WorldWideScience

Sample records for subject matter contained

  1. Changes in Dictionary Subject Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2003-01-01

    The general content of the three editions of the Duden dictionary has undergone few changes. The most substantial changes are the addition of syllabification and the deletion of antonomy in respect of lemmata in the second and third editions. The concept of dictionary subject matter is questioned...

  2. Foodservice. Subject Matter Update 1986-87.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This publication recognizes the constantly changing requirements of the food service industry and varying conditions for employment opportunities. It addresses the goal of relevance in education by enabling the educator to make timely adjustments in the subject matter of the food service curriculum. There are six sections in this publication, each…

  3. 45 CFR 703.3 - Scope of subject matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope of subject matter. 703.3 Section 703.3... AND FUNCTIONS OF STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 703.3 Scope of subject matter. The scope of the subject matter to be dealt with by Advisory Committees shall be those subjects of inquiry or study with which the...

  4. 49 CFR 1108.3 - Matters subject to arbitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Matters subject to arbitration. 1108.3 Section... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE ARBITRATION OF CERTAIN DISPUTES SUBJECT TO THE STATUTORY JURISDICTION OF THE SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD § 1108.3 Matters subject to arbitration. (a) Any...

  5. Conditioning audience patronage using subject matters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Films are subject-based and when producers set out to communicate their viewpoints, some do it flamboyantly while others take the subtle path. Unlike live theatre before it, the possibility of a virile spiral regarding the themes treated in movies can be as much repugnant as they can be fascinating. In this case, the audience ...

  6. Cortex Parcellation Associated Whole White Matter Parcellation in Individual Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schiffler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of specific white matter areas is a growing field in neurological research and is typically achieved through the use of atlases. However, the definition of anatomically based regions remains challenging for the white matter and thus hinders region-specific analysis in individual subjects. In this article, we focus on creating a whole white matter parcellation method for individual subjects where these areas can be associated to cortex regions. This is done by combining cortex parcellation and fiber tracking data. By tracking fibers out of each cortex region and labeling the fibers according to their origin, we populate a candidate image. We then derive the white matter parcellation by classifying each white matter voxel according to the distribution of labels in the corresponding voxel from the candidate image. The parcellation of the white matter with the presented method is highly reliable and is not as dependent on registration as with white matter atlases. This method allows for the parcellation of the whole white matter into individual cortex region associated areas and, therefore, associates white matter alterations to cortex regions. In addition, we compare the results from the presented method to existing atlases. The areas generated by the presented method are not as sharply defined as the areas in most existing atlases; however, they are computed directly in the DWI space of the subject and, therefore, do not suffer from distortion caused by registration. The presented approach might be a promising tool for clinical and basic research to investigate modalities or system specific micro structural alterations of white matter areas in a quantitative manner.

  7. 22 CFR 61.6 - Consultation with subject matter specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FREE FLOW OF AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS § 61.6 Consultation with subject matter specialists. (a) The... assisting the Department in its determination of whether materials for which export certification or import... determine eligibility of material for certification or authentication based in part on the opinions obtained...

  8. students' perception of teacher's knowledge of subject matter and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ALEXANDER E. TIMOTHY

    The study used the ex post facto design to find out the influence of student's perception of teacher's knowledge of the subject matter on the Senior Secondary Three (SS 3) students' performance in reading comprehension. Questionnaires reading comprehension test were used in eliciting data. The data were subsequently ...

  9. Does tutor subject-matter expertise influence student achievement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To establish whether or not tutor subject-matter expertise influences student achievement in content-based examinations in the problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum at the University of Transkei (UNITRA) Medical School. Design. A retrospective study of MB ChB III student achievement in end-of-block ...

  10. Teachers mathematical communication profile in explaining subject matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umami, Rohmatul; Budayasa, I. Ketut; Suwarsono, St.

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to see a teachers mathematical communication profile in explaining a subject matter. It is a qualitative research. A high-school junior teacher (i.e., a teacher with 1- to 5-year experience) teaching mathematics at X-Social Class was selected as the subject of this study. The data was collected by observing the teachers mathematical communication in explaining a given material (i.e., the rule of sine) in class and an in-depth interview would be organized respectively. The result showed that the junior teacher explained the subject matter in systematic, complete, fluent, and centered manner. In this case, she began with reminding students on the previous material related to the current material to be learned, informing the current learning objectives, and finally delivering the subject matter. To support her explanation, the teacher also provided some related information, led the students attention into the given material by asking them particular related questions, and did not use any confusing terms. However, the study found that some of high-school teachers still used less appropriate language in explaining materials.

  11. Learning, knowledge building, and subject matter knowledge in school science

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aalst, Jan Cornelis Wouterus

    Following a theoretical analysis of constructivist approaches to collaborative learning, a curriculum development model, the Learning to Knowledge Building Model, is proposed. Two empirical studies of student work with Computer Supported Intentional Learning Environment (CSILE) are then presented; these lend support to the model and explicate in detail the nature and extent of the knowledge developed by elementary school students. The first study is a content analysis of a database developed by a combined Grade 5/6 class as part of a unit on heat and matter, conducted after the children completed their work; the analysis assumes the point of view of a subject matter specialist in the field of the students' inquiry. The second study was conducted while the students' investigation was in progress, and takes the point of view of curriculum coverage; it involved a teacher who used a different model of database use, as well as different subject matter. The proposed LKB model is based on a distinction Bereiter and Scardamalia (1996a) have made between learning and knowledge building (i.e., progressive collaborative problem solving); its aim is to support the design and planning of curriculum units and classroom practices in which knowledge building is central. An important feature of the model is the attention given to ensuring that students learn to evaluate their knowledge and to ask the questions that can advance shared knowledge. Among the findings of the first study are: (a) students who wrote more notes that explicated their commonsense knowledge early in the unit, by means of mixed framework notes, tended to write more notes of high scientific merit later; (b) some of the students in this category tried out their ideas in diverse problem contexts; and (c) they tended to dominate the discussions they started. The second study provides additional insight into the role of the teacher, and the potential role of subject matter specialists, in knowledge building; it

  12. Single-subject grey matter graphs in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijms, Betty M; Möller, Christiane; Vrenken, Hugo; Wink, Alle Meije; de Haan, Willem; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Stam, Cornelis J; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    Coordinated patterns of cortical morphology have been described as structural graphs and previous research has demonstrated that properties of such graphs are altered in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it remains unknown how these alterations are related to cognitive deficits in individuals, as such graphs are restricted to group-level analysis. In the present study we investigated this question in single-subject grey matter networks. This new method extracts large-scale structural graphs where nodes represent small cortical regions that are connected by edges when they show statistical similarity. Using this method, unweighted and undirected networks were extracted from T1 weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging scans of 38 AD patients (19 female, average age 72±4 years) and 38 controls (19 females, average age 72±4 years). Group comparisons of standard graph properties were performed after correcting for grey matter volumetric measurements and were correlated to scores of general cognitive functioning. AD networks were characterised by a more random topology as indicated by a decreased small world coefficient (p = 3.53×10(-5)), decreased normalized clustering coefficient (p = 7.25×10(-6)) and decreased normalized path length (p = 1.91×10(-7)). Reduced normalized path length explained significantly (p = 0.004) more variance in measurements of general cognitive decline (32%) in comparison to volumetric measurements (9%). Altered path length of the parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, fusiform gyrus and precuneus showed the strongest relationship with cognitive decline. The present results suggest that single-subject grey matter graphs provide a concise quantification of cortical structure that has clinical value, which might be of particular importance for disease prognosis. These findings contribute to a better understanding of structural alterations and cognitive dysfunction in AD.

  13. Landscape History and Theory: from Subject Matter to Analytical Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Birksted

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores how landscape history can engage methodologically with the adjacent disciplines of art history and visual/cultural studies. Central to the methodological problem is the mapping of the beholder - spatially, temporally and phenomenologically. In this mapping process, landscape history is transformed from subject matter to analytical tool. As a result, landscape history no longer simply imports and applies ideas from other disciplines but develops its own methodologies to engage and influence them. Landscape history, like art history, thereby takes on a creative cultural presence. Through that process, landscape architecture and garden design regains the cultural power now carried by the arts and museum studies, and has an effect on the innovative capabilities of contemporary landscape design.

  14. On indexes and subject matter of “global competitiveness”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Korotkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to analyze the subject matter of a country’s competitiveness and to characterize statistical indexes of competitiveness known in the international practice from the perspective of a more elaborated theory of market competition. This aim follows from the identified problems. First, there are no generally accepted interpretation and joint understanding of competition and competitiveness at country level. Even the international organizations giving estimations of global competitiveness disagree on definitions of competitiveness. Secondly, there is no relation to the theory of market competition in the available source materials on competitiveness of the country without original methodology. Thirdly, well-known statistical indexes of global competitiveness do not have enough theoretical justification and differ in sets of factors. All this highlights the incompleteness of the methodology and methodological support of studying competitiveness at country level.Materials and methods. The research is based on the methodology of statistics, economic theory and marketing. The authors followed the basic principle of statistical methodology – requirement of continuous combination of qualitative and quantitative analysis, when the research begins and ends with qualitative analysis. A most important section of statistical methodology is widely used – construction of statistical indexes. In the course of the analysis, a method of statistical classifications is applied. A significant role in the present research is given to the method of generalizing and analogue method, realizing that related terms should mean similar and almost similar contents. Modeling of competition and competitiveness is widely used in the present research, which made it possible to develop a logical model of competition following from the competition theory.Results. Based on the definitions’ survey the analysis of the subject matter of global

  15. Cerebral white matter lesions and subjective cognitive dysfunction - The Rotterdam Scan Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, J.C.; de Leeuw, FE; Oudkerk, M; Hofman, A; Jolles, J; Breteler, MMB

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship between cerebral white matter lesions (WML) and subjective cognitive dysfunction. Background: Subjective cognitive dysfunction is present when a person perceives failures of cognitive function. When annoying enough, these failures will be expressed as

  16. 48 CFR 52.227-10 - Filing of Patent Applications-Classified Subject Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filing of Patent... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.227-10 Filing of Patent Applications—Classified Subject Matter. As prescribed at 27.203-2, insert the following clause: Filing of Patent Applications—Classified Subject Matter...

  17. Beyond "Either-Or" Thinking: John Dewey and Confucius on Subject Matter and the Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charlene

    2016-01-01

    This article compares the educational thought of John Dewey and Confucius on the nature of and relationship between subject matter and the learner. There is a common perception in the existing literature and discourse that Dewey advocates child- or learner-centred education whereas Confucius privileges subject matter via textual transmission.…

  18. Florida Master Teacher Program: Testing Teacher Subject Matter Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavely, Carolyn; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The efforts of the Florida Institute for Instructional Research and Practice in designing, developing, and analyzing the subject area knowledge tests of the Florida Master Teacher Program are described. A total of 13 subject area examinations was developed in 1984-85, and 5 additional tests were developed the following year. For each subject area…

  19. GP teachers' subject matter knowledge in the context of a tutorial: the preparation and delivery compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantillon, Peter; de Grave, Willem

    2012-05-01

    Clinical teachers use several different types of knowledge in the act of teaching. These include content knowledge (subject matter), knowledge of how to teach (pedagogy) and knowledge of learners (context). Most attention in faculty development has been on how to teach rather than what is taught. The quality of a teacher's subject matter knowledge is likely to be a critical determinant of how well a subject is presented, communicated and learned. We therefore set out to examine teachers' subject matter knowledge in the context of a general practice tutorial on grade 1 hypertension. This study is part of a larger study that employed a mixed method approach (concept mapping, phenomenological interviews and video-stimulated recall) to examine differences between clinical educators in subject matter knowledge, pedagogical knowledge and knowledge of the learning environment in the context of general practice education. This paper presents the concept map data findings from the larger study as well as the parts of the phenomenological interviews that relate to subject matter knowledge and beliefs. We found that there were marked differences in the quality and elaborative structure of GP teachers' knowledge in the concept maps completed prior to the tutorials. These differences were also predictive of differences in the content presented to learners in tutorials. Teachers' beliefs about subject matter were also likely to have affected what they chose to teach about and how they presented it. Subject matter knowledge varies considerably between GP teachers in the context of a common and relatively simple tutorial. Differences in the quality of subject matter knowledge matter because they have a profound effect on what is learned and how it is learned. Faculty development for clinical educators needs to pay heed to the quality of subject matter knowledge in addition to its more common pedagogical focus.

  20. Nuclear containment structure subjected to commercial and fighter aircraft crash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadique, M.R., E-mail: rehan.sadique@gmail.com; Iqbal, M.A., E-mail: iqbalfce@iitr.ernet.in; Bhargava, P., E-mail: bhpdpfce@iitr.ernet.in

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: • Nuclear containment response has been studied against aircraft crash. • Concrete damaged plasticity and Johnson–Cook elasto-viscoplastic models were employed. • Boeing 747-400 and Boeing 767-400 aircrafts caused global failure of containment. • Airbus A320 and Boeing 707-320 aircrafts caused local damage. • Tension damage of concrete was found more prominent compared to compression damage. -- Abstract: The response of a boiling water reactor (BWR) nuclear containment vessel has been studied against commercial and fighter aircraft crash using a nonlinear finite element code ABAQUS. The aircrafts employed were Boeing 747-400, Boeing 767-400, Airbus A-320, Boeing 707-320 and Phantom F4. The containment was modeled as a three-dimensional deformable reinforced concrete structure while the loading of aircraft was assigned using the respective reaction–time curve. The location of strike was considered near the junction of dome and cylinder, and the angle of incidence, normal to the containment surface. The material behavior of the concrete was incorporated using the damaged plasticity model while that of the reinforcement, the Johnson–Cook elasto-viscoplastic model. The containment could not sustain the impact of Boeing 747-400 and Boeing 767-400 aircrafts and suffered rupture of concrete around the impact region leading to global failure. On the other hand, the maximum local deformation at the point of impact was found to be 0.998 m, 0.099 m, 0.092 m, 0.089 m, and 0.074 m against Boeing 747-400, Phantom F4, Boeing 767, Boeing 707-320 and Airbus A-320 aircrafts respectively. The results of the present study were compared with those of the previous analytical and numerical investigations with respect to the maximum deformation and overall behavior of the containment.

  1. 75 FR 18548 - In the Matter of Certain Products and Pharmaceutical Compositions Containing Recombinant Human...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Products and Pharmaceutical Compositions Containing Recombinant Human... pharmaceutical compositions containing recombinant human erythropoietin by reason of infringement of claims 1 and...

  2. 76 FR 34101 - In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including... integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing same including televisions, media players, and cameras...

  3. Knot numbers used as labels for identifying subject matter of a khipu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Saez-Rodriguez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This investigation presents a new way to look at the numerical khipu, a knotted-string recording device from Pachacamac (Peru, and the types of information it contains. In addition to celestial coordinates, khipu knots apparently pertain to an early form of double-entry accounting. This study hypothesizes that the khipu sample has the recording capacity needed to register double-entry-like accounts. After the identification of its subject matter, the khipu sample was studied in an attempt to ascertain whether the knot values could represent instructions from the Inca state administration to a local accounting center. The results indicate that the numerical information in the pairing quadrants (determined by the distribution of S- and Z-knots should be read from top to bottom along the full length of the string and can then provide certain complementary details regarding the projected corn stocks of the Inca stat

  4. Generating a non-English subjectivity lexicon: relations that matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jijkoun, V.; Hofmann, K.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a method for creating a non-English subjectivity lexicon based on an English lexicon, an online translation service and a general purpose thesaurus: Wordnet. We use a PageRank-like algorithm to bootstrap from the translation of the English lexicon and rank the words in the thesaurus by

  5. Preservice History Teachers' Perceptions of Subject Matter Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Tercan; Yazici, Fatih

    2017-01-01

    Teachers should be able to understand conceptual constructs, viewpoints, and principles related to their field and organize teaching process accordingly. This is valid also for history teachers. They are expected to comprehend the basic conceptions related to subject areas and reflect them on classroom practices. The association between subject…

  6. The interrelationship between subject matter and school gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jacob Højgaard; Wistoft, Karen

    2018-01-01

    This article maps out existing research regarding the effectiveness of integrated teaching in school gardens, i.e. including the math, languages and science subjects with their related objectives and curricula in school garden teaching and vice versa. The article is based on a literature review...... a standard garden curriculum is essential to planning, carrying out and evaluating effective school garden teaching in math, languages and science. Experiential learning and hands-on activities are teaching methods that immediately come to mind because they make the subject content less abstract, activate...... that concludes that school gardens have a predominantly positive influence on students’ learning outcome. However, there are a few school garden programmes that have the same or even a less beneficial influence on students’ learning outcome than traditional teaching. Thus, school gardens do not have...

  7. Didactic Matters in Teaching Subjects of Economics at the College

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Strazdienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been stated in Lithuania‘s National School Concept that the primary goal of the education of Lithuania is to secure the best possible comprehensive development of physical, psychological and spiritual human powers, to create conditions for the unfolding of the personal individuality. The subject of my teaching is economic theory. We face economic questions every day and in all areas of life. Therefore, my purpose is to acquaint college students, who do not study economics, with economic basics, to develop economic thinking and literacy. Greatest attention is paid to describe economic concepts and to use them in practice. Economics can not be learned through observing, one must work, analyse, solve practical exercises, search for correct answers. The purpose of the article is to assess the students‘ approach to the relevance of the subjects of economics. It is sought to identify the possibilities of applying new methods for teaching economic subjects and of selecting a teaching method in accordance with the students‘ level of preparation. The assessment of the research carried out enables to conclude that teaching economics forms students‘ capacities of a wide range, stimulates their self-expression, prepares young people to work in market conditions. The following methods of the research have been employed: pedagogic observation, questionnaire (survey, analysis of scientific literature and generalization.

  8. Subjectivity and Objectivity: A Matter of Life and Death?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrudis Van de Vijver

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it is argued that the question ldquo;What is life?rdquo; time and again emergesmdash;and within the confines of an objectivistic/subjectivistic frame of thought has to emergemdash;as a symptom, a non-deciphered, cryptic message that insists on being interpreted. br /Our hypothesis is that the failure to measure up the living to the standards of objectification has been taken too frequently from an objectivistic angle, leading to a simple postponement of an objective treatment of the living, and meanwhile confining it to the domain of the subjective, the relative and the metaphorical. As a consequence, the truly important question of the co-constitutive relation between objectivity and subjectivity is thereby evaded. A critical, transcendental account can be relevant in this regard, not only because of the fact that objectivity and subjectivity are seen as co-constitutive, but also because it addresses the question of the embeddedness of objectivity and subjectivity from within the living dynamics.br /This hypothesis will be articulated on the basis of Erwin Schrouml;dingerrsquo;s famous little book on ldquo;What is life?rdquo;, in dialogue with Robert Rosenrsquo;s critical reading of it. It appears that Schrouml;dinger considered the living as a genuine challenge for classical objectification procedures. However, it is doubtful whether this brought him to a critical reading of objectivity or to the acknowledgment of a constitutive role of subjectivity in relation to objectivity. We argue that his viewpoint has the merit ofnbsp; expressing the difficulty of the living within the field of the physical sciences, but does not really transcend the objectivism/subjectivism opposition. At this point, Rosenrsquo;s relational account takes up the challenge more radically by acknowledging the need for a new epistemology and a new metaphysics in relation to living systems, and by attributing a place to classical objectivity from within this

  9. Containment performance of prototypical reactor containments subjected to severe accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klamerus, E.W.; Bohn, M.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wesley, D.A. [EQE International, Irvine, CA (United States); Krishnaswamy, C.N. [Sargent & Lundy, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-12-01

    In SECY-90-016, the NTRC proposed a safety goal of a conditional containment failure probability (CCFP) of 0.1 and the alternative acceptance criteria allowed for steel containments, which specifies that the stresses should not exceed ASNE Level C allowables for severe accident pressures and temperatures. In this work, the need for an equivalent criterion for concrete containments was studied. Six surrogate containments were designed and analyzed in order to compare the margins between design pressure, pressure resulting in exceedance of Level C (or yield) stress limits, and ultimate pressure. For comparability, each containment has an identical internal volume and design pressure. Results from the analysis showed margins to yield are comparable and display a similar margin for both steel and concrete containments. In addition, the margin to failure, although slightly higher in the steel containments, were also comparable. Finally, a CCFP for code design was determined based on general membrane behavior and imposing an upper bound severe accident curve developed in the DCH studies. The resulting CCFP`s were less then 0.02 (or 2%) for all the surrogate containments studied, showing that these containment designs all achieved the NRC safety goal.

  10. 37 CFR 1.110 - Inventorship and date of invention of the subject matter of individual claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... invention of the subject matter of individual claims. 1.110 Section 1.110 Patents, Trademarks, and... invention of the subject matter of individual claims. When more than one inventor is named in an application... claim in the application or patent. Where appropriate, the invention dates of the subject matter of each...

  11. Experiential Learning of Electronics Subject Matter in Middle School Robotics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihtaršic, David; Avsec, Stanislav; Kocijancic, Slavko

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the experiential learning of electronics subject matter is effective in the middle school open learning of robotics. Electronics is often ignored in robotics courses. Since robotics courses are typically comprised of computer-related subjects, and mechanical and electrical engineering, these…

  12. One Health in food safety and security education: Subject matter outline for a curricular framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Angelos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Educating students in the range of subjects encompassing food safety and security as approached from a One Health perspective requires consideration of a variety of different disciplines and the interrelationships among disciplines. The Western Institute for Food Safety and Security developed a subject matter outline to accompany a previously published One Health in food safety and security curricular framework. The subject matter covered in this outline encompasses a variety of topics and disciplines related to food safety and security including effects of food production on the environment. This subject matter outline should help guide curriculum development and education in One Health in food safety and security and provides useful information for educators, researchers, students, and public policy-makers facing the inherent challenges of maintaining and/or developing safe and secure food supplies without destroying Earth's natural resources.

  13. Trends in the journal of nematology, 1969-2009: authors, States, nematodes, and subject matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSorley, R

    2011-06-01

    Issues of the Journal of Nematology from 1969-2009 were examined to determine trends in authorship and subject matter. Data were collected on authors, affiliations, locations, funding, nematodes, and nematological subject matter, and then compared among the 4 decades involved. Some of the more prominent changes noted included: a decrease (P Journal of Nematology in the 1990s and 2000s from a peak in the 1980s; an increase (P Journal of Nematology from 1969-2009. The greatest changes in subject matter were increases in papers on biological control and resistance in the 1990s and 2000s compared to the 1970s and 1980s. Additional trends and subjects are discussed, and data are provided comparing differences among the 4 decades for various aspects of nematology.

  14. One Health in food safety and security education: Subject matter outline for a curricular framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelos, John A; Arens, Amanda L; Johnson, Heather A; Cadriel, Jessica L; Osburn, Bennie I

    2017-06-01

    Educating students in the range of subjects encompassing food safety and security as approached from a One Health perspective requires consideration of a variety of different disciplines and the interrelationships among disciplines. The Western Institute for Food Safety and Security developed a subject matter outline to accompany a previously published One Health in food safety and security curricular framework. The subject matter covered in this outline encompasses a variety of topics and disciplines related to food safety and security including effects of food production on the environment. This subject matter outline should help guide curriculum development and education in One Health in food safety and security and provides useful information for educators, researchers, students, and public policy-makers facing the inherent challenges of maintaining and/or developing safe and secure food supplies without destroying Earth's natural resources.

  15. Fiberprint: A subject fingerprint based on sparse code pooling for white matter fiber analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kuldeep; Desrosiers, Christian; Siddiqi, Kaleem; Colliot, Olivier; Toews, Matthew

    2017-09-01

    White matter characterization studies use the information provided by diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) to draw cross-population inferences. However, the structure, function, and white matter geometry vary across individuals. Here, we propose a subject fingerprint, called Fiberprint, to quantify the individual uniqueness in white matter geometry using fiber trajectories. We learn a sparse coding representation for fiber trajectories by mapping them to a common space defined by a dictionary. A subject fingerprint is then generated by applying a pooling function for each bundle, thus providing a vector of bundle-wise features describing a particular subject's white matter geometry. These features encode unique properties of fiber trajectories, such as their density along prominent bundles. An analysis of data from 861 Human Connectome Project subjects reveals that a fingerprint based on approximately 3000 fiber trajectories can uniquely identify exemplars from the same individual. We also use fingerprints for twin/sibling identification, our observations consistent with the twin data studies of white matter integrity. Our results demonstrate that the proposed Fiberprint can effectively capture the variability in white matter fiber geometry across individuals, using a compact feature vector (dimension of 50), making this framework particularly attractive for handling large datasets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Engaging Students with Subject Matter Experts and Science Content Through Classroom Connection Webinars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, P. V.; Rampe, E.; Stefanov, W. L.; Vanderbloemen, L.; Higgins, M.

    2015-01-01

    Connecting students and teachers in classrooms with science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) experts provides an invaluable opportunity. Subject matter experts can share exciting science and science-related events as well as help to "translate" science being conducted by professionals. The Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) Program, facilitated by the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center, has been providing virtual access to subject matter experts through classroom connection webinars for the last five years. Each year, the reach of these events has grown considerably, especially over the last nine months. These virtual connections not only help engage students with role models, but are also designed to help teachers address concepts and content standards they are required to teach. These events also enable scientists and subject matter experts to help "translate" current science in an engaging and understandable manner while actively involving classrooms in the journey of science and exploration.

  17. Trends in the Journal of Nematology, 1969-2009: Authors, States, Nematodes, and Subject Matter

    OpenAIRE

    McSorley, R.

    2011-01-01

    Issues of the Journal of Nematology from 1969-2009 were examined to determine trends in authorship and subject matter. Data were collected on authors, affiliations, locations, funding, nematodes, and nematological subject matter, and then compared among the 4 decades involved. Some of the more prominent changes noted included: a decrease (P < 0.05) in the number of papers published in the Journal of Nematology in the 1990s and 2000s from a peak in the 1980s; an increase (P < 0.05) in number o...

  18. 75 FR 5804 - In the Matter of: Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuits and Products Containing Same; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuits and Products Containing Same; Notice... importation, and sale within the United States after importation of certain semiconductor integrated circuits... infringement certain LSI integrated circuits, as well as certain Seagate hard disk drives that contain the...

  19. 75 FR 51481 - In the Matter of Certain GPS Devices and Products Containing Same; Modification Proceeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain GPS Devices and Products Containing Same; Modification Proceeding Notice... within the United States after importation of certain GPS (Global Positioning System) devices and... within the United States after importation of certain GPS devices and products containing the same. The...

  20. 76 FR 12133 - In the Matter of Certain GPS Devices and Products Containing Same; Enforcement Proceeding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain GPS Devices and Products Containing Same; Enforcement Proceeding... importation of certain GPS devices and products containing the same by reason of infringement of various...

  1. The Effects of CLIL Education on the Subject Matter (Mathematics) and the Target Language (English)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouazizi, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of Content and Language Integrated Learning, CLIL for short, on both the attainment of the subject matter, mathematics in our case, hence the content aspect of CLIL. The second axes of research focuses on the effect of CLIL on the learners' proficiency vis-à-vis the language of instruction, epitomized here by…

  2. On the Importance of Subject Matter in Mathematics Education: A Conversation with Erich Christian Wittmann

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinwunmi, Kathrin; Höveler, Karina; Schnell, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Erich Christian Wittmann is one of the primary founders of mathematics education research as an autonomous field of work and research in Germany. The interview presented here reflects on his role in promoting mathematics education as a design science. The interview addresses the following topics: (1) The importance of subject matter in…

  3. The Structure of Subject Matter Content and Its Instructional Design Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigeluth, Charles M.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Four types of fundamental structures are briefly described and illustrated: the learning hierarchy, the procedural hierarchy, the taxonomy, and the model. Then a theoretical framework is presented for classifying types of subject matter content, and some implications of these content classifications are discussed. (VT)

  4. Pre-Service Geography Teachers' Confidence in Geographical Subject Matter Knowledge and Teaching Geographical Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Wendy; Reitano, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This research tracked the confidence of 16 undergraduate and postgraduate pre-service geography teachers as they completed a single semester, senior phase geography curriculum course. The study focused specifically on the pre-service teachers' confidence in geographical subject matter knowledge and their confidence in teaching geographical skills.…

  5. The Designer-by-Assignment in Practice: Instructional Design Thinking of Subject Matter Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, Sandra V.

    2012-01-01

    Designers-by-assignment, or subject matter experts (SMEs) who are pressed into training service, have become common in the workplace. A review of more than 24 studies on expert and novice instructional designers, however, revealed that little is known about how designers-by-assignment think about design and make design decisions in the field. A…

  6. The Dialectical Nature of Writing and Its Implications for Learning Subject Matter Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Males, Terry

    1997-01-01

    Looks at writing as a dialectical affair--"dialectic" refers both to the dialogical nature of writing and the opportunity it opens up for the writer in coming to a new understanding of the subject matter. Uses H. Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics as a starting point for developing writing as a dialectical process. (PA)

  7. Reclaiming the Subject Matter as a Guide to Mutual Understanding: Effectiveness and Ethics in Interpersonal Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deetz, Stanley

    1990-01-01

    Presents H. G. Gadamer's ontology of understanding as a developmental foundation for interpersonal system ethics. Conceptualizes interaction in terms of demand that the subject matter places on openly formed mutual understanding. Shows unethical interactions as practices which prohibit this development. Provides examples of processes by which…

  8. What Do Subject Matter Experts Have to Say about Participating in Education and Outreach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Colleen; NASA's Universe of Learning Team

    2018-01-01

    NASA’s Universe of Learning partners wish to actively engage with Subject Matter Experts (scientists and engineers) throughout the design, development, and delivery of products, programs, and professional development. In order to ensure these engagement efforts aligned with the needs of Subject Matter Experts, the external evaluators conducted an online survey. The subject pool included the scientists and engineers employed at the partner organizations as well as other scientists and engineers affiliated with NASA’s Astrophysics missions and research programs. This presentation will describe scientists’/engineers’ interest in various types of education/outreach, their availability to participate in education/outreach, factors that would encourage their participation in education/outreach, and the preparation and support they have for participation in education/outreach.

  9. NPY mRNA Expression in the Prefrontal Cortex: Selective Reduction in the Superficial White Matter of Subjects with Schizoaffective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Harvey M.; Stopczynski, Rachelle E.; Lewis, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Alterations in the inhibitory circuitry of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in schizophrenia include reduced expression of the messenger RNA (mRNA) for somatostatin (SST), a neuropeptide present in a subpopulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is expressed in a subset of SST-containing interneurons and lower levels of NPY mRNA have also been reported in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. However, whether the alterations in these two transcripts identify the same, particularly vulnerable, subset of GABA neurons has not been examined. Methods We used in situ hybridization to quantify NPY mRNA levels in DLPFC gray and white matter from 23 pairs of subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and matched normal control subjects; results were compared to those from a previous study of SST mRNA expression in the same subjects. Results In contrast to SST mRNA, NPY mRNA levels were not significantly lower in the gray matter of subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. However, NPY, but not SST, mRNA expression was significantly lower in the superficial white matter of subjects with schizoaffective disorder. Conclusion These findings suggest that the alterations in SST-containing interneurons in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder are selective for the subset that do not express NPY mRNA, and that lower NPY mRNA expression in the superficial white matter may distinguish subjects with schizoaffective disorder from those with schizophrenia. PMID:19804960

  10. John Dewey on theory of learning and inquiry: The scientific method and subject matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Nien

    This study examines the educational debate between Dewey and some of his critics on the merits of learning the scientific method. Four of Dewey's critics---Hutchins, Hirsch, Hirst, and Scheffler criticize Dewey for over-emphasizing the importance of the scientific method and under-emphasizing the importance of subject matter in education. This dissertation argues that these critics misunderstand Dewey's use of the scientific method and its importance in education. It argues that Dewey conceives of the scientific method in two different ways: first as an attitude and second as a tool. It also argues that, by failing to understand this critical distinction, these critics misunderstand the role of the scientific method in education. The dissertation concludes by showing that, educationally, Dewey's ideas of the scientific method have different meanings in different context. It analyzes the scientific method as empirical method, critical thinking, cooperative learning, and creative thinking, and shows the place of subject matter in each of them.

  11. White Matter Hyperintensity Associations with Cerebral Blood Flow in Elderly Subjects Stratified by Cerebrovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Ahmed A; Powell, David K; Yu, Guoquiang; Johnson, Eleanor S; Jicha, Gregory A; Smith, Charles D

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to add clarity to the relationship between deep and periventricular brain white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and cerebrovascular risk in older persons. Deep white matter hyperintensity (dWMH) and periventricular white matter hyperintensity (pWMH) and regional gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) blood flow from arterial spin labeling were quantified from magnetic resonance imaging scans of 26 cognitively normal elderly subjects stratified by cerebrovascular disease (CVD) risk. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images were acquired using a high-resolution 3-dimensional (3-D) sequence that reduced partial volume effects seen with slice-based techniques. dWMHs but not pWMHs were increased in patients at high risk of CVD; pWMHs but not dWMHs were associated with decreased regional cortical (GM) blood flow. We also found that blood flow in WM is decreased in regions of both pWMH and dWMH, with a greater degree of decrease in pWMH areas. WMHs are usefully divided into dWMH and pWMH regions because they demonstrate differential effects. 3-D regional WMH volume is a potentially valuable marker for CVD based on associations with cortical CBF and WM CBF. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Problems Faced By Elementary School Second Grade English Subject Matter Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belgin Bal Incebacak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of thisstudy isto determine the problems experienced by subject matter teachers while instructing English lessons in the second grade of elementary school. What are the problemsfaced by English subject matter teachers when they instruct in 2nd grade lessons? In this research the descriptive modeling, which is one of the qualitative research methods, was employed. In accordance with this objective, we worked with 8 subject matter teachers from 5 different schoolsinAtakum and Ilkadim districtslocated in downtown Samsun, through easily accessible case sampling. The semi-structured “English Course Interview Form’’was applied to the teachers. In the study, descriptive survey model was employed, since it was aimed to reveal the current status of qualitative research methods.According to the results obtained from the research, the content was configured and presented under 5 themes. They were categorized as: 1. the problems experienced in classroom management, 2. the problems in physical and cognitive readiness, 3. the problems experienced in the learning and teacher process, 4. the problems seen in counseling, 5. the problems experienced in assessment and evaluation. In conclusion, the teachers stated that they had problems with managing the classroom, especially with the second grade students, whom are younger than others. It is observed that the change for teaching English at a younger age has been appropriate. Our teachersstated that they required in-service training so as to adapt to this aforementioned change.

  13. Further Study on Strain Growth in Spherical Containment Vessels Subjected to Internal Blast Loading

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Strain growth is a phenomenon observed in the elastic response of containment vessels subjected to internal blast loading, which is featured by the increased vibration amplitude of the vessel in a later stage. Previous studies attributed the strain growth in spherical containment vessels to the beating between two close vibration modes, the interactions between the vessel vibration and the reflected shock waves and the structural perturbation. In this paper, it is shown th...

  14. Open Distribution of Virtual Containers as a Key Framework for Open Educational Resources and STEAM Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbi, Alberto; Burgos, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents how virtual containers enhance the implementation of STEAM (science, technology, engineering, arts, and math) subjects as Open Educational Resources (OER). The publication initially summarizes the limitations of delivering open rich learning contents and corresponding assignments to students in college level STEAM areas. The…

  15. OntoBrowser: a collaborative tool for curation of ontologies by subject matter experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravagli, Carlo; Pognan, Francois; Marc, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The lack of controlled terminology and ontology usage leads to incomplete search results and poor interoperability between databases. One of the major underlying challenges of data integration is curating data to adhere to controlled terminologies and/or ontologies. Finding subject matter experts with the time and skills required to perform data curation is often problematic. In addition, existing tools are not designed for continuous data integration and collaborative curation. This results in time-consuming curation workflows that often become unsustainable. The primary objective of OntoBrowser is to provide an easy-to-use online collaborative solution for subject matter experts to map reported terms to preferred ontology (or code list) terms and facilitate ontology evolution. Additional features include web service access to data, visualization of ontologies in hierarchical/graph format and a peer review/approval workflow with alerting. The source code is freely available under the Apache v2.0 license. Source code and installation instructions are available at http://opensource.nibr.com This software is designed to run on a Java EE application server and store data in a relational database. philippe.marc@novartis.com. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  16. Habitual sleep durations and subjective sleep quality predict white matter differences in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakh Khalsa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-imposed short sleep durations are increasingly commonplace in society, and have considerable health and performance implications for individuals. Reduced sleep duration over multiple nights has similar behavioural effects to those observed following acute total sleep deprivation, suggesting that lack of sleep affects brain function cumulatively. A link between habitual sleep patterns and functional connectivity has previously been observed, and the effect of sleep duration on the brain's intrinsic functional architecture may provide a link between sleep status and cognition. However, it is currently not known whether differences in habitual sleep patterns across individuals are related to changes in the brain's white matter, which underlies structural connectivity. In the present study we use diffusion–weighted imaging and a group comparison application of tract based spatial statistics (TBSS to investigate changes to fractional anisotropy (FA and mean diffusivity (MD in relation to sleep duration and quality, hypothesising that white matter metrics would be positively associated with sleep duration and quality. Diffusion weighted imaging data was acquired from a final cohort of 33 (23–29 years, 10 female, mean 25.4 years participants. Sleep patterns were assessed for a 14 day period using wrist actigraphs and sleep diaries, and subjective sleep quality with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. Median splits based on total sleep time and PSQI were used to create groups of shorter/longer and poorer/better sleepers, whose imaging data was compared using TBSS followed by post-hoc correlation analysis in regions identified as significantly different between the groups. There were significant positive correlations between sleep duration and FA in the left orbito-frontal region and the right superior corona radiata, and significant negative correlations between sleep duration and MD in right orbito-frontal white matter and the right

  17. Evidence of two distinct mechanisms driving photoinduced matter motion in thin films containing azobenzene derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, F; Garrot, D; Lahlil, K; Boilot, J P; Lassailly, Y; Peretti, J

    2011-02-17

    Photoinduced matter motion in thin films containing azobenzene derivatives grafted to a polymer backbone is investigated by means of near-field probe microscopy. We evidence the existence of two different photomechanical processes which produce mass transport. One is governed by the light intensity pattern and the other by the light polarization pattern. The intensity-driven mechanism is found to critically depend on the polymer matrix while the polarization-driven mechanism occurs with almost the same efficiency in different materials. Depending on the relationship between the polarization and intensity patterns, the two processes may either compete or cooperate giving rise to a nontrivial directional mass transport process.

  18. Safety analysis of nuclear containment vessels subjected to strong earthquakes and subsequent tsunamis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Feng; Li, Hong Zhi [Dept. Structural Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai (China)

    2017-08-15

    Nuclear power plants under expansion and under construction in China are mostly located in coastal areas, which means they are at risk of suffering strong earthquakes and subsequent tsunamis. This paper presents a safety analysis for a new reinforced concrete containment vessel in such events. A finite element method-based model was built, verified, and first used to understand the seismic performance of the containment vessel under earthquakes with increased intensities. Then, the model was used to assess the safety performance of the containment vessel subject to an earthquake with peak ground acceleration (PGA) of 0.56g and subsequent tsunamis with increased inundation depths, similar to the 2011 Great East earthquake and tsunami in Japan. Results indicated that the containment vessel reached Limit State I (concrete cracking) and Limit State II (concrete crushing) when the PGAs were in a range of 0.8–1.1g and 1.2–1.7g, respectively. The containment vessel reached Limit State I with a tsunami inundation depth of 10 m after suffering an earthquake with a PGA of 0.56g. A site-specific hazard assessment was conducted to consider the likelihood of tsunami sources.

  19. 75 FR 62420 - In the Matter of: Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... Matter of: Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of... importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing same by reason of... importation of certain ground fault circuit interrupters and products containing same that infringe one or...

  20. 75 FR 55604 - In the Matter of Certain Flash Memory Chips and Products Containing the Same; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Flash Memory Chips and Products Containing the Same; Notice of... importation of certain flash memory chips and products containing the same by reason of infringement of... after importation of certain flash memory chips and products containing the same that infringe one or...

  1. 76 FR 54254 - In the Matter of Certain Light Emitting Diodes and Products Containing Same; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Light Emitting Diodes and Products Containing Same; Notice of Institution... products containing same by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent No. 7,928,465 (``the... products containing same that infringe one or more of claims 1, 2, 10, 11, 13-15, 17, 18, 20-23, 26-34, and...

  2. 76 FR 5206 - In the Matter of Certain Game Devices, Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Game Devices, Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same... products containing the same by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent No. 7,787,411... thereof, and products containing the same that infringe one or more of claims 1 and 7 of the `411 patent...

  3. 76 FR 13433 - In the Matter of Certain Mems Devices and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission Decision...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Mems Devices and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission Decision... United States after importation of certain microelectromechanical systems (``MEMS'') devices and products...

  4. Niacinamide-containing facial moisturizer improves skin barrier and benefits subjects with rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe Diana; Ertel, Keith; Berge, Cindy

    2005-08-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that some moisturizers can improve stratum corneum barrier function, as well as ameliorate dry skin. The clinical signs and symptoms of rosacea, which include increased facial skin dryness and sensitivity, suggest a possible role for such moisturizers as an adjuvant in the management of this condition. This randomized, investigator-blind, controlled observational study (N = 50) was designed to assess whether a niacinamide-containing facial moisturizer would improve the stratum corneum barrier and thus provide a clinical benefit to subjects with rosacea. Subjects with rosacea applied the test moisturizer to their face and to one forearm twice daily for 4 weeks. The other forearm remained untreated as a control. Barrier function on the forearms was assessed instrumentally and using a dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) chemical probe. Stratum corneum hydration also was measured instrumentally. The dermatologist investigator evaluated each subject's rosacea condition over the course of the study, and subjects self-assessed their facial skin condition at study end. Instruments provided objective measures of stratum corneum barrier function and hydration on the face.

  5. The Effects of Verbal Rewards and Punishment on Subject-Matter Growth of Culturally Disadvantaged First Grade Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, Joan K.; Soar, Robert S.

    The purpose of this study was to extend a relationship between teacher verbal rewarding and punishing behavior and subject matter growth previously obtained with middle-class postprimary children, with a different population; namely, first-grade, lower-class children. The subjects were 366 children and 20 teachers from first-grade classes…

  6. Subject matter knowledge, classroom management, and instructional practices in middle school science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Okhee

    This study examined the interrelationships among three major components of classroom teaching: subject matter content knowledge, classroom management, and instructional practices. The study involved two middle school science classes of different achievement levels taught by the same female teacher. The teacher held an undergraduate degree with a major in social studies and a minor in mathematics and science from an elementary teacher education program. The findings indicated that the teacher's limited knowledge of science content and her strict classroom order resulted in heavy dependence on the textbook and students' individual activities (e.g., seatwork) and avoidance of whole-class activities (e.g., discussion) similarly in both classes. Implications for educational practices and further research are discussed.

  7. Systemic lupus erythematosus patients contain significantly less igm against mono-methylated lysine than healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Sha; Liu, Ying; Ma, Younan; Zhao, Qing; Zhu, Liping; Shao, Yuehu; Gao, Fengying; Wu, Fengqi; Gao, Ruitong; Zhang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Post-translational modifications on proteins are important in biological processes but may create neo-epitopes that induce autoimmune responses. In this study, we measured the serum IgG and IgM response to a set of non-modified or acetyl- and methyl-modified peptides corresponding to residues 1-19 of the histone 3 N-terminal tail in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and healthy subjects. Our results indicated that the SLE patients and healthy subjects produced antibodies (Abs) to the peptides, but the two groups had different Ab isotype and epitope preferences. Abs to the non-modified form, H31-19, were of the IgG isotype and produced by SLE patients. They could not recognize the scrambled H31-19, which contained the same amino acid composition but a different sequence as H31-19. In comparison, healthy subjects in general did not produce IgG against H31-19. However, about 70% of the healthy subjects produced IgM Abs against mono-methylated K9 of H31-19 (H31-19K9me). Our further studies revealed that ε-amine mono-methylated lysine could completely inhibit the IgM binding to H31-19K9me, but lysine had no inhibitory effect. In addition, the IgM Abs could bind peptides containing a mono-methylated lysine residue but with totally different sequences. Thus, mono-methylated lysine was the sole epitope for the IgM. Interestingly, SLE patients had much lower levels of this type of IgM. There was no obvious correlation between the IgM levels and disease activity and the decreased IgM was unlikely caused by medical treatments.We also found that the IgM Abs were not polyreactive to dsDNA, ssDNA, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or insulin and they did not exist in umbilical cord serum, implying that they were not natural Abs. The IgM Abs against mono-methylated lysine are present in healthy subjects but are significantly lower in SLE patients, suggesting a distinct origin of production and special physiological functions.

  8. 75 FR 60480 - In the Matter of Certain Bulk Welding Wire Containers and Components Thereof and Welding Wire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Bulk Welding Wire Containers and Components Thereof and Welding Wire... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain bulk welding wire containers, components thereof, and welding wire by reason of infringement of certain claims of United States Patent Nos...

  9. 75 FR 80844 - In the Matter of Certain Digital Television Products and Certain Products Containing Same and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Digital Television Products and Certain Products Containing Same and... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain digital television products... importation into the United States of certain digital televisions and certain products containing the same...

  10. 75 FR 76024 - In the Matter of Certain GPS Devices and Products Containing Same; Enforcement Proceeding; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain GPS Devices and Products Containing Same; Enforcement Proceeding; Notice... importation of certain global positioning system (``GPS'') devices and products containing the same by reason... and cease-and-desist orders against SiRF, Pharos, and Mio. The remedial orders are directed to GPS...

  11. 76 FR 15340 - In the Matter of Certain GPS Devices and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain GPS Devices and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission... certain GPS devices and products containing the same by reason of infringement of various claims of U.S...

  12. 76 FR 28809 - In the Matter of Certain Mems Devices and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission Decision...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Mems Devices and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission Decision... certain microelectromechanical systems (``MEMS'') devices and products containing the same by reason of... relief is a limited exclusion order prohibiting the unlicensed entry of MEMS devices and products...

  13. 75 FR 6705 - In the Matter of: Certain Liquid Crystal Display Modules and Products Containing the Same, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain Liquid Crystal Display Modules and Products Containing the Same, and Methods for Making the Same; Notice of Investigation AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION... and products containing the same, and methods for making the same by reason of infringement of certain...

