... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What financial management standards do I include... financial management standards do I include for nonprofit participants? So as not to force system changes..., your expenditure-based TIA's requirements for the financial management system of any nonprofit...
... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What standards do I include for purchasing systems of nonprofit organizations? 37.710 Section 37.710 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial,...
Octavio Domont de Serpa Junior
Full Text Available Current psychopathology studies have often been presented in their descriptive dimension. This perspective is important for teaching because it helps the students to recognize and identify the symptomatology of each psychopathology case. However, subjectivity, the experience of suffering and interpersonal aspects are all lost in this perspective. Coming from another psychopathology tradition - existential anthropology - this paper presents practical psychopathology teaching experience which considers such dimensions as being relevant to the understanding of mental suffering. The features and limitations of such traditions are briefly reviewed to support this teaching experience. Two new modalities of practical teaching, used in the discipline of "Special Psychopathology I" offered by the Department of Psychiatry and Forensic Medicine at the medical school of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro for students of psychology, will be presented according to descriptive case study methodology. With these activities we also expect to change the practice of teaching. Traditionally, interviewing of in-patients by a large group of students who observe passively what is happening is the center of this kind of education. We intend to develop a model of teaching which is closer to the proposal of the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform which views mental illness as a complex phenomenon, always involving the relationship that the subject establishes with the world.
Inić Branimir P.
Full Text Available Non-profit organizations are increasingly gaining importance in the modern economy with their development and their numbers increasing day by day. It is very important to note that non-profit organizations are often subject to various benefits that the for-profit companies are not. Thus, for example, preferential tax status of non-profit organizations is manifested primarily in the form of exemption from corporate income tax. In addition, private non-profit organizations enjoy various other state, local and federal taxes exemptions. Under certain conditions, these organizations are exempt from taxes on donations and membership fees. A feature that differentiates various non-profit organizations and profit-oriented companies is their source of income. Profit oriented companies depend on their income, obtained from sales of their goods or services to customers, who usually cover the price and cost of goods and services plus the profit. In contrast, nonprofit organizations are very dependent on membership fees, tax exemptions, members donations or depend on funds of the sponsoring agency which covers most of their costs, for example a federal government agency. Those non-profit organizations that have substantial operating costs beyond national borders and do not identify themselves as purely domestic in their mandate are International non-profit organizations. Most non-profit organizations remain in their national boundaries, on the territory of the country in which they were created, but a large number of non-profit organizations rapidly internationalize, and some larger non-profits have grown into important global actors. The paper includes the following sections: (1 introduction, (2 why is the 'non-profit' important, (3 the internationalization of non-profit organizations, (4 sources of income of non-profit organizations (4.1. causality of impact and of strategic decisions in cases pertaining to universities, (5 the limits of strategic
... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nonprofit organization. 37.1315 Section 37.1315... organization. (a) Any corporation, trust, association, cooperative or other organization that: (1) Is operated... of the organization. (b) The term includes any nonprofit institution of higher education or nonprofit...
Mkimbili, Selina Thomas; Ødegaard, Marianne
Fostering and maintaining students' interest in science is an important aspect of improving science learning. The focus of this paper is to listen to and reflect on students' voices regarding the sources of motivation for science subjects among students in community secondary schools with contextual challenges in Tanzania. We conducted a group-interview study of 46 Form 3 and Form 4 Tanzanian secondary school students. The study findings reveal that the major contextual challenges to student motivation for science in the studied schools are limited resources and students' insufficient competence in the language of instruction. Our results also reveal ways to enhance student motivation for science in schools with contextual challenges; these techniques include the use of questioning techniques and discourse, students' investigations and practical work using locally available materials, study tours, more integration of classroom science into students' daily lives and the use of real-life examples in science teaching. Also we noted that students' contemporary life, culture and familiar language can be utilised as a useful resource in facilitating meaningful learning in science in the school. Students suggested that, to make science interesting to a majority of students in a Tanzanian context, science education needs to be inclusive of students' experiences, culture and contemporary daily lives. Also, science teaching and learning in the classroom need to involve learners' voices.
Luis Ignacio Álvarez-González
Full Text Available Nonprofit organizations (NPOs confront competitive pressures derived from complex economic and societal challenges. Their capacity to fulfil their mission increasingly depends on developing successful alliances with key external and internal stakeholders, including cooperative interorganizational relationships. In this context, the aim of this research is to analyze: (1 to which extent business-nonprofit partnerships (BNPPs foster the development of an internal marketing approach by NPOs; (2 the impact of this approach to human resource management on nonprofit performance; and (3 the possible moderating effect of the funding strategy of the nonprofit. This empirical research, based on a survey to a representative sample of Spanish NPOs, shows that cooperative relationships between nonprofit and business organizations are closely associated with a process of knowledge transfer, resulting in improved nonprofit performance; although these positive effects depend on the capacity of NPOs to generate income from commercial sources.
Many professionals prefer to work in nonprofit organizations, rather than in either for-profit or bureaucratic organizations. This preference suggests that nonprofits may be successful in reducing the tension between professional principles and institutional requirements. Professionals in for-profit organizations must submit to the control of a manager who is motivated to overrule them whenever their decisions come into conflict with the goal of profit maximization. Bureaucratic organizations stress predictability of results and adherence to rules as the overriding criteria of evaluation and control. This paper argues that nonprofits are on the whole superior from the point of view of professional ideology and practice. Thus, given a commitment to the values of professionalism, the preference for the nonprofit form becomes understandable, even without the usual assumptions about income-maximizing behavior.
Oleck, Howard L.
About half of the formal organizations and enterprises in the United States are nonprofit in nature. Trends in laws affecting them are reviewed, including tax exemption, officer status, civil rights, management practices, and federal court interposition. (LBH)
...The proposed information collection requirement described below has been submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act. The Department is soliciting public comments on the subject proposal. In general, a nonprofit organization must be HUD-approved and meet specific requirements to maintain approval and remain on the Nonprofit Organization Roster (Roster). This includes an application, affordable housing plan, annual reports, and required record keeping. Participants must submit a new application and updated affordable housing plan every two years to remain on the Roster. HUD uses the information to ensure that a nonprofit organization meets the requirements to participate in Single Family programs.
Borzaga, Carlo; Sacchetti, Silvia
The study of private non-profit enterprises that offer general interest services is only at the start. The understanding of existing organisations resists