject to analyses, as well as the fact that the time course of scan patterns is often neglected. Here we sought to address these issues by recording gaze patterns in a face recognition task with personally familiar and unfamiliar faces, without predefining areas of interest and investigating potential processing differences at each individual fixation. We found that after a first fixation on the center of mass of the face—suggesting an initial holistic perception—and a subsequent left eye bias, local features were focused and explored more for familiar than unfamiliar faces. Although the number of fixations made did not differ for un-/familiar faces, the locations of fixations began to differ much earlier than when the familiarity decisions were provided. This suggests that without strict time constraints, different types of information are collected relatively early on familiar and unfamiliar faces.
Schwikert, Shane R; Curran, Tim
Heuristics involve the ability to utilize memory to make quick judgments by exploiting fundamental cognitive abilities. In the current study we investigated the memory processes that contribute to the recognition heuristic and the fluency heuristic, which are both presumed to capitalize on the byproducts of memory to make quick decisions. In Experiment 1, we used a city-size comparison task while recording event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the potential contributions of familiarity and recollection to the 2 heuristics. ERPs were markedly different for recognition heuristic-based decisions and fluency heuristic-based decisions, suggesting a role for familiarity in the recognition heuristic and recollection in the fluency heuristic. In Experiment 2, we coupled the same city-size comparison task with measures of subjective preexperimental memory for each stimulus in the task. Although previous literature suggests the fluency heuristic relies on recognition speed alone, our results suggest differential contributions of recognition speed and recollected knowledge to these decisions, whereas the recognition heuristic relies on familiarity. Based on these results, we created a new theoretical framework that explains decisions attributed to both heuristics based on the underlying memory associated with the choice options. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Idarmis González Benítez
Full Text Available Con el presente trabajo nos propusimos hacer una revisión de un conjunto de aspectos relacionados con la salud familiar, considerando ésta como un proceso único e irrepetible, que se caracteriza por no ser la suma de los problemas de salud individual de sus miembros y por tener un origen multicausal donde intervienen factores socioeconómicos, sociopsicológicos, psicosociales, del funcionamiento familiar, de la etapa del ciclo evolutivo, de la estructura y de la propia salud individual de los miembros. La salud familiar no es un estado estático, sino está sometido a un proceso de transformación, donde juegan un papel fundamental las potencialidades con que cuenta la familiaThis paper was aimed at reviewing a set of aspects related to family health, considering it as a unique and irrepeatable process that is not characterized by the sum of the individual health problems of the family members, but by its multicausal origin, where not only the socioeconomic, sociopsychological and psychosocial factors take part, but also factors connected with the family functioning, the stage of the evolutive cycle, the structure and the own individual health of the members. Health family is not a static state. It is subjected to a process of transformation, in which the potentialities of the family play a fundamental role
Annalien De Vries
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the existence of familiarity bias amongst individual investors in the South African stock market. Problem investigated: According to Warren Buffet, one needs to maintain emotional detachment if one wants to be a successful investor. However, recent research indicates that the perceptions of companies’ products and brands may influence individuals’ investment decisions in the stock market. This phenomenon implies that the investment decisions of individual investors are not purely based on firm fundamentals as suggested by traditional finance theories, but might be driven partly by the positive or negative attitude they have towards certain companies’ products and brands. The existence of familiarity bias amongst individual investors was investigated to determine if individuals prefer to invest in companies they are familiar with as opposed to unfamiliar companies. Methodology: A quantitative approach was followed. An online survey was used to show images of familiar and unfamiliar company brands to respondents, whereafter respondents were asked to indicate whether they will invest in the shares of the identified companies. The statistical analysis entailed descriptive statistics as well as one-way analyses of variance to test the stated hypotheses. Main findings: The results of this exploratory study indicate that investors do exhibit familiarity bias when choosing between different companies to invest in. Value of the research: The inclination of individual investors to invest in familiar corporate brands can have implications for the marketing industry, financial markets, the performance of companies as well as the investment performance of individual investors in the sense that it would seem that company brands could have an influence on investment decisions.
Zasov, A. V.; Saburova, A. S.; Khoperskov, A. V.; Khoperskov, S. A.
Dark matter in galaxies, its abundance, and its distribution remain a subject of long-standing discussion, especially in view of the fact that neither dark matter particles nor dark matter bodies have yet been found. Experts' opinions range from a very large number of completely dark galaxies exist to nonbaryonic dark matter does not exist at all in any significant amounts. We discuss astronomical evidence for the existence of dark matter and its connection with visible matter and examine att...
Full Text Available The impact science sessions for trainee science teachers have on 11-14 year olds’ learning of science was assessed using questionnaires and a “Video-Interview (trainee –Interview (pupils” (V-I-I technique devised for this study. V-I-I involved: video-recording trainee-taught lessons; and two interviews – with a pupil group to probe learning occurring in the lesson and with the trainee.Eighty UK-based trainees taking a one-year postgraduate teacher education course completed the questionnaire probing perceptions about university- and school-based training sessions designed to develop science subject matter knowledge (SMK and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK. Six trainees participated in V-I-I.Most trainees saw all sessions as SMK-based, regardless of teacher educators’ intended purposes. Lesson videos revealed ”describing” activities, task completion and good behaviour as main focii. Explanation of key science ideas and use of materials and /ideas from training sessions were largely absent. Trainee interviews revealed contrasts: most perceived a lesson as “successful” when children completed tasks quietly. Other trainees realised their understanding impacted on pupils’ learning science concepts. Pupil interviews showed positive attitudes towards science and learning difficult ideas, but little specific learning of topics taught.
Forsyth, J P; Kelly, M M
Plaud (J Clin Psychol 57, 1089-1102, 1109-1111, 1119-1120) and Ilardi and Feldman (J Clin Psychol 57, 1067-1088, 1103-1107, 1113-1117, 1121-1124) argue for two very different approaches to clinical science and practice (i.e., behavior analysis and cognitive neuroscience, respectively). We comment on the assets and liabilities of both perspectives as presented and attempt to achieve some semblance of balance between the three protagonists embroiled in this current debate. The vision of clinical science we articulate is more ecumenical and evolutionary, rather than paradigmatic and revolutionary. As we see it, the problem clinical psychology faces is much larger than the authors let on; namely, how best to make clinical science meaningful and relevant to practitioners, consumers, the general public, and the behavioral health-care community. Clinical psychology's immediate internal problem is not pluralism with regard to subject matter, worldview, methodology, or school of thought, but pluralism in clinical psychologists' adherence to a scientific epistemology as the only legitimate form of clinical psychology. On this latter point, we still have a very long way to go. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Genty, Emilie; Neumann, Christof; Zuberbühler, Klaus
Human and nonhuman primate communication differs in various ways. In particular, humans base communicative efforts on mutual knowledge and conventions shared between interlocutors. In this study, we experimentally tested whether bonobos (Pan paniscus), a close relative to humans, are able to take into account the familiarity, i.e. the shared interaction history, when communicating with a human partner. In five experimental conditions we found that subjects took the recipients' attentional state and their own communicative effectiveness into account by adjusting signal production accordingly. More importantly, in case of communicative failure, subjects repeated previously successful signals more often with a familiar than unfamiliar recipient, with whom they had no previous interactions, and elaborated by switching to new signals more with the unfamiliar than the familiar one, similar to what has previously been found in two year-old children. We discuss these findings in relation to the human capacity to establish common ground between interlocutors, a crucial aspect of human cooperative communication.
Antolínez Cáceres Bertha Rebeca
Full Text Available En el primer contacto la enfermera puede identificar algunos rasgos de la comunicación familiar, a medida que la intervención progresa podrá examinar y explorar sobre la comunicación familiar y orientar el manejo de conflictos. El análisis de la disfunción familiar inicia entonces por el análisis de la comunicación y dónde falla ésta: En el emisor, transmisor y sus causas. Luego viene la exploración del sistema familiar que aclara las reglas que mantienen y los procesos individuales que instrumentan estas reglas. Los problemas de comunicación envuelven factores emocionales: ansiedad y temores a acercarse, diferenciarse, a estar lejos, a ser heridos o a herir. La enfemera en su plan terapéutico ayudará a la familia a identificar los conflictos, a verbalizarlos reconociendo la causa y a manejarlos efectivamente a través de una mejor comunicación. El consultante además de la comunicación verbal, se expresa mediante los movimientos del cuerpo, la posición, la facies, movimientos de manos, el llanto, el silencio, entre otros. Los ejercicios son un medio facilitador para romper barreras y buscar una comunicación funcional consigo mismo, con la familia y la sociedad.
María Luisa Platone
Full Text Available El estudio discute las condiciones familiares (estructura y patrones interactivos del sistema familiar, consideradas como factores de riesgo en el maltrato infantil. Método. Investigación descriptiva multivariada (cuantitativa y cualitativa. Se analizaron los datos obtenidos en un estudio retrospetivo (1970-2000 en muestras representativas de escolares de escuelas públicas y privadas del área metropolitana de Caracas, Venezuela, en edades comprendidas de 5 a 13 años, y desde preescolar hasta el 6ª grado de escuela básica. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron: 1 El dibujo de la familia, 2 encuesta al nino (a. 3 encuesta al docente acerca de las condiciones familiares del escolar y su adaptación a las actividades de aula. El análisis estadístico fue realizado con el programa spss 10.0. Resultados. Los datos significativos (÷2 >0.05 acerca de la estructura familiar, de los patrones de interacción, las pautas de socialización y la adaptación escolar entre los niños de escuela pública y privada son discutidos, señalando, además, los cambios relevantes entre estas variables en las investigaciones de los años 2000 y 1970. Discusión. En los escolares con pobre adaptación escolar, se evidenciaron las siguientes condiciones familiares: 1 estructura familiar difusa, es decir, el niño no discrimina la figura de autoridad dentro del sistema familiar. 2 hay pocas interacciones y actividades recreativas. 3 los niños no logran identificarse con algún miembro adulto de la familia; tienden a desvalorizarse (baja autoestima, y presentan relaciones conflictivas dentro del hogar. 4 predominan los castigos físicos o la indiferencia sobre otros métodos disciplinarios. 5 los docentes reportan negligencia del representante en atender a la alimentación e higiene del escolar y dificultad en reunirse con los representantes. Al relacionar estas condiciones con la noción de «maltrato infantil», encontramos que existe un alto índice de factores de
Ishii, Kiyoshi; Iguchi, Yoshio; Sawa, Kosuke
Using a context discrimination procedure and rats as the subjects, the formation of context-dependent aversions to novel and familiar fluids was investigated. Experiment 1 revealed that context dependency could be established to a novel fluid (saccharin) after three cycles of context discrimination training and that the acquired context dependency…
An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that familiarity of letter structure (as opposed to familiarity of the word ) would facilitate the...perception of the word . The results showed an interaction between letter structure familiarity and work familiarity such that while letter structure...familiarity facilitated correct identification of the letters of the word , letter structure familiarity resulted in inhibiting the perception of
María Teresa Bazo
Full Text Available Vivimos en sociedades envejecidas. El aumento de la esperanza de vida y la disminución de la fecundidad conllevan un debilitamiento de las estructuras familiares tradicionales entre las diversas generaciones. Ha aumentado la diversidad en las formas familiares, valores, normas, y costumbres. La prolongación de la vida y la coexistencia de varias generaciones permite poder detentar durante más años los diversos estatus y roles familiares. A pesar de los cambios en las relaciones familiares, de la investigación existente se desprende que la familia sigue siendo una institución social fundamental en el apoyo a las personas que lo necesitan, y en cuyo seno todavía se sigue practicando el intercambio de bienes y servicios –como el cuidado, entre otros—entre las generaciones. Es la permanencia en las sociedades contemporáneas de la solidaridad familiar intergeneracional. En ese contexto se presentan diversos resultados derivados de la investigación europea Old Age and Autonomy: The Role of Social Services System and Intergenerational Family Solidarity.Ageing is a feature of modern societies. The increase in life expectancy, together with the decrease in fertility rates in Western societies, is leading to the weakening of traditional intergenerational family structures. The diversity in family forms, values, norms, and behaviours has increased. The coexistence of several generations allows family members to maintain longer the different family statuses and roles. Despite social changes in family relations, existing research shows that the family continues to be a fundamental social institution in the support of persons in need of it. Transfers of goods and services –including care- continues to be common practice within families, showing that intergenerational family solidarity remains a feature in contemporary societies. In the paper, some of the outcomes on family transfers obtained in the context of the European research “Old Age
Full Text Available In order to investigate how novelty and familiarity affect beauty perception, fractal images were presented five times over 14 weeks. Fractal images are unfamiliar to people, hence used in this study to control their previous experience. a total of 800 fractal images were divided into five groups (160 images X 5 group, and three groups of images were presented to participants each time for five times. The results showed that while beauty perception is decreased until the third exposure, it is increased from third to fifth exposure. These results suggest that a certain level of repeated exposure is necessary for subjects to become familiar, which in turn affect beauty perception.
Antonius, Daniel; Bruce, Kira L; Moisa, Bethanie; Sinclair, Samuel Justin; Malaspina, Dolores; Trémeau, Fabien
Preferences or attitudes towards others are often shaped through implicit memory processes, and they serve a critical function in our social lives. Preferences driven by implicit familiarity (mere exposure effect) are particularly important when making judgments about others and forming attitudes of liking and social interaction. In schizophrenia, little is known about the effect of familiarity preference on judgments and attitudes toward others. Subjects included 79 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 61 non-patient control subjects. Familiarity preference and trait judgments about others were assessed using a computer task in which neutral faces were rated on positive and negative character traits. "Attractiveness" was rated twice at the beginning and at the end, to measure familiarity preference. Clinical ratings were also obtained. Patients and controls both demonstrated a positive familiarity preference effect. However, the groups differed on the predictive value of familiarity preference for trait judgments. In both groups, the presence of a familiarity preference effect predicted greater positive trait judgments. In patients only, the presence of a familiarity preference effect also predicted, although the correlation was less significant, greater negative trait judgments. The findings are consistent with a preserved familiarity preference effect in individuals with schizophrenia and that the effect is primarily associated with changes in positive attitudes. However, in individuals with schizophrenia this effect is also linked with inferences about negative traits, resulting in ambivalence towards others. This finding may contribute to the impaired social functioning of people with schizophrenia. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Peynircioğlu, Z F; Mungan, E
In Experiment 1, psychology experts and novices showed generation effects with both psychology-related and other words. In Experiment 2, music experts who were sports novices and sports experts who were music novices showed a generation effect in a recognition test for all words regardless of domain (music or sports). Moreover, the effect was greater for words from the subjects' "nonexpertise" area. In Experiments 3A and 3B, music experts showed a greater generation effect for sports words than for music words in a free recall test but only when the sports and music words were studied together. These results are inconsistent with the semantic elaboration requirement for the generation effect that predicts less of an effect, if any, with less familiar materials. Rather, they provide evidence for the idea that the generation effect is influenced by relative distinctiveness of the to-be-remembered items.
This study explored the relation between pedagogical knowledge and subject-matter knowledge, in the context of inquiry-driven science instruction, and their relation to instructors' performance in the instructional process. This multiple case study focused on three distinct categories of teachers--Novice in Inquiry and in Science, Novice in Inquiry and Expert in Science, and Expert in Inquiry and in Science--and examined the commonalities and differences among them by exploring the cognitive processes these teachers used when planning and enacting an inquiry instructional situation, as well as when assessing students' learning resulting from this specific instructional event. Inquiry instruction varied across cases from largely structured to largely open. The Novice-Novice's science instruction, predominantly traditional in the approach, differed greatly from that of the Expert-Expert and of the Novice-Expert. The latter two emphasized--to various extents structured, guided, and open--inquiry strategy as part of their ongoing instruction. The open inquiry was an approach embraced solely by the Expert-Expert teacher throughout the Advanced Science Research instruction, emphasizing the creative aspect of problem generation. Edward teacher also distinguished himself from the other two participants in his view of planning and terminology used to describe it, both of which emphasized the dynamic and flexible feature of this instructional process. The Expert-Expert identified occasional planning, planning of specific skills and content critical to students' learning process during their independent inquiry. The observed teaching performance of the three participants partly reflected their planning; the alignment was least frequent for the Novice-Novice. The assessment of inquiry-based projects varied greatly across participants. Each teacher participant evaluated a set of three inquiry-based science projects that differed in their quality, and this variation increased
Atsushi Kimura; Yuji Wada; Tomohiro Masuda; Sho-ichi Goto; Daisuke Tsuzuki; Haruo Hibino; Dongsheng Cai; Ippeita Dan
Background When people are asked to adjust the color of familiar objects such as fruits until they appear achromatic, the subjective gray points of the objects are shifted away from the physical gray...
En este artículo se presentan los hallazgos más relevantes de la investigación realizada en las últimas décadas sobre las relaciones familiares y el desarrollo adolescente, prestando una atención especial a dos aspectos: los cambios en estas relaciones con la llegada a la adolescencia de los hijos, y su influencia sobre el desarrollo y el ajuste del adolescente. Siguiendo un enfoque dimensional, se analizan aspectos claves del estilo parental, como son el afecto, la comunicación, los conflict...
Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Alexander, Erin
Expected satiation (the extent to which a food is expected to deliver fullness) is an excellent predictor of self-selected portion size (kcal). Here, we explored the prospect that expected satiation changes over time. Fifty-eight participants evaluated expected satiation in eight test foods (including two 'candidate' foods: sushi and muesli) and reported how often they consumed each food. In one of the candidate foods (sushi), and across other test foods, expected satiation increased with familiarity. Together, these findings are considered in the context of 'satiation drift' - the hypothesis that foods are expected to deliver poor satiation until experience teaches us otherwise. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment are at high risk for developing Alzheimer's disease. Besides episodic memory dysfunction they show deficits in accessing contextual knowledge that further specifies a general concept or helps to identify an object or a person. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the neural networks associated with the perception of personal familiar faces and places in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and healthy control subjects. Irrespective of stimulus type, patients compared to control subjects showed lower activity in right prefrontal brain regions when perceiving personally familiar versus unfamiliar faces and places. Both groups did not show different neural activity when perceiving faces or places irrespective of familiarity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data highlight changes in a frontal cortical network associated with knowledge-based personal familiarity among patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment. These changes could contribute to deficits in social cognition and may reduce the patients' ability to transition from basic to complex situations and tasks.
the environment as a function of increasing familiarity with the situation. Seventy-two students formed 36 dyads which played a complex tactical and negotiations game for 6 one-half hour periods. Over periods, all subjects reduced their use of the environment as a source of influence on their decisions. Cognitively complex subjects reduced their dependency on the environment sooner and more sharply than simple subjects. It was concluded that as a task situation is mastered, decision makers gain the confidence to take a more
Prescribed burning and thinning are gaining popularity as low-cost forest protection measures. Such field management practices could alter the chemical properties of soil organic matter (SOM), especially humic substances. In this work, we collected surface soil samples from the Bankhead National For...
Full Text Available Subjective cognitive impairment may be a very early at-risk period of the continuum of dementia. However, it is difficult to discriminate at-risk states from normal aging. Thus, detection of the early pathological changes in the subjective cognitive impairment period is needed. To elucidate these changes, we employed diffusion tensor imaging and volumetry analysis, and compared subjective cognitive impairment with normal, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The subjects in this study were 39 Alzheimer's disease, 43 mild cognitive impairment, 28 subjective cognitive impairment and 41 normal controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the normal control and subjective cognitive impairment groups in all measures. Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment had the same extent of brain atrophy and diffusion changes. These results are consistent with the hypothetical model of the dynamic biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease.
Johnson, Sarah K; Halpern, Andrea R
We explored the functional organization of semantic memory for music by comparing priming across familiar songs both within modalities (Experiment 1, tune to tune; Experiment 3, category label to lyrics) and across modalities (Experiment 2, category label to tune; Experiment 4, tune to lyrics). Participants judged whether or not the target tune or lyrics were real (akin to lexical decision tasks). We found significant priming, analogous to linguistic associative-priming effects, in reaction times for related primes as compared to unrelated primes, but primarily for within-modality comparisons. Reaction times to tunes (e.g., "Silent Night") were faster following related tunes ("Deck the Hall") than following unrelated tunes ("God Bless America"). However, a category label (e.g., Christmas) did not prime tunes from within that category. Lyrics were primed by a related category label, but not by a related tune. These results support the conceptual organization of music in semantic memory, but with potentially weaker associations across modalities.
Antonio Duréndez Gómez-Guillamón
Full Text Available Estudios previos han demostrado que las empresas familiares son muy diferentes a las no familiares, puesto que su carácter familiar y la relación familia-empresa les imprime unos rasgos y una cultura propia que le suponen cualidades diferenciadoras. De igual forma, la identificación de una estructura financiera y una jerarquía financiera única en el caso de las empresas familiares nos conduce a plantear una investigación en torno a la existencia de una cultura financiera propia de las empresas familiares. Para ello, se ha llevado a cabo un análisis de corte transversal mediante una encuesta dirigida a una muestra representativa de 837 empresas. Los resultados confirman que el carácter de la empresa es un factor discriminante de la cultura financiera al presentar las empresas familiares un menor grado de cultura financiera que las empresas no familiares. De forma que las empresas familiares se apoyan en menor medida que las no familiares en la opinión de sus directores financieros para las decisiones gerenciales en el área de financiación, están menos informadas de las fuentes financieras alternativas a las tradicionales y la importancia que le conceden a la formación del departamento de administración y financiero es también menor.
Antonio Duréndez Gómez-Guillamón; Teresa Mariño Garrido
Estudios previos han demostrado que las empresas familiares son muy diferentes a las no familiares, puesto que su carácter familiar y la relación familia-empresa les imprime unos rasgos y una cultura propia que le suponen cualidades diferenciadoras. De igual forma, la identificación de una estructura financiera y una jerarquía financiera única en el caso de las empresas familiares nos conduce a plantear una investigación en torno a la existencia de una cultura financiera propia de las empresa...
Schreiner, Simon J; Kirchner, Thomas; Wyss, Michael; Van Bergen, Jiri M G; Quevenco, Frances C; Steininger, Stefanie C; Griffith, Erica Y; Meier, Irene; Michels, Lars; Gietl, Anton F; Leh, Sandra E; Brickman, Adam M; Hock, Christoph; Nitsch, Roger M; Pruessmann, Klaas P; Henning, Anke; Unschuld, Paul G
Low episodic memory performance characterizes elderly subjects at increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may reflect neuronal dysfunction within the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus (PCP) region. To investigate a potential association between cerebral neurometabolism and low episodic memory in the absence of cognitive impairment, tissue-specific magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging at ultrahigh field strength of 7 Tesla was used to investigate the PCP region in a healthy elderly study population (n = 30, age 70 ± 5.7 years, Mini-Mental State Examination 29.4 ± 4.1). The Verbal Learning and Memory Test (VLMT) was administered as part of a neuropsychological battery for assessment of episodic memory performance. Significant differences between PCP gray and white matter could be observed for glutamate-glutamine (p = 0.001), choline (p = 0.01), and myo-inositol (p = 0.02). Low Verbal Learning and Memory Test performance was associated with high N-acetylaspartate in PCP gray matter (p = 0.01) but not in PCP white matter. Our data suggest that subtle decreases in episodic memory performance in the elderly may be associated with increased levels of N-acetylaspartate as a reflection of increased mitochondrial energy capacity in PCP gray matter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Stress or arousal responses to novel social contexts ease off when individuals get familiar with the social context. In the present study we investigated whether oxytocin is involved in this process of familiarization-habituation, as oxytocin is known to increase trust and decrease anxiety. Fifty-nine healthy female subjects took part in the same experimental procedure in two sessions separated by four weeks. In the first (novelty session state trust scores were significantly positively correlated with salivary oxytocin levels, while in the second (familiarity session state trust scores were significantly negatively correlated with salivary oxytocin levels. In a path model, oxytocin was associated with increased trust in the novelty session and trust was associated with decreased oxytocin levels in the familiarity session. The results are consistent with the idea that oxytocin decreases stress-to-novelty responses by promoting familiarization to novel social contexts.
Diaz-Cenzano, Elena; Chotro, M Gabriela
With infant rats, unlike with adults, increased intake of a taste after mere exposure to this stimulus is not consistently found; this has sometimes been interpreted as a failure by the immature subject to recognize tastes as familiar. We studied the effect of preexposure to a tastant, measuring taste reactivity and intake in 14-day-old rats. Familiarity increased hedonic response to sucrose, but also increased aversive response to quinine and ethanol. With the sucrose-quinine compound, familiarity increased both the hedonic and the aversive reaction to the stimulus. In no case was a differential reactivity to water observed. Significant increased intake after familiarization was only found with quinine or the sucrose-quinine compound. Results indicate that in infant rats, and with the present parameters, taste familiarity enhances responsiveness to these stimuli, an effect not always accompanied by detectable changes in intake.
Arenas Cardona, Henry Antonio; Rico Balvín, Daniela
...) respecto al protocolo y la sucesion familiar. El trabajo corresponde a una investigacion de tipo exploratoria que permite evidenciar que las familias empresarias tienen temor a realizar el protocolo familiar, debido principalmente...
Sidtis, Diana; Kreiman, Jody
The human voice is described in dialogic linguistics as an embodiment of self in a social context, contributing to expression, perception and mutual exchange of self, consciousness, inner life, and personhood. While these approaches are subjective and arise from phenomenological perspectives, scientific facts about personal vocal identity, and its role in biological development, support these views. It is our purpose to review studies of the biology of personal vocal identity-the familiar voice pattern-as providing an empirical foundation for the view that the human voice is an embodiment of self in the social context. Recent developments in the biology and evolution of communication are concordant with these notions, revealing that familiar voice recognition (also known as vocal identity recognition or individual vocal recognition) has contributed to survival in the earliest vocalizing species. Contemporary ethology documents the crucial role of familiar voices across animal species in signaling and perceiving internal states and personal identities. Neuropsychological studies of voice reveal multimodal cerebral associations arising across brain structures involved in memory, emotion, attention, and arousal in vocal perception and production, such that the voice represents the whole person. Although its roots are in evolutionary biology, human competence for processing layered social and personal meanings in the voice, as well as personal identity in a large repertory of familiar voice patterns, has achieved an immense sophistication.
Ryals, Anthony J.; Cleary, Anne M.; Seger, Carol A.
This fMRI study examined recall and familiarity for words and scenes using the novel recognition without cued recall (RWCR) paradigm. Subjects performed a cued recall task in which half of the test cues resembled studied items (and thus were familiar) and half did not. Subjects also judged the familiarity of the cue itself. RWCR is the finding that, among cues for which recall fails, subjects generally rate cues that resemble studied items as more familiar than cues that do not. For words, left and right hippocampal activity increased when recall succeeded relative to when it failed. When recall failed, right hippocampal activity was decreased for familiar relative to unfamiliar cues. In contrast, right Prc activity increased for familiar cues for which recall failed relative to both familiar cues for which recall succeeded and to unfamiliar cues. For scenes, left hippocampal activity increased when recall succeeded relative to when it failed but did not differentiate familiar from unfamiliar cues when recall failed. In contrast, right Prc activity increased for familiar relative to unfamiliar cues when recall failed. Category-specific cortical regions showed effects unique to their respective stimulus types: The visual word form area (VWFA) showed effects for recall vs. familiarity specific to words, and the parahippocampal place area (PPA) showed effects for recall vs. familiarity specific to scenes. In both cases, these effects were such that there was increased activity occurring during recall relative to when recall failed, and decreased activity occurring for familiar relative to unfamiliar cues when recall failed. PMID:23142268
Ozubko, Jason D; Yonelinas, Andrew P
Amnesia leads to a deficit in recollection that leaves familiarity-based recognition relatively spared. Familiarity is thought to be based on the fluent processing of studied items compared to novel items. However, whether amnesic patients respond normally to direct manipulations of processing fluency is not yet known. In the current study, we manipulated processing fluency by preceding each test item with a semantically related or unrelated prime item, and measured both recollection and familiarity using a remember-know recognition procedure. In healthy controls, enhancing processing fluency increased familiarity-based recognition responses for both old and new words, leaving familiarity-based accuracy constant. However, in patients with MTL damage, enhancing fluency only increased familiarity-based recognition responses for new items, resulting in decreased familiarity-based recognition accuracy. Importantly, this fluency-related decrease in recognition accuracy was not due to overall lower levels of performance or impaired recollection of studied items because it was not observed in healthy subjects that studied words under conditions that lowered performance by reducing recollection. The results indicate that direct manipulations of processing fluency can disrupt familiarity-based discrimination in amnesia. Potential accounts of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Macalady, Donald L.; Walton-Day, Katherine
This paper reports the use of excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (EEMS), parallel factor statistical analysis (PARAFAC), and oxidation-reduction experiments to examine the effect of redox conditions on PARAFAC model results for aqueous samples rich in natural organic matter. Fifty-four aqueous samples from 11 different geographic locations and two plant extracts were analyzed untreated and after chemical treatments or irradiation were used in attempts to change the redox status of the natural organic matter. The EEMS spectra were generated and modeled using a PARAFAC package developed by Cory and McKnight (2005). The PARAFAC model output was examined for consistency with previously reported relations and with changes expected to occur upon experimental oxidation and reduction of aqueous samples. Results indicate the implied fraction of total sample fluorescence attributed to quinone-like moieties was consistent (0.64 to 0.78) and greater than that observed by Cory and McKnight (2005). The fraction of the quinone-like moieties that was reduced (the reducing index, RI) showed relatively little variation (0.46 to 0.71) despite attempts to alter the redox status of the natural organic matter. The RI changed little after reducing samples using zinc metal, oxidizing at high pH with air, or irradiating with a Xenon lamp. Our results, however, are consistent with the correlations between the fluorescence indices (FI) of samples and the ratio of PARAFAC fitting parameters suggested by Cory and McKnight (2005), though we used samples with a much narrower range of FI values.
María Inés Bringiotti
Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza las implicaciones del concepto "familia" señalando la multiplicidad de fenómenos y situaciones incluidos en el mismo. Su elucidación permitirá determinar los diversos tipos de familia y de riesgo que podemos encontrar en nuestro trabajo cotidiano. La evolución de ese concepto está directamente influida por las determinantes socioestructurales y culturales que en cada momento histórico contextualizan a los sujetos, así como las posibles situaciones de riesgo que deben enfrentar y los recursos con los que cuentan. Se analiza la influencia de las representaciones acerca de cómo debe ser una familia, en la actualidad las familias presentan diferentes formas o estructuras y ello no implica el cumplimiento o no de sus funciones. Esto permitirá establecer adecuadamente las diferentes estrategias de prevención y abordaje aplicables a cada situación. Se ejemplificará concretamente con situaciones problemáticas relacionados a los casos de violencia familiar y maltrato infantil, concretamente con la negligencia y el abuso sexual infantil.
Full Text Available La comprensión y la imagen social de la discapacidad hace que las personas afectadas por ella sean desplazadasde la participación en diferentes ámbitos de la vida cotidiana. Consecuentemente, surgen cambios en las relaciones que los varones tienen con sus hijos(as con discapacidad, lo cual puede modificar el ejercicio y vivencia de la paternidad. En este trabajo se identificaron las características del ejercicio de la paternidad en cierto tipo de familias.Participaron varones de diferente edad, nivel socioeconómico y escolaridad, pertenecientes a un grupo de padres que llevan a sus hijos(as a escuelas de educación especial. Se utilizó una metodología cualitativa realizando entrevistas semiestructuradas.Los resultados de las entrevistas se analizaroncon base en el eje “Ser padre de un hijo(a con discapacidad”.Los hallazgos encontrados mostraron que dichos padres son un grupo de varones que requieren ser estudiados, porque algunas veces se identifican como uncírculo diferente a aquellos padres de niños normales. Algunos señalan que no es un problema, otros lo vincularon, por un lado, con una situación problemática debido a las implicaciones sociales y, por otro, por cuestiones religiosas. Se evidenciaron cambios familiares en la vivencia de la paternidad basados en juicios de valor y en conceptos de normalidad y anormalidad.