  14. 76 FR 30968 - In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Products Containing Same, and Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Products Containing Same, and Methods for Using the Same; Notice of Commission Decision Not To Review an Initial Determination Terminating the... importation of certain liquid crystal display (``LCD'') devices, products containing same, and methods for...

  15. 75 FR 49523 - In the Matter of Certain Digital Television Products and Certain Products Containing Same and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Digital Television Products and Certain Products Containing Same and Methods of Using Same; Notice of Commission Determination To Rescind a Limited Exclusion Order and Cease... digital television products and certain products containing same by reason of infringement of one or more...

  16. 75 FR 81310 - In the Matter of Certain Digital Television Products and Certain Products Containing Same and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Digital Television Products and Certain Products Containing Same and Methods Of Using Same; Notice of Commission Determination To Modify a Limited Exclusion Order and Cease... containing same by reason of infringement of one or more claims of U.S. Patent Nos. 6,115,074 (``the `074...

  17. 76 FR 42138 - In the Matter of Certain Digital Television Products and Certain Products Containing Same and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Digital Television Products and Certain Products Containing Same and Methods of Using Same; Notice of Commission Determination to Rescind a Limited Exclusion Order and Cease... certain digital televisions and certain products containing same by reason of infringement of certain...

  18. 75 FR 14470 - In the Matter of: Certain Liquid Crystal Display Modules and Products Containing the Same, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain Liquid Crystal Display Modules and Products Containing the Same, and Methods for Making the Same; Notice of a Commission Determination Not To Review an Initial Determination... importation of certain liquid crystal display modules, products containing the same, and methods for making...

  19. The genealogy of sequences containing multiple sites subject to strong selection in a subdivided population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordborg, Magnus; Innan, Hideki

    2003-03-01

    A stochastic model for the genealogy of a sample of recombining sequences containing one or more sites subject to selection in a subdivided population is described. Selection is incorporated by dividing the population into allelic classes and then conditioning on the past sizes of these classes. The past allele frequencies at the selected sites are thus treated as parameters rather than as random variables. The purpose of the model is not to investigate the dynamics of selection, but to investigate effects of linkage to the selected sites on the genealogy of the surrounding chromosomal region. This approach is useful for modeling strong selection, when it is natural to parameterize the past allele frequencies at the selected sites. Several models of strong balancing selection are used as examples, and the effects on the pattern of neutral polymorphism in the chromosomal region are discussed. We focus in particular on the statistical power to detect balancing selection when it is present.

  20. Grey-Matter Metabolism in Relation with White-Matter Lesions in Older Hypertensive Patients with Subjective Memory Complaints: A Pilot Voxel-Based Analysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Antoine; Hossu, Gabriela; Kearney-Schwartz, Anna; Bracard, Serge; Roch, Veronique; Van der Gucht, Axel; Fay, Renaud; Benetos, Athanase; Marie, Pierre-Yves; Joly, Laure

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the changes in brain metabolism related to white-matter magnetic resonance (MR) hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin, with a voxel-based quantitative analysis of (18F)-fluorodesoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging. Sixty older hypertensive patients with subjective memory complaints (75 ± 5 years, 34 women) were prospectively referred to FDG-PET and MRI brain imaging. The Statistical Parametric Mapping software was used to assess the correlation between brain distribution of FDG and white-matter hyperintensities assessed by the Fazekas score on MRI images. The Fazekas score was inversely related to FDG uptake, independently of age and gender, within 14 Brodmann areas located mainly in the frontal lobe but also in certain limbic, insular and temporal areas. This relationship was also found to be largely independent of the volume of grey matter expressed in percentage of cranial volume, an index of atrophy. White-matter MR hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin are cross-sectionally associated with a lower grey-matter metabolism, mainly but not only within frontal areas and independently of age, gender and grey-matter atrophy. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. 'The body does matter': Women as embodied social subjects in Angela Carter's Nights at the Circus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milosavljević Tatjana B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Postmodernism posed a crucial ontological challenge to reality, questioning what constitutes the real world, simultaneously interrogating the horizon of representation of this unstable reality in fiction. Feminism on the other hand equipped us with critical tools for interpreting the reality of being in the world in a gendered body, as well as with a conceptual apparatus for interpreting the manifold institutional and private oppressions of women's bodies that play out in women's daily lives and in the discourses that shape them, literary discourse being one of them. This paper argues that Angela Carter's 1984 novel Nights at the Circus, which is widely held as a postfeminist text due to its narrative commitment to transcending gender binaries, essentially uses the strategies of postmodern storytelling and characterization in order to explore women's embodied potentialities of agency i.e. their construction of subjectivity through body. We will argue that the hybrid magic realist narrative constructs Fevvers' body as a titillating postmodern performance, ontologically illusive and elusive, yet it grounds that same body in various socially effected predicaments and experiences that serve to show that even in the midst of a play of signifiers, in Patricia Waugh's words, 'the body does matter, at least to what has been the dominant perspective within British female fiction' (Waugh, 2006, p. 196. In other words, it may be argued that Carter's novel is invested in traditional second-wave feminist politics to the extent that it shows that a woman's body is an indispensable medium of being in the world with material consequences that bear on the formation of her subjectivity and possibility of agency, and through which she acts out her relationships to others and is acted upon.

  2. NASA's Universe of Learning: The Integral Role of Research Astronomers and Other Subject Matter Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Janice; Universe of Learning Team

    2018-01-01

    Astronomy seeks to understand the workings of the Universe on its largest scales, and to answer fundamental questions about the story of our origins. The science of astronomy thus naturally lends itself to informal education and public outreach activities, as it broadly captures the human imagination. There are at least three overall goals for investment of resources in Astronomy E/PO: to interest students in pursuing STEM education and careers; to develop Astronomy as context for teaching more basic physical and computer science in service of US National Education Goals; to help motivate continued public support of federally funded Astronomy research and technology development. Providing a full spectrum of opportunities for the public to learn about recent Astronomy discoveries is key to achieving these societal goals. Thus, the E/PO professional community must have an understanding of recent scientific/technological results, and engage with the researchers who are creating new knowledge to explicate that knowledge to the public. It stands to reason that researchers (or “subject matter experts, SMEs”) must be involved in and remain connected to the E/PO endeavor. In this talk, I will describe how research astronomers and other SMEs play an integral role in a full range of informal education programming developed by the NASA Universe of Learning collaboration, and opportunities to get involved.

  3. Cognitive Control and White Matter Callosal Microstructure in Methamphetamine Dependent Subjects: A DTI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Ruth; Nordahl, Thomas E; Buonocore, Michael H; Natsuaki, Yutaka; Waters, Christy; Moore, Charles D; Galloway, Gantt P; Leamon, Martin H

    2009-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine (MA) abuse causes damage to structures within the human cerebrum, with particular susceptibility to white matter (WM). Abnormalities have been reported in anterior regions with less evidence of changes in posterior regions. MA abusers have also shown deficits on attention tests that measure response conflict and cognitive control. Methods We examined cognitive control using a computerized measure of the Stroop selective attention task and indices of WM microstructure obtained from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the callosal genu and splenium of 37 currently abstinent MA abusers and 17 non-substance abusing controls. Measurements of Fractional Anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of callosal fibers and diffusion tensor eigenvalues were obtained in all subjects. Results The MA abusers exhibited greater Stroop reaction time interference (i.e., reduced cognitive control) [p=.04] compared to controls. After correcting for multiple comparisons, FA within the genu correlated significantly with measures of cognitive control in the MA abusers [p=.04, bonferroni corrected] but not in controls [p=.26]. Group differences in genu, but not splenium, FA were trend significant [p=.09]. Conclusions MA abuse appears to alter anterior callosal WM microstructure with less evidence of change within posterior callosal WM microstructure. DTI indices within the genu, but not splenium, correlated with measures of cognitive control in chronic MA abusers. PMID:18814867

  4. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  5. What Subject Matter Knowledge Do Second-Level Teachers Need to Know to Teach Trigonometry? An Exploration and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Richard; Fitzmaurice, Olivia; O'Donoghue, John

    2017-01-01

    This study reports on the level of trigonometry Subject Matter Knowledge (SMK) of third and final-year pre-service second-level mathematics teachers () at an Irish third-level institution. The aim of the study was to determine if this sample of prospective teachers has an appropriate level of SMK to teach second-level trigonometric concepts. The…

  6. A Methodology for Investigating the Interactions of Individual Differences and Subject Matter Characteristics with Instructional Methods. ; Report 67.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigeluth, Charles M.

    This paper presents a general model for conceptualizing and testing the interactions of individual differences and subject-matter characteristics with instructional methods. The model postulates certain ways of classifying the variables of interest in such investigations and of conceptualizing the cause-and-effect relationships among those classes…

  7. Which One Is Better? Jigsaw II versus Jigsaw IV on the Subject of the Building Blocks of Matter and Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkmen, Hakan; Buyukaltay, Didem

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effect of using Jigsaw II and Jigsaw IV techniques on the subject of "Atoms-The Basic Unit of Matter" in science course of 6th grade on academic achievement was examined. Pre-test post-test control group research was used in the study. Study population is all secondary schools in Turgutlu district of Manisa province…

  8. "Frustrated" or "Surprised?" An Examination of the Perspectives of Spanish Teacher Candidates regarding the Praxis II Subject-Matter Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Researchers (Sandarg & Schomber, 2009; Wilkerson, Schomber, & Sandarg, 2004) have urged the profession to develop a new subject-matter licensure test to reflect the best practices in the foreign language classroom. In October 2010, the Praxis II: World Language Test joined the Praxis Series. Given that this standards-driven test differs…

  9. Reflective Pedagogy: The Integration of Methodology and Subject-Matter Content in a Graduate-Level Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakeman, Rick C.; Henderson, Markesha M.; Howard, Lionel C.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a critical reflection on how we, instructors of a graduate-level course in higher education administration, sought to integrate theoretical and subject-matter content and research methodology. Our reflection, guided by autoethnography and teacher reflection, challenged both our assumptions about curriculum design and our…

  10. The Knowledge Base of Subject Matter Experts in Teaching: A Case Study of a Professional Scientist as a Beginning Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diezmann, Carmel M.; Watters, James J.

    2015-01-01

    One method of addressing the shortage of science and mathematics teachers is to train scientists and other science-related professionals to become teachers. Advocates argue that as discipline experts these career changers can relate the subject matter knowledge to various contexts and applications in teaching. In this paper, through interviews and…

  11. Shared Knowledge among Graphic Designers, Instructional Designers and Subject Matter Experts in Designing Multimedia-Based Instructional Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Rafiza Abdul

    2013-01-01

    The research identified and explored the shared knowledge among the instructional multimedia design and development experts comprising of subject matter expert, graphic designer and instructional designer. The knowledge shared by the team was categorized into three groups of multimedia design principles encompasses of basic principles, authoring…

  12. The Impact of Self-Perceived Subject Matter Knowledge on Pedagogical Decisions in EFL Grammar Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Hugo Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in language teacher cognition research highlight the need to explore subject matter knowledge in relation to classroom practice. This study examines the impact of two foreign language teachers' knowledge about grammar upon their pedagogical decisions. The primary database consisted of classroom observations and post-lesson…

  13. The Effect of Applying Elements of Instructional Design on Teaching Material for the Subject of Classification of Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdilek, Zehra; Ozkan, Muhlis

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of instructional materials for the subject of classification of matter as solids, liquids and gases that were developed using a holistic instructional design model on student achievement. In the study a pre-test/post-test with control group experimental design was used. The study was conducted in the…

  14. Resting state cortical electroencephalographic rhythms are related to gray matter volume in subjects with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiloni, Claudio; Carducci, Filippo; Lizio, Roberta; Vecchio, Fabrizio; Baglieri, Annalisa; Bernardini, Silvia; Cavedo, Enrica; Bozzao, Alessandro; Buttinelli, Carla; Esposito, Fabrizio; Giubilei, Franco; Guizzaro, Antonio; Marino, Silvia; Montella, Patrizia; Quattrocchi, Carlo C; Redolfi, Alberto; Soricelli, Andrea; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Ferri, Raffaele; Rossi-Fedele, Giancarlo; Ursini, Francesca; Scrascia, Federica; Vernieri, Fabrizio; Pedersen, Torleif Jan; Hardemark, Hans-Goran; Rossini, Paolo M; Frisoni, Giovanni B

    2013-06-01

    Cortical gray matter volume and resting state cortical electroencephalographic rhythms are typically abnormal in subjects with amnesic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we tested the hypothesis that in amnesic MCI and AD subjects, abnormalities of EEG rhythms are a functional reflection of cortical atrophy across the disease. Eyes-closed resting state EEG data were recorded in 57 healthy elderly (Nold), 102 amnesic MCI, and 108 AD patients. Cortical gray matter volume was indexed by magnetic resonance imaging recorded in the MCI and AD subjects according to Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative project (http://www.adni-info.org/). EEG rhythms of interest were delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha1 (8-10.5 Hz), alpha2 (10.5-13 Hz), beta1 (13-20 Hz), beta2 (20-30 Hz), and gamma (30-40 Hz). These rhythms were indexed by LORETA. Compared with the Nold, the MCI showed a decrease in amplitude of alpha 1 sources. With respect to the Nold and MCI, the AD showed an amplitude increase of delta sources, along with a strong amplitude reduction of alpha 1 sources. In the MCI and AD subjects as a whole group, the lower the cortical gray matter volume, the higher the delta sources, the lower the alpha 1 sources. The better the score to cognitive tests the higher the gray matter volume, the lower the pathological delta sources, and the higher the alpha sources. These results suggest that in amnesic MCI and AD subjects, abnormalities of resting state cortical EEG rhythms are not epiphenomena but are strictly related to neurodegeneration (atrophy of cortical gray matter) and cognition. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Digestion of dry matter and amino acids and energy utilization by chicks fed molded corn containing mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, T S; Johnson, Z B; Kirby, L K; Beasley, J N

    1982-03-01

    A study was conducted to determine the ability of chicks to digest dry matter and amino acids and to utilize the energy from uncontaminated corn and contaminated corn containing mycotoxins. The contaminated corn contained either aflatoxin from natural molding, citrinin by artificially molding with a Penicillum spp., or ochratoxin by inoculation with Aspergillus ochraceus. Compared to uncontaminated corn, none of the criteria measured was affected in corn contaminated with aflatoxin. Dry matter digestibility, amino acid digestibility, and energy utilization were reduced (P less than .05) when corn was artificially molded with the Pencillium spp. and with A. ochraceus.

  16. Rhetorical meta-language to promote the development of students' writing skills and subject matter understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelger, Susanne; Sigrell, Anders

    2016-01-01

    students' understanding of their subject matter.

  17. Girl Scouts and Subject Matter Experts: What’s the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Pamela; Girls Scouts of Northern California, Girl Scouts USA, Astronomical Society of the Pacifica, Univeristy of Arizona, and ARIES Scientific.

    2018-01-01

    Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts (Girl Scout Stars) fosters interaction between Girl Scouts and NASA Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), disseminates NASA STEM education-related resources, and engages Girl Scouts in NASA science and programs through space science badges and summer camps.A space science badge is in development for each of the six levels of Girl Scouts: Daisies, Grades K – 1; Brownies, Grades 2 -3; Juniors, Grades 4 -5; Cadettes, Grades 6 -8; Seniors, Grades 9 -10; and Ambassadors, Grades 11 -12. Indirectly, SMEs will reach tens of thousands of girls through the badges. SETI Institute SMEs Institute and SME Co-Is located at ARIES Scientific, Astronomical Society of the Pacific, University of Arizona, and Girl Scouts of Northern California developed and modified astronomy activities for the Girl Scouts USA badge writers to finesse into the Girl Scout formats. Revisions are reviewed by SMEs for accuracy. Each badge includes a step option that encourages girls to connect with SMEs, and recommendations for volunteers.A total of 127 girls from 31 states and the District of Columbia attendedTotal Eclipse Destination Camps at three locations. SMEs led activities and tours, inspiring girls to consider STEM careers. University of Arizona (U of A) SMEs lead Astronomy Camp for Volunteers, enabling volunteers to lead and inspire Girl Scouts in their respective Girl Scout Councils. A Destination Camp for Girl Scouts was also held at U of A. Girls experience authentic astronomy, learning how to collect and analyze data.Eleven teams comprised of two Girl Scouts, a volunteer or Council Staff, and an amateur astronomer attended Astronomy Club Camp, held at NASA GSFC. SMEs delivered science content. The girls will lead the formation of astronomy clubs in their councils, and will train their successors. SMEs will present and coach the clubs during monthly webinars.This presentation will highlight success and discuss lessons learned that are applicable

  18. Frequency of use controls chemical leaching from drinking-water containers subject to disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andra, Syam S; Makris, Konstantinos C; Shine, James P

    2011-12-15

    Microbial-, and chemical-based burden of disease associated with lack of access to safe water continues to primarily impact developing countries. Cost-effective health risk-mitigating measures, such as of solar disinfection applied to microbial-contaminated water stored in plastic bottles have been increasingly tested in developing countries adversely impacted by epidemic water-borne diseases. Public health concerns associated with chemical leaching from water packaging materials led us to investigate the magnitude and variability of antimony (Sb) and bromine (Br) leaching from reused plastic containers (polyethylene terephthalate, PET; and polycarbonate, PC) subject to UV and/or temperature-driven disinfection. The overall objective of this study was to determine the main and interactive effects of temperature, UV exposure duration, and frequency of bottle reuse on the extent of leaching of Sb and Br from plastic bottles into water. Regardless of UV exposure duration, frequency of reuse (up to 27 times) was the major factor that linearly increased Sb leaching from PET bottles at all temperatures tested (13-47 °C). Leached Sb concentrations (∼360 ng L(-1)) from the highly reused (27 times) PET bottles (minimal Sb leaching from PC bottles, water at much lower concentrations. Additional research on potential leaching of organic chemicals from water packaging materials is deemed necessary under relevant environmental conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Being in a romantic relationship is associated with reduced gray matter density in striatum and increased subjective happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kawamichi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that romantic relationship is associated with structural differences in the striatum related to the positive subjective experience of being in a romantic relationship. Because intimate romantic relationships contribute to perceived subjective happiness, this subjective enhancement of happiness might be accompanied by the experience of positive events related to being in a romantic relationship. To test this hypothesis and elucidate the structure involved, we compared subjective happiness, an indirect measure of the existence of positive experiences caused by being in a romantic relationship, of participants with or without romantic partners (N = 68. Furthermore, we also conducted a voxel-based morphometry (VBM study of the effects of being in a romantic relationship (N = 113. Being in a romantic relationship was associated with greater subjective happiness and reduced gray matter density within the right dorsal striatum. These results suggest that being in a romantic relationship enhances perceived subjective happiness via positive experiences. Furthermore, the observed reduction in gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum may reflect an increase in saliency of social reward within a romantic relationship. Thus, being in a romantic relationship is associated with positive experiences and a reduction of gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum, representing a modulation of social reward.

  20. Being in a Romantic Relationship Is Associated with Reduced Gray Matter Density in Striatum and Increased Subjective Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Sugawara, Sho K; Hamano, Yuki H; Makita, Kai; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Ogino, Yuichi; Saito, Shigeru; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that romantic relationship is associated with structural differences in the striatum related to the positive subjective experience of being in a romantic relationship. Because intimate romantic relationships contribute to perceived subjective happiness, this subjective enhancement of happiness might be accompanied by the experience of positive events related to being in a romantic relationship. To test this hypothesis and elucidate the structure involved, we compared subjective happiness, an indirect measure of the existence of positive experiences caused by being in a romantic relationship, of participants with or without romantic partners (N = 68). Furthermore, we also conducted a voxel-based morphometry study of the effects of being in a romantic relationship (N = 113). Being in a romantic relationship was associated with greater subjective happiness and reduced gray matter density within the right dorsal striatum. These results suggest that being in a romantic relationship enhances perceived subjective happiness via positive experiences. Furthermore, the observed reduction in gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum may reflect an increase in saliency of social reward within a romantic relationship. Thus, being in a romantic relationship is associated with positive experiences and a reduction of gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum, representing a modulation of social reward.

  1. 75 FR 61141 - In the Matter of The Coca-Cola Company; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Order to Aid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... the Matter of The Coca-Cola Company; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Order to Aid Public... written comments electronically or in paper form. Comments should refer to ``The Coca- Cola Company, File... by using the following weblink: ( https://ftcpublic.commentworks.com/ftc/coca-cola ) and following...

  2. 75 FR 449 - In the Matter of Certain MEMS Devices and Products Containing Same; Notice of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... Doc No: E9-31360] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-700] In the Matter of Certain MEMS... importation of certain MEMS devices and products containing same by reason of infringement of certain claims... States, the sale for importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain MEMS...

  3. 76 FR 11512 - In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Products Containing Same, and Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Products Containing Same, and Methods for Using the Same; Notice of Investigation AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution... same, and methods for using the same by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent No. 6...

  4. 75 FR 9928 - In the Matter of: Certain Liquid Crystal Display Modules, Products Containing Same, and Methods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain Liquid Crystal Display Modules, Products Containing Same, and Methods Using the Same; Notice of Commission Determination to Rescind a Limited Exclusion Order and Cease and... same, and methods for using the same by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent Nos. 6...

  5. Planetary Exploration Education: As Seen From the Point of View of Subject Matter Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, M. P.; Anderson, R. B.; Gaither, T. A.; Vaughan, R. G.

    2016-12-01

    Planetary Learning that Advances the Nexus of Engineering, Technology, and Science (PLANETS) was selected as one of 27 new projects to support the NASA Science Mission Directorate's Science Education Cooperative Agreement Notice. Our goal is to develop and disseminate out-of-school time (OST) curricular and related educator professional development modules that integrate planetary science, technology, and engineering. We are a partnership between planetary science Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), curriculum developers, science and engineering teacher professional development experts and OST teacher networks. The PLANETS team includes the Center for Science Teaching and Learning (CSTL) at Northern Arizona University (NAU); the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Science Center (Astrogeology), and the Boston Museum of Science (MOS). Here, we present the work and approach by the SMEs at Astrogeology. As part of this overarching project, we will create a model for improved integration of SMEs, curriculum developers, professional development experts, and educators. For the 2016 and 2017 Fiscal Years, our focus is on creating science material for two OST modules designed for middle school students. We will begin development of a third module for elementary school students in the latter part of FY2017. The first module focuses on water conservation and treatment as applied on Earth, the International Space Station, and at a fictional Mars base. This unit involves the science and engineering of finding accessible water, evaluating it for quality, treating it for impurities (i.e., dissolved and suspended), initial use, a cycle of greywater treatment and re-use, and final treatment of blackwater. The second module involves the science and engineering of remote sensing as it is related to Earth and planetary exploration. This includes discussion and activities related to the electromagnetic spectrum, spectroscopy and various remote sensing systems and techniques. In

  6. Methods to model particulate matter clarification of unit operations subject to unsteady loadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelman, David; Sansalone, John J

    2017-05-15

    Stormwater, and also wastewater unit operations (UOs) to a much lower extent, are subject to unsteady hydrodynamic and particulate matter (PM) fluxes. Simulating fully transient clarification of hetero-disperse PM requires much greater computational expense compared to steady simulations. An alternative to fully unsteady methods are stepwise steady (SS) methods which use stepwise steady flow transport and fate to approximate unsteady PM clarification of a UO during transient hydraulic loadings such as rainfall-runoff. The rationale is reduced computational effort for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) compared to simulating continuous unsteadiness of such events. An implicit solution stepwise steady (IS3) method is one approach which builds upon previous SS methods. The IS3 method computes steady flows that are representative of unsteady PM transport throughout an unsteady loading. This method departs from some previous SS methods that assume PM fate can be simulated with an instantaneous clarifier (basin) influent flowrate coupled with a PM input. In this study, various SS methods were tested for basins of varying size and residence time to examine PM fate. Differences between SS methods were a function of turnover fraction indicating the role of unsteady flowrates on PM transport for larger basins of longer residence times. The breakpoint turnover fraction was between two and three. The IS3 method best approximated unsteady behavior of larger basins. These methods identified limitations when utilizing standard event-based loading analysis for larger basins. For basins with a turnover fraction less than two, the majority of effluent PM did not originate from the event-based flow; originating from previous event loadings or existing storage. Inter- and multiple event processes and interactions, that are dependent on this inflow turnover fraction, are not accounted for by single event-based inflow models. Results suggest the use of long-term continuous modeling

  7. Integrating Multicultural Subject Matters into Teaching Strategies of Elementary School Teachers (The U.S. State of Kansas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanka Lunder Verlič

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The following academic article is based on a PhD thesis that is currently being completed, titled Education and Qualifications of Elementary School Teachers in the U.S. State of Kansas and Slovenia for teaching in classes with immigrant children. The research study titled Integrating Multicultural Subject Matters into Teaching Strategies of Elementary School Teachers (The U.S. State of Kansas, conducted in 2007 based on a sample of 89 elementary school teachers in the U.S. State of Kansas, represents one aspect of assessing the adequacy of undergraduate education regarding multicultural subject matters for elementary school teachers in Slovenia and the U.S. (State of Kansas as well as the qualifications of elementary school teachers of both countries for working with immigrant children. Despite the long-standing tradition of multicultural education in western countries, the research results for Kansas elementary school teachers showed a presence of significant discrepancies between the actual and optimal integration of multicultural subject matters. These results indicate that future undergraduate study programs will have to invest more time in developing multicultural skills and providing practical experiences for working in a diverse environment.

  8. Subject Matter Expert Evaluation of Multi-Flight Common Route Advisories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilimoria, Karl D.; Hayashi, Miwa; Sheth, Kapil

    2017-01-01

    manager finds the advisory to be operationally appropriate, he or she would coordinate with the Area Supervisor(s) of the sectors that currently control the flights in the advisory. When the traffic manager accepts the MFCR advisory via the user interface, the corresponding flight plan amendments would be sent to the displays of the appropriate sector controllers, using the Airborne Re-Routing (ABRR) capability which is scheduled for nationwide operation in 2017. The sector controllers would then offer this time-saving route modification to the pilots of the affected flights via datalink (or voice), and implement the corresponding flight plan amendment if the pilots accept it. MFCR is implemented as an application in the software environment of the Future Air traffic management Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET). This paper focuses on an initial subject matter expert (SME) evaluation of MFCR. The evaluation covers MFCRs operational concept, algorithm, and user interface.

  9. Method for contamination control and barrier apparatus with filter for containing waste materials that include dangerous particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, Paul A.

    1998-01-01

    A container for hazardous waste materials that includes air or other gas carrying dangerous particulate matter has incorporated in barrier material, preferably in the form of a flexible sheet, one or more filters for the dangerous particulate matter sealably attached to such barrier material. The filter is preferably a HEPA type filter and is preferably chemically bonded to the barrier materials. The filter or filters are preferably flexibly bonded to the barrier material marginally and peripherally of the filter or marginally and peripherally of air or other gas outlet openings in the barrier material, which may be a plastic bag. The filter may be provided with a backing panel of barrier material having an opening or openings for the passage of air or other gas into the filter or filters. Such backing panel is bonded marginally and peripherally thereof to the barrier material or to both it and the filter or filters. A coupling or couplings for deflating and inflating the container may be incorporated. Confining a hazardous waste material in such a container, rapidly deflating the container and disposing of the container, constitutes one aspect of the method of the invention. The chemical bonding procedure for producing the container constitutes another aspect of the method of the invention.

  10. Comparison of heat stability of goat milk subjected to ultra-high temperature and in-container sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B Y; Grandison, A S; Lewis, M J

    2012-03-01

    Goat milk with and without stabilizing salt was subjected to in-container and UHT sterilization. Heat stability was assessed by measuring the amount of sediment in the milk. Without stabilizing salts, goat milk usually produced less sediment when subjected to in-container sterilization compared with UHT processing. Addition of stabilizing salts up to 12.8mM resulted in a progressive increase in sediment for in-container sterilization. In contrast, adding stabilizing salts at 6.4mM initially reduced sediment formation in UHT-treated milk but addition of stabilizing salts at 12.8mM increased sediment formation. Adding stabilizing salts to goat milk increased pH, decreased ionic calcium, and increased ethanol stability. Adding up to 2mM calcium chloride increased sediment formation more after UHT treatment than after in-container sterilization. These results suggest that no single mechanism or set of reactions causes milk to produce sediment during heating and that the favored pathway is different for UHT and in-container sterilization processes. Poor heat stability could be induced both by increasing ionic calcium and by decreasing it. Ethanol stability is not a good indicator of heat stability for in-container sterilization, but it may be for UHT sterilization, if milk does not enter the region of poor heat stability found at low concentrations of ionic calcium. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Bromatological composition and dry matter digestibility of millet cultivars subjected to nitrogen doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.H.D. Buso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The bromatological composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of millet cultivars were assessed for different nitrogen doses and two sowing seasons in the Ceres municipality of Goiás state, Brazil. The treatments consisted of three millet cultivars (ADR-7010, ADR-500 and BRS-1501, four nitrogen (N doses (0, 50, 100 and 200kg ha-1 of N and two sowing seasons. Three replicates and a randomised block design with a 3 x 4 x 2 factorial scheme were used. Two cuttings were performed in each season when plants reached an average height of 0.70 cm. No significant interactions were observed between or among cultivars for N doses and dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fibre (NDF and acid detergent fibre (ADF contents. The DM, CP, NDF and ADF contents were significantly different between N doses. The DM and CP contents increased as the N dose increased to 100kg ha-1. The maximum DM and CP contents were 11.14 and 22.53%, respectively. The NDF and ADF contents were higher in the control treatment (60.11 and 30.01%, respectively. In addition, the lowest ADF and NDF concentrations occurred at an N dose of 50kg ha-1 (56.33 and 30.23%, respectively. The DM contents were higher for the February sowing, with an average of 10.59%. The highest CP and ADF contents were found for the December sowing (22.46 and 31.58%, respectively. No significant differences were found for millet cultivars, N doses or sowing seasons. A significant interaction was found between sowing season and millet cultivar. The BRS-1501 cultivar had a higher in vitro dry matter digestibility in the December/2010 sowing (73.88%.

  12. The effect of phosphatidylserine-containing omega-3 fatty acids on memory abilities in subjects with subjective memory complaints: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Yael; Herzog, Yael; Cohen, Tzafra; Steinhart, Yael

    2010-01-01

    Yael Richter1, Yael Herzog1, Tzafra Cohen1, Yael Steinhart21Enzymotec LTD, Migdal-HaEmeq, Israel; 2Department of Marketing, Haifa Graduate School of Management, University of Haifa, IsraelObjective: To evaluate for the first time the efficacy of safe-sourced phosphatidylserine-containing omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PS-omega-3) in improving memory abilities.Methods: PS-omega-3 was administered daily for 6 weeks to eight elderly volunteers with subjective memory complaints. T...

  13. Individualized Gaussian process-based prediction and detection of local and global gray matter abnormalities in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, G; Ridgway, G R; Dahnke, R; Gaser, C

    2014-08-15

    Structural imaging based on MRI is an integral component of the clinical assessment of patients with potential dementia. We here propose an individualized Gaussian process-based inference scheme for clinical decision support in healthy and pathological aging elderly subjects using MRI. The approach aims at quantitative and transparent support for clinicians who aim to detect structural abnormalities in patients at risk of Alzheimer's disease or other types of dementia. Firstly, we introduce a generative model incorporating our knowledge about normative decline of local and global gray matter volume across the brain in elderly. By supposing smooth structural trajectories the models account for the general course of age-related structural decline as well as late-life accelerated loss. Considering healthy subjects' demography and global brain parameters as informative about normal brain aging variability affords individualized predictions in single cases. Using Gaussian process models as a normative reference, we predict new subjects' brain scans and quantify the local gray matter abnormalities in terms of Normative Probability Maps (NPM) and global z-scores. By integrating the observed expectation error and the predictive uncertainty, the local maps and global scores exploit the advantages of Bayesian inference for clinical decisions and provide a valuable extension of diagnostic information about pathological aging. We validate the approach in simulated data and real MRI data. We train the GP framework using 1238 healthy subjects with ages 18-94 years, and predict in 415 independent test subjects diagnosed as healthy controls, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of a warm compress containing menthol on the tear film in healthy subjects and dry eye patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arita, Reiko; Morishige, Naoyuki; Sakamoto, Ichiro; Imai, Natsuko; Shimada, Yuko; Igaki, Michihito; Suzuki, Atsushi; Itoh, Kouzo; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2017-04-01

    Menthol is thought to stimulate lacrimation via activation of cold-sensitive primary afferent neurons in the cornea. We evaluated a warm compress containing menthol as a potential treatment for dry eye by examining its effects on the tear film in healthy subjects (n = 20) and dry eye patients (n = 35). Disposable eyelid-warming steamers that either did (MH) or did not (HO) contain menthol were applied to one eye of each subject either once only for 10 min or repeatedly over 2 weeks. Single application of MH significantly increased tear meniscus volume (P = 8.6 × 10-5, P = 1.3 × 10-5) and tear film breakup time (P = 0.006, P = 0.002) as well as improved meibum condition in healthy subjects and dry eye patients, respectively. Repeated application of MH significantly increased tear meniscus volume (P = 0.004, P = 1.7 × 10-4) and tear film breakup time (P = 0.037, P = 0.010) in healthy subjects and dry eye patients, respectively. Repeated application of MH thus induced persistent increases in tear fluid volume and tear film stability in dry eye patients, suggesting that repeated use of a warm compress containing menthol is a potential novel treatment for dry eye disease.

  15. Sponge exhalent seawater contains a unique chemical profile of dissolved organic matter

    OpenAIRE

    Fiore, Cara L.; Christopher J. Freeman; Kujawinski, Elizabeth B.

    2017-01-01

    Sponges are efficient filter feeders, removing significant portions of particulate and dissolved organic matter (POM, DOM) from the water column. While the assimilation and respiration of POM and DOM by sponges and their abundant microbial symbiont communities have received much attention, there is virtually no information on the impact of sponge holobiont metabolism on the composition of DOM at a molecular-level. We applied untargeted and targeted metabolomics techniques to characterize DOM ...

  16. A common NTRK2 variant is associated with emotional arousal and brain white-matter integrity in healthy young subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalek, K; Coynel, D; Freytag, V; Hartmann, F; Heck, A; Milnik, A; de Quervain, D; Papassotiropoulos, A

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of emotional arousal is observed in many psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders. The neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 2 gene (NTRK2) has been associated with these disorders. Here we investigated the relation between genetic variability of NTRK2 and emotional arousal in healthy young subjects in two independent samples (n1=1171; n2=707). In addition, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data in a subgroup of 342 participants were used to identify NTRK2-related white-matter structure differences. After correction for multiple testing, we identified a NTRK2 single nucleotide polymorphism associated with emotional arousal in both samples (n1: Pnominal=0.0003, Pcorrected=0.048; n2: Pnominal=0.0141, Pcorrected=0.036). DTI revealed significant, whole-brain corrected correlations between emotional arousal and brain white-matter mean diffusivity (MD), as well as significant, whole-brain corrected NTRK2 genotype-related differences in MD (PFWE<0.05). Our study demonstrates that genetic variability of NTRK2, a susceptibility gene for psychiatric disorders, is related to emotional arousal and—independently—to brain white-matter properties in healthy individuals. PMID:26978740

  17. A common NTRK2 variant is associated with emotional arousal and brain white-matter integrity in healthy young subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalek, K; Coynel, D; Freytag, V; Hartmann, F; Heck, A; Milnik, A; de Quervain, D; Papassotiropoulos, A

    2016-03-15

    Dysregulation of emotional arousal is observed in many psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders. The neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 2 gene (NTRK2) has been associated with these disorders. Here we investigated the relation between genetic variability of NTRK2 and emotional arousal in healthy young subjects in two independent samples (n1=1171; n2=707). In addition, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data in a subgroup of 342 participants were used to identify NTRK2-related white-matter structure differences. After correction for multiple testing, we identified a NTRK2 single nucleotide polymorphism associated with emotional arousal in both samples (n1: Pnominal=0.0003, Pcorrected=0.048; n2: Pnominal=0.0141, Pcorrected=0.036). DTI revealed significant, whole-brain corrected correlations between emotional arousal and brain white-matter mean diffusivity (MD), as well as significant, whole-brain corrected NTRK2 genotype-related differences in MD (PFWEemotional arousal and-independently-to brain white-matter properties in healthy individuals.

  18. Relationship between mathematics teacher subject matter knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge and professional development needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajudin, Nor'ain Mohd; Chinnappan, Mohan; Saad, Noor Shah

    2017-05-01

    Two key variables emerged from the literature review is that Specific Matter Knowledge [SMK] and Pedagogical Content Knowledge [PCK] can influence the mathematics teachers' Professional Development [PD] needs. However, the key variables of SMK and PCK that were being investigated were not defined clearly. Empirical evidence that support relationship between SMK and PD and PCK and PD were not verified. In addition, how does PCK mediate SMK and PD is not clear and somewhat lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to examine the relationship between primary mathematics teacher's SMK, PCK and PD needs. Results of path analysis with SmartPLS indicated that the direct effect of SMK on PD was mediated via PCK. This data provide support for the claim that PD programs for future teachers of primary mathematics should be driven by a more nuanced understanding of the link between SMK and PCK.

  19. The Role of Reading Comprehension in Large-Scale Subject-Matter Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed with the overall goal of understanding how difficulties in reading comprehension are associated with early adolescents' performance in large-scale assessments in subject domains including science and civic-related social studies. The current study extended previous research by taking a cognition-centered approach based on…

  20. Subjective Evaluations of Alcohol-Related Consequences among College Students: Experience with Consequences Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavens, Eleanor L.; Leffingwell, Thad R.; Miller, Mary Beth; Brett, Emma I.; Lombardi, Nathaniel

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Research suggests college students rate some alcohol-related consequences less negatively than others, yet it is unclear how or when these differences in perception develop. The current study compared college students' subjective evaluations of alcohol-related consequences that they had and had not experienced in order to test the…

  1. Abnormal white matter integrity in chronic users of codeine-containing cough syrups: a tract-based spatial statistics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Y-W; Su, H-H; Lv, X-F; Jiang, G-H

    2015-01-01

    Codeine-containing cough syrups have become one of the most popular drugs of abuse in young people in the world. Chronic codeine-containing cough syrup abuse is related to impairments in a broad range of cognitive functions. However, the potential brain white matter impairment caused by chronic codeine-containing cough syrup abuse has not been reported previously. Our aim was to investigate abnormalities in the microstructure of brain white matter in chronic users of codeine-containing syrups and to determine whether these WM abnormalities are related to the duration of the use these syrups and clinical impulsivity. Thirty chronic codeine-containing syrup users and 30 matched controls were evaluated. Diffusion tensor imaging was performed by using a single-shot spin-echo-planar sequence. Whole-brain voxelwise analysis of fractional anisotropy was performed by using tract-based spatial statistics to localize abnormal WM regions. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11 was surveyed to assess participants' impulsivity. Volume-of-interest analysis was used to detect changes of diffusivity indices in regions with fractional anisotropy abnormalities. Abnormal fractional anisotropy was extracted and correlated with clinical impulsivity and the duration of codeine-containing syrup use. Chronic codeine-containing syrup users had significantly lower fractional anisotropy in the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus of the bilateral temporo-occipital regions, right frontal region, and the right corona radiata WM than controls. There were significant negative correlations among fractional anisotropy values of the right frontal region of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and the right superior corona radiata WM and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale total scores, and between the right frontal region of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and nonplan impulsivity scores in chronic codeine-containing syrup users. There was also a significant negative correlation between fractional

  2. The effect of phosphatidylserine-containing omega-3 fatty acids on memory abilities in subjects with subjective memory complaints: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Richter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Yael Richter1, Yael Herzog1, Tzafra Cohen1, Yael Steinhart21Enzymotec LTD, Migdal-HaEmeq, Israel; 2Department of Marketing, Haifa Graduate School of Management, University of Haifa, IsraelObjective: To evaluate for the first time the efficacy of safe-sourced phosphatidylserine-containing omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PS-omega-3 in improving memory abilities.Methods: PS-omega-3 was administered daily for 6 weeks to eight elderly volunteers with subjective memory complaints. The Cognitive Drug Research test battery was used to assess the effect on their cognitive abilities.Results: PS-omega-3 supplementation resulted in 42% increase in the ability to recall words in the delayed condition.Conclusion: PS-omega-3 may have a favorable effect on memory in subjects with subjective memory complaints. PS-omega-3 may serve as a safe alternative to phosphatidylserine extracted from bovine cortex.Keywords: cognitive, memory, omega-3, phosphatidylserine

  3. Relative activity of cerebral subcortical gray matter in varying states of attention and awareness in normal subjects and patient studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.; Levy, J.; Wagner, N.; Spire, J.P.; Jacobsen, J.; Meltzer, H.; Metz, J.; Beck, R.N.

    1985-05-01

    An important aspect of the study of brain function involves measurement of the relationships; between activities in the subcortical gray matter of the caudate and of the thalamus; and between these structures and functional cortical areas. The authors have studied these relationships in 22 subjects under different conditions of activation, sleep and sensory deprivation using a PET VI system and F-18-2DG to determine regional cerebral metabolism. Subject activating conditions were maintained throughout the period of equilibration of F-18-2DG and E.E.G.'s were monitored. Multiple tomographic slices of 1-2 million counts were obtained simultaneously with slice separation of 14mm and each plane parallel to the cantho-meatal line. In activated and non-activated awake conditions for normal subjects, left and right thalmus-to-caudate ratios were similar and greater than unity. This relationship was maintained in non-REM sleep, but was reversed and divergent in REM sleep and sensory deprivation; this was also evident in 3/4 narcoleptics awake and asleep in non-REM and REM and 2/3 schizophrenics and affective disorder, subjects. This approach appears to have potential for characterizating normal and disordered regional cerebral function.

  4. Concentration dynamics and biodegradability of dissolved organic matter in wetland soils subjected to experimental warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hang; Holden, Joseph; Zhang, Zhijian; Li, Meng; Li, Xia

    2014-02-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is the most bioavailable soil organic pool. Understanding how DOM responds to elevated temperature is important for forecasting soil carbon (C) dynamics under climate warming. Here a 4.5-year field microcosm experiment was carried out to examine temporal DOM concentration dynamics in soil pore-water from six different subtropical wetlands. Results are compared between control (ambient temperature) and warmed (+5°C) treatments. UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy was performed to reveal DOM structural complexity at the end of the warming incubation. Elevated temperature resulted in initially (1 to 2.5 years) high pore-water DOM concentrations in warmed samples. These effects gradually diminished over longer time periods. Of the spectral indices, specific UV absorbance at 280 nm and humification index were significantly higher, while the signal intensity ratio of the fulvic-like to humic-like fluorescence peak was lower in warmed samples, compared to the control. Fluorescence regional integration analysis further suggested that warming enhanced the contribution of humic-like substances to DOM composition for all tested wetlands. These spectral fingerprints implied a declined fraction of readily available substrates in DOM allocated to microbial utilization in response to 4.5 years of warming. As a negative feedback, decreased DOM biodegradability may have the potential to counteract initial DOM increases and alleviate C loss in water-saturated wetland soils. © 2013.

  5. 30 CFR 57.22106 - Dust containing volatile matter (I-C mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Fire Prevention and Control § 57.22106..., if suspended in air, would become an explosive mixture. An explosive mixture of dust containing...

  6. Organic sulphur in macromolecular sedimentary organic matter : I. Structure and origin of sulphur-containing moieties in kerogen, asphaltene and coal as revealed by flash pyrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Eglinton, T.I.; Leeuw, J.W. de; Schenk, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    The distributions of sulphur-containing compounds generated by flash pyrolysis of macromolecular sedimentary organic matter (kerogen, coal, asphaltenes) were studied by gas chromatography in combination with S-selective flame photometric detection or mass spectrometry. The abundance of

  7. CROP COEFFICIENT, DRY MATTER PARTITION AND SEEDLINGS QUALITY OF Hymenaea courbaril L. IN CONTAINERS SIZES UNDER WATER DEFICIT IRRIGATION1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Antônio da Silva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Native species seedlings are commonly used in the degraded areas reforestation, riparian forests and legal reserve. Among the factors that influence the seedlings quality, are the container size and the substrate water availability. Thus, the objective of this paper was to evaluate Hymenaea courbaril L. seedlings response in function of irrigation levels and container sizes. The experiment was carried out in greenhouse, in randomized blocks design, with three replications in split plots, in 2 x 5 scheme. Rigid pots of 3.1 L and stiff plastic tubes of 4.0 L were used in the plots, while irrigation levels equals to 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% of the maximum evapotranspiration (ETm were used in the subplots. The stiff plastic tube provided larger ETm and increased seedlings quality and, consequently, larger crop coefficient (Kc in comparison with rigid pot, in the phase from 80 to 200 days after the sowing (DAS. The Kc of the seedlings in citrovase varired from 0.54 to 1.12, of the planting at 200 DAS, according the Penman-Monteith methodology. Irrigation levels between ETm 86.8% and 100% propitiated larger seedlings quality index. To the 200 DAS, the roots dry matter was larger than the leaves dry matter, unlike the initial phases.

  8. How to foster student-student learning of science? The student, the teacher and the subject matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Julie A.

    2011-12-01

    In this response to Konstantinos Alexakos, Jayson K. Jones, and Victor H. Rodriguez's study, I discuss ways attending to student membership in groups can both inform research on equity and diversity in science education and improve the teaching of science to all students. My comments are organized into three sections: how underrepresented students' experiences in science classrooms are shaped by their peers; how science teachers can help students listen to and learn from one another; and how the subject matter can invite or discourage student participation in science. More specifically, I underscore the need for teachers and students to listen to one another to promote student learning of science. I also highlight the importance of science education researchers and science teachers viewing students both as individuals and as members of multiple groups; women of color, for example, should be understood as similar to and different from each other, from European American women and from ethnic minorities in general.

  9. The abiotic degradation of methyl parathion in anoxic sulfur-containing system mediated by natural organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiaoping; Zhang, Caixiang; Wang, Yanxin; Tang, Mi

    2017-06-01

    Although the kinetics and transformation of methyl parathion have been investigated extensively, its abiotic degradation mechanism in anoxic sulfur-containing groundwater system is still not clear. In this work, the abiotic degradation of methyl parathion in anoxic sulfur-containing system mediated by natural organic matter (NOM) was investigated in batch experiments. It was found that the removal of methyl parathion (up to 80.7%) was greatly improved in sulfide containing NOM compared to those in sulfide alone (with 15.5%) and in NOM alone (almost negligible). Various sulfur species presented significant differences in behaviors methyl parathion degradation, but followed by the pseudo-first-order model well. No facilitated degradation of methyl parathion was observed in sulfite (SO32-) or thiosulfate (S2O32-) containing NOM such as anthraquinone. Although elemental sulfur (S0) and cysteine could further improve the degradation rate of methyl parahtion, their impacts was very limited. The removal efficiency of methyl parathion in anoxic sulfur-containing system were related remarkably with NOM concentration and solution pH. Based on the transformation products identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometer (LC/HRMS), both the nitro group reduction and hydrolysis (SN@C) processes by sulfide (HS-) were further proved to be two predominant reaction mechanisms for the abiotic degradation of methyl parathion in anoxic sulfur-containing system. The results of this study help to understand the natural attenuation of methyl parathion under anoxic sulfide-containing groundwater system mediated by NOM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Insight on AV-45 binding in white and grey matter from histogram analysis: a study on early Alzheimer's disease patients and healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemmi, Federico; Saint-Aubert, Laure; Peran, Patrice [Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Adel, Djilali; Salabert, Anne-Sophie; Payoux, Pierre [Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Pole Imagerie, Toulouse (France); Pariente, Jeremie [Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Service de Neurologie, Pole Neurosciences, Toulouse (France); Barbeau, Emmanuel J. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Service de Neurologie, Pole Neurosciences, Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition, CNRS, CerCo, Toulouse (France)

    2014-07-15

    AV-45 amyloid biomarker is known to show uptake in white matter in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), but also in the healthy population. This binding, thought to be of a non-specific lipophilic nature, has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the differential pattern of AV-45 binding in white matter in healthy and pathological populations. We recruited 24 patients presenting with AD at an early stage and 17 matched, healthy subjects. We used an optimized positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI) registration method and an approach based on an intensity histogram using several indices. We compared the results of the intensity histogram analyses with a more canonical approach based on target-to-cerebellum Standard Uptake Value (SUVr) in white and grey matter using MANOVA and discriminant analyses. A cluster analysis on white and grey matter histograms was also performed. White matter histogram analysis revealed significant differences between AD and healthy subjects, which were not revealed by SUVr analysis. However, white matter histograms were not decisive to discriminate groups, and indices based on grey matter only showed better discriminative power than SUVr. The cluster analysis divided our sample into two clusters, showing different uptakes in grey, but also in white matter. These results demonstrate that AV-45 binding in white matter conveys subtle information not detectable using the SUVr approach. Although it is not more efficient than standard SUVr in discriminating AD patients from healthy subjects, this information could reveal white matter modifications. (orig.)

  11. Sponge exhalent seawater contains a unique chemical profile of dissolved organic matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara L. Fiore

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sponges are efficient filter feeders, removing significant portions of particulate and dissolved organic matter (POM, DOM from the water column. While the assimilation and respiration of POM and DOM by sponges and their abundant microbial symbiont communities have received much attention, there is virtually no information on the impact of sponge holobiont metabolism on the composition of DOM at a molecular-level. We applied untargeted and targeted metabolomics techniques to characterize DOM in seawater samples prior to entering the sponge (inhalant reef water, in samples exiting the sponge (exhalent seawater, and in samples collected just outside the reef area (off reef seawater. Samples were collected from two sponge species, Ircinia campana and Spheciospongia vesparium, on a near-shore hard bottom reef in the Florida Keys. Metabolic profiles generated from untargeted metabolomics analysis indicated that many more compounds were enhanced in the exhalent samples than in the inhalant samples. Targeted metabolomics analysis revealed differences in diversity and concentration of metabolites between exhalent and off reef seawater. For example, most of the nucleosides were enriched in the exhalent seawater, while the aromatic amino acids, caffeine and the nucleoside xanthosine were elevated in the off reef water samples. Although the metabolic profile of the exhalent seawater was unique, the impact of sponge metabolism on the overall reef DOM profile was spatially limited in our study. There were also no significant differences in the metabolic profiles of exhalent water between the two sponge species, potentially indicating that there is a characteristic DOM profile in the exhalent seawater of Caribbean sponges. Additional work is needed to determine whether the impact of sponge DOM is greater in habitats with higher sponge cover and diversity. This work provides the first insight into the molecular-level impact of sponge holobiont metabolism on

  12. Subjective changes in nasal patency after chewing a menthol-containing gum in patients with olfactory loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriever, Valentin A; Hummel, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    The subjective increase in nasal patency after oral menthol application depends on olfactory function. In patients with relatively low olfactory sensitivity, this effect is small or absent. It was hypothesized that this may also modulate the sensation of nasal blockage. Menthol stimulates the nasal trigeminal nerve, resulting in a subjectively increased nasal airflow and patency without objectively measurable changes. Patients suffering from olfactory impairment also express a reduced nasal trigeminal sensitivity. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effect of menthol on nasal patency ratings in a group of patients suffering from olfactory dysfunction. A group of 92 patients with olfactory impairment was included in this study. Olfactory function was assessed using the 'Sniffin' Sticks.' Patients were instructed to chew a menthol-containing gum for 30 s, after which they rated the change in nasal patency on a categorical scale. Patients who rated the change in nasal patency as pronounced scored higher on the Sniffin' Sticks olfactory test compared to patients who experienced little or no change in nasal patency after chewing the menthol-containing gum. On average, similar changes could be observed for all etiologies of olfactory impairment included in this study.

  13. Elevated leukocyte count in asymptomatic subjects is associated with a higher risk for cerebral white matter lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chi Kyung; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Beom Joon; Ryu, Wi-Sun; Choi, Seung Ho; Oh, Byung-Hee; Yoon, Byung-Woo

    2011-04-01

    Cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) are radiologic markers of small vessel disease in brain, and inflammatory processes were related to WMLs. We propose to determine if elevated leukocyte count was associated with a higher risk of WMLs. 1586 asymptomatic subjects who visited our hospital for a routine health check-up were enrolled. Leukocyte counts were measured and the presence of moderate to severe WMLs was determined by brain MRI. Thirty (1.9%) had moderate to severe WMLs, and a significant greater proportion (4.1%) of subjects in the highest leukocyte count quartile had moderate to severe WMLs. After adjusting by C-reactive protein, aspirin use and cardiovascular risk factors, the highest quartile of leukocyte count (≥6.7×10⁹/L) was significantly associated with moderate to severe WMLs compared with the lowest quartile [adjusted odds ratio, 4.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-15.5]. The authors report for the first time that an elevated leukocyte count is independently associated with moderate to severe WMLs. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Aggregation of montmorillonite and organic matter in aqueous media containing artificial seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jinwook

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dispersion-aggregation behaviors of suspended colloids in rivers and estuaries are affected by the compositions of suspended materials (i.e., clay minerals vs. organic macromolecules and salinity. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the dispersion and aggregation mechanisms of suspended particles under simulated river and estuarine conditions. The average hydrodynamic diameters of suspended particles (representing degree of aggregation and zeta potential (representing the electrokinetic properties of suspended colloids and aggregates were determined for systems containing suspended montmorillonite, humic acid, and/or chitin at the circumneutral pH over a range of salinity (0 – 7.2 psu. Results The montmorillonite-only system increased the degree of aggregation with salinity increase, as would be expected for suspended colloids whose dispersion-aggregation behavior is largely controlled by the surface electrostatic properties and van der Waals forces. When montmorillonite is combined with humic acid or chitin, the aggregation of montmorillonite was effectively inhibited. The surface interaction energy model calculations reveal that the steric repulsion, rather than the increase in electronegativity, is the primary cause for the inhibition of aggregation by the addition of humic acid or chitin. Conclusion These results help explain the range of dispersion-aggregation behaviors observed in natural river and estuarine systems. It is postulated that the composition of suspended particles, specifically the availability of steric polymers such as those contained in humic acid, determine whether the river suspension is rapidly aggregated and settled or remains dispersed in suspension when it encounters increasingly saline environments of estuaries and oceans.

  15. Disposition of amodiaquine and desethylamodiaquine in HIV-infected Nigerian subjects on nevirapine-containing antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarsi, Kimberly K; Fehintola, Fatai A; Ma, Qing; Aweeka, Francesca T; Darin, Kristin M; Morse, Gene D; Akinola, Ibrahim Temitope; Adedeji, Waheed A; Lindegardh, Niklas; Tarning, Joel; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Adewole, Isaac F; Taiwo, Babafemi; Murphy, Robert L; Akinyinka, Olusegun O; Parikh, Sunil

    2014-05-01

    Artesunate plus amodiaquine is used for malaria treatment in regions with overlapping HIV endemicity. Co-administration of artesunate/amodiaquine with antiretroviral therapy (ART) may result in drug-drug interactions, but minimal data exist. This study evaluated the impact of nevirapine-based ART, containing a backbone of zidovudine and lamivudine, on the disposition of amodiaquine and its active metabolite, desethylamodiaquine (DEAQ). This was an open-label, parallel-group pharmacokinetic comparison between HIV-infected, adult subjects receiving steady-state nevirapine-based ART (n = 10) and ART-naive subjects (control group, n = 11). All subjects received a loose formulation of artesunate/amodiaquine (200/600 mg) daily for 3 days, with serial pharmacokinetic sampling over 96 h following the final dose of artesunate/amodiaquine. Amodiaquine and DEAQ were quantified using a validated HPLC method with UV detection. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using standard non-compartmental methods. Exposures to both amodiaquine and DEAQ were significantly lower in the nevirapine-based ART group compared with the control group (amodiaquine AUC₀₋₂₄ 145 versus 204 ng·h/mL, P = 0.02; DEAQ AUC₀₋₉₆ 14,571 versus 21,648 ng·h/mL, P ART group 116 versus control group 102, P = 0.67). Subjects on nevirapine-based ART had lower exposure to both amodiaquine and DEAQ (28.9% and 32.7%, respectively). Consequently, this may negatively impact the effectiveness of artesunate/amodiaquine in HIV-infected individuals on this ART combination.

  16. Glucosamine-containing supplement improves locomotor functions in subjects with knee pain – a pilot study of gait analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanzaki N

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Noriyuki Kanzaki,1 Yuta Otsuka,1 Takayuki Izumo,1 Hiroshi Shibata,1 Hideyuki Nagao,2 Keita Ogawara,3 Hiroshi Yamada,3 Seiji Miyazaki,3 Yutaka Nakamura3 1Institute for Health Care Science, Suntory Wellness Ltd, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, Kyoto, Japan; 2Research Institute of Sports Medical Science, Tokai University, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa, Japan; 3School of Physical Education, Tokai University, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa, Japan Background: Previously, we demonstrated that glucosamine-containing supplementation was effective for improving locomotor functions, especially walking speed. However, the biomechanical mechanism of efficacy has not been elucidated. This study aimed to address this challenge in subjects with knee pain, using a motion capture system. Methods: An open label study was conducted in 30 Japanese subjects with knee pain. The subjects were administered a daily supplement containing 1,200 mg of glucosamine hydrochloride, 60 mg of chondroitin sulfate, 45 mg of type II collagen peptides, 90 mg of quercetin glycosides, 10 mg of imidazole peptides, 1 mg of proteoglycan, and 5 µg of vitamin D (GCQID. The intervention continued for 16 weeks. Efficacy for locomotor functions involving the knee joint was evaluated mainly using the Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure (JKOM and the 5-question Geriatric Locomotive Function Scale (GLFS-5. To examine the biomechanical mechanism of efficacy for locomotor functions, motions of subjects in a normal walking state were captured. Gait analysis was conducted and efficacy for gait parameters such as normal walking speed, stride length, cadence, and angle of soles was evaluated. Results: GCQID significantly improved total scores on the JKOM and GLFS-5. In gait analysis, normal walking speed, stride length, and angle of soles at the end of the stance phase were all significantly increased, but cadence did not change significantly during the intervention period. There were significant intercorrelations of changes in

  17. The Subject's Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in the significance of the body in our mental life. The sixteen specially commissioned essays in this book reflect the advances in these fields. The book is divided into three parts, each part covering a topic central to an explanation of bodily self-awareness: representation of the body; the sense of bodily......The body may be the object we know the best. It is the only object from which we constantly receive a flow of information through sight and touch; and it is the only object we can experience from the inside, through our proprioceptive, vestibular, and visceral senses. Yet there have been very few...... books that have attempted to consolidate our understanding of the body as it figures in our experience and self-awareness. This volume offers an interdisciplinary and comprehensive treatment of bodily self-awareness, the first book to do so since the landmark 1995 collection The Body and the Self...

  18. Estimation of stability constants for metal-ligand complexes containing neutral nitrogen donor atoms with applications to natural organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Yasemin B.; Di Toro, Dominic M.; Carbonaro, Richard F.

    2013-12-01

    Linear free energy relationships (LFERs) were developed for estimating 1:1 metal-ligand stability constants (log KML) for small organic molecules containing neutral nitrogen donor atoms. A data set of 44 monodentate and 112 bidentate ligands for six metal ions: Mn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+ was employed to parameterize the LFER equations. Monodentate and bidentate log KML values were adequately described using Irving-Rossotti LFERs previously developed for ligands containing negatively-charged oxygen functional groups. Modifications to the LFER equations were necessary to account for steric hindrances to metal complexation by primary, secondary, and tertiary amines. The resulting LFER equations can be used to estimate log KML values for monodentate and bidentate ligands with neutral nitrogen donor groups where such values do not currently exist in the literature. Comparison of these results to our previous work with negatively-charged oxygen donor atoms reveals that neutral nitrogen functional groups are weaker than their oxygen counterparts for metal ions classified as “hard” on the basis of Hard-Soft Acid-Base (HSAB) theory. For “soft” metals, the opposite is true. These LFERs can be used to incorporate nitrogen functional groups in models for metal ion binding to natural organic matter (NOM).

  19. DNA as patentable subject matter and a narrow framework for addressing the perceived problems caused by gene patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Stephen H

    2011-12-01

    Concerns about the alleged harmful effects of gene patents--including hindered research and innovation and impeded patient access to high-quality genetic diagnostic tests--have resulted in overreactions from the public and throughout the legal profession. These overreactions are exemplified by Association for Molecular Pathology v. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, a 2010 case in the Southern District of New York that held that isolated DNA is unpatentable subject matter under 35 U.S.C. § 101. The problem with these responses is that they fail to adequately consider the role that gene patents and patents on similar biomolecules play in facilitating investment in the costly and risky developmental processes required to transform the underlying inventions into marketable products. Accordingly, a more precisely refined solution is advisable. This Note proposes a narrowly tailored set of solutions to address the concerns about gene patents without destroying the incentives for companies to create and commercialize inventions derived from these and similar patents.

  20. Developing Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Teaching a New Topic: More Than Teaching Experience and Subject Matter Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kennedy Kam Ho; Yung, Benny Hin Wai

    2017-03-01

    Teaching experience has been identified as an important factor in pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) development. However, little is known about how experienced teachers may draw on their previous experience to facilitate their PCK development. This study examined how two experienced high school biology teachers approached the teaching of a newly introduced topic in the curriculum, polymerase chain reaction and their PCK development from the pre-lesson planning phase through the interactive phase to the post-lesson reflection phase. Multiple data sources included classroom observations, field notes, semi-structured interviews and classroom artefacts. It was found that the teachers' previous experience informed their planning for teaching the new topic, but in qualitatively different ways. This, in turn, had a bearing on their new PCK development. Subject matter knowledge (SMK) can not only facilitate but may also hinder this development. Our findings identify two types of experienced teachers: those who can capitalise on their previous teaching experiences and SMK to develop new PCK and those who do not. The critical difference is whether in the lesson planning stage, the teacher shows the disposition to draw on a generalised mental framework that enables the teacher to capitalise on his existing SMK to develop new PCK. Helping teachers to acquire this disposition should be a focus for teacher training in light of continuous curriculum changes.

  1. The effect of productive classroom talk and metacommunication on young children's oral communicative competence and subject matter knowledge: An intervention study in early childhood education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, C.; de Mey, J.R.P.B.; van Kruistum, C.J.; van Oers, B.

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of productive classroom talk and metacommunication on the development of young children's oral communicative competence and subject matter knowledge. This study can be characterized as a quasi-experimental study with a

  2. A Case Study of Beginning Science Teachers' Subject Matter (SMK) and Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) of Teaching Chemical Reaction in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usak, Muhammet; Ozden, Mustafa; Eilks, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a case study focusing on the subject matter knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and beliefs about science teaching of student teachers in Turkey at the start of their university education. The topic of interest was that of teaching chemical reactions in secondary chemistry education. A written test was developed which…

  3. Exploring the Relationship between Secondary Science Teachers' Subject Matter Knowledge and Knowledge of Student Conceptions While Teaching Evolution by Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Margaret M.; Petrosino, Anthony J.; Delgado, Cesar

    2017-01-01

    The fundamental scientific concept of evolution occurring by natural selection is home to many deeply held alternative conceptions and considered difficult to teach. Science teachers' subject matter knowledge (SMK) and the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) component of knowledge of students' conceptions (KOSC) can be valuable resources for…

  4. Is Practical Subject Matter Knowledge Still Important? Examining the Siedentopian Perspective on the Role of Content Knowledge in Physical Education Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Frank; Waring, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background: The role that content knowledge, an important component of practical subject matter knowledge, plays for pre-service teachers (PSTs) in physical education teacher education (PETE) remains contested and unclear. Whilst some researchers emphasise the facilitative nature of such knowledge, others criticise that too much focus on content…

  5. Does Variation in the Extent of Generalized Trust, Individual Education and Extensiveness of Social Security Policies Matter for Maximization of Subjective Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeeva, Rania F.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I examine whether generalized trust and education, as well as social security policies of welfare state institutions matter for cross-national differences in subjective well-being (SWB), because knowledge on this issue is still lacking. For this purpose I integrated the insights of two sociological theories: Social Function…

  6. The Examination of Secondary Education Chemistry Curricula Published between 1957-2007 in Terms of the Dimensions of Rationale, Goals, and Subject-Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekdag, Bulent; Erol, Hilal

    2013-01-01

    Fifteen secondary education chemistry curricula published from 1957 until 2007 were examined based on the dimensions of rationale, goals, and subject matter. An examination of documents in the scope of qualitative research was carried out in the study. The goals included in the examined chemistry curricula were analyzed according to the cognitive,…

  7. CosmoQuest: Supporting Subject Matter Experts in Broadening the Impacts of their Work beyond their Institutional Walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel-Storr, J.; Buxner, S.; Grier, J.; Gay, P.

    2016-12-01

    CosmoQuest is a virtual research facility, which, like its physical counterparts, provides tools for scientists to acquire reduced data products (thanks to our cadre of citizen scientists working to analyze images and produce results online), and also to participate in education and outreach activities either directly through CosmoQuest activities (such as CosmoAcademy and the Educators' Zone) or with the support of CosmoQuest. Here, we present our strategies to inspire, engage and support Subject Matter Experts (SMEs - Scientists, Engineers, Technologists and Mathematicians) in activities outside of their institutions, and beyond college classroom teaching. We provide support for SMEs who are interested in increasing the impacts of their science knowledge and expertise by interacting with people online, or in other venues outside of their normal work environment. This includes a broad spectrum of opportunities for those interested in hosting webinars; running short courses for the public; using Facebook, Twitter or other social media to communicate science; or other diverse activities such as supporting an open house, science fair, or star party. As noted by Katheryn Woods-Townsend and colleagues, "...face-to-face interactions with scientists allowed students to view scientists as approachable and normal people, and to begin to understand the range of scientific areas and careers that exist. Scientists viewed the scientist-student interactions as a vehicle for science communication" (2015). As CosmoQuest fosters these relationships, it We present a framework for SMEs which combine opportunities for continuing professional development (virtually and in person at conferences) with ongoing online support, creating a dynamic professional learning network. The goal of this is to deepen SME capacity-knowledge, attitudes and behaviors-both encouraging and empowering them to connect to broader audiences in new ways.

  8. Effects of a leucine and pyridoxine-containing nutraceutical on body weight and composition in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemel, Michael B; Bruckbauer, Antje

    2013-01-01

    We recently demonstrated leucine to modulate energy partitioning between adipose tissue and muscle. Further, leucine exhibits a synergy with B6, resulting in reduced adipocyte lipid storage coupled with increased muscle fat oxidation. Accordingly, a nutraceutical (NuShape™) containing 2.25 g leucine and 30 mg B6 increased fat oxidation by >30 g/day in a 28-day randomized controlled trial. The present study evaluated the long-term efficacy of this combination in modulating body weight and composition. Two 24-week, placebo-controlled, randomized trials, one with weight maintenance (n = 20) and one hypocaloric (-500 kcal/day; n = 24), were conducted using the nutraceutical Nushape in obese subjects. The supplement resulted in fat loss in the maintenance study (-1.12 ± 0.36 and -1.82 ± 0.70 kg at 12 and 24 weeks, P weight (6.18 ± 1.02 versus 3.40 ± 0.81 kg at 12 weeks and 8.15 ± 1.33 versus 5.25 ± 1.13 kg at 24 weeks, P fat (4.96 ± 0.61 versus 2.31 ± 0.53 kg at 12 weeks and 7.00 ± 0.95 versus 4.22 ± 0.74 kg at 24 weeks, P fat loss in the absence of caloric restriction and markedly enhances weight and fat loss by 50%-80% over a 24-week period.

  9. Location of lacunar infarcts correlates with cognition in a sample of non-disabled subjects with age-related white-matter changes: the LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benisty, S; Gouw, A A; Porcher, R

    2009-01-01

    in the following areas: lobar white matter, putamen/pallidum, thalamus, caudate nucleus, internal/external capsule, infratentorial areas. An analysis of covariance was performed after adjustment for possible confounders. RESULTS: Among 633 subjects, 47% had at least one lacune (31% at least one within basal...... a significant negative association between the presence of lacunes in putamen/pallidum and the memory compound Z score (beta = -0.13; p = 0.038). By contrast, no significant negative association was found between cognitive parameters and the presence of lacunes in internal capsule, lobar white matter...

  10. On the effects of organic matter and sulphur-containing compounds on the CCN activation of combustion particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Petzold

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The European PartEmis project (Measurement and prediction of emissions of aerosols and gaseous precursors from gas turbine engines was focussed on the characterisation and quantification of exhaust emissions from a gas turbine engine. The combustion aerosol characterisation included on-line measurements of mass and number concentration, size distribution, mixing state, thermal stability of internally mixed particles, hygroscopicity, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activation potential, and off-line analysis of chemical composition. Based on this extensive data set, the role of sulphuric acid coating and of the organic fraction of the combustion particles for the CCN activation was investigated. Modelling of CCN activation was conducted using microphysical and chemical properties obtained from the measurements as input data. Coating the combustion particles with water-soluble sulphuric acid, increases the potential CCN activation, or lowers the activation diameter, respectively. The adaptation of a Köhler model to the experimental data yielded coatings from 0.1 to 3 vol-% of water-soluble matter, which corresponds to an increase in the fraction of CCN-activated combustion particles from ≤10−4 to ≌10−2 at a water vapour saturation ratio Sw=1.006. Additional particle coating by coagulation of combustion particles and aqueous sulphuric acid particles formed by nucleation further reduces the CCN activation diameter. In contrast, particles containing a large fraction of non-volatile organic compounds grow significantly less at high relative humidity than particles with a lower content of non-volatile OC. The resulting reduction in the potential CCN activation with an increasing fraction of non-volatile OC becomes visible as a trend in the experimental data. While a coating of water-soluble sulphuric acid increases the potential CCN activation, or lowers the activation diameter, respectively, the non-volatile organic compounds, mainly found at

  11. Perfection of methods of training to the technics of throws and catching of gymnastic subject matters at a stage of special base preparation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreeva N.O.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of performances gymnasts at competitions of a different level shows, that the system of training in rhythmic gymnastics at a stage of special-purpose base preparation requires entering of the corrective amendments which have been directed on perfection of its forms and procedures. One of such innovations may be use in training process of innovative methods of perfection of work on gymnastic subject matters. In article initial theoretical positions and ways of perfection of process of training to throws and catching of a ball and other subject matters as basic means of progress at gymnasts impellent qualities and the skills necessary for achievement of high results in competitive activity are considered.

  12. Effects of a leucine and pyridoxine-containing nutraceutical on body weight and composition in obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemel MB

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael B Zemel,1,2 Antje Bruckbauer11NuSirt Sciences Inc, 2Nutrition Department, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USABackground: We recently demonstrated leucine to modulate energy partitioning between adipose tissue and muscle. Further, leucine exhibits a synergy with B6, resulting in reduced adipocyte lipid storage coupled with increased muscle fat oxidation. Accordingly, a nutraceutical (NuShape™ containing 2.25 g leucine and 30 mg B6 increased fat oxidation by > 30 g/day in a 28-day randomized controlled trial. The present study evaluated the long-term efficacy of this combination in modulating body weight and composition.Methods: Two 24-week, placebo-controlled, randomized trials, one with weight maintenance (n = 20 and one hypocaloric (-500 kcal/day; n = 24, were conducted using the nutraceutical Nushape in obese subjects.Results: The supplement resulted in fat loss in the maintenance study (-1.12 ± 0.36 and -1.82 ± 0.70 kg at 12 and 24 weeks, P < 0.01 versus placebo while no change was found in the placebo group. In the hypocaloric study, the supplement group lost up to twice as much weight (6.18 ± 1.02 versus 3.40 ± 0.81 kg at 12 weeks and 8.15 ± 1.33 versus 5.25 ± 1.13 kg at 24 weeks, P < 0.01 and fat (4.96 ± 0.61 versus 2.31 ± 0.53 kg at 12 weeks and 7.00 ± 0.95 versus 4.22 ± 0.74 kg at 24 weeks, P < 0.01 than the placebo group.Conclusion: This nutraceutical combination results in significant fat loss in the absence of caloric restriction and markedly enhances weight and fat loss by 50%–80% over a 24-week period.Keywords: leucine, vitamin B6, pyridoxine, fat loss, weight loss, caloric restriction, adiposity, body composition

  13. 76 FR 40931 - In the Matter of Certain Flash Memory and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ...://edis.usitc.gov . Hearing-impaired persons are advised that information on this matter can be obtained... a motion to terminate on the basis of settlement. See Certain Insect Traps, Inv. No. 337-TA-498...

  14. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    matter and that it must be of some exotic type. Before we discuss the evidences for dark matter in clusters of galaxies, let us point out that it is not just spiral galaxies which are thought to contain dark matter, although the evidences from them are the strongest. Other types of galaxies, like elliptical galaxies, are often seen to ...

  15. Being in a romantic relationship is associated with reduced gray matter density in striatum and increased subjective happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroaki Kawamichi; Sugawara, Sho K.; Hamano, Yuki H.; Kai Makita; Masahiro Matsunaga; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Yuichi Ogino; Shigeru Saito; Norihiro Sadato

    2016-01-01

    Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that ro...

  16. Being in a Romantic Relationship Is Associated with Reduced Gray Matter Density in Striatum and Increased Subjective Happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Sugawara, Sho K.; Hamano, Yuki H.; Makita, Kai; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Ogino, Yuichi; Saito, Shigeru; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that ro...

  17. [Utilization of a self-contained psychometry-oriented device, for study of affective and cognitive function of a subject].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouguier-Soule, J; Nouguier, J; Bicakova-Rocher, A; Gorceix, A; Reinberg, A

    1999-01-01

    We appraised the possibility to use the Psycho-Log 24, an ambulatory, adapted to chronopsychometry device, which realizes simplified questionnaires and performance test adaptable to each subject; this device has dimensions like a pocketbook; its storage capacity is compatible with a long time use. 9 adult volunteers (8 healthy subjects and 1 depressive patient) participated to this study. All of them effected reaction times (TRS) during 3 to 31 days at the rate of at least 4 sessions/day; some of them completed mental calculations (CM), letters cancellations (BRL) and auto-estimation scales (from 1 to 9 items, also measured by a classic method). For TRS and all the subjects, the frequencies histograms calculated by hour and on a 24 h scale, showed a bimodal variation, with a major peak suggesting a circadian rhythm. 5 subjects had different time for the daily best performances of each hand (shifted from 5 to 12 h). In the healthy adults, for BRL and CM, the best performances in speed and precision are shifted and could be related to the "fatigue" auto-estimated peaks. There is a significant correlation between auto-estimations by Psycho-Log and the classic method. The coherence between the auto-estimations of the depressive subject is strong during the remission stage, and lower during the relapse stage. The used method seems an effective mean to know the temporal structure of the cognitive and affective functions of a subject, and to estimate the preserving of this structure; the method first could constitute an exploratory mean for an objective evaluation of the drugs effects and patients quality of life, secondly could be implicated in researches with diagnosis target.

  18. "Bringing Me More than I Contain...": Discourse, Subjectivity and the Scene of Teaching in "Totality and Infinity"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strhan, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between language, subjectivity and teaching in Emmanuel Levinas's "Totality and Infinity". It aims to elucidate Levinas's presentation of language as always already predicated on a relationship of responsibility towards that which is beyond the self and the idea that it is only in this condition of being…

  19. 75 FR 445 - In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices and Products Containing the Same; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... Crystal Display Devices and Products Containing the Same; Notice of Investigation AGENCY: U.S... and products containing same by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent Nos. 5,844,533... crystal display devices or products containing same that infringe one or more of claims 1, 3, and 6 of U.S...

  20. Effect of frequent consumption of a Lactobacillus casei-containing milk drink in Helicobacter pylori-colonized subjects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cats, A.; Kuipers, E.J.; Bosschaert, MA; Pot, RG; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C.M.J.E.; Kusters, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported inhibitory effects of lactic acid bacteria on bacterial pathogens. AIM: To test whether a drink containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota inhibits Helicobacter pylori growth. METHODS: The in vitro growth inhibition of H. pylori was studied when L. casei

  1. Effect of dimethyl fumarate on gray and white matter pathology in subjects with relapsing multiple sclerosis: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivadinov, R; Hagemeier, J; Bergsland, N; Tavazzi, E; Weinstock-Guttman, B

    2018-03-01

    Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is an oral treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) with anti-inflammatory and possible neuroprotective properties. Its effect on white matter and gray matter pathology is still not fully understood. The aim of the study was to characterize the effect of DMF on normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and thalamic pathology longitudinally. In this observational, longitudinal, 24-month magnetic resonance imaging study, 75 patients with relapsing-remitting MS treated with DMF and 40 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals were enrolled. Regional diffusion tensor imaging metrics and tract-based spatial statistics analyses were used to assess differences between groups. Mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, radial diffusivity and fractional anisotropy were measured in the thalamus and NAWM. Baseline differences and changes over time were evaluated within and between study groups. At baseline, patients with MS showed significantly increased diffusivity and decreased fractional anisotropy in the thalamus (P < 0.001 for mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity) and NAWM (all P < 0.016) compared with healthy individuals. No significant within-group difference was found in diffusion tensor imaging measures over 24 months in either group. Healthy individuals showed a significantly greater rate of increased diffusivity parameters in the thalamus and NAWM compared with patients with MS, over 24 months (P < 0.05). The lack of changes in diffusion tensor imaging metrics in patients with MS over 24 months possibly indicates a neuroprotective role of DMF. These findings provide additional evidence of the beneficial effect of DMF on MS-related pathology. © 2018 EAN.

  2. Efficacy of a single evening dose of syrup containing paracetamol, dextromethorphan hydrobromide, doxylamine succinate and ephedrine sulfate in subjects with multiple common cold symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, H; Wilson, A; Jerdack, G R; Hull, J D; Goodale, M; Grender, J M; Tyler, B A

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a single night-time dose of a syrup containing paracetamol, dextromethorphan hydrobromide, doxylamine succinate and ephedrine sulfate in subjects with multiple cold symptoms. A syrup containing 15 mg dextromethorphan hydrobromide, 7.5 mg doxylamine succinate, 600 mg paracetamol and 8 mg ephedrine sulfate (Wick MediNait produced by WICK Pharma, Germany, a subsidiary of Procter & Gamble GmbH; test syrup) or placebo (placebo syrup) for oral administration. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-center, parallel design study. At enrollment, eligible subjects had to have at least moderate nasal congestion and a runny nose, at least mild cough and at least mild pain with one or more of the following: sore throat, sore chest, headache or body pain/aches. Subjects were randomized into either Group T (test syrup) or Group P (placebo syrup). On the evening of enrollment, subjects rated baseline symptoms, ingested the assigned study product and completed symptom-relief assessments at 3 hours post-dosing. Within one hour of awakening the following morning, subjects completed night-time symptom relief and sleep satisfaction assessments. All symptoms were recorded using an Interactive Voice Response system. Treatment comparisons were made after adjusting for the severity of baseline symptom using analysis of covariance. Of 485 subjects who took the study product, 432 (224 in Group T; 208 in Group P) were evaluable for analysis. For the primary endpoint (composite of nasal congestion/runny nose/cough/pain relief scores 3 hours post-dosing), subjects in Group T had clinically and statistically significantly greater relief than Group P (p = 0.0002). Each individual symptom score also showed statistically significant improvement at this time point (p sleep (p = 0.002) compared to placebo syrup. Improvement in individual symptoms after 3 hours was obtained in 16-42% more subjects in Group T than in Group P

  3. Search for dark matter at √(s) = 13 TeV in final states containing an energetic photon and large missing transverse momentum with the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaboud, M. [Univ. Mohamed Premier et LPTPM, Oujda (Morocco). Faculte des Sciences; Aad, G. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Univ. et CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Abbott, B. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States). Homer L. Dodge Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Collaboration: ATLAS Collaboration; and others

    2017-06-15

    Results of a search for physics beyond the Standard Model in events containing an energetic photon and large missing transverse momentum with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider are reported. As the number of events observed in data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36.1 fb{sup -1} of proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, is in agreement with the Standard Model expectations, model-independent limits are set on the fiducial cross section for the production of events in this final state. Exclusion limits are also placed in models where dark-matter candidates are pair-produced. For dark-matter production via an axial-vector or a vector mediator in the s-channel, this search excludes mediator masses below 750-1200 GeV for dark-matter candidate masses below 230-480 GeV at 95% confidence level, depending on the couplings. In an effective theory of dark-matter production, the limits restrict the value of the suppression scale M{sub *} to be above 790 GeV at 95% confidence level. A limit is also reported on the production of a high-mass scalar resonance by processes beyond the Standard Model, in which the resonance decays to Zγ and the Z boson subsequently decays into neutrinos. (orig.)

  4. Search for dark matter at [Formula: see text] in final states containing an energetic photon and large missing transverse momentum with the ATLAS detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaboud, M; Aad, G; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdinov, O; Abeloos, B; Abidi, S H; AbouZeid, O S; Abraham, N L; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Abreu, R; Abulaiti, Y; Acharya, B S; Adachi, S; Adamczyk, L; Adelman, J; Adersberger, M; Adye, T; Affolder, A A; Agatonovic-Jovin, T; Agheorghiesei, C; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Ahlen, S P; Ahmadov, F; Aielli, G; Akatsuka, S; Akerstedt, H; Åkesson, T P A; Akimov, A V; Alberghi, G L; Albert, J; Albicocco, P; Alconada Verzini, M J; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Ali, B; Aliev, M; Alimonti, G; Alison, J; Alkire, S P; Allbrooke, B M M; Allen, B W; Allport, P P; Aloisio, A; Alonso, A; Alonso, F; Alpigiani, C; Alshehri, A A; Alstaty, M; Alvarez Gonzalez, B; Álvarez Piqueras, D; Alviggi, M G; Amadio, B T; Amaral Coutinho, Y; Amelung, C; Amidei, D; Amor Dos Santos, S P; Amorim, A; Amoroso, S; Amundsen, G; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, J K; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Angelidakis, S; Angelozzi, I; Angerami, A; Anisenkov, A V; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antel, C; Antonelli, M; Antonov, A; Antrim, D J; Anulli, F; Aoki, M; Aperio Bella, L; Arabidze, G; Arai, Y; Araque, J P; Araujo Ferraz, V; Arce, A T H; Ardell, R E; Arduh, F A; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, S; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Armitage, L J; Arnaez, O; Arnold, H; Arratia, M; Arslan, O; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Artz, S; Asai, S; Asbah, N; Ashkenazi, A; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astalos, R; Atkinson, M; Atlay, N B; Aubry, L; Augsten, K; Avolio, G; Axen, B; Ayoub, M K; Azuelos, G; Baas, A E; Baca, M J; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Backhaus, M; Bagnaia, P; Bahrasemani, H; Baines, J T; Bajic, M; Baker, O K; Baldin, E M; Balek, P; Balli, F; Balunas, W K; Banas, E; Banerjee, Sw; Bannoura, A A E; Barak, L; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Barillari, T; Barisits, M-S; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnes, S L; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Barnovska-Blenessy, Z; Baroncelli, A; Barone, G; Barr, A J; Barranco Navarro, L; Barreiro, F; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J; Bartoldus, R; Barton, A E; Bartos, P; Basalaev, A; Bassalat, A; Bates, R L; Batista, S J; Batley, J R; Battaglia, M; Bauce, M; Bauer, F; Bawa, H S; Beacham, J B; Beattie, M D; Beau, T; Beauchemin, P H; Bechtle, P; Beck, H P; Becker, K; Becker, M; Beckingham, M; Becot, C; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bednyakov, V A; Bedognetti, M; Bee, C P; Beermann, T A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Behr, J K; Bell, A S; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellerive, A; Bellomo, M; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Belyaev, N L; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Bender, M; Bendtz, K; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Benhar Noccioli, E; Benitez, J; Benjamin, D P; Benoit, M; Bensinger, J R; Bentvelsen, S; Beresford, L; Beretta, M; Berge, D; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N; Beringer, J; Berlendis, S; Bernard, N R; Bernardi, G; Bernius, C; Bernlochner, F U; Berry, T; Berta, P; Bertella, C; Bertoli, G; Bertolucci, F; Bertram, I A; Bertsche, C; Bertsche, D; Besjes, G J; Bessidskaia Bylund, O; Bessner, M; Besson, N; Betancourt, C; Bethani, A; Bethke, S; Bevan, A J; Beyer, J; Bianchi, R M; Biebel, O; Biedermann, D; Bielski, R; Biesuz, N V; Biglietti, M; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J; Billoud, T R V; Bilokon, H; Bindi, M; Bingul, A; Bini, C; Biondi, S; Bisanz, T; Bittrich, C; Bjergaard, D M; Black, C W; Black, J E; Black, K M; Blair, R E; Blazek, T; Bloch, I; Blocker, C; Blue, A; Blum, W; Blumenschein, U; Blunier, S; Bobbink, G J; Bobrovnikov, V S; Bocchetta, S S; Bocci, A; Bock, C; Boehler, M; Boerner, D; Bogavac, D; Bogdanchikov, A G; Bohm, C; Boisvert, V; Bokan, P; Bold, T; Boldyrev, A S; Bolz, A E; Bomben, M; Bona, M; Boonekamp, M; Borisov, A; Borissov, G; Bortfeldt, J; Bortoletto, D; Bortolotto, V; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Bossio Sola, J D; Boudreau, J; Bouffard, J; Bouhova-Thacker, E V; Boumediene, D; Bourdarios, C; Boutle, S K; Boveia, A; Boyd, J; Boyko, I R; Bracinik, J; Brandt, A; Brandt, G; Brandt, O; Bratzler, U; Brau, B; Brau, J E; Breaden Madden, W D; Brendlinger, K; Brennan, A J; Brenner, L; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Briglin, D L; Bristow, T M; Britton, D; Britzger, D; Brochu, F M; Brock, I; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Brooks, T; Brooks, W K; Brosamer, J; Brost, E; Broughton, J H; Bruckman de Renstrom, P A; Bruncko, D; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bruni, L S; Brunt, B H; Bruschi, M; Bruscino, N; Bryant, P; Bryngemark, L; Buanes, T; Buat, Q; Buchholz, P; Buckley, A G; Budagov, I A; Buehrer, F; Bugge, M K; Bulekov, O; Bullock, D; Burch, T J; Burckhart, H; Burdin, S; Burgard, C D; Burger, A M; Burghgrave, B; Burka, K; Burke, S; Burmeister, I; Burr, J T P; Busato, E; Büscher, D; Büscher, V; Bussey, P; Butler, J M; Buttar, C M; Butterworth, J M; Butti, P; Buttinger, W; Buzatu, A; Buzykaev, A R; Cabrera Urbán, S; Caforio, D; Cairo, V M; Cakir, O; Calace, N; Calafiura, P; Calandri, A

    2017-01-01

    Results of a search for physics beyond the Standard Model in events containing an energetic photon and large missing transverse momentum with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider are reported. As the number of events observed in data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36.1 fb[Formula: see text]  of proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of [Formula: see text], is in agreement with the Standard Model expectations, model-independent limits are set on the fiducial cross section for the production of events in this final state. Exclusion limits are also placed in models where dark-matter candidates are pair-produced. For dark-matter production via an axial-vector or a vector mediator in the s -channel, this search excludes mediator masses below 750-[Formula: see text] for dark-matter candidate masses below 230-[Formula: see text] at 95% confidence level, depending on the couplings. In an effective theory of dark-matter production, the limits restrict the value of the suppression scale [Formula: see text] to be above [Formula: see text] at 95% confidence level. A limit is also reported on the production of a high-mass scalar resonance by processes beyond the Standard Model, in which the resonance decays to [Formula: see text] and the Z boson subsequently decays into neutrinos.

  5. Corpus callosum atrophy is associated with mental slowing and executive deficits in subjects with age-related white matter hyperintensities: the LADIS Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokinen, Hanna; Ryberg, Charlotte; Kalska, Hely

    2007-01-01

    , attention and executive functions in subjects with age-related white matter hyperintensities (WMH). METHODS: In the Leukoaraiosis and Disability Study, 567 subjects with age-related WMH were examined with a detailed neuropsychological assessment and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging. The relationships...... processing--namely, trail making A and Stroop test parts I and II. Anterior, but not posterior, corpus callosum atrophy was associated with deficits of attention and executive functions as reflected by the symbol digit modalities and digit cancellation tests, as well as by the subtraction scores in the trail...... is related to the frontal-lobe-mediated executive functions and attention, whereas overall corpus callosum atrophy is associated with the slowing of processing speed. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-May...

  6. It matters how old you feel: Antecedents and performance consequences of average relative subjective age in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Florian; Raes, Anneloes M L; Bruch, Heike

    2015-09-01

    This article extends the conceptual knowledge of average relative subjective age in organizations by exploring organizational-level antecedents and consequences of employees, on average, feeling younger than their chronological age. We draw from the theories of selection-optimization-compensation and socioemotional selectivity to build a theoretical framework for relative subjective age in organizations. We hypothesize that companies in which employees, on average, perceive themselves to be younger than they actually are have a higher average individual goal accomplishment and, in turn, experience higher company performance. We further hypothesize that employees' average experience of high work-related meaning relates to a lower subjective age in organizations. In addition, we assess the role of environmental dynamism and age-inclusive human resource management as moderators in this theoretical model. Through empirically testing this model in a multisource dataset, including 107 companies with 15,164 participating employees, we received support for the hypothesized relationships. Our results contribute to current debates in the scientific literature on age and have important practical implications in light of the demographic changes faced by many companies. This research indicates to both researchers and practitioners that it is not employees' chronological age but their subjective age, a factor that can be influenced, which drives organizational performance outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Single-subject gray matter graph properties and their relationship with cognitive impairment in early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijms, Betty M; Yeung, Hiu M; Sikkes, Sietske A M; Möller, Christiane; Smits, Lieke L; Stam, Cornelis J; Scheltens, Philip; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Barkhof, Frederik

    2014-06-01

    Abstract We investigated the relationships between gray matter graph properties and cognitive impairment in a sample of 215 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and also whether age of disease onset modifies such relationships. We expected that more severe cognitive impairment in AD would be related to more random graph topologies. Single-subject gray matter graphs were constructed from T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans. The following global and local graph properties were calculated: betweenness centrality, normalized clustering coefficient γ, and normalized path length λ. Local clustering, path length, and betweenness centrality measures were determined for 90 anatomically defined areas. Regression models with as interaction term age of onset (i.e., early onset when patients were ≤65 years old and late onset when they were >65 years old at the time of diagnosis)×graph property were used to assess the relationships between cognitive functioning in five domains (memory, language, visuospatial, attention, and executive). Worse cognitive impairment was associated with more random graphs, as indicated by low γ, λ, and betweenness centrality values. Three interaction effects for age of onset×global graph property were found: Low γ and λ values more strongly related to memory impairment in early-onset patients; low beta values were significantly related to impaired visuospatial functioning in late-onset patients. For the local graph properties, language impairment showed the strongest relationship with decreased clustering coefficient in the left superior temporal gyrus across the entire sample. Our study shows that single-subject gray matter graph properties are associated with individual differences in cognitive impairment.

  8. Computer-Based Instruction: Effect of Cognitive Style, Instructional Format, and Subject-Matter Content on Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    for this study. The test consists of 10 pairs of words (see Appendix B), ranked from easy to hard, selected from the Weschler Paired Associate Learning...facts and opinions on a current affairs topic. The decision-making task involved a maze problem. Subjects were tested immediately after training, 2...Screening Measures for Cognitive Style ........................ 5 The 4-Mat Test ......................................... 5 The Lateral Preference Test

  9. Investigation of Psychophysiological and Subjective Effects of Long Working Hours – Do Age and Hearing Impairment Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Wagner-Hartl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Following current prognosis, demographic development raises expectations of an aging of the working population. Therefore, keeping employees healthy and strengthening their ability to work, becomes more and more important. When employees become older, dealing with age-related impairments of sensory functions, such as hearing impairment, is a central issue. Recent evidence suggests that negative effects that are associated with reduced hearing can have a strong impact at work. Especially under exhausting working situations such as working overtime hours, age and hearing impairment might influence employees’ well-being. Until now, neither the problem of aged workers and long working hours, nor the problem of hearing impairment and prolonged working time has been addressed explicitly. Therefore, a laboratory study was examined to answer the research question: Do age and hearing impairment have an impact on psychophysiological and subjective effects of long working hours. In total, 51 white-collar workers, aged between 24 and 63 years, participated in the laboratory study. The results show no significant effects for age and hearing impairment on the intensity of subjective consequences (perceived recovery and fatigue, subjective emotional well-being and physical symptoms of long working hours. However, the psychophysiological response (the saliva cortisol level to long working hours differs significantly between hearing impaired and normal hearing employees. Interestingly, the results suggest that from a psychophysiological point of view long working hours were more demanding for normal hearing employees.

  10. Round-robin pretest analyses of a 1:6-scale reinforced concrete containment model subject to static internal pressurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clauss, D.B. (ed.)