Gernsbacher, M A
Numerous word recognition studies conducted over the past 2 decades are examined. These studies manipulated lexical familiarity by presenting words of high versus low printed frequency and most reported an interaction between printed frequency and one of several second variables, namely, orthographic regularity, semantic concreteness, or polysemy. However, the direction of these interactions was inconsistent from study to study. Six new experiments clarify these discordant results. The first two demonstrate that words of the same low printed frequency are not always equally familiar to subjects. Instead, subjects' ratings of "experimental familiarity" suggest that many of the low-printed-frequency words used in prior studies varied along this dimension. Four lexical decision experiments reexamine the prior findings by orthogonally manipulating lexical familiarity, as assessed by experiential familiarity ratings, with bigram frequency, semantic concreteness, and number of meanings. The results suggest that of these variables, only experiential familiarity reliably affects word recognition latencies. This in turn suggests that previous inconsistent findings are due to confounding experiential familiarity with a second variable.
Carr, Evan W; Brady, Timothy F; Winkielman, Piotr
It is clear that unreinforced repetition (familiarization) influences affective responses to social stimuli, but its effects on the perception of facial emotion are unknown. Reporting the results of two experiments, we show for the first time that repeated exposure enhances the perceived happiness of facial expressions. In Experiment 1, using a paradigm in which subjects' responses were orthogonal to happiness in order to avoid response biases, we found that faces of individuals who had previously been shown were deemed happier than novel faces. In Experiment 2, we replicated this effect with a rapid "happy or angry" categorization task. Using psychometric function fitting, we found that for subjects to classify a face as happy, they needed less actual happiness to be present in the face if the target was familiar than if it was novel. Critically, our results suggest that familiar faces appear happier than novel faces because familiarity selectively enhances the impact of positive stimulus features.
Pimenta, Sônia Maria de Oliveira
This dissertation is aimed at the teaching of critical reading in English to foreign language students. Accordingly it analyses familiarity or distance as well as interest in topics in the light of reader-text interaction. Previous research based on the product of reading has revealed that in first language excess or lack of familiarity with the contents of texts has a negative influence in their evaluation thus hindering critical reading. Our experiment which presents subject informants (for...
Oishi, Shigehiro; Miao, Felicity F; Koo, Minkyung; Kisling, Jason; Ratliff, Kate A
Why are American landscapes (e.g., housing developments, shopping malls) so uniform, despite the well-known American penchant for independence and uniqueness? We propose that this paradox can be explained by American mobility: Residential mobility fosters familiarity-seeking and familiarity-liking, while allowing individuals to pursue their personal goals and desires. We reason that people are drawn to familiar objects (e.g., familiar, national chain stores) when they move. We conducted 5 studies to test this idea at the levels of society, individuals, and situations. We found that (a) national chain stores do better in residentially mobile places than in residentially stable places (controlling for other economic and demographic factors; Study 1); (b) individuals who have moved a lot prefer familiar, national chain stores to unfamiliar stores (Studies 2a and 2b); and (c) a residential mobility mindset enhances the mere exposure and familiarity-liking effect (Studies 4 and 5). In Study 5, we demonstrated that the link between mobility and familiarity-liking was mediated by anxiety evoked by mobility.
Maschi, Tina; Morgen, Keith; Zgoba, Kristen; Courtney, Deborah; Ristow, Jennifer
Background: The aging prison population in the United States presents a significant public health challenge with high rates of trauma and mental health issues that the correctional system alone is ill-prepared to address. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of age, objective, and subjective measures of trauma and stressful…
Iwaoka, Wayne T.; Crosetti, Lea M.
It has been reported that students learn best when they use a wide variety of techniques to understand the information of the discipline, be it visual, auditory, discussion with others, metacognition, hands-on activities, or writing about the subject. We report in this article the use of academic journals not only as an aid for students to learn…
Tempelaar, Dirk T.; Gijselaers, Wim H.; Schim van der Loeff, Sybrand; Nijhuis, Jan F. H.
The question of subject-specificity of achievement motivations is important, both for educational psychology, as well as for educational policy. This study contributes to the investigation of the heterogeneity in achievement motivations in the context of the expectancy-value model. Whereas existing research deals with middle and high school…
Sylvia Chant; Wagner Moreno
... número creciente de hogares las mujeres son jefas de hogar. Tanto a nivel nacional como internacional estas tendencias han sido consideradas como indicadores de una “desintegración familiar...
Laura Rodríguez Moya; José Carlos Peláez
La enfermedad mental afecta no solo al paciente sino también a su familia, dificulta la comunicación intrafamiliar, puede generar patologías adicionales en los familiares y todo ello empeorar la evolución del trastorno. Las terapias familiares de tipo psicoeducativo mejoran el pronóstico de la enfermedad y además previenen la aparición de otros trastornos en los familiares. Los elementos más importantes de estas intervenciones son la psicoeducación sobre el trastorno, el re-establecimiento de...
Chu, Sharon Lynn; Fedorovskaya, Elena; Quek, Francis; Snyder, Jeffrey
We present an exploration of familiarity as a meaningful dimension for the individualized adaptation of media-rich interfaces. In this paper, we investigate in particular the effect of digital images personalized for familiarity on users' perceived interestingness. Two dimensions of familiarity, facial familiarity and familiarity with image context, are manipulated. Our investigation consisted of three studies: the first two address how morphing technology can be used to convey meaningful familiarity, and the third studies the effect of such familiarity on users' sense of interestingness. Four levels of person familiarity varying in degree of person knowledge, and two levels of context familiarity varying in frequency of exposure, were considered: Self, Friend, Celebrity, and Stranger in Familiar and Unfamiliar contexts. Experimental results showed significant main effects of context and person familiarity. Our findings deepen understanding of the critical element of familiarity in HCI and its relationship to the interestingness of images, and can have great impact for the design of media-rich systems.
Gooijers, J; Leemans, A; Van Cauter, S; Sunaert, S; Swinnen, S P; Caeyenberghs, K
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) characterizes white matter (WM) microstructure. In many brain regions, however, the assumption that the diffusion probability distribution is Gaussian may be invalid, even at low b values. Recently, diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) was suggested to more accurately estimate this distribution. We explored the added value of DKI in studying the relation between WM microstructure and upper limb coordination in healthy controls (N = 24). Performance on a complex bimanual tracking task was studied with respect to the conventional DTI measures (DKI or DTI derived) and kurtosis metrics of WM tracts/regions carrying efferent (motor) output from the brain, corpus callosum (CC) substructures and whole brain WM. For both estimation models, motor performance was associated with fractional anisotropy (FA) of the CC-genu, CC-body, the anterior limb of the internal capsule, and whole brain WM (r s range 0.42-0.63). Although DKI revealed higher mean, radial and axial diffusivity and lower FA than DTI (p motor performance was associated with increased mean and radial kurtosis and kurtosis anisotropy (r s range 0.43-0.55). In conclusion, DKI provided additional information, but did not show increased sensitivity to detect relations between WM microstructure and bimanual performance in healthy controls.
Lozano Posso, Melquicedec
Este articulo se ubica en el campo de la consultoria en empresas familiares. El proposito principal es exponer un marco general de actuacion para el consultor que incursiona en la intervencion profesional con este tipo de empresas...
Laura Rodríguez Moya; José Carlos Peláez
... de límites, la mejora de la comunicación familiar y el establecimiento de relaciones con la red social extensa, para evitar el aislamiento tanto de la familia como del paciente. Las intervenciones mixtas, individuales y familiares, han demostrado ser muy útiles en el caso de los trastornos de personalidad, en concreto en el Trastorno Límite de Personalidad (TLP).
Dark Matter: An Introduction tackles the rather recent but fast-growing subject of astroparticle physics, encompassing three main areas of fundamental physics: cosmology, particle physics, and astrophysics. Accordingly, the book discusses symmetries, conservation laws, relativity, and cosmological parameters and measurements, as well as the astrophysical behaviors of galaxies and galaxy clusters that indicate the presence of dark matter and the possible nature of dark matter distribution.
Stevens, Catherine J; Leach, James
In contemporary dance, cognitive events are not necessarily restricted "to the skin or skull of an individual" (Hutchins in Int Encycl Soc Behav Sci 2068-2072, 2001) but distributed across dancers during collaborative improvisation. There is some experimental evidence of greater output when people perform problem-solving tasks alone. However, when a task is challenging and paired participants are familiar with each other, pairwise and emergent outcomes are more plentiful than solo outcomes. We investigate these factors in the context of dance with the broad hypothesis that innovation is enhanced when dancers improvise together compared with when they improvise alone. Dancers (N = 10) in a professional company improvised for 2 min alone and then with another dancer. Dancer familiarity (familiar, unfamiliar) and task (expressive, non-expressive) were crossed (within-subjects). The improvisations were video-recorded over 2 h in the dancers' usual improvisation space. After each improvisation, the dancers: stated the number of movement ideas expressed and rated task ease, satisfaction, interest, novelty, originality and clarity. In both tasks, there was a tendency for self-report of a greater number of movement ideas expressed in familiar and unfamiliar pairs than alone. Ratings of task ease, satisfaction, interest, clarity, etc. were slightly higher in the unfamiliar pair condition. In the non-expressive task, ratings of the task were higher in pairs (M = 3.02, SD 0.82) than in the solo (M = 2.67, SD 0.96) condition. Distributed creativity, relational cognition and social facilitation are used to interpret the results.
Frame, M. T.; Serna, B.; Devarakonda, R.
The U.S Geological Survey (USGS) Core Science Systems has been working for the past year to develop innovative and easy-to-use interfaces to access its diverse set of earth science data. As a result of Open Data Policies, the USGS Iin 2014 released the USGS Science Data Catalog (SDC) (data.usgs.gov) and with that several thousand metadata records with links to data were made available through a single search portal. Quickly, the development team realized additional user interfaces into the USGS Science Data Catalog were necessary in order to support easier access to multiple datasets, integration with existing tools/applications, and to eliminate for power users the traditional "go to a web browser, select a dataset, and select a file for download" function. To meet these needs, the USGS created the SDC Drive. SDC Drive is based on an initial prototype developed by the NSF Ssponsored DataONE and USGS several years ago. SDC Drive is a familiar user interface designed to create a virtual drive to USGS SDC Data holdings by simply navigating through Mac Finder to the virtual drive created. USGS created a replicated cache of datasets, due to the majority of datasets being remotely stored across the landscape, and being available through links in the FGDC CSDGM metadata. Users have the ability to mount, filter based on provider/subject, and navigate USGS Data holdings through a very familiar MAC Finder interface. Consequently, USGS data does not have to be downloaded through the browser and most importantly can easily be accessed by all local familiar applications (i.e. MS Excel, R, Matlab, ArcGIS, etc.) through a simple File, Open operation. The session will discuss the current development efforts, plans for gathering formal feedback from USGS scientists and data managers, the paradigm of exposing data to familiar tools for use by the research community, and future strategies by the USGS to continue to expose data through easy to use methods.
Nurok, Michael; Green, Douglas S T; Chisholm, Mary F; Fins, Joseph J; Liguori, Gregory A
To assess anesthesiologists' familiarity with the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) and American College of Surgeons (ACS) guidelines on Advance Directives in the perioperative setting. Single-center, 4-question anonymous survey. Urban academic medical center. Up to 34 subjects responded to each question. Familiarity with the ASA and ACS guidelines on Advance Directives in the perioperative setting ranged from 45% to 100%. There was inadequate familiarity with components of the ASA and ACS guidelines on advance directives in the perioperative setting. Larger studies are required to assess anesthesiologists' familiarity with national society guidelines that directly affect patient care. Future work should investigate best practices for guideline implementation, and consequences of poor adherence to national guidelines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Background: Ambient air pollution is associated with adverse health effects, but the sources and components, which cause these effects is still incompletely understood. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the pulmonary effects of a variety of common air pollutants, including diesel exhaust, biomass smoke, and road tunnel and subway station environments. Healthy non-smoking volunteers were exposed in random order to the specific air pollutants and air/control, during intermittent exercise, followed by bronchoscopy. Methods and results: In study I, exposures were performed with diesel exhaust (DE) generated at transient engine load and air for 1 hour with bronchoscopy at 6 hours post-exposure. Immunohistochemical analyses of bronchial mucosal biopsies showed that DE exposure significantly increased the endothelial adhesion molecule expression of p-selectin and VCAM-1, together with increased bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) eosinophils. In study II, the subjects were exposed for 1 hour to DE generated during idling with bronchoscopy at 6 hours. The bronchial mucosal biopsies showed significant increases in neutrophils, mast cells and lymphocytes together with bronchial wash neutrophils. Additionally, DE exposure significantly increased the nuclear translocation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and phosphorylated c-jun in the bronchial epithelium. In contrast, the phase II enzyme NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) decreased after DE. In study III, the 2-hour exposures took place in a road tunnel with bronchoscopy 14 hours later. The road tunnel exposure significantly increased the total numbers of lymphocytes and alveolar macrophages in BAL, whereas NK cell and CD56+/T cell numbers significantly decreased. Additionally, the nuclear expression of phosphorylated c-jun in the bronchial epithelium was significantly increased after road tunnel exposure. In study IV, the subjects were exposed to metal-rich particulate aerosol for 2 hours at a subway station
An K Raes
Full Text Available Previous research showed that instructions about CS-US pairings can lead to fear of the CS even when the pairings are never presented. In the present study, we examined whether the experience of CS-US pairings adds to the effect of instructions by comparing instructed conditioning with and without actual CS-US pairings in a within-subject design. Thirty-two participants saw three fractals as CSs (CS(+1, CS(+2, CS(- and received electric shocks as USs. Before the start of a so-called training phase, participants were instructed that both CS(+1 and CS(+2 would be followed by the US, but only CS(+1 was actually paired with the US. The absence of the US after CS(+2 was explained in such a way that participants would not doubt the instructions about the CS(+2-US relation. After the training phase, a test phase was carried out. In this phase, participants expected the US after both CS(+s but none of the CS(+s was actually paired with the US. During test, self-reported fear was initially higher for CS(+1 than for CS(+2, which indicates that the experience of actual CS-US pairings adds to instructions about these pairings. On the other hand, the CS(+s elicited similar skin conductance responses and US expectancies. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.
Laura Rodríguez Moya
Full Text Available La enfermedad mental afecta no solo al paciente sino también a su familia, dificulta la comunicación intrafamiliar, puede generar patologías adicionales en los familiares y todo ello empeorar la evolución del trastorno. Las terapias familiares de tipo psicoeducativo mejoran el pronóstico de la enfermedad y además previenen la aparición de otros trastornos en los familiares. Los elementos más importantes de estas intervenciones son la psicoeducación sobre el trastorno, el re-establecimiento de una relación sana entre paciente-familia, el establecimiento de límites, la mejora de la comunicación familiar y el establecimiento de relaciones con la red social extensa, para evitar el aislamiento tanto de la familia como del paciente. Las intervenciones mixtas, individuales y familiares, han demostrado ser muy útiles en el caso de los trastornos de personalidad, en concreto en el Trastorno Límite de Personalidad (TLP.
Henry Antonio Arenas Cardona
Full Text Available En este artículo se abordan las percepciones que tienen las empresas familiares, expertos, entidades y gremios del Valle de Aburrá (Colombia respecto al protocolo y la sucesión familiar. El trabajo corresponde a una investigación de tipo exploratoria que permite evidenciar que las familias empresarias tienen temor a realizar el protocolo familiar, debido principalmente a su desconocimiento acerca del tema. Se pretende entonces sensibilizar a empresarios, estudiantes universitarios, investigadores, y a la sociedad ̃ en general, del importante papel que desempenan las empresas familiares en la actividad económica como generadoras de riqueza y empleo, una herramienta importante para su perdurabilidad, continuidad y formalización es el protocolo familiar © 2013 Universidad ICESI. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L. Todos los derechos reservados.
Henry Antonio Arenas Cardona
Full Text Available En este artículo se abordan las percepciones que tienen las empresas familiares, expertos, entidades y gremios del Valle de Aburrá (Colombia respecto al protocolo y la sucesión familiar. El trabajo corresponde a una investigación de tipo exploratoria que permite evidenciar que las familias empresarias tienen temor a realizar el protocolo familiar, debido principalmente a su desconocimiento acerca del tema. Se pretende entonces sensibilizar a empresarios, estudiantes universitarios, investigadores, y a la sociedad en general, del importante papel que desempeñan las empresas familiares en la actividad económica como generadoras de riqueza y empleo, una herramienta importante para su perdurabilidad, continuidad y formalización es el protocolo familiar
Lenix Margarita Omaña Guerrero
Full Text Available En el ámbito económico existen empresas denominadas familiares cuyas características las identifican cla- ramente. Estas organizaciones coexisten con empresas que no presentan características de familiares. Por ello, el propósito del presente estudio es analizar comparativamente la gerencia en ambos tipos de empre- sas. La investigación se centró en un enfoque cualitativo, de tipo exploratorio y descriptivo, orientado a co- nocer y explicar las diferencias y semejanzas en las empresas familiares en cuanto a los siguientes aspec- tos: sucesión, financiamiento, órganos de gobierno, normas de funcionamiento y profesionalización, así como la investigación tiene un diseño documental y de campo. Los resultados arrojaron que no se encuen- tran evidencias significativas para afirmar que las empresas familiares y no familiares estudiadas difieren en los aspectos estudiados.
Groves, Adrian R; Smith, Stephen M; Fjell, Anders M; Tamnes, Christian K; Walhovd, Kristine B; Douaud, Gwenaëlle; Woolrich, Mark W; Westlye, Lars T
Neuroimaging studies have become increasingly multimodal in recent years, with researchers typically acquiring several different types of MRI data and processing them along separate pipelines that provide a set of complementary windows into each subject's brain. However, few attempts have been made to integrate the various modalities in the same analysis. Linked ICA is a robust data fusion model that takes multi-modal data and characterizes inter-subject variability in terms of a set of multi-modal components. This paper examines the types of components found when running Linked ICA on a large magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) morphometric and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data set comprising 484 healthy subjects ranging from 8 to 85 years of age. We find several strong global features related to age, sex, and intracranial volume; in particular, one component predicts age to a high accuracy (r=0.95). Most of the remaining components describe spatially localized modes of variability in white or gray matter, with many components including both tissue types. The multimodal components tend to be located in anatomically-related brain areas, suggesting a morphological and possibly functional relationship. The local components show relationships between surface-based cortical thickness and arealization, voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and between three different DTI measures. Further, we report components related to artifacts (e.g. scanner software upgrades) which would be expected in a dataset of this size. Most of the 100 extracted components showed interpretable spatial patterns and were found to be reliable using split-half validation. This work provides novel information about normal inter-subject variability in brain structure, and demonstrates the potential of Linked ICA as a feature-extracting data fusion approach across modalities. This exploratory approach automatically generates models to explain structure in the data, and may prove especially powerful for large
Son, Gwi-Ryung; Kim, Hye-Ryoung
This study's purpose was to describe the concept of familiarity for immigrant Korean elders as expressed through clothing, objects, songs/music, foods, and associated feelings. A descriptive exploratory design with in-depth, face-to-face interviews was used. A convenience sample of 14 immigrant Korean elders, age 63 to 82 years, was recruited from a Korean senior apartment complex. Interviews were tape-recorded and then transcribed in Korean by the first author. Constant comparative analysis was used to derive eight themes related to feelings and practice associated with culturally familiar items: homesickness, comfort, pleasure, mixed feelings, attachment, pride, nostalgic practice, and essentiality. These findings about familiarity could be utilized with ethnic minority elders to enhance their sense of belonging and physical and psychological comfort.
Andersen, D. J.
) at the same time as it can be an incentive for people living at borders to cross them (e.g. to explore the exotic other side). The concepts explanatory scope has, thus, far responded to the normative claim that a borderless Europe encourages and increases mobility. However, in previous studies applying...... involved when identities form. By doing so, the concepts explanatory scope is extended, making it possible to explain some of the complexity involved when feelings of (un)familiarity occur. It, thus, also answers the question why (un)familiarity cannot be translated into normative claims about cross border...
Mata, Pedro; Alonso, Rodrigo; Ruíz-Garcia, Antonio; Jose L. Díaz-Díaz; González, Noemí; Gijón-Conde, Teresa; Martínez-Faedo, Ceferino; Morón, Ignacio; Arranz, Ezequiel; Aguado, Rocío; Argueso, Rosa; Perez de Isla, Leopoldo
La hiperlipidemia familiar combinada (HFC) es un trastorno muy frecuente asociado a enfermedad coronaria prematura. Se transmite de forma autosómica dominante, aunque no existe un gen único asociado al trastorno. El diagnóstico se realiza mediante criterios clínicos, y son importantes la variabilidad del fenotipo lipídico y la historia familiar de hiperlipidemia. Es frecuente la asociación con diabetes mellitus tipo 2, hipertensión arterial y obesidad central. Los pacientes con HFC se cons...
Este artigo procura apresentar um referencial de análise que permita entender a pluriatividade como um estratégia de reprodução social e econômica das famílias rurais. O tema central trata a agricultura familiar e a pluriatividade do ponto de vista teórico e conceitual. Situa-se o contexto em que aparece o estudo da agricultura familiar e da pluriatividade no Brasil e discute-se a origem e a evolução do debate sobre a pluriatividade, uma situação eminentemente relacionada à realidade dos país...
Algarabel, Salvador; Rodríguez, Lucía-Azahara; Escudero, Joaquín; Fuentes, Manuel; Peset, Vicente; Pitarque, Alfonso; Cómbita, Lina-Marcela; Mazón, Jose F
The retrieval deficit hypothesis states that the lack of deficit in recognition often observed in patients with Parkinson's disease is because of the low retrieval requirements of the task, given that these patients have retrieval and not encoding deficits. To test this hypothesis we investigated recognition memory by familiarity in Parkinson's patients and in patients with Lewy Bodies disease and Parkinson with dementia. We analyzed to what extent the experimental groups were able to recognize by familiarity in a typical yes/no recognition memory task. The experimental groups were patients with early nondemented Parkinson's disease, advanced nondemented Parkinson's disease, demented Parkinson's patients, and patients with dementia with Lewy Bodies. We compared their performance with a group of young and another group of old healthy participants. The estimation of familiarity was made by analyzing recognition of word targets and distractors consisting of combinations of different letters in comparison with a condition in which targets and distractors were composed of similar letters, even though subjects were unaware of the independent variable. The results indicate that familiarity was used at the same level by controls, patients with early Parkinson's disease and patients with dementia with Lewy Bodies. Although late Parkinson patients also used familiarity, its effect was only marginally significant. Patients with Parkinson's disease and dementia were not capable of using familiarity in recognition memory. Our results support the retrieval deficit hypothesis as Parkinson's patients without dementia show no deficit in a situation in which the retrieval requirements are minimal. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.
Joaquín Salvador Lima Rodríguez; Marta Lima Serrano; Nerea Jiménez Picón; Isabel Domínguez Sánchez
... se aplicó el cuestionario que constaba de cinco escalas: Clima Familiar, Integridad Familiar, Funcionamiento Familiar, Resistencia Familiar y Afrontamiento Familiar, Likert, autoadministrado en su domicilio o en centros de salud. Se determinó...
Their first line of action is to visit their family physician (GP), but the question that arises is whether these practitioners are ready to take on patients with ADHD. The aims of this study were to determine the familiarity, attitudes and practices of general practitioners (GPs) in South Africa with regard to ADHD in both children and ...
Catalina Arteaga A.
Full Text Available El presente artículo busca sistematizar críticamente algunos estudios acerca de las estrategias familiares y proponer un ordenamiento en enfoques teóricometodológicos, a partir de las dimensiones centrales que los trabajos utilizan para el análisis.
Liang, Di; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Yi-Qing
Familiar strangers, pairs of individuals who encounter repeatedly but never know each other, have been discovered for four decades yet lack an effective method to identify. Here we propose a novel method called familiar stranger classifier (FSC) to identify familiar strangers from three empirical datasets, and classify human relationships into four types, i.e., familiar stranger (FS), in-role (IR), friend (F) and stranger (S). The analyses of the human encounter networks show that the average number of FS one may encounter is finite but larger than the Dunbar Number, and their encounters are structurally more stable and denser than those of S, indicating the encounters of FS are not limited by the social capacity, and more robust than the random scenario. Moreover, the temporal statistics of encounters between FS over the whole time span show strong periodicity, which are diverse from the bursts of encounters within one day, suggesting the significance of longitudinal patterns of human encounters. The proposed method to identify FS in this paper provides a valid framework to understand human encounter patterns and analyse complex human social behaviors.
Jafarpour, Anna; Spiers, Hugo
When humans draw maps, or make judgments about travel-time, their responses are rarely accurate and are often systematically distorted. Distortion effects on estimating time to arrival and the scale of sketch-maps reveal the nature of mental representation of time and space. Inspired by data from rodent entorhinal grid cells, we predicted that familiarity to an environment would distort representations of the space by expanding the size of it. We also hypothesized that travel-time estimation would be distorted in the same direction as space-size, if time and space rely on the same cognitive map. We asked international students, who had lived at a college in London for 9 months, to sketch a south-up map of their college district, estimate travel-time to destinations within the area, and mark their everyday walking routes. We found that while estimates for sketched space were expanded with familiarity, estimates of the time to travel through the space were contracted with familiarity. Thus, we found dissociable responses to familiarity in representations of time and space. © 2016 The Authors Hippocampus Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors Hippocampus Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Jackson, Margaret C.; Raymond, Jane E.
Although it is intuitive that familiarity with complex visual objects should aid their preservation in visual working memory (WM), empirical evidence for this is lacking. This study used a conventional change-detection procedure to assess visual WM for unfamiliar and famous faces in healthy adults. Across experiments, faces were upright or…
The aims of this study were to determine the familiarity, attitudes and practices of general practitioners (GPs) in South Africa with regard to ADHD in both children and adults, and whether there are differences in children and adults with regard to depression and generalised anxiety disorders as comorbid disorders. The study ...
Diego Martínez Godoy
Full Text Available El año 2014, marca un hito para la agricultura mundial. En efecto se trata del ano en el cual la FAO ha reconocido públicamente la importancia de la Agricultura familiar a nivel mundial, al igual que ha intentando abrir un debate acerca del re direccionamiento de las políticas agrícolas y sociales con el fin de promover este tipo de agricultura y comprender sus desafíos. Durante el mismo año se publica este libro el cual ya nos revela desde su título, que el debate no debe centrarse en la Agricultura familiar sino en “Las agriculturas familiares” debido a su diversidad y roles fundamentales en el desarrollo agrario. Los diferentes autores que participan en la construcción de esta obra plantean redefinir y comprender a las agriculturas familiares utilizando criterios de diferenciación específicos, de igual manera presentan las contribuciones de esta forma de agricultura en las dinámicas territoriales y elaboran al mismo tiempo reflexiones muy interesantes en torno a los desafíos futuros en materia social y económica en los cuales la agricultura familiar podría jugar en el futuro un rol predominante
Aktas, İdris; Bılgın, İbrahim
Background:Many researchers agree that students, especially primary students, have learning difficulties on the 'Particulate Nature of Matter' unit. One reason for this difficulty is not considering individual differences for teaching science. In 4MAT model learning, environment is arranged according to individual differences. Purpose:The purpose of this study is to examine (1) the effects of the 4MAT learning model on the7th grade students' academic achievement and motivation on the 'Particulate Nature of Matter' unit and (2) identify student opinions on the 4MAT model. Sample:The sample consists of 235 students (115 experimental, 120 control) in Turkey. Design and methods:Experimental groups were instructed with the 4MAT model while control groups were instructed with a traditional method. Achievement Test (AchToM) and Motivation Scale (MotScl) were administered to students as pre- and post-tests. Moreover, the opinions of students in the experimental groups on the 4MAT model were ascertained through open-ended questions after the application. Results:According to independent t-test results, statistical difference in favour of the experimental groups was detected between the post-AchToM (ES = 1.43; p motivation and participation in the lesson, lessons are more amusing and enjoyable, and the self-confidence of the students increases. Besides these positive opinions, however, a few students stated that the method took too much time, they were not motivated and it did not help them in understanding the subject. Conclusions:The 4MAT model is more effective than traditional method in terms of increasing achievement and motivation. The model takes all learners into account. Thus, the teacher or educator should use the 4MAT model to ensure all students' learning in their classroom.
Ford, Brett Q.; Tamir, Maya
Do people want to feel emotions that are familiar to them? In two studies, participants rated how much they typically felt various emotions (i.e., familiarity of the emotion) and how much they generally wanted to experience these emotions. We found that, in general, people wanted to feel pleasant emotions more than unpleasant emotions. However, for both pleasant and unpleasant emotions, people more (vs. less) familiar with an emotion also wanted to experience it more. Links between the familiarity of an emotion and wanting to experience that emotion were not explained by the concurrent experience of familiar emotions. Also, we show that although familiar emotions were also liked more, liking did not fully account for wanting familiar emotions. Finally, the familiarity of emotions mediated the links between trait affect and the emotions people wanted to feel. We propose that people are motivated to feel familiar emotions, in part, because of their instrumental value. PMID:23962316
Full Text Available Authentication codes such as passwords and PIN numbers are widely used to control access to resources. One major drawback of these codes is that they are difficult to remember. Account holders are often faced with a choice between forgetting a code, which can be inconvenient, or writing it down, which compromises security. In two studies, we test a new knowledge-based authentication method that does not impose memory load on the user. Psychological research on face recognition has revealed an important distinction between familiar and unfamiliar face perception: When a face is familiar to the observer, it can be identified across a wide range of images. However, when the face is unfamiliar, generalisation across images is poor. This contrast can be used as the basis for a personalised ‘facelock’, in which authentication succeeds or fails based on image-invariant recognition of faces that are familiar to the account holder. In Study 1, account holders authenticated easily by detecting familiar targets among other faces (97.5% success rate, even after a one-year delay (86.1% success rate. Zero-acquaintance attackers were reduced to guessing (<1% success rate. Even personal attackers who knew the account holder well were rarely able to authenticate (6.6% success rate. In Study 2, we found that shoulder-surfing attacks by strangers could be defeated by presenting different photos of the same target faces in observed and attacked grids (1.9% success rate. Our findings suggest that the contrast between familiar and unfamiliar face recognition may be useful for developers of graphical authentication systems.
Caharel, Stephanie; Courtay, Nolwenn; Bernard, Christian; Lalonde, Robert; Rebai, Mohamed
Recent data indicate that the familiarity and the emotional expression of faces occur at an early stage of information processing. The goal of the present study was to determine whether these two aspects interact at the structural encoding stage as reflected by the N170 component of event-related potentials in tasks requiring the subjects either…
Full Text Available Several recent studies have examined an interaction between talker's acoustic characteristics and spoken word recognition in speech perception and have shown that listener's familiarity about a talker influences an easiness of spoken word processing. The present study examined the effect of listener's familiarity about talkers on the free recall task of words spoken by two talkers. Subjects participated in three conditions of the task: the listener has (1 explicit knowledge, (2 implicit knowledge, and (3 no knowledge of the talker. In condition (1, subjects were familiar with talker's voices and were initially informed whose voices they would hear. In condition (2, subjects were familiar with talkers' voices but were not informed whose voices they would hear. In condition (3, subjects were entirely unfamiliar with talker's voices and were not informed whose voices they would hear. We analyzed the percentage of correct answers and compared these results across three conditions. We will discuss the possibility of whether a listener's knowledge about the individual talker's acoustic characteristics stored in long term memory could reduce the quantity of the cognitive resources required in the verbal information processing.
Vonk, Jennifer; Hamilton, Jennifer
Great apes can perceive images as representative of corresponding real-life objects. Coupled with the potential advantages of identifying specific members of one's species and mounting evidence for individual recognition in other non-humans, it seems likely that great apes would have the ability to identify conspecifics in photographs. The ability of four orangutans and a gorilla to match images of individuals of their own and a closely related but unfamiliar species was examined here for the first time. First, the subjects matched photographs of familiar conspecifics taken at various time points in a delayed matching-to-sample procedure (Experiment 1). Second, they matched different photographs of unfamiliar individuals of a different species (Experiment 2) at above chance levels. These results suggest that the subjects matched photographs by matching physical features, not necessarily by recognizing the identity of the individuals depicted. However, they also quickly learned to select photographs of familiar individuals when these photographs were paired with photographs of unfamiliar individuals of their own species (Experiment 3), and three subjects showed transfer to novel images of familiar and unfamiliar individuals. Thus, the findings support the idea that subjects attended to physical features to identify individuals that they could categorize on the basis of familiarity.