    1987-05-01

    Analyses of a 1:6-scale reinforced concrete containment model that will be tested to failure at Sandia National Laboratories in the spring of 1987 were conducted by the following organizations in the United States and Europe: Sandia National Laboratories (USA), Argonne National Laboratory (USA), Electric Power Research Institute (USA), Commissariat a L'Energie Atomique (France), HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (UK), Comitato Nazionale per la ricerca e per lo sviluppo dell'Energia Nucleare e delle Energie Alternative (Italy), UK Atomic Energy Authority, Safety and Reliability Directorate (UK), Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit (FRG), Brookhaven National Laboratory (USA), and Central Electricity Generating Board (UK). Each organization was supplied with a standard information package, which included construction drawings and actual material properties for most of the materials used in the model. Each organization worked independently using their own analytical methods. This report includes descriptions of the various analytical approaches and pretest predictions submitted by each organization. Significant milestones that occur with increasing pressure, such as damage to the concrete (cracking and crushing) and yielding of the steel components, and the failure pressure (capacity) and failure mechanism are described. Analytical predictions for pressure histories of strain in the liner and rebar and displacements are compared at locations where experimental results will be available after the test. Thus, these predictions can be compared to one another and to experimental results after the test.

  11. 76 FR 33362 - In the Matter of Certain Radio Control Hobby Transmitters and Receivers and Products Containing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... transmitters and receivers and products containing same by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent No. 7,391,320, U.S. Copyright Reg. No. TX-7-226-001, and U.S. Trademark Reg. No. 3,080,770. The...

  12. 76 FR 55109 - In the Matter of Certain DC-DC Controllers and Products Containing Same; Notice of Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE... sale, and selling for importation DC-DC controllers, or products containing the same, into the United... continued practice of prohibited activities such as importing, offering for sale, and selling for...

  13. Effect of seasonal variation on some physical properties and heat stability of milk subjected to ultra-high temperature and in-container sterilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Biye; Grandison, Alistair S; Lewis, Michael J

    2015-08-15

    Heat stability was evaluated in bulk raw milk, collected throughout the year and subjected to ultra-high temperature (UHT) or in-container sterilisation, with and without added calcium chloride (2mM), disodium hydrogen phosphate (DSHP, 10mM) and trisodium citrate (TSC, 10mM). More sediment was observed following in-container sterilisation (0.24%) compared with UHT (0.19%). Adding CaCl2 made the milk more unstable to UHT than to in-container sterilisation, while adding DSHP and TSC made the milk more unstable during in-container sterilisation than to UHT processing, although TSC addition increased the sediment formed by UHT processing. Better heat stability was observed in autumn and winter than in spring and summer following UHT. However, following in-container sterilisation, samples with added stabilising salts showed significantly improved heat stability in autumn, whereas with added CaCl2, the best heat stability was observed in spring. No correlation was found between urea and heat stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Acute effect of sorghum flour-containing pasta on plasma total polyphenols, antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress markers in healthy subjects: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Yousif, Adel M; Johnson, Stuart K; Gamlath, Shirani

    2015-06-01

    It has been previously reported that pasta containing wholegrain sorghum flour exhibits high content of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity and hence might enhance antioxidant status and reduce markers of oxidative stress in vivo; however no clinical studies have yet been reported. Therefore, the present study assessed the effect of pasta containing red or white wholegrain sorghum flour on plasma total polyphenols, antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress markers in humans. The study was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN: 12612000324819). In a randomised crossover design, healthy subjects (n = 20) consumed three test meals of control pasta (CP), 30% red sorghum pasta (RSP) or 30% white sorghum pasta (WSP), 1-2 wk apart. The test meals were consumed as breakfast after an overnight fast. Blood samples were obtained at fasting and 2 h after consumption and analysed for total polyphenols, antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, protein carbonyl and 8-isoprostanes. Compared to baseline, the 2 h post-prandial levels following the RSP meal of plasma polyphenols, antioxidant capacity and SOD activity were significantly (P polyphenols, antioxidant capacity and SOD activity were significantly (P < 0.001) higher while protein carbonyl were significantly (P = 0.035) lower following consumption of the RSP meal than the CP meal. The results demonstrated that pasta containing red wholegrain sorghum flour enhanced antioxidant status and improved markers of oxidative stress in healthy subjects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  15. 76 FR 12995 - In the Matter of Certain Radio Control Hobby Transmitters and Receivers and Products Containing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent No. 7,391,320, U.S. Copyright Reg. No. TX-7-226-001, and U.S. Trademark Reg. No. 3,080,770. The amended complaint further alleges that an industry in the United States... control hobby transmitters and receivers and products containing same that infringe U.S. Trademark Reg. No...

  16. Predictive Utility of Marketed Volumetric Software Tools in Subjects at Risk for Alzheimer Disease: Do Regions Outside the Hippocampus Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanpitukpongse, T P; Mazurowski, M A; Ikhena, J; Petrella, J R

    2017-03-01

    Alzheimer disease is a prevalent neurodegenerative disease. Computer assessment of brain atrophy patterns can help predict conversion to Alzheimer disease. Our aim was to assess the prognostic efficacy of individual-versus-combined regional volumetrics in 2 commercially available brain volumetric software packages for predicting conversion of patients with mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer disease. Data were obtained through the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. One hundred ninety-two subjects (mean age, 74.8 years; 39% female) diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment at baseline were studied. All had T1-weighted MR imaging sequences at baseline and 3-year clinical follow-up. Analysis was performed with NeuroQuant and Neuroreader. Receiver operating characteristic curves assessing the prognostic efficacy of each software package were generated by using a univariable approach using individual regional brain volumes and 2 multivariable approaches (multiple regression and random forest), combining multiple volumes. On univariable analysis of 11 NeuroQuant and 11 Neuroreader regional volumes, hippocampal volume had the highest area under the curve for both software packages (0.69, NeuroQuant; 0.68, Neuroreader) and was not significantly different ( P > .05) between packages. Multivariable analysis did not increase the area under the curve for either package (0.63, logistic regression; 0.60, random forest NeuroQuant; 0.65, logistic regression; 0.62, random forest Neuroreader). Of the multiple regional volume measures available in FDA-cleared brain volumetric software packages, hippocampal volume remains the best single predictor of conversion of mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer disease at 3-year follow-up. Combining volumetrics did not add additional prognostic efficacy. Therefore, future prognostic studies in mild cognitive impairment, combining such tools with demographic and other biomarker measures, are justified in using hippocampal volume as

  17. Dark matter in galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Zasov, A. V.; Saburova, A. S.; Khoperskov, A. V.; Khoperskov, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    Dark matter in galaxies, its abundance, and its distribution remain a subject of long-standing discussion, especially in view of the fact that neither dark matter particles nor dark matter bodies have yet been found. Experts' opinions range from a very large number of completely dark galaxies exist to nonbaryonic dark matter does not exist at all in any significant amounts. We discuss astronomical evidence for the existence of dark matter and its connection with visible matter and examine att...

  18. Glucosamine-containing supplement improves locomotor functions in subjects with knee pain a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanzaki N

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Noriyuki Kanzaki,1 Yoshiko Ono,1 Hiroshi Shibata,1 Toshio Moritani2 1Institute for Health Care Science, Suntory Wellness Ltd, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, 2Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Japan Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of a glucosamine-containing supplement to improve locomotor functions in subjects with knee pain.Methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group comparative study was conducted for 16 weeks in 100 Japanese subjects (age, 51.8±0.8 years with knee pain. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the two supplements containing 1 1,200 mg of glucosamine hydrochloride, 60 mg of chondroitin sulfate, 45 mg of type II collagen peptides, 90 mg of quercetin glycosides, 10 mg of imidazole peptides, and 5 µg of vitamin D per day (GCQID group, n=50 or 2 a placebo (placebo group, n=50. Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure, visual analog scale score, normal walking speed, and knee-extensor strength were measured to evaluate the effects of the supplement on knee-joint functions and locomotor functions.Results: In subjects eligible for efficacy assessment, there was no significant group × time interaction, and there were improvements in knee-joint functions and locomotor functions in both groups, but there was no significant difference between the groups. In subjects with mild-to-severe knee pain at baseline, knee-extensor strength at week 8 (104.6±5.0% body weight vs 92.3±5.5% body weight, P=0.030 and the change in normal walking speed at week 16 (0.11±0.03 m/s vs 0.05±0.02 m/s, P=0.038 were significantly greater in the GCQID group than in the placebo group. Further subgroup analysis based on Kellgren–Lawrence (K–L grade showed that normal walking speed at week 16 (1.36±0.05 m/s vs 1.21±0.02 m/s, P<0.05 was significantly greater in the GCQID group than in the placebo group in subjects with K–L grade I. No

  19. Clinical performance of a dermal filler containing natural glycolic Acid and a polylactic Acid polymer: results of a clinical trial in human immunodeficiency virus subjects with facial lipoatrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagle, Jorge M; Macchetto, Pedro Cervantes; Durán Páramo, Rosa Margarita

    2010-02-01

    Lipoatrophy is a condition that affects certain individuals, most commonly those who are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.(1-3) Injectable fillers are used for the treatment of these dermal contour deformities to smooth dermal depressions formed by the loss of volume. These dermal fillers (also known as soft tissue augmentation devices) can correct contour deformities caused by lipoatrophy in patients who are human immunodeficiency virus positive or negative. The product used in this study is a patented, second-generation, injectable, dermal collagen stimulator that combines glycolic acid and polylactic acid. The glycolic acid used is not a polymer, but rather an acid derived from sugar cane. Its chemical structure corresponds to that of an alpha-hydroxy acid. Glycolic acid is a well-characterized agent that is present in a number of cosmetic products. Polylactic acid is a synthetic, biocompatible, biodegradable, inert, synthetic polymer from the poly a-hydroxy-acid family that is believed to stimulate fibroblasts to produce more collagen, thus increasing facial volume. Together, polylactic acid and glycolic acid act in concert to 1) stimulate collagen production and 2) hydrate the outer layers of the skin. A multicenter, clinical investigation authorized by the Mexican Secretariat of Health was conducted between September 20, 2002, and September 19, 2004. This clinical study was conducted in male patients between 32 and 60 years of age with lipoatrophy as a result of highly active antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus infection. The study objective was to measure the improvement of contour deformities after the injection of a dermal collagen stimulator containing glycolic acid and polylactic acid. In addition to safety, this dermal filler was assessed when used to correct volume deformities caused by lipoatrophy in subjects who are human immunodeficiency virus positive. Thirty male subjects participated and were treated as follows

  20. Train, teach; taught? How the content of specific science subject matter knowledge sessions impacts on trainee teachers’ classroom practice and children’s learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Kind

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The impact science sessions for trainee science teachers have on 11-14 year olds’ learning of science was assessed using questionnaires and a “Video-Interview (trainee –Interview (pupils” (V-I-I technique devised for this study. V-I-I involved: video-recording trainee-taught lessons; and two interviews – with a pupil group to probe learning occurring in the lesson and with the trainee.Eighty UK-based trainees taking a one-year postgraduate teacher education course completed the questionnaire probing perceptions about university- and school-based training sessions designed to develop science subject matter knowledge (SMK and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK. Six trainees participated in V-I-I.Most trainees saw all sessions as SMK-based, regardless of teacher educators’ intended purposes. Lesson videos revealed ”describing” activities, task completion and good behaviour as main focii. Explanation of key science ideas and use of materials and /ideas from training sessions were largely absent. Trainee interviews revealed contrasts: most perceived a lesson as “successful” when children completed tasks quietly. Other trainees realised their understanding impacted on pupils’ learning science concepts. Pupil interviews showed positive attitudes towards science and learning difficult ideas, but little specific learning of topics taught.

  1. A tale of three blind men on the proper subject matter of clinical science and practice: commentary on Plaud's behaviorism vs. Ilardi and Feldman's cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, J P; Kelly, M M

    2001-09-01

    Plaud (J Clin Psychol 57, 1089-1102, 1109-1111, 1119-1120) and Ilardi and Feldman (J Clin Psychol 57, 1067-1088, 1103-1107, 1113-1117, 1121-1124) argue for two very different approaches to clinical science and practice (i.e., behavior analysis and cognitive neuroscience, respectively). We comment on the assets and liabilities of both perspectives as presented and attempt to achieve some semblance of balance between the three protagonists embroiled in this current debate. The vision of clinical science we articulate is more ecumenical and evolutionary, rather than paradigmatic and revolutionary. As we see it, the problem clinical psychology faces is much larger than the authors let on; namely, how best to make clinical science meaningful and relevant to practitioners, consumers, the general public, and the behavioral health-care community. Clinical psychology's immediate internal problem is not pluralism with regard to subject matter, worldview, methodology, or school of thought, but pluralism in clinical psychologists' adherence to a scientific epistemology as the only legitimate form of clinical psychology. On this latter point, we still have a very long way to go. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. Low-Fat Nondairy Minidrink Containing Plant Stanol Ester Effectively Reduces LDL Cholesterol in Subjects with Mild to Moderate Hypercholesterolemia as Part of a Western Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarit Hallikainen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cholesterol-lowering efficacy of plant stanol ester (STAEST added to fat- or milk-based products is well documented. However, their efficacy when added to nondairy liquid drinks is less certain. Therefore, we have investigated the cholesterol-lowering efficacy of STAEST added to a soymilk-based minidrink in the hypercholesterolemic subjects. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel study, the intervention group (n=27 consumed 2.7 g/d of plant stanols as the ester in soymilk-based minidrink (65 mL/d with the control group (n=29 receiving the same drink without added plant stanols once a day with a meal for 4 weeks. Serum total, LDL, and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations were reduced by 8.0, 11.1, and 10.2% compared with controls (P<0.05 for all. Serum plant sterol concentrations and their ratios to cholesterol declined by 12–25% from baseline in the STAEST group while the ratio of campesterol to cholesterol was increased by 10% in the controls (P<0.05 for all. Serum precursors of cholesterol remained unchanged in both groups. In conclusion, STAEST-containing soymilk-based low-fat minidrink consumed once a day with a meal lowered LDL and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations without evoking any side effects in subjects consuming normal Western diet. The clinical trial registration number is NCT01716390.

  3. Nutraceutical pill containing berberine versus ezetimibe on plasma lipid pattern in hypercholesterolemic subjects and its additive effect in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia on stable cholesterol-lowering treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisciotta Livia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although statins (STs are drugs of first choice in hypercholesterolemic patients, especially in those at high cardiovascular risk, some of them are intolerant to STs or refuse treatment with these drugs. In view of this, we have evaluated the lipid-lowering effect of a nutraceutical pill containing berberine (BBR and of ezetimibe, as alternative treatments, in monotherapy or in combination, in 228 subjects with primary hypercholesterolemia (HCH, with history of STs intolerance or refusing STs treatment. In addition, since PCSK9 was found up-regulated by STs dampening their effect through an LDL receptors (LDLRs degradation, and BBR suppressed PCSK9 expression in cellular studies, we supplemented the stable lipid-lowering therapy of 30 genotype-confirmed Familial Hypercholesterolemia heterozygotes (HeFH with BBR, searching for a further plasma cholesterol reduction. Plasma lipid pattern was evaluated at baseline and during treatments. Results In HCH subjects the nutraceutical pill resulted more effective than EZE in lowering LDL cholesterol (−31.7% vs −25.4%, P > G silent polymorphism of NPC1L1 gene showed a higher response to EZE than homozygous for the common allele (GG + CG: LDL-C −29.4±5.0%, CC −23.6±6.5%, P Conclusions The alternative treatments tested in our HCH subjects were rather effective and safe. The findings in HeFH patients suggest that BBR might act in vivo increasing expression and stability of LDLRs and/or suppressing PCSK9 expression.

  4. Formation of bromate and halogenated disinfection byproducts during chlorination of bromide-containing waters in the presence of dissolved organic matter and CuO

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Chao

    2015-12-02

    Previous studies showed that significant bromate (BrO3-) can be formed via the CuO-catalyzed disproportionation of hypobromous acid (HOBr) pathway. In this study, the influence of CuO on the formation of BrO3- and halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) (e.g., trihalomethanes, THMs and haloacetic acids, HAAs) during chlorination of six dissolved organic matter (DOM) isolates was investigated. Only in the presence of slow reacting DOM (from treated Colorado River water, i.e., CRW-BF-HPO), significant BrO3- formation is observed, which competes with bromination of DOM (i.e., THM and HAA formation). Reactions between HOBr and 12 model compounds in the presence of CuO indicates that CuO-catalyzed HOBr disproportionation is completely inhibited by fast reacting phenols, while it predominates in the presence of practically unreactive compounds (acetone, butanol, propionic, and butyric acids). In the presence of slow reacting di- and tri-carboxylic acids (oxalic, malonic, succinic, and citric acids), BrO3- formation varies, depending on its competition with bromoform and dibromoacetic acid formation (i.e., bromination pathway). The latter pathway can be enhanced by CuO due to the activation of HOBr. Therefore, increasing CuO dose (0-0.2 g L-1) in a reaction system containing chlorine, bromide, and CRW-BF-HPO enhances the formation of BrO3-, total THMs and HAAs. Factors including pH and initial reactant concentrations influence the DBP formation. These novel findings have implications for elevated DBP formation during transportation of chlorinated waters in copper-containing distribution systems.

  5. Potential gray matter unpruned in adolescents and young adults dependent on dextromethorphan-containing cough syrups: evidence from cortical and subcortical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ying-Wei; Lv, Xiao-Fei; Jiang, Gui-Hua; Su, Huan-Huan; Ma, Xiao-Fen; Tian, Jun-Zhang; Zhuo, Fu-Zhen

    2017-10-01

    Adolescence is a unique period in neurodevelopment. Dextromethorphan (DXM)-containing cough syrups are new addictive drugs used by adolescents and young adults. The effects of chronic DXM abuse on neurodevelopment in adolescents and young adults are still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in cortical thickness and subcortical gray matter volumes between DXM-dependent adolescents and young adults and healthy controls, and to explore relationships between alternations in cortical thickness/subcortical volume and DXM duration, initial age of DXM use, as well as impulsive behavior in DXM-dependent adolescents and young adults. Thirty-eight DXM-dependent adolescents and young adults and 18 healthy controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging scanning, and cortical thickness across the continuous cortical surface was compared between the groups. Subcortical volumes were compared on a structure-by-structure basis. DXM-dependent adolescents and young adults exhibited significantly increased cortical thickness in the bilateral precuneus (PreC), left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. L), left inferior parietal lobe (IPL. L), right precentral gyrus (PreCG. R), right lateral occipital cortex (LOC. R), right inferior temporal cortex (ITC. R), right lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC. R) and right transverse temporal gyrus (TTG. R) (all p adolescents dependent on DXM. These structural changes might explain the neurobiological mechanism of impulsive behavior in adolescent DXM users.

  6. Ozonation effect on natural organic matter adsorption and biodegradation--application to a membrane bioreactor containing activated carbon for drinking water production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treguer, Ronan; Tatin, Romuald; Couvert, Annabelle; Wolbert, Dominique; Tazi-Pain, Annie

    2010-02-01

    More stringent legislation on dissolved organic matter (DOM) urges the drinking water industry to improve in DOM removal, especially when applied to water with high dissolved organic carbon (DOC) contents and low turbidity. To improve conventional processes currently used in drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs), the performances of a hybrid membrane bioreactor containing fluidized activated carbon were investigated at the DWTP of Rennes. Preliminary results showed that the residual DOC was the major part of the non-biodegradable fraction. In order to increase the global efficiency, an upstream oxidation step was added to the process. Ozone was chosen to break large molecules and increase their biodegradability. The first step consisted of carrying out lab-scale experiments in order to optimise the necessary ozone dose by measuring the process yield, in terms of biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC). Secondly, activated carbon adsorption of the DOC present in ozonated water was quantified. The whole process was tested in a pilot unit under field conditions at the DWTP of Rennes (France). Lab-scale experiments confirmed that ozonation increases the BDOC fraction, reduces the aromaticity of the DOC and produces small size organic compounds. Adsorption tests led to the conclusion that activated carbon unexpectedly removes BDOC first. Finally, the pilot unit results revealed an additional BDOC removal (from 0.10 to 0.15 mg L(-1)) of dissolved organic carbon from the raw water considered. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Dietary Supplement Containing Cinnamon, Chromium and Carnosine Decreases Fasting Plasma Glucose and Increases Lean Mass in Overweight or Obese Pre-Diabetic Subjects: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial: e0138646

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yuejun Liu; Aurélie Cotillard; Camille Vatier; Jean-Philippe Bastard; Soraya Fellahi; Marie Stévant; Omran Allatif; Clotilde Langlois; Séverine Bieuvelet; Amandine Brochot; Angèle Guilbot; Karine Clément; Salwa W Rizkalla

    2015-01-01

    .... Objectives Our aim was to evaluate the effects of 4-month treatment with a dietary supplement containing cinnamon, chromium and carnosine in moderately obese or overweight pre-diabetic subjects...

  8. Effects of a commercial product containing guaraná on psychological well-being, anxiety and mood: a single-blind, placebo-controlled study in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestrini, Gianluca Ivan; Marino, Franca; Cosentino, Marco

    2013-05-25

    Guaranà (Paulinia cupana) seed extracts are increasingly popular worldwide for their stimulant, cognitive and behavioral effects. To assess the effects on psychological well-being, anxiety and mood of a commercially available guaranà preparation taken regularly over several days according to the labelled dosages and instructions, 27 healthy volunteers were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Guaranà 350 mg × 3 daily just after breakfast or placebo were given for 5 consecutive days. Assessment was performed one day after the last intake and included the psychological well-being (PWB) scales, the self-rating anxiety state scale (SAS), and the Bond-Lader mood scales. There were no significant differences between guaranà and placebo in any of the 6 areas of PWB, in SAS, as well as in any of the 16 mood scales. In healthy subjects a 5-day treatment with a commercial preparation of guaranà used according to labelled instructions provided no evidence for any major effects on psychological well-being, anxiety and mood. Considering the increasing popularity of guaranà-containing products sold as dietary supplements for fitness purposes, controlled studies are strongly warranted to assess their benefits in comparison to the labelled claims.

  9. The Role of Teachers' Pedagogical and Subject-Matter Knowledge in Planning and Enacting Science-Inquiry Instruction, and in Assessing Students' Science-Inquiry Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birlean, Camelia

    This study explored the relation between pedagogical knowledge and subject-matter knowledge, in the context of inquiry-driven science instruction, and their relation to instructors' performance in the instructional process. This multiple case study focused on three distinct categories of teachers--Novice in Inquiry and in Science, Novice in Inquiry and Expert in Science, and Expert in Inquiry and in Science--and examined the commonalities and differences among them by exploring the cognitive processes these teachers used when planning and enacting an inquiry instructional situation, as well as when assessing students' learning resulting from this specific instructional event. Inquiry instruction varied across cases from largely structured to largely open. The Novice-Novice's science instruction, predominantly traditional in the approach, differed greatly from that of the Expert-Expert and of the Novice-Expert. The latter two emphasized--to various extents structured, guided, and open--inquiry strategy as part of their ongoing instruction. The open inquiry was an approach embraced solely by the Expert-Expert teacher throughout the Advanced Science Research instruction, emphasizing the creative aspect of problem generation. Edward teacher also distinguished himself from the other two participants in his view of planning and terminology used to describe it, both of which emphasized the dynamic and flexible feature of this instructional process. The Expert-Expert identified occasional planning, planning of specific skills and content critical to students' learning process during their independent inquiry. The observed teaching performance of the three participants partly reflected their planning; the alignment was least frequent for the Novice-Novice. The assessment of inquiry-based projects varied greatly across participants. Each teacher participant evaluated a set of three inquiry-based science projects that differed in their quality, and this variation increased

  10. The FMOS-COSMOS Survey of Star-forming Galaxies at Z ˜ 1.6. V: Properties of Dark Matter Halos Containing Hα Emitting Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashino, Daichi; More, Surhud; Silverman, John D.; Daddi, Emanuele; Renzini, Alvio; Sanders, David B.; Rodighiero, Giulia; Puglisi, Annagrazia; Kajisawa, Masaru; Valentino, Francesco; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Le Fèvre, Olivier; Nagao, Tohru; Arimoto, Nobuo; Sugiyama, Naoshi

    2017-07-01

    We study the properties of dark matter halos that contain star-forming galaxies at 1.43 ≤ z ≤ 1.74, using the FMOS-COSMOS survey. The sample consists of 516 objects with a detection of the Hα emission line, which represent the star forming population at this epoch, having a stellar mass range of 109.57 ≤ M */M ⊙ ≲ 1011.4 and a star-formation rate range of 15 ≲ SFR/(M ⊙ yr-1) ≲ 600. We measure the projected two-point correlation function while carefully taking into account observational biases, and find a significant clustering amplitude at scales of 0.04-10 h -1 cMpc, with a correlation length {r}0={5.26}-0.62+0.75 {h}-1 {cMpc} and a bias b={2.44}-0.32+0.38. We interpret our clustering measurement using a halo occupation distribution model. The sample galaxies appear to reside in halos with mass {M}{{h}}={4.71}-1.62+1.19× {10}12 {h}-1 {M}⊙ on average, which will likely become present-day halos of mass M h (z = 0) ˜ 2 × 1013 h -1 M ⊙, equivalent to the typical halo mass scale of galaxy groups. We then confirm the decline of the stellar-to-halo mass ratio at M h generation instrument that will provide strong constraints on the galaxy-formation scenario by obtaining precise measurements of galaxy clustering at z > 1.

  11. Process analysis and economics of drinking water production from coastal aquifers containing chromophoric dissolved organic matter and bromide using nanofiltration and ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhani, R; McVicker, R; Spangenberg, C; Rosso, D

    2012-01-01

    In regions characterized by water scarcity, such as coastal Southern California, groundwater containing chromophoric dissolved organic matter is a viable source of water supply. In the coastal aquifer of Orange County in California, seawater intrusion driven by coastal groundwater pumping increased the concentration of bromide in extracted groundwater from 0.4 mg l⁻¹ in 2000 to over 0.8 mg l⁻¹ in 2004. Bromide, a precursor to bromate formation is regulated by USEPA and the California Department of Health as a potential carcinogen and therefore must be reduced to a level below 10 μg l⁻¹. This paper compares two processes for treatment of highly coloured groundwater: nanofiltration and ozone injection coupled with biologically activated carbon. The requirement for bromate removal decreased the water production in the ozonation process to compensate for increased maintenance requirements, and required the adoption of catalytic carbon with associated increase in capital and operating costs per unit volume. However, due to the absence of oxidant addition in nanofiltration processes, this process is not affected by bromide. We performed a process analysis and a comparative economic analysis of capital and operating costs for both technologies. Our results show that for the case studied in coastal Southern California, nanofiltration has higher throughput and lower specific capital and operating cost, when compared to ozone injection with biologically activate carbon. Ozone injection with biologically activated carbon, compared to nanofiltration, has 14% higher capital cost and 12% higher operating costs per unit water produced while operating at the initial throughput. Due to reduced ozone concentration required to accommodate for bromate reduction, the ozonation process throughput is reduced and the actual cost increase (per unit water produced) is 68% higher for capital cost and 30% higher for operations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Front matter: Volume 10385

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assoufid, Lahsen; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Asundi, Anand K.

    2017-09-01

    This PDF file contains the front matter associated with SPIE Proceedings Volume 10385, including the Title Page, Copyright information, Table of Contents, Introduction, and Conference Committee listing.

  13. ESSENS dyslipidemia: A placebo-controlled, randomized study of a nutritional supplement containing red yeast rice in subjects with newly diagnosed dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasliwal, Ravi R; Bansal, Manish; Gupta, Rajeev; Shah, Siddharth; Dani, Sameer; Oomman, Abraham; Pai, Vikas; Prasad, Guru Mallapa; Singhvi, Sunil; Patel, Jitendra; Sivam, Sakthivel; Trehan, Naresh

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests prolonged exposure to lower levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), starting at a younger age, substantially lowers cardiovascular (CV) risk. Accordingly, the CV pandemic affecting younger population in low- to low-middle-income countries, where statin usage is poor even in secondary prevention, may benefit from lipid-lowering nutritional products, as nutritional intervention is generally preferred in these cultures. However, the safety and efficacy of such preparations have not been systematically tested. In this multicenter, double-blind study, 191 statin-free subjects with newly-diagnosed hyperlipidemia (LDL-C >120 mg/dL, 3.11 mmol/L) and no evidence of CV disease were randomized to one capsule of a proprietary bioactive phytonutrient formulation containing red yeast rice, grape-seed, niacinamide, and folic acid (RYR-NS) or matched placebo twice daily, along with lifestyle modification, for 12 wk. Mean baseline LDL-C levels were 148.5 ± 24.0 mg/dL (3.85 ± 0.62 mmol/L) and 148.6 ± 21.9 mg/dL (3.85 ± 0.57 mmol/L) in the RYR-NS and placebo groups respectively. Compared with placebo, RYR-NS resulted in a significant reduction in LDL-C (-29.4% versus -3.5%, P < 0.0001) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C; -29.8% versus -10.3%, P < 0.0001) at 12 wk. With RYR-NS, 43.4% individuals attained desirable LDL-C levels and 55.4% desirable non-HDL-C levels by week 12, compared to only 0% and 1.1%, respectively, at baseline. No safety issues were observed. This study demonstrates the efficacy and safety of RYR-NS in lowering LDL-C and non-HDL-C after 12 wk, with magnitude of LDL-C reduction being comparable to that seen with moderate-intensity statin therapy. Further long-term studies are required to determine the impact of RYR-NS on treatment adherence and clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic characterization of soil organic matter fractions in a forest ecosystem subjected to prescribed burning and thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescribed burning and thinning are gaining popularity as low-cost forest protection measures. Such field management practices could alter the chemical properties of soil organic matter (SOM), especially humic substances. In this work, we collected surface soil samples from the Bankhead National For...

  15. Gray and white matter changes in subjective cognitive impairment, amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: a voxel-based analysis study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuniaki Kiuchi

    Full Text Available Subjective cognitive impairment may be a very early at-risk period of the continuum of dementia. However, it is difficult to discriminate at-risk states from normal aging. Thus, detection of the early pathological changes in the subjective cognitive impairment period is needed. To elucidate these changes, we employed diffusion tensor imaging and volumetry analysis, and compared subjective cognitive impairment with normal, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The subjects in this study were 39 Alzheimer's disease, 43 mild cognitive impairment, 28 subjective cognitive impairment and 41 normal controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the normal control and subjective cognitive impairment groups in all measures. Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment had the same extent of brain atrophy and diffusion changes. These results are consistent with the hypothetical model of the dynamic biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease.

  16. Evidence for Functional Networks within the Human Brain's White Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, Michael; Nitzan, Mor; Bick, Atira S; Levin, Netta; Arzy, Shahar

    2017-07-05

    brain. However, most fMRI studies ignored a major part of the brain, the white-matter, discarding signals from it as arising from noise. Here we use resting-state fMRI data from 176 subjects to show that signals from the human white-matter contain meaningful information. We identify 12 functional networks composed of interacting long-distance white-matter tracts. Moreover, we show that these networks are highly correlated to resting-state gray-matter networks, highlighting their functional role. Our findings enable reinterpretation of many existing fMRI datasets, and suggest a new way to explore the white-matter role in cognition and its disturbances in neuropsychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/376394-14$15.00/0.

  17. Low episodic memory performance in cognitively normal elderly subjects is associated with increased posterior cingulate gray matter N-acetylaspartate: a1H MRSI study at 7 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Simon J; Kirchner, Thomas; Wyss, Michael; Van Bergen, Jiri M G; Quevenco, Frances C; Steininger, Stefanie C; Griffith, Erica Y; Meier, Irene; Michels, Lars; Gietl, Anton F; Leh, Sandra E; Brickman, Adam M; Hock, Christoph; Nitsch, Roger M; Pruessmann, Klaas P; Henning, Anke; Unschuld, Paul G

    2016-12-01

    Low episodic memory performance characterizes elderly subjects at increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may reflect neuronal dysfunction within the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus (PCP) region. To investigate a potential association between cerebral neurometabolism and low episodic memory in the absence of cognitive impairment, tissue-specific magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging at ultrahigh field strength of 7 Tesla was used to investigate the PCP region in a healthy elderly study population (n = 30, age 70 ± 5.7 years, Mini-Mental State Examination 29.4 ± 4.1). The Verbal Learning and Memory Test (VLMT) was administered as part of a neuropsychological battery for assessment of episodic memory performance. Significant differences between PCP gray and white matter could be observed for glutamate-glutamine (p = 0.001), choline (p = 0.01), and myo-inositol (p = 0.02). Low Verbal Learning and Memory Test performance was associated with high N-acetylaspartate in PCP gray matter (p = 0.01) but not in PCP white matter. Our data suggest that subtle decreases in episodic memory performance in the elderly may be associated with increased levels of N-acetylaspartate as a reflection of increased mitochondrial energy capacity in PCP gray matter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Acute subjective effects after smoking joints containing up to 69 mg Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in recreational users : a randomized, crossover clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunault, Claudine C.; Böcker, Koen B E; Stellato, R. K.; Kenemans, J. Leon; de Vries, Irma; Meulenbelt, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Rationale An increase in the potency of the cannabis cigarettes has been observed over the past three decades. Objectives In this study, we aimed to establish the impact of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on the rating of subjective effects (intensity and duration of the effects), up to 23 % THC

  19. New light on a dark subject: On the use of fluorescence data to deduce redox states of natural organic matter (NOM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macalady, Donald L.; Walton-Day, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the use of excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (EEMS), parallel factor statistical analysis (PARAFAC), and oxidation-reduction experiments to examine the effect of redox conditions on PARAFAC model results for aqueous samples rich in natural organic matter. Fifty-four aqueous samples from 11 different geographic locations and two plant extracts were analyzed untreated and after chemical treatments or irradiation were used in attempts to change the redox status of the natural organic matter. The EEMS spectra were generated and modeled using a PARAFAC package developed by Cory and McKnight (2005). The PARAFAC model output was examined for consistency with previously reported relations and with changes expected to occur upon experimental oxidation and reduction of aqueous samples. Results indicate the implied fraction of total sample fluorescence attributed to quinone-like moieties was consistent (0.64 to 0.78) and greater than that observed by Cory and McKnight (2005). The fraction of the quinone-like moieties that was reduced (the reducing index, RI) showed relatively little variation (0.46 to 0.71) despite attempts to alter the redox status of the natural organic matter. The RI changed little after reducing samples using zinc metal, oxidizing at high pH with air, or irradiating with a Xenon lamp. Our results, however, are consistent with the correlations between the fluorescence indices (FI) of samples and the ratio of PARAFAC fitting parameters suggested by Cory and McKnight (2005), though we used samples with a much narrower range of FI values.

  20. Effects of Phase Difference and Mean Stress on the Fatigue Strength of Small-Hole-Containing Specimens Subjected to Combined Load

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ENDO, Masahiro; ISHIMOTO, Isao

    2007-01-01

    .... Combined axial and torsional fatigue tests were conducted using annealed JIS S35C steel and quenched/tempered JIS SCM435 steel specimens containing a small hole of either 100 μm or 500 μm in diameter...

  1. Age, Cumulative Trauma and Stressful Life Events, and Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms among Older Adults in Prison: Do Subjective Impressions Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschi, Tina; Morgen, Keith; Zgoba, Kristen; Courtney, Deborah; Ristow, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aging prison population in the United States presents a significant public health challenge with high rates of trauma and mental health issues that the correctional system alone is ill-prepared to address. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of age, objective, and subjective measures of trauma and stressful…

  2. Using Academic Journals to Help Students Learn Subject Matter Content, Develop and Practice Critical Reasoning Skills, and Reflect on Personal Values in Food Science and Human Nutrition Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaoka, Wayne T.; Crosetti, Lea M.

    2008-01-01

    It has been reported that students learn best when they use a wide variety of techniques to understand the information of the discipline, be it visual, auditory, discussion with others, metacognition, hands-on activities, or writing about the subject. We report in this article the use of academic journals not only as an aid for students to learn…

  3. A Structural Equation Model Analyzing the Relationship of Student Achievement Motivations and Personality Factors in a Range of Academic Subject-Matter Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempelaar, Dirk T.; Gijselaers, Wim H.; Schim van der Loeff, Sybrand; Nijhuis, Jan F. H.

    2007-01-01

    The question of subject-specificity of achievement motivations is important, both for educational psychology, as well as for educational policy. This study contributes to the investigation of the heterogeneity in achievement motivations in the context of the expectancy-value model. Whereas existing research deals with middle and high school…

  4. Body composition in male rats subjected to early weaning and treated with diet containing flour or flaxseed oil after 21 days until 60 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferolla da Camara Boueri, B; Ribeiro Pessanha, C; Rodrigues da Costa, L; Ferreira, M R; Saldanha Melo, H; Duque Coutinho de Abreu, M; Rozeno Pessoa, L; Alves da Silva, P C; Pereira, A D; Cavalcante Ribeiro, D; de Meneses, J A; Soares da Costa, C A; Teles Boaventura, G

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was analyzed if the flour or flaxseed oil treatment contributes to body composition in male rats subjected to early weaning. Pups were weaned for separation from mother at 14 (early weaning, EW) and 21 days (control, C). At 21 days, part of the pups was evaluated (C21 v. EW21). After 21 days, control (C60) was fed with control diet. EW was divided in control (EWC60); flaxseed flour (EWFF60); flaxseed oil (EWFO60) diets until 60 days. Body mass, length and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were determined. EW21 (v. C21) and EWC60 (v. C60 and EWFF60) showed lower (Pcomposition. EWFO60 (v. C60 and EWFF60) showed lower (Pcomposition after early weaning.

  5. Organic matter inoculated with diazotrophic bacterium Beijerinckia indica and Cunninghamella elegans fungus containing chitosan on banana “Williams” in field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Pereira Stamford

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of biofertilizers from rocks increases nutrients for plant nutrition without environmental pollution. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of biofertilizers from phosphate and potassium rocks mixed with organic matter (earthworm compound inoculated with free living diazotrophic bacteria (NFB 10001 and Cunninghamella elegans (fungus with chitosan on yield, characteristics, and nutrient uptake of banana (cv. Williams, and attributes of a Red Yellow Argisoil of the rainforest Zone of Pernambuco, Brazil. The experimental design included two biofertilizers: (a PK rock biofertilizers plus organic matter (NPKB and (b bioprotector (NPKP applied at 50, 100 and 150% of the recommended rate for banana, which were compared with soluble mineral fertilizers (NPKF applied at the recommended rate, and earthworm compound (20 ton ha-1. The best results of the plant parameters were obtained with NPKB and NPKP applied at the highest rates (150% RR. A normal yield was produced when NPKB and NPKP were applied at the highest rates and NPKF at the recommended rate. The available P and K in the soil showed a significant fertilization effect, especially when NPKB and NPKP were applied at the highest rates. The biofertilizer and bioprotector may be alternatives to mineral soluble fertilizers.

  6. Relative bioavailability of new formulation of paracetamol effervescent powder containing sodium bicarbonate versus paracetamol tablets: a comparative pharmacokinetic study in fed subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Guillermo; Opezzo, Javier A W; Lopez, Marcela I; Schere, Daniel; Keller, Guillermo; Gonzalez, Claudio D; Massa, Javier Martinelli; de los Santos, María Cecilia

    2007-10-01

    the aim of this relative bioavailability study was to determine the rate and extent of absorption of Alikal Dolor (effervescent powder containing paracetamol 500 mg/sodium bicarbonate 2318 mg)--test formulation (T) in relation to Parageniol (paracetamol 500 mg coated tablets)--reference formulation (R). 18 healthy volunteers (10 male and 8 female aged between 21 and 46 years) received, after 2 h of standardized breakfast, a single oral dose with 220 ml of water, in an open, randomized, crossover study, with a 7-day wash-out period. Paracetamol concentrations were established at 0, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 60, 75, 90 min and at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 h postdose by HPLC with an ultraviolet detector. the regression coefficient determined for paracetamol calibration curves was 0.9983 +/- 0.0034 and the working range was from 0.2 to 50 microg/ml. The quantification limit was 0.2 microg/ml. The rate of absorption was significantly greater (p < 0.03) for T (T(max) = 20.4 min) compared with R (T(max) = 38.4 min). Extent of absorption over the first 30 min postdose AUC((0-30 min)) was 4.21-fold greater (p < 0.03) for T compared with R, without differences between C(max.) The 90% CI on the geometric mean for C(max), AUC((0-10 h)) and AUC((0-)) ratios (T/R) were within the limits of 0.80-1.25, indicating both formulations were bioequivalent with respect to these parameters. paracetamol was absorbed at least twice as fast from T-containing sodium bicarbonate compared with R. This pharmacokinetic feature could prove crucial from the therapeutic point of view as it would allow a lower latency in the action time of paracetamol in producing its analgesic and antithermal effect.

  7. White matter organization in relation to upper limb motor control in healthy subjects: exploring the added value of diffusion kurtosis imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooijers, J; Leemans, A; Van Cauter, S; Sunaert, S; Swinnen, S P; Caeyenberghs, K

    2014-09-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) characterizes white matter (WM) microstructure. In many brain regions, however, the assumption that the diffusion probability distribution is Gaussian may be invalid, even at low b values. Recently, diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) was suggested to more accurately estimate this distribution. We explored the added value of DKI in studying the relation between WM microstructure and upper limb coordination in healthy controls (N = 24). Performance on a complex bimanual tracking task was studied with respect to the conventional DTI measures (DKI or DTI derived) and kurtosis metrics of WM tracts/regions carrying efferent (motor) output from the brain, corpus callosum (CC) substructures and whole brain WM. For both estimation models, motor performance was associated with fractional anisotropy (FA) of the CC-genu, CC-body, the anterior limb of the internal capsule, and whole brain WM (r s range 0.42-0.63). Although DKI revealed higher mean, radial and axial diffusivity and lower FA than DTI (p motor performance was associated with increased mean and radial kurtosis and kurtosis anisotropy (r s range 0.43-0.55). In conclusion, DKI provided additional information, but did not show increased sensitivity to detect relations between WM microstructure and bimanual performance in healthy controls.

  8. Brain development in male rats subjected to early weaning and treated with diet containing flour or flaxseed oil after 21 days until 60 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessanha, C R; da Camara Boueri, B Ferolla; da Costa, L Rodrigues; Ferreira, M Rocha; Melo, H Saldanha; de Abreu, M Duque Coutinho; Pessoa, L Rozeno; da Silva, P C Alves; Pereira, A D'Avila; Ribeiro, D Cavalcante; de Meneses, J Azevedo; da Costa, C A Soares; Boaventura, G T

    2015-08-01

    The precocious interruption of lactation is a prime factor for developmental plasticity. Here we analyzed whether flour or flaxseed oil treatment contributes to body and brain mass in male rats subjected to early weaning. Pups were weaned for separation from their mother at 14 (early weaning, EW) and 21 days (control, C). At 21 days, some of the pups were evaluated (C21 v. EW21). After 21 days, control pups (C60) were fed a control diet. EW pups were divided into those fed a control diet (EWC60), those given flaxseed flour (EWFF60), and those given flaxseed oil (EWFO60) until 60 days. EW21 showed lower body and absolute brain mass and higher relative brain mass. At 60 days, EWC60 and EWFO60 had lower body mass. With regard to relative brain mass, EWC60 was heavier; EWFO60 had lower values compared with EWC60 and higher values compared with C60 and EWFF60. These results indicated that flaxseed flour, in comparison with flaxseed oil, contributes to brain development after EW.

  9. Effect of advanced oxidation processes on the micropollutants and the effluent organic matter contained in municipal wastewater previously treated by three different secondary methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakis, Stefanos; Gamarra Vives, Franco Alejandro; Grandjean, Dominique; Magnet, Anoys; De Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Pulgarin, César

    2015-11-01

    In this study, wastewater from the output of three different secondary treatment facilities (Activated Sludge, Moving Bed Bioreactor and Coagulation-Flocculation) present in the municipal wastewater treatment plant of Vidy, Lausanne (Switzerland), was further treated with various oxidation processes (UV, UV/H2O2, solar irradiation, Fenton, solar photo-Fenton), at laboratory scale. For this assessment, 6 organic micropollutants in agreement with the new environmental legislation requirements in Switzerland were selected (Carbamazepine, Clarithromycin, Diclofenac, Metoprolol, Benzotriazole, Mecoprop) and monitored throughout the treatment. Also, the overall removal of the organic load was assessed. After each secondary treatment, the efficiency of the AOPs increased in the following order: Coagulation-Flocculation organic matter are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dark matter an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Majumdar, Debasish

    2015-01-01

    Dark Matter: An Introduction tackles the rather recent but fast-growing subject of astroparticle physics, encompassing three main areas of fundamental physics: cosmology, particle physics, and astrophysics. Accordingly, the book discusses symmetries, conservation laws, relativity, and cosmological parameters and measurements, as well as the astrophysical behaviors of galaxies and galaxy clusters that indicate the presence of dark matter and the possible nature of dark matter distribution.

  11. Respiratory effects of particulate matter air pollution: studies on diesel exhaust, road tunnel, subway and wood smoke exposure in human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehlstedt, Maria

    2011-07-01

    Background: Ambient air pollution is associated with adverse health effects, but the sources and components, which cause these effects is still incompletely understood. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the pulmonary effects of a variety of common air pollutants, including diesel exhaust, biomass smoke, and road tunnel and subway station environments. Healthy non-smoking volunteers were exposed in random order to the specific air pollutants and air/control, during intermittent exercise, followed by bronchoscopy. Methods and results: In study I, exposures were performed with diesel exhaust (DE) generated at transient engine load and air for 1 hour with bronchoscopy at 6 hours post-exposure. Immunohistochemical analyses of bronchial mucosal biopsies showed that DE exposure significantly increased the endothelial adhesion molecule expression of p-selectin and VCAM-1, together with increased bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) eosinophils. In study II, the subjects were exposed for 1 hour to DE generated during idling with bronchoscopy at 6 hours. The bronchial mucosal biopsies showed significant increases in neutrophils, mast cells and lymphocytes together with bronchial wash neutrophils. Additionally, DE exposure significantly increased the nuclear translocation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and phosphorylated c-jun in the bronchial epithelium. In contrast, the phase II enzyme NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) decreased after DE. In study III, the 2-hour exposures took place in a road tunnel with bronchoscopy 14 hours later. The road tunnel exposure significantly increased the total numbers of lymphocytes and alveolar macrophages in BAL, whereas NK cell and CD56+/T cell numbers significantly decreased. Additionally, the nuclear expression of phosphorylated c-jun in the bronchial epithelium was significantly increased after road tunnel exposure. In study IV, the subjects were exposed to metal-rich particulate aerosol for 2 hours at a subway station

  12. Non-disturbing characterization of natural organic matter (NOM) contained in clay rock pore water by mass spectrometry using electrospray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huclier-Markai, Sandrine; Landesman, Catherine; Rogniaux, Hélène; Monteau, Fabrice; Vinsot, Agnes; Grambow, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated the composition of the mobile natural organic matter (NOM) present in Callovo-Oxfodian pore water using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) and emission-excitation matrix (EEM) spectroscopy. The generation of knowledge of the composition, structure and size of mobile NOM is necessary if one wants to understand the interactions of these compounds with heavy metals/radionuclides, in the context of environmental studies, and particularly how the mobility of these trace elements is affected by mobile NOM. The proposed methodology is very sensitive in unambiguously identifying the in situ composition of dissolved NOM in water even at very low NOM concentration, due to innovative non-disturbing water sampling and ionization (ESI/APCI-MS) techniques. It was possible to analyze a quite exhaustive inventory of the small organic compounds of clay pore water without proceeding to any chemical treatment at naturally occurring concentration levels. The structural features observed were mainly acidic compounds and fatty acids as well as aldehydes and amino acids. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Do CS-US pairings actually matter? A within-subject comparison of instructed fear conditioning with and without actual CS-US pairings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An K Raes

    Full Text Available Previous research showed that instructions about CS-US pairings can lead to fear of the CS even when the pairings are never presented. In the present study, we examined whether the experience of CS-US pairings adds to the effect of instructions by comparing instructed conditioning with and without actual CS-US pairings in a within-subject design. Thirty-two participants saw three fractals as CSs (CS(+1, CS(+2, CS(- and received electric shocks as USs. Before the start of a so-called training phase, participants were instructed that both CS(+1 and CS(+2 would be followed by the US, but only CS(+1 was actually paired with the US. The absence of the US after CS(+2 was explained in such a way that participants would not doubt the instructions about the CS(+2-US relation. After the training phase, a test phase was carried out. In this phase, participants expected the US after both CS(+s but none of the CS(+s was actually paired with the US. During test, self-reported fear was initially higher for CS(+1 than for CS(+2, which indicates that the experience of actual CS-US pairings adds to instructions about these pairings. On the other hand, the CS(+s elicited similar skin conductance responses and US expectancies. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

  14. Benefits of multi-modal fusion analysis on a large-scale dataset: life-span patterns of inter-subject variability in cortical morphometry and white matter microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Adrian R; Smith, Stephen M; Fjell, Anders M; Tamnes, Christian K; Walhovd, Kristine B; Douaud, Gwenaëlle; Woolrich, Mark W; Westlye, Lars T

    2012-10-15

    Neuroimaging studies have become increasingly multimodal in recent years, with researchers typically acquiring several different types of MRI data and processing them along separate pipelines that provide a set of complementary windows into each subject's brain. However, few attempts have been made to integrate the various modalities in the same analysis. Linked ICA is a robust data fusion model that takes multi-modal data and characterizes inter-subject variability in terms of a set of multi-modal components. This paper examines the types of components found when running Linked ICA on a large magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) morphometric and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data set comprising 484 healthy subjects ranging from 8 to 85 years of age. We find several strong global features related to age, sex, and intracranial volume; in particular, one component predicts age to a high accuracy (r=0.95). Most of the remaining components describe spatially localized modes of variability in white or gray matter, with many components including both tissue types. The multimodal components tend to be located in anatomically-related brain areas, suggesting a morphological and possibly functional relationship. The local components show relationships between surface-based cortical thickness and arealization, voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and between three different DTI measures. Further, we report components related to artifacts (e.g. scanner software upgrades) which would be expected in a dataset of this size. Most of the 100 extracted components showed interpretable spatial patterns and were found to be reliable using split-half validation. This work provides novel information about normal inter-subject variability in brain structure, and demonstrates the potential of Linked ICA as a feature-extracting data fusion approach across modalities. This exploratory approach automatically generates models to explain structure in the data, and may prove especially powerful for large

  15. A Dietary Supplement Containing Cinnamon, Chromium and Carnosine Decreases Fasting Plasma Glucose and Increases Lean Mass in Overweight or Obese Pre-Diabetic Subjects: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuejun Liu

    Full Text Available Preventing or slowing the progression of prediabetes to diabetes is a major therapeutic issue.Our aim was to evaluate the effects of 4-month treatment with a dietary supplement containing cinnamon, chromium and carnosine in moderately obese or overweight pre-diabetic subjects, the primary outcome being change in fasting plasma glucose (FPG level. Other parameters of plasma glucose homeostasis, lipid profile, adiposity and inflammatory markers were also assessed.In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 62 subjects with a FPG level ranging from 5.55 to 7 mmol/L and a body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2, unwilling to change their dietary and physical activity habits, were allocated to receive a 4-month treatment with either 1.2 g/day of the dietary supplement or placebo. Patients were followed up until 6 months post-randomization.Four-month treatment with the dietary supplement decreased FPG compared to placebo (-0.24 ± 0.50 vs +0.12 ± 0.59 mmol/L, respectively, p = 0.02, without detectable significant changes in HbA1c. Insulin sensitivity markers, plasma insulin, plasma lipids and inflammatory markers did not differ between the treatment groups. Although there were no significant differences in changes in body weight and energy or macronutrient intakes between the two groups, fat-free mass (% increased with the dietary supplement compared to placebo (p = 0.02. Subjects with a higher FPG level and a milder inflammatory state at baseline benefited most from the dietary supplement.Four-month treatment with a dietary supplement containing cinnamon, chromium and carnosine decreased FPG and increased fat-free mass in overweight or obese pre-diabetic subjects. These beneficial effects might open up new avenues in the prevention of diabetes.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01530685.

  16. Fermentation quality and nutritive value of a total mixed ration silage containing coffee grounds at ten or twenty percent of dry matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C C; Cai, Y; Zhang, J G; Ogawa, M

    2007-04-01

    Six wethers were used in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square to study the fermentation quality and nutritive value of total mixed ration (TMR) silages that included wet coffee grounds (WCG). The TMR were prepared using a commercial compound feed, timothy hay, alfalfa hay, dried beet pulp, and a vitamin-mineral supplement in a ratio of 36.5:30:20:12:1.5, respectively, on a DM basis, with timothy hay and alfalfa hay being replaced by WCG at 0, 10, or 20%. All TMR silages, irrespective of WCG addition, were well preserved, with a low pH and ammonia-N content and a high lactic acid content. Intakes by wethers of TMR silages containing 0 and 10% WCG were 96.6 and 94.8 g/kg of BW(0.75), and did not differ (P > 0.05). Intake of TMR silage containing 20% WCG was 76.8 g/kg of BW(0.75), which was equal to 80% of that of the TMR silage with no WCG (quadratic: P < 0.01). Increasing concentrations of WCG in the rations decreased the digestibility of DM, CP, ADF, NDF, and energy, and increased that of ether extract (P < 0.05). The TDN and DE contents of the TMR silages with 0 and 10% WCG were similar, but the TMR silage with 20% WCG was lower (P < 0.05). With progressive increases in WCG concentrations, N intake did not differ, but fecal and urinary N increased linearly (P < 0.001), and retained N decreased linearly (P < 0.001). This study demonstrated that the proportion of WCG to be incorporated into TMR silages should not exceed 10% of the DM.

  17. Sea buckthorn decreases and delays insulin response and improves glycaemic profile following a sucrose-containing berry meal: a randomised, controlled, crossover study of Danish sea buckthorn and strawberries in overweight and obese male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Maria Wichmann; Spagner, Camilla; Cuparencu, Cătălina; Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2017-10-11

    Berries and mixed berry products exert acute effects on postprandial glycaemia and insulinemia, but very few berries have been studied, and primarily in normal weight subjects. Sea buckthorn and strawberry are compositionally widely different berries and may likely produce different responses. The effects of strawberry and sea buckthorn on postprandial glycaemia and insulinemia were examined in overweight or obese male subjects. Subjective appetite sensations and ad libitum intake were also examined. The study was conducted as a randomised, controlled, single-blinded, three-way crossover study. Eighteen subjects were studied in three 2-h meal tests followed by a subsequent ad libitum meal. Test meals contained added sucrose and either sea buckthorn, strawberry or no berries with added fructose (control). Blood samples were collected at t = 0, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min. Subjective appetite sensations were recorded at t = 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 140 min and subsequent ad libitum intake was recorded. Statistical differences in all continuous measures were evaluated based on the existence of a meal or a time-meal interaction by repeated measures linear model analyses or by differences in AUC by linear mixed models. None of the berries affected postprandial glucose. However, sea buckthorn improved glycaemic profile (44.7%, p Sea buckthorn also resulted in a decrease in plasma insulin concentration at 30 min (39.6%, p sea buckthorn compared with control (23.6%, p sea buckthorn meal compared to control. There was no effect on postprandial glucose response to a sugar challenge given together with purees of strawberry or sea buckthorn. Sea buckthorn decreased and delayed the insulin response and improved glycaemic profile compared with control. Strawberry had no such effects. No important differences were seen for the appetite measures. Sea buckthorn might be useful as a culinary tool for lowering meal insulin response.

  18. The effect of the 4MAT learning model on the achievement and motivation of 7th grade students on the subject of particulate nature of matter and an examination of student opinions on the model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, İdris; Bılgın, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    Background:Many researchers agree that students, especially primary students, have learning difficulties on the 'Particulate Nature of Matter' unit. One reason for this difficulty is not considering individual differences for teaching science. In 4MAT model learning, environment is arranged according to individual differences. Purpose:The purpose of this study is to examine (1) the effects of the 4MAT learning model on the7th grade students' academic achievement and motivation on the 'Particulate Nature of Matter' unit and (2) identify student opinions on the 4MAT model. Sample:The sample consists of 235 students (115 experimental, 120 control) in Turkey. Design and methods:Experimental groups were instructed with the 4MAT model while control groups were instructed with a traditional method. Achievement Test (AchToM) and Motivation Scale (MotScl) were administered to students as pre- and post-tests. Moreover, the opinions of students in the experimental groups on the 4MAT model were ascertained through open-ended questions after the application. Results:According to independent t-test results, statistical difference in favour of the experimental groups was detected between the post-AchToM (ES = 1.43; p motivation and participation in the lesson, lessons are more amusing and enjoyable, and the self-confidence of the students increases. Besides these positive opinions, however, a few students stated that the method took too much time, they were not motivated and it did not help them in understanding the subject. Conclusions:The 4MAT model is more effective than traditional method in terms of increasing achievement and motivation. The model takes all learners into account. Thus, the teacher or educator should use the 4MAT model to ensure all students' learning in their classroom.

  19. Cosmetology. Subject Matters, Volume 3, No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Susan

    2001-01-01

    "The Beauty of Cosmetology" discusses the employment outlook for cosmetologists. "High School Cosmetology with Great Style" describes the academic and career cosmetology curriculum at Great Oaks Institute of Technology and Career Development (Ohio). "More than Skin Deep" explores the job shadowing program at the American Academy of Hair Design.…

  20. Digital Literacy and Subject Matter Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm

    2015-01-01

    It is generally agreed that learners need to acquire digital literacy in order to be able to act as citizens, employees and entrepreneurs in an increasingly digitalized environment. It is also generally agreed that the educational system has to be responsible for educating towards digital literacy....... However, there is no shared conception of the scope and meaning of digital literacy. The overall picture shows two main approaches: The first aims at digital literacy in the sense of Buildung (general education) while the second addresses a wide range of specific skills and competences: From basic...... computer skills over multimodal analysis to social conventions for behavior in online environments. Consequently designs for teaching and learning that aim at learners acquiring digital literacy and the related learning objectives appear as weak defined. According to the Danish Ministry of Education Shared...

  1. Language and Composition: Does the Subject Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexis, Gerhard T.

    1968-01-01

    Attempts to combine language and composition in the freshman English course at Gustavus Adolphus College (St. Peter, Minnesota) should interest all teachers of English. One project utilized a single key word for several assignments. Students were asked to (1) think through the meaning of the word for a week and write definitions and associations,…

  2. Meeting the Challenge: Teaching Sensitive Subject Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Dorian B.

    2012-01-01

    When teaching diversity courses that discuss sensitive issues, such as racial, gender, sexuality, religious, and ethnic discrimination, it is possible to encounter student resistance, which can subsequently prevent students from comprehending the content. While teaching an introductory course on African American history in a Black Studies…

  3. Stable Bound States of Asymmetric Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Wise, Mark B.; Zhang, Yue

    2014-01-01

    The simplest renormalizable effective field theories with asymmetric dark matter bound states contain two additional gauge singlet fields one being the dark matter and the other a mediator particle that the dark matter annihilates into. We examine the physics of one such model with a Dirac fermion as the dark matter and a real scalar mediator. For a range of parameters the Yukawa coupling of the dark matter to the mediator gives rise to stable asymmetric dark matter bound states. We derive pr...

  4. When Matter Matters

    CERN Document Server

    Easson, Damien A.; Vikman, Alexander

    2013-07-10

    We study a recently proposed scenario for the early universe: Subluminal Galilean Genesis. We prove that without any other matter present in the spatially flat Friedmann universe, the perturbations of the Galileon scalar field propagate with a speed at most equal to the speed of light. This proof applies to all cosmological solutions -- to the whole phase space. However, in a more realistic situation, when one includes any matter which is not directly coupled to the Galileon, there always exists a region of phase space where these perturbations propagate superluminally, indeed with arbitrarily high speed. We illustrate our analytic proof with numerical computations. We discuss the implications of this result for the possible UV completion of the model.

  5. Synthetic Oligodeoxynucleotides Containing Multiple Telemeric TTAGGG Motifs Suppress Inflammasome Activity in Macrophages Subjected to Oxygen and Glucose Deprivation and Reduce Ischemic Brain Injury in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    Full Text Available The immune system plays a fundamental role in both the development and pathobiology of stroke. Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes that have come to be recognized as critical players in the inflammation that ultimately contributes to stroke severity. Inflammasomes recognize microbial and host-derived danger signals and activate caspase-1, which in turn controls the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. We have shown that A151, a synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide containing multiple telemeric TTAGGG motifs, reduces IL-1β production by activated bone marrow derived macrophages that have been subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation and LPS stimulation. Further, we demonstrate that A151 reduces the maturation of caspase-1 and IL-1β, the levels of both the iNOS and NLRP3 proteins, and the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential within such cells. In addition, we have demonstrated that A151 reduces ischemic brain damage and NLRP3 mRNA levels in SHR-SP rats that have undergone permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. These findings clearly suggest that the modulation of inflammasome activity via A151 may contribute to a reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokine production by macrophages subjected to conditions that model brain ischemia and modulate ischemic brain damage in an animal model of stroke. Therefore, modulation of ischemic pathobiology by A151 may have a role in the development of novel stroke prevention and therapeutic strategies.

  6. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  7. Speech Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse Jørgensen, Stina

    2011-01-01

    About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011.......About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011....

  8. Effect of fermented milk product containing lactotripeptides and plant sterol esters on haemodynamics in subjects with the metabolic syndrome--a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautaniemi, Elina J; Tikkakoski, Antti J; Tahvanainen, Anna; Nordhausen, Klaus; Kähönen, Mika; Mattsson, Tiina; Luhtala, Satu; Turpeinen, Anu M; Niemelä, Onni; Vapaatalo, Heikki; Korpela, Riitta; Pörsti, Ilkka H

    2015-08-14

    We investigated the effects of fermented milk product containing isoleucine-proline-proline, valine-proline-proline and plant sterol esters (Pse) on plasma lipids, blood pressure (BP) and its determinants systemic vascular resistance and cardiac output. In a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 104 subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) were allocated to three groups in order to receive fermented milk product containing (1) 5 mg/d lactotripeptides (LTP) and 2 g/d plant sterols; (2) 25 mg/d LTP and 2 g/d plant sterols; (3) placebo for 12 weeks. Plasma lipids and home BP were monitored. Haemodynamics were examined in a laboratory using radial pulse wave analysis and whole-body impedance cardiography in the supine position and during orthostatic challenge. There were no differences between the effects of the two treatments and placebo on the measurements of BP at home or on BP, systemic vascular resistance index and cardiac index in the laboratory, neither in the supine nor in the upright position. The changes in plasma LDL-cholesterol concentration were - 0.1 (95% CI - 0.3, 0.1 and - 0.3, 0.0) mmol/l in the 5 and 25 mg/d LTP groups, respectively, and +0.1 (95% CI - 0.1, 0.3) mmol/l during placebo (P= 0.024). Both at baseline and at week 12, the increase in systemic vascular resistance during head-up tilt was lower in the 25 mg/d LTP group than in the 5 mg/d LTP group (Peffect of borderline significance, while no antihypertensive effect was observed at home or in the laboratory.

  9. 77 FR 43561 - Proposed Eligibility Criteria for Bound Printed Matter Parcels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... criterion for eligibility of Bound Printed Matter (BPM) parcels by adding a physical density threshold for....gov , with a subject line of ``New Eligibility for BPM Parcels.'' Faxed comments are not accepted. FOR.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: BPM parcels is an economical ground-based product containing qualifying bound printed...

  10. The Subjectivity of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    What is a 'we' – a collective – and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity – and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas...... practices. Through this dialogue, it develops an original trans-disciplinary critical theory and practice of collective subjectivity for which the ongoing construction and overcoming of common sense, or ideology, is central. It also points to ways of relating discourse with agency, and fertilizing insights...... from interactionism and ideology theories in a cultural-historical framework....

  11. A voxel-based morphometric magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain detects age-related gray matter volume changes in healthy subjects of 21–45 years old

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Beltagi, Ahmed; Cherian, Jigi; Gejo, Grace; Al-Jazzaf, Abrar; Ismail, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Previous and more recent work of analyzing structural changes in the brain suggest that certain brain regions such as the frontal lobe are among the brain regions profoundly affected by the aging process across males and females. Also, a unified model of structural changes in a normally aging brain is still lacking. The present study investigated age-related structural brain changes in gray matter from young to early middle-age adulthood for males and females. Magnetic resonance images of 215 normal and healthy participants between the ages of 21–45 years were acquired. Changes in gray matter were assessed using voxel-based morphometry and gray matter volumetric analysis. The results showed significant decrease in gray matter volume between the youngest and oldest groups in the following brain regions: frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. Grey matter loss in the frontal lobe was among the most widespread of all brain regions across the comparison groups that showed significant age-related changes in grey matter for both males and females. This work provides a unique pattern of age-related decline of normal and healthy adult males and females that can aid in the future development of a unified model of normal brain aging. PMID:26306927

  12. A voxel-based morphometric magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain detects age-related gray matter volume changes in healthy subjects of 21-45 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourisly, Ali K; El-Beltagi, Ahmed; Cherian, Jigi; Gejo, Grace; Al-Jazzaf, Abrar; Ismail, Mohammad

    2015-10-01

    Previous and more recent work of analyzing structural changes in the brain suggest that certain brain regions such as the frontal lobe are among the brain regions profoundly affected by the aging process across males and females. Also, a unified model of structural changes in a normally aging brain is still lacking. The present study investigated age-related structural brain changes in gray matter from young to early middle-age adulthood for males and females. Magnetic resonance images of 215 normal and healthy participants between the ages of 21-45 years were acquired. Changes in gray matter were assessed using voxel-based morphometry and gray matter volumetric analysis. The results showed significant decrease in gray matter volume between the youngest and oldest groups in the following brain regions: frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. Grey matter loss in the frontal lobe was among the most widespread of all brain regions across the comparison groups that showed significant age-related changes in grey matter for both males and females. This work provides a unique pattern of age-related decline of normal and healthy adult males and females that can aid in the future development of a unified model of normal brain aging. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. with dark matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-11-16

    Nov 16, 2012 ... to have a dramatic impact on neutrino physics, dark matter and all fermion masses and mixings. Keywords. Radiative see-saw; fermion masses; grand unification. PACS Nos 12.10.Dm; 12.60.Jv; 14.60.Pq. 1. Introduction. In SO(10) grand unified theory which contains all standard fermions of one generation.

  14. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  15. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In Part 11 of this article we learnt that there are compelling evidences from dynamics of spiral galaxies, like our own, that there must be non-luminous matter in them. In this second part we will see that even clusters of galaxies must harbour dark matter. As if this was not enough, it turns out that if our knowledge of the ...

  16. Describing Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Krista; Feagin, Shannon

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a lesson that was designed to explore the scientific descriptions of matter through both the intensive and extensive properties that students successfully added to their vocabulary. Students' examples demonstrated that there were places where their reasoning about matter faltered as related to how the material is the same…

  17. Electric power annual 1989. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-17

    This publication presents a summary of electric utility statistics at the national, regional and state levels. The Industry At A Glance'' section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance; a review of key statistics for the year; and projections for various aspects of the electric power industry through 2010. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; electricity sales, revenue and average revenue per kilowatthour sold; financial statistics; environmental statistics; and electric power transactions. In addition, the appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter. 24 figs., 57 tabs.

  18. Condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Isihara, A

    2007-01-01

    More than a graduate text and advanced research guide on condensed matter physics, this volume is useful to plasma physicists and polymer chemists, and their students. It emphasizes applications of statistical mechanics to a variety of systems in condensed matter physics rather than theoretical derivations of the principles of statistical mechanics and techniques. Isihara addresses a dozen different subjects in separate chapters, each designed to be directly accessible and used independently of previous chapters. Topics include simple liquids, electron systems and correlations, two-dimensional

  19. Subject (of documents)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    such as concepts, aboutness, topic, isness and ofness are also briefly presented. The conclusion is that the most fruitful way of defining “subject” (of a document) is the documents informative or epistemological potentials, that is, the documents potentials of informing users and advance the development......This article presents and discuss the concept “subject” or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document......-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts...

  20. Role of organic matter in the Proterozoic Oklo natural fission reactors, Gabon, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Bartholomew; Gauthier-Lafaye, François; Holliger, Philippe; Mossman, David J.; Leventhal, Joel S.; Rigali, Mark J.

    1993-07-01

    Of the sixteen known Oklo and the Bangombé natural fission reactors (hydro-thermally altered clastic sedimentary rocks that contain abundant uraninite and authigenic clay minerals), reactors 1 to 6 at Oklo contain only traces of organic matter, but the others are rich in organic substances. Reactors 7 to 9 are the subjects of this study. These organic-rich reactors may serve as time- tested analogues for anthropogenic nuclear-waste containment strategies. Organic matter helped to concentrate quantities of uranium sufficient to initiate the nuclear chain reactions. Liquid bitumen was generated from organic matter by hydrothermal reactions during nuclear criticality. The bitumen soon became a solid, consisting of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and an intimate mixture of cryptocrystalline graphite, which enclosed and immobilized uraninite and the fission-generated isotopes entrapped in uraninite. This mechanism prevented major loss of uranium and fission products from the natural nuclear reactors for 1.2 b.y.

  1. Gaseous Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    aseous Matter focuses on the many important discoveries that led to the scientific interpretation of matter in the gaseous state. This new, full-color resource describes the basic characteristics and properties of several important gases, including air, hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and nitrogen. The nature and scope of the science of fluids is discussed in great detail, highlighting the most important scientific principles upon which the field is based. Chapters include:. Gaseous Matter An Initial Perspective. Physical Characteristics of Gases. The Rise of the Science of Gases. Kinetic Theory of

  2. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    inflammatory activity. Solvent-free microwave-assisted synthesis of oxadia- zoles containing imidazole moiety. 41. Antimicrobial activity. Synthesis, spectral characterization of Schiff base transition metal complexes: DNA cleavage and anti- microbial ...

  3. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cu/SiO2 catalysts that contain copper phyllosilicate 1013. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Functionalization of lambda-zirconium phosphate with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid: Synthesis, characteriza- tion and applications. 1721. Expanded porphyrins. Sulfonated graphenes catalyzed synthesis of expanded porphyrins ...

  4. The Relationship between Dry Matter Increase of Seed and Shoot during the Seed-Filling Period in Three Kinds of Soybeans with Different Growth Habits Subjected to Shading and Thinning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kakiuchi, Jin; Kobata, Tohru

    2006-01-01

    The ratio of dry-matter increase in seed (S) to that in shoot (W), referred to as RS/W, during the seed-filling period may reflect the balance between the assimilate supply and the sink capacity of harvest organs...

  5. A container

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    A container assembly for the containment of fluids or solids under a pressure different from the ambient pressure comprising a container (2) comprising an opening and an annular sealing, a lid (3) comprising a central portion (5) and engagement means (7) for engaging the annular flange, and seali...

  6. Dirac matter

    CERN Document Server

    Rivasseau, Vincent; Fuchs, Jean-Nöel

    2017-01-01

    This fifteenth volume of the Poincare Seminar Series, Dirac Matter, describes the surprising resurgence, as a low-energy effective theory of conducting electrons in many condensed matter systems, including graphene and topological insulators, of the famous equation originally invented by P.A.M. Dirac for relativistic quantum mechanics. In five highly pedagogical articles, as befits their origin in lectures to a broad scientific audience, this book explains why Dirac matters. Highlights include the detailed "Graphene and Relativistic Quantum Physics", written by the experimental pioneer, Philip Kim, and devoted to graphene, a form of carbon crystallized in a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, from its discovery in 2004-2005 by the future Nobel prize winners Kostya Novoselov and Andre Geim to the so-called relativistic quantum Hall effect; the review entitled "Dirac Fermions in Condensed Matter and Beyond", written by two prominent theoreticians, Mark Goerbig and Gilles Montambaux, who consider many other mater...

  7. Antimatter Matters

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN

    2016-01-01

    This video is a teaser-introduction to the Antimatter Matters exhibtion at the Royal Society's Summer Science exhibition July 4-10 2016. The exhibition is jointly organised and hosted by UK members of the ALPHA and LHCb collaborations.

  8. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  9. A voxel-based morphometric magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain detects age-related gray matter volume changes in healthy subjects of 21–45 years old

    OpenAIRE

    Bourisly, Ali K; El-Beltagi, Ahmed; Cherian, Jigi; Gejo, Grace; Al-Jazzaf, Abrar; Ismail, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Previous and more recent work of analyzing structural changes in the brain suggest that certain brain regions such as the frontal lobe are among the brain regions profoundly affected by the aging process across males and females. Also, a unified model of structural changes in a normally aging brain is still lacking. The present study investigated age-related structural brain changes in gray matter from young to early middle-age adulthood for males and females. Magnetic resonance images of 215...

  10. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    sensor for methanol determination in the gas phase. 703. Electrochemically active surface area. Platinum-carbon black-titanium dioxide nanocompo- site electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications. 655. Electrochemistry. Synthesis, spectroscopic and redox properties of the mononuclear Ni. II. , Ni. II. (BPh2)2 containing (B–C) ...

  11. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    high average power TEA CO2 laser. 659. Carpaine. Five decades ... cal properties of transition metal complexes containing semiquinonate .... (5HI): Laser flash photolysis study. 547. Five-membered chelate ring. Thiosemicarbozene complexes of platinum metals. A story of variable coordination modes. 255. Fluorescence.

  12. Children's Differentiation between Beliefs about Matters of Fact and Matters of Opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Robin; Yuill, Nicola; Larson, Christina; Easton, Kate; Robinson, Elizabeth; Rowley, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments investigated children's implicit and explicit differentiation between beliefs about matters of fact and matters of opinion. In Experiment 1, 8- to 9-year-olds' (n = 88) explicit understanding of the subjectivity of opinions was found to be limited, but their conformity to others' judgments on a matter of opinion was considerably…

  13. Bootstrapping white matter segmentation, Eve++

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plassard, Andrew; Hinton, Kendra E.; Venkatraman, Vijay; Gonzalez, Christopher; Resnick, Susan M.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-03-01

    Multi-atlas labeling has come in wide spread use for whole brain labeling on magnetic resonance imaging. Recent challenges have shown that leading techniques are near (or at) human expert reproducibility for cortical gray matter labels. However, these approaches tend to treat white matter as essentially homogeneous (as white matter exhibits isointense signal on structural MRI). The state-of-the-art for white matter atlas is the single-subject Johns Hopkins Eve atlas. Numerous approaches have attempted to use tractography and/or orientation information to identify homologous white matter structures across subjects. Despite success with large tracts, these approaches have been plagued by difficulties in with subtle differences in course, low signal to noise, and complex structural relationships for smaller tracts. Here, we investigate use of atlas-based labeling to propagate the Eve atlas to unlabeled datasets. We evaluate single atlas labeling and multi-atlas labeling using synthetic atlases derived from the single manually labeled atlas. On 5 representative tracts for 10 subjects, we demonstrate that (1) single atlas labeling generally provides segmentations within 2mm mean surface distance, (2) morphologically constraining DTI labels within structural MRI white matter reduces variability, and (3) multi-atlas labeling did not improve accuracy. These efforts present a preliminary indication that single atlas labels with correction is reasonable, but caution should be applied. To purse multi-atlas labeling and more fully characterize overall performance, more labeled datasets would be necessary.

  14. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study of gas clouds orbiting in the outer regions of spiral galaxies has revealed that their gravitational at- traction is much larger than the stars alone can provide. Over the last twenty years, astronomers have been forced to postulate the presence of large quantities of 'dark matter' to explain their observations. They are ...

  15. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fluorescence usually originates from the lowest excited electronic state (singlet) irrespective of the excitation and hence, the fluorescence spectrum of a molecule is characterized by a single band. However, what makes DMABN a very special molecule is that it exhibits dual fluorescence (i.e. emission of. Molecule Matters.

  16. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 4. Molecule Matters – van der Waals Molecules - History and Some Perspectives on Intermolecular Forces. E Arunan. Feature Article Volume 14 Issue 4 April 2009 pp 346-356 ...

  17. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 9. Molecule Matters - A Chromium Compound with a Quintuple Bond. K C Kumara Swamy. Feature Article Volume 11 Issue 9 September 2006 pp 72-75. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  18. Science Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 2. Science Matters A Book for Curious Minds. Rohini Godbole. Book Review Volume 2 Issue 2 February 1997 pp 94-95. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/02/0094-0095 ...

  19. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 5. Molecule Matters - N-Heterocyclic Carbenes - The Stable Form of R2 C: Anil J Elias. Feature Article Volume 13 Issue 5 May 2008 pp 456-467. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  20. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 11. Molecule Matters - Carbon Dioxide: Molecular States and Beyond. T P Radhakrishnan. Feature Article Volume 11 Issue 11 November 2006 pp 88-92. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  1. Dichromatic dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Yang; Su, Meng; Zhao, Yue

    2013-02-01

    Both the robust INTEGRAL 511 keV gamma-ray line and the recent tentative hint of the 135 GeV gamma-ray line from Fermi-LAT have similar signal morphologies, and may be produced from the same dark matter annihilation. Motivated by this observation, we construct a dark matter model to explain both signals and to accommodate the two required annihilation cross sections that are different by more than six orders of magnitude. In our model, to generate the low-energy positrons for INTEGRAL, dark matter particles annihilate into a complex scalar that couples to photon via a charge-radius operator. The complex scalar contains an excited state decaying into the ground state plus an off-shell photon to generate a pair of positron and electron. Two charged particles with non-degenerate masses are necessary for generating this charge-radius operator. One charged particle is predicted to be long-lived and have a mass around 3.8 TeV to explain the dark matter thermal relic abundance from its late decay. The other charged particle is predicted to have a mass below 1 TeV given the ratio of the two signal cross sections. The 14 TeV LHC will concretely test the main parameter space of this lighter charged particle.

  2. Soft Matter Characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Borsali, Redouane

    2008-01-01

    Progress in basic soft matter research is driven largely by the experimental techniques available. Much of the work is concerned with understanding them at the microscopic level, especially at the nanometer length scales that give soft matter studies a wide overlap with nanotechnology. This 2 volume reference work, split into 4 parts, presents detailed discussions of many of the major techniques commonly used as well as some of those in current development for studying and manipulating soft matter. The articles are intended to be accessible to the interdisciplinary audience (at the graduate student level and above) that is or will be engaged in soft matter studies or those in other disciplines who wish to view some of the research methods in this fascinating field. Part 1 contains articles with a largely (but, in most cases, not exclusively) theoretical content and/or that cover material relevant to more than one of the techniques covered in subsequent volumes. It includes an introductory chapter on some of t...

  3. Chromatin as active matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Ankit; Ganai, Nirmalendu; Sengupta, Surajit; Menon, Gautam I.

    2017-01-01

    Active matter models describe a number of biophysical phenomena at the cell and tissue scale. Such models explore the macroscopic consequences of driving specific soft condensed matter systems of biological relevance out of equilibrium through ‘active’ processes. Here, we describe how active matter models can be used to study the large-scale properties of chromosomes contained within the nuclei of human cells in interphase. We show that polymer models for chromosomes that incorporate inhomogeneous activity reproduce many general, yet little understood, features of large-scale nuclear architecture. These include: (i) the spatial separation of gene-rich, low-density euchromatin, predominantly found towards the centre of the nucleus, vis a vis. gene-poor, denser heterochromatin, typically enriched in proximity to the nuclear periphery, (ii) the differential positioning of individual gene-rich and gene-poor chromosomes, (iii) the formation of chromosome territories, as well as (iv), the weak size-dependence of the positions of individual chromosome centres-of-mass relative to the nuclear centre that is seen in some cell types. Such structuring is induced purely by the combination of activity and confinement and is absent in thermal equilibrium. We systematically explore active matter models for chromosomes, discussing how our model can be generalized to study variations in chromosome positioning across different cell types. The approach and model we outline here represent a preliminary attempt towards a quantitative, first-principles description of the large-scale architecture of the cell nucleus.

  4. Collapsing Containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justina L.; Battino, Rubin

    1994-01-01

    Describes variations on atmospheric pressure demonstrations and some systematic studies. Demonstrations use steam, generated either externally or internally to the container, to sweep out residual air. Preferred vessels collapsed slowly. Demonstrations use plastic milk jugs set in layers of aluminum foil, pop bottles immersed in 4-L beakers…

  5. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Chuan-Bo, E-mail: send007@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); School of Neurosurgery, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishang Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Qian, Ruo-Bing, E-mail: rehomail@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Fu, Xian-Ming, E-mail: 506537677@qq.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Lin, Bin, E-mail: 274722758@qq.com [School of Neurosurgery, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishang Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Han, Xiao-Peng, E-mail: hanxiaopeng@163.com [Department of Psychology, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Niu, Chao-Shi, E-mail: niuchaoshi@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Wang, Ye-Han, E-mail: wangyehan@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China)

    2013-08-15

    Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA.

  6. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chuan-Bo; Qian, Ruo-Bing; Fu, Xian-Ming; Lin, Bin; Han, Xiao-Peng; Niu, Chao-Shi; Wang, Ye-Han

    2013-08-01

    Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effective Field Theory of Majorana Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Huayong; WU, HONGYAN; Zheng, Sibo

    2017-01-01

    Thermal Majorana dark matter is explored from the viewpoint of effective field theory. Completely analytic result for dark matter annihilation into standard model background is derived in order to account relic density. The parameter space subject to the latest LUX, PandaX-II and Xenon-1T limits is shown in a model-independent way. For illustration, applications to singlet-doublet and neutralino dark matter are work out.

  8. Play Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    ? In Play Matters, Miguel Sicart argues that to play is to be in the world; playing is a form of understanding what surrounds us and a way of engaging with others. Play goes beyond games; it is a mode of being human. We play games, but we also play with toys, on playgrounds, with technologies and design......, but not necessarily fun. Play can be dangerous, addictive, and destructive. Along the way, Sicart considers playfulness, the capacity to use play outside the context of play; toys, the materialization of play--instruments but also play pals; playgrounds, play spaces that enable all kinds of play; beauty...

  9. Active matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Sriram

    2017-05-01

    The study of systems with sustained energy uptake and dissipation at the scale of the constituent particles is an area of central interest in nonequilibrium statistical physics. Identifying such systems as a distinct category—Active matter—unifies our understanding of autonomous collective movement in the living world and in some surprising inanimate imitations. In this article I present the active matter framework, briefly recall some early work, review our recent results on single-particle and collective behaviour, including experiments on active granular monolayers, and discuss new directions for the future.

  10. Teaching Evolution: Do State Standards Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Randy

    2002-01-01

    Explores the relationship of state standards for the teaching of evolution to the actual teaching of that subject. Compares a grading of states for their performance and discusses the question of whether state standards matter. (MM)

  11. Hadron bubbles in nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troitskii, M.A.; Khodel' , V.A.

    1983-08-25

    Nonlinear effects in the interaction of hadrons with a nucleus are analyzed. It is shown that K/sup +/ mesons form bubbles in nuclear matter which are similar to electron bubbles in liquid helium. Charged pions produced in collisions of heavy relativistic ions may collect and form droplets approx.5--7 Fm in size containing approx.10/sup 2/ particles.

  12. Mimicking Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Bel, Lluís

    2017-01-01

    I show that a very simple model in the context of Newtonian physics promoted to a first approximation of general relativity can mimic Dark matter and explain most of its intriguing properties. Namely: i) Dark matter is a halo associated to ordinary matter; ii) Dark matter does not interact with ordinary matter nor with itself; iii) Its influence grows with the size of the aggregate of ordinary matter that is considered, and iv) Dark matter influences the propagation of light.

  13. Targeted Inhibition of Leucine-Rich Repeat and Immunoglobulin Domain-Containing Protein 1 in Transplanted Neural Stem Cells Promotes Neuronal Differentiation and Functional Recovery in Rats Subjected to Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ningning; Cen, Jing-Sheng; Wang, Jingnan; Qin, Gangjian; Long, Lingli; Wang, Le; Wei, Fuxin; Xiang, Qingfeng; Deng, David Y B; Wan, Yong

    2016-03-01

    Leucine-rich repeat and immunoglobulin domain-containing protein (LINGO)-1 is expressed in neural stem cells, and its neutralization results in sustained neuronal immaturity. Thus, targeted inhibition of LINGO-1 via RNA interference may enhance transplanted neural stem cell survival and neuronal differentiation in vivo. Furthermore, LINGO-1 RNA interference in neural stem cells represents a potential therapeutic strategy for spinal cord injury. Department of Spine Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University. Translational Medicine Center Research Laboratory, First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University. Female Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were divided into three groups that underwent laminectomy and complete spinal cord transection accompanied by transplantation of control-RNA interference-treated or LINGO-1-RNA interference-treated neural stem cells at the injured site in vivo. In vitro, neural stem cells were divided into four groups for the following treatments: control, control RNA interference lentivirus, LINGO-1 RNA interference lentivirus and LINGO-1 complementary DNA lentivirusand the Key Projects of the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province (No. S2013020012818). Neural stem cells in each treatment group were examined for cell survival and neuronal differentiation in vitro and in vivo via immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis. Axonal regeneration and tissue repair were assessed via retrograde tracing using Fluorogold, electron microscopy, hematoxylin-eosin staining and MRI. Rats were also examined for functional recovery based on the measurement of spinal cord-evoked potentials and the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan score. LINGO-1-RNA interference-treated neural stem cell transplantation increased tissue repair and functional recovery of the injured spinal cord in rats. Similarly, LINGO-1 RNA interference increased neural stem cell survival and neuronal differentiation in vitro. The mechanism underlying the effect of

  14. Play Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    What do we think about when we think about play? A pastime? Games? Childish activities? The opposite of work? Think again: If we are happy and well rested, we may approach even our daily tasks in a playful way, taking the attitude of play without the activity of play. So what, then, is play......, but not necessarily fun. Play can be dangerous, addictive, and destructive. Along the way, Sicart considers playfulness, the capacity to use play outside the context of play; toys, the materialization of play--instruments but also play pals; playgrounds, play spaces that enable all kinds of play; beauty......? In Play Matters, Miguel Sicart argues that to play is to be in the world; playing is a form of understanding what surrounds us and a way of engaging with others. Play goes beyond games; it is a mode of being human. We play games, but we also play with toys, on playgrounds, with technologies and design...

  15. Maxwell Matters

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenberg, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Charges are everywhere because most atoms are charged. Chemical bonds are formed by electrons with their charge. Charges move and interact according to Maxwell's equations in space and in atoms where the equations of electrodynamics are embedded in Schroedinger's equation as the potential. Maxwell's equations are universal, valid inside atoms and between stars from times much shorter than those of atomic motion (0.1 femtoseconds) to years (32 mega-seconds). Maxwell's equations enforce the conservation of current. Analysis shows that the electric field can take on whatever value is needed to ensure conservation of current. The properties of matter rearrange themselves to satisfy Maxwell's equations and conservation of current. Conservation of current is as universal as Maxwell's equations themselves. Yet equations of electrodynamics find little place in the literature of material physics, chemistry, or biochemistry. Kinetic models of chemistry and Markov treatments of atomic motion are ordinary differential eq...

  16. Play Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    What do we think about when we think about play? A pastime? Games? Childish activities? The opposite of work? Think again: If we are happy and well rested, we may approach even our daily tasks in a playful way, taking the attitude of play without the activity of play. So what, then, is play......? In Play Matters, Miguel Sicart argues that to play is to be in the world; playing is a form of understanding what surrounds us and a way of engaging with others. Play goes beyond games; it is a mode of being human. We play games, but we also play with toys, on playgrounds, with technologies and design......, but not necessarily fun. Play can be dangerous, addictive, and destructive. Along the way, Sicart considers playfulness, the capacity to use play outside the context of play; toys, the materialization of play--instruments but also play pals; playgrounds, play spaces that enable all kinds of play; beauty...

  17. Edge Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2013-01-01

    of this container is to separate inside from outside and to protect and provide privacy, psychological as well as physical (Venturi, 1966). But, if dwelling phenomenon takes place both inside and outside the private house – why is the urban house an enclosed box? What is the differentiation between inside...

  18. Pedogenesis evolution of mine technosols: focus onto organic matter implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grégoire, Pascaud; Marilyne, Soubrand; Laurent, Lemee; Husseini Amelène, El-Mufleh Al; Marion, Rabiet; Emmanuel, Joussein

    2014-05-01

    Keywords: Mine technosols, pedogenesis, organic matter, environmental impact, pyr-GC-MS Technosols include soils subject to strong anthropogenic pressure and particularly to soil influenced by human transformed materials. In this context, abandoned mine sites contain a large amount of transformed waste materials often enriched with metals and/or metalloids. The natural evolution of technosols (pedogenesis) may induces the change in contaminants behaviour in term of stability of bearing phases, modification of pH oxydo-reduction conditions, organic matter turnover, change in permeability, or influence of vegetation cover. The fate of these elements in the soil can induce major environmental problems (contamination of biosphere and water resource). This will contribute to a limited potential use of these soils, which represent yet a large area around the world. The initial contamination of the parental material suggests that the pedological cover would stabilize the soil; however, the chemical reactivity must be taken in consideration particularly with respect to potential metal leachings. In this case, it is quite important to understand the development of soil in this specific context. Consequently, the global aims of this study are to understand the functioning of mine Technosols focusing onto the organic matter implication in their pedogenesis. Indeed, soil organic matter constitutes an heterogeneous fraction of organic compounds that plays an important role in the fate and the transport of metals and metalloids in soils. Three different soil profiles were collected representative to various mining context (contamination, time, climat), respectively to Pb-Ag, Sn and Au exploitations. Several pedological parameters were determined like CEC, pH, %Corg, %Ntot, C/N ratio, grain size distribution and chemical composition. The evolution of the nature of organic matter in Technosol was studied by elemental analyses and thermochemolysis was realized on the total and

  19. Automatic tissue segmentation of neonate brain MR Images with subject-specific atlases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherel, Marie; Budin, Francois; Prastawa, Marcel; Gerig, Guido; Lee, Kevin; Buss, Claudia; Lyall, Amanda; Zaldarriaga Consing, Kirsten; Styner, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Automatic tissue segmentation of the neonate brain using Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) is extremely important to study brain development and perform early diagnostics but is challenging due to high variability and inhomogeneity in contrast throughout the image due to incomplete myelination of the white matter tracts. For these reasons, current methods often totally fail or give unsatisfying results. Furthermore, most of the subcortical midbrain structures are misclassified due to a lack of contrast in these regions. We have developed a novel method that creates a probabilistic subject-specific atlas based on a population atlas currently containing a number of manually segmented cases. The generated subject-specific atlas is sharp and adapted to the subject that is being processed. We then segment brain tissue classes using the newly created atlas with a single-atlas expectation maximization based method. Our proposed method leads to a much lower failure rate in our experiments. The overall segmentation results are considerably improved when compared to using a non-subject-specific, population average atlas. Additionally, we have incorporated diffusion information obtained from Diffusion Tensor Images (DTI) to improve the detection of white matter that is not visible at this early age in structural MRI (sMRI) due to a lack of myelination. Although this necessitates the acquisition of an additional sequence, the diffusion information improves the white matter segmentation throughout the brain, especially for the mid-brain structures such as the corpus callosum and the internal capsule.

  20. Interaction of radiation with matter

    CERN Document Server

    Nikjoo, Hooshang; Emfietzoglou, Dimitris

    2012-01-01

    Written for students approaching the subject for the first time, this text provides a solid grounding in the physics of the interactions of photons and particles with matter, which is the basis of radiological physics and radiation dosimetry. The authors first present the relevant atomic physics and then describe the interactions, emphasizing practical applications in health/medical physics and radiation biology. They cover such important topics as microdosimetry, interaction of photons with matter, electron energy loss, and dielectric response. Each chapter includes exercises and a summary.

  1. Search for Dark Matter at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Conventi, Francesco; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Dark Matter composes almost 25% of our Universe, but its identity is still unknown which makes it a large challenge for current fundamental physics. A lot of approaches are used to discover the identity of Dark Matter and one of them, collider searches, are discussed in this talk. The latest results on Dark Matter search at ATLAS using 2015 and 2016 data are presented. Results from searches for new physics in the events with final states containing large missing transverse energy + X (photons, jets, boson) are shown. Higgs to invisible and dijet searches are used in sense of complementarity to constrain properties of Dark Matter.

  2. Agriculture Organic Matter and Chicken Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Taban

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Undo ubtedly organic matter content of soils is one of theim portant factor for high quality and abundant crop production. In addition to improve the physical properties ofsoil, organic matter contributest ocrop production viabeing energy source formicro-organisms in soiland contained plantnutrients. Fiftypercent of theagri cultures oil contains 1-2 % organicmatter in Turkey.In addition to being a sourceof organic matter, organic poultry manurefertilizer isricherthan other organic fertilizerse specially nitrogen content. It is possible to eliminate poultry manure based salt stress and disease factors with composting process in proper conditions.