"The Beauty of Cosmetology" discusses the employment outlook for cosmetologists. "High School Cosmetology with Great Style" describes the academic and career cosmetology curriculum at Great Oaks Institute of Technology and Career Development (Ohio). "More than Skin Deep" explores the job shadowing program at the American Academy of Hair Design.…
Levinsen, Karin; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm
It is generally agreed that learners need to acquire digital literacy in order to be able to act as citizens, employees and entrepreneurs in an increasingly digitalized environment. It is also generally agreed that the educational system has to be responsible for educating towards digital literacy....... However, there is no shared conception of the scope and meaning of digital literacy. The overall picture shows two main approaches: The first aims at digital literacy in the sense of Buildung (general education) while the second addresses a wide range of specific skills and competences: From basic...... computer skills over multimodal analysis to social conventions for behavior in online environments. Consequently designs for teaching and learning that aim at learners acquiring digital literacy and the related learning objectives appear as weak defined. According to the Danish Ministry of Education Shared...
Alexis, Gerhard T.
Attempts to combine language and composition in the freshman English course at Gustavus Adolphus College (St. Peter, Minnesota) should interest all teachers of English. One project utilized a single key word for several assignments. Students were asked to (1) think through the meaning of the word for a week and write definitions and associations,…
Crosby, Dorian B.
When teaching diversity courses that discuss sensitive issues, such as racial, gender, sexuality, religious, and ethnic discrimination, it is possible to encounter student resistance, which can subsequently prevent students from comprehending the content. While teaching an introductory course on African American history in a Black Studies…
Laura Gabriela Boada Molina
Full Text Available En la sierra Norte, la estrategia familiar alimentaria para acceder a la alimentación se manifiesta a través de una heterogeneidad de factores. Específicamente en las provincias del Carchi e Imbabura, en donde predominan la actividad agrícola como un abastecedor de alimentos para el mercado nacional. Las familias campesinas alcanzan la diversificación en su alimentación a través de la estrategia familiar alimentaria conformada por un conjunto de factores en los que destacan la producción para el autoconsumo y la comercialización de los alimentos, pero sobre todo las redes sociales y familiares (capital social. La agricultura familiar como proveedor central del abastecimiento al mercado nacional, además debe alimentar a la familia que la lleva a cabo.
Easson, Damien A.; Vikman, Alexander
We study a recently proposed scenario for the early universe: Subluminal Galilean Genesis. We prove that without any other matter present in the spatially flat Friedmann universe, the perturbations of the Galileon scalar field propagate with a speed at most equal to the speed of light. This proof applies to all cosmological solutions -- to the whole phase space. However, in a more realistic situation, when one includes any matter which is not directly coupled to the Galileon, there always exists a region of phase space where these perturbations propagate superluminally, indeed with arbitrarily high speed. We illustrate our analytic proof with numerical computations. We discuss the implications of this result for the possible UV completion of the model.
Alexander M. Rapp
Full Text Available Miscomprehension of nonliteral (“figurative” language like metaphors, proverbs, idioms, and ironic expressions by patients with schizophrenia is a phenomenon mentioned already in historical psychiatric descriptions. However, it was only recently that studies did differentiate between novel and conventional metaphors, a factor that is known to influence the difficulty of comprehension in healthy subjects. Further, familiarity with stimuli is an important factor for comprehension, which was not recommended in utmost previous studies. In this study, 23 patients with DSM IV schizophrenia and 19 healthy control subjects performed a newly-developed German metaphor comprehension test with three types of stimuli: novel metaphors, conventional German metaphors, and meaningless statements. During the test procedure, participants indicated familiarity with the stimulus and then matched the meaning with one out of four given alternatives. Familiarity rankings did not significantly differ between patients and control subjects. However, on descriptive level, there was a tendency for healthy controls to be more familiar with conventional metaphors than schizophrenic patients. Further, comprehension of conventional and novel metaphors differed significantly between the groups, with higher performance in healthy controls. Considering only those metaphors that had been ranked as familiar, patients only revealed significant lower performance opposed to controls regarding novel metaphors, while they did not differ in conventional metaphors. Taken together, the results indicate that patients with schizophrenia might show an altered way of comprehension in novel metaphors, leading to more misunderstandings. However, their previously reported impairments in conventional metaphors might rather be due to a lack of familiarity with the stimuli—making conventional metaphors to novel metaphors in the individual case.
Full Text Available Does culture matter in decision-making? Existing literature largely assumes that the cognitive processes that inform decision-making are universally applicable, while only very few studies indicate that cultural norms and values shape cognitive processes. Using survey based quasi-experimental design, this research shows that subjects with higher levels of individualism tend to be more rational in their decision processing, while those with higher levels of collectivism tend to be more dependent and less likely to betray the interests of members of more central ingroups in favor of less central ingroups. Furthermore, the results indicate that in conflict settings that seem familiar, individuals are more likely to compromise in order to achieve peace.
Five studies demonstrate that the positive valence of a stimulus increases its perceived familiarity, even in the absence of prior exposure. For example, beautiful faces feel familiar. Two explanations for this effect stand out: (a). Stimulus prototypicality leads both to positivity and familiarity, and (b). positive affect is used to infer familiarity in a heuristic fashion. Studies 1 and 2 show that attractive faces feel more familiar than average ones and that prototypicality accounts for only part of this effect. In Study 3, the rated attractiveness of average faces was manipulated by contrast, and their perceived familiarity changed accordingly, although their inherent prototypicaliry remained the same. In Study 4, positive words felt more familiar to participants than neutral and negative words. Study 5 shows that the effect is strongest when recognition is difficult. The author concludes that both prototypicality and a warm glow heuristic are responsible for the "good-is-familiar" phenomenon.
Espinoza Aguilo, Tomas Ignacio; Espinoza Aguilo, Nicolas Felipe
Con base en el trabajo de Anderson y Reeb (2003), el presente documento analiza si, bajo la influencia especifica del sistema corporativo mexicano, existen diferencias en el desempeno de las empresas familiares y no familiares...
Laksmi Reddiar Krishnamurthy
Full Text Available Las comunidades indígenas Mayas de la península de Yucatán han practicado la antigua tradición de agricultura familiar, en particular los huertos caseros, para garantizar su seguridad alimentaria. Con el objetivo de mejorar la práctica tradicional considerando paradigmas de la ciencia moderna, por una parte, se colectaron datos para definir la complejidad estructural y diversidad funcional a partir de 20 huertos familiares en cinco comunidades: X - Maben, X - Pichil, X - Yatil, San José II y Melchor Ocampo; y por otra, se organizaron grupos de discusión para dilucidar la estrategia de gestión practicada por las comunidades nativas. Los resultados mostraron que los huertos son manejados principalmente por las mujeres. También mostraron que el propósito principal del crecimiento y mantenimiento de los huertos familiares es garantizar la producción de alimentos nutritivos durante todo el año. Y, por último que los huertos caseros también sirven para propósitos secundarios tales como la provisión de productos y servicios para la medicina tradicional. El estudio sugiere que se debe de promover e invertir en huertos caseros para mejorar las estrategias de desarrollo incluyente en ambientes socio-culturales y biofísicos similares.
Full Text Available A quantitative measure of information complexity remains very much desirable in HCI field, since it may aid in optimization of user interfaces, especially in human-computer systems for controlling complex objects. Our paper is dedicated to exploration of subjective (subject-depended aspect of the complexity, conceptualized as information familiarity. Although research of familiarity in human cognition and behaviour is done in several fields, the accepted models in HCI, such as Human Processor or Hick-Hyman’s law do not generally consider this issue. In our experimental study the subjects performed search and selection of digits and letters, whose familiarity was conceptualized as frequency of occurrence in numbers and texts. The analysis showed significant effect of information familiarity on selection time and throughput in regression models, although the R2 values were somehow low. Still, we hope that our results might aid in quantification of information complexity and its further application for optimizing interaction in human-machine systems.
Angelo, Joseph A
Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S
J. Ang (James); A. de Jong (Abe); A.M. van der Poel (Marieke)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ We examine the impact of familiarity with business segments on CEOs’ divestment decisions. We find CEOs to be less likely to divest assets from familiar than from non-familiar segments. We attribute this effect to CEOs’ comparative information advantage relative to
... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Familiarity with vessel characteristics. 15.405 Section... MANNING REQUIREMENTS Manning Requirements; All Vessels § 15.405 Familiarity with vessel characteristics. Each credentialed individual must become familiar with the relevant characteristics of the vessel on...
Szarko, Julia E.; Brown, Alec J.; Watkins, Marley W.
The authors examined the difference in standardized test performance when familiar versus unfamiliar examiners tested 26 preschool and elementary-aged children with autism. The children were matched by age, severity, and developmental level and then randomly placed into familiar and unfamiliar examiner groups. Familiarity with the examiner was…
Paz A. Olmedo Fuentes; Nicole P. Mendiburo Subiabre; Andrés Eduardo Jiménez Figueroa
Se analiza la relación existente entre satisfacción familiar, apoyo familiar y conflicto trabajo-familia en una muestra de trabajadores del comercio mayorista chileno, controlando variables sociodemográficas...
de Vries, Marieke; Holland, Rob W; Chenier, Troy; Starr, Mark J; Winkielman, Piotr
People often prefer familiar stimuli, presumably because familiarity signals safety. This preference can occur with merely repeated old stimuli, but it is most robust with new but highly familiar prototypes of a known category (beauty-in-averageness effect). However, is familiarity always warm? Tuning accounts of mood hold that positive mood signals a safe environment, whereas negative mood signals an unsafe environment. Thus, the value of familiarity should depend on mood. We show that compared with a sad mood, a happy mood eliminates the preference for familiar stimuli, as shown in measures of self-reported liking and physiological measures of affect (electromyographic indicator of spontaneous smiling). The basic effect of exposure on preference and its modulation by mood were most robust for prototypes (category averages). All this occurs even though prototypes might be more familiar in a happy mood. We conclude that mood changes the hedonic implications of familiarity cues.
Full Text Available Three experiments are reported showing that the perception and the assessment of veridicality of familiar faces are highly adaptive to new visual information. Subjects were asked to discriminate between real photographs and altered versions of celebrities. Exposing participants to extremely deviated versions changed the usually stable representations of the famous faces within a very short time. In Experiment 1, exposure to an extreme face version resulted in identity decisions shifted towards the exposed one. Experiment 2 revealed that the effects are not short lasting. In Experiment 3, we showed that the effect also generalizes to different pictures of the same famous person. Together the experiments seem to indicate that the brain permanently adapts to new perceptual information and integrates new data within already elaborated representations in a fast way.
Martin, Rosemary Anne; Melfi, Vicky
As recorded in domestic nonhuman animals, regular interactions between animals in zoos and keepers and the resulting relationship formed (human-animal relationship [HAR]) are likely to influence the animals' behaviors with associated welfare consequences. HAR formation requires that zoo animals distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar people. This ability was tested by comparing zoo animal behavioral responses to familiar (routine) keepers and unfamiliar keepers (participants in the "Keeper for the Day" program). Study subjects included 1 African elephant (Loxodonta Africana), 3 Rothschild's giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi), 2 Brazilian tapir (Tapirus terrestris), and 2 slender-tailed meerkats (Suricata suricatta). Different behavior was evident and observed as decreased avoidance behavior toward familiar keepers (t7 = 6.00, p zoo animals have a lower level of fear toward familiar keepers. Keeper familiarity did not significantly affect any other behavioral measure. This finding suggests that in the current study, unfamiliar keeper presence did not appear to have detrimental effects. Furthermore, unfamiliar keeper-animal interactions could provide an increased number of positive human-animal interactions and potentially enhance animal welfare.
Atienza, Mercedes; Cantero, Jose L
Growing evidence suggests that declarative memory benefits from the modulatory effects of emotion and sleep. The primary goal of the present study was to determine whether these two factors interact to enhance memory or they act independently of each other. Twenty-eight volunteers participated in the study. Half of them were sleep deprived the night immediately following the exposure to emotional and non-emotional images, whereas the control group slept at home. Their memory for images was tested 1 week later along the valence and arousal dimension of emotion with the remember-know procedure. As emotional events appear to gain preference during encoding, via the modulatory effect of amygdala on prefrontal and medial temporal lobe regions, conscious retrieval of emotional pictures (relative to neutral ones) was expected to be less disrupted by sleep loss. Results indicated that emotional images were more richly experienced in memory than neutral, particularly those with high arousal and positive valence. Even though sleep deprivation resulted in behavioral impairment at retrieval of both emotional and neutral images, results revealed that remember-based recognition accuracy and its underlying process of recollection for emotional images were less influenced by the lack of sleep (the mean difference between control and sleep-deprived subjects was around 40% higher for neutral images than for emotional images). Familiarity, however, was affected by neither emotion nor sleep. Taken together, these results suggest that emotion and sleep influence differentially the subjective experience of remembering and knowing and the underlying processes of recollection and familiarity through brain mechanisms probably involving amygdala- and hippocampo-neocortical networks respectively.
McDermott, Kyle; Mulligan, Jeffrey B.; Bebis, George; Webster, Michael A.
Adapting to the visual characteristics of a specific environment may facilitate detecting novel stimuli within that environment. We monitored eye movements while subjects searched for a color target on familiar or unfamiliar color backgrounds, in order to test for these performance changes and to explore whether they reflect changes in salience from adaptation vs. changes in search strategies or perceptual learning. The target was an ellipse of variable color presented at a random location on a dense background of ellipses. In one condition, the colors of the background varied along either the LvsM or SvsLM cardinal axes. Observers adapted by viewing a rapid succession of backgrounds drawn from one color axis, and then searched for a target on a background from the same or different color axis. Searches were monitored with a Cambridge Research Systems Video Eyetracker. Targets were located more quickly on the background axis that observers were pre-exposed to, confirming that this exposure can improve search efficiency for stimuli that differ from the background. However, eye movement patterns (e.g. fixation durations and saccade magnitudes) did not clearly differ across the two backgrounds, suggesting that how the novel and familiar backgrounds were sampled remained similar. In a second condition, we compared search on a nonselective color background drawn from a circle of hues at fixed contrast. Prior exposure to this background did not facilitate search compared to an achromatic adapting field, suggesting that subjects were not simply learning the specific colors defining the background distributions. Instead, results for both conditions are consistent with a selective adaptation effect that enhances the salience of novel stimuli by partially discounting the background.
Hasse Jørgensen, Stina
About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011.......About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011....
Carlos Miguélez del Río
Full Text Available Este trabajo hace referencia a la problemática derivada de la existencia de la empresa familiar y a las características específicas de las explotaciones familiares, especialmente las de asegurar la conservación y continuación de la misma. Ante la falta de una regulación específica en la materia, estudiaremos la normativa común sobre la empresa familiar dentro del régimen económico del matrimonio y la sucesión de la misma. Con esta finalidad examinaremos las nuevas reformas introducidas en nuestro ordenamiento jurídico contemplando la empresa familiar, tanto como bien ganancial, como privativo, como integrada por bienes privativos y gananciales, así como en cuanto a sus beneficios y pérdidas y los efectos que en ella produce la liquidación de la sociedad ganancial. Efectuaremos también un estudio específico del protocolo familiar y de las formas de sucesión de la empresa familiar, con mención concreta al novedoso contenido del art. 1056 del Cc y a las facultades de mejora de hijos o descendientes, para concluir con las notas más importantes de los pactos sucesorios y su trascendencia jurídica.His work refers to the problematics derived from the existence of the family business and to the specific characteristics of the familiar developments, specially them of assuring the conservation and continuation of the same one. Before the lack of a specific regulation in the matter, we will study the common regulation on the family business inside the economic regime of the marriage and the succession of the same one. With this purpose we will examine the new reforms got in our juridical classification contemplating the family business, so much as profit good, since exclusively, since integrated by exclusive and profit goods, as well as for his benefits and losses and the effects that in her there produces the liquidation of the profit company. We will effect also a specific study of the familiar protocol and of the forms of succession
matter and that it must be of some exotic type. Before we discuss the evidences for dark matter in clusters of galaxies, let us point out that it is not just spiral galaxies which are thought to contain dark matter, although the evidences from them are the strongest. Other types of galaxies, like elliptical galaxies, are often seen to ...
Contreras, Ignacio; Gomez, Sandalio; Tapies, Josep
La presencia de la empresa familiar en el panorama empresarial español configura la realidad empresarial de nuestro país y su importancia es capital para el desarrollo de la economía española. Uno de los problemas más recurrentes en la bibliografía sobre empresa familiar es el tipo de contrato que vincula la empresa familiar con los miembros familiares que trabajan en ella. En particular, existe controversia sobre el tipo de contrato que han de tener los miembros familiares que desempeñan alt...
Bárbara de la C Santos Céspedes
Full Text Available Se estudian 50 pacientes con tentativa de suicidio durante 1993 en el área de salud del Policlínico "Josué País García" del Centro Urbano "Abel Santamaría" de Santiago de Cuba, mediante el Apgar familiar modificado, instrumento que mide el grado de funcionamiento familiar, adaptado después de estudios pilotos en la misma población. Las categorías adaptación, relación, desarrollo, efecto y convivencia, así como el resultado general del Apgar, demostraron que la dinámica familiar de las personas investigadas fue significativamente desfavorable, hallazgos que se validaron por las técnicas estadísticas convencionales. Este trabajo propone la investigación del fenómeno del suicidio con la perspectiva del enfoque sistémico de la familia y el individuo, modelo que se escapa a la tradición médica, el cual se considera importante como instrumento para los médicos de la familia.50 patients who attempted suicide in 1993 at the health area of the "Josué País García" Polyclinic from the "Abel Santamaría" Urban Center, in Santiago de Cuba, were studied by using the modified family Apgar, a tool that measures the family functioning degree, adaptation, relation, development, effect, and living together categories, as well as the Apgar's general result, showed that the family dynamics of the persons investigated was significantly unfavourable. These findings were validated by the conventional statistical techniques. This paper recommends the investigation of the sucide phenomenon with the perspective of the systemic approach of the family and the individual, a model hat escapes as an important tool for family physicians.
Jose Luis Gallizo
Full Text Available Objecte: En aquest estudi és porta a terme un anàlisi comparatiu sobre l’evolució de l’estructura econòmica i financera que presenten les empreses familiars i no familiars de Catalunya en un context d’intensa crisi econòmica. La seva finalitat és poder donar resposta a dos qüestions principals: identificar les característiques diferencials de l’EF respecte a l’EnF i comprovar si aquestes característiques diferencials han permès a les EF aguantar millor la crisi econòmica. Disseny/metodologia: S’ha analitzat una mostra de 750 grans i mitjanes empreses de Catalunya (550 familiars i 200 no familiars durant el període 2008-2012. Les dades s’han obtingut a través de la base de dades SABI, i per a la classificació de les empreses en familiars i no familiars s’ha dut a terme una comprovació individual de cadascuna d’elles per evitar habituals errors de classificació. Posteriorment les empreses s’han classificat en funció de la seva dimensió per dotar d’una major robustes els resultats. També s’ha procurat que la distribució d’empreses per sectors fos similar en les diferents categories per evitar que un efecte sectorial pogués tergiversar els resultats de l’estudi. Aportacions i resultats: L’estudi ha permès constatar les hipòtesis establertes sobre el finançament de les empreses familiars i concloure que aquestes presenten una estructura financera diferent a les Empreses no familiars. Les empreses familiars als seus balanços, presenten un major nivell d’autofinançament gràcies a la seva menor distribució de dividends. A més a més, les EF presenten millors resultats en quant a nivells de cobertura i liquiditat, ja que es troben més capitalitzades i presenten uns nivells d’endeutament inferior que les Empreses no familiars. Aquestes característiques patrimonials i financeres han contribuït a que les empreses familiars aguantin millor els anys de crisi, produint-se durant aquests anys
Garrido Fernández, Miguel; Cosano, Andrés; Ojeda Moreno, Mª P.; Rodríguez Testal, Juan Francisco
La revisión bibliográfica que presentamos en este trabajo muestra el creciente interés en relación con la participación de las personas mayores en la terapia familiar y de pareja. Se ponen de relieve las peculiaridades de esta población por los estresores que habitualmente experimentan pero, especial y significativamente, por la capacidad o potencial de cambio que tienen las personas de edad avanzada. Por ello, es preciso que la terapia se ajuste a sus características y l...
Petrini, Giancarlo; Fonseca, Ricardo; Porreca, Wladimir
O presente estudo investiga a pobreza partindo de uma análise dos recursos que os pobres dispõem em sua realidade, analisando os temas do capital humano, social e familiar, procurando estabelecer conexões e elucidar fatores da realidade pouco considerados em estudos e projetos de combate à pobreza e à exclusão social. O presente artigo, em seu conjunto, procura compreender porque, em condições semelhantes de pobreza, algumas pessoas conseguem elaborar um projeto de vida enquanto outras se es...
Full Text Available L’autrice accompagna il lettore nel proprio vissuto di mediatrice familiare utilizzando la metafora del flamenco: le forti spinte appassionate e passionali che si manifestano nella danza evocano la dualità amore/morte che caratterizza l’intervento nelle situazioni di separazione e divorzio. Offrendo un’istantanea su questa “stanza della mediazione”, l’autrice suggerisce l’opportunità da lei trovata per modificare il ritmo del conflitto, essere di reale supporto alla coppia e,nel contempo, salvaguardarsi dalle tempeste emotive a cui presenzia.
cance in green chemistry and environmental safety issues. The solid form, familiar as 'dry ice', is an ideal refrigerant, subliming away into thin air after it has served its purpose. ... maceutical items and food products. Cooling COz to about 258 K and pressurizing to 15.5 bar produces liquid COz that is also used as a cooling ...
María Guadalupe Serna
Full Text Available En este artículo llevo a cabo una reflexión sobre los efectos de las crisis de 1984-1985 y 1994-1995 en un pequeño grupo de empresas familiares localizadas en la ciudad de Aguascalientes. Exploro el tipo de recursos tangibles e intangibles con los que contaban sus propietarios durante esos periodos, los apoyos que tenían a su disposición, así como las distintas formas en que respondieron y se adaptaron a las condiciones económicas prevalecientes. Analizo las distintas acciones adoptadas por los propietarios para hacer frente a las condiciones económicas prevalecientes, así como la forma en que algunas veces la crisis en puerta impulsó o bien obstaculizó el proyecto empresarial. Para ello empleo el concepto de capital social que resulta de gran utilidad para explicar las diversas condiciones en que surgen y se desarrollan las pequeñas empresas familiares, así como sus distintas posibilidades de éxito en condiciones de crisis.
What is a 'we' – a collective – and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity – and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas...... practices. Through this dialogue, it develops an original trans-disciplinary critical theory and practice of collective subjectivity for which the ongoing construction and overcoming of common sense, or ideology, is central. It also points to ways of relating discourse with agency, and fertilizing insights...... from interactionism and ideology theories in a cultural-historical framework....
Bebko, James M.; Uchikawa, Keiji; Saida, Shinya; Ikeda, Mitsuo
Two studies were conducted to investigate changes which take place in the visual information processing of novel stimuli as they become familiar. Japanese writing characters (Hiragana and Kanji) which were unfamiliar to two native English speaking subjects were presented using a moving window technique to restrict their visual fields. Study time for visual recognition was recorded across repeated sessions, and with varying visual field restrictions. The critical visual field was defined as the size of the visual field beyond which further increases did not improve the speed of recognition performance. In the first study, when the Hiragana patterns were novel, subjects needed to see about half of the entire pattern simultaneously to maintain optimal performance. However, the critical visual field size decreased as familiarity with the patterns increased. These results were replicated in the second study with more complex Kanji characters. In addition, the critical field size decreased as pattern complexity decreased. We propose a three component model of pattern perception. In the first stage a representation of the stimulus must be constructed by the subject, and restricting of the visual field interferes dramatically with this component when stimuli are unfamiliar. With increased familiarity, subjects become able to reconstruct a previous representation from very small, unique segments of the pattern, analogous to the informativeness areas hypothesized by Loftus and Mackworth [J. Exp. Psychol., 4 (1978) 565].
Carr, Evan W; Huber, David E; Pecher, Diane; Zeelenberg, Rene; Halberstadt, Jamin; Winkielman, Piotr
Mere exposure (i.e., stimulus repetition) and blending (i.e., stimulus averaging) are classic ways to increase social preferences, including facial attractiveness. In both effects, increases in preference involve enhanced familiarity. Prominent memory theories assume that familiarity depends on a match between the target and similar items in memory. These theories predict that when individual items are weakly learned, their blends (morphs) should be relatively familiar, and thus liked-a beauty-in-averageness effect (BiA). However, when individual items are strongly learned, they are also more distinguishable. This "differentiation" hypothesis predicts that with strongly encoded items, familiarity (and thus, preference) for the blend will be relatively lower than individual items-an ugliness-in-averageness effect (UiA). We tested this novel theoretical prediction in 5 experiments. Experiment 1 showed that with weak learning, facial morphs were more attractive than contributing individuals (BiA effect). Experiments 2A and 2B demonstrated that when participants first strongly learned a subset of individual faces (either in a face-name memory task or perceptual-tracking task), morphs of trained individuals were less attractive than the trained individuals (UiA effect). Experiment 3 showed that changes in familiarity for the trained morph (rather than interstimulus conflict) drove the UiA effect. Using a within-subjects design, Experiment 4 mapped out the transition from BiA to UiA solely as a function of memory training. Finally, computational modeling using a well-known memory framework (REM) illustrated the familiarity transition observed in Experiment 4. Overall, these results highlight how memory processes illuminate classic and modern social preference phenomena. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Vrbik, Ivan; Sporiš, Goran; Štefan, Lovro; Madić, Dejan; Trajković, Nebojša; Valantine, Irena; Milanović, Zoran
The number of familiarization sessions in fitness assessments seems to be critical and inconsistent. Therefore, the primary aim of this research was to determine the number of familiarization attempts that stabilize the results in particular physical fitness tests. The secondary aim was to establish the test reliability through familiarization sessions. Thirty-nine primary school children participated in this research (age: 10.8 years, body mass: 40.6 ± 8.9 kg, and body height: 145.3 ± 7.2 cm). During six sessions, with one session every third day, participants performed the following tests to assess explosive strength (vertical jump and standing long jump), coordination (polygon backward and polygon with turn) and flexibility (toe touch). The results of repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there were significant increases (p polygon backward and polygon with turn performances from the first to third familiarization session. The standard error of measurement decreased as sessions progressed, indicating little within subject variation between the coordination test results following a familiarization period. Statistically significant differences were identified in the vertical jump test from the fourth test session compared with the first session. On the other hand, statistically significant differences for the standing long jump test were only found in the final session compared with the initial session. In the toe touch test, there were no significant increases from the first to the final familiarization session. All tests showed high a reliability coefficients, ranging from 0.979 to 0.991. Polygon backward and polygon with turn performance may be a practical, reliable method to assess coordination in primary school-aged children. However, completion of at least 3 practice sessions is suggested for participants to obtain a stable score. In addition, both jump tests are feasible for assessing skill-related fitness in young children, although the
Soldan, Anja; Habeck, Christian; Gazes, Yunglin; Stern, Yaakov
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown that repetition priming of visual objects is typically accompanied by a reduction in activity for repeated compared to new stimuli (repetition suppression). However, the spatial distribution and direction (suppression vs. enhancement) of neural repetition effects can depend on the pre-experimental familiarity of stimuli. The first goal of this study was to further probe the link between repetition priming and repetition suppression/enhancement for visual objects and how this link is affected by stimulus familiarity. A second goal was to examine whether priming of familiar and unfamiliar objects following a single stimulus repetition is supported by the same processes as priming following multiple repetitions within the same task. In this endeavor, we examined both between and within-subject correlations between priming and fMRI repetition effects for familiar and globally unfamiliar visual objects during the first and third repetitions of the stimuli. We included reaction time of individual trials as a linear regressor to identify brain regions whose repetition effects varied with response facilitation on a trial-by-trial basis. The results showed that repetition suppression in bilateral fusiform gyrus, was selectively correlated with priming of familiar objects that had been repeated once, likely reflecting facilitated perceptual processing or the sharpening of perceptual representations. Priming during the third repetition was correlated with repetition suppression in prefrontal and parietal areas for both familiar and unfamiliar stimuli, possibly reflecting a shift from top-down controlled to more automatic processing that occurs for both item types. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Orlando Díaz Tabares
Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar el comportamiento del Apgar familiar en ancianos conviventes, no institucionalizados y sin alteraciones de la esfera cognoscitiva, pertenecientes a dos consultorios médicos de la familia, ubicados en la comunidad rural del policlínico docente de San Cristóbal, durante el año 1995 se realizó un estudio retrospectivo, longitudinal y descriptivo, mediante la aplicación de un modelo de encuesta a los 70 ancianos que conformaron el universo de estudio. Los resultados fueron procesados estadísticamente utilizando el método Chi cuadrado mediante un sistema computarizado, y se consideró significativo todo valor asociado a una probabilidad menor que 0,05. Resultó estadísticamente notable la percepción de funcionabilidad familiar en los ancianos pertenecientes a familias nucleadas. Existió correspondencia muy significativa entre la evaluación de funcionabilidad que el anciano otorgó a su familia y la detectada por el investigador. No se comprobó relación estadísticamente significativa entre el Apgar familiar y la edad de los ancianos, el vínculo laboral actual y el comportamiento de las funciones asignadas y asumidas por ellosA retrospective, longitudinal and descriptive study was conducted to determine the behavior of family Apgar among noninstitutionalized, living together aged patients who had no alternations of the cognitive sphere and who received medical attention at two family physician’s offices located in the rural community of the Teaching Polyclinic of San Cristóbal, during 1995, 70 elderly patients were surveyed and the results were statistically processed using the Chi square method by a computerized system. Every value associated to a probability under 0.05 was considered as significant. The perception of family functionability in the elderly from nucleated families was statistically remarkable. There was a very important correspondence between the evaluation of functionability granted by
Full Text Available Social cognitive mechanisms are central to understanding developmental abnormalities, such as autistic spectrum disorder. Peer relations besides parent-infant or pair-bonding interactions are pivotal social relationships that are especially well developed in humans. Cognition of familiarity forms the basis of peer socialization. Domestic chick (Gallus gallus studies have contributed to our understanding of the developmental process in sensory-motor cognition but many processes remain unknown. In this report, we used chicks, as they are precocial birds, and we could therefore focus on peer interaction without having to consider parenting. The subject chick behavior towards familiar and unfamiliar reference peers was video-recorded, where the subject and the reference were separated by either an opaque or transparent wall. Spectrogram and behavior correlation analyses based on principal component analysis, revealed that chicks elicited an intermediate contact call and a morphologically different distress call, more frequently towards familiar versus unfamiliar chicks in acoustic only conditions. When both visual and acoustic cues were present, subject chicks exhibited approaching and floor pecking behavior, while eliciting joyful (pleasant calls, irrespective of whether reference peers were familiar or unfamiliar. Our result showed that chicks recognized familiarity using acoustic cues and expressed cognition through modified distress calls. These finding suggests that peer affiliation may be established by acoustic recognition, independent of visual face recognition, and that eventually, both forms of recognition are integrated, with modulation of acoustic recognition.