  3. Culture Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Warner-Søderholm

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Whether managers are concerned with financial issues, marketing, or human resource management (HRM, cultural values and practices do matter. The purpose of this article is to understand Norwegian managers’ cultural values within the cross-cultural landscape of her neighbors in the “Scandinavian cluster.” Clearly, subtle but disturbing differences may surface even when representatives from similar cultures work together. As a follow on from the GLOBE project, data based on the GLOBE instrument were collected on culture and communication values in Norway from 710 Norwegian middle managers for this present study. Although the Scandinavian cultures appear ostensibly similar, the results illustrate that research can reveal subtle but important cultural differences in nations that are similar yet dissimilar. All three Scandinavian societies appear intrinsically egalitarian; they appear to value low Power Distance, directness, and consensus in decision making and to promote Gender Egalitarianism. Nevertheless, there are significant differences in the degrees of commitment to these values by each individual Scandinavian partner. These differences need to be understood and appreciated to avoid misunderstandings.

  4. 40 CFR 60.272a - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date of which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf); (2) Exit from a...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2584 - Control strategy; Particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy; Particulate matter... Control strategy; Particulate matter. (a) Part D—Disapproval—USEPA disapproves Regulation NR 154.11(7)(b... control strategy to attain and maintain the standards for particulate matter, because it does not contain...

  6. 40 CFR 60.262 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.262... Production Facilities § 60.262 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... furnace any gases which: (1) Exit from a control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 0.45...

  7. 40 CFR 60.172 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.172... Smelters § 60.172 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf). ...

  8. 40 CFR 60.122 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.122... Smelters § 60.122 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf). (2...

  9. 40 CFR 60.92 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.92... Facilities § 60.92 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 90 mg/dscm (0.04 gr/dscf). (2) Exhibit 20 percent...

  10. 40 CFR 60.142 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.142....142 Standard for particulate matter. (a) Except as provided under paragraph (b) of this section, on... the atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of...

  11. 40 CFR 60.182 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.182... Smelters § 60.182 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... furnace, or sintering machine discharge end any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg...

  12. 40 CFR 60.302 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.302... § 60.302 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the 60th day of achieving the maximum... a grain dryer any process emission which: (1) Contains particulate matter in excess of 0.023 g/dscm...

  13. 40 CFR 60.132 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.132... and Bronze Production Plants § 60.132 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on... reverberatory furnace any gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 50 mg/dscm (0.022 gr/dscf...

  14. 40 CFR 60.272 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.272... Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required to be... control device and contain particulate matter in excess of 12 mg/dscm (0.0052 gr/dscf). (2) Exit from a...

  15. 40 CFR 60.402 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.402... Plants § 60.402 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test... which: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.030 kilogram per megagram of phosphate rock feed (0...

  16. 40 CFR 60.382 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.382... Processing Plants § 60.382 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... stack emissions that: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.05 grams per dry standard cubic...

  17. 40 CFR 60.342 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.342... Manufacturing Plants § 60.342 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the... gases which: (1) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.30 kilogram per megagram (0.60 lb/ton) of...

  18. 40 CFR 60.282 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.282... § 60.282 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test...: (i) Contain particulate matter in excess of 0.10 g/dscm (0.044 gr/dscf) corrected to 8 percent oxygen...

  19. 40 CFR 60.52 - Standard for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter. 60.52... § 60.52 Standard for particulate matter. (a) On and after the date on which the initial performance... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain particulate matter in excess of 0.18 g/dscm (0...

  20. Correlation between white matter damage and gray matter lesions in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue-Mei; Tian, Hong-Ji; Han, Zheng; Zhang, Ce; Liu, Ying; Gu, Jie-Bing; Bakshi, Rohit; Cao, Xia

    2017-05-01

    We observed the characteristics of white matter fibers and gray matter in multiple sclerosis patients, to identify changes in diffusion tensor imaging fractional anisotropy values following white matter fiber injury. We analyzed the correlation between fractional anisotropy values and changes in whole-brain gray matter volume. The participants included 20 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and 20 healthy volunteers as controls. All subjects underwent head magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Our results revealed that fractional anisotropy values decreased and gray matter volumes were reduced in the genu and splenium of corpus callosum, left anterior thalamic radiation, hippocampus, uncinate fasciculus, right corticospinal tract, bilateral cingulate gyri, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus in multiple sclerosis patients. Gray matter volumes were significantly different between the two groups in the right frontal lobe (superior frontal, middle frontal, precentral, and orbital gyri), right parietal lobe (postcentral and inferior parietal gyri), right temporal lobe (caudate nucleus), right occipital lobe (middle occipital gyrus), right insula, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left cingulate gyrus. The voxel sizes of atrophic gray matter positively correlated with fractional anisotropy values in white matter association fibers in the patient group. These findings suggest that white matter fiber bundles are extensively injured in multiple sclerosis patients. The main areas of gray matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis are the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, caudate nucleus, parahippocampal gyrus, and cingulate gyrus. Gray matter atrophy is strongly associated with white matter injury in multiple sclerosis patients, particularly with injury to association fibers.

  1. Introduction. Cosmology meets condensed matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, T W B; Pickett, G R

    2008-08-28

    At first sight, low-temperature condensed-matter physics and early Universe cosmology seem worlds apart. Yet, in the last few years a remarkable synergy has developed between the two. It has emerged that, in terms of their mathematical description, there are surprisingly close parallels between them. This interplay has been the subject of a very successful European Science Foundation (ESF) programme entitled COSLAB ('Cosmology in the Laboratory') that ran from 2001 to 2006, itself built on an earlier ESF network called TOPDEF ('Topological Defects: Non-equilibrium Field Theory in Particle Physics, Condensed Matter and Cosmology'). The articles presented in this issue of Philosophical Transactions A are based on talks given at the Royal Society Discussion Meeting 'Cosmology meets condensed matter', held on 28 and 29 January 2008. Many of the speakers had participated earlier in the COSLAB programme, but the strength of the field is illustrated by the presence also of quite a few new participants.

  2. Automatic identification of gray matter structures from MRI to improve the segmentation of white matter lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfield, S; Dengler, J; Zaers, J; Guttmann, C R; Wells, W M; Ettinger, G J; Hiller, J; Kikinis, R

    1995-01-01

    The segmentation of MRI scans of patients with white matter lesions (WML) is difficult because the MRI characteristics of WML are similar to those of gray matter. Intensity-based statistical classification techniques misclassify some WML as gray matter and some gray matter as WML. We developed a fast elastic matching algorithm that warps a reference data set containing information about the location of the gray matter into the approximate shape of the patient's brain. The region of white matter was segmented after segmenting the cortex and deep gray matter structures. The cortex was identified by using a three-dimensional, region-growing algorithm that was constrained by anatomical, intensity gradient, and tissue class parameters. White matter and WML were then segmented without interference from gray matter by using a two-class minimum-distance classifier. Analysis of double-echo spin-echo MRI scans of 16 patients with clinically determined multiple sclerosis (MS) was carried out. The segmentation of the cortex and deep gray matter structures provided anatomical context. This was found to improve the segmentation of MS lesions by allowing correct classification of the white matter region despite the overlapping tissue class distributions of gray matter and MS lesion.

  3. Secondary Containers and Service Containers for Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secondary containers and service containers are used by pesticide applicators in the process of applying a pesticide. EPA does not require secondary containers or service containers to be labeled or to meet particular construction standards. Learn more.

  4. Gypsum and organic matter distribution in a mixed construction and demolition waste sorting process and their possible removal from outputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, A; Tojo, Y; Matsuo, T; Matsuto, T; Yamada, M; Asakura, H; Ono, Y

    2010-03-15

    With insufficient source separation, construction and demolition (C&D) waste becomes a mixed material that is difficult to recycle. Treatment of mixed C&D waste generates residue that contains gypsum and organic matter and poses a risk of H(2)S formation in landfills. Therefore, removing gypsum and organic matter from the residue is vital. This study investigated the distribution of gypsum and organic matter in a sorting process. Heavy liquid separation was used to determine the density ranges in which gypsum and organic matter were most concentrated. The fine residue that was separated before shredding accounted for 27.9% of the waste mass and contained the greatest quantity of gypsum; therefore, most of the gypsum (52.4%) was distributed in this fraction. When this fine fraction was subjected to heavy liquid separation, 93% of the gypsum was concentrated in the density range of 1.59-2.28, which contained 24% of the total waste mass. Therefore, removing this density range after segregating fine particles should reduce the amount of gypsum sent to landfills. Organic matter tends to float as density increases; nevertheless, separation at 1.0 density could be more efficient. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sirius Matters

    CERN Document Server

    Brosch, Noah

    2008-01-01

    Since very early times Sirius was a point of attraction in the night sky. It served to synchronize calendars in antiquity and was the subject of many myths and legends, including some modern ones. It was perceived as a red star for more than 400 years, but such reports were relegated to the Mediterranean region. Astronomically, Sirius is a very bright star. This, and its present close distance to us, argues in favor of it being the target of detailed studies of stellar structure and evolution. Its binary nature, with a companion that is one of the more massive white dwarfs, is an additional reason for such studies. This book collects the published information on Sirius in an attempt to derive a coherent picture of how this system came to look as it does.

  6. Industry Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Angie Ngoc; Jeppesen, Søren

    2018-01-01

    regulation and greater industry pressure with regard to quality and safety of products than to labour standards in both sectors. Most factories in the TGF sector assembled products for global supply chains and were under pressure by industry norms, while most companies in the FBP sector produced......This chapter draws on a study investigating what corporate social responsibility (CSR) means to Vietnam’s small- and medium-size enterprise (SME) owner/managers and workers, using Scott’s three-pillar (norms, regulation, cognition) institutional framework. The findings are based on factory visits...... for the domestic market and were subjected to greater state regulation. Moreover, contributing critical perspectives to Scott’s framework, we found an overlap between the normative and the regulatory, and between the cognitive and the industry norms, which reveals how institutional and cultural pressures...

  7. International energy: Subject thesaurus supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This is a supplement to International Energy: Subject Thesaurus (ETDE/PUB--2(Rev.1)), which replaced DOE/TIC-7000--the EDB Subject Thesaurus. This supplement is provided periodically to keep International Energy: Subject Thesaurus recipients up-to-date on valid vocabulary terms (descriptors) used in building and maintaining several international energy information databases. Each issue contains all new terms added since the publication of the Thesaurus. Each supplement is a cumulative listing of the new terms, so that each issue replaces the previous one.

  8. Size matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgbo, T; Macek, M; Chrudimska, J

    2016-01-01

    Granulosa cell (GC) expressed androgen receptors (AR) and intrafollicular androgens are central to fertility. The transactivating domain of the AR contains a polymorphic CAG repeat sequence, which is linked to the transcriptional activity of AR and may influence the GC function. This study aims...... to evaluate the effects of the AR CAG repeat length on the intrafollicular hormone profiles, and the gene expression profiles of GC from human small antral follicles. In total, 190 small antral follicles (3-11 mm in diameter) were collected from 58 women undergoing ovarian cryopreservation for fertility...... preservation. The biallelic mean of the CAG repeat lengths were calculated for each woman, and grouped in three groups: Long CAG repeats (23-26 mean CAG); medium CAG repeats (20.5-22.5 mean CAG) and short CAG repeats (17.5-20.0 mean CAG). The following parameters were measured: follicle diameter...

  9. Language matters: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leap, William L; Provencher, Denis M

    2011-01-01

    That language and sexuality are closely connected is one of the enduring themes in human sexuality research. The articles in this special issue of the Journal of Homosexuality explore some of these language-centered insights as they apply to same-sex related desires, identities, and practices and to other dimensions of non-normative sexual experiences. The articles address language use over a range of geographic and social locations. The linguistic practices discussed are diverse, including the language associated with Santería, comments viewers make about gay pornography, homophobic discourse, coming out stories, stories where declarations of sexual identity are tacitly withheld, sexual messages in Black hip hop culture, assessments of urban AIDS ministries, and policies that limit transgender subjects' access to urban space. Taken together, these articles demonstrate that language matters in the everyday experience of sexual sameness and they model some of the approaches that are now being explored in language and sexuality studies.

  10. Levitating dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaloper, Nemanja [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Padilla, Antonio, E-mail: kaloper@physics.ucdavis.edu, E-mail: antonio.padilla@nottingham.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-01

    A sizable fraction of the total energy density of the universe may be in heavy particles with a net dark U(1)' charge comparable to its mass. When the charges have the same sign the cancellation between their gravitational and gauge forces may lead to a mismatch between different measures of masses in the universe. Measuring galactic masses by orbits of normal matter, such as galaxy rotation curves or lensing, will give the total mass, while the flows of dark matter agglomerates may yield smaller values if the gauge repulsion is not accounted for. If distant galaxies which house light beacons like SNe Ia contain such dark particles, the observations of their cosmic recession may mistake the weaker forces for an extra 'antigravity', and infer an effective dark energy equation of state smaller than the real one. In some cases, including that of a cosmological constant, these effects can mimic w < −1. They can also lead to a local variation of galaxy-galaxy forces, yielding a larger 'Hubble Flow' in those regions of space that could be taken for a dynamical dark energy, or superhorizon effects.

  11. Levitating dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloper, Nemanja; Padilla, Antonio

    2009-10-01

    A sizable fraction of the total energy density of the universe may be in heavy particles with a net dark U(1)' charge comparable to its mass. When the charges have the same sign the cancellation between their gravitational and gauge forces may lead to a mismatch between different measures of masses in the universe. Measuring galactic masses by orbits of normal matter, such as galaxy rotation curves or lensing, will give the total mass, while the flows of dark matter agglomerates may yield smaller values if the gauge repulsion is not accounted for. If distant galaxies which house light beacons like SNe Ia contain such dark particles, the observations of their cosmic recession may mistake the weaker forces for an extra `antigravity', and infer an effective dark energy equation of state smaller than the real one. In some cases, including that of a cosmological constant, these effects can mimic w < -1. They can also lead to a local variation of galaxy-galaxy forces, yielding a larger `Hubble Flow' in those regions of space that could be taken for a dynamical dark energy, or superhorizon effects.

  12. Media matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, L M

    1995-01-01

    The impact of the mass media on woman's status was addressed at two 1995 conferences: the Fourth World Conference on Women, held in Beijing, China, and the Congress of the World Association for Christian Communication, held in Puebla, Mexico. The globalization process facilitated by the mass media has served to increase the power of patriarchy, with no advantages to the cause of women's rights. Coverage of popular movements has been suppressed out of deference to male-controlled governments. Coverage of the Beijing Conference highlighted celebrities and personal stories, to the exclusion of the economic and political issues under debate. Television has commodified women, reinforcing their oppression. On the other hand, the alternative media, which tend to be decentralized, democratic, low-cost, and low in technology, are presenting women as subjects rather than objects and deconstructing gender stereotypes. Of concern, however, is the tendency of computer technology to widen the gap between social classes and developed and developing countries. Women must use information networks to disseminate information on women's rights and strengthen the links between women throughout the world.

  13. ADAPTIVE OUTPUT CONTROL: SUBJECT MATTER, APPLICATION TASKS AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Bobtsov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of adaptive output control for parametric and functionally uncertain plants is considered. Application examples illustrating the practical use of the discussed theory are given along with the mathematical formulation of the problem. A brief review of adaptive output control methods, by both linear and non-linear systems, is presented and an extensive bibliography, in which the reader will find a detailed description of the specific algorithms and their properties, is represented. A new approach to the output control problem - a method of consecutive compensator - is considered in detail.

  14. K-Means Subject Matter Expert Refined Topic Model Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    implementations for Case 4 only. The accuracy results for all of the SMERT/KSMERT implantations are similar due to the user employing domain knowledge to...truck. 5 The supplier welded and misdimensioned the titanium offsite. 6 The inspector drilled plastic and overheated it at station2. 7 It was...drilled and overheated. 8 It was drilled and overheated. 9 The engineer and the manager at station3 and on the truck. 10 The welded titanium was

  15. Applying Subject Matter Expertise (SME) Elicitation Techniques to TRAC Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    in different ways. In the first case, CPR Analisys , we use the measures as way to derive effectiveness and uncertainty. In the second approach...means by which to overcome these capability gaps through the implementation of solutions, e.g., changes to doctrine, organizational structure , training...controlled through good elicitation practices, especially good question structuring , which we discuss in section C. (2) Modeling bias. This type of bias

  16. Writing for professional publication. Part 2: Subject matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, John

    Motivation is the first step in writing for professional publication: the next question is, what should you write about? Whatever your area of practice or level of experience, your writing will be suitable for one of the wealth of journals covering all aspects of healthcare and nursing. In this second part of a series of articles, John Fowler, an experienced nursing lecturer and author, presents some tips and suggestions to inspire you as you take your first steps on the road to writing for professional publication.

  17. Classification of educational subject matter: the case of Home ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although it represents an individual view, this article was submitted to the Department of Education by the Cape Higher Education Consortium (CHEC) as an outcome of the review of the field of Home Economics in the Western Cape region. By presenting some history, it argues that the category of Home Economics is no ...

  18. RAn Enlarged Conception of the Subject Matter of Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T. Kearns

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Una concepción ampliada del objeto de estudio de la lógica: El ensayo es una introducción a la lógica ilocucionaria, es decir a la lógica de los actos de habla. El autor propone una aproximación distinta a este campo de investigación con respecto al que han propuesto John Searle y Daniel Vanderveken. Ellos conciben la lógica ilocucionaria como un suplemento o un apéndice a la lógica estándar, la lógica de los enunciados, y se concentran en el estudio de leyes y principios muy generales que caracterizan todo tipo de actos ilocucionarios. Kearns, en cambio, concibe la lógica ilocucionaria como una disciplina muy comprensiva, con muchos subsistemas, que cobija a la lógica estándar como parte suya. El escrito describe brevemente el uso de los operadores ilocucionarios (de aseveración, de negación, de suposición de verdad o falsedad, explica la manera como se expande la concepción semántica en términos de condiciones de verdad para incluir los compromisos racionales del hablante y presenta un sistema de deducción para esta lógica. Como un ejemplo de lo que esta lógica puede hacer se ofrece una solución a la paradoja de Moore contenida en la aseveración “Está lloviendo, pero no lo creo”

  19. Occupational Listings Arranged by Cluster and Subject Matter Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Otto

    Approximately 850 occupations are listed under 27 occupational clusters. The Dictionary of Occupational Title (DOT) number is specified for occupations in the clusters of business training and distributive education, chemistry, general shop and industrial arts, home economics, foreign language, music, social studies, art, agriculture, physics, and…

  20. Instructional Design: Impact of Subject Matter and Cognitive Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    processing, and the integration/synthesis of component parts. The haptic individual uses " bodily " perceptions, and is kinesthetically oriented. An...microcomputers, and the introduction of artificial intelligence techniques into training has permitted more effective use of computer-based instruction...instruction, the advent of more powerful and inexpensive microcomputers, and the introduction of artificial intelligence techniques into training, has permitted

  1. Does tutor subject-matter expertise influence student achievement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs.

  2. Subjective matters: from image quality to image psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorovskaya, Elena A.; De Ridder, Huib

    2013-03-01

    From the advent of digital imaging through several decades of studies, the human vision research community systematically focused on perceived image quality and digital artifacts due to resolution, compression, gamma, dynamic range, capture and reproduction noise, blur, etc., to help overcome existing technological challenges and shortcomings. Technological advances made digital images and digital multimedia nearly flawless in quality, and ubiquitous and pervasive in usage, provide us with the exciting but at the same time demanding possibility to turn to the domain of human experience including higher psychological functions, such as cognition, emotion, awareness, social interaction, consciousness and Self. In this paper we will outline the evolution of human centered multidisciplinary studies related to imaging and propose steps and potential foci of future research.

  3. The role of subject-matter analysis in science didactics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiklin, Seth

    to problems within science education. STEM education research can be reduced (roughly) to four major problem areas: curriculum, empirical evaluation of existing practices and conditions, didactics, and professional development, where each of these categories can be concretised further according to grade...... paper is primarily on the didactics category, and slightly on the professional development category. The purpose of this paper is to outline three significant points that have been developed within the cultural-historical tradition that have consequences for these two categories: (a) the relation...

  4. Blending critical thinking skills with the teaching of subject matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study draws on Piaget and Vygotsky's theory of (social) constructivism to advance approaches and practices that teachers can employ to promote critical thinking in learners. We develop a lesson plan that incorporates critical thinking skills and show how teachers can correct egocentric and sociocentric tendencies that ...

  5. Availability of N amino sugar fraction and response to nitrogen fertilization ({sup 15}N) on soils containing increasing concentrations of organic matter; Disponibilidade da fracao N amino-acucar e resposta a fertilizacao nitrogenada ({sup 15}N) em solos com teores crescentes de materia organica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Sandra R. da S.; Salcedo, Ignacio H.; Menezes, Romulo S.C. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear]. E-mail: reginassg@uol.com.br; salcedo@ufpe.br; rmenezes@ufpe.br; Tiessen, Holm [Goettingen Universitaet (Germany)]. E-mail: tiessen@sask.usask.ca

    2005-07-01

    It has been proposed that the soil N amino sugar fraction (N amino), obtained by chemical extraction, represents a reservoir of labile N for the plants. To test the availability of this fraction and how it affects the response to N fertilization ({sup 15}N), we conducted a pot experiment with twenty soil samples containing increasing concentrations of total N, ten of which were sandy clay loam and ten sandy loam. PVC pots containing 500 cm{sup 3} of soil were divided in two groups: one group received 40 mg N kg{sup -1} as NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} enriched with 2,5 atoms- % of {sup 15}N while the other group did not receive nitrogen. All the soil samples were supplied with 25 mg P kg{sup -1} and cultivated with buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) during 60 days. Total soil N and N amino contents were greater in fine textured samples, in average, than in sandy loams. Dry matter production and N uptake were positively related with N amino concentrations and were greater (p < 0,1) in sandy clay loams than in sandy loams, independently of N fertilization. Ndds% was greater also in fine textured samples than in sandy loams, while Nddf%, in average, did not vary with texture. The use efficiency of fertilizer-N oscillated between 78 and 98%, but the percent yield response decreased from 404% to 47% with the increase in N amino concentrations. (author)

  6. The white matter query language: a novel approach for describing human white matter anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassermann, Demian; Makris, Nikos; Rathi, Yogesh; Shenton, Martha; Kikinis, Ron; Kubicki, Marek; Westin, Carl-Fredrik

    2016-12-01

    We have developed a novel method to describe human white matter anatomy using an approach that is both intuitive and simple to use, and which automatically extracts white matter tracts from diffusion MRI volumes. Further, our method simplifies the quantification and statistical analysis of white matter tracts on large diffusion MRI databases. This work reflects the careful syntactical definition of major white matter fiber tracts in the human brain based on a neuroanatomist's expert knowledge. The framework is based on a novel query language with a near-to-English textual syntax. This query language makes it possible to construct a dictionary of anatomical definitions that describe white matter tracts. The definitions include adjacent gray and white matter regions, and rules for spatial relations. This novel method makes it possible to automatically label white matter anatomy across subjects. After describing this method, we provide an example of its implementation where we encode anatomical knowledge in human white matter for ten association and 15 projection tracts per hemisphere, along with seven commissural tracts. Importantly, this novel method is comparable in accuracy to manual labeling. Finally, we present results applying this method to create a white matter atlas from 77 healthy subjects, and we use this atlas in a small proof-of-concept study to detect changes in association tracts that characterize schizophrenia.

  7. 42 CFR 1008.15 - Facts subject to advisory opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facts subject to advisory opinions. 1008.15 Section... Requesting Party § 1008.15 Facts subject to advisory opinions. (a) The OIG will consider requests from a requesting party for advisory opinions regarding the application of specific facts to the subject matters set...

  8. The Eighth Liquid Matter Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellago, Christoph; Kahl, Gerhard; Likos, Christos N

    2012-07-18

    The Eighth Liquid Matter Conference (LMC8) was held at the Universität Wien from 6-10 September 2011. Initiated in 1990, the conferences of this series cover a broad range of highly interdisciplinary topics, ranging from simple liquids to soft matter and biophysical systems. The vast spectrum of scientific subjects presented and discussed at the LMC8 is reflected in the themes of the ten symposia: Ionic and quantum liquids, liquid metals Water, solutions and reaction dynamics Liquid crystals Polymers, polyelectrolytes, biopolymers Colloids Films, foams, surfactants, emulsions, aerosols Confined fluids, interfacial phenomena Supercooled liquids, glasses, gels Non-equilibrium systems, rheology, nanofluids Biofluids, active matter This special issue contains scientific papers, authored by participants of the LMC8, which provide a cross-section of the scientific activities in current liquid matter science, as discussed at the conference, and demonstrate the scientific as well as methodological progress made in this field over the past couple of years. The Eighth Liquid Matter Conference contents The Eighth Liquid Matter ConferenceChristoph Dellago, Gerhard Kahl and Christos N Likos Comparing light-induced colloidal quasicrystals with different rotational symmetriesMichael Schmiedeberg and Holger Stark Hydrogen bond network relaxation in aqueous polyelectrolyte solutions: the effect of temperatureS Sarti, D Truzzolillo and F Bordi Equilibrium concentration profiles and sedimentation kinetics of colloidal gels under gravitational stressS Buzzaccaro, E Secchi, G Brambilla, R Piazza and L Cipelletti The capillary interaction between two vertical cylindersHimantha Cooray, Pietro Cicuta and Dominic Vella Hydrodynamic and viscoelastic effects in polymer diffusionJ Farago, H Meyer, J Baschnagel and A N Semenov A density-functional theory study of microphase formation in binary Gaussian mixturesM Carta, D Pini, A Parola and L Reatto Microcanonical determination of the

  9. Airborne microorganisms from waste containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicka, Sabrina S; Stravitz, David M; Lyman, Charles E

    2012-01-01

    In physician's offices and biomedical labs, biological waste is handled every day. This waste is disposed of in waste containers designed for holding red autoclave bags. The containers used in these environments are closed hands-free containers, often with a step pedal. While these containers protect the user from surface-borne microorganisms, the containers may allow airborne microorganisms to escape via the open/close mechanism because of the air current produced upon open/close cycles. In this study, the air current was shown to be sufficient to allow airborne escape of microorganisms held in the container, including Aspergillus niger. However, bacterial cultures, such as Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis did not escape. This may be due to the choice of bacterial cultures and the absence of solid waste, such as dust or other particulate matter in the waste containers, that such strains of bacteria could travel on during aerosolization. We compared these results to those obtained using a re-designed receptacle, which mimimizes air currents, and detected no escaping microorganisms. This study highlights one potential source of airborne contamination in labs, hospitals, and other environments that dispose of biological waste.

  10. Evaluation of ride quality measurement procedures by subjective experiments using simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauder, L. T., Jr.; Clevenson, S. A.

    1975-01-01

    Since ride quality is, by definition, a matter of passenger response, there is need for a qualification procedure (QP) for establishing the degree to which any particular ride quality measurement procedure (RQMP) does correlate with passenger responses. Once established, such a QP will provide very useful guidance for optimal adjustment of the various parameters which any given RQMP contains. A QP is proposed based on use of a ride motion simulator and on test subject responses to recordings of actual vehicle motions. Test subject responses are used to determine simulator gain settings for the individual recordings such as to make all of the simulated rides equally uncomfortable to the test subjects. Simulator platform accelerations vs. time are recorded with each ride at its equal discomfort gain setting. The equal discomfort platform acceleration recordings are then digitzed.

  11. Surgery and Brain Atrophy In Cognitively Normal Elderly Subjects and Subjects Diagnosed with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Richard P.; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Cheng, Hao; Santi, Susan De; Li, Yi; Haile, Michael; de Leon, Mony J.; Bekker, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Background Structural MRI is used to longitudinally monitor the progression of Alzheimer's disease from its presymptomatic to symptomatic phases. Using magnetic resonance imaging data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), we tested the hypothesis that surgery would affect brain parameters associated with progression of dementia. Materials and Methods Brain images from the neuroimaging initiative database were used to study normal volunteer subjects and patients with mild cognitive impairment for the age group 55 to 90 inclusive. We compared changes in regional brain anatomy for three visits that defined two inter-visit intervals for a surgical cohort (n=41) and a propensity matched non-surgical control cohort (n = 123). The first interval for the surgical cohort contained the surgical date. Regional brain volumes were determined with Freesurfer and quantitatively described with J-image software (University of California at San Francisco). Statistical analysis used Repeated Measures ANCOVA (SPSS, v.18.0; Chicago, IL). Results We found that surgical patients, during the first follow-up interval (5–9 months), but not subsequently, had increased rates of atrophy for cortical gray matter and hippocampus, and lateral ventricle enlargement, as compared to non-surgical controls. A composite score of five cognitive tests during this interval showed reduced performance for surgical patients with mild cognitive impairment. Conclusions Elderly subjects after surgery experienced an increased rate of brain atrophy during the initial evaluation interval, a time associated with enhanced risk for postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Although there was no difference in atrophy rate by diagnosis, subjects with mild cognitive impairment suffered greater subsequent cognitive effects. PMID:22293721

  12. Cosmological Singlet Diagnostics of Neutrinophilic Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Balducci, Ottavia; Hofmann, Stefan; Kassiteridis, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    The standard model (SM) of particle physics is extended by adding a fundemantal dark sector containing a dark matter singlet, which is coupled to the visible sector via a gauge invariant Yukawa portal and a sterile neutrino bridge. The cases of weakly interacting dark matter particles and feebly interacting ones are both considered. Even after the Yukawa portal is closed, the sterile neutrino bridge keeps the communication between the dark and visible sectors open, allowing for a prolonged co...

  13. The structural neural substrate of subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Kubota, Yasutaka; Sawada, Reiko; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-11-20

    Happiness is a subjective experience that is an ultimate goal for humans. Psychological studies have shown that subjective happiness can be measured reliably and consists of emotional and cognitive components. However, the neural substrates of subjective happiness remain unclear. To investigate this issue, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging and questionnaires that assessed subjective happiness, the intensity of positive and negative emotional experiences, and purpose in life. We found a positive relationship between the subjective happiness score and gray matter volume in the right precuneus. Moreover, the same region showed an association with the combined positive and negative emotional intensity and purpose in life scores. Our findings suggest that the precuneus mediates subjective happiness by integrating the emotional and cognitive components of happiness.

  14. The structural neural substrate of subjective happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Kubota, Yasutaka; Sawada, Reiko; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-01-01

    Happiness is a subjective experience that is an ultimate goal for humans. Psychological studies have shown that subjective happiness can be measured reliably and consists of emotional and cognitive components. However, the neural substrates of subjective happiness remain unclear. To investigate this issue, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging and questionnaires that assessed subjective happiness, the intensity of positive and negative emotional experiences, and purpose in life. We found a positive relationship between the subjective happiness score and gray matter volume in the right precuneus. Moreover, the same region showed an association with the combined positive and negative emotional intensity and purpose in life scores. Our findings suggest that the precuneus mediates subjective happiness by integrating the emotional and cognitive components of happiness. PMID:26586449

  15. A new technology for the reduction of particulate matter from diesel engines in ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rens, G.L.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis the focus is on the particulate matter reduction of ships, as ships contribute significantly to the particulate matter concentration in ambient air. Because the fuel of sea ships contains a lot of ash, the emitted particulate matter will also contain a lot of ash. In car and truck

  16. White matter injury detection in neonatal MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Irene; Hajari, Nasim; Firouzmanesh, Amirhossein; Shen, Rui; Miller, Steven; Poskitt, Ken; Basu, Anup

    2013-02-01

    Early detection of white matter injury in premature newborns can facilitate timely clinical treatments reducing the potential risk of later developmental deficits. It was reported that there were more than 5% premature newborns in British Columbia, Canada, among which 5-10% exhibited major motor deficits and 25-50% exhibited significant developmental and visual deficits. With the advancement of computer assisted detection systems, it is possible to automatically identify white matter injuries, which are found inside the grey matter region of the brain. Atlas registration has been suggested in the literature to distinguish grey matter from the soft tissues inside the skull. However, our subjects are premature newborns delivered at 24 to 32 weeks of gestation. During this period, the grey matter undergoes rapid changes and differs significantly from one to another. Besides, not all detected white spots represent injuries. Additional neighborhood information and expert input are required for verification. In this paper, we propose a white matter feature identification system for premature newborns, which is composed of several steps: (1) Candidate white matter segmentation; (2) Feature extraction from candidates; (3) Validation with data obtained at a later stage on the children; and (4) Feature confirmation for automated detection. The main challenge of this work lies in segmenting white matter injuries from noisy and low resolution data. Our approach integrates image fusion and contrast enhancement together with a fuzzy segmentation technique to achieve promising results. Other applications, such as brain tumor and intra-ventricular haemorrhage detection can also benefit from our approach.

  17. Vanishing White Matter Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In Memory Of Obituaries Contact Us Donate Vanishing White Matter Disease What is Vanishing White Matter Disease? ... of the genetic basis of VWM was a great step forward. First of all, it allows genetic ...

  18. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution Contact Us Share Most PM particles form in ... and cause serious health effects. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution PM Basics What is PM, and how does ...

  19. Mind Over Matter: Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Term(s): Teachers / NIDA Teaching Guide / Mind Over Matter Teaching Guide and Series / Cocaine Mind Over Matter: Cocaine Print Order Free Publication in: English Spanish Download PDF 806.08 KB Cocaine is ...

  20. Mind Over Matter: Methamphetamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Term(s): Teachers / NIDA Teaching Guide / Mind Over Matter Teaching Guide and Series / Methamphetamine Mind Over Matter: Methamphetamine (Meth) Print Order Free Publication in: English Spanish Download PDF 739.54 KB Methamphetamine comes ...

  1. BARYONIC DARK MATTER ?

    OpenAIRE

    Rees, M J

    1986-01-01

    In the first two of these lectures, I present the evidence for baryonic dark matter and describe possible forms that it may take. The final lecture discusses formation of baryonic dark matter, and sets the cosmological context.

  2. Dark Matter Effective Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Nobile, Eugenio; Sannino, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    We organize the effective (self)interaction terms for complex scalar dark matter candidates which are either an isosinglet, isodoublet or an isotriplet with respect to the weak interactions. The classification has been performed ordering the operators in inverse powers of the dark matter cutoff...... scale. We assume Lorentz invariance, color and charge neutrality. We also introduce potentially interesting dark matter induced flavor-changing operators. Our general framework allows for model independent investigations of dark matter properties....

  3. Dence Cold Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavinskiy Alexey

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Possible way to create dense cold baryonic matter in the laboratory is discussed. The density of this matter is comparable or even larger than the density of neutron star core. The properties of this matter can be controlled by trigger conditions. Experimental program for the study of properties of dense cold matter for light and heavy ion collisions at initial energy range √sNN~2-3GeV is proposed..

  4. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  5. States of Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    states of matter in school. Are these the only states of matter? What distinguishes different ... can be classified based on color, or electrical properties, or whether they are organic or inorganic, or conductors .... school textbooks continue to preach that there are three states of matter. Thus, I have reduced my problem from ...

  6. Matter and Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Karam, P Andrew

    2011-01-01

    In Matter and Energy, readers will learn about the many forms of energy, the wide variety of particles in nature, and Albert Einstein's world-changing realization of how matter can be changed into pure energy. The book also examines the recent discoveries of dark matter and dark energy and the future of the universe.

  7. Nonthermal Supermassive Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Kolb, Edward W.; Riotto, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    We discuss several cosmological production mechanisms for nonthermal supermassive dark matter and argue that dark matter may he elementary particles of mass much greater than the weak scale. Searches for dark matter should ma be limited to weakly interacting particles with mass of the order of the weak scale, but should extend into the supermassive range as well.

  8. Do Social Networks Improve Chinese Adults' Subjective Well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xiaoyan; Shen, Yan; Smith, James P; Zhou, Guangsu

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies relationships between social networks, health and subjective well-being (SWB) using nationally representative data of the Chinese Population-the Chinese Family Panel Studies (CFPS). Our data contain SWB indicators in two widely used variants-happiness and life-satisfaction. Social network variables used include kinship relationships measured by marital status, family size, and having a genealogy; ties with friends/relatives/neighbors measured by holiday visitation, frequency of contacts, and whether and value gifts given and received; total number and time spent in social activities, and engagement in organizations including the communist party, religious groups, and other types. We find that giving and receiving gifts has a larger impact on SWB than either just giving or receiving them. Similarly the number of friends is more important than number of relatives, and marriage is associated with higher levels of SWB. Time spent in social activities and varieties of activities both matter for SWB but varieties matter more. Participation in organizations is associated with higher SWB across such diverse groups as being a member of the communist party or a religious organization. China represents an interesting test since it is simultaneously a traditional society with long-established norms about appropriate social networks and a rapidly changing society due to substantial economic and demographic changes. We find that it is better to both give and receive, to engage in more types of social activities, and that participation in groups all improve well-being of Chinese people.

  9. Distinguishing medication-free subjects with unipolar disorder from subjects with bipolar disorder : state matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rive, Maria M.; Redlich, Ronny; Schmaal, Lianne; Marquand, Andre F.; Dannlowski, Udo; Grotegerd, Dominik; Veltman, Dick J.; Schene, Aart H.; Ruhe, Henricus G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Recent studies have indicated that pattern recognition techniques of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data for individual classification may be valuable for distinguishing between major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Importantly, medication may have

  10. Distinguishing medication-free subjects with unipolar disorder from subjects with bipolar disorder: state matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rive, M.M.; Redlich, R.; Schmaal, L.; Marquand, A.F.; Dannlowski, U.; Grotegerd, D.; Veltman, D.J.; Schene, A.H.; Ruhe, H.G.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have indicated that pattern recognition techniques of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data for individual classification may be valuable for distinguishing between major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Importantly, medication may have

  11. Impeded Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence & Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics,Johannes Gutenberg University,Staudingerweg 7, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Slatyer, Tracy R. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Wang, Xiao-Ping [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence & Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics,Johannes Gutenberg University,Staudingerweg 7, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Xue, Wei [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-12-12

    We consider dark matter models in which the mass splitting between the dark matter particles and their annihilation products is tiny. Compared to the previously proposed Forbidden Dark Matter scenario, the mass splittings we consider are much smaller, and are allowed to be either positive or negative. To emphasize this modification, we dub our scenario “Impeded Dark Matter”. We demonstrate that Impeded Dark Matter can be easily realized without requiring tuning of model parameters. For negative mass splitting, we demonstrate that the annihilation cross-section for Impeded Dark Matter depends linearly on the dark matter velocity or may even be kinematically forbidden, making this scenario almost insensitive to constraints from the cosmic microwave background and from observations of dwarf galaxies. Accordingly, it may be possible for Impeded Dark Matter to yield observable signals in clusters or the Galactic center, with no corresponding signal in dwarfs. For positive mass splitting, we show that the annihilation cross-section is suppressed by the small mass splitting, which helps light dark matter to survive increasingly stringent constraints from indirect searches. As specific realizations for Impeded Dark Matter, we introduce a model of vector dark matter from a hidden SU(2) sector, and a composite dark matter scenario based on a QCD-like dark sector.

  12. Collapsed Dark Matter Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Matthew R.; DiFranzo, Anthony

    2018-02-01

    The distributions of dark matter and baryons in the Universe are known to be very different: The dark matter resides in extended halos, while a significant fraction of the baryons have radiated away much of their initial energy and fallen deep into the potential wells. This difference in morphology leads to the widely held conclusion that dark matter cannot cool and collapse on any scale. We revisit this assumption and show that a simple model where dark matter is charged under a "dark electromagnetism" can allow dark matter to form gravitationally collapsed objects with characteristic mass scales much smaller than that of a Milky-Way-type galaxy. Though the majority of the dark matter in spiral galaxies would remain in the halo, such a model opens the possibility that galaxies and their associated dark matter play host to a significant number of collapsed substructures. The observational signatures of such structures are not well explored but potentially interesting.

  13. Collapsed Dark Matter Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Matthew R; DiFranzo, Anthony

    2018-02-02

    The distributions of dark matter and baryons in the Universe are known to be very different: The dark matter resides in extended halos, while a significant fraction of the baryons have radiated away much of their initial energy and fallen deep into the potential wells. This difference in morphology leads to the widely held conclusion that dark matter cannot cool and collapse on any scale. We revisit this assumption and show that a simple model where dark matter is charged under a "dark electromagnetism" can allow dark matter to form gravitationally collapsed objects with characteristic mass scales much smaller than that of a Milky-Way-type galaxy. Though the majority of the dark matter in spiral galaxies would remain in the halo, such a model opens the possibility that galaxies and their associated dark matter play host to a significant number of collapsed substructures. The observational signatures of such structures are not well explored but potentially interesting.

  14. How dark matter came to matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Swart, J. G.; Bertone, G.; van Dongen, J.

    2017-03-01

    The history of the dark matter problem can be traced back to at least the 1930s, but it was not until the early 1970s that the issue of 'missing matter' was widely recognized as problematic. In the latter period, previously separate issues involving missing mass were brought together in a single anomaly. We argue that reference to a straightforward accumulation of evidence alone is inadequate to comprehend this episode. Rather, the rise of cosmological research, the accompanying renewed interest in the theory of relativity and changes in the manpower division of astronomy in the 1960s are key to understanding how dark matter came to matter. At the same time, this story may also enlighten us on the methodological dimensions of past practices of physics and cosmology.

  15. 商業方法軟體專利之標的適格性研究 ― 以比較法之研究為中心 The Patentable Subject Matter of Business Method Patents: An Analysis from a Perspective on Comparative Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    吉玉成 Yuh-Cherng Jyi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available 本文於第2 部分先就商業方法軟體依軟體系統之架構予以定義,以觀察其特殊性,並作為發明專利標的適格分析之基礎。第3 部分則概述商業方法軟體之施以專利保護,對產業與專利審查實務所造成之影響。第4 部分係探討商業方法軟體是否得為發明專利之標的,而依次簡介美國法之規定與實務見解、日本特許法之規定與特許廳之態度、歐洲專利公約與專利局之立場,並由我國專利法之規定,論述絕大多數之商業方法軟體專利,其發明專利之標的適格性乃有欠缺;另就我國智慧財產局所公布之「電腦軟體相關發明專利審查基準」加以探討,及提出個人淺見,並就智慧財產局已核准商業方法軟體專利之實例,予以個案分析。第5 部分則提出個人對商業方法軟體專利之淺見及對我國未來專利保護方向之芻議,以為結 論。 This thesis first in Chapter II defines and identifies business method software under modern computer software architecture so as to form the foundation on which the patentable subject matter of business method software can be further analyzed. In Chapter III follows an overview of how patenting business method software impacts on industry and patent examination practice. Chapter IV analyzes whether business method software qualifies as patentable subject matter from a perspective on comparative legal research in American laws, Japanese laws and the European Patent Convention, and explicates that most of the business method patents granted are unqualified under the interpretation of current ROC Patent Law; this Chapter also reviews the “Examination Guidelines for Computer- Related Software Inventions” promulgated by the Intellectual Property Office from a different perspective and illustrates thereof with a business method patent granted by the Intellectual Property Office. Chapter V concludes this

  16. International Energy: Subject Thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raridon, M.H. (ed.)

    1990-01-01

    The International Energy Subject Thesaurus contains the standard vocabulary to indexing terms (descriptors) developed and structured to build and maintain energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and (2) the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) staff representing the more than ninety countries and organizations recording and indexing information for the international nuclear information community. ETDE member countries are also members of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). Nuclear information indexed and recorded for INIS by these ETDE member countries is also included in the ETDE Energy Data Base, and indexing terminology is therefore cooperatively standardized for use in both information systems. This structured vocabulary reflects the scope of international energy research, development, and technological programs and encompasses terminology derived not only from the basic sciences but also from the areas of energy resources, conservation, safety, environmental impact, and regulation.

  17. Container crane for sea freight containers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttekes, E.; Rijsenbrij, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    The invention relates to a container crane for loading and unloading seaborne containers. The container crane comprises a bridge girder (7), a jib (8), at least two crabs (11, 12) which can travel along the said bridge girder and/or jib and are provided with hoist means for lifting and lowering the

  18. PREFACE: Quark Matter 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan-e~Alam; Subhasis~Chattopadhyay; Tapan~Nayak

    2008-10-01

    Quark Matter 2008—the 20th International Conference on Ultra-Relativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions was held in Jaipur, the Pink City of India, from 4-10 February, 2008. Organizing Quark Matter 2008 in India itself indicates the international recognition of the Indian contribution to the field of heavy-ion physics, which was initiated and nurtured by Bikash Sinha, Chair of the conference. The conference was inaugurated by the Honourable Chief Minister of Rajasthan, Smt. Vasundhara Raje followed by the key note address by Professor Carlo Rubbia. The scientific programme started with the theoretical overview, `SPS to RHIC and onwards to LHC' by Larry McLerran followed by several theoretical and experimental overview talks on the ongoing experiments at SPS and RHIC. The future experiments at the LHC, FAIR and J-PARC, along with the theoretical predictions, were discussed in great depth. Lattice QCD predictions on the nature of the phase transition and critical point were vigorously debated during several plenary and parallel session presentations. The conference was enriched by the presence of an unprecedented number of participants; about 600 participants representing 31 countries across the globe. This issue contains papers based on plenary talks and oral presentations presented at the conference. Besides invited and contributed talks, there were also a large number of poster presentations. Members of the International Advisory Committee played a pivotal role in the selection of speakers, both for plenary and parallel session talks. The contributions of the Organizing Committee in all aspects, from helping to prepare the academic programme down to arranging local hospitality, were much appreciated. We thank the members of both the committees for making Quark Matter 2008 a very effective and interesting platform for scientific deliberations. Quark Matter 2008 was financially supported by: Air Liquide (New Delhi) Board of Research Nuclear Sciences (Mumbai) Bose

  19. Dark matter and LHC: Complementarities and limitations arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, G.; Arbey, A.; Boudaud, M.

    It is well known that dark matter density measurements, indirect and direct detection experiments, importantly complement the LHC in setting strong constraints on new physics scenarios. Yet, dark matter searches are subject to limitations which need to be considered for realistic analyses. For illustration, we explore the parameter space of the phenomenological MSSM and discuss the interplay of the constraints from dark matter searches and the LHC, and analyse the impact of the astrophysical uncertainties in some detail.

  20. Motives matter: a cultural historical approach to IT mediated subject matter teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenild, Kåre; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2011-01-01

    The contributors to this collection employ the analytic resources of cultural-historical theory to examine the relationship between childhood and children's development under different societal conditions. In particular they attend to relationships between development, emotions, motives and ident......The contributors to this collection employ the analytic resources of cultural-historical theory to examine the relationship between childhood and children's development under different societal conditions. In particular they attend to relationships between development, emotions, motives...