El-Beltagi, Ahmed; Cherian, Jigi; Gejo, Grace; Al-Jazzaf, Abrar; Ismail, Mohammad
Previous and more recent work of analyzing structural changes in the brain suggest that certain brain regions such as the frontal lobe are among the brain regions profoundly affected by the aging process across males and females. Also, a unified model of structural changes in a normally aging brain is still lacking. The present study investigated age-related structural brain changes in gray matter from young to early middle-age adulthood for males and females. Magnetic resonance images of 215 normal and healthy participants between the ages of 21–45 years were acquired. Changes in gray matter were assessed using voxel-based morphometry and gray matter volumetric analysis. The results showed significant decrease in gray matter volume between the youngest and oldest groups in the following brain regions: frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. Grey matter loss in the frontal lobe was among the most widespread of all brain regions across the comparison groups that showed significant age-related changes in grey matter for both males and females. This work provides a unique pattern of age-related decline of normal and healthy adult males and females that can aid in the future development of a unified model of normal brain aging. PMID:26306927
Bourisly, Ali K; El-Beltagi, Ahmed; Cherian, Jigi; Gejo, Grace; Al-Jazzaf, Abrar; Ismail, Mohammad
Previous and more recent work of analyzing structural changes in the brain suggest that certain brain regions such as the frontal lobe are among the brain regions profoundly affected by the aging process across males and females. Also, a unified model of structural changes in a normally aging brain is still lacking. The present study investigated age-related structural brain changes in gray matter from young to early middle-age adulthood for males and females. Magnetic resonance images of 215 normal and healthy participants between the ages of 21-45 years were acquired. Changes in gray matter were assessed using voxel-based morphometry and gray matter volumetric analysis. The results showed significant decrease in gray matter volume between the youngest and oldest groups in the following brain regions: frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. Grey matter loss in the frontal lobe was among the most widespread of all brain regions across the comparison groups that showed significant age-related changes in grey matter for both males and females. This work provides a unique pattern of age-related decline of normal and healthy adult males and females that can aid in the future development of a unified model of normal brain aging. © The Author(s) 2015.
Kristensen, Tore; Gabrielsen, Gorm; Jaffe, Eugene D.
Product and brand familiarity have an important role in consumer choice behaviour and they have been equated with knowledge and experience Consumers having high and low familiarity utilized brand information (an extrinsic cue) in their evaluations, whereas moderately familiar consumers used...... intrinsic cues (product attributes) in evaluating products. The question of whether familiarity moderates the country-of-origin (COO) effect is a valid one. In this present paper, we attempt to provide additional evidence as to how familiarity with products, brands and countries moderates consumer...... evaluation of brand/country alliances. Specifically, we concentrate on the brand leveraging process identified by Keller (2003) applied to the effect of familiarity on country/brand alliances....
Hubbard, C P; Prins, D
The correspondence of stuttering and linguistic characteristics of utterances has led to speculations that a source factor for stutter events is a speaker's inadequate formulation of the speech code. In this study, the effects of word frequency and syllabic stress pattern on stuttering frequency were evaluated using specially designed sentences read orally by 10 adult stutterers and 10 adult nonstutterers. Results revealed statistically significant differences in stuttering frequency between sentences with low and high frequency words, but not between sentences with regular and irregular syllabic stress patterns. The significant rank order correlation between stutterers' word recognition vocabulary scores and amount of stuttering on sentences with high versus low frequency words affirmed that word familiarity, not simply word prominence, is an important factor contributing to the word frequency effect. The outcomes are discussed in relation to current psycholinguistic theories of stuttering, proposing that word access and phonological encoding difficulties could be a source factor that underlies the occurrence of stutter events.
Medeiros,A.M.; Alves, A.C.; Francisco, V.; Bourbon, M
A Hipercolesterolemia Familiar (FH) é uma doença autossómica dominante que se caracteriza, a nível clínico, por níveis elevados de colesterol LDL, levando ao aparecimento prematuro de doenças cardiovasculares (DCV). A nível genético esta doença caracteriza-se, principalmente, por mutações em três genes: LDLR, APOB e PCSK9. Estima-se que em Portugal existam cerca de 20 000 doentes com FH. A identificação clínica de FH é possível mas apenas o estudo molecular confirma a presença da doença. O...
Computerization can offer great advantages. But one publication ideally suited to computerization was slow to take advantage of the new technology. The main reason was reluctance to try an unfamiliar way of doing things. Having now switched to computerization, the publication has reaped many benefits. Among them: production time is faster; costs are lower; errors are fewer. Computerization has not been without minor problems. The most obvious is vulnerability to the rarity of a system failure. Others include the technology's potential reinforcement of overediting and of excessive reliance on extremely rapid response. Such problems, however, do not indicate weaknesses in the technology itself; rather, they reflect an incomplete adaption to it and the need for more realistic expectations. An unwarranted reluctance to innovate can slow advances in communication. Technical communicators must be willing to rechart their own familiar territory.
Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Wang, Yongming; Cai, Xinlu
the Theory of Visual Attention (Bundesen, 1990) enabling us to isolate specific components of attention; VSTM capacity (K), as well as parameters like processing speed (C), and the threshold for visual perception (t0) (e.g. Ásgeirsson, Nordfang & Sørensen, 2015).The threshold of visual perception......Several studies have investigated object-based capacity limitations of visual short-term memory (VSTM) (e.g. Luck & Vogel, 1997; Alvarez & Cavanagh, 2004). Recently research interest has turned from object-based processing towards the resolution of objects retained in short-term memory (e.g. Wilken...... the degree of familiarity with said object.We presented Chinese observers with a whole report design (see Sperling, 1960), consisting of four stimulus conditions. Chinese characters varied along two aspects: the word frequency and the number of strokes used in the character. Data were analysed using...
Full Text Available This study examined the impact of brand familiarity and endorsers’ congruence with product being advertised on consumer responses to social media advertising in Twitter. Findings suggested that the product with a familiar brand endorsed by celebrity with high image congruence led to greater consumer trust, more positive attitude, and greater purchase intention than any other familiarity-congruence combinations. Interestingly, for unfamiliar brand, there is no significant difference between high and low endorsers’ congruence.
Banovic, Marija; Fontes, Magda Aguiar; Barreira, Maria Madalena
This study examines the use of intrinsic and extrinsic cues in beef quality perception at the point of purchase and upon consumption by consumers with varying levels of familiarity with a particular beef product. High-familiarity consumers tend to use the color of the meat to assess beef quality......, whereas low-familiarity consumers tend to believe that the brand is the most valid cue for assessing beef quality. However, due to the lack of consistency in sensory beef quality, high-familiarity consumers’ ability to form quality expectations that are predictive of their quality experience is no better...
Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen
A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...
Oliveira, Gonçalo A.; Uceda, Sara; Oliveira, Tânia; Fernandes, Alexandre; Garcia-Marques, Teresa; Oliveira, Rui F.
Social interactions elicit androgen responses whose function has been posited to be the adjustment of androgen-dependent behaviors to social context. The activation of this androgen response is known to be mediated and moderated by psychological factors. In this study we tested the hypothesis that the testosterone (T) changes after a competition are not simply related to its outcome, but rather to the way the subject evaluates the event. In particular we tested two evaluative dimensions of a social interaction: familiarity with the opponent and the subjective evaluation of the outcome as threat or challenge. Challenge/threat occurs in goal relevant situations and represent different motivational states arising from the individuals’ subjective evaluation of the interplay between the task demands and coping resources possessed. For challenge the coping resources exceed the task demands, while threat represents a state where coping resources are insufficient to meet the task demands. In this experiment women competed in pairs, against a same sex opponent using the number tracking test as a competitive task. Losers appraised the competition outcome as more threatening than winners, and displayed higher post-competition T levels than winners. No differences were found either for cortisol (C) or for dehydroepiandrosterone. Threat, familiarity with the opponent and T response were associated only in the loser condition. Moderation analysis suggests that for the women that lost the competition the effect of threat on T is moderated by familiarity with the opponent. PMID:23847564
Rui F Oliveira
Full Text Available Social interactions elicit androgen responses whose function has been posited to be the adjustment of androgen dependent behaviors to social context. The activation of this androgen response is known to be mediated and moderated by psychological factors. In this study we tested the hypothesis that the testosterone (T changes after a competition are not simply related to its outcome, but rather to the way the subject evaluates the event. In particular we tested two evaluative dimensions of a social interaction: familiarity with the opponent and the subjective evaluation of the outcome as threat or challenge. Challenge/Threat occurs in goal relevant situations and represent different motivational states arising from the individuals’ subjective evaluation of the interplay between the task demands and coping resources possessed. For challenge the coping resources exceed the task demands, while threat represents a state where coping resources are insufficient to meet the task demands. In this experiment women competed in pairs, against a same sex opponent using the Number Tracking Test as a competitive task. Losers appraised the competition outcome as more threatening than winners, and displayed higher post-competition T levels than winners. No differences were found either for Cortisol (C or for dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA. Threat, familiarity with the opponent and T response were associated only in the loser condition. Moderation analysis suggests that for the women that lost the competition the effect of threat on T is moderated by familiarity with the opponent.
In Part 11 of this article we learnt that there are compelling evidences from dynamics of spiral galaxies, like our own, that there must be non-luminous matter in them. In this second part we will see that even clusters of galaxies must harbour dark matter. As if this was not enough, it turns out that if our knowledge of the ...
Adams, Krista; Feagin, Shannon
This article presents a lesson that was designed to explore the scientific descriptions of matter through both the intensive and extensive properties that students successfully added to their vocabulary. Students' examples demonstrated that there were places where their reasoning about matter faltered as related to how the material is the same…
Full Text Available This study is the first to investigate the neural underpinnings of tactile object familiarity in the blind during both perception and memory. In the sighted, the perirhinal cortex (PRC has been implicated in the assessment of visual object familiarity—a crucial everyday task—as evidenced by reduced activation when an object becomes familiar. Here, to examine the PRC’s role in tactile object familiarity in the absence of vision, we trained blind subjects on a unique memory-guided drawing technique and measured brain activity while they perceptually explored raised-line drawings, drew them from tactile memory, and scribbled (control. FMRI before and after a week of training revealed a significant decrease in PRC activation from pre- to post-training (i.e., from unfamiliar to familiar during perceptual exploration as well as memory-guided drawing, but not scribbling. This familiarity-based reduction is the first evidence that the PRC represents tactile object familiarity in the blind. Furthermore, the finding of this effect during both tactile perception and tactile memory provides the critical link in establishing the PRC as a structure whose representations are supramodal for both perception and memory.
Xie, Weizhen; Zhang, Weiwei
Long-term memory (LTM) can influence many aspects of short-term memory (STM), including increased STM span. However, it is unclear whether LTM enhances the quantitative or qualitative aspect of STM. That is, do we retain a larger number of representations or more precise representations in STM for familiar stimuli than unfamiliar stimuli? This study took advantage of participants' prior rich multimedia experience with Pokémon, without investing on laboratory training to examine how prior LTM influenced visual STM. In a Pokémon visual STM change detection task, participants remembered more first-generation Pokémon characters that they were more familiar with than recent-generation Pokémon characters that they were less familiar with. No significant difference in memory quality was found when quantitative and qualitative effects of LTM were isolated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. Critically, these effects were absent in participants who were unfamiliar with first-generation Pokémon. Furthermore, several alternative interpretations were ruled out, including general video-gaming experience, subjective Pokémon preference, and verbal encoding. Together, these results demonstrated a strong link between prior stimulus familiarity in LTM and visual STM storage capacity.
Colorado Segovia, María del Camen
La diversidad familiar está incrementándose en las últimas décadas y esto afecta no sólo a la sociedad en general, sino también a los centros educativos en particular. El objetivo general de este trabajo es diseñar unos materiales didácticos para abordar la diversidad familiar en las aulas de Educación Primaria. Los materiales didácticos que se han diseñado están destinados a los alumnos y las alumnas que cursan 1er Ciclo de Educación Primaria. Estos materiales se aplicarán a lo largo de un t...
More than a graduate text and advanced research guide on condensed matter physics, this volume is useful to plasma physicists and polymer chemists, and their students. It emphasizes applications of statistical mechanics to a variety of systems in condensed matter physics rather than theoretical derivations of the principles of statistical mechanics and techniques. Isihara addresses a dozen different subjects in separate chapters, each designed to be directly accessible and used independently of previous chapters. Topics include simple liquids, electron systems and correlations, two-dimensional
Iana Izadora Souza Lapa de Melo Paulo
observadas nesta pesquisa apontam que as empresas familiares apresentam maior reversão de perdas contábeis do que as firmas não-familiares, sugerindo que elas têm práticas contábeis mais agressivas. Porém, com base na análise estatística proposta, não se pode confirmar que o conservadorismo contábil é significativamente diferente entre as empresas familiares e não-familiares.
Full Text Available La violencia filio-parental es un problema social cualitativamente diferente a otros tipos de violencia familiar, porque los adolescentes dirigen la violencia hacia quienes debieran representar la autoridad y proporcionarles bienestar. El objetivo principal de este estudio era analizar el papel de las relaciones paternofiliales y la disciplina familiar en el desarrollo de conductas violentas y prosociales de los adolescentes hacia sus padres. En el estudio participaron 585 hijos/as (48% varones entre 12 y 18 años procedentes de 8 centros escolares de la Comunidad Autónoma del País Vasco. Los resultados indican que las relaciones familiares basadas en el afecto y la comunicación son las que favorecen las conductas prosociales de los hijos, y reducen las conductas violentas de éstos en el hogar. Por el contrario, las estrategias de disciplina parental coercitivas y las estrategias parcialmente coercitivas (supervisión y coste de respuesta se asocian a un mayor nivel de violencia física y psicológica de los hijos adolescentes hacia sus padres. Finalmente, se discuten las implicaciones de estos resultados en relación a la educación parental.
such as concepts, aboutness, topic, isness and ofness are also briefly presented. The conclusion is that the most fruitful way of defining “subject” (of a document) is the documents informative or epistemological potentials, that is, the documents potentials of informing users and advance the development......This article presents and discuss the concept “subject” or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document......-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts...
Certification as a familiarly friendly company, a tool for the motivation and the retention of people; La certificacion como empresa familiarmente responsable, herramienta para la retencion de talento.
Azcarate, A.; Diez Macho, C.; Barcena, E.
Familiarly friendly company is an international movement that sees to progress in matters of responsibility and respect to work-life balance, to equal opportunities and to social inclusion, taking as a starting point the current legislation and the collective bargaining in such a way that each company made a voluntary self-regulation.
Lucassen, T.; Schraagen, J.M.
Evaluating the credibility of information is a difficult yet essential task in a society where the Internet plays a large role. Familiarity with the topic at hand has been shown to have a large influence on the way credibility is evaluated; 'familiar users' tend to focus on semantic features,
The Gospel of John teaches through telling the story of Jesus in light of the familiar Hebrew faith stories. It is an interpretive task that presents Jesus to his audience and teaches them adequate faith. John the Teacher skillfully uses narrative skills to create the familiar-strange effect in his storytelling. Each story is followed by a…
Jeckmans, Arjan; Peter, Andreas; Hartel, Pieter H.
Recommender systems can help users to find interesting content, often based on similarity with other users. However, studies have shown that in some cases familiarity gives comparable results to similarity. Using familiarity has the added bonus of increasing privacy between users and utilizing a
Janssen, J.J.H.M.; Erkens, G.; Kirschner, P.A.; Kanselaar, G.
This study investigated the effects of group member familiarity during computer-supported collaborative learning. Familiarity may have an impact on online collaboration, because it may help group members to progress more quickly through the stages of group development, and may lead to higher group
Leow, Li-Ann; Rinchon, Cricia; Grahn, Jessica
Rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) is a gait rehabilitation method in which patients synchronize footsteps to a metronome or musical beats. Although RAS with music can ameliorate gait abnormalities, outcomes vary, possibly because music properties, such as groove or familiarity, differ across interventions. To optimize future interventions, we assessed how initially familiar and unfamiliar low-groove and high-groove music affected synchronization accuracy and gait in healthy individuals. We also experimentally increased music familiarity using repeated exposure to initially unfamiliar songs. Overall, familiar music elicited faster stride velocity and less variable strides, as well as better synchronization performance (matching of step tempo to beat tempo). High-groove music, as reported previously, led to faster stride velocity than low-groove music. We propose two mechanisms for familiarity's effects. First, familiarity with the beat structure reduces cognitive demands of synchronizing, leading to better synchronization performance and faster, less variable gait. Second, familiarity might have elicited faster gait by increasing enjoyment of the music, as enjoyment was higher after repeated exposure to initially low-enjoyment songs. Future studies are necessary to dissociate the contribution of these mechanisms to the observed RAS effects of familiar music on gait. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Familiarity with signal code. 56.19096 Section... Hoisting Signaling § 56.19096 Familiarity with signal code. Any person responsible for receiving or giving... with the posted signaling code. Shafts ...
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Familiarity with signal code. 57.19096 Section... Hoisting Signaling § 57.19096 Familiarity with signal code. Any person reponsible for receiving or giving... with the posted signaling code. Shafts ...
Ge, Liezhong; Anzures, Gizelle; Wang, Zhe; Kelly, David J.; Pascalis, Olivier; Quinn, Paul C.; Slater, Alan M.; Yang, Zhiliang; Lee, Kang
Children's recognition of familiar own-age peers was investigated. Chinese children (4-, 8-, and 14-year-olds) were asked to identify their classmates from photographs showing the entire face, the internal facial features only, the external facial features only, or the eyes, nose, or mouth only. Participants from all age groups were familiar with…
Malbys Fernández Ríos
Full Text Available La infertilidad, tema de nuestro estudio, constituye un evento vital que repercute en el sistema familiar, y es considerada como una crisis familiar por desorganización. Nos propusimos realizar un estudio del evento infertilidad, para determinar su repercusión en la salud familiar y las áreas de mayor afectación, relacionándola con la adaptabilidad de la familia y el apoyo social recibido. Encontramos entre los resultados que la infertilidad como evento paranormativo presentó una repercusión en la salud familiar a un nivel leve y con un sentido desfavorable, que la infertilidad primaria tiene mayor nivel de repercusión que la secundaria, pero predomina la significación desfavorable de los 2 tipos. Las áreas de salud familiar con mayor afectación fueron la sociopsicológica y el estado de salud de los miembros con significación desfavorable; el funcionamiento familiar con significación favorable. Se encontró correspondencia entre la capacidad de adaptabilidad familiar, el apoyo social y la repercusión familiar del evento.
Kaptein, M.C.; Nass, C.; Parvinen, P.; Markopoulos, P.
Advertisers on Social Network Sites often use recommendations by others in a user's networks to endorse products. While these familiar others are hypothesized to be more effective in influencing users than unfamiliar others, there is a catch: familiarity does not necessarily ensure similarity to the
Angelo, Joseph A
aseous Matter focuses on the many important discoveries that led to the scientific interpretation of matter in the gaseous state. This new, full-color resource describes the basic characteristics and properties of several important gases, including air, hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and nitrogen. The nature and scope of the science of fluids is discussed in great detail, highlighting the most important scientific principles upon which the field is based. Chapters include:. Gaseous Matter An Initial Perspective. Physical Characteristics of Gases. The Rise of the Science of Gases. Kinetic Theory of
Kakiuchi, Jin; Kobata, Tohru
The ratio of dry-matter increase in seed (S) to that in shoot (W), referred to as RS/W, during the seed-filling period may reflect the balance between the assimilate supply and the sink capacity of harvest organs...
Umla-Runge, Katja; Fu, Xiaolan; Wang, Lamei; Zimmer, Hubert D
Previous studies have shown that we need to distinguish between means and end information about actions. It is unclear how these two subtypes of action information relate to each other with theoretical accounts postulating the superiority of end over means information and others linking separate means and end routes of processing to actions of differential meaningfulness. Action meaningfulness or familiarity differs between cultures. In a cross-cultural setting, we investigated how action familiarity influences recognition memory for means and end information. Object directed actions of differential familiarity were presented to Chinese and German participants. Action familiarity modulated the representation of means and end information in both cultures in the same way, although the effects were based on different stimulus sets. Our results suggest that, in the representation of actions in memory, end information is superordinate to means information. This effect is independent of culture whereas action familiarity is not.
José Lamartine De Assis
Full Text Available Foram estudados oito pacientes com Paralisia Periódica Familiar sob os aspectos clínico, hidro-eletrolítico, eletrofisiológico, histológico e terapêutico. Houve predomínio significante em pacientes do sexo masculino. A idade média do início da moléstia foi de 15 anos. As manifestações clínicas foram concor-dantes com as referidas na literatura. Todos os pacientes tinham a forma hipocalêmica exceto um que evoluiu com hipercalemia. Alguns pacientes (21,4% tinham natremias no limite superior da normalidade enquanto em um número igual de pacientes as natremias estavam elevadas, o que sugeria liberação de aldosterona. Os achados eletrofisiológicos foram concordantes com os da literatura. O estudo histológico de músculos realizado em cinco pacientes foi normal em 30% deles e, naqueles com crises repetidas e freqüentes, foram encontradas atrofias de fibras musculares. Foram feitos tratamentos preventivos, e nos pacientes com hipocalemia foram administradas doses suplementares de potássio em solução aquosa de 10-25% diariamente.
Full Text Available Se debate el punto de vista que identifica la familia extensa con la tradición y la familia nuclear con el moderno modelo industrial de vida familiar. También se analiza la actual opinión dominante que afirma que la familia ha perdido el papel preponderante social y económico en la sociedad occidental. Se estudian los modelos cambiantes de familia en el Reino Unido, Francia y, especialmente, España. Los aspectos más tratados son los siguientes : la aceptación de los nuevos tipos de relaciones entre los jóvenes, opinión sobre la cohabitación, la imagen del matrimonio como institución, la postura ante el divorcio, el grado de rigidez ante la infidelidad matrimonial, la actitud ante la sexualidad y el grado de deseo de diferenciación de roles entre los sexos. Los datos utilizados están extraídos del banco de datos del Centro de Investigaciones Socilógicas. Como conclusión, se puede decir que en España se siguen las mismas tendencias que en otros países desarrollados : un descenso del valor del matrimonio como institución y un incremento de las relaciones informales.
Rivasseau, Vincent; Fuchs, Jean-Nöel
This fifteenth volume of the Poincare Seminar Series, Dirac Matter, describes the surprising resurgence, as a low-energy effective theory of conducting electrons in many condensed matter systems, including graphene and topological insulators, of the famous equation originally invented by P.A.M. Dirac for relativistic quantum mechanics. In five highly pedagogical articles, as befits their origin in lectures to a broad scientific audience, this book explains why Dirac matters. Highlights include the detailed "Graphene and Relativistic Quantum Physics", written by the experimental pioneer, Philip Kim, and devoted to graphene, a form of carbon crystallized in a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, from its discovery in 2004-2005 by the future Nobel prize winners Kostya Novoselov and Andre Geim to the so-called relativistic quantum Hall effect; the review entitled "Dirac Fermions in Condensed Matter and Beyond", written by two prominent theoreticians, Mark Goerbig and Gilles Montambaux, who consider many other mater...
This video is a teaser-introduction to the Antimatter Matters exhibtion at the Royal Society's Summer Science exhibition July 4-10 2016. The exhibition is jointly organised and hosted by UK members of the ALPHA and LHCb collaborations.
Briefer, Elodie F.; Baciadonna, Luigi; McElligott, Alan G.
When identifying other individuals, animals may match current cues with stored information about that individual from the same sensory modality. Animals may also be able to combine current information with previously acquired information from other sensory modalities, indicating that they possess complex cognitive templates of individuals that are independent of modality. We investigated whether goats (Capra hircus) possess cross-modal representations (auditory–visual) of conspecifics. We presented subjects with recorded conspecific calls broadcast equidistant between two individuals, one of which was the caller. We found that, when presented with a stablemate and another herd member, goats looked towards the caller sooner and for longer than the non-caller, regardless of caller identity. By contrast, when choosing between two herd members, other than their stablemate, goats did not show a preference to look towards the caller. Goats show cross-modal recognition of close social partners, but not of less familiar herd members. Goats may employ inferential reasoning when identifying conspecifics, potentially facilitating individual identification based on incomplete information. Understanding the prevalence of cross-modal recognition and the degree to which different sensory modalities are integrated provides insight into how animals learn about other individuals, and the evolution of animal communication. PMID:28386412
Lee, Edmund W. J., E-mail: email@example.com; Ho, Shirley S. [Nanyang Technological University, Wee Kim Wee School of Communication and Information (Singapore)
Public level of familiarity with nanotechnology partly determines their acceptance or rejection of the technology. This study examines the differential influence of public attention to science news in the media and reflective integration on perceived familiarity with nanotechnology among people in the higher and lower socioeconomic status (SES) groups in Singapore. Significant three-way interactions among education, science news attention, and reflective integration variables were found. Attention to television science news narrowed the level of perceived familiarity with nanotechnology between the higher and lower SES groups for those who engaged in high elaborative processing. Science newspaper attention, on the other hand, widened the familiarity gap between the higher and lower SES groups among those who engaged in high elaborative processing. Two-way interaction among education and elaborative processing were found—elaborative processing closed the familiarity gap between higher and lower SES groups. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed.
Full Text Available The validity of Snodgrass and Vanderwart pictures and their norms derived on a western population on naming, familiarity, imageability and visual-complexity, is not established on a population with cultural background different from the west. We developed, therefore, a set of culturally appropriate pictures for and derived norms on Indians. Line-drawings of 103 concepts (67 from Snodgrass and Vanderwart, 36 new from 10 semantic-categories were normed on 200 community-based older subjects. Only 31% of the Snodgrass and Vanderwart items showed a concept-agreement on the Indians comparable to western norms. Naming, familiarity and image-agreement mutually correlated but not with visual-complexity. Low-education and rural-residence tended to reduced concept-agreement. The output of this study will be of use in national and cross-national studies.
Concordance of differential visual and manipulative responsiveness to novel stimuli at 6 months of age was found when differential attractiveness and familiarity of the stimuli were controlled. This finding corroborates the findings of an earlier study in which the same object was used as the familiarization object for all subjects. The data indicate that concordance at 6 months of age is not an artifact of the test procedure. A hypothesis suggested by the comparison of these findings with others in the literature is that the opportunity to manipulate a wide variety of objects in the natural environment may contribute to the concordance of visual and manipulative responsiveness to novel stimuli at this age.
Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.
Bourisly, Ali K; El-Beltagi, Ahmed; Cherian, Jigi; Gejo, Grace; Al-Jazzaf, Abrar; Ismail, Mohammad
Previous and more recent work of analyzing structural changes in the brain suggest that certain brain regions such as the frontal lobe are among the brain regions profoundly affected by the aging process across males and females. Also, a unified model of structural changes in a normally aging brain is still lacking. The present study investigated age-related structural brain changes in gray matter from young to early middle-age adulthood for males and females. Magnetic resonance images of 215...
Smith, Marie L; Volna, Blanka; Ewing, Louise
Accurately determining the familiarity of another and correctly establishing their identity are vital social skills. A considerable body of work has explored their perceptual and neural underpinnings and debate remains regarding whether they are dissociable, that is, separable parts of a dual process, or different aspects of a common retrieval process. Less is known about the specific visual information that guides familiarity judgments and how this compares to the information used to identify a face by name. Here we sought to establish the critical information underlying participants' judgments of facial familiarity and identification. We created a new standardized stimulus set comprising 6 personally familiar and 12 unfamiliar faces and applied the Bubbles reverse-correlation methodology to establish the information driving correct performance in each task. Results revealed that markedly different information underlies familiarity and identity judgments. When categorizing familiarity, participants relied more upon lower spatial-frequency, broad facial cues (eye and face shape) than when categorizing identity, which relied on fine details in the internal features (eyes and mouth). These results provide novel evidence of qualitatively distinct information use in familiarity and identification judgments and emphasize the importance of considering the task set for participants and their processing strategy when investigating face recognition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Evaluating the familiarity of faces is critical for social animals as it is the basis of individual recognition. In the present study, we examined how face familiarity is reflected in neural activities in our closest living relative, the chimpanzee. Skin-surface event-related brain potentials (ERPs were measured while a fully awake chimpanzee observed photographs of familiar and unfamiliar chimpanzee faces (Experiment 1 and human faces (Experiment 2. The ERPs evoked by chimpanzee faces differentiated unfamiliar individuals from familiar ones around midline areas centered on vertex sites at approximately 200 ms after the stimulus onset. In addition, the ERP response to the image of the subject’s own face did not significantly diverge from those evoked by familiar chimpanzees, suggesting that the subject’s brain at a minimum remembered the image of her own face. The ERPs evoked by human faces were not influenced by the familiarity of target individuals. These results indicate that chimpanzee neural representations are more sensitive to the familiarity of conspecific than allospecific faces.
Landi, Sofia M; Freiwald, Winrich A
Familiarity alters face recognition: Familiar faces are recognized more accurately than unfamiliar ones and under difficult viewing conditions when unfamiliar face recognition fails. The neural basis for this fundamental difference remains unknown. Using whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found that personally familiar faces engage the macaque face-processing network more than unfamiliar faces. Familiar faces also recruited two hitherto unknown face areas at anatomically conserved locations within the perirhinal cortex and the temporal pole. These two areas, but not the core face-processing network, responded to familiar faces emerging from a blur with a characteristic nonlinear surge, akin to the abruptness of familiar face recognition. In contrast, responses to unfamiliar faces and objects remained linear. Thus, two temporal lobe areas extend the core face-processing network into a familiar face-recognition system. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.
Araque Serrano, Francisco; López-Torrecillas, Francisca; De los Riscos, Mª; J. F. Godoy
El presente trabajo investiga clima familiar en dependientes a opiáceos. Se han utilizado dos grupos, uno constituido por sujetos en programas de mantenimiento con metado¬na y otro por sujetos en programas libres de drogas. Se han utilizado como medidas la Escala de Clima Social (FES) de Moos et al., el Inventario Familiar de Autoinforme (SFI) de Beavers, la Escala de Estilo Familiar de Beavers y la Escala de Competencia de Beavers. A los datos se le realizaron cuatro análisis discriminantes....
Pascual García, Consolación
La Empresa Familiar desempeña un papel fundamental en las principales economías del mundo. Uno de sus objetivos fundamentales es el traspaso de una generación a otra, lo cual hace que el tema de la sucesión sea especialmente importante. Como consecuencia de todo ello surgió el interés por la Empresa Familiar para realizar este trabajo de investigación, que trata de explicar el proceso de sucesión en la Empresa Familiar, determinando cuáles son los criterios que predominan en la elección del s...
Maffei, Luigi; Masullo, Massimiliano; Gabriele, Maria Di; Votsi, Nefta-Eleftheria P; Pantis, John D; Senese, Vincenzo Paolo
Considering the wide growth of the wind turbine market over the last decade as well as their increasing power size, more and more potential conflicts have arisen in society due to the noise radiated by these plants. Our goal was to determine whether the annoyance caused by wind farms is related to aspects other than noise. To accomplish this, an auditory experiment on the recognition of wind turbine noise was conducted to people with long experience of wind turbine noise exposure and to people with no previous experience to this type of noise source. Our findings demonstrated that the trend of the auditory recognition is the same for the two examined groups, as far as the increase of the distance and the decrease of the values of sound equivalent levels and loudness are concerned. Significant differences between the two groups were observed as the distance increases. People with wind turbine noise experience showed a higher tendency to report false alarms than people without experience.
Full Text Available Considering the wide growth of the wind turbine market over the last decade as well as their increasing power size, more and more potential conflicts have arisen in society due to the noise radiated by these plants. Our goal was to determine whether the annoyance caused by wind farms is related to aspects other than noise. To accomplish this, an auditory experiment on the recognition of wind turbine noise was conducted to people with long experience of wind turbine noise exposure and to people with no previous experience to this type of noise source. Our findings demonstrated that the trend of the auditory recognition is the same for the two examined groups, as far as the increase of the distance and the decrease of the values of sound equivalent levels and loudness are concerned. Significant differences between the two groups were observed as the distance increases. People with wind turbine noise experience showed a higher tendency to report false alarms than people without experience.
Banerjee, Robin; Yuill, Nicola; Larson, Christina; Easton, Kate; Robinson, Elizabeth; Rowley, Martin
Two experiments investigated children's implicit and explicit differentiation between beliefs about matters of fact and matters of opinion. In Experiment 1, 8- to 9-year-olds' (n = 88) explicit understanding of the subjectivity of opinions was found to be limited, but their conformity to others' judgments on a matter of opinion was considerably…
Paz A. Olmedo Fuentes
Full Text Available Se analiza la relación existente entre satisfacción familiar, apoyo familiar y conflicto trabajo-familia en una muestra de trabajadores del comercio mayorista chileno, controlando variables sociodemográficas. A 128 trabajadores técnicos y profesionales entre 20 y 49 años, pertenecientes a dos ciudades ubicadas en la región del Maule (Chile le fueron aplicados tres instrumentos de medición de las variables referidas. Se observa que tanto el apoyo familiar como la satisfacción familiar son variables que se encuentran relacionadas (r= 0,470; p=0,001, por tanto se pueden utilizar en conjunto y ambas se ven a su vez relacionadas con el conflicto trabajo-familia. Al realizar el estudio de regresión se obtuvo que apoyo familiar y satisfacción familiar son predictores del conflicto trabajo-familia (β= -0,386; t= -4,698; p<0,001, relacionándose significativa y negativamente con el conflicto trabajo-familia (r= -0,684; p=0,001, es decir, que a mayores niveles de apoyo y satisfacción familiar, menores son los niveles de conflicto trabajo-familia.
Marcelo Gil Cliquet
Full Text Available A Trombocitemia Essencial (TE é classificada como pertencente ao grupo de distúrbios mieloproliferativos clássicos BCR/ABL negativos. Está associada à mutação JAK2V617F em aproximadamente 50% dos casos, também descrita em outros distúrbios mieloproliferativos, assim como mutações nos genes CALR e MPL. Estudos indicam incidência sete vezes maior em familiares de indivíduos afetados, com transmissibilidade compatível com modelo de herança recessiva. Objetivo e Metodologia: Relatar o caso de duas irmãs com diagnóstico de TE, portadoras da mutação JAK2 (V617F; as informações foram obtidas por meio de revisão de prontuário. Relato dos casos: Paciente 01, idade 75 anos, sexo feminino. Com diagnóstico de TE, portadora da mutação JAK2, BCR/ABL negativo, tratada com Hydroxiurea e AAS, evoluiu com neutropenia secundária ao uso de HU. Paciente 2, idade 72 anos, sexo feminino. Encaminhada ao Ambulatório de Hematologia do CHS por plaquetose em agosto de 2014. Tem hemograma prévio (2007 com plaquetose acima de 1.000.000/mm³. Na investigação, presença da mutação da JAK2 V617F, BCR/ABL negativo, e hemograma com contagem de plaquetas 1.745.000/mm³, leucócitos 17.200/mm³, neutrófilos 13.244/mm³ e 1.032/mm³ bastonetes. Feito o diagnóstico de TE e tratamento com HU e AAS. Evoluiu também com toxicidade à HU apresentando hemograma realizado em maio de 2015, com contagem de plaquetas em 203.000/mm³, 1.280 neutrófilos e Hb 9,2 g/dl. Conclusão: Relatamos os casos de duas irmãs com diagnósticos confirmados de TE, ambas com mutação da JAK2 V617F. Lembrando a possível hereditariedade dessa doença e sabendo que o diagnóstico precoce pode prevenir eventos trombóticos, consideramos interessante a investigação dos parentes, com a realização de um simples hemograma.
Maria Ângela Bravo Fávero; Manoel Antônio dos Santos
... impact in families of children with autistic disorder. The review intends to access the influence of parental stress, as the factor affecting the direct caregivers and contributing to the occurrence of alterations in the familiar dynamic...
Filipic, Suzanne; Tillmann, Barbara; Bigand, Emmanuel
In the present study, the gating paradigm was used to measure how much perceptual information that was extracted from musical excerpts needs to be heard to provide judgments of familiarity and of emotionality...
Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la importancia del apoyo familiar en el control de la glucemia en diabéticos no insulino dependientes. Material y métodos. Se diseñó un estudio de casos y controles, considerando como casos a los pacientes con glucemia o = 140 mg/dl. El apoyo familiar se determinó con el cuestionario Environmental Barriers to Adherence Scales, que estima el apoyo otorgado para que el paciente siga las indicaciones terapéuticas. Se incluyeron 32 casos y 50 controles. Resultados. El apoyo familiar que recibe el paciente se asocia significativamente a la presencia de glucemia <140 mg/dl (razón de momios = 3.9; IC95% 1.4-11.1. Las demás variables no mostraron asociación significativa. Conclusiones. El apoyo familiar que reciben los enfermos influye en el control de la glucemia.
Jessen, Tanja Lund; Rodway, Paul
This study comprised two experiments to examine the distracting effects of advertisement familiarity, location, and onset on the performance of a selective attention task. In Exp. 1, familiar advertisements presented in peripheral vision disrupted selective attention when the attention task was more demanding, suggesting that the distracting effect of advertisements is a product of task demands and advertisement familiarity and location. In Exp. 2, the onset of the advertisement shortly before, or after, the attention task captured attention and disrupted attentional performance. The onset of the advertisement before the attention task reduced target response time without an increase in errors and therefore facilitated performance. Despite being instructed to ignore the advertisements, the participants were able to recall a substantial proportion of the familiar advertisements. Implications for the presentation of advertisements during human-computer interaction were discussed.
Canovas Leonhardt, Paz; Alzate Yepes, Teresita
Antecedentes: la obesidad infantil ha sido estudiada de manera amplia en aspectos de diagnostico y tratamiento fundamentalmente, pero aquellos referidos a la prevencion desde factores familiares, no geneticos, han...
Matteo eVisconti di Oleggio Castello
Full Text Available Recognition of the identity of familiar faces in conditions with poor visibility or over large changes in head angle, lighting and partial occlusion is far more accurate than recognition of unfamiliar faces in similar conditions. Here we used a visual search paradigm to test if one class of social cues transmitted by faces – direction of another’s attention as conveyed by gaze direction and head orientation – is perceived more rapidly in personally familiar faces than in unfamiliar faces. We found a strong effect of familiarity on the detection of these social cues, suggesting that the times to process these signals in familiar faces are markedly faster than the corresponding processing times for unfamiliar faces. In the light of these new data, hypotheses on the organization of the visual system for processing faces are formulated and discussed.
Davis, Rebecca L; Therrien, Barbara A
Older adults often have problems finding their way (place learning) in unfamiliar environments. We examined how colorful familiar cues-versus black-and-white abstract cues-affected place learning in 133 community-dwelling older adults using a computerized virtual environment. Participants were required to learn the location of the hidden platform using only environmental cues repeatedly over 3 days in four cue conditions that varied with respect to the color and familiarity of cues. Place learning was measured by the distance traveled to the platform. Participants found the hidden target with the shortest distance traveled when cues were colorful and familiar. Older participants showed poorer performance than the younger groups. Study results showed that place learning was assisted by using colorful familiar cues and that the older participants and those with lower cognition scores were most impaired in place learning. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.
Quervel-Chaumette, Mylene; Dale, Rachel; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Range, Friederike
.... Here, using one of the cognitively less demanding tasks, we show for the first time, that dogs can behave pro-socially by donating food to a conspecific partner, but only if the partner is familiar...
Plassard, Andrew; Hinton, Kendra E.; Venkatraman, Vijay; Gonzalez, Christopher; Resnick, Susan M.; Landman, Bennett A.
Multi-atlas labeling has come in wide spread use for whole brain labeling on magnetic resonance imaging. Recent challenges have shown that leading techniques are near (or at) human expert reproducibility for cortical gray matter labels. However, these approaches tend to treat white matter as essentially homogeneous (as white matter exhibits isointense signal on structural MRI). The state-of-the-art for white matter atlas is the single-subject Johns Hopkins Eve atlas. Numerous approaches have attempted to use tractography and/or orientation information to identify homologous white matter structures across subjects. Despite success with large tracts, these approaches have been plagued by difficulties in with subtle differences in course, low signal to noise, and complex structural relationships for smaller tracts. Here, we investigate use of atlas-based labeling to propagate the Eve atlas to unlabeled datasets. We evaluate single atlas labeling and multi-atlas labeling using synthetic atlases derived from the single manually labeled atlas. On 5 representative tracts for 10 subjects, we demonstrate that (1) single atlas labeling generally provides segmentations within 2mm mean surface distance, (2) morphologically constraining DTI labels within structural MRI white matter reduces variability, and (3) multi-atlas labeling did not improve accuracy. These efforts present a preliminary indication that single atlas labels with correction is reasonable, but caution should be applied. To purse multi-atlas labeling and more fully characterize overall performance, more labeled datasets would be necessary.
Full Text Available La «Sociedad Red» se identifica con acelerados cambios que se suceden entre el mundo real y el virtual. El progreso de dispositivos digitales ha generado un nuevo modelo de ocio que ha condicionado las interacciones familiares. El objetivo de esta investigación fue valorar la relación entre el funcionamiento familiar percibido por estudiantes españoles de educación secundaria postobligatoria y su práctica de ocio digital. La muestra ascendió a 1.764 estudiantes. El ocio digital se midió a partir de una pregunta abierta en la que debían señalar las tres actividades de ocio más importantes, y el funcionamiento familiar se valoró mediante la versión española del FACES IV (Escala de cohesión y adaptación familiar. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo sobre las actividades de ocio digital de los jóvenes, se determinó el coeficiente del funcionamiento familiar de cada sujeto y mediante análisis de varianza (ANOVA de un factor se valoró la relación entre el funcionamiento familiar percibido por los estudiantes y las actividades de ocio digital practicadas por los mismos. Los jóvenes otorgan importancia a las actividades digitales de ocio, destacando la participación en redes sociales, jugar a videojuegos y navegar por Internet. La cohesión, la flexibilidad y el funcionamiento familiar gozan de mejor salud cuando los hijos no apuntan actividades digitales entre sus prácticas preferentes de ocio. Los resultados sugieren nuevas investigaciones que comprueben si esta asociación negativa entre funcionamiento familiar y ocio digital es causal o se debe a otros factores.
Paola Martínez Pérez
Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es observar las diferentes dimensiones que adquiere la familia en las empresas familiares de inmigrantes. En este caso, la propuesta metodológica es analizar, de forma comparativa, la realidad empresarial consolidada del colectivo gallego en Montevideo con las empresas familiares de inmigrantes de reciente creación en el área metropolitana en Barcelona.
The study of gas clouds orbiting in the outer regions of spiral galaxies has revealed that their gravitational at- traction is much larger than the stars alone can provide. Over the last twenty years, astronomers have been forced to postulate the presence of large quantities of 'dark matter' to explain their observations. They are ...
Fluorescence usually originates from the lowest excited electronic state (singlet) irrespective of the excitation and hence, the fluorescence spectrum of a molecule is characterized by a single band. However, what makes DMABN a very special molecule is that it exhibits dual fluorescence (i.e. emission of. Molecule Matters.
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 4. Molecule Matters – van der Waals Molecules - History and Some Perspectives on Intermolecular Forces. E Arunan. Feature Article Volume 14 Issue 4 April 2009 pp 346-356 ...
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 9. Molecule Matters - A Chromium Compound with a Quintuple Bond. K C Kumara Swamy. Feature Article Volume 11 Issue 9 September 2006 pp 72-75. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 2. Science Matters A Book for Curious Minds. Rohini Godbole. Book Review Volume 2 Issue 2 February 1997 pp 94-95. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/02/0094-0095 ...
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 5. Molecule Matters - N-Heterocyclic Carbenes - The Stable Form of R2 C: Anil J Elias. Feature Article Volume 13 Issue 5 May 2008 pp 456-467. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 11. Molecule Matters - Carbon Dioxide: Molecular States and Beyond. T P Radhakrishnan. Feature Article Volume 11 Issue 11 November 2006 pp 88-92. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Full Text Available Music perception involves complex brain functions. The relationship between music and brain such as cortical entrainment to periodic tune, periodic beat, and music have been well investigated. It has also been reported that the cerebral cortex responded more strongly to the periodic rhythm of unfamiliar music than to that of familiar music. However, previous works mainly used simple and artificial auditory stimuli like pure tone or beep. It is still unclear how the brain response is influenced by the familiarity of music. To address this issue, we analyzed electroencelphalogram (EEG to investigate the relationship between cortical response and familiarity of music using melodies produced by piano sounds as simple natural stimuli. The cross-correlation function averaged across trials, channels, and participants showed two pronounced peaks at time lags around 70 and 140 ms. At the two peaks the magnitude of the cross-correlation values were significantly larger when listening to unfamiliar and scrambled music compared to those when listening to familiar music. Our findings suggest that the response to unfamiliar music is stronger than that to familiar music. One potential application of our findings would be the discrimination of listeners' familiarity with music, which provides an important tool for assessment of brain activity.
Kumagai, Yuiko; Arvaneh, Mahnaz; Tanaka, Toshihisa
Music perception involves complex brain functions. The relationship between music and brain such as cortical entrainment to periodic tune, periodic beat, and music have been well investigated. It has also been reported that the cerebral cortex responded more strongly to the periodic rhythm of unfamiliar music than to that of familiar music. However, previous works mainly used simple and artificial auditory stimuli like pure tone or beep. It is still unclear how the brain response is influenced by the familiarity of music. To address this issue, we analyzed electroencelphalogram (EEG) to investigate the relationship between cortical response and familiarity of music using melodies produced by piano sounds as simple natural stimuli. The cross-correlation function averaged across trials, channels, and participants showed two pronounced peaks at time lags around 70 and 140 ms. At the two peaks the magnitude of the cross-correlation values were significantly larger when listening to unfamiliar and scrambled music compared to those when listening to familiar music. Our findings suggest that the response to unfamiliar music is stronger than that to familiar music. One potential application of our findings would be the discrimination of listeners' familiarity with music, which provides an important tool for assessment of brain activity. PMID:28798673
Singh, P Bano; Hummel, Thomas; Gerber, Johannes C; Landis, Basile N; Iannilli, Emilia
The identification of umami taste among people is extremely variable. Based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) the aim of this study was to investigate changes of brain activation in participants before and after they were familiarized with this peculiar taste. A total of 10 healthy, right-handed subjects (7 women, mean age 25 years) participated in this study. A computer-controlled gustometer was used to deliver the umami stimuli at supra-threshold concentrations. After the first session of fMRI experiments, participants went through two weeks of controlled exposure to umami taste, before the second session of fMRI experimentation. Results from psychophysical assessment showed that umami became more familiar (p umami training. FMRI data showed that a broader central-nervous network was activated before "umami training" as compared to imaging after "umami training". Significant activation was found in the primary and high level sensory specific gustatory area (insula and anterior cingulate cortex) before training, whereas, significant activation was observed in memory retrieval areas (parahippocampal gyrus) after training. The main finding of the present study suggests that repeated exposure to umami taste over a relatively short period of time does not produce an increased response at the level of taste primary and secondary areas, but that increased familiarity with umami leads to an increased activation of the parahippocampal gyrus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ancillotto, Leonardo; Russo, Danilo
Bats are highly social mammals that often form large groups and represent good models to test the role played by individual status in shaping social relationships. Social cohesion relies on the ability of group and individual recognition, which is mediated by a range of sensorial cues. In this study, we selected the European free-tailed bat Tadarida teniotis as a model species to test the effects of familiarity, sex and age on aggressiveness and mutual tolerance. We hypothesize that T. teniotis is able to recognize group members and exhibit selective aggressiveness, and thus we predict fewer aggressive events and more amicable encounters between colony mates than between strangers. As female bats are generally more sociable and perform prolonged parental care to juveniles even after weaning, we hypothesize that sex and age of bats have significant influences on aggressive behaviours and thus predict that females will perform more amicable behaviours than males and that adults of both sexes will be less aggressive towards juveniles. Our results confirm that T. teniotis is able to discriminate between familiar and stranger individuals, showing higher rates of aggressive behaviours towards the latter. Females are more prone to exhibit amicable behaviours, particularly during same-sex interactions, while males show higher level of aggressiveness. Juveniles are subjected to fewer aggressive behaviours by adults of both sexes. Familiarity appears crucial for T. teniotis in determining the degree of aggressiveness during social interactions but the rate of aggressive events is also influenced by intrinsic individual factors such as sex and age.
Full Text Available According to attribution models of familiarity assessment, people can use a heuristic in recognition-memory decisions, in which they attribute the subjective ease of processing of a memory probe to a prior encounter with the stimulus in question. Research in social cognition suggests that experienced positive affect may be the proximal cue that signals fluency in various experimental contexts. In the present study, we compared the effects of positive affect and fluency on recognition-memory judgments for faces with neutral emotional expression. We predicted that if positive affect is indeed the critical cue that signals processing fluency at retrieval, then its manipulation should produce effects that closely mirror those produced by manipulations of processing fluency. In two experiments, we employed a masked-priming procedure in combination with a Remember-Know paradigm that aimed to separate familiarity- from recollection-based memory decisions. In addition, participants performed a prime-discrimination task that allowed us to take inter-individual differences in prime awareness into account. We found highly similar effects of our priming manipulations of processing fluency and of positive affect. In both cases, the critical effect was specific to familiarity-based recognition responses. Moreover, in both experiments it was reflected in a shift towards a more liberal response bias, rather than in changed discrimination. Finally, in both experiments, the effect was found to be related to prime awareness; it was present only in participants who reported a lack of such awareness on the prime-discrimination task. These findings add to a growing body of evidence that points not only to a role of fluency, but also of positive affect in familiarity assessment. As such they are consistent with the idea that fluency itself may be hedonically marked.
Demorest, Steven M; Morrison, Steven J
Contemporary music education in many countries has begun to incorporate not only the dominant music of the culture, but also a variety of music from around the world. Although the desirability of such a broadened curriculum is virtually unquestioned, the specific function of these musical encounters and their potential role in children's cognitive development remain unclear. We do not know if studying a variety of world music traditions involves the acquisition of new skills or an extension and refinement of traditional skills long addressed by music teachers. Is a student's familiarity with a variety of musical traditions a manifestation of a single overarching "musicianship" or is knowledge of these various musical styles more similar to a collection of discrete skills much like learning a second language? Research on the comprehension of spoken language has disclosed a neurologically distinct response among subjects listening to their native language rather than an unfamiliar language. In a recent study comparing Western subjects' responses to music of their native culture and music of an unfamiliar culture, we found that subjects' activation did not differ on the basis of the cultural familiarity of the music, but on the basis of musical expertise. We discuss possible interpretations of these findings in relation to the concept of musical universals, cross-cultural stimulus characteristics, cross-cultural judgment tasks, and the influence of musical expertise. We conclude with suggestions for future research.
Yakovlev, Volodya; Amit, Daniel J; Romani, Sandro; Hochstein, Shaul
Macaque monkeys were tested on a delayed-match-to-multiple-sample task, with either a limited set of well trained images (in randomized sequence) or with never-before-seen images. They performed much better with novel images. False positives were mostly limited to catch-trial image repetitions from the preceding trial. This result implies extremely effective one-shot learning, resembling Standing's finding that people detect familiarity for 10,000 once-seen pictures (with 80% accuracy) (Standing, 1973). Familiarity memory may differ essentially from identification, which embeds and generates contextual information. When encountering another person, we can say immediately whether his or her face is familiar. However, it may be difficult for us to identify the same person. To accompany the psychophysical findings, we present a generic neural network model reproducing these behaviors, based on the same conservative Hebbian synaptic plasticity that generates delay activity identification memory. Familiarity becomes the first step toward establishing identification. Adding an inter-trial reset mechanism limits false positives for previous-trial images. The model, unlike previous proposals, relates repetition-recognition with enhanced neural activity, as recently observed experimentally in 92% of differential cells in prefrontal cortex, an area directly involved in familiarity recognition. There may be an essential functional difference between enhanced responses to novel versus to familiar images: The maximal signal from temporal cortex is for novel stimuli, facilitating additional sensory processing of newly acquired stimuli. The maximal signal for familiar stimuli arising in prefrontal cortex facilitates the formation of selective delay activity, as well as additional consolidation of the memory of the image in an upstream cortical module.
Full Text Available Prosopagnosia has been considered for a long period of time as the most important and almost exclusive disorder in the recognition of familiar people. In recent years, however, this conviction has been undermined by the description of patients showing a concomitant defect in the recognition of familiar faces and voices as a consequence of lesions encroaching upon the right anterior temporal lobe (ATL. These new data have obliged researchers to reconsider on one hand the construct of ‘associative prosopagnosia’ and on the other hand current models of people recognition. A systematic review of the patterns of familiar people recognition disorders observed in patients with right and left ATL lesions has shown that in patients with right ATL lesions face familiarity feelings and the retrieval of person-specific semantic information from faces are selectively affected, whereas in patients with left ATL lesions the defect selectively concerns famous people naming. Furthermore, some patients with right ATL lesions and intact face familiarity feelings show a defect in the retrieval of person-specific semantic knowledge greater from face than from name. These data are at variance with current models assuming: (a that familiarity feelings are generated at the level of person identity nodes (PINs where information processed by various sensory modalities converge, and (b that PINs provide a modality-free gateway to a single semantic system, where information about people is stored in an amodal format. They suggest, on the contrary: (a that familiarity feelings are generated at the level of modality-specific recognition units; (b that face and voice recognition units are represented more in the right than in the left ATLs; (c that in the right ATL are mainly stored person-specific information based on a convergence of perceptual information, whereas in the left ATLs are represented verbally-mediated person-specific information.
Stephan, Claudia; Wilkinson, Anna; Huber, Ludwig
Knowledge of previous encounters with conspecifics is thought to be beneficial as it allows fast and appropriate behavioral responses toward those animals. This level of categorization goes beyond perceptual similarity and requires the individual to refer to a more abstract common referent, namely familiarity. It has been shown that pigeons are able to form functional classes of conspecifics that are based on familiarity. To date, we do not know whether this ability is restricted to the social context (including heterospecifics) or if it can also be used to classify inanimate objects. Furthermore, the factors influencing the formation of this functional class are still unknown. Here, we show that pigeons (Columba livia) are able to use a categorical rule of familiarity to classify previously unseen photographs of objects from their living environment. Pigeons that lacked real-life experience with the objects were not able to do so. This suggests that perceptual features alone were not sufficient for class recognition. To investigate the impact of additional functional properties of the objects, familiar objects were further divided into two subcategories, namely those that were considered functionally relevant to the birds and those that were not. Although the majority of pigeons learned to categorize photographs of objects based on familiarity alone, our results also suggest an unlearned preference for "relevant" familiar objects. The results presented here suggest that pigeons are able to learn to extract the discriminative feature of abstract familiarity from pictures by referring to previous real-life experience but that additional functions of objects lead to a preference of these objects.
Full Text Available Objetivo: identificar os fatores associados à funcionalidade familiar de longevos não institucionalizados residentes em Goiânia (GO, Brasil. Método: tratou-se de um estudo epidemiológico, de base populacional, com delineamento transversal. Foram aplicadas escalas de avaliação da capacidade funcional e cognitiva. A dinâmica familiar foi mensurada utilizando o Adaptation, Partnership, Growth, Affection and Resolve (APGAR por meio de entrevista domiciliar com 131 longevos. Resultados: houve prevalência do sexo feminino, média de idade de 83,87 anos, condição de viuvez, residindo em família extensa, escolaridade primária e autopercepção de saúde regular. Grande parcela despontou independência para autocuidado e dependência parcial para Atividades Instrumentais de Vida Diária. A funcionalidade familiar prevaleceu com média do escore de 9,06 pontos. Conclusão: concluiu-se que a funcionalidade familiar nos longevos está associada à autopercepção de saúde ruim/péssima, osteoporose e queda. Os resultados permitiram caracterizar a funcionalidade familiar de longevos, com vistas à valorização e à priorização da família como cuidadora.
Tillmann, Barbara; Albouy, Philippe; Caclin, Anne; Bigand, Emmanuel
Congenital amusia has been described as a lifelong deficit of music perception and production, notably including amusic individuals' difficulties to recognize a familiar tune without the aid of lyrics. The present study aimed to evaluate whether amusic individuals might have acquired long-term knowledge of familiar music, and to test for the minimal amount of acoustic information necessary to access this knowledge (if any) in amusia. Segments of familiar and unfamiliar instrumental musical pieces were presented with increasing duration (250, 500, 1000 msec etc.), and participants provided familiarity judgments for each segment. Results showed that amusic individuals succeeded in differentiating familiar from unfamiliar excerpts with as little acoustic information as did control participants (i.e., within 500 msec). The findings reveal that amusic individuals have stored musical pieces in long-term memory (LTM), and, together with other recent findings, they suggest that congenital amusia might impair conscious access to music processing rather than music processing per se.
Weng, Chuan-Bo, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); School of Neurosurgery, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishang Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Qian, Ruo-Bing, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Fu, Xian-Ming, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Lin, Bin, E-mail: email@example.com [School of Neurosurgery, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishang Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Han, Xiao-Peng, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Psychology, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Niu, Chao-Shi, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Wang, Ye-Han, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China)
Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA.
Weng, Chuan-Bo; Qian, Ruo-Bing; Fu, Xian-Ming; Lin, Bin; Han, Xiao-Peng; Niu, Chao-Shi; Wang, Ye-Han
Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Han, Huayong; WU, HONGYAN; Zheng, Sibo
Thermal Majorana dark matter is explored from the viewpoint of effective field theory. Completely analytic result for dark matter annihilation into standard model background is derived in order to account relic density. The parameter space subject to the latest LUX, PandaX-II and Xenon-1T limits is shown in a model-independent way. For illustration, applications to singlet-doublet and neutralino dark matter are work out.
Full Text Available Como en otros países de América Latina y del Caribe, sin mencionar el resto del mundo, la estructura de vida familiar en Costa Rica ha cambiado en décadas recientes. El matrimonio ha decaído, el divorcio y la separación aumentan, se incrementan los nacimientos fuera del matrimonio y en un número creciente de hogares las mujeres son jefas de hogar. Tanto a nivel nacional como internacional estas tendencias han sido consideradas como indicadores de una “desintegración familiar”. Esto a su vez con frecuencia ha causado preocupación, especialmente en relación a posibles amenazas al bienestar y desarrollo de los niños. Si bien estas preocupaciones sobre la ruptura familiar han sido expuestas en los medios de comunicación, en informes oficiales y en declaraciones de instituciones religiosas, poco se conoce sobre las vivencias de las personas sobre estos cambios. ¿ Hasta qué punto las personas perciben los cambios en la organización familiar y si es así, a qué los atribuyen? ¿Se podría pensar que los cambios identificados están llevando al “colapso familiar” ?, y ¿Hasta qué punto son tales interpretaciones compartidas por diferentes grupos en términos de género, edad y situación socioeconómica?Este artículo plantea algunas respuestas a estas inquietudes con base en entrevistas individuales y grupos focales de discusión. Se trabajó con 176 hombres y mujeres de bajo y mediano ingreso, de diferentes edades en la provincia de Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Una de las principales conclusiones es que si bien algunos estilos en la vida familiar se perciben como posibilitadoras de condiciones más flexibles y equitativas, otras se consideran como debilitadoras de la unidad familiar. Además, las preocupaciones sobre la “desintegración familiar” son particularmente comunes en los hombres adultos, a pesar de que ellos han estado históricamente menos comprometidos en la vida familiar que las mujeres. La divergencia de puntos de
Peretz, I; Babaï, M; Lussier, I; Hébert, S; Gagnon, L
The objective of the present study was to establish estimates of familiarity, of age of acquisition, and of verbal associations in relation to 144 musical excerpts drawn from the repertoire of tunes that is expected to be shared by all French-speaking Québec university students. The excerpts were synthesized monophonic lines (which can be found in Appendix B) that were tape recorded. A first group of 60 university students were required to indicate their degree of familiarity (on a 5-point scale) with each excerpt and the age period at which they learned the excerpt. A second group of 60 students indicated whether the original tune was vocal or instrumental as well as the first words that came to mind. In each group, half the subjects were presented with the 144 excerpts in a different order. Overall, the material was found to be highly familiar and to have been mostly learned between the ages of 5 and 15. Most of the excerpts were easily categorized as vocal or instrumental with the exception of 26 excerpts, which were accordingly classified as ambiguous. Finally, 57% of the excerpts elicited verbal responses. There was a high level of agreement in some of the verbal responses provided, referred to as dominant responses. In contrast, 21 excerpts gave rise to very little verbal recall, hence specifying a subset of "purely" musical material. All indices of familiarity, of acquisition age, and of verbal responses (specifying the overall rate of verbal responding, the content of the dominant response as well as its frequency of occurrence) are provided for each excerpt in Appendix A. Finally, the most interesting aspect of the present study was revealed by the analysis of the errors in verbal recall. Subjects tended to fill in missing elements by words that fitted the meaning of song lyrics as well as the temporal structure of the music. For instance, instead of providing "MON BEAU SAPIN", subjects would provide "mon grand sapin". The use of such a procedure is
Llorens, Anaïs; Trébuchon, Agnès; Riès, Stéphanie; Liégeois-Chauvel, Catherine; Alario, F-Xavier
A common strategy to reveal the components of the speech production network is to use psycholinguistic manipulations previously tested in behavioral protocols. This often disregards how implementation aspects that are nonessential for interpreting behavior may affect the neural response. We compared the electrophysiological (EEG) signature of two popular picture naming protocols involving either unfamiliar pictures without repetitions or repeated familiar pictures. We observed significant semantic interference effects in behavior but not in the EEG, contrary to some previous findings. Remarkably, the two protocols elicited clearly distinct EEG responses. These were not due to naming latency differences nor did they reflect a homogeneous modulation of amplitude over the trial time-window. The effect of protocol is attributed to the familiarization induced by the first encounter with the materials. Picture naming processes can be substantially modulated by specific protocol requirements controlled by familiarity and, to a much lesser degree, the repetition of materials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Patricia Herrera Santi
Full Text Available En este trabajo se realiza un breve bosquejo del surgimiento y significación del rol de género y se relaciona con algunos de los indicadores de funcionamiento familiar, analizando en qué medida puede afectar la expresión favorable del mismo, alterar la dinámica interna de las relaciones familiares y actuar como factor patógeno en la salud familiarA brief sketch of the appearance and significance of the gender role is made in this paper. It is also related to some indicators of family functioning and it is analyzed to what extent this relationship may affect its favorable expression, alter the internal dynamics of the family relations and act as a pathogenic factor in family health
Raúl Francisco Quejada Pérez
Full Text Available Este documento presenta aspectos conceptuales, teóricos, históricos y estructurales de las empresas familiares. Se destaca el rol que desempeñan en materia de generación de empleo y riqueza. También se analizan sus sistemas de gobierno corporativo, los cuales desembocan en la temática de continuidad generacional. La continuidad es entendida como una de las principales dificultades de estas organizaciones, debido a que sus directivos y/o propietarios no logran separar el papel del núcleo familiar y las decisiones organizacionales de las compañías. En este sentido, las estrategias de internacionalización y profesionalización representan el camino para garantizar la permanencia de las empresas familiares.
Davis, Scarlet; Lukeman, Ryan; Schaerf, Timothy M; Ward, Ashley J W
The coordinated and synchronized movement of animals in groups often referred to as collective motion emerges through the interactions between individual animals within the group. Factors which affect these interactions have the potential to shape collective movement. One such factor is familiarity, or the tendency to bias behaviour towards individuals as a result of social recognition. We examined the effect of familiarity on the expression of collective motion in small shoals of female guppies ( Poecilia reticulata ). Groups comprising familiar individuals were more strongly polarized than groups of unfamiliar individuals, particularly when in novel surroundings. The ability to form more strongly polarized shoals potentially promotes information transfer and enhances the anti-predator benefits of grouping.
Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel
? In Play Matters, Miguel Sicart argues that to play is to be in the world; playing is a form of understanding what surrounds us and a way of engaging with others. Play goes beyond games; it is a mode of being human. We play games, but we also play with toys, on playgrounds, with technologies and design......, but not necessarily fun. Play can be dangerous, addictive, and destructive. Along the way, Sicart considers playfulness, the capacity to use play outside the context of play; toys, the materialization of play--instruments but also play pals; playgrounds, play spaces that enable all kinds of play; beauty...
The study of systems with sustained energy uptake and dissipation at the scale of the constituent particles is an area of central interest in nonequilibrium statistical physics. Identifying such systems as a distinct category—Active matter—unifies our understanding of autonomous collective movement in the living world and in some surprising inanimate imitations. In this article I present the active matter framework, briefly recall some early work, review our recent results on single-particle and collective behaviour, including experiments on active granular monolayers, and discuss new directions for the future.