  1. Matters of Life and Longing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Line

    of the ways that phenomenology can be used as a tool of critical social analysis. The book focuses on lived experience and subjective meaning within a life-world dominated by poverty and violence. Through a focus on the basic human need for recognition Dalsgaard describes women’s desire to be valuable...... from simplistic dichotomies of mind/body, history/biography in an effort to grasp human experience in its complexity. “Matters of Life and Longing” is a lucid and accessible work which will be of interest to a wide and varied audience with interest in Latin America, reproductive health, gender studies...

  2. Mind and matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freris, Leon

    2013-11-01

    In the View Point article of Reference 1, the editor of CIB was kind enough to let me express my views on the topic of Darwinian evolution. Since then and mainly through contacts generated by that article, I felt that there was more to be said on this topic. The editor was kind enough to allow me to air my views again.   I have no qualifications in biology or philosophy, so the readers of CIB may find that some of the material on evolution in this article is well-known territory to them, but for me it was a part of the unfolding story that informed my understanding and led me to some conclusions. My thesis is that the explanations based on the present materialist/reductionist views on how experiential qualities developed out of inert matter are unconvincing and that an alternative viewpoint offers a more parsimonious and logically coherent account. The article presents my rearrangement of material contained or taken from references 2, 4, 5, and 6 linked by my own commentary. For a better-argued and ultimately more convincing exposition of the views in this article the interested reader should study the references.

  3. Modeling Soft Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Kurt

    Soft matter science or soft materials science is a relatively new term for the science of a huge class of rather different materials such as colloids, polymers (of synthetic or biological origin), membranes, complex molecular assemblies, complex fluids, etc. and combinations thereof. While many of these systems are contained in or are even the essential part of everyday products ("simple" plastics such as yoghurt cups, plastic bags, CDs, many car parts; gels and networks such as rubber, many low fat foods, "gummi" bears; colloidal systems such as milk, mayonnaise, paints, almost all cosmetics or body care products, the border lines between the different applications and systems are of course not sharp) or as biological molecules or assemblies (DNA, proteins, membranes and cytoskeleton, etc.) are central to our existence, others are basic ingredients of current and future high tech products (polymers with specific optical or electronic properties, conducting macromolecules, functional materials). Though the motivation is different in life science rather than in materials science biomolecular simulations, the basic structure of the problems faced in the two fields is very similar.

  4. Workshop on Low-temperature Detectors for Neutrinos and Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitz, Norbert; Stodolsky, Leo; Low temperature detectors for neutrinos and dark matter

    1987-01-01

    For the last few years astrophysicists and elementary particle physicists have been working jointly on the following fascinating phenomena: 1. The solar neutrino puzzle and the question: What happens to the neutrinos on their way from the sun to the earth? 2. The growing evidence that our universe is filled with about 10 times more matter than is visible and the question: What is dark matter made of? 3. The supernovae explosions and the question: What do neutrinos tell us about such explosions and vice versa? The experimental investigation of these phenomena is difficult and involves unconventional techniques. These are presently under development, and bring together such seemingly disparate disciplines as astrophysics and elementary particle physics on the one hand and superconductivity and solid-state physics on the other. This book contains the proceedings of a workshop held in March 1987 at which the above subjects and their experimental investigation were discussed. The proposed experimental meth...

  5. DAMA annual modulation and mirror Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerulli, R.; Cappella, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, AQ (Italy); Villar, P. [Universidad de Zaragoza, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas, Saragossa (Spain); Laboratorio Subterraneo de Canfranc, Canfranc Estacion, Huesca (Spain); Bernabei, R.; Belli, P. [Universita di Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); Incicchitti, A. [Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, Rome (Italy); Addazi, A.; Berezhiani, Z. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, AQ (Italy); Universita di L' Aquila, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, Coppito, AQ (Italy)

    2017-02-15

    The DAMA experiment using ultra low background NaI(Tl) crystal scintillators has measured an annual modulation effect in the keV region which satisfies all the peculiarities of an effect induced by Dark Matter particles. In this paper we analyze this annual modulation effect in terms of mirror Dark Matter, an exact duplicate of ordinary matter from parallel hidden sector, which chemical composition is dominated by mirror helium while it can also contain significant fractions of heavier elements as Carbon and Oxygen. Dark mirror atoms are considered to interact with the target nuclei in the detector via Rutherford-like scattering induced by kinetic mixing between mirror and ordinary photons, both being massless. In the present analysis we consider various possible scenarios for the mirror matter chemical composition. For all the scenarios, the relevant ranges for the kinetic mixing parameter have been obtained taking also into account various existing uncertainties in nuclear and particle physics quantities. (orig.)

  6. Dark Matter searches with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Suchek, Stanislav; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Dark Matter composes almost 25% of our Universe, but its identity is still unknown which makes it a large challenge for current fundamental physics. A lot of approaches are used to discover the identity of Dark Matter and one of them, collider searches, are discussed in this talk. The latest results on Dark Matter search at ATLAS using 2015 and 2016 data are presented. Results from searches for new physics in the events with final states containing large missing transverse energy and a single photon or Higgs boson are shown. Higgs to invisible and dijet searches are used in sense of complementarity to constrain properties of Dark Matter. Results and perspectives for all these searches are presented.

  7. Silage quality, dry matter intake and digestibility by West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grass mixtures were subjected to silage for 42 days. Quality and chemical composition of the silage was assessed. Silage was also fed to WAD sheep to determine the dry matter intake (DMI) and dry matter digestibility (DMD). Crude protein for 4WGG was 17.5% higher than that of 12WGG. Silage colour was normal except ...

  8. Understanding Physical Educators' Perceptions of Mattering Questionnaire--Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, K. Andrew R.; Gaudreault, Karen Lux; Woods, Amelia Mays

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has illustrated that physical educators feel their subject is valued less than others in the context of schools. However, to date, no instruments have been developed to measure physical education teachers' perceptions of mattering. This study sought to propose and validate the Perceived Mattering Questionnaire--Physical Education…

  9. Di-photon resonance and Dark Matter as heavy pions

    CERN Document Server

    Redi, Michele; Tesi, Andrea; Vigiani, Elena

    2016-01-01

    We analyse confining gauge theories where the 750 GeV di-photon resonance is a composite techni-pion that undergoes anomalous decays into SM vectors. These scenarios naturally contain accidentally stable techni-pions Dark Matter candidates. The di-photon resonance can acquire a larger width by decaying into Dark Matter through the CP-violating $\\theta$-term of the new gauge theory reproducing the cosmological Dark Matter density as thermal relic.

  10. Di-photon resonance and Dark Matter as heavy pions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redi, Michele [INFN, Sezione di Firenze,Via G. Sansone, 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Strumia, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Pisa and INFN,Pisa (Italy); Theory Division, CERN,Geneva (Switzerland); Tesi, Andrea [Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago,Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Vigiani, Elena [Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Pisa and INFN,Pisa (Italy)

    2016-05-13

    We analyse confining gauge theories where the 750 GeV di-photon resonance is a composite techni-pion that undergoes anomalous decays into SM vectors. These scenarios naturally contain accidentally stable techni-pions Dark Matter candidates. The di-photon resonance can acquire a larger width by decaying into Dark Matter through the CP-violating θ-term of the new gauge theory reproducing the cosmological Dark Matter density as a thermal relic.

  11. Codecaying Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Jeff Asaf; Kuflik, Eric; Ng, Wee Hao

    2016-11-18

    We propose a new mechanism for thermal dark matter freeze-out, called codecaying dark matter. Multicomponent dark sectors with degenerate particles and out-of-equilibrium decays can codecay to obtain the observed relic density. The dark matter density is exponentially depleted through the decay of nearly degenerate particles rather than from Boltzmann suppression. The relic abundance is set by the dark matter annihilation cross section, which is predicted to be boosted, and the decay rate of the dark sector particles. The mechanism is viable in a broad range of dark matter parameter space, with a robust prediction of an enhanced indirect detection signal. Finally, we present a simple model that realizes codecaying dark matter.

  12. Dark Matter Indirect Signatures

    OpenAIRE

    Lavalle, Julien; Salati, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The astronomical dark matter could be made of weakly interacting and massive particles. If so, these species would be abundant inside the Milky Way, where they would continuously annihilate and produce cosmic rays. Those annihilation products are potentially detectable at the Earth, and could provide indirect clues for the presence of dark matter species within the Galaxy. We will review here the various cosmic radiations which the dark matter can produce. We will examine how they propagate t...

  13. Clumpy cold dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joseph; Stebbins, Albert

    1993-01-01

    A study is conducted of cold dark matter (CDM) models in which clumpiness will inhere, using cosmic strings and textures suited to galaxy formation. CDM clumps of 10 million solar mass/cu pc density are generated at about z(eq) redshift, with a sizable fraction surviving. Observable implications encompass dark matter cores in globular clusters and in galactic nuclei. Results from terrestrial dark matter detection experiments may be affected by clumpiness in the Galactic halo.

  14. Stars defy theories of stellar matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Two bizarre objects called RXJ1856 and 3C58, found by an orbiting X-ray telescope may represent a new class of star and may contain a new form of matter, defying current particle physics theories (1/2 page).

  15. Has matter's mother paid a call?

    CERN Multimedia

    Weiss, P

    2003-01-01

    "..Stunning results .. are prompting a growing chorus of physicists to say that it's time to declare success in a decades-long quest to make quark-gluon plasma - an extremely hot, dense soup of matter that contains loose fundamental particles known as quarks and gluons" (1 page).

  16. Soft matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Doi, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Soft matter (polymers, colloids, surfactants and liquid crystals) are an important class of materials in modern technology. They also form the basis of many future technologies, for example in medical and environmental applications. Soft matter shows complex behaviour between fluids and solids, and used to be a synonym of complex materials. Due to the developments of the past two decades, soft condensed matter can now be discussed on the same sound physical basis as solid condensedmatter. The purpose of this book is to provide an overview of soft matter for undergraduate and graduate students

  17. Searches for dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Feinstein, Fabrice

    2000-01-01

    The fact that the mass of the visible stars could not account for the gravitational cohesion of the galaxies was the first sign of non-visible (i.e. dark) matter in the Universe. Since then, many observational evidences tell us that most of the matter is indeed dark. The nature of this dark matter is still unknown. There are good reasons to think that most of it is not composed of normal matter. These lectures will review the experimental methods, which have been developed to unravel this mystery and will compare their results with theoretical predictions.

  18. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  19. Empty Container Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakov Karmelić

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the whole world container traffic, the largest share of containers is in the status of repositioning. Container repositioning results from the need for harmonization between the point of empty container accumulation and the point of demand, and waiting time for the availability of the first next transport of cargo. This status of containers on the container market is the consequence of imbalances in the worldwide trade distribution on most important shipping routes. The need for fast and effective reallocation of empty containers causes high costs and often represents an obstacle affecting the efficiency of port container terminals and inland carriers.In accordance with the above issue, this paper is mainly focused on the analysis of the data concerning global container capacities and the roots of container equipment imbalances, with the aim of determining the importance of empty container management and the need for empty container micro-logistic planning at the spread port area.

  20. Association between exercise habits and subcortical gray matter volumes in healthy elderly people: A population-based study in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikie Yamamoto

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Subjects with exercise habits show larger subcortical gray matter volumes than subjects without exercise habits in community-dwelling elderly subjects in Japan. Specifically, the volume of the nucleus accumbens correlates with both exercise habits and cognitive preservation.

  1. Asymptotically Safe Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Shoemaker, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new paradigm for dark matter (DM) interactions in which the interaction strength is asymptotically safe. In models of this type, the coupling strength is small at low energies but increases at higher energies, and asymptotically approaches a finite constant value. The resulting...... searches are the primary ways to constrain or discover asymptotically safe dark matter....

  2. Dark Matter Day

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Wessel Valkenburg, Research Fellow at the Theory Department at CERN will explain the how and why research is carried out on dark matter. The event will be in English with simultaneous interpretation into French. Dark Matter Day falls on Hallow...

  3. CORRELATION BETWEEN PARTICULATE MATTER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BIG TIMMY

    2017-03-21

    Mar 21, 2017 ... Measurement of atmospheric particulate matter was carried out with a view to establish the potential influence of meteorological parameters such as wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, rainfall, relative humidity and global radiation on the mass concentration. Particulate matter (PM) in two size ...

  4. Dark matter and cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1992-03-01

    The cosmological dark matter problem is reviewed. The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints on the baryon density are compared with the densities implied by visible matter, dark halos, dynamics of clusters, gravitational lenses, large-scale velocity flows, and the {Omega} = 1 flatness/inflation argument. It is shown that (1) the majority of baryons are dark; and (2) non-baryonic dark matter is probably required on large scales. It is also noted that halo dark matter could be either baryonic or non-baryonic. Descrimination between cold'' and hot'' non-baryonic candidates is shown to depend on the assumed seeds'' that stimulate structure formation. Gaussian density fluctuations, such as those induced by quantum fluctuations, favor cold dark matter, whereas topological defects such as strings, textures or domain walls may work equally or better with hot dark matter. A possible connection between cold dark matter, globular cluster ages and the Hubble constant is mentioned. Recent large-scale structure measurements, coupled with microwave anisotropy limits, are shown to raise some questions for the previously favored density fluctuation picture. Accelerator and underground limits on dark matter candidates are also reviewed.

  5. Dark matter and cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1992-03-01

    The cosmological dark matter problem is reviewed. The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints on the baryon density are compared with the densities implied by visible matter, dark halos, dynamics of clusters, gravitational lenses, large-scale velocity flows, and the {Omega} = 1 flatness/inflation argument. It is shown that (1) the majority of baryons are dark; and (2) non-baryonic dark matter is probably required on large scales. It is also noted that halo dark matter could be either baryonic or non-baryonic. Descrimination between ``cold`` and ``hot`` non-baryonic candidates is shown to depend on the assumed ``seeds`` that stimulate structure formation. Gaussian density fluctuations, such as those induced by quantum fluctuations, favor cold dark matter, whereas topological defects such as strings, textures or domain walls may work equally or better with hot dark matter. A possible connection between cold dark matter, globular cluster ages and the Hubble constant is mentioned. Recent large-scale structure measurements, coupled with microwave anisotropy limits, are shown to raise some questions for the previously favored density fluctuation picture. Accelerator and underground limits on dark matter candidates are also reviewed.

  6. Enabling forbidden dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, James M.; Liu, Hongwan; Slatyer, Tracy R.; Xue, Wei

    2017-10-01

    The thermal relic density of dark matter is conventionally set by two-body annihilations. We point out that in many simple models, 3 →2 annihilations can play an important role in determining the relic density over a broad range of model parameters. This occurs when the two-body annihilation is kinematically forbidden, but the 3 →2 process is allowed; we call this scenario not-forbidden dark matter. We illustrate this mechanism for a vector-portal dark matter model, showing that for a dark matter mass of mχ˜MeV -10 GeV , 3 →2 processes not only lead to the observed relic density, but also imply a self-interaction cross section that can solve the cusp/core problem. This can be accomplished while remaining consistent with stringent CMB constraints on light dark matter, and can potentially be discovered at future direct detection experiments.

  7. Macro Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobs, David M; Lynn, Bryan W.

    2015-01-01

    Dark matter is a vital component of the current best model of our universe, $\\Lambda$CDM. There are leading candidates for what the dark matter could be (e.g. weakly-interacting massive particles, or axions), but no compelling observational or experimental evidence exists to support these particular candidates, nor any beyond-the-Standard-Model physics that might produce such candidates. This suggests that other dark matter candidates, including ones that might arise in the Standard Model, should receive increased attention. Here we consider a general class of dark matter candidates with characteristic masses and interaction cross-sections characterized in units of grams and cm$^2$, respectively -- we therefore dub these macroscopic objects as Macros. Such dark matter candidates could potentially be assembled out of Standard Model particles (quarks and leptons) in the early universe. A combination of earth-based, astrophysical, and cosmological observations constrain a portion of the Macro parameter space; ho...

  8. Imperfect Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Mirzagholi, Leila

    2014-01-01

    We consider cosmology of the recently introduced mimetic matter with higher derivatives (HD). Without HD this system describes irrotational dust - Dark Matter (DM) as we see it on cosmologically large scales. DM particles correspond to the shift-charges - Noether charges of the shifts in the field space. Higher derivative corrections usually describe a deviation from the thermodynamical equilibrium in the relativistic hydrodynamics. Thus we show that mimetic matter with HD corresponds to an imperfect DM which: i) renormalises the Newton's constant in the Friedmann equations, ii) has zero pressure when there is no extra matter in the universe, iii) survives the inflationary expansion which puts the system on a dynamical attractor with a vanishing shift-charge, iv) perfectly tracks any external matter on this attractor, v) can become the main (and possibly the only) source of DM, provided the shift-symmetry in the HD terms is broken during some small time interval in the radiation domination era. In the second ...

  9. White matter involvement in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caverzasi, Eduardo; Mandelli, Maria Luisa; DeArmond, Stephen J; Hess, Christopher P; Vitali, Paolo; Papinutto, Nico; Oehler, Abby; Miller, Bruce L; Lobach, Irina V; Bastianello, Stefano; Geschwind, Michael D; Henry, Roland G

    2014-12-01

    Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is considered primarily a disease of grey matter, although the extent of white matter involvement has not been well described. We used diffusion tensor imaging to study the white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease compared to healthy control subjects and to correlated magnetic resonance imaging findings with histopathology. Twenty-six patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and nine age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects underwent volumetric T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging. Six patients had post-mortem brain analysis available for assessment of neuropathological findings associated with prion disease. Parcellation of the subcortical white matter was performed on 3D T1-weighted volumes using Freesurfer. Diffusion tensor imaging maps were calculated and transformed to the 3D-T1 space; the average value for each diffusion metric was calculated in the total white matter and in regional volumes of interest. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis was also performed to investigate the deeper white matter tracts. There was a significant reduction of mean (P=0.002), axial (P=0.0003) and radial (P=0.0134) diffusivities in the total white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Mean diffusivity was significantly lower in most white matter volumes of interest (Pchanges in white matter anisotropy. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis showed significant reductions of mean diffusivity within the white matter of patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, mainly in the left hemisphere, with a strong trend (P=0.06) towards reduced mean diffusivity in most of the white matter bilaterally. In contrast, by visual assessment there was no white matter abnormality either on T2-weighted or diffusion-weighted images. Widespread reduction in white matter mean diffusivity, however, was apparent visibly on the quantitative attenuation coefficient maps compared to healthy control subjects

  10. Dark matter universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahcall, Neta A

    2015-10-06

    Most of the mass in the universe is in the form of dark matter--a new type of nonbaryonic particle not yet detected in the laboratory or in other detection experiments. The evidence for the existence of dark matter through its gravitational impact is clear in astronomical observations--from the early observations of the large motions of galaxies in clusters and the motions of stars and gas in galaxies, to observations of the large-scale structure in the universe, gravitational lensing, and the cosmic microwave background. The extensive data consistently show the dominance of dark matter and quantify its amount and distribution, assuming general relativity is valid. The data inform us that the dark matter is nonbaryonic, is "cold" (i.e., moves nonrelativistically in the early universe), and interacts only weakly with matter other than by gravity. The current Lambda cold dark matter cosmology--a simple (but strange) flat cold dark matter model dominated by a cosmological constant Lambda, with only six basic parameters (including the density of matter and of baryons, the initial mass fluctuations amplitude and its scale dependence, and the age of the universe and of the first stars)--fits remarkably well all the accumulated data. However, what is the dark matter? This is one of the most fundamental open questions in cosmology and particle physics. Its existence requires an extension of our current understanding of particle physics or otherwise point to a modification of gravity on cosmological scales. The exploration and ultimate detection of dark matter are led by experiments for direct and indirect detection of this yet mysterious particle.

  11. Energy Data Base: Subject Thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raridon, M.H. (ed.)

    1987-09-01

    This seventh edition of the subject thesaurus contains the standard vocabulary of indexing terms (descriptors) developed and structured by the technical staff of the Office of Scientific and Technical Information as part of its subject indexing activities for building and maintaining the Energy Data Base (EDB) and other energy information data bases for the Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this thesaurus is to enhance the efficiency of information retrieval from these data bases. This structured vocabulary reflects the scope of DOE's research, development, and technological programs and encompasses terminology derived not only from the basic sciences for also from areas of energy resources, conservation, safety, environmental impact, and regulation. There are 21,080 valid descriptors and 5683 forbidden terms in this edition of the Thesaurus. These descriptors are listed alphabetically.

  12. Evaluation of containment failure and cleanup time for Pu shots on the Z machine.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, John L.

    2010-02-01

    Between November 30 and December 11, 2009 an evaluation was performed of the probability of containment failure and the time for cleanup of contamination of the Z machine given failure, for plutonium (Pu) experiments on the Z machine at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Due to the unique nature of the problem, there is little quantitative information available for the likelihood of failure of containment components or for the time to cleanup. Information for the evaluation was obtained from Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) at the Z machine facility. The SMEs provided the State of Knowledge (SOK) for the evaluation. There is significant epistemic- or state of knowledge- uncertainty associated with the events that comprise both failure of containment and cleanup. To capture epistemic uncertainty and to allow the SMEs to reason at the fidelity of the SOK, we used the belief/plausibility measure of uncertainty for this evaluation. We quantified two variables: the probability that the Pu containment system fails given a shot on the Z machine, and the time to cleanup Pu contamination in the Z machine given failure of containment. We identified dominant contributors for both the time to cleanup and the probability of containment failure. These results will be used by SNL management to decide the course of action for conducting the Pu experiments on the Z machine.

  13. Foreign matter identification from solid dosage forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pekka Pajander, Jari; Haugshøj, Kenneth Brian; Bjørneboe, Kathrine

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increased request for robust quality systems, the end product may contain unidentified defects or discoloured regions. The foreign matter has to be monitored, identified and its source defined in order to prevent further contamination. However, the identification task can be complicat...... confirmation of the identification. However, FT-IR can be used to obtain information on the compounds chemical structure and conformation, and ToF-SIMS provides sensitivity in cases, where the entire solid dosage form is contaminated with foreign matter....

  14. A smartphone application for earthquakes that matter!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossu, Rémy; Etivant, Caroline; Roussel, Fréderic; Mazet-Roux, Gilles; Steed, Robert

    2014-05-01

    level of shaking intensity with empirical models of fatality losses calibrated on past earthquakes in each country. Non-seismic detections and macroseismic questionnaires collected online are combined to identify as many as possible of the felt earthquakes regardless their magnitude. Non seismic detections include Twitter earthquake detections, developed by the US Geological Survey, where the number of tweets containing the keyword "earthquake" is monitored in real time and flashsourcing, developed by the EMSC, which detect traffic surges on its rapid earthquake information website caused by the natural convergence of eyewitnesses who rush to the Internet to investigate the cause of the shaking that they have just felt. All together, we estimate that the number of detected felt earthquakes is around 1 000 per year, compared with the 35 000 earthquakes annually reported by the EMSC! Felt events are already the subject of the web page "Latest significant earthquakes" on EMSC website (http://www.emsc-csem.org/Earthquake/significant_earthquakes.php) and of a dedicated Twitter service @LastQuake. We will present the identification process of the earthquakes that matter, the smartphone application itself (to be released in May) and its future evolutions.

  15. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions, and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must...

  16. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2014-01-01

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must ...

  17. Subjective meaning: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen-Huitink, Janneke; van Wijbergen-Huitink, Janneke; Meier, Cécile

    This introductory chapter traces some of the considerations on the basis of which relativistic approaches to subjective meaning became en vogue. In doing so, the chapter provides an overview of the relevant linguistic and philosophical issues when developing a treatment of subjectivity. In addition,

  18. Subjective safety in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The term ‘subjective safety in traffic’ refers to people feeling unsafe in traffic or, more generally, to anxiety regarding being unsafe in traffic for oneself and/or others. Subjective safety in traffic can lead to road users limiting their mobility and social activities, which is one of the

  19. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  20. Dark matter universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahcall, Neta A.

    2015-01-01

    Most of the mass in the universe is in the form of dark matter—a new type of nonbaryonic particle not yet detected in the laboratory or in other detection experiments. The evidence for the existence of dark matter through its gravitational impact is clear in astronomical observations—from the early observations of the large motions of galaxies in clusters and the motions of stars and gas in galaxies, to observations of the large-scale structure in the universe, gravitational lensing, and the cosmic microwave background. The extensive data consistently show the dominance of dark matter and quantify its amount and distribution, assuming general relativity is valid. The data inform us that the dark matter is nonbaryonic, is “cold” (i.e., moves nonrelativistically in the early universe), and interacts only weakly with matter other than by gravity. The current Lambda cold dark matter cosmology—a simple (but strange) flat cold dark matter model dominated by a cosmological constant Lambda, with only six basic parameters (including the density of matter and of baryons, the initial mass fluctuations amplitude and its scale dependence, and the age of the universe and of the first stars)—fits remarkably well all the accumulated data. However, what is the dark matter? This is one of the most fundamental open questions in cosmology and particle physics. Its existence requires an extension of our current understanding of particle physics or otherwise point to a modification of gravity on cosmological scales. The exploration and ultimate detection of dark matter are led by experiments for direct and indirect detection of this yet mysterious particle. PMID:26417091

  1. Physics of condensed matter

    CERN Document Server

    Misra, Prasanta K

    2012-01-01

    Physics of Condensed Matter is designed for a two-semester graduate course on condensed matter physics for students in physics and materials science. While the book offers fundamental ideas and topic areas of condensed matter physics, it also includes many recent topics of interest on which graduate students may choose to do further research. The text can also be used as a one-semester course for advanced undergraduate majors in physics, materials science, solid state chemistry, and electrical engineering, because it offers a breadth of topics applicable to these majors. The book be

  2. D-Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Shiu, Gary; Wang, Lian-Tao

    2003-01-01

    We study the properties and phenomenology of particle-like states originating from D-branes whose spatial dimensions are all compactified. They are non-perturbative states in string theory and we refer to them as D-matter. In contrast to other non-perturbative objects such as 't Hooft-Polyakov monopoles, D-matter states could have perturbative couplings among themselves and with ordinary matter. The lightest D-particle (LDP) could be stable because it is the lightest state carrying certain (i...

  3. Efeito do KNO3 nos teores de macronutrientes na matéria seca total de porta-enxertos cítricos produzidos em bandejas KNO3 effect on macronutrients contents on the dry matter of citrus rootstocks produced in containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SÉRGIO ALVES DE CARVALHO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar os efeitos de três freqüências de aplicação (uma, duas e três vezes por semana de quatro doses de KNO3 (1,5; 3; 4,5 e 6 g.L-1 em cobertura, nos teores de macronutrientes, na matéria seca total dos porta-enxertos cítricos limoeiro 'Cravo' (Citrus limonia Osbeck e tangerineira 'Cleópatra' (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tanaka. As sementes foram germinadas em bandejas de 128 células piramidais comportando, cada uma, cerca de 75 cm³ de substrato e as plantas, mantidas em condições de casa de vegetação. O aumento na dose e freqüência de aplicação do KNO3 proporcionou elevações nos teores de N e, de maneira geral, diminuição nos teores de P, K, Ca, Mg e S na matéria seca total das plantas dos dois porta-enxertos avaliados aos 120 dias pós-semeadura.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of dosages and frequency of potassium nitrate (KNO3 application on macronutrients contents of two citrus rootstocks. Seeds of Rangpur Lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck and Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tanaka were germinated in speedlings flats, containing 128 pyramidal cells holding about 75 cm³ of vermiculite and pinus rind substrate. Three frequencies of application (1, 2 and 3 times per week of four dosages of KNO3 (1,5; 3; 4,5 and 6 g.L-1 plus a non-fertilization control for each rootstock, were tested. Increasing the dosages and the frequencies of KNO3 application resulted in higher N and lower P, K, Ca, Mg and S concentration in plants dry matter at 120 days after sowing.

  4. Unifying Subjectivity and Objectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Chandrasekaran

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of modern science to the progress of civilization is immeasurable. Even its tendency toward exclusive concentration on the objective world has had salutary effects of great value. Modern science has wiped away much that was merely superstitious or speculative. Its rejection of unfounded opinions and prejudices has helped the thinking mind question conventional beliefs, shed preferences and prejudices, and challenge established authority. But modern systems thinking inherited from natural science is the suppression of the subjective dimension of reality. Many complex systems are an attempt to define and represent all subjective experience in physical terms. The modern man has a bias towards objectivity. The powerful influence of sense impressions on his mind and thinking makes him ignore the subjective experience and consider only objective facts as a valid, legitimate and representation of reality. Observing objective factors that are physical is easier than observing subjective factors that are subtle. The mechanistic view of reality has led to the rejection of the role of the individual in social development as insignificant. The individuals determine the development of society. Their social power has its roots both in subjective factors and objective factors. Economy, politics, society, and culture are inseparable dimensions of a single integrated reality. Subject and object constitute an integrated whole. The mind sees them as separate and independent. Or it views one as completely subordinate to the other. Unbiased approach to the study of all human experiences may prove that subject and object are interdependent dimensions or elements of reality.

  5. Cleaning up dark matter

    CERN Multimedia

    Bignami, Giovanni Fabrizio

    2006-01-01

    "An experiment in Italy has found tantalizing but puzzling evidence for axions, one if the leading candidates for dark matter. The authors explain how a pair of spinning neutron stars should settle the issue once and for all." (3 pages)

  6. Boiling Primordial Matter: 1968

    CERN Document Server

    Hagedorn, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    This introductory article presents in popular language how the view of the early Universe was evolving through 1968 under the influence of than new and recent insights about the thermodynamic properties of strongly interacting matter (by JR, editor).

  7. Dark matter warms up

    CERN Multimedia

    Peplow, Mark

    2006-01-01

    "Unseen mass looks to be more "tepid" than thought. Astronomers have measured the temperature of dark matter for the first time. The discovery should help particle hunters to identify exactly what this mysterious substance is made of" (1 page)

  8. Matter Tracking Information System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Matter Tracking Information System (MTIS) principle function is to streamline and integrate the workload and work activity generated or addressed by our 300 plus...

  9. Inflatable Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Hooper, Dan; McDermott, Samuel D

    2016-01-22

    We describe a general scenario, dubbed "inflatable dark matter," in which the density of dark matter particles can be reduced through a short period of late-time inflation in the early Universe. The overproduction of dark matter that is predicted within many, otherwise, well-motivated models of new physics can be elegantly remedied within this context. Thermal relics that would, otherwise, be disfavored can easily be accommodated within this class of scenarios, including dark matter candidates that are very heavy or very light. Furthermore, the nonthermal abundance of grand unified theory or Planck scale axions can be brought to acceptable levels without invoking anthropic tuning of initial conditions. A period of late-time inflation could have occurred over a wide range of scales from ∼MeV to the weak scale or above, and could have been triggered by physics within a hidden sector, with small but not necessarily negligible couplings to the standard model.

  10. Little composite dark matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkin, Reuven; Perez, Gilad; Weiler, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    We examine the dark matter phenomenology of a composite electroweak singlet state. This singlet belongs to the Goldstone sector of a well-motivated extension of the Littlest Higgs with T -parity. A viable parameter space, consistent with the observed dark matter relic abundance as well as with the various collider, electroweak precision and dark matter direct detection experimental constraints is found for this scenario. T -parity implies a rich LHC phenomenology, which forms an interesting interplay between conventional natural SUSY type of signals involving third generation quarks and missing energy, from stop-like particle production and decay, and composite Higgs type of signals involving third generation quarks associated with Higgs and electroweak gauge boson, from vector-like top-partners production and decay. The composite features of the dark matter phenomenology allows the composite singlet to produce the correct relic abundance while interacting weakly with the Higgs via the usual Higgs portal coupling [Formula: see text], thus evading direct detection.

  11. Neutrino Propagation in Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattias Blennow

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the effects of neutrino propagation in the matter of the Earth relevant to experiments with atmospheric and accelerator neutrinos and aimed at the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy and CP violation. These include (i the resonance enhancement of neutrino oscillations in matter with constant or nearly constant density, (ii adiabatic conversion in matter with slowly changing density, (iii parametric enhancement of oscillations in a multilayer medium, and (iv oscillations in thin layers of matter. We present the results of semianalytic descriptions of flavor transitions for the cases of small density perturbations, in the limit of large densities and for small density widths. Neutrino oscillograms of the Earth and their structure after determination of the 1–3 mixing are described. A possibility to identify the neutrino mass hierarchy with the atmospheric neutrinos and multimegaton scale detectors having low energy thresholds is explored. The potential of future accelerator experiments to establish the hierarchy is outlined.

  12. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  13. Yes, research matters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari L Shinohara

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available My father was diagnosed with stomach cancer recently. Luckily, it was still at an early stage, and endoscopic surgery successfully took care of it. My father was fortunate; since people with stomach cancer do not show clear symptoms in the early stages, the disease is often not diagnosed until it becomes advanced. In his case, the diagnosis started from a suggestion by his doctor to check whether he had a gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori, a bacterial species found in the digestive tract. In Japan, where he lives, a majority of gastric cancer patients (more than 99% have been infected with H. pylori [1], and the causative role of this bacterial species in promoting gastric cancer is very well established. Now, scientific understanding connecting gastric cancer to H. pylori is saving the lives of many people, including my father. Thinking about this recent personal experience, I wonder if the connection between bacteria and cancer might have been considered a crazy idea decades ago. Research makes it possible to connect seemingly unrelated matters. My laboratory works on seemingly unrelated research topics, such as fungal infections and autoimmunity. However, my question is the same whatever the topic: How do leukocytes elicit and regulate inflammation when they detect infections or endogenous signals? In fact, host receptors detecting pathogens can induce autoimmunity, and autoimmunity alters host sensitivity to pathogens due to the imbalance in the immune system. We are beginning to gain some insight into this question, as revealed by some of our recent studies. For example, the NLR family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3 inflammasome, which is known to sense a wide variety of pathogens, can also change the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS. In particular, our study suggested that disease treatment approaches need to be changed based on the activation status of the NLRP

  14. Yes, research matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Mari L

    2017-08-01

    My father was diagnosed with stomach cancer recently. Luckily, it was still at an early stage, and endoscopic surgery successfully took care of it. My father was fortunate; since people with stomach cancer do not show clear symptoms in the early stages, the disease is often not diagnosed until it becomes advanced. In his case, the diagnosis started from a suggestion by his doctor to check whether he had a gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori, a bacterial species found in the digestive tract. In Japan, where he lives, a majority of gastric cancer patients (more than 99%) have been infected with H. pylori [1], and the causative role of this bacterial species in promoting gastric cancer is very well established. Now, scientific understanding connecting gastric cancer to H. pylori is saving the lives of many people, including my father. Thinking about this recent personal experience, I wonder if the connection between bacteria and cancer might have been considered a crazy idea decades ago. Research makes it possible to connect seemingly unrelated matters. My laboratory works on seemingly unrelated research topics, such as fungal infections and autoimmunity. However, my question is the same whatever the topic: How do leukocytes elicit and regulate inflammation when they detect infections or endogenous signals? In fact, host receptors detecting pathogens can induce autoimmunity, and autoimmunity alters host sensitivity to pathogens due to the imbalance in the immune system. We are beginning to gain some insight into this question, as revealed by some of our recent studies. For example, the NLR family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, which is known to sense a wide variety of pathogens, can also change the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). In particular, our study suggested that disease treatment approaches need to be changed based on the activation status of the NLRP3 inflammasome

  15. Accident resistant transport container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.A.; Cole, K.K.

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  16. White matter changes and diabetes predict cognitive decline in the elderly: the LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdelho, A; Madureira, S; Moleiro, C

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to study if age-related white matter changes (WMC) and vascular risk factors were predictors of cognitive decline in elderly subjects with WMC living independently.......We aimed to study if age-related white matter changes (WMC) and vascular risk factors were predictors of cognitive decline in elderly subjects with WMC living independently....

  17. Dynamics of Soft Matter

    CERN Document Server

    García Sakai, Victoria; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    Dynamics of Soft Matter: Neutron Applications provides an overview of neutron scattering techniques that measure temporal and spatial correlations simultaneously, at the microscopic and/or mesoscopic scale. These techniques offer answers to new questions arising at the interface of physics, chemistry, and biology. Knowledge of the dynamics at these levels is crucial to understanding the soft matter field, which includes colloids, polymers, membranes, biological macromolecules, foams, emulsions towards biological & biomimetic systems, and phenomena involving wetting, friction, adhesion, or micr

  18. Dense cold matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavinskiy Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility to study cold nuclear matter with the density of neutron star core and even larger in the laboratory experiment is discussed. Special rare kinematical trigger for relativistic ion-ion collisions is proposed for such study. Expected properties of the matter in such unusual conditions and experimental program for its study is discussed. Possible experimental setup and R&D results for position sensitive neutron detector are presented.

  19. Matter-antimatter Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omnes, R.

    1973-01-01

    The possible existence of antimatter on a large scale in the universe is evaluated. As a starting point, an attempt was made to understand the origin of matter as being essentially analogous to the origin of backgound thermal radiation. Several theories and models are examined, with particular emphasis on nucleon-antinucleon interactions at intermediate energies. Data also cover annihilation interaction with the matter-antimatter boundary to produce the essential fluid motion known as coalesence.

  20. Does size really matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maj; Hyland, Philip; Karstoft, Karen-Inge

    2017-01-01

    words, does the size of PTSD really matter? Methods: The aim was investigated by examining differences in diagnostic rates between the two diagnostic systems and independently examining the model fit of the competing DSM-5 and ICD-11 models of PTSD across three trauma samples: university students (N...... diagnostic criteria only the ICD-11 model can reflect the configuration of symptoms satisfactorily. Thus, size does matter when assessing PTSD....

  1. Charming dark matter

    OpenAIRE

    Jubb, Thomas; Kirk, Matthew; Lenz, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    We have considered a model of Dark Minimal Flavour Violation (DMFV), in which a triplet of dark matter particles couple to right-handed up-type quarks via a heavy colour-charged scalar mediator. By studying a large spectrum of possible constraints, and assessing the entire parameter space using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), we can place strong restrictions on the allowed parameter space for dark matter models of this type.

  2. Matter-antimatter puzzle: LHCb improves resolution

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, Fermilab’s DØ experiment reported a one percent difference in the properties of matter and antimatter in decays of B mesons (that is, particles containing beauty quarks) to muons. Saturday, at the ICHEP Conference in Melbourne, the LHCb experiment at CERN presents new results, which do not confirm this anomaly and are consistent with the Standard Model predictions. The same experiment has also presented the first evidence of asymmetry arising in other decays of the same family of mesons. The image becomes clearer but the puzzle has not yet been solved.   Inside the LHCb detector. The matter-antimatter imbalance in the Universe is a very hot topic in physics. The conundrum arises from the fact that, although objects made of antimatter are not observed in the Universe, theory predicts that matter and antimatter be created equally in particle interactions and in the Big Bang. Only small deviations from this very symmetric behaviour are incorporated in the theory. E...

  3. Cold Positrons from Decaying Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boubekeur, Lotfi [Universitate de Valencia (Spain); Dodelson, Scott [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Vives, Oscar [Universitate de Valencia (Spain)

    2012-11-01

    Many models of dark matter contain more than one new particle beyond those in the Standard Model. Often heavier particles decay into the lightest dark matter particle as the Universe evolves. Here we explore the possibilities that arise if one of the products in a (Heavy Particle) $\\rightarrow$ (Dark Matter) decay is a positron, and the lifetime is shorter than the age of the Universe. The positrons cool down by scattering off the cosmic microwave background and eventually annihilate when they fall into Galactic potential wells. The resulting 511 keV flux not only places constraints on this class of models but might even be consistent with that observed by the INTEGRAL satellite.

  4. Experimental Implications of Mirror Matter-Type Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, Robert

    Mirror matter-type dark matter is one dark matter candidate which is particularly well motivated from high energy physics. The theoretical motivation and experimental evidence are pedagogically reviewed, with emphasis on the implications of recent orthopositronium experiments, the DAMA/NaI dark matter search, anomalous meteorite events etc.

  5. Cold Quark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kurkela, Aleksi; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2010-01-01

    We perform an O(alpha_s^2) perturbative calculation of the equation of state of cold but dense QCD matter with two massless and one massive quark flavor, finding that perturbation theory converges reasonably well for quark chemical potentials above 1 GeV. Using a running coupling constant and strange quark mass, and allowing for further non-perturbative effects, our results point to a narrow range where absolutely stable strange quark matter may exist. Absent stable strange quark matter, our findings suggest that quark matter in compact star cores becomes confined to hadrons only slightly above the density of atomic nuclei. Finally, we show that equations of state including quark matter lead to hybrid star masses up to M~2M_solar, in agreement with current observations. For strange stars, we find maximal masses of M~2.75M_solar and conclude that confirmed observations of compact stars with M>2M_solar would strongly favor the existence of stable strange quark matter.

  6. The Specific Heat of Matter at Low Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Tari, A

    2003-01-01

    Recent discoveries of new materials and improvements in calorimetric techniques have given new impetus to the subject of specific heat. Nevertheless, there is a serious lack of literature on the subject. This invaluable book, which goes some way towards remedying that, is concerned mainly with the specific heat of matter at ordinary temperatures. It discusses the principles that underlie the theory of specific heat and considers a number of theoretical models in some detail. The subject matter ranges from traditional materials to those recently discovered - heavy fermion compounds, high temper

  7. Generic Fortran Containers (GFC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    The Fortran language does not provide a standard library that implements generic containers, like linked lists, trees, dictionaries, etc. The GFC software provides an implementation of generic Fortran containers natively written in Fortran 2003/2008 language. The following containers are either already implemented or planned: Stack (done), Linked list (done), Tree (done), Dictionary (done), Queue (planned), Priority queue (planned).

  8. Containers [Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara Luna; Thomas D. Landis; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2009-01-01

    The choice of container is one of the most important considerations in developing a new nursery or growing a new species. Not only does the container control the amount of water and mineral nutrients that are available for plant growth, a container's type and dimensions also affect many operational aspects of the nursery such as bench size and type of filling and...

  9. Partiality and Container Monads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uustalu, Tarmo; Veltri, Niccolò

    2017-01-01

    the relationship between containers and lifting monads. We show that the lifting monads usually employed in type theory can be specified in terms of containers. Moreover, we give a precise characterization of containers whose interpretations carry a lifting monad structure. We show that these conditions...

  10. Increased white matter metabolic rates in autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitelman, Serge A; Buchsbaum, Monte S; Young, Derek S; Haznedar, M Mehmet; Hollander, Eric; Shihabuddin, Lina; Hazlett, Erin A; Bralet, Marie-Cecile

    2017-11-22

    Both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia are often characterized as disorders of white matter integrity. Multimodal investigations have reported elevated metabolic rates, cerebral perfusion and basal activity in various white matter regions in schizophrenia, but none of these functions has previously been studied in ASD. We used 18fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography to compare white matter metabolic rates in subjects with ASD (n = 25) to those with schizophrenia (n = 41) and healthy controls (n = 55) across a wide range of stereotaxically placed regions-of-interest. Both subjects with ASD and schizophrenia showed increased metabolic rates across the white matter regions assessed, including internal capsule, corpus callosum, and white matter in the frontal and temporal lobes. These increases were more pronounced, more widespread and more asymmetrical in subjects with ASD than in those with schizophrenia. The highest metabolic increases in both disorders were seen in the prefrontal white matter and anterior limb of the internal capsule. Compared to normal controls, differences in gray matter metabolism were less prominent and differences in adjacent white matter metabolism were more prominent in subjects with ASD than in those with schizophrenia. Autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia are associated with heightened metabolic activity throughout the white matter. Unlike in the gray matter, the vector of white matter metabolic abnormalities appears to be similar in ASD and schizophrenia, may reflect inefficient functional connectivity with compensatory hypermetabolism, and may be a common feature of neurodevelopmental disorders.

  11. The Data Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article considers whether it is fortunate that data protection rules, as a starting point, apply to all physical persons as data subjects, or whether it would be better to differentiate between kinds of persons on grounds of their ability to act as a data subject. In order to protect all...... persons, it is argued that a principle of care should be part of data protection law....

  12. The case for a directional dark matter detector and the status of current experimental efforts

    CERN Document Server

    Ahlen, S; Battat, J B R; Billard, J; Bozorgnia, N; Burgos, S; Caldwell, T; Carmona, J M; Cebrián, S; Colas, P; Dafni, T; Daw, E; Dujmic, D; Dushkin, A; Fedus, W; Ferrer, E; Finkbeiner, D; Fisher, P H; Forbes, J; Fusayasu, T; Galan, J; Gamble, T; Ghag, C; Giomataris, Yu; Gold, M; Gomez, H; Gómez, M E; Gondolo, P; Green, A; Grignon, C; Guillaudin, O; Hagemann, C; Hattori, K; Henderson, S; Higashi, N; Ida, C; Iguaz, F J; Inglis, A; Irastorza, I G; Iwaki, S; Kaboth, A; Kabuki, S; Kadyk, J; Kallivayalil, N; Kubo, H; Kurosawa, S; Kudryavtsev, V A; Lamy, T; Lanza, R; Lawson, T B; Lee, A; Lee, E R; Lin, T; Loomba, D; López, J; Luzón, G; Manobu, T; Martoff, J; Mayet, F; McCluskey, B; Miller, E; Miuchi, K; Monroe, J; Morgan, B; Muna, D; Murphy, A St J; Naka, T; Nakamura, K; Nakamura, M; Nakano, T; Nicklin, G G; Nishimura, H; Niwa, K; Paling, S M; Parker, J; Petkov, A; Pipe, M; Pushkin, K; Robinson, M; Rodríguez, A; Rodríguez-Quintero, J; Sahin, T; Sanderson, R; Sanghi, N; Santos, D; Sato, O; Sawano, T; Sciolla, G; Sekiya, H; Slatyer, T R; Snowden-Ifft, D P; Spooner, N J C; Sugiyama, A; Takada, A; Takahashi, M; Takeda, A; Tanimori, T; Taniue, K; Tomas, A; Tomita, H; Tsuchiya, K; Turk, J; Tziaferi, E; Ueno, K; Vahsen, S; Vanderspek, R; Vergados, J; Villar, J A; Wellenstein, H; Wolfe, I; Yamamoto, R K; Yegoryan, H

    2010-01-01

    We present the case for a dark matter detector with directional sensitivity. This document was developed at the 2009 CYGNUS workshop on directional dark matter detection, and contains contributions from theorists and experimental groups in the field. We describe the need for a dark matter detector with directional sensitivity; each directional dark matter experiment presents their project's status; and we close with a feasibility study for scaling up to a one ton directional detector, which would cost around $150M.