Patricia M Herrera Santí
Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio con los 23 casos de pacientes que realizaron intento suicida en los años 1995 y 1996, en el área de salud del policlínico docente "E.B. Neninger" de Alamar. A estos pacientes se les realizó una entrevista dirigida a identificar la presencia de factores de riesgo propios del medio familiar como el funcionamiento familiar, la presencia de eventos vitales, y las crisis paranormativas que más se presentaban en sus núcleos familiares de convivencia. Dentro de los resultados alcanzados se observó que en la mayoría de los núcleos familiares el funcionamiento familiar era de regular a malo, se constató la presencia de crisis familiares en la totalidad de las familias estudiadas, con un predominio de las crisis por eventos de desorganización, desmoralización y desmembramiento.A study was undertook on the 23 cases of patients attempting to commit suicide during the years 1995 and 1996, in the health area of teaching policlinics "E. B. Neninger" in Alamar. The patients underwent an interview addressed to identify the presence of risk factors related to the family environment such as: family functioning, the presence of life events, the parastandard crisis more frequently presented in their family households. Within the obtained results it was observed that in most of the households family functioning was not good, it was corroborated the presence of family crisis in all of the studied families, with predominance of crisis caused by disorganization, demoralization and dismemberment events.
Ernani Cesar de Freitas
Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar ao leitor um estudo acerca da gestão e sucessão na empresa familiar. Esta abordagem é fruto da reflexão inicial que ocorre em um pré-projeto de pesquisa, o qual visa estudar e analisar a gestão e o processo de sucessão nas empresas familiares. Na história brasileira, as empresas familiares muito contribuíram e contribuem para o desenvolvimento regional e das comunidades, ocupando uma posição de destaque no âmbito dos negócios. A combinação de talento, conhecimentos, atitudes, persistência para não apenas sobreviver, mas também para crescer, desenvolver-se e conquistar o mercado, são características que conduzem ao sucesso e estão relacionadas a atributos e comportamentos dos empreendedores. Uma série de problemas que abatem as famílias tem levado grande parte das empresas ao fracasso. A gestão e a sucessão consistem nos maiores desafios a serem superados. No entanto, constata-se que as organizações familiares estão tentando driblar estes obstáculos buscando profissionalizar-se. As principais dificuldades na gestão empresarial, desse tipo de organização, referem-se à realização da transferência de poder de uma geração para outra, aos obstáculos para o processo de profissionalização e aos conflitos entre os familiares. Palavras-chave: empresa familiar; planejamento; profissionalização, empreendedorismo.
Rômulo Araújo Fernandes; Juliano Casonatto; Diego Giuliano Destro Christofaro; Gabriel Grizzo Cucato; Arli Ramos de Oliveira; Ismael Forte Freitas Júnior
OBJETIVOS: analisar a associação entre fatores de risco familiares e a presença de obesidade abdominal entre adolescentes. MÉTODOS: a amostra foi composta por 691 jovens de ambos os gêneros (11 a 17 anos), residentes em Presidente Prudente-SP no ano de 2007. A identificação da obesidade abdominal foi baseada no valor da circunferência de cintura, e os fatores de risco familiares (escolaridade e excesso de peso dos pais, condição socioeconômica, número de irmãos e quantidade de televisores na ...
Marques,Maria de Fátima; Lopes,Manuel José
Objetivos - Caracterizar la depresión en la perspectiva de quien la vive; - Caracterizar el papel del cuidador familiar en la perspectiva del paciente; - Describir las reacciones del paciente en la relación con los cuidadores familiares. Método: diseño de la investigación es de naturaleza cualitativa y inductiva, usando la Teoría Fundamentada. La investigación tuvo lugar en 2 polos de las consultas externas del Departamento de Psiquiatría y Salud Mental, Hospital de Évora, Portu...
Martínez Jiménez, Rocío
Las mujeres en la empresa familiar se han enfrentado tradicionalmente a un conjunto de obstáculos y trabas que han frenado su participación y promoción profesional, manteniéndolas en un segundo plano o en la sombra. Sin embargo, en los últimos años esta tendencia parece estar cambiando y cada vez son más las mujeres que deciden incorporarse al negocio familiar para desarrollar una carrera profesional en él y para alcanzar puestos de dirección y liderazgo, siendo elegidas inclus...
Marcos R. G. de Freitas
Full Text Available A forma familiar da miastenia gravis é condição relativamente rara, ocorrendo em cerca de 3,4% dos pacientes miastênicos. Os autores registram os casos de dois irmãos não-gêmeos, apresentando miastenia gravis com acometimento predominantemente ocular desde o nascimento. Um terceiro irmão faleceu na infância, provavelmente com a mesma afecção. Os pais eram consanguíneos. Estudo da incidência da forma familiar da miastenia e de seus aspectos clínicos, genéticos e terapêuticos complementa os registros.
Full Text Available Giving route in a familiar environment is an essential component in geographic and spatial cognition. In normally conditions, a person who recognized own neighborhood easily give a route and represent it. In this study it was investigated “how children represent their environment for a route task”. In order to provide empirical evidence was conducted drawing activity. Participants are 71 6th grades students in elementary school (34 girls and 37 boys. They were familiar with the route. During the study, children are observed and sometimes ask some questions about the route.
Rosas Défaz, Nancy Gabriela
El maltrato infantil hace referencia a los actos u omisiones que ocasionan consecuencias negativas en los niños y atentan contra su integridad física, psicológica o sexual; generalmente las manifestaciones se evidencian con el descuido, lesiones físicas o psicológicas causadas por un familiar o un cuidador del menor. La presente investigación es cuantitativa, descriptiva y transversal; el objetivo general fue identificar la estructura familiar de los niños maltratados de los casos que fueron ...
Neuhoff, John G; Schott, Steven A; Kropf, Adam J; Neuhoff, Emily M
We first replicated the language-familiarity effect for voice discrimination and found better voice discrimination in familiar languages. However, when listeners were not cued to listen for changes, both English and Spanish speakers exhibited greater change deafness in their familiar language. Results suggest that lexical/semantic attention in a familiar language and increased indexical processing in an unfamiliar language can produce greater change deafness in familiar languages.
Explores the relationship of state standards for the teaching of evolution to the actual teaching of that subject. Compares a grading of states for their performance and discusses the question of whether state standards matter. (MM)
Tompkins, C A; Boada, R; McGarry, K
Idiom interpretation tasks are routinely used in the clinical evaluation of adults with brain damage, and idiom processing has received increasing attention in the psycholinguistic literature. Clinical evidence suggests that adults with unilateral right-hemisphere damage (RHD) are insensitive to nonliteral meanings conveyed by idiomatic expressions and other figurative forms. However, this portrayal is derived from their terminal responses to tasks that reflect multiple aspects of mental operations (off-line measures), obscuring the source of poor performance. This study used an on-line word-monitoring task to assess RHD, left-hemisphere-damaged, and normally aging adults' implicit knowledge of familiar idiomatic expressions. Brain-damaged subjects performed similarly to normal controls on this task, even though the clinical subjects fared poorly by comparison on an off-line idiom definition measure. These results suggest that adults with unilateral brain damage can activate and retrieve familiar idiomatic forms, and that their idiom-interpretation deficits most likely reflect impairment at some later stage of information processing. Further, error analysis of idiom-definition performance did not support the customary characterization of RHD adults as excessively literal responders. The paper discusses clinical implications of the nature and use of idiom interpretation tasks.
Cole, Kelly J
The brain can accurately predict the forces needed to efficiently manipulate familiar objects in relation to mechanical properties such as weight. These predictions involve memory or some type of central representation, but visual analysis of size also yields accurate predictions of the needed fingertip forces. This raises the issue of which process (weight memory or visual size analysis) is used during everyday life when handling familiar objects. Our aim was to determine if subjects use a sensorimotor memory of weight, or a visual size analysis, to predictively set their vertical lift force when lifting a recently handled object. Two groups of subjects lifted an opaque brown bottle filled with water (470 g) during the first experimental session, and then rested for 15 min in a different room. Both groups were told that they would lift the same bottle in their next session. However, the experimental group returned to lift a slightly smaller bottle filled with water (360 g) that otherwise was identical in appearance to the first bottle. The control group returned to lift the same bottle from the first session, which was only partially filled with water so that it also weighed 360 g. At the end of the second session subjects were asked if they observed any changes between sessions, but no subject indicated awareness of a specific change. An acceleration ratio was computed by dividing the peak vertical acceleration during the first lift of the second session by the average peak acceleration of the last five lifts during the first session. This ratio was >1 for the control subjects 1.30 (SEM 0.08), indicating that they scaled their lift force for the first lift of the second session based on a memory of the (heavier) bottle from the first session. In contrast, the acceleration ratio was 0.94 (0.10) for the experimental group (P < 0.011). We conclude that the experimental group processed visual cues concerning the size of the bottle. These findings raise the
Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of content familiarity and test format on Iranian English learners. The participants of this were advanced students studying at different language institutes in Isfahan, Iran. To sample the subjects of this study, the latest version of Oxford Placement Test was administered to 428 students studying at advanced level in 6 different language institutes. Based on the results of the OPT test and for the sake of homogeneity 70 students were considered as the target participants of the study. Each participant was given a test of reading comprehension with familiar content and unfamiliar content. Each test contained multiple choice, true/false, and fill in the blanks test items. Factorial design results indicated that test takers had a significantly better performance on content familiar tests and sub tests. It also became clear that their performance on multiple choice section either in content familiar and content unfamiliar test was superior to that of true/false and fill in the blanks. It will be of endless help to test makers and language teachers to be aware of the role test format and content of the test can play on test takers’ performance.
Marra, Camillo; Ferraccioli, Monica; Gainotti, Guido
Semantic fluency tasks, with the categories of birds and furniture as stimuli, were administered to normal subjects and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Normal subjects showed a gender-related double dissociation consistent with the literature data because men were more fluent with the birds category and women with the furniture category. Also, patients with AD showed a Gender x Category interaction, but the double dissociation between birds and furniture was not present because of a prevalent impairment of the living category birds that was irrespective of gender. This pattern of impairment in patients with AD was independent from the disease stage. The authors conclude that (a) gender-related categorical effects cannot be considered as inborn, sex-related cognitive differences but as familiarity effects and (b) both lesion-related and familiarity-related factors must be taken into account to explain category-specific effects of patients with brain damage and patients with AD.
Merola, I; Prato-Previde, E; Lazzaroni, M; Marshall-Pescini, S
Dogs have been shown to discriminate between human facial expressions, and they seem to use human emotional communication to regulate their behaviour towards an external object/situation. However, it is still not clear (1) whether they just respond to the emotional message received with a corresponding increase/decrease in their level of activation or whether they perceive that the emotional message refers to a specific object, (2) which emotional message they use to modify their behaviour (i.e. whether they are following the positive message or avoiding the negative one) and (3) whether their familiarity with the informant has an effect on the dogs' behaviour. To address these issues, five groups of dogs were tested in two experiments. The first group observed the owner delivering two different emotional messages (happiness and fear) towards two identical objects hidden behind barriers, and the second group observed the owner delivering the same emotional messages but with no-objects present in the room. The third and the fourth groups observed the owner delivering a happy versus a neutral, and a negative versus a neutral emotional message towards the hidden objects. Finally, the fifth group observed a stranger acting like the owner of the first group. When the owner was acting as the informant, dogs seemed to be capable of distinguishing between a fearful and happy emotional expression and preferentially chose to investigate a box eliciting an expression of happiness rather than of fear or neutrality. Dogs, however, seemed to have greater difficulty in distinguishing between the fearful and neutral emotional messages delivered by the owner and between the happy and fearful expressions delivered by the stranger. Results suggest that dogs have learned to associate their owners' positive emotional messages to positive outcomes, and hence use their communicative messages to guide their actions. However, negative emotional messages and those delivered by strangers are
I show that a very simple model in the context of Newtonian physics promoted to a first approximation of general relativity can mimic Dark matter and explain most of its intriguing properties. Namely: i) Dark matter is a halo associated to ordinary matter; ii) Dark matter does not interact with ordinary matter nor with itself; iii) Its influence grows with the size of the aggregate of ordinary matter that is considered, and iv) Dark matter influences the propagation of light.
García de la Borbolla Fernández, A.; Herrera Madueño, J.; Larrán Jorge, M.; Sánchez Gardey, G.; Suárez Lloréns, A.
Este trabajo plantea un análisis empírico de las diferencias de eficiencia entre las empresas familiares y no familiares, medida a través de tres indicadores subrogados (rentabilidad financiera, rentabilidad económica y margen de explotación). El estudio empírico, desarrollado sobre una muestra de 765 empresas andaluzas, no permite contrastar ninguna de las hipótesis alternativas planteadas desde las teorías de la Agencia y de los Costes de Transacción sobre la superior o inferior eficiencia ...
José Bernardo Betancourt-Ramírez; Luzangela Aldana-de-Vega; Gonzalo Gómez-Betancourt
La industria gastronómica toma importancia en el país debido a que es una de las principales alternativas de emprendimiento para muchas familias. Por esta razón se decidió investigar si el desempeño de los restaurantes de propiedad familiar de la ciudad de Bogotá y los municipios al norte de la capital, son mejores en términos de servicio, ambiente y calidad que los restaurantes no familiares. Para ello, se diseñó un instrumento de medición de servicio, el cual contiene un protocolo de evalua...
Gardner, T.; Goulden, N.; Cross, E.S.
When watching another person's actions, a network of sensorimotor brain regions, collectively termed the action observation network (AON), is engaged. Previous research suggests that the AON is more responsive when watching familiar compared with unfamiliar actions. However, most research into AON
brands to enhance their image in a social context, regardless of the price of the merchandise (O' Cass & Choy, 2008). In addition, a clothing brand can be used as a way in which to heuristically deduce certain characteristics about a garment without. 72. Female consumers' familiarity with clothing brands and their trust in ...
Stark-Wroblewski, Kimberly; Wiggins, Tina L.; Ryan, Joseph J.
The present study examined undergraduate psychology students' (N = 83) self-reported interest in and familiarity with five specialty areas in professional psychology: counseling psychology, clinical psychology, school psychology, forensic psychology, and criminal profiling. Results suggest that although students are quite interested in careers…
O'Malley, Andrew; Naghibi, Nima
... GMT Estranging the Familiar: “East” and “West” in Satrapi’ s Persepolis 1 Nima Naghibi Andrew O’Malley Ryerson University P : T S A...
Schilling, Mary Lou, Ed.
Means of adapting some familiar and popular physical activities for multiply impaired persons are described. Games reviewed are dice baseball, one base baseball, in-house bowling, wheelchair bowling, ramp bowling, swing-ball bowling, table tennis, shuffleboard, beanbag bingo and tic-tac-toe, balloon basketball, circle football, and wheelchair…
Mickes, Laura; Seale-Carlisle, Travis M.; Wixted, John T.
Although frequently used with recognition, a few studies have used the Remember/Know procedure with free recall. In each case, participants gave Know judgments to a significant number of recalled items (items that were presumably not remembered on the basis of familiarity). What do these Know judgments mean? We investigated this issue using a…
Rutherford, Victor Stephen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) will conduct familiarization tours for personnel of the Los Alamos County Fire Department (LAFD) at TA-16 high explosives (HE) facilities. These familiarization tours are official LANL business; the purpose of these tours is to orient LAFD firefighters to the facility so that they can respond efficiently and quickly to a variety of emergency situations. This orientation includes, among other topics, ingress and egress of the area and buildings, layout and organization of the facility, evacuation procedures and assembly points, and areas of concern within the various buildings at the facility. LAFD firefighters have the skills and abilities to perform firefighting operations and other emergency response tasks that cannot be provided by LANL personnel who have the required clearance. This handout provides details of the information, along with maps and diagrams, to be presented during the familiarization tours. The handout will be distributed to the trainees at the time of the tour. A corresponding checklist will also be used as guidance during the familiarization tours to ensure that all required information is presented to LAFD personnel.
This study compared the frequency, structure, and purposes of laughter in writing tutorials between 46 acquainted and unacquainted tutor-student pairs. Of particular interest were instances of shared, or coordinated laughter, which took the form of sequenced, simultaneous, and extended laughter. Familiarity, viewed as a continuum, was also…
Royal, K D; Hedgpeth, M W; Smith, K W; Kirk, D
Presently, most medical educators rely exclusively on item difficulty and discrimination indices to investigate an item's psychometric quality and functioning. We argue "instructional familiarity" effects should also be of primary concern for persons attempting to discern the quality and meaning of a set of test scores. There were four primary objectives of this study: (1) Revisit Haladyna and Roid's conceptualization of "instructional sensitivity" within the context of criterion-referenced assessments, (2) provide an overview of "instructional familiarity" and its importance, (3) reframe the concept for a modern audience concerned with medical school assessments, and (4) conduct an empirical evaluation of a medical school examination in which we attempt to investigate the instructional effects on person and item measures. This study involved a medical school course instructor providing ratings of instructional familiarity (IF) for each mid-term examination item, and a series of psychometric analyses to investigate the effects of IF on students' scores and item statistics. The methodology used in this study is based primarily on a mixed-method, "action research" design for a medical school course focusing on endocrinology. Rasch measurement model; correlation analysis. The methodology presented in this article was evidenced to better discern authentic learning than traditional approaches that ignore valuable contextual information about students' familiarity with exam items. The authors encourage other medical educators to adopt this straightforward methodology so as to increase the likelihood of making valid inferences about learning.
Lee, G.; Tussyadiah, Iis
familiarity) influence sub-destination choice in terms of its scale and popularity. A survey was conducted with Korean nationals as potential visitors to tourism destinations in Japan. Six one-way ANOVA tests and six chi-square tests were performed to identify the relationships and differences between...
Kervin, Lisa; Mantei, Jessica
Storytelling is a practice that enables children to apply their literacy skills. This article shares a collaborative literacy strategy devised to enable children to create multimodal stories about their familiar school environment. The strategy uses resources, including the children's own drawings, images from Google Maps, and the Puppet Pals…
Rutherford, Victor Stephen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Miller, Joshua [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mason, Robert Clifford [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) will conduct familiarization tours for personnel of the Los Alamos County Fire Department (LAFD) at the TA-55 General Facility. These familiarization tours are official LANL business; the purpose of these tours is to orient LAFD firefighters to the facility so that they can respond efficiently and quickly to a variety of emergency situations. This orientation includes, among other topics, ingress and egress of the area and buildings, layout and organization of the facility, evacuation procedures and assembly points, and areas of concern within the various buildings at the facility. LAFD firefighters have the skills and abilities to perform firefighting operations and other emergency response tasks that cannot be provided by LANL personnel who have the required clearance level. This handout provides details of the information, along with maps and diagrams, to be presented during the familiarization tours. The handout will be distributed to the trainees at the time of the tour. A corresponding checklist will also be used as guidance during the familiarization tours to ensure that all required information is presented to LAFD personnel.
This article reports on a study of the spatial mapping skills of two totally blind, two visually impaired, and eight normally sighted children. Children were asked to point to familiar locations in and around their homes. Results suggest that blindness interferes with the development of spatial knowledge in which Euclidean directions between…
Mount, R.; Oliver, C.; Berg, K.; Horsler, K.
Background: Individuals with Angelman syndrome appear strongly motivated by social contact, but there have been few studies that have examined the relationship between sociability and familiarity. In this study we compared social behaviour in Angelman syndrome when in contact with mothers and strangers. Methods: We systematically manipulated adult…
Yoshioka, T; Yano, S
The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, usually lives in kin groups under common webs. Because only the first mating results in fertilisation in female T. urticae, adult males guard quiescent deutonymph females, those at the stage immediately before maturation, to ensure paternity. Therefore, the cost of precopulatory guarding time seems considerable for males. Moreover, the fitness indices of daughters from intra-population crosses were significantly lower than those of daughters from inter-population crosses, indicating that inbreeding depression exists in T. urticae. Therefore, we hypothesised that T. urticae males should be choosy in guarding familiar females to avoid inbreeding depression. Furthermore, webs should be a key element of the environment shared by familiar individuals. In this study, we demonstrated the inbreeding avoidance mechanism of T. urticae males in relation to webs produced by familiar females (known webs) or unfamiliar females (unknown webs). Regardless of surrounding webs (known or unknown), males preferred unfamiliar to familiar females. We further examined whether males detect unfamiliar females by their webs. When males had experienced a female's web without encountering that female, they subsequently preferred females that did not produce the surrounding webs in which the choice experiment was conducted. Results suggest that putative kin recognition for inbreeding avoidance in T. urticae males is based on the relationship between webs and females, and not on the discrimination of webs in shared environments. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Snyder, Kelly A.; Garza, John; Zolot, Liza; Kresse, Anna
Electrophysiological work in nonhuman primates has established the existence of multiple types of signals in the temporal lobe that contribute to recognition memory, including information regarding a stimulus's relative novelty, familiarity, and recency of occurrence. We used high-density event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine whether young…
The results further showed that content familiarity (β =.18, t= 2.35, P<.05) could predict students' achievement in dramatic Literature in English. Based on the findings of the research, it is recommended that school authorities and the government should make available, in school libraries, literature texts that are relevant to the ...
The sensorimotor contributions to memory for prior occurrence were investigated. Previous research has shown that both implicit memory and familiarity draw on gains in stimulus-related processing fluency for old, compared with novel, stimuli, but recollection does not. Recently, it has been demonstrated that processing fluency itself resides in…
Mercedes Gonzales de la Rocha
Full Text Available El artículo aborda algunos de los más relevantes cambios en la organización social de las familias urbanas en México y plantea la importancia de analizar los grupos familiares que difieren el modelo tradicional (nuclear, basado en la figura del hombre adulto proveedor.
Talavera Martínez, Estefanía
Nowadays, there is an upsurge of interest in using lifelogging devices. Such devices generate huge amounts of image data; consequently, the need for automatic methods for analyzing and summarizing these data is drastically increasing. We present a new method for familiar scene recognition in
In recent years many established, reputable brand names have moved their production sites to Eastern countries to reduce labour costs. The country of brand origin (CBO) and the country of manufacture (COM) of popular, sought-after clothing brands may therefore differ. It is not clear whether consumers are familiar with the ...
Serra, Laura; Bozzali, Marco; Cercignani, Mara; Perri, Roberta; Fadda, Lucia; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni A
To investigate whether, in patients with amnesic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI), recognition deficits are mainly due to a selective impairment of recollection rather than familiarity. Nineteen patients with a-MCI and 23 sex-, age-, and education-matched healthy controls underwent two experimental investigations, using the Process Dissociation Procedure (PDP) and the Remember/Know (R/K) procedure, to assess the differential contribution of recollection and familiarity to their recognition performance. Both experimental procedures revealed a selective preservation of familiarity in a-MCI patients. Moreover, the R/K procedure showed a statistically significant impairment of recollection in a-MCI patients for words that were either read or anagrammed during the study phase. A-MCI is known to be commonly associated with a high risk of conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several previous studies have demonstrated a characteristic impairment of episodic memory in a-MCI, with an early dysfunction of recognition. Our findings are consistent with the knowledge of neurodegeneration occurring in AD, which is characterized, at the earliest disease stages, by a selective involvement of the entorhinal cortex. Moreover, the current study supports the dual process model of recognition, which hypothesizes recollection and familiarity to be independent processes associated with distinct anatomical substrates.
Sanders, Ross; Li, Shuping; Hamill, Joseph
The aim of this study was to assess the rate of adjustment to changes in task constraints that are familiar and unfamiliar when a change in the pattern of sequencing of segmental movements is not required. The selected task was underwater flutter kicking with flippers (familiar) and without flippers (unfamiliar). Nine male competitive age-group swimmers were assigned either to an unfamiliar "leg flipper" task, a familiar "foot flipper" task or a "control" group to perform five trials without flippers (all groups), 60 trials with flippers, and a post-test comprising 10 trials without flippers (all groups). Kinematic variables were calculated from digitized video data. Whether the movement pattern was appropriate for the task was indicated by the percent power in the fundamental Fourier frequency harmonic of the vertical oscillations of the hip, knee, and ankle, and by a "velocity index" that was defined as the ratio of the hip-to-knee and knee-to-ankle velocities of the fundamental Fourier waveform. Adjustment to reproduce the appropriate movement pattern occurred within the first block of 10 trials regardless of whether the constraints were familiar or unfamiliar. However, optimal performance in terms of swimming speed was not obtained following change to the unfamiliar constraint until after 10 trials.
Feredoes, Eva; Postle, Bradley R.
Left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) is a critical neural substrate for the resolution of proactive interference (PI) in working memory. We hypothesized that left IFG achieves this by controlling the influence of familiarity- versus recollection-based information about memory probes. Consistent with this idea, we observed evidence for an "early" (200…
Morrison, Richard; White, Mathew
The acknowledgment of world Englishes highlights the need for engendering greater linguistic flexibility among students and educators. Pertaining to listening, such flexibility can be addressed partially through materials and experiences providing increased familiarity with varieties of world Englishes. Examples of world Englishes should be…
Fátima Raquel Rosado Morais
Full Text Available Estudo descritivo, em que se objetivou conhecer a ótica de familiares acerca da situação da gravidez de uma adolescente do grupo. O estudo foi desenvolvido no município de Mossoró-RN, no Conjunto Liberdade II. Quatorze famílias participaram do estudo e a amostra de familiares de adolescentes grávidas ficou constituida por dezenove pessoas: treze mães, uma avó, duas sogras, um pai. um padrasto e um sogro. Entre os resultados do estudo, verificou-se que a preocupação com a imaturidade física e emocional das adolescentes grávidas e as questões de ordem econômica predominaram nos discursos de grande parte dos familiares; que a crise situacional intrafamiliar parecia resolver-se com o evolver da gestação e ter solução mais rápida quando a adolescente estabelecia uma união consensual com o parceiro afetivo-sexual; e que, mesmo vivendo uma crise, o comportamento de solidariedade dos familiares superou as reações emocionais negativas e os conflitos interpessoais iniciais.
Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel
What do we think about when we think about play? A pastime? Games? Childish activities? The opposite of work? Think again: If we are happy and well rested, we may approach even our daily tasks in a playful way, taking the attitude of play without the activity of play. So what, then, is play......, but not necessarily fun. Play can be dangerous, addictive, and destructive. Along the way, Sicart considers playfulness, the capacity to use play outside the context of play; toys, the materialization of play--instruments but also play pals; playgrounds, play spaces that enable all kinds of play; beauty......? In Play Matters, Miguel Sicart argues that to play is to be in the world; playing is a form of understanding what surrounds us and a way of engaging with others. Play goes beyond games; it is a mode of being human. We play games, but we also play with toys, on playgrounds, with technologies and design...
Charges are everywhere because most atoms are charged. Chemical bonds are formed by electrons with their charge. Charges move and interact according to Maxwell's equations in space and in atoms where the equations of electrodynamics are embedded in Schroedinger's equation as the potential. Maxwell's equations are universal, valid inside atoms and between stars from times much shorter than those of atomic motion (0.1 femtoseconds) to years (32 mega-seconds). Maxwell's equations enforce the conservation of current. Analysis shows that the electric field can take on whatever value is needed to ensure conservation of current. The properties of matter rearrange themselves to satisfy Maxwell's equations and conservation of current. Conservation of current is as universal as Maxwell's equations themselves. Yet equations of electrodynamics find little place in the literature of material physics, chemistry, or biochemistry. Kinetic models of chemistry and Markov treatments of atomic motion are ordinary differential eq...
Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel
What do we think about when we think about play? A pastime? Games? Childish activities? The opposite of work? Think again: If we are happy and well rested, we may approach even our daily tasks in a playful way, taking the attitude of play without the activity of play. So what, then, is play......? In Play Matters, Miguel Sicart argues that to play is to be in the world; playing is a form of understanding what surrounds us and a way of engaging with others. Play goes beyond games; it is a mode of being human. We play games, but we also play with toys, on playgrounds, with technologies and design......, but not necessarily fun. Play can be dangerous, addictive, and destructive. Along the way, Sicart considers playfulness, the capacity to use play outside the context of play; toys, the materialization of play--instruments but also play pals; playgrounds, play spaces that enable all kinds of play; beauty...
Background Many studies of cerebral asymmetries in different species lead, on the one hand, to a better understanding of the functions of each cerebral hemisphere and, on the other hand, to develop an evolutionary history of hemispheric laterality. Our animal model is particularly interesting because of its original evolutionary path, i.e. return to aquatic life after a terrestrial phase. The rare reports concerning visual laterality of marine mammals investigated mainly discrimination processes. As dolphins are migrant species they are confronted to a changing environment. Being able to categorize new versus familiar objects would allow dolphins a rapid adaptation to novel environments. Visual laterality could be a prerequisite to this adaptability. To date, no study, to our knowledge, has analyzed the environmental factors that could influence their visual laterality. Results We investigated visual laterality expressed spontaneously at the water surface by a group of five common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in response to various stimuli. The stimuli presented ranged from very familiar objects (known and manipulated previously) to familiar objects (known but never manipulated) to unfamiliar objects (unknown, never seen previously). At the group level, dolphins used their left eye to observe very familiar objects and their right eye to observe unfamiliar objects. However, eyes are used indifferently to observe familiar objects with intermediate valence. Conclusion Our results suggest different visual cerebral processes based either on the global shape of well-known objects or on local details of unknown objects. Moreover, the manipulation of an object appears necessary for these dolphins to construct a global representation of an object enabling its immediate categorization for subsequent use. Our experimental results pointed out some cognitive capacities of dolphins which might be crucial for their wild life given their fission-fusion social system
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies of cerebral asymmetries in different species lead, on the one hand, to a better understanding of the functions of each cerebral hemisphere and, on the other hand, to develop an evolutionary history of hemispheric laterality. Our animal model is particularly interesting because of its original evolutionary path, i.e. return to aquatic life after a terrestrial phase. The rare reports concerning visual laterality of marine mammals investigated mainly discrimination processes. As dolphins are migrant species they are confronted to a changing environment. Being able to categorize new versus familiar objects would allow dolphins a rapid adaptation to novel environments. Visual laterality could be a prerequisite to this adaptability. To date, no study, to our knowledge, has analyzed the environmental factors that could influence their visual laterality. Results We investigated visual laterality expressed spontaneously at the water surface by a group of five common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus in response to various stimuli. The stimuli presented ranged from very familiar objects (known and manipulated previously to familiar objects (known but never manipulated to unfamiliar objects (unknown, never seen previously. At the group level, dolphins used their left eye to observe very familiar objects and their right eye to observe unfamiliar objects. However, eyes are used indifferently to observe familiar objects with intermediate valence. Conclusion Our results suggest different visual cerebral processes based either on the global shape of well-known objects or on local details of unknown objects. Moreover, the manipulation of an object appears necessary for these dolphins to construct a global representation of an object enabling its immediate categorization for subsequent use. Our experimental results pointed out some cognitive capacities of dolphins which might be crucial for their wild life given their
Blois-Heulin, Catherine; Crével, Mélodie; Böye, Martin; Lemasson, Alban
Many studies of cerebral asymmetries in different species lead, on the one hand, to a better understanding of the functions of each cerebral hemisphere and, on the other hand, to develop an evolutionary history of hemispheric laterality. Our animal model is particularly interesting because of its original evolutionary path, i.e. return to aquatic life after a terrestrial phase. The rare reports concerning visual laterality of marine mammals investigated mainly discrimination processes. As dolphins are migrant species they are confronted to a changing environment. Being able to categorize new versus familiar objects would allow dolphins a rapid adaptation to novel environments. Visual laterality could be a prerequisite to this adaptability. To date, no study, to our knowledge, has analyzed the environmental factors that could influence their visual laterality. We investigated visual laterality expressed spontaneously at the water surface by a group of five common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in response to various stimuli. The stimuli presented ranged from very familiar objects (known and manipulated previously) to familiar objects (known but never manipulated) to unfamiliar objects (unknown, never seen previously). At the group level, dolphins used their left eye to observe very familiar objects and their right eye to observe unfamiliar objects. However, eyes are used indifferently to observe familiar objects with intermediate valence. Our results suggest different visual cerebral processes based either on the global shape of well-known objects or on local details of unknown objects. Moreover, the manipulation of an object appears necessary for these dolphins to construct a global representation of an object enabling its immediate categorization for subsequent use. Our experimental results pointed out some cognitive capacities of dolphins which might be crucial for their wild life given their fission-fusion social system and migratory behaviour.
Dasgupta, Aritra; Burrows, Susannah M.; Han, Kyungsik; Rasch, Philip J.