  13. Correlated electrons in quantum matter

    CERN Document Server

    Fulde, Peter

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of the effects of electronic correlations in quantum systems is one of the most challenging problems in physics, partly due to the relevance in modern high technology. Yet there exist hardly any books on the subject which try to give a comprehensive overview on the field covering insulators, semiconductors, as well as metals. The present book tries to fill that gap. It intends to provide graduate students and researchers a comprehensive survey of electron correlations, weak and strong, in insulators, semiconductors and metals. This topic is a central one in condensed matter and beyond that in theoretical physics. The reader will have a better understanding of the great progress which has been made in the field over the past few decades.

  14. Accelerated Gray and White Matter Deterioration With Age in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropley, Vanessa L; Klauser, Paul; Lenroot, Rhoshel K; Bruggemann, Jason; Sundram, Suresh; Bousman, Chad; Pereira, Avril; Di Biase, Maria A; Weickert, Thomas W; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon; Pantelis, Christos; Zalesky, Andrew

    2017-03-01

    Although brain changes in schizophrenia have been proposed to mirror those found with advancing age, the trajectory of gray matter and white matter changes during the disease course remains unclear. The authors sought to measure whether these changes in individuals with schizophrenia remain stable, are accelerated, or are diminished with age. Gray matter volume and fractional anisotropy were mapped in 326 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and in 197 healthy comparison subjects aged 20-65 years. Polynomial regression was used to model the influence of age on gray matter volume and fractional anisotropy at a whole-brain and voxel level. Between-group differences in gray matter volume and fractional anisotropy were regionally localized across the lifespan using permutation testing and cluster-based inference. Significant loss of gray matter volume was evident in schizophrenia, progressively worsening with age to a maximal loss of 8% in the seventh decade of life. The inferred rate of gray matter volume loss was significantly accelerated in schizophrenia up to middle age and plateaued thereafter. In contrast, significant reductions in fractional anisotropy emerged in schizophrenia only after age 35, and the rate of fractional anisotropy deterioration with age was constant and best modeled with a straight line. The slope of this line was 60% steeper in schizophrenia relative to comparison subjects, indicating a significantly faster rate of white matter deterioration with age. The rates of reduction of gray matter volume and fractional anisotropy were significantly faster in males than in females, but an interaction between sex and diagnosis was not evident. The findings suggest that schizophrenia is characterized by an initial, rapid rate of gray matter loss that slows in middle life, followed by the emergence of a deficit in white matter that progressively worsens with age at a constant rate.

  15. Quantification of the carbonaceous matter origin in submicron marine aerosol by 13C and 14C isotope analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ramonet

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Dual carbon isotope analysis of marine aerosol samples has been performed for the first time demonstrating a potential in organic matter apportionment between three principal sources: marine, terrestrial (non-fossil and fossil fuel due to unique isotopic signatures. The results presented here, utilising combinations of dual carbon isotope analysis, provides conclusive evidence of a dominant biogenic organic fraction to organic aerosol over biologically active oceans. In particular, the NE Atlantic, which is also subjected to notable anthropogenic influences via pollution transport processes, was found to contain 80 % organic aerosol matter of biogenic origin directly linked to plankton emissions. The remaining carbonaceous aerosol was of terrestrial origin. By contrast, for polluted air advected out from Europe into the NE Atlantic, the source apportionment is 30 % marine biogenic, 40 % fossil fuel, and 30 % continental non-fossil fuel. The dominant marine organic aerosol source in the atmosphere has significant implications for climate change feedback processes.

  16. [Opening medicine containers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glerup, E; Dengsø, H

    1990-07-09

    In connection with self-administration of medicine for patients with rheumatoid arthritis, patients with weak hands and elderly patients in general, the design of many medicine containers makes them awkward to handle for the patients. In this investigation 12 different medicine containers were tested. The 12 containers represent the antirheumatic medicine containers available on the market in Denmark in 1988. Sixty patients participated in the investigation. Thirty had rheumatoid arthritis and 30 had normal hand function. The age range was 40-85 years The patients had the choice between five possible answers concerning each container. In all patients, grip strength was measured. The patients with rheumatoid arthritis were classified in four functional classes, and pulpa-vola distance end thumb--5th MCP point distance were measured. The opening mechanisms of 29% of the antirheumatic medicine containers are unacceptable; these are plastic containers with a "push-off" top and suppository packs. 46%--(containers with screw cap or pressure dispensing) are considered acceptable. For 25% (tablet and capsule blister packs) the patients' estimate varied. It is important that medicine containers can be opened by the patients without difficulty, so that they do not present a hindrance to a correct intake of medicine or result in an unnecessary admission to hospital. The results of this investigation show that it is of continuous importance to encourage the production of medicine containers that comply with the requirements of the patients.

  17. Matter and Methods at Low Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Pobell, F

    2007-01-01

    Matter and Methods at Low Temperatures contains a wealth of information essential for successful experiments at low temperatures, which makes it suitable as a reference and textbook. The first chapters describe the low-temperature properties of liquid and solid matter, including liquid helium. The major part of the book is devoted to refrigeration techniques and the physics on which they rely, the definition of temperature, thermometry, and a variety of design and construction techniques. The lively style and practical basis of this text make it easy to read and particularly useful to anyone beginning research in low-temperature physics. Low-temperature scientists will find it of great value due to its extensive compilation of materials data and relevant new results on refrigeration, thermometry, and materials properties. Problems are included as well. Furthermore, this third edition also describes newly developed low-temperature experimentation techniques and new materials properties; it also contains many a...

  18. White matter abnormalities of microstructure and physiological noise in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hu; Newman, Sharlene D; Kent, Jerillyn S; Bolbecker, Amanda; Klaunig, Mallory J; O'Donnell, Brian F; Puce, Aina; Hetrick, William P

    2015-12-01

    White matter abnormalities in schizophrenia have been revealed by many imaging techniques and analysis methods. One of the findings by diffusion tensor imaging is a decrease in fractional anisotropy (FA), which is an indicator of white matter integrity. On the other hand, elevation of metabolic rate in white matter was observed from positron emission tomography (PET) studies. In this report, we aim to compare the two structural and functional effects on the same subjects. Our comparison is based on the hypothesis that signal fluctuation in white matter is associated with white matter functional activity. We examined the variance of the signal in resting state fMRI and found significant differences between individuals with schizophrenia and non-psychiatric controls specifically in white matter tissue. Controls showed higher temporal signal-to-noise ratios clustered in regions including temporal, frontal, and parietal lobes, cerebellum, corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and other major white matter tracts. These regions with higher temporal signal-to-noise ratio agree well with those showing higher metabolic activity reported by studies using PET. The results suggest that individuals with schizophrenia tend to have higher functional activity in white matter in certain brain regions relative to healthy controls. Despite some overlaps, the distinct regions for physiological noise are different from those for FA derived from diffusion tensor imaging, and therefore provide a unique angle to explore potential mechanisms to white matter abnormality.

  19. Asymmetric condensed dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre, Anthony; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto, E-mail: aguirre@scipp.ucsc.edu, E-mail: alberto.diez@fisica.ugto.mx [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA, 95064 (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We explore the viability of a boson dark matter candidate with an asymmetry between the number densities of particles and antiparticles. A simple thermal field theory analysis confirms that, under certain general conditions, this component would develop a Bose-Einstein condensate in the early universe that, for appropriate model parameters, could survive the ensuing cosmological evolution until now. The condensation of a dark matter component in equilibrium with the thermal plasma is a relativistic process, hence the amount of matter dictated by the charge asymmetry is complemented by a hot relic density frozen out at the time of decoupling. Contrary to the case of ordinary WIMPs, dark matter particles in a condensate must be lighter than a few tens of eV so that the density from thermal relics is not too large. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis constrains the temperature of decoupling to the scale of the QCD phase transition or above. This requires large dark matter-to-photon ratios and very weak interactions with standard model particles.

  20. Condensed Matter Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altland, Alexander; Simons, Ben

    2006-06-01

    Over the past few decades, in concert with ground-breaking experimental advances, condensed matter theory has drawn increasingly from the language of low-energy quantum field theory. This primer is aimed at elevating graduate students of condensed matter theory to a level where they can engage in independent research. It emphasizes the development of modern methods of classical and quantum field theory with applications oriented around condensed matter physics. Topics covered include second quantization, path and functional field integration, mean-field theory and collective phenomena, the renormalization group, and topology. Conceptual aspects and formal methodology are emphasized, but the discussion is rooted firmly in practical experimental application. As well as routine exercises, the text includes extended and challenging problems, with fully worked solutions, designed to provide a bridge between formal manipulations and research-oriented thinking. This book will complement graduate level courses on theoretical quantum condensed matter physics. Spans the field of modern condensed matter theory focusing on field theory techniques Written to facilitate learning, with numerous challenging exercises, with fully worked solutions, aimed at physicists starting graduate-level courses The theoretical methods are firmly set in concrete experimental applications

  1. Entropy, matter, and cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigogine, I; Géhéniau, J

    1986-09-01

    The role of irreversible processes corresponding to creation of matter in general relativity is investigated. The use of Landau-Lifshitz pseudotensors together with conformal (Minkowski) coordinates suggests that this creation took place in the early universe at the stage of the variation of the conformal factor. The entropy production in this creation process is calculated. It is shown that these dissipative processes lead to the possibility of cosmological models that start from empty conditions and gradually build up matter and entropy. Gravitational entropy takes a simple meaning as associated to the entropy that is necessary to produce matter. This leads to an extension of the third law of thermodynamics, as now the zero point of entropy becomes the space-time structure out of which matter is generated. The theory can be put into a convenient form using a supplementary "C" field in Einstein's field equations. The role of the C field is to express the coupling between gravitation and matter leading to irreversible entropy production.

  2. Science of the subjective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, R G; Dunne, B J

    2007-01-01

    Over the greater portion of its long scholarly history, the particular form of human observation, reasoning, and technical deployment we properly term "science" has relied at least as much on subjective experience and inspiration as it has on objective experiments and theories. Only over the past few centuries has subjectivity been progressively excluded from the practice of science, leaving an essentially secular analytical paradigm. Quite recently, however, a compounding constellation of newly inexplicable physical evidence, coupled with a growing scholarly interest in the nature and capability of human consciousness, are beginning to suggest that this sterilization of science may have been excessive and could ultimately limit its epistemological reach and cultural relevance. In particular, an array of demonstrable consciousness-related anomalous physical phenomena, a persistent pattern of biological and medical anomalies, systematic studies of mind/brain relationships and the mechanics of human creativity, and a burgeoning catalogue of human factors effects within contemporary information processing technologies, all display empirical correlations with subjective aspects that greatly complicate, and in many cases preclude, their comprehension on strictly objective grounds. However, any disciplined re-admission of subjective elements into rigorous scientific methodology will hinge on the precision with which they can be defined, measured, and represented, and on the resilience of established scientific techniques to their inclusion. For example, any neo-subjective science, while retaining the logical rigor, empirical/theoretical dialogue, and cultural purpose of its rigidly objective predecessor, would have the following requirements: acknowledgment of a proactive role for human consciousness; more explicit and profound use of interdisciplinary metaphors; more generous interpretations of measurability, replicability, and resonance; a reduction of ontological

  3. Pituitary tumors containing cholecystokinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, J F; Lindholm, J; Andersen, B N

    1987-01-01

    We found small amounts of cholecystokinin in the normal human adenohypophysis and therefore examined pituitary tumors from 87 patients with acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome, prolactinoma, or inactive pituitary adenomas. Five adenomas associated with Nelson's syndrome contained......'s disease and 7 acromegaly with adenomas containing ACTH. The cholecystokinin peptides from the tumors were smaller and less sulfated than cholecystokinin from normal pituitary glands. We conclude that ACTH-producing pituitary cells may also produce an altered form of cholecystokinin....

  4. CONTAIN independent peer review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyack, B.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Corradini, M.L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Nuclear Engineering Dept.; Denning, R.S. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Khatib-Rahbar, M. [Energy Research Inc., Rockville, MD (United States); Loyalka, S.K. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Smith, P.N. [AEA Technology, Dorchester (United Kingdom). Winfrith Technology Center

    1995-01-01

    The CONTAIN code was developed by Sandia National Laboratories under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide integrated analyses of containment phenomena. It is used to predict nuclear reactor containment loads, radiological source terms, and associated physical phenomena for a range of accident conditions encompassing both design-basis and severe accidents. The code`s targeted applications include support for containment-related experimental programs, light water and advanced light water reactor plant analysis, and analytical support for resolution of specific technical issues such as direct containment heating. The NRC decided that a broad technical review of the code should be performed by technical experts to determine its overall technical adequacy. For this purpose, a six-member CONTAIN Peer Review Committee was organized and a peer review as conducted. While the review was in progress, the NRC issued a draft ``Revised Severe Accident Code Strategy`` that incorporated revised design objectives and targeted applications for the CONTAIN code. The committee continued its effort to develop findings relative to the original NRC statement of design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications. However, the revised CONTAIN design objectives and targeted applications were considered by the Committee in assigning priorities to the Committee`s recommendations. The Committee determined some improvements are warranted and provided recommendations in five code-related areas: (1) documentation, (2) user guidance, (3) modeling capability, (4) code assessment, and (5) technical assessment.

  5. WISPy cold dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, Paola [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Facultad de Fisica; Cadamuro, Davide; Redondo, Javier [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Goodsell, Mark [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Jaeckel, Joerg [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Very weakly interacting slim particles (WISPs), such as axion-like particles (ALPs) or hidden photons (HPs), may be non-thermally produced via the misalignment mechanism in the early universe and survive as a cold dark matter population until today. We find that, both for ALPs and HPs whose dominant interactions with the standard model arise from couplings to photons, a huge region in the parameter spaces spanned by photon coupling and ALP or HP mass can give rise to the observed cold dark matter. Remarkably, a large region of this parameter space coincides with that predicted in well motivated models of fundamental physics. A wide range of experimental searches - exploiting haloscopes (direct dark matter searches exploiting microwave cavities), helioscopes (searches for solar ALPs or HPs), or light-shining-through-a-wall techniques - can probe large parts of this parameter space in the foreseeable future. (orig.)

  6. Dark matter from unification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kainulainen, Kimmo; Tuominen, Kimmo; Virkajärvi, Jussi Tuomas

    2013-01-01

    We consider a minimal extension of the Standard Model (SM), which leads to unification of the SM coupling constants, breaks electroweak symmetry dynamically by a new strongly coupled sector and leads to novel dark matter candidates. In this model, the coupling constant unification requires...... eigenstates of this sector and determine the resulting relic density. The results are constrained by available data from colliders and direct and indirect dark matter experiments. We find the model viable and outline briefly future research directions....... the existence of electroweak triplet and doublet fermions singlet under QCD and new strong dynamics underlying the Higgs sector. Among these new matter fields and a new right handed neutrino, we consider the mass and mixing patterns of the neutral states. We argue for a symmetry stabilizing the lightest mass...

  7. Baryonic dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Rebolo, R

    2002-01-01

    Recent determinations of baryonic density using the angular power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background are very close to the classical estimate from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. This reinforces the case for dark baryons in the Universe and for a large component of exotic cold dark matter. Present-day baryons can be hidden in substellar objects, stellar remnants, cold gas clouds, hot diffuse ionized gas in various astrophysical environments. Direct detection searches and microlensing experiments provide estimates of the Galactic mass budget in massive compact objects concluding that the bulk of the dark matter in the halo of the Galaxy cannot be associated to MACHOs. Baryons in high redshift Lyman-alpha systems can account for the cosmic baryonic density. However, the dominant form of present-day baryons and, in particular, the nature of the halo dark matter remains a mystery.

  8. Light, Matter, and Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    Interaction of light and matter produces the appearance of materials. To deal with the immense complexity of nature, light and matter is modelled at a macroscopic level in computer graphics. This work is the first to provide the link between the microscopic physical theories of light and matter...... and the macroscopic process of rendering realistic images. This enables prediction of appearance based on the contents and the physical conditions of a material. The idea is to take the contents declaration for a material and use it to predict what the material looks like. Or conversely, to take a picture...... of a material and determine the contents of the material. The book is in four parts. Part I provides the link between microscopic and macroscopic theories of light. Part II describes how to use the properties of microscopic particles to compute the macroscopic properties of materials. Part III illustrates...

  9. WISPy Cold Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Arias, Paola; Goodsell, Mark; Jaeckel, Joerg; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Very weakly interacting slim particles (WISPs), such as axion-like particles (ALPs) or hidden photons (HPs), may be non-thermally produced via the misalignment mechanism in the early universe and survive as a cold dark matter population until today. We find that, both for ALPs and HPs whose dominant interactions with the standard model arise from couplings to photons, a huge region in the parameter spaces spanned by photon coupling and ALP or HP mass can give rise to the observed cold dark matter. Remarkably, a large region of this parameter space coincides with that predicted in well motivated models of fundamental physics. A wide range of experimental searches -- exploiting haloscopes (direct dark matter searches exploiting microwave cavities), helioscopes (searches for solar ALPs or HPs), or light-shining-through-a-wall techniques -- can probe large parts of this parameter space in the foreseeable future.

  10. Matter and memory

    CERN Document Server

    Bergson, Henri

    1991-01-01

    Since the end of the last century," Walter Benjamin wrote, "philosophy has made a series of attempts to lay hold of the 'true' experience as opposed to the kind that manifests itself in the standardized, denatured life of the civilized masses. It is customary to classify these efforts under the heading of a philosophy of life. Towering above this literature is Henri Bergson's early monumental work, Matter and Memory."Along with Husserl's Ideas and Heidegger's Being and Time, Bergson's work represents one of the great twentieth-century investigations into perception and memory, movement and time, matter and mind. Arguably Bergson's most significant book, Matter and Memory is essential to an understanding of his philosophy and its legacy.This new edition includes an annotated bibliography prepared by Bruno Paradis.Henri Bergson (1859-1941) was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1927. His works include Time and Free Will, An Introduction to Metaphysics, Creative Evolution, and The Creative Mind.

  11. Natural minimal dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbrichesi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    We show how the Higgs boson mass is protected from the potentially large corrections due to the introduction of minimal dark matter if the new physics sector is made supersymmetric. The fermionic dark matter candidate (a 5-plet of $SU(2)_L$) is accompanied by a scalar state. The weak gauge sector is made supersymmetric and the Higgs boson is embedded in a supersymmetric multiplet. The remaining standard model states are non-supersymmetric. Non vanishing corrections to the Higgs boson mass only appear at three-loop level and the model is natural for dark matter masses up to 15 TeV--a value larger than the one required by the cosmological relic density. The construction presented stands as an example of a general approach to naturalness that solves the little hierarchy problem which arises when new physics is added beyond the standard model at an energy scale around 10 TeV.

  12. Dark matter searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, Alessandro

    These lectures begin with a brief survey of the astrophysical and cosmological evidence for dark matter. We then consider the three principal theoretically motivated types of dark matter, sterile neutrinos, axions and SUSY WIMPs. In chapter 4 we discuss the motivations for the so-called neutrino minimal standard model, nuMSM, an extension of the SM with three sterile neutrinos with masses similar to the charged fermions. In chapter 5 we briefly recall the strong CP problem of the SM and the solution proposed by Peccei and Quinn leading to the prediction of axions and of their characteristics. We then discuss the experimental status and perspectives. In chapter 6 we assume that the reader to be acquainted with the theoretical motivations for SUSY and move directly to the direct search for dark matter and the description of the principal detector techniques: scintillators, noble fluids and bolometers. We conclude with an outlook on the future perspectives.

  13. Radiative light dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedes, A.; Karamitros, D.; Pilaftsis, A.

    2017-06-01

    We present a Peccei-Quinn (PQ)-symmetric two-Higgs doublet model that naturally predicts a fermionic singlet dark matter in the mass range 10 keV-1 GeV. The origin of the smallness of the mass of this light singlet fermion arises predominantly at the one-loop level, upon soft or spontaneous breakdown of the PQ symmetry via a complex scalar field in a fashion similar to the so-called Dine-Fischler-Sredniki-Zhitnitsky axion model. The mass generation of this fermionic radiative light dark matter (RLDM) requires the existence of two heavy vectorlike SU(2) isodoublets, which are not charged under the PQ symmetry. We show how the RLDM can be produced via the freeze-in mechanism, thus accounting for the missing matter in the Universe. Finally, we briefly discuss possible theoretical and phenomenological implications of the RLDM model for the strong C P problem and the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

  14. Effects of subclinical depression, anxiety and somatization on brain structure in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besteher, Bianca; Gaser, Christian; Langbein, Kerstin; Dietzek, Maren; Sauer, Heinrich; Nenadić, Igor

    2017-06-01

    Dimensional approaches in highly prevalent psychiatric disorders like depression or anxiety could lead to a better understanding of pathogenesis and advantages in early detection and prevention. In an effort to better understand associations of brain structural variation across the depression/anxiety spectra, we investigated minor subclinical symptoms in a non-clinical healthy population. We studied 177 healthy subjects from the community, who underwent high-resolution T1-weighted 3T MRI and completed the symptom-checklist-90 (SCL-90-R). Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis with CAT12 software, we correlated SCL-90-R-subscales for depression, anxiety, and somatization with gray matter across the brain. Significant positive gray matter correlations emerged across all three scales in different areas: the depression subscale correlated positively with gray matter in the Rolandic operculum, superior temporal gyrus (left) and postcentral gyrus (bilateral), the anxiety subscale correlated positively with middle temporal gyrus, Rolandic operculum, middle cingular gyrus and precuneus bilaterally, and the somatization subscale with left inferior prefrontal cortex. Somatization also showed negative correlations with cerebellar vermis and right supplementary motor area. Our study is limited to VBM and does not include surface-based measures. It also only contains subjects with very small psychological distress by partly overlapping symptoms. Our findings are consistent with a non-linear relationship between symptom severity and cortical volume in several brain areas involved in both emotion regulation as well as altered in clinically manifest depressive/anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Automated measurement of local white matter lesion volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Lijn, Fedde; Verhaaren, Benjamin F. J.; Ikram, M. Arfan

    2012-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that white matter lesions at different locations may have different etiology and clinical consequences. Several approaches for the quantification of local white matter lesion load have been proposed in the literature, most of which rely on a distinction between lesions...... in a periventricular region close to the ventricles and a subcortical zone further away. In this work we present a novel automated method for local white matter lesion volume quantification in magnetic resonance images. The method segments and measures the white matter lesion volume in 43 regions defined...... by orientation and distance to the ventricles, which allows a more spatially detailed study of lesion load. The potential of the method was demonstrated by analyzing the effect of blood pressure on the regional white matter lesion volume in 490 elderly subjects taken from a longitudinal population study...

  16. Paying Hypertension Research Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarett, David; Karlawish, Jason; Asch, David A

    2002-01-01

    CONTEXT Cash payments are often used to compensate subjects who participate in research. However, ethicists have argued that these payments might constitute an undue inducement. OBJECTIVES To determine whether potential subjects agree with theoretical arguments that a payment could be an undue inducement. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS Survey of 350 prospective jurors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Belief that a $500 payment for research participation would impair their own, and others' ability to think carefully about the risks and benefits of a clinical trial. RESULTS Two hundred sixty-one jurors (74.6%) believed that a $500 payment would impair subjects' ability to think carefully about the risks and benefits of research. Ninety-six of 120 (80%) expressed this concern about subjects with a low income ($50,000). In contrast, only 69 (19.7%) of jurors believed that a $500 payment would influence them. Jurors who believed that this payment would influence them reported lower incomes and less education. CONCLUSION Members of the general public share ethical concerns about the influence of payments for research, although they believe that these concerns are more applicable to others than to themselves.

  17. Subjects, Models, Languages, Transformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Bézivin, J.; Heckel, R.

    2005-01-01

    Discussions about model-driven approaches tend to be hampered by terminological confusion. This is at least partially caused by a lack of formal precision in defining the basic concepts, including that of "model" and "thing being modelled" - which we call subject in this paper. We propose a minimal

  18. Subjective Duration and Psychophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, Hannes

    1975-01-01

    Three models are proposed to describe the strategy applied by a subject when he is confronted with two successive time intervals and is required to deal with some relation between them, for example, by telling which was the longer by adjusting the second to match the first. (Author)

  19. Barron's SAT subject test

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, MA, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Includes one diagnostic test and three complete tests, all questions answered and explained, self-assessment guides, and subject reviews. Also features test strategies, QR codes to short instructional videos, and a detailed appendix with equations, physical constants, and a basic math review.

  20. Vector SIMP dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo-Min; Hochberg, Yonit; Kuflik, Eric; Lee, Hyun Min; Mambrini, Yann; Murayama, Hitoshi; Pierre, Mathias

    2017-10-01

    Strongly Interacting Massive Particles (SIMPs) have recently been proposed as light thermal dark matter relics. Here we consider an explicit realization of the SIMP mechanism in the form of vector SIMPs arising from an SU(2) X hidden gauge theory, where the accidental custodial symmetry protects the stability of the dark matter. We propose several ways of equilibrating the dark and visible sectors in this setup. In particular, we show that a light dark Higgs portal can maintain thermal equilibrium between the two sectors, as can a massive dark vector portal with its generalized Chern-Simons couplings to the vector SIMPs, all while remaining consistent with experimental constraints.

  1. Metabolite changes in normal-appearing gray and white matter are linked with disability in early primary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre-Garriga, J; Ingle, G T; Chard, D T; Ramió-Torrentà, Lí; McLean, M A; Miller, D H; Thompson, A J

    2005-04-01

    Abnormalities in normal-appearing brain tissues may contribute to disability in primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS), where few lesions are seen on conventional imaging. To evaluate the mechanisms underlying disease progression in the early phase of PPMS by measuring metabolite concentrations in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and cortical gray matter (CGM) and to assess their relationship with clinical outcomes. Case-control study. Tertiary referral hospital. Patients Forty-three consecutive patients within 5 years of onset of PPMS and 44 healthy control subjects. Concentrations of choline-containing compounds, phosphocreatine, myo-inositol, total N-acetyl-aspartate (tNAA), and glutamate-glutamine were estimated using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. Brain parenchymal, white matter and gray matter fractions and proton density and gadolinium-enhancing lesion loads were calculated. The Expanded Disability Status Scale and Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite scores were recorded. In CGM, concentrations of the tNAA (Pchanges, which differ in CGM and NAWM, occur in early PPMS and are linked with disability.

  2. CONTAINER TERMINALS IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart W. WIEGMANS

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to address the linkage between logistics (in particular, the management of marketing channel flows and transport markets, while also the interaction between these two markets and intermodal container terminals is analysed. The marketing channel theory is used to describe all relevant actors and flows that run through marketing channels, starting with customer needs and ending with customer satisfaction. Porter's theory of competitive advantages is used to review competitive forces in both markets. Finally, a competitor analysis is performed for the logistics and transport market. These theories are applied so as to be able to determine the competitive position of intermodal container terminals with a view to the management of marketing channel flows and the physical transport of freight flows. Hence, the central question of this paper is: Which markets are served by intermodal container terminals and with whom are they competing? At present, neither the maritime container terminals nor the continental container terminals appear to have a significant influence in the logistics service market; they concentrate mainly on the physical movement of containers (transshipment. Furthermore, maritime container terminals and continental container terminals are not dominant players in the transport service market. Our conclusion is that continental terminals are predominantly competing with unimodal road transport, with neighbouring continental terminals and with barge transport companies.

  3. CONTAINER FOR USED TEXTILES

    CERN Document Server

    Relation with the Host States

    2001-01-01

    We should like to remind you that a special container for textiles for the Association 'Réalise/Rapid Service' of Geneva is located in the car park outside the Meyrin site. The Association has informed us that 3 306 kg of textiles were deposited in the container in 2000 and wishes to convey its warm gratitude to all donors.

  4. The Container Stowage Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janstrup, Kira; Rose, Trine Høyer; Andersen, Kent Høj

    The main purpose of this project is to use integer programming to create a model that minimizes the costs for container transportation by ship. To make the model as realistic as possible it will be based on information from a large shipping company about the vessel layout and container types. In ...

  5. Containers [Chapter 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; Tara Luna; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2014-01-01

    A nursery container could be anything that holds growing media, drains, allows for healthy root development, does not disintegrate before outplanting, and allows for an intact, healthy root system to be removed with a minimum of disturbance to the plant. Understanding how container properties affect plant health and growth, as well as nursery operations, will help...

  6. Containment vessel drain system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Scott G.

    2018-01-30

    A system for draining a containment vessel may include a drain inlet located in a lower portion of the containment vessel. The containment vessel may be at least partially filled with a liquid, and the drain inlet may be located below a surface of the liquid. The system may further comprise an inlet located in an upper portion of the containment vessel. The inlet may be configured to insert pressurized gas into the containment vessel to form a pressurized region above the surface of the liquid, and the pressurized region may operate to apply a surface pressure that forces the liquid into the drain inlet. Additionally, a fluid separation device may be operatively connected to the drain inlet. The fluid separation device may be configured to separate the liquid from the pressurized gas that enters the drain inlet after the surface of the liquid falls below the drain inlet.

  7. Gray Matter Concentration Abnormality in Brains of Narcolepsy Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Eun Yeon; Tae, Woo Suk; Kim, Sung Tae; Hong, Seung Bong [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    To investigate gray matter concentration changes in the brains of narcoleptic patients. Twenty-nine narcoleptic patient with cataplexy and 29 age and sex-matched normal subjects (mean age, 31 years old) underwent volumetric MRIs. The MRIs were spatially normalized to a standard T1 template and subdivided into gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). These segmented images were then smoothed using a 12-mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) isotropic Gaussian kernel. An optimized voxel-based morphometry protocol was used to analyze brain tissue concentrations using SPM2 (statistical parametric mapping). A one-way analysis of variance was applied to the concentration analysis of gray matter images. Narcoleptics with cataplexy showed reduced gray matter concentration in bilateral thalami, left gyrus rectus, bilateral frontopolar gyri, bilateral short insular gyri, bilateral superior frontal gyri, and right superior temporal and left inferior temporal gyri compared to normal subjects (uncorrected p < 0.001). Furthermore, small volume correction revealed gray matter concentration reduction in bilateral nuclei accumbens, hypothalami, and thalami (false discovery rate corrected p < 0.05). Gray matter concentration reductions were observed in brain regions related to excessive daytime sleepiness, cognition, attention, and memory in narcoleptics with cataplexy

  8. [Subjective cognition in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, S; Aubin, G; Stip, E

    2017-02-01

    Given the extent, magnitude and functional significance of the neurocognitive deficits of schizophrenia, growing attention has been paid recently to patients' self-awareness of their own deficits. Thus far, the literature has shown either that patients fail to recognize their cognitive deficits or that the association between subjective and objective cognition is weak in schizophrenia. The reasons for this lack of consistency remain unexplained but may have to do, among others, with the influence of potential confounding clinical variables and the choice of the scale used to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits. In the current study, we sought to examine the relationships between subjective and objective cognitive performance in schizophrenia, while controlling for the influence of sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Eighty-two patients with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (DSM-IV criteria) were recruited. Patients' subjective cognitive complaints were evaluated with the Subjective Scale to Investigate Cognition in Schizophrenia (SSTICS), the most frequently used scale to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Neurocognition was evaluated with working memory, planning and visual learning tasks taken from Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery. The Stroop Color-Word test was also administered. Psychiatric symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. The relationships between subjective and objective cognition were evaluated with multivariate hierarchic linear regression analyses, taking into consideration potential confounders such as sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Finally, a factor analysis of the SSTICS was performed. For the SSTICS total score, the regression analysis produced a model including two predictors, namely visual learning and Stoop interference performance, explaining a moderate portion of the variance

  9. Electrons in Condensed Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    entire liquid or solid. The variety of electronic behaviour which ... sity of electronic behaviour in condensed matter, ego ferro- ..... a big dog? We do not know the reasons yet. As it turns out for many fundamentally interesting phenomena, colossal magneto- resistance may also find applications, this time in magnetic recording.

  10. Electrons in Condensed Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 12. Electrons in Condensed Matter. T V Ramakrishnan. General Article Volume 2 Issue 12 December 1997 pp 17-32. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/12/0017-0032 ...

  11. Anti-matter factory

    CERN Document Server

    Michaut, C

    2003-01-01

    In 1928 Paul Dirac predicted the existence of anti-matter as a consequence of his theory. The first experimental fact that supported this idea was the discovery of the positron in 1932. Anti-protons were produced in 1955 at the Bevatron facility in Berkeley and anti-neutrons the following year. Since 1964 scientists know that matter and anti-matter differ not only from their electrical charge but also from their behaviour concerning weak interaction. In 2002 the CERN announced the production of more than 50.000 atoms of anti-hydrogen which was a breakthrough because the last attempt in 1995 ended with the creation of only 9 atoms of anti-hydrogen whose speed neared the velocity of light while the speed of the last ones created is 100.000 times smaller. The next step is to carry out experiments in order to measure the spectra of anti-hydrogen in a very accurate manner and to test the effect of gravity on anti-matter. (A.C.)

  12. Template Composite Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drach, Vincent; Hietanen, Ari; Pica, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    We present a non perturbative study of SU(2) gauge theory with two fundamental Dirac flavours. We discuss how the model can be used as a template for composite Dark Matter (DM). We estimate one particular interaction of the DM candidate with the Standard Model : the interaction through photon...

  13. The Dark Matter Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Robert H.

    1. Introduction; 2. Early history of the dark matter hypothesis; 3. The stability of disk galaxies: the dark halo solutions; 4. Direct evidence: extended rotation curves of spiral galaxies; 5. The maximum disk: light traces mass; 6. Cosmology and the birth of astroparticle physics; 7. Clusters

  14. Solitons in nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurilkin, N.N.; Mishustin, I.N.; Khodel' , V.A.

    1979-10-05

    The propagation of finite-amplitude waves in cold nuclear matter is investigated. It is shown that by taking into account the nonlinear terms in the equations for the Fermi-liquid theory, we obtain elongated wave-soliton-type solutions.

  15. A triangle that matters

    CERN Multimedia

    Gershon, Tim

    2007-01-01

    "Physicists at "B-factories" in the US and Japan are closing in on an abstract diagram called the unitarity triangle in the quest to explain the difference between matter and antimatter. But such measurements could also point the way to the discovery of new fundamental particles." (5 pages)

  16. The Birth of Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    To mark the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create "cosmic music". The fourth lecture in the series, entitled "The Birth of Matter", will take place on Tuesday 3 May 2005 and will be given by CERN's theoretical physicist, John Ellis. Where does matter come from? Where do the structures that surround us, such as galaxies, come from? Are we living in a world of invisible matter? Why is the universe so old and so big? John Ellis will show how elementary particle physics and, in particular, the LHC under construction at CERN, can answer these questions. The Birth of Matter Professor John Ellis Tuesday 3 May, starting 8.00 p.m. Main Audito...

  17. The Birth of Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    To mark the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create 'cosmic music'. The fourth lecture in the series, entitled 'The Birth of Matter', will take place on Tuesday 3 May 2005 and will be given by CERN's theoretical physicist, John Ellis. Where does matter come from? Where do the structures that surround us, such as galaxies, come from? Are we living in a world of invisible matter? Why is the universe so old and so big? John Ellis will show how elementary particle physics and, in particular, the LHC under construction at CERN, can answer these questions. The Birth of Matter Professor John Ellis Tuesday 3 May, starting 8.00 p.m. Main Auditorium...

  18. Education Matters, January 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckner, Gary, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Education Matters" is the monthly newsletter of the Association of American Educators (AAE), an organization dedicated to advancing the American teaching profession through personal growth, professional development, teacher advocacy and protection. This issue of the newsletter includes: (1) Agents of Change: Why So Many Teachers Are…

  19. White matter lesion progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofer, Edith; Cavalieri, Margherita; Bis, Joshua C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression on magnetic resonance imaging is related to cognitive decline and stroke, but its determinants besides baseline WML burden are largely unknown. Here, we estimated heritability of WML progression, and sought common genetic variants asso...

  20. Energy Matters - Spring 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-03-01

    Quarterly newsletter from DOE's Industrial Technologies Program to promote the use of energy-efficient industrial systems. The focus of the Spring 2002 Issue of Energy Matters focuses on premium energy efficiency systems, with articles on new gas technologies, steam efficiency, the Augusta Newsprint Showcase, and more.

  1. Education Matters, May 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckner, Gary, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Education Matters" is the monthly newsletter of the Association of American Educators (AAE), an organization dedicated to advancing the American teaching profession through personal growth, professional development, teacher advocacy and protection. This issue of the newsletter includes: (1) Balancing Act: Achieving a Harmony between…

  2. Education Matters, May 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckner, Gary, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Education Matters" is the monthly newsletter of the Association of American Educators (AAE), an organization dedicated to advancing the American teaching profession through personal growth, professional development, teacher advocacy and protection. This issue of the newsletter includes: (1) Who Me? Yes, You Can Use Technology to Individualize…

  3. Education Matters, May 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckner, Gary, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Education Matters" is the monthly newsletter of the Association of American Educators (AAE), an organization dedicated to advancing the American teaching profession through personal growth, professional development, teacher advocacy and protection. This issue of the newsletter includes: (1) Is She Your Competition? Are India's Students…

  4. Condensed-Matter Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jorge E.; Scalapino, Douglas J.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses ways computers are being used in condensed-matter physics by experimenters and theorists. Experimenters use them to control experiments and to gather and analyze data. Theorists use them for detailed predictions based on realistic models and for studies on systems not realizable in practice. (JN)

  5. Education Matters, April 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckner, Gary, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Education Matters" is the monthly newsletter of the Association of American Educators (AAE), an organization dedicated to advancing the American teaching profession through personal growth, professional development, teacher advocacy and protection. This issue of the newsletter includes: (1) Teaching as Leadership: 6 Traits of Highly…

  6. Exotic nuclear matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenske H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments of nuclear structure theory for exotic nuclei are addressed. The inclusion of hyperons and nucleon resonances is discussed. Nuclear multipole response functions, hyperon interactions in infinite matter and in neutron stars and theoretical aspects of excitations of nucleon resonances in nuclei are discussed.

  7. States of Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    if the matter being taught is correct or incorrect. And if it is correct, to what .... 2, in some units. This will be an unnatural and artificial definition. (Why this value?). Artificial and unnatural definitions are not useful, as there is a good chance somebody else will choose a ... you make an arbitrary definition, it is unlikely to be use-.

  8. Matter: the fundamental particles

    CERN Multimedia

    Landua, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    "The largest particle physics centre in the world is located in Europe. It straddles the Franco-Swiss border, near Geneva. At CERN - the European Organisation for Nuclear Research , which is focused on the science of nuclear matter rather than on the exploitation of atomic energy - there are over 6 500 scientists." (1 page)

  9. Condensed Matter Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Michael P.

    2000-01-01

    A modern, unified treatment of condensed matter physics This new work presents for the first time in decades a sweeping review of the whole field of condensed matter physics. It consolidates new and classic topics from disparate sources, teaching "not only about the effective masses of electrons in semiconductor crystals and band theory, but also about quasicrystals, dynamics of phase separation, why rubber is more floppy than steel, electron interference in nanometer-sized channels, and the quantum Hall effect." Six major areas are covered---atomic structure, electronic structure, mechanical properties, electron transport, optical properties, and magnetism. But rather than defining the field in terms of particular materials, the author focuses on the way condensed matter physicists approach physical problems, combining phenomenology and microscopic arguments with information from experiments. For graduate students and professionals, researchers and engineers, applied mathematicians and materials scientists, Condensed Matter Physics provides: * An exciting collection of new topics from the past two decades. * A thorough treatment of classic topics, including band theory, transport theory, and semiconductor physics. * Over 300 figures, incorporating many images from experiments. * Frequent comparison of theory and experiment, both when they agree and when problems are still unsolved. * More than 50 tables of data and a detailed index. * Ample end-of-chapter problems, including computational exercises. * Over 1000 references, both recent and historically significant.

  10. Hot nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Scott [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-11-01

    The goal in this thesis is thus twofold: The first is to investigate the feasibility of using heavy ion collisions to create conditions in the laboratory which are ripe for the formation of a quark-gluon plasma. The second is to develop a technique for studying some of the many non-perturbative features of this novel phase of matter.

  11. Resources: Money Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Dudley B., Jr.; Love, Patrick; Komives, Susan R.

    2000-01-01

    Fiscal concerns continue to challenge institutions of higher learning and will affect the financing of student services initiatives. By being aware of current fiscal trends, critiquing thinking about financial matters, and attempting to find new sources of revenue for the future, student affairs practitioners will be able to anticipate and address…

  12. Exceptional composite dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros, Guillermo [Universite Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS, Institut de Physique Theorique, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Carmona, Adrian [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Chala, Mikael [Universitat de Valencia y IFIC, Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Departament de Fisica Teorica, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2017-07-15

    We study the dark matter phenomenology of non-minimal composite Higgs models with SO(7) broken to the exceptional group G{sub 2}. In addition to the Higgs, three pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons arise, one of which is electrically neutral. A parity symmetry is enough to ensure this resonance is stable. In fact, if the breaking of the Goldstone symmetry is driven by the fermion sector, this Z{sub 2} symmetry is automatically unbroken in the electroweak phase. In this case, the relic density, as well as the expected indirect, direct and collider signals are then uniquely determined by the value of the compositeness scale, f. Current experimental bounds allow one to account for a large fraction of the dark matter of the Universe if the dark matter particle is part of an electroweak triplet. The totality of the relic abundance can be accommodated if instead this particle is a composite singlet. In both cases, the scale f and the dark matter mass are of the order of a few TeV. (orig.)

  13. Soft matter's charismatic pioneer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeish, Tom

    2012-11-01

    This summer I took a break from lecturing at a graduate training school in Boulder, Colorado, to attend a talk by the soft-condensed-matter physicist David Weitz. His lecture was about colloids, and in the middle of it, he began to reminisce about the field's early days.

  14. Interaction, transference, and subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Fieldwork is one of the important methods in educational, social, and organisational research. In fieldwork, the researcher takes residence for a shorter or longer period amongst the subjects and settings to be studied. The aim of this is to study the culture of people: how people seem to make...... sense of their lives and which moral, professional, and ethical values seem to guide their behaviour and attitudes. In fieldwork, the researcher has to balance participation and observation in her attempts at representation. Consequently, the researcher’s academic and life-historical subjectivity...... are important filters for fieldwork. In general, fieldwork can be understood as processes where field reports and field analysis are determined by how the researcher interacts with and experiences the field, the events and informants in it, and how she subsequently develops an ethnography. However, fieldwork...

  15. Writing and the 'Subject'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Charlotte

    /reading subject) manifests itself in the material mark on the page. The study shows how this indexical reference to a ‘subject’ is manipulated and used as a mask through which a writer/painter can perform a certain ‘subject’. Through analyses of the various levels on which the ‘subject’ is represented...... in the early as well as the contemporary avant-garde, it becomes clear that the ‘subject’ is an unstable category that can be exposed to manipulation and play. Handwriting is performing as a signature (as an index), but is at the same time similar to the signature of a subject (an icon) and a verbal construct...

  16. Stimulated emission of dark matter axion from condensed matter excitations

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoi, Naoto; Saitoh, Eiji

    2018-01-01

    We discuss a possible principle for detecting dark matter axions in galactic halos. If axions constitute a condensate in the Milky Way, stimulated emissions of the axions from a type of excitation in condensed matter can be detectable. We provide general mechanism for the dark matter emission, and, as a concrete example, an emission of dark matter axions from magnetic vortex strings in a type II superconductor is investigated along with possible experimental signatures.

  17. Dark Matter Freeze-out During Matter Domination

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdan, Saleh; Unwin, James

    2017-01-01

    We highlight the general scenario of dark matter freeze-out whilst the energy density of the universe is dominated by a decoupled non-relativistic species. Decoupling during matter domination changes the freeze-out dynamics, since the Hubble rate is parametrically different for matter and radiation domination. Furthermore, for successful Big Bang Nucleosynthesis the state dominating the early universe energy density must decay, this dilutes (or repopulates) the dark matter. As a result, the m...

  18. Evading direct dark matter detection in Higgs portal models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcadi, Giorgio [Max Planck Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Gross, Christian, E-mail: christian.gross@helsinki.fi [Department of Physics and Helsinki Institute of Physics, Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Lebedev, Oleg [Department of Physics and Helsinki Institute of Physics, Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Pokorski, Stefan [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, PL-02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Toma, Takashi [Physik-Department T30d, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Straße, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2017-06-10

    Many models of Higgs portal Dark Matter (DM) find themselves under pressure from increasingly tight direct detection constraints. In the framework of gauge field DM, we study how such bounds can be relaxed while retaining the thermal WIMP paradigm. When the hidden sector gauge symmetry is broken via the Higgs mechanism, the hidden sector generally contains unstable states which are lighter than dark matter. These states provide DM with an efficient annihilation channel. As a result, the DM relic abundance and the direct detection limits are controlled by different parameters, and the two can easily be reconciled. This simple setup realizes the idea of “secluded” dark matter naturally.

  19. Evading direct dark matter detection in Higgs portal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Arcadi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Many models of Higgs portal Dark Matter (DM find themselves under pressure from increasingly tight direct detection constraints. In the framework of gauge field DM, we study how such bounds can be relaxed while retaining the thermal WIMP paradigm. When the hidden sector gauge symmetry is broken via the Higgs mechanism, the hidden sector generally contains unstable states which are lighter than dark matter. These states provide DM with an efficient annihilation channel. As a result, the DM relic abundance and the direct detection limits are controlled by different parameters, and the two can easily be reconciled. This simple setup realizes the idea of “secluded” dark matter naturally.

  20. Evading direct dark matter detection in Higgs portal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcadi, Giorgio; Gross, Christian; Lebedev, Oleg; Pokorski, Stefan; Toma, Takashi

    2017-06-01

    Many models of Higgs portal Dark Matter (DM) find themselves under pressure from increasingly tight direct detection constraints. In the framework of gauge field DM, we study how such bounds can be relaxed while retaining the thermal WIMP paradigm. When the hidden sector gauge symmetry is broken via the Higgs mechanism, the hidden sector generally contains unstable states which are lighter than dark matter. These states provide DM with an efficient annihilation channel. As a result, the DM relic abundance and the direct detection limits are controlled by different parameters, and the two can easily be reconciled. This simple setup realizes the idea of ;secluded; dark matter naturally.