Scientists working in a particular domain often adhere to conventional data analysis and presentation methods and this leads to familiarity with these methods over time. But does high familiarity always lead to better analytical judgment? This question is especially relevant when visualizations are used in scientific tasks, as there can be discrepancies between visualization best practices and domain conventions. However, there is little empirical evidence of the relationships between scientists’ subjective impressions about familiar and unfamiliar visualizations and objective measures of their effect on scientific judgment. To address this gap and to study these factors, we focus on the climate science domain, specifically on visualizations used for comparison of model performance. We present a comprehensive user study with 47 climate scientists where we explored the following factors: i) relationships between scientists’ familiarity, their perceived levels of com- fort, confidence, accuracy, and objective measures of accuracy, and ii) relationships among domain experience, visualization familiarity, and post-study preference.
Full Text Available English Language Teaching (ELT in the Indonesian education curriculum falls in two subject areas, compulsory subject and supplementary subject. Significantly, the developing programs are highly prioritized in terms of familiarizing teachers with new teaching documents in English as a compulsory subject. Despite its success, there are still teachers who have a number of problems in delivering it as one of the supplementary subjects at various disciplines. This paper reviews the data gained from a group of students at one university in Indonesia, whose observational reports showed that teachers have very little opportunity to project their academic competencies in developing a comprehensive teaching document. This leads into question on how to derive the essence of teaching English at the center of teaching and learning practices. One of the most significant current discussions reveals that teaching practices is simply a matter of figuring the necessary conditions to achieve the goal formally. Taken together, the result of the study is expected to bring about influential implication for education practitioners to provide compatible answers to the controversies among teachers before implementing English as one of the supplementary subjects for various disciplines.
José Bernardo Betancourt-Ramírez
Full Text Available La industria gastronómica toma importancia en el país debido a que es una de las principales alternativas de emprendimiento para muchas familias. Por esta razón se decidió investigar si el desempeño de los restaurantes de propiedad familiar de la ciudad de Bogotá y los municipios al norte de la capital, son mejores en términos de servicio, ambiente y calidad que los restaurantes no familiares. Para ello, se diseñó un instrumento de medición de servicio, el cual contiene un protocolo de evaluación, que se explicó a los participantes, con anterioridad a la visita al establecimiento. Este último sirvió de referente para obtener las calificaciones de los clientes incógnitos. Con las calificaciones se realizó un análisis descriptivo, encontrando que en Bogotá y sus alrededores no existen diferencias significativas en las variables observadas entre restaurantes (tradicionales y gourmet de propiedad familiar y no familiar. En los hallazgos del análisis se identificaron diferencias en el desempeño de acuerdo a la ubicación geográfica.
Nikjoo, Hooshang; Emfietzoglou, Dimitris
Written for students approaching the subject for the first time, this text provides a solid grounding in the physics of the interactions of photons and particles with matter, which is the basis of radiological physics and radiation dosimetry. The authors first present the relevant atomic physics and then describe the interactions, emphasizing practical applications in health/medical physics and radiation biology. They cover such important topics as microdosimetry, interaction of photons with matter, electron energy loss, and dielectric response. Each chapter includes exercises and a summary.
Wang, Wei; Li, Bingbing; Gao, Chuanji; Xiao, Xin; Guo, Chunyan
The present research manipulated the fluency of unstudied items using masked repetition priming procedures during an explicit recognition test. Based on fluency-attribution accounts, which posit that familiarity can be driven by multiple forms of fluency, the relationship between masked priming-induced fluency and familiarity was investigated. We classified pictographic characters into High-Meaningfulness (High-M) and Low-Meaningfulness (Low-M) categories on the basis of subjective meaningfulness ratings and identified the distinct electrophysiological correlates of perceptual and conceptual fluency. The two types of fluency differed in associated ERP effects: 150-250 ms effects for perceptual fluency and FN400 effects for conceptual fluency. The ERPs of Low-M MP-same (items that were preceded by matching masked items) false alarms were more positive than correct rejections during 150-250 ms, whereas the ERPs of High-M MP-same false alarms were more positive than correct rejections during 300-500 ms. The topographic patterns of FN400 effects between High-M MP-same false alarms and Low-M MP-same false alarms were not different from those of High-M hits and Low-M hits. These results indicate that both forms of fluency can contribute to familiarity, and the neural correlates of conceptual fluency are not different from those of conceptual priming induced by prior study-phase exposure. We conclude that multiple neural signals potentially contribute to recognition memory, such as numerous forms of fluency differing in terms of their time courses.
Full Text Available The present research manipulated the fluency of unstudied items using masked repetition priming procedures during an explicit recognition test. Based on fluency-attribution accounts, which posit that familiarity can be driven by multiple forms of fluency, the relationship between masked priming-induced fluency and familiarity was investigated. We classified pictographic characters into High-Meaningfulness (High-M and Low-Meaningfulness (Low-M categories on the basis of subjective meaningfulness ratings and identified the distinct electrophysiological correlates of perceptual and conceptual fluency. The two types of fluency differed in associated ERP effects: 150-250 ms effects for perceptual fluency and FN400 effects for conceptual fluency. The ERPs of Low-M MP-same (items that were preceded by matching masked items false alarms were more positive than correct rejections during 150-250 ms, whereas the ERPs of High-M MP-same false alarms were more positive than correct rejections during 300-500 ms. The topographic patterns of FN400 effects between High-M MP-same false alarms and Low-M MP-same false alarms were not different from those of High-M hits and Low-M hits. These results indicate that both forms of fluency can contribute to familiarity, and the neural correlates of conceptual fluency are not different from those of conceptual priming induced by prior study-phase exposure. We conclude that multiple neural signals potentially contribute to recognition memory, such as numerous forms of fluency differing in terms of their time courses.
Chant, Sylvia; Moreno, Wagner
Como en otros países de América Latina y del Caribe, sin mencionar el resto del mundo, la estructura de vida familiar en Costa Rica ha cambiado en décadas recientes. El matrimonio ha decaído, el divorcio y la separación aumentan, se incrementan los nacimientos fuera del matrimonio y en un número creciente de hogares las mujeres son jefas de hogar. Tanto a nivel nacional como internacional estas tendencias han sido consideradas como indicadores de una “desintegración familiar”. Esto a su vez c...
Full Text Available Whether managers are concerned with financial issues, marketing, or human resource management (HRM, cultural values and practices do matter. The purpose of this article is to understand Norwegian managers’ cultural values within the cross-cultural landscape of her neighbors in the “Scandinavian cluster.” Clearly, subtle but disturbing differences may surface even when representatives from similar cultures work together. As a follow on from the GLOBE project, data based on the GLOBE instrument were collected on culture and communication values in Norway from 710 Norwegian middle managers for this present study. Although the Scandinavian cultures appear ostensibly similar, the results illustrate that research can reveal subtle but important cultural differences in nations that are similar yet dissimilar. All three Scandinavian societies appear intrinsically egalitarian; they appear to value low Power Distance, directness, and consensus in decision making and to promote Gender Egalitarianism. Nevertheless, there are significant differences in the degrees of commitment to these values by each individual Scandinavian partner. These differences need to be understood and appreciated to avoid misunderstandings.
Han, Xue-Mei; Tian, Hong-Ji; Han, Zheng; Zhang, Ce; Liu, Ying; Gu, Jie-Bing; Bakshi, Rohit; Cao, Xia
We observed the characteristics of white matter fibers and gray matter in multiple sclerosis patients, to identify changes in diffusion tensor imaging fractional anisotropy values following white matter fiber injury. We analyzed the correlation between fractional anisotropy values and changes in whole-brain gray matter volume. The participants included 20 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and 20 healthy volunteers as controls. All subjects underwent head magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Our results revealed that fractional anisotropy values decreased and gray matter volumes were reduced in the genu and splenium of corpus callosum, left anterior thalamic radiation, hippocampus, uncinate fasciculus, right corticospinal tract, bilateral cingulate gyri, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus in multiple sclerosis patients. Gray matter volumes were significantly different between the two groups in the right frontal lobe (superior frontal, middle frontal, precentral, and orbital gyri), right parietal lobe (postcentral and inferior parietal gyri), right temporal lobe (caudate nucleus), right occipital lobe (middle occipital gyrus), right insula, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left cingulate gyrus. The voxel sizes of atrophic gray matter positively correlated with fractional anisotropy values in white matter association fibers in the patient group. These findings suggest that white matter fiber bundles are extensively injured in multiple sclerosis patients. The main areas of gray matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis are the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, caudate nucleus, parahippocampal gyrus, and cingulate gyrus. Gray matter atrophy is strongly associated with white matter injury in multiple sclerosis patients, particularly with injury to association fibers.
Daniel Luiz Magalhães Souza
Full Text Available This paper considers some notes concerning the unconscious' concept, boarded concept of in its aspect theoretician, especially when emphasizing it as translating concept of the stranger/familiar, that it returns in the derivatives from repression it. This article attentives to articulate the psychoanalytic praxis of couple in the field of Justice with language-games to understand this incidence of the stranger/familiar. The effort will be, then, to stand out the thought of that the derivatives of the repression one if disclose and if they occult in the proper act of the subject if to constitute in and of the language.
Daniel Luiz Magalhães Souza
Full Text Available This paper considers some notes concerning the unconscious’ concept, boarded concept of in its aspect theoretician, especially when emphasizing it as translating concept of the stranger/familiar, that it returns in the derivatives from repression it. This article attentives to articulate the psychoanalytic praxis of couple in the field of Justice with language-games to understand this incidence of the stranger/familiar. The effort will be, then, to stand out the thought of that the derivatives of the repression one if disclose and if they occult in the proper act of the subject if to constitute in and of the language.
Cristiane Moço Canhetti de Oliveira
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a contribuição da orientação familiar de curto prazo na fluência da fala de crianças com gagueira. MÉTODOS: Participaram 20 díades de crianças com gagueira e familiares. Os procedimentos foram realizados em três etapas: avaliação da fluência, orientações familiares e reavaliação da fluência. A avaliação inicial da fluência foi realizada para caracterizar a tipologia e a frequência das disfluências antes das orientações. A orientação familiar foi realizada em duas sessões, enfatizando os comportamentos verbais e não verbais da família que podem promover a fluência na criança. A reavaliação da fluência ocorreu depois de trinta dias, utilizando-se os mesmos procedimentos da avaliação inicial. Foi aplicado o Teste dos Postos Sinalizados de Wilcoxon, para medir o grau de significância da diferença entre as informações obtidas nas duas fases. RESULTADOS: No que se refere à tipologia, a análise comparativa das duas avaliações mostrou que, dentre os seis tipos de disfluências comuns, quatro diminuíram, e, dentre os seis tipos de disfluências gagas, cinco apresentaram redução. No que se refere à frequência das rupturas, 70% das crianças tiveram uma diminuição na porcentagem de descontinuidade de fala, e 80% no total de rupturas gagas. CONCLUSÃO: A orientação fonoaudiológica realizada com familiares de crianças com gagueira favoreceu a promoção da fluência na fala da criança, mostrando-se relevante na área da fluência infantil.PURPOSE: To determine the contribution of short-term familiar counseling in the speech fluency of children who stutter. METHODS: Participants were 20 dyads of child who stutters and a family member. Procedures were carried out in three stages: assessment of fluency, familiar counseling, and reassessment of fluency. The initial assessment of fluency was performed in order to characterize the type and frequency of disfluencies produced before
Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute myocardial infarction (AMI is a multifactorial disease with a complex pathogenesis where lifestyle, individual genetic background and environmental risk factors are involved. Altered inflammatory responses are implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and a premature AMI of parents is associated with an increased risk of the disease in their offspring (Offs. However, the genetic background of familiarity for AMI is still largely unknown. To understand which genes may predispose to increased risk of cardiovascular disease gene polymorphism of immune regulatory genes, and clinical events from the Offs of parents with an early AMI were investigated. Genetics data from Offs were compared with those obtained from healthy subjects and an independent cohort of patients with clinical sporadic AMI. Rates of clinical events during a 24 years follow up from Offs and from an independent Italian population survey were also evaluated. Results This study showed that a genetic signature consisting of the concomitant presence of the CC genotype of VEGF, the A allele of IL-10 and the A allele of IFN-γ was indeed present in the Offs population. In fact, the above genetic markers were more frequent in unaffected Offs (46.4% and patients with sporadic AMI (31.8% than in the CTR (17.3% and the differences were highly statistically significant (Offs vs CTR: p = 0.0001, OR = 4.129; AMI vs CTR: p = 0.0001, OR = 2.224. During the 24-year follow-up, Offs with a positive familiarity in spite of a relatively young age showed an increased prevalence of diabetes, ischemic heart disease and stroke. These findings reinforce the notion that subjects with a familial history of AMI are at risk of an accelerated aging of cardiovascular system resulting in cardiovascular events. Conclusion Our data suggest that selected genes with immune regulatory functions are part of the complex genetic background contributing to familiarity
Ianni, Manuela; Callegari, Sergio; Rizzo, Antonio; Pastori, Paolo; Moruzzi, Paolo; Corradi, Domenico; Porcellini, Elisa; Campo, Gianluca; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferrario, Marco M; Bitonte, Stefania; Carbone, Ilaria; Licastro, Federico
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a multifactorial disease with a complex pathogenesis where lifestyle, individual genetic background and environmental risk factors are involved. Altered inflammatory responses are implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and a premature AMI of parents is associated with an increased risk of the disease in their offspring (Offs). However, the genetic background of familiarity for AMI is still largely unknown. To understand which genes may predispose to increased risk of cardiovascular disease gene polymorphism of immune regulatory genes, and clinical events from the Offs of parents with an early AMI were investigated. Genetics data from Offs were compared with those obtained from healthy subjects and an independent cohort of patients with clinical sporadic AMI. Rates of clinical events during a 24 years follow up from Offs and from an independent Italian population survey were also evaluated. This study showed that a genetic signature consisting of the concomitant presence of the CC genotype of VEGF, the A allele of IL-10 and the A allele of IFN-γ was indeed present in the Offs population. In fact, the above genetic markers were more frequent in unaffected Offs (46.4%) and patients with sporadic AMI (31.8%) than in the CTR (17.3%) and the differences were highly statistically significant (Offs vs CTR: p = 0.0001, OR = 4.129; AMI vs CTR: p = 0.0001, OR = 2.224). During the 24-year follow-up, Offs with a positive familiarity in spite of a relatively young age showed an increased prevalence of diabetes, ischemic heart disease and stroke. These findings reinforce the notion that subjects with a familial history of AMI are at risk of an accelerated aging of cardiovascular system resulting in cardiovascular events. Our data suggest that selected genes with immune regulatory functions are part of the complex genetic background contributing to familiarity for cardiovascular diseases. This inflammatory genetic
Kibble, T W B; Pickett, G R
At first sight, low-temperature condensed-matter physics and early Universe cosmology seem worlds apart. Yet, in the last few years a remarkable synergy has developed between the two. It has emerged that, in terms of their mathematical description, there are surprisingly close parallels between them. This interplay has been the subject of a very successful European Science Foundation (ESF) programme entitled COSLAB ('Cosmology in the Laboratory') that ran from 2001 to 2006, itself built on an earlier ESF network called TOPDEF ('Topological Defects: Non-equilibrium Field Theory in Particle Physics, Condensed Matter and Cosmology'). The articles presented in this issue of Philosophical Transactions A are based on talks given at the Royal Society Discussion Meeting 'Cosmology meets condensed matter', held on 28 and 29 January 2008. Many of the speakers had participated earlier in the COSLAB programme, but the strength of the field is illustrated by the presence also of quite a few new participants.
María Roselia Aira
Full Text Available El objetivo general de investigación fue establecer las características requeridas para la sucesión exitosa en empresas familiares del Estado Carabobo. La metodología se sustenta en la indagación exploratoria y descriptiva, apoyada en un esquema de investigación cualitativa empleando la entrevista. Los resultados del estudio consideran que la empresa familiar está en manos de personas que son familia, con capacidad profesional, confianza, tolerancia, lealtad, colaboración y comunicación. Con características de liderazgo, rol de mando, adecuado uso de recursos de la empresa y negociación en condiciones favorables, búsqueda de resultados económicos satisfactorios. Con actitudes concretas que implican compromiso, integración afectiva y proactividad.
Full Text Available Many people are encountered with finding the best way to reach to their destination. One definition for wayfinding is “the act of travelling to the destination by continuous processes of making route-choices whilst evaluating previous spatial decisions against stable cognition of the environment. General understanding and keen appraisal of the environment can aid decision-making process of how to navigate around an area in the form of mental schemas. However, having a level of familiarity and attachment to a place is the underlying factor. The study is aimed at evaluating what is the level of familiarity of people and what is their attachment to notable landmarks in the town of Muar, Malaysia. To do so, the traditional survey analysis with the focus on data set that is attributed to a specific phenomenon and the quantifiable variable using statistical analysis on the tabularized format is undertaken.
Conclusiones: la hipercolesterolemia familiar es una enfermedad que ocasiona graves consecuencias cardiovasculares. Los inhibidores del PCSK9 se han convertido en una alternativa prometedora para aquellos que no responden a las terapias convencionales. Se requieren estudios que corroboren o contradigan los beneficios y eventos adversos encontrados hasta el momento en que los pacientes se someten a estas nuevas terapias para así ofrecer un tratamiento ideal y oportuno.
Celine Azemar; Julia Darby; Rodolphe Desbordes; Ian Wooton
We use a systematic empirical analysis of the determinants of South-South (SS) and North-South (NS) foreign direct investment (FDI) as a canvas to explore how multinational enterprises’ (MNEs) location decisions are shaped by better acquaintance with a foreign market resulting from bilateral ties, experience of international expansion, and knowledge of how to deal with poor governance. We find that these various aspects of market familiarity, which can interact together, are important to expl...
Leila Mariza Hildebrandt; Lilian Konageski Stumm; Cíntia Nasi
A lot of people live situations of mental sickness, from psychotic character, that can cause sufferingboth for the sick and his family. We believe that try this situation means to live with limitations and wearings in thefamiliar everyday, what makes difficult the living with the psychotic person. Considering these aspects, thisresearch has the purpose of knowing the familiar perception about his living with a psychotic bearer person. It isabout a qualitative, explorative and descriptive stud...
Kumagai, Y; Arvaneh, M.; T. Tanaka
Music perception involves complex brain functions. The relationship between music and brain such as cortical entrainment to periodic tune, periodic beat, and music have been well investigated. It has also been reported that the cerebral cortex responded more strongly to the periodic rhythm of unfamiliar music than to that of familiar music. However, previous works mainly used simple and artificial auditory stimuli like pure tone or beep. It is still unclear how the brain response is influence...
Leila Mariza Hildebrandt
Full Text Available A lot of people live situations of mental sickness, from psychotic character, that can cause sufferingboth for the sick and his family. We believe that try this situation means to live with limitations and wearings in thefamiliar everyday, what makes difficult the living with the psychotic person. Considering these aspects, thisresearch has the purpose of knowing the familiar perception about his living with a psychotic bearer person. It isabout a qualitative, explorative and descriptive study, developed in a northwest city of Rio Grande do Sul state,called Ijuí. The people of the investigation are composed of five psychotics parents, which frequent the socioterapygroup in Gloria district. The information collection happened trough open interviews, recorded and wrote out at all.The analysis of the obtained data followed MINAYOs (2002 methodological proposition. By the containedinformation in the studs social actors declarations, emerged three thematic with a similar nucleus of thoughts. Onfirst thematic, we discussed about the difficulties faced by the familiars in the living with the psychotic in themoment he has the acute symptoms. On the second thematic, we talked about the medical question as bring atherapeutic element that helps the mental sick to keep stable., becoming better the familiars life. The third thematicshows the family conception about mental sickness. With this research we concluded that the living with a mentalsick person is taxing for the familiar and, sometimes, there are difficulties to understand the symptoms showed bythe sick person. Besides that, the family considers the medication one of the most important possibilities ofintervention in the psychotics therapy, what is reinforced by the health team that leads with these people.
Pristed Nielsen, Helene; Faber, Stine Thidemann
How do globally mobile people perceive and make sense of a new place in which they have to create an everyday life for themselves? And how may their place perception be communicated through photographs? These are the questions around which this article revolves. The visual material discussed...... of strangeness and familiarity occur along unexpected lines of difference and similarity depending on the embodied positionality of the involved participants....
Tamara B Domínguez González
Full Text Available El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo caracterizar las relaciones familiares del anciano a partir de su percepción, en el área de salud del Policlínico Docente "Reina" del municipio de Centro Habana. Se caracterizaron 144 ancianos que viven en familias multigeneracionales utilizando la prueba de relaciones familiares, la escala de depresión geriátrica de Yesavage, la escala de actividades instrumentadas de la vida diaria y un cuestionario confeccionado al efecto. Se obtuvo como resultado el predominio de las relaciones poco armónicas y disarmónicas, dificultades en la definición de los límites intergeneracionales, rigidez en la estructura jerárquica familiar y actitudes intolerantes hacia las características y comportamiento de los ancianos por parte de su familia. Igualmente se encontró una importante asociación entre el tipo de relaciones familiares percibidas por el anciano y las variables edad, estado emocional y capacidad físicaThe present paper is aimed at characterizing the elderly person’s family relations on the basis of his/her perception and is carried out in the health area of "Reina" teaching polyclinics in Centro Habana municipality. One-hundred and forty-four elderly persons who live in multi-generation families were characterized by using the family relation test, Yesavage´s geriatric depression scale, the daily life instrumented activities scale and a questionnaire. The results were the predominance of little harmonic or non-harmonic relations, difficulties in defining the inter-generation limits, rigid family hierarchical structure and intolerant attitudes toward the characteristics and behaviours of the elderly people on the part of their families. Likewise, there was a substantial linking of the type of family relations perceived by the elderly and the age, emotional condition and physical capability variables
Maria Clara P. de Paula Couto; Laíssa Eschiletti Prati; Deusivania Vieira da Silva Falcão; Sílvia Helena Koller
.... Quatro modalidades terapêuticas são abordadas: a terapia individual com idosos, a terapia de casal na terceira idade, o atendimento familiar com membros idosos e o idoso percebido como recurso à terapia familiar...
Hendriks, H.; de Bruijn, G.-J.; Meehan, O.; van den Putte, B.
Although research has demonstrated that interpersonal communication about alcohol influences drinking behaviors, this notion has mainly been examined in offline contexts with familiar conversation partners. The present study investigated how communication mode and familiarity influence
Kamila Santos Trierveiler
Full Text Available La lesión de la medula espinal resulta en limitaciones sensitivas y motoras, y tornan la persona dependiente de sus familiares, lo que interfiere con su autonomía e independencia. Estudio cuantitativo transversal con el objetivo de identificar a la cohesión, adaptabilidad, flexibilidad y funcionalidad familiar de las personas con lesión de la médula espinal en tres ciudades de Grande Florianópolis, utilizando las escalas de APGAR familiar y Olson. La muestra es constituida por 45 personas pertenecientes al grupo de edad de 14-82 años, el 64,5% hombres y 35,5% mujeres; 67,7% de los cuidadores son mujeres y, de éstos, el 32,2% son madres. A pesar de las dificultades con la lesión, la mayoría de las familias mostraron una buena funcionalidad (61,4%, con un 16,1% de la disfunción severa y 22,5% leve, y escribiendo en equilibrio sobre la cohesión y flexibilidad, que no lo hace Ellos podrían estar relacionados con la presencia de una baja satisfacción y la comunicación. Las herramientas seleccionadas aplicadas en forma conjunta, han demostrado ser adecuado.
Rutherford, Victor Stephen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Norman, Rich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Montoya, Gene [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Blumberg, Paul A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McCurdy, Patrick B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL, the Laboratory, or the Lab) conducts familiarization tours for Los Alamos County Fire Department (LAFD) personnel at the Strategic Computing Complex (SCC), TA-03-2327, and the Nonproliferation & International Security Complex (NISC), TA-03-2322. These tours are official LANL business; their purpose is to orient the firefighters to the SCC and the NISC so that they can respond efficiently and quickly to a variety of emergency situations. The tour includes ingress and egress of the buildings, layout and organization of the buildings, evacuation procedures, and areas of concern to emergency responders within these buildings. LAFD firefighters have the training, skills, and abilities to perform these emergency responder tasks; other LANL personnel who have the required clearance level cannot perform these tasks. This handout provides details of the information, along with maps and diagrams, to be presented during the familiarization tours. The report will be distributed to the trainees at the time of the tour. A corresponding checklist will also be used as guidance during the familiarization tours to ensure that all required information is presented to the LAFD personnel.
Bianca Cristina Ciccone Giacon
Full Text Available Considera-se que, quando ocorre o primeiro episódio da esquizofrenia, a vida familiar é interrompida e a sua trajetória de vida pode ser modificada. Em vista disso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi conhecer a trajetória de famílias nos primeiros cinco anos de convivência com a doença mental, identificando o seu processo de ajustamento. A pesquisa está fundamentada no Interacionismo Simbólico. Foram realizadas entrevistas com 23 familiares de 21 portadores de esquizofrenia. A análise foi realizada visando à determinação de uma linha do tempo, que permitiu descrever o processo de ajustamento familiar através de três momentos: Percebendo a Mudança, Diagnóstico e Início do Tratamento, e Seguindo em Frente. Conclui-se que todas as fases apresentadas neste projeto são ricas e podem ser mais exploradas.
Jorge Luis Blanco Julio
Full Text Available El presente artículo plantea un análisis de los aspectos relacionados con la influencia de la depresión sobre el entorno familiar del paciente psiquiátrico y su relación con el afrontamiento de la familia. Su objetivo concreto consistió en describir las características del episodio depresivo, las repercusiones que le suscitan al paciente y sus allegados y la importancia de la conciencia de enfermedad desarrollada por el paciente y su familia a través del proceso psicoeducativo. Para lograrlo, se ha llevado a cabo una revisión conceptual de carácter documental centrada en las aproximaciones teóricas a esta temática. La información obtenida muestra evidencia de la trascendencia que tienen las relaciones familiares sobre el desarrollo y curso de la depresión, así como las repercusiones negativas que tienen los comportamientos, demandas y aptitudes del paciente depresivo sobre la dinámica familiar, la trascendencia de la conciencia de enfermedad y de los recursos de apoyo que debe desarrollar la familia conforme a la información brindada con la psicoeducación.
Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la importancia del apoyo familiar en el control de la glucemia en diabéticos no insulino dependientes. Material y métodos. Se diseñó un estudio de casos y controles, considerando como casos a los pacientes con glucemia o = 140 mg/dl. El apoyo familiar se determinó con el cuestionario Environmental Barriers to Adherence Scales, que estima el apoyo otorgado para que el paciente siga las indicaciones terapéuticas. Se incluyeron 32 casos y 50 controles. Resultados. El apoyo familiar que recibe el paciente se asocia significativamente a la presencia de glucemia Objective. To determine the importance of family support in the control of glucemia in non-insulin- dependent diabetes mellitus patients. Material and methods. A case and control study was designed where cases were patients with glycemia or = 140 mg/dl. Family support was determined using the questionnaire Environmental Barriers to Adherence Scales which estimates the support lent by the family to the patient to follow therapeutic indications. The study consisted of 32 cases and 50 controls. Results. Family support received by the patient is significantly associated to the presence of glycemia <140 mg/dl (OR = 3.9; 95% C.I. 1.4-11.1. Other variables did not show significant association. Conclusions. Family support lent to patients influences the control of glycemia.
Mônica Andrade Lotufo
Full Text Available El nevus blanco esponjoso (NBE es una rara condición autosómica dominante, caracterizada por placas blancas bilaterales en la mucosa, de aspecto esponjoso, blandas a la palpación y que pueden escamarse. Los tratamientos son paliativos; y el uso de antibióticos, en especial la tetraciclina, ha demostrando buenos resultados en su control. Este trabajo presenta tres casos clínicos de una familia afectada por NBE, donde se discuten los posibles diagnósticos diferenciales y conductas terapéuticas indicadas. Un paciente masculino de 52 años de edad acudió a la clínica aquejado de lesiones blancas bilaterales. El paciente notó las lesiones 30 años antes, sin lograr un diagnóstico final de las mismas. Después de la anamnesis y del examen clínico fue realizada una biopsia incisional. La reunión de los datos clínicos e histopatológicos llevó al diagnóstico de NBE. Se le solicitó al paciente que indagase entre sus familiares con respecto a lesiones semejantes. Se detectó que el hijo de 19 años y la hija de 25 eran portadores de placas blancas en la mucosa yugal. Como no había afectación estética, se optó por no intervenir en las lesiones. El nevus blanco esponjoso es una lesión genética que debe ser diferenciada de otras patologías localizadas y sistémicas importantes, que tienen repercusiones serias para el individuo. Como no hay un tratamiento curativo para el NBE, el papel del cirujano dentista es diagnosticar esta lesión, aclarar al paciente sobre la naturaleza benigna y autolimitante del NBE y si fuera necesario desde el punto de vista estético, aplicar diferentes modalidades terapéuticas.The aim of present paper is to introduce three clinical cases from a family affected from nevus spongiosus albus (NSA and also to discuss the possible differential diagnoses as well as the therapeutical behaviors to be adopted. Clinical case: A man aged 52 seen in our clinic due to bilateral white lesions noted 30 years ago without
María del Carmen Amaro Cano
Full Text Available Se explica el carácter estratégico de la planificación en salud y el carácter táctico de la planificación de los servicios de salud. Se enfatiza que ambas deben basarse en las necesidades sociales que requieren ser satisfechas y en las posibilidades reales de su satisfacción. Se llama la atención sobre las características del directivo o gerente de una institución. Se muestran las principales técnicas de gestión relacionadas con la planificación estratégica. Se llama la atención sobre el hecho de que toda decisión gerencial tiene repercusiones ético-sociales que afectan a otras personas y a otras entidades en aspectos variados, y que están sujetas a juicios éticos, creando muchas veces dilemas que entran dentro de la conciencia moral. Se recomienda analizar toda decisión con un triple enfoque: económico, social y ético. Se enfatiza además en la medición oportuna y efectiva de la satisfacción de los usuarios externos e internos, aclarando que el reconocimiento al derecho de participación de las personas y la comunidad en los problemas que les atañen, y el de la salud es uno de los más importantes, constituye obligatorio cumplimiento por parte de un gerente de excelencia. Finalmente, se explica cómo el Médico de Familia está obligado a ejercer sus funciones gerenciales con tanta calidad como la de especialista de Medicina Familiar y que en el análisis causal de las insuficiencias deberá tenerse muy en cuenta no sólo las carencias materiales sino también la capacidad o no del gerente para ejercer como líder de la institución que dirige.This paper explains the strategic character of the health care planning and the tactical character of the health care service planning. It emphasizes that both aspect should be based on the social needs to be met and on the real possibilities for meeting them. Attention is paid to the characteristics that a manager of an institution should have. It shows the main management
Rodríguez Mata, Estefanía
En el siguiente documento se desarrollan los factores familiares que influyen en el rendimiento académico de los alumnos; estructura familiar, clima familiar, nivel cultural de la familia y nivel socioeconómico familiar. Posteriormente, se muestran y analizan los resultados que se han publicado en los informes españoles de la PIRLS (Progress in International Reading Literacy Study), TIMSS (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study), PISA (Program for International Student Assessme...
Since very early times Sirius was a point of attraction in the night sky. It served to synchronize calendars in antiquity and was the subject of many myths and legends, including some modern ones. It was perceived as a red star for more than 400 years, but such reports were relegated to the Mediterranean region. Astronomically, Sirius is a very bright star. This, and its present close distance to us, argues in favor of it being the target of detailed studies of stellar structure and evolution. Its binary nature, with a companion that is one of the more massive white dwarfs, is an additional reason for such studies. This book collects the published information on Sirius in an attempt to derive a coherent picture of how this system came to look as it does.
Tran, Angie Ngoc; Jeppesen, Søren
regulation and greater industry pressure with regard to quality and safety of products than to labour standards in both sectors. Most factories in the TGF sector assembled products for global supply chains and were under pressure by industry norms, while most companies in the FBP sector produced......This chapter draws on a study investigating what corporate social responsibility (CSR) means to Vietnam’s small- and medium-size enterprise (SME) owner/managers and workers, using Scott’s three-pillar (norms, regulation, cognition) institutional framework. The findings are based on factory visits...... for the domestic market and were subjected to greater state regulation. Moreover, contributing critical perspectives to Scott’s framework, we found an overlap between the normative and the regulatory, and between the cognitive and the industry norms, which reveals how institutional and cultural pressures...
Kulasegaram, Kulamakan; Min, Cynthia; Ames, Kimberly; Howey, Elizabeth; Neville, Alan; Norman, Geoffrey
Applying a previously learned concept to a novel problem is an important but difficult process called transfer. It is suggested that a commonsense analogy aids in transfer by linking novel concepts to familiar ones. How the context of practice affects transfer when learning using analogies is still unclear. This study investigated the effect of a commonsense analogy and context familiarity for transfer of physiological concepts. First year psychology students (n = 24) learned three concepts: Starling's law, Laplace's law, and laminar-turbulent flow. The control group saw standard explanations while the intervention group saw an additional commonsense analogy. The context of learning was the organ system used for two practice clinical cases which differed for all concepts. Testing consisted of 12 new clinical cases. Starling's law cases used the organ system from practice while the other concepts presented in both novel and familiar organ systems. Half of the sample repeated testing after 1 week delay. The outcome was ratings of explanations of cases on a 0-3 scale. The effect of analogy was significant (Mean = 1.24 with, 0.86 without, F(1,22) = 4.26, p < 0.05) but not after delay (means of 1.08 and 0.75 respectively, F = (1,10), p = 0.06) There was significant effect for familiar context (Same = 1.23 (Starling), different = 0.68 (Laplace) and 0.73 (laminar-turbulent flow) (F(2,44) = 5.14, p < 0.01). Laplace's law and laminar turbulent flow cases in the familiar organ system had means of 1.65 and 1.77 respectively compared to novel cases with means of 0.74 and 0.68 (F(1,22) = 35.64, p < 0.0001). Similar effects were observed after delay. There was significant decay in performance after delay for all participants (immediate = 1.17, delayed = 0.91, F = 11.9 (1,10) p < 0.01). Common analogies aid conceptual understanding necessary for transfer. Despite conceptual aids, solving transfer problems is difficult.
Levi, Susannah V.
Research with adults has shown that spoken language processing is improved when listeners are familiar with talkers' voices, known as the familiar talker advantage. The current study explored whether this ability extends to school-age children, who are still acquiring language. Children were familiarized with the voices of three German-English…
Nadler, Joel T.; Berry, Seth A.; Stockdale, Margaret S.
To address the stranger-to-stranger critique of stereotyping research, psychology students (n = 139) and law students (n = 58) rated photographs of familiar or unfamiliar male or female professors on competence. Results from Study 1 indicated that familiar male psychology faculty were rated as more competent than were familiar female faculty,…
Raker, Jeffrey R.; Holme, Thomas A.
A cluster analysis was conducted with a set of survey data on chemistry faculty familiarity with 13 assessment terms. Cluster groupings suggest a high, middle, and low overall familiarity with the terminology and an independent high and low familiarity with terms related to fundamental statistics. The six resultant clusters were found to be…
Leap, William L; Provencher, Denis M
That language and sexuality are closely connected is one of the enduring themes in human sexuality research. The articles in this special issue of the Journal of Homosexuality explore some of these language-centered insights as they apply to same-sex related desires, identities, and practices and to other dimensions of non-normative sexual experiences. The articles address language use over a range of geographic and social locations. The linguistic practices discussed are diverse, including the language associated with Santería, comments viewers make about gay pornography, homophobic discourse, coming out stories, stories where declarations of sexual identity are tacitly withheld, sexual messages in Black hip hop culture, assessments of urban AIDS ministries, and policies that limit transgender subjects' access to urban space. Taken together, these articles demonstrate that language matters in the everyday experience of sexual sameness and they model some of the approaches that are now being explored in language and sexuality studies.
Agard, Claire N.
The study examined the efficacy of familiarity and positive verbal reinforcement in improving intelligence test scores of 48 third-graders who were low scorers on a previous test. The Quick Test was used to screen subjects, with a 90 IQ score being the criterion for inclusion in the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of four groups. The…
Andrade, Daniela Meirelles; Lima, Juvêncio Braga de; Antonialli, Luiz Marcelo; Leite Filho, Geraldo Alemandro
No estudo aqui relatado identificaram-se os fatores que levam à formação do capital social familiar em empresas familiares. Para atingir o objetivo proposto, utilizou-se, como aporte teórico, a teoria do capital social e do capital social familiar. Para tanto, foi realizada uma pesquisa exploratória, do tipo survey, em 120 empreendimentos familiares. Aplicou-se questionário, sob a forma de entrevista, a todos os empresários. Os dados foram analisados por meio de análise fatorial. Os resultado...
Nordmann, Emily; Cleland, Alexandra A; Bull, Rebecca
To date, there have been several attempts made to build a database of normative data for English idiomatic expressions (e.g., Libben & Titone, 2008; Titone & Connine, 1994), however, there has been some discussion in the literature as to the validity and reliability of the data obtained, particularly for decomposability ratings. Our work aimed to address these issues by looking at ratings from native and non-native speakers and to extend the deeper investigation and analysis of decomposability to other aspects of idiomatic expressions, namely familiarly, meaning and literality. Poor reliability was observed on all types of ratings, suggesting that rather than decomposability being a special case, individual variability plays a large role in how participants rate idiomatic phrases in general. Ratings from native and non-native speakers were positively correlated and an analysis of covariance found that once familiarity with an idiom was accounted for, most of the differences between native and non-native ratings were not significant. Overall, the results suggest that individual experience with idioms plays an important role in how they are perceived and this should be taken into account when selecting stimuli for experimental studies. Furthermore, the results are suggestive of the inability of speakers to inhibit the figurative meanings for idioms that they are highly familiar with. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Little, Anthony C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C
Familiarity is attractive in many types of stimuli and exposure generally increases feelings of liking. However, men desire a greater number of sexual partners than women, suggesting a preference for novelty. We examined sex differences in preferences for familiarity. In Study 1 (N = 83 women, 63 men), we exposed individuals to faces twice and found that faces were judged as more attractive on the second rating, reflecting attraction to familiar faces, with the exception that men's ratings of female faces decreased on the second rating, demonstrating attraction to novelty. In Studies 2 (N = 42 women, 28 men) and 3 (N = 51 women, 25 men), exposure particularly decreased men's ratings of women's attractiveness for short-term relationships and their sexiness. In Study 4 (N = 64 women, 50 men), women's attraction to faces was positively related to self-rated similarity to their current partner's face, while the effect was significantly weaker for men. Potentially, men's attraction to novelty may reflect an adaptation promoting the acquisition of a high number of sexual partners.
Full Text Available In humans, the susceptibility to yawn contagion has been theoretically and empirically related to our capacity for empathy. Because of its relevance to evolutionary biology, this phenomenon has been the focus of recent investigations in non-human species. In line with the empathic hypothesis, contagious yawning has been shown to correlate with the level of social attachment in several primate species. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris have also shown the ability to yawn contagiously. To date, however, the social modulation of dog contagious yawning has received contradictory support and alternative explanations (i.e., yawn as a mild distress response could explain positive evidence. The present study aims to replicate contagious yawning in dogs and to discriminate between the two possible mediating mechanisms (i.e., empathic vs. distress related response. Twenty-five dogs observed familiar (dog's owner and unfamiliar human models (experimenter acting out a yawn or control mouth movements. Concurrent physiological measures (heart rate were additionally monitored for twenty-one of the subjects. The occurrence of yawn contagion was significantly higher during the yawning condition than during the control mouth movements. Furthermore, the dogs yawned more frequently when watching the familiar model than the unfamiliar one demonstrating that the contagiousness of yawning in dogs correlated with the level of emotional proximity. Moreover, subjects' heart rate did not differ among conditions suggesting that the phenomenon of contagious yawning in dogs is unrelated to stressful events. Our findings are consistent with the view that contagious yawning is modulated by affective components of the behavior and may indicate that rudimentary forms of empathy could be present in domesticated dogs.
Martinez, L M
The impact of the mass media on woman's status was addressed at two 1995 conferences: the Fourth World Conference on Women, held in Beijing, China, and the Congress of the World Association for Christian Communication, held in Puebla, Mexico. The globalization process facilitated by the mass media has served to increase the power of patriarchy, with no advantages to the cause of women's rights. Coverage of popular movements has been suppressed out of deference to male-controlled governments. Coverage of the Beijing Conference highlighted celebrities and personal stories, to the exclusion of the economic and political issues under debate. Television has commodified women, reinforcing their oppression. On the other hand, the alternative media, which tend to be decentralized, democratic, low-cost, and low in technology, are presenting women as subjects rather than objects and deconstructing gender stereotypes. Of concern, however, is the tendency of computer technology to widen the gap between social classes and developed and developing countries. Women must use information networks to disseminate information on women's rights and strengthen the links between women throughout the world.
Ricardo Alberto Moreno
Full Text Available El entendimiento de la familia sobre el trastorno bipolar es vital para su participación en el tratamiento. Con la investigación cualitativa de tipo etnográfico se buscó comprender el significado cultural de la convivencia familiar. Esta se realizó en una ciudad del interior del Estado de São Paulo (Brasil. Los datos fueron obtenidos por la observación participante y entrevistas. Fue respetado el rigor investigativo y los aspectos éticos. Participaron 25 personas (portadores y familiares. Las categorías identificadas fueron: convivencia intra-familiar conflictiva, relaciones extra-familiares perjudicadas, rutinas diarias alteradas, repercusiones en el presupuesto familiar, estigma y prejuicio. El tema cultural encontrado fue: "De la angustia inicial al enfrentamiento por una mejor calidad de vida". Las familias perciben que el programa psicoeducativo abierto, asociado al tratamiento farmacológico, constituye una forma rica de aprendizaje sobre la enfermedad y sobre las formas de ayuda necesarias para alcanzar la estabilización del humor.Understanding family life in the presence of bipolar disorder is vital to their participation in the treatment. Through qualitative ethnographic research, carried out in a medium - sized town, in the State of São Paulo (Southeastern Brazil, we aimed at better understanding family life in the presence of bipolar disorder. Patients and their families participated in the research, which included 25 individuals. Participant observation and interviews were used for data collection, which was carried out in accordance to ethical principles and scientific rigor. Data analysis identified the following categories: conflictive family life; impaired relationships with people outside the immediate family; disturbed daily routine; impact on family budget; stigma and prejudice. The cultural theme "From Initial Distress to Coping and Achieving a Better Quality of Life" emerged. Families perceived the
Alexey A. Bobtsov
Full Text Available The problem of adaptive output control for parametric and functionally uncertain plants is considered. Application examples illustrating the practical use of the discussed theory are given along with the mathematical formulation of the problem. A brief review of adaptive output control methods, by both linear and non-linear systems, is presented and an extensive bibliography, in which the reader will find a detailed description of the specific algorithms and their properties, is represented. A new approach to the output control problem - a method of consecutive compensator - is considered in detail.
implementations for Case 4 only. The accuracy results for all of the SMERT/KSMERT implantations are similar due to the user employing domain knowledge to...truck. 5 The supplier welded and misdimensioned the titanium offsite. 6 The inspector drilled plastic and overheated it at station2. 7 It was...drilled and overheated. 8 It was drilled and overheated. 9 The engineer and the manager at station3 and on the truck. 10 The welded titanium was
in different ways. In the first case, CPR Analisys , we use the measures as way to derive effectiveness and uncertainty. In the second approach...means by which to overcome these capability gaps through the implementation of solutions, e.g., changes to doctrine, organizational structure , training...controlled through good elicitation practices, especially good question structuring , which we discuss in section C. (2) Modeling bias. This type of bias
Motivation is the first step in writing for professional publication: the next question is, what should you write about? Whatever your area of practice or level of experience, your writing will be suitable for one of the wealth of journals covering all aspects of healthcare and nursing. In this second part of a series of articles, John Fowler, an experienced nursing lecturer and author, presents some tips and suggestions to inspire you as you take your first steps on the road to writing for professional publication.
Although it represents an individual view, this article was submitted to the Department of Education by the Cape Higher Education Consortium (CHEC) as an outcome of the review of the field of Home Economics in the Western Cape region. By presenting some history, it argues that the category of Home Economics is no ...
John T. Kearns
Full Text Available Una concepción ampliada del objeto de estudio de la lógica: El ensayo es una introducción a la lógica ilocucionaria, es decir a la lógica de los actos de habla. El autor propone una aproximación distinta a este campo de investigación con respecto al que han propuesto John Searle y Daniel Vanderveken. Ellos conciben la lógica ilocucionaria como un suplemento o un apéndice a la lógica estándar, la lógica de los enunciados, y se concentran en el estudio de leyes y principios muy generales que caracterizan todo tipo de actos ilocucionarios. Kearns, en cambio, concibe la lógica ilocucionaria como una disciplina muy comprensiva, con muchos subsistemas, que cobija a la lógica estándar como parte suya. El escrito describe brevemente el uso de los operadores ilocucionarios (de aseveración, de negación, de suposición de verdad o falsedad, explica la manera como se expande la concepción semántica en términos de condiciones de verdad para incluir los compromisos racionales del hablante y presenta un sistema de deducción para esta lógica. Como un ejemplo de lo que esta lógica puede hacer se ofrece una solución a la paradoja de Moore contenida en la aseveración Está lloviendo, pero no lo creo
Approximately 850 occupations are listed under 27 occupational clusters. The Dictionary of Occupational Title (DOT) number is specified for occupations in the clusters of business training and distributive education, chemistry, general shop and industrial arts, home economics, foreign language, music, social studies, art, agriculture, physics, and…
processing, and the integration/synthesis of component parts. The haptic individual uses " bodily " perceptions, and is kinesthetically oriented. An...microcomputers, and the introduction of artificial intelligence techniques into training has permitted more effective use of computer-based instruction...instruction, the advent of more powerful and inexpensive microcomputers, and the introduction of artificial intelligence techniques into training, has permitted
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Fedorovskaya, Elena A.; De Ridder, Huib
From the advent of digital imaging through several decades of studies, the human vision research community systematically focused on perceived image quality and digital artifacts due to resolution, compression, gamma, dynamic range, capture and reproduction noise, blur, etc., to help overcome existing technological challenges and shortcomings. Technological advances made digital images and digital multimedia nearly flawless in quality, and ubiquitous and pervasive in usage, provide us with the exciting but at the same time demanding possibility to turn to the domain of human experience including higher psychological functions, such as cognition, emotion, awareness, social interaction, consciousness and Self. In this paper we will outline the evolution of human centered multidisciplinary studies related to imaging and propose steps and potential foci of future research.
to problems within science education. STEM education research can be reduced (roughly) to four major problem areas: curriculum, empirical evaluation of existing practices and conditions, didactics, and professional development, where each of these categories can be concretised further according to grade...... paper is primarily on the didactics category, and slightly on the professional development category. The purpose of this paper is to outline three significant points that have been developed within the cultural-historical tradition that have consequences for these two categories: (a) the relation...
The study draws on Piaget and Vygotsky's theory of (social) constructivism to advance approaches and practices that teachers can employ to promote critical thinking in learners. We develop a lesson plan that incorporates critical thinking skills and show how teachers can correct egocentric and sociocentric tendencies that ...
Wassermann, Demian; Makris, Nikos; Rathi, Yogesh; Shenton, Martha; Kikinis, Ron; Kubicki, Marek; Westin, Carl-Fredrik
We have developed a novel method to describe human white matter anatomy using an approach that is both intuitive and simple to use, and which automatically extracts white matter tracts from diffusion MRI volumes. Further, our method simplifies the quantification and statistical analysis of white matter tracts on large diffusion MRI databases. This work reflects the careful syntactical definition of major white matter fiber tracts in the human brain based on a neuroanatomist's expert knowledge. The framework is based on a novel query language with a near-to-English textual syntax. This query language makes it possible to construct a dictionary of anatomical definitions that describe white matter tracts. The definitions include adjacent gray and white matter regions, and rules for spatial relations. This novel method makes it possible to automatically label white matter anatomy across subjects. After describing this method, we provide an example of its implementation where we encode anatomical knowledge in human white matter for ten association and 15 projection tracts per hemisphere, along with seven commissural tracts. Importantly, this novel method is comparable in accuracy to manual labeling. Finally, we present results applying this method to create a white matter atlas from 77 healthy subjects, and we use this atlas in a small proof-of-concept study to detect changes in association tracts that characterize schizophrenia.
... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facts subject to advisory opinions. 1008.15 Section... Requesting Party § 1008.15 Facts subject to advisory opinions. (a) The OIG will consider requests from a requesting party for advisory opinions regarding the application of specific facts to the subject matters set...
Bernardo C. Lunar
Full Text Available Laboratory classes have become crucial parts of teaching science subjects. Most of the laboratories in natural science fields widely use chemicals of different types and hazard levels. Using descriptive- evaluative method of research, the study was carried out to assess students’ familiarity and comprehension of chemical hazard warning signs. Data were collected from randomly selected 150 student respondents enrolled in Chemistry and Biology Laboratory Classes during the second semester of SY 2012- 2013. A structured questionnaire was used for the data collection. The collected data were analysed using simple quantitative analysis. The results of the study revealed that the majority of the respondents were familiar with hazard signs of laboratory chemicals. After getting information on their level of awareness about potential hazards of laboratory chemicals, the respondents were also requested to match chemicals properties with the corresponding labels or pictograms. The results indicate that familiarity and understanding of hazard warning signs is low among the students. It also surveyed the preferred labelling technique which revealed that majority favoured the use of both colors and signs. An action plan was drafted as an output of the study aimed at putting forward corrective measures to address the laboratory related problems identified in the study.
Candela Bonill de las Nieves
Full Text Available Objetivo principal: Describir la relación y participación de la familia percibida por personas con estomas digestivos. Metodología: Estudio cualitativo descriptivo con 21 personas con estomas digestivos de las provincias de Málaga y Granada (España. La selección se hizo siguiendo los criterios de adecuación y diversidad mediante un muestreo intencional. La recogida de datos se realizó a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas. Se realizó un análisis del contenido, obteniéndose como categoría central el apoyo familiar. Resultados principales: Para las personas ostomizadas la familia se convierte en un recurso terapéutico esencial a lo largo de todo el proceso. Que el entorno familiar acepte esta nueva situación es fundamental para favorecer el reencuentro de la persona con su nueva realidad corporal. La implicación familiar en el proceso de aprendizaje de los cuidados desde el inicio es fundamental para la consecución de la autonomía. Contar con la aceptación y el apoyo de la pareja influye positivamente en el restablecimiento de las relaciones sexuales. Conclusión principal: La familia se convierte en un recurso terapéutico esencial a lo largo de todo el proceso, desde la toma de decisión acerca de la realización de la ostomía y durante el proceso de aceptación y adaptación del estoma.
Marianela de la C Prendes Labrada
Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo en la consulta de planificación familiar de Santos Suárez en el período de 1 año a partir de abril de 1998. La muestra la conformó el total de mujeres mayores de 35 años que acudieron por primera vez a la consulta de planificación familiar, a las que se les llenó un cuestionario. Los datos se procesaron con el cálculo porcentual. Se concluyó que la asistencia de las mujeres mayores de 35 años a la consulta de planificación familiar fue baja; predominaron las que tienen unión estable (82,6 %, nivel de escolaridad preuniversitario (60,9 % y trabajadoras (69,6 %; la presencia de otros factores de riesgo reproductivo preconcepcional diferentes a la edad fue baja (39,12 % y la mayoría seleccionó los dispositivos intrauterinos y los anticonceptivos hormonales inyectables sólo de progestina.A descriptive study was carried out in the family planning department of Santos Suárez for 1 year, since April 1998. The sample consisted in the total amount of women over 35 years old, who for the first time attended the family planning department and filled out a questionaire. Data were processed by the percentage calculation. It was concluded that the attendance of women over 35 years old to the family planning department was low. There was a predominance of those women with a stable union (82.6 %, pre-universitary educational level (60.9 %, and working women (69.6 %. The existence of other preconception reproductive risk factors different from age was low (39.12 % and the majority chose the intrauterine devices and the injectable contraceptives containing only progrestational hormones.
Gonzalez-Liencres, Cristina; Juckel, Georg; Tas, Cumhur; Friebe, Astrid; Brüne, Martin
Empathy is a complex emotional process that involves sharing an emotional state with another organism. The extent to which nonhuman animals are capable of empathizing with others is still far from clear, partly due to a lack of empirical work in this domain, but also due to definitional confusion of empathy with emotional contagion and other related terms. In this study, an observer mouse witnessed a familiar cagemate or an unfamiliar non-cagemate receiving electric foot shocks in an experiment that consisted of three periods: baseline (no shocks), test (shocks) and recovery (no shocks). Freezing behavior in the observer was significantly increased in the cagemate, as opposed to the non-cagemate condition during the test period, but not during baseline or recovery, emphasizing the role of familiarity in empathy-like processes. In agreement with this, we also found a correlation that approached significance between the total number of fecal droppings of the observers, as an indication of distress, and those of the demonstrator in the cagemate, but not in the non-cagemate, condition. While the freezing behavior of the demonstrators increased with time, reaching a maximum at the recovery period, the observers froze the most during the test period while the demonstrators were receiving the electric foot shocks. The observation that the freezing response of the observers ceased when the shocks in the adjacent compartment stopped could be due to a decrease in saliency of the demonstrators' behavioral response. Finally, the presence of a cagemate, as compared to a stranger, possibly reduced the demonstrator's pain-induced behavior, suggesting an ameliorating effect of familiarity on stress responses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tulio Antonio Amaya Sorto
Full Text Available Introducción: la poliposis adenomatosa familiar es una enfermedad autosómica dominante con evolución al cáncer colorrectal. Objetivo: caracterizar a los niños cubanos con poliposis adenomatosa familiar. Métodos: se realizó un estudio, descriptivo, prospectivo de serie de casos, atendidos en el Instituto de Gastroenterología de Cuba, durante el periodo comprendido entre febrero de 2011 y mayo de 2013. Se incluyeron 15 niños, en los cuales se había establecido el diagnóstico de poliposis por colonoscopia, con confirmación histológica de adenomas. A todos se les realizó endoscopia del tracto digestivo superior, ultrasonografía de abdomen superior, ortopantomografía, survey óseo, tránsito intestinal, consulta de oftalmología y neurología. Resultados: el 60,0 % fue del sexo masculino y el 60,0 % de color de piel blanca. La pesquisa de los pacientes asintomáticos y el sangrado rectal fueron los motivos de consulta más frecuentes (40,0 % respectivamente. Predominó la forma florida de la enfermedad, y la displasia de bajo grado se observó en el 73,3 %. El 26,7 % tuvo pólipos en el estómago, y fue la localización más observada. La manifestación extraintestinal más frecuente fue la hipertrofia congénita del epitelio retiniano (73,3 %, seguida por los dientes supernumerarios y los quistes dentígenos. Al analizarlo por grupos de edades, entre 10 y 18 años, al 40,0 % ya se les había realizado colectomía. Conclusiones: la mayoría de los pacientes estudiados tenían antecedentes familiares de la enfermedad, la pesquisa familiar y el sangrado rectal fueron los principales motivos de estudio. Todos presentaron la forma florida, y en su gran mayoría, displasia de bajo grado en el momento del diagnóstico. Los pólipos extracolónicos se presentaron con mayor frecuencia en el estómago, y la manifestación extraintestinal más frecuente fue la hipertrofia congénita del epitelio retiniano. La mayoría de los pacientes no se hab
Juan Carlos Santa Cruz
Full Text Available Este artículo es el resultado de un estudio realizado entre 120 familias de la ciudad de Managua. La investigación revela que el ejercicio del poder en la vida familiar tiene un evidente sesgo vertical que apunta hacia el autoritarismo. En gran parte de los testimonios, se reconoce que predomina o han predominado formas violentas en la resolución de conflictos, particularmente entre padres e hijos. El conflicto, como tal, no se resuelve en el corto plazo, sino que se posterga. Mientras en el mediano plazo, favorece ciertas incertidumbres que alimentan una fuente embrionaria de violencia social.
El presente trabajo analiza la distribución de los niveles de resiliencia en cuidadores no profesionales (familiares) de personas mayores dependientes, y explora las características que poseen los cuidadores altamente resilientes. Para ello se administró la escala CD-RISC a una muestra de 111 cuidadores. En función de las puntuaciones obtenidas, se distinguieron dos grupos: alta vs. moderada o baja resiliencia. Se analizaron las diferencias entre ambos grupos en las diversas variables que afe...
CRISTINA LYRA COUTO DE SOUZA
Esta dissertaÃ§Ã£o tem por objetivo avaliar a eficÃ¡cia da gestÃ£o do processo de mudanÃ§a organizacional de uma empresa familiar brasileira da Ã¡rea de saÃºde que estÃ¡ passando por uma fase de sucessÃ£o e busca de maior profissionalizaÃ§Ã£o. Para atingir este objetivo foi realizada uma pesquisa de campo e uma anÃ¡lise qualitativa, comparando os dados levantados com os conceitos identificados na literatura. Os dados foram coletados atravÃ©s de entrevista...
El cuidado del niño (a) hospitalizado ha presentado cambios significados en las últimas décadas, gracias a la nueva perspectiva que las ciencias biológicas y humanas le han atribuido a esta etapa del ciclo vital. Como consecuencia de ello, existe en las instituciones y en los profesionales de la salud una permanente preocupación por el bienestar del niño que se enfrenta con la enfermedad y la separación de su entorno familiar y ambiental, y por la busqueda de alternativas para "humanizar" est...
Pinto,Mario Couto Soares; Couto-de-Souza,Cristina Lyra
Este artigo avalia a eficácia da gestão do processo de mudança organizacional de uma empresa familiar brasileira, da área de saúde, que está passando por uma fase de sucessão e busca de maior profissionalização. Para atingir o objetivo, foram realizadas pesquisa de campo e análise qualitativa, comparando os dados levantados com os conceitos identificados na literatura. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas informais, análise de documentos da empresa e observação participativa, no p...
Meil Landwerlin, Gerardo
Full Text Available According to family resources theory, the empowerment of women caused by the different dimensions of family change during the last decades (deinstitutionalization of the family, female work, higher education, etc has brought about a greater say in the process of negotiation of gender roles inside the family and the couple life. This impowerment of women should have implied also a lower degree of partner violence against women in “modern” family life settings. Based on a survey on violence against women carried out in 1999 in Spain among 20.000 women, the paper analyses using logistic regressions models if different dimensions of family change (female work, cohabitation, among others are associated with lower risks of partner violence against women. Results from such type of analyses show that there is little support to suppose that family change and the corresponding empowerment of women which it implies will bring about a lower risk of partner violence against women.
Según la teoría de los recursos, la ganancia de recursos de poder por parte de las mujeres derivada de las distintas dimensiones del cambio familiar (desintitucionalización de la familia, incorporación de la mujer al mercado de trabajo, mayor nivel educativo, etc. ha comportado un mayor poder de negociación del contenido de los roles familiares y domésticos. Esta ganancia en recursos de poder debería haberse traducido en una menor violencia conyugal contra las mujeres que viven en uniones “modernas”. A partir de la macroencuesta sobre violencia de género realizada por el Instituto de la Mujer en 1999 se analiza si las distintas dimensiones del cambio familiar están asociadas con un menor riesgo de maltrato. Los resultados obtenidos mediante ajustes de regresión logística indican que el cambio familiar y el correspondiente aumento de poder de negociación de las mujeres no se ha traducido automáticamente en una reducción del riesgo de maltrato.
Sigüenza Campoverde, Wilson Guillermo
La familia se ha convertido en objeto de estudio de los enfoques más diversos de la psicología actual, ya sea por su complejidad de entendimiento o por su influencia a nivel social. En este sentido, ésta investigación tuvo como propósito u objetivo general: “Determinar el funcionamiento familiar según el Modelo Circumplejo de Olson a través de los componentes de cohesión y adaptabilidad que existe en niños”, empleando una metodología cuanti-cualitativa en un estudio descriptivo de corte tra...
Jorge Raúl Palacios Delgado; Diana Betancourt Ocampo; Patricia Andrade Palos
El propósito del estudio fue determinar las diferencias de los factores familiares en adolescentes que han y no han iniciado su actividad sexual. La muestra estuvo conformada por 1942 estudiantes de escuelas técnicas del D.F., 44.7% hombres y 55.3% mujeres. El 19.3% reportó ser sexualmente activo. Con fines de comparación se eligió una muestra de adolescentes sin vida sexual activa equivalente a la del grupo con vida sexual en cuanto a género y edad. Los resultados mostraron que las mujeres c...
Rosa Hilda Hernandez Sandoval; Sandra Patricia de la Garza Cienfuegos; Laura Leticia Gaona Tamez
La presente investigación se realizó en Monclova, Coah., en el año 2011 y tiene por objeto constituir una empresa holding para obtener beneficios fiscales sin caer en la evasión o elusión fiscal, esta alternativa permite controlar desde la cúspide a las demás empresas subsidiarias que han sido creadas. Los resultados muestran que existen en México 4,862 empresas familiares que consolidan para efectos fiscales, las cuales se encuentran integradas en 422 grupos. En este régimen de fiscalización...
Márcio de Araújo Pereira
Full Text Available Resumo: O artigo tem como objetivo apresentar as implicações sociais, econômicas e ambientais da criação do Parque Nacional da Serra da Bodoquena, para uma comunidade de assentados. Verificaram-se as implicações da presença de um Parque Nacional na dinâmica do assentamento, nos seus desafios e potencialidades para os agricultores familiares e as novas oportunidades de diversificação de seu meio de vida. Metodologicamente o estudo baseou-se nas três dimensões do Desenvolvimento Sustentável propostas pela World Comission on Environmental Development - WCED (1987: Sociedade, Economia e Meio Ambiente, desmembrados em fatores ou critérios de sustentabilidade propostos por Altieri (1989, acrescidos da metodologia de análise de Fernandez (1995. Se pode identificar elementos que apontam a necessidade de se implementar programas de educação ambiental e de incorporação de novas tecnologias de produção compatíveis com os objetivos de preservação do Parque Nacional da Serra da Bodoquena. Palavras-chave: Assentamentos Rurais. Agricultura familiar. Unidades de Conservação. Parques Nacionais. Desenvolvimento Sustentável
Edite Lago da Silva Sena
Full Text Available Conocer el significado de la convivencia diaria con una persona alcohólica fue el objeto de un estudio fenomenológico realizado con diez familiares de los alcohólicos, usuarios de un Centro de Atención Psicosocial - Alcohol y Drogas y de una Unidad de Salud de la Familia, del interior de Bahía, en el primer semestre de 2009. Las descripciones vivenciales fueron reveladas por medio de entrevistas semi-estructuradas y grupos focales, y luego sometidas a la analítica de la ambigüedad, que llevó a objetivar los siguientes temas: violencia percibida y violencia naturalizada; convivencia por necesidad personal y convivencia por la necesidad del otro. El fenómeno de la convivencia familiar con un miembro alcoholista apareció como vivencia ambigua, percibido siempre en perfil, trayendo con él varios otros perfiles. Los resultados destacaron la necesidad de una política de atención a la familia de personas alcohólicas, que sea capaz de incluirla en el planeamiento de la asistencia integral a la salud.
ISABEL ESPINAR FELLMANN
Full Text Available En la mayoría de las investigaciones sobre la familia, los estudios se han centrado en las familias intactas o primeras familias. Sin embargo, es cada vez mayor el número de familias cuya configuración incluye un segundo matrimonio e hijos de una unión anterior (i.e. familias reconstituidas. En la consolidación del complejo proceso de ajuste de estas familias se han identificado unas fuentes comunes de estrés relacionadas principalmente con la formación de un nuevo sistema familiar. El objetivo de este artículo es realizar una revisión de las variables que inciden en el bienestar y/o malestar psicológico sobre una muestra de padrastros y madrastras españoles en el seno de estas nuevas configuraciones familiares. En una primera fase se realizaron, desde un diseño cualitativo, 20 entrevistas en profundidad a una muestra de padrastros y madrastras. En una segunda fase, se diseñó un cuestionario que fue respondido por 77 sujetos con la finalidad de analizar la posible relación entre alguna de las variables estudiadas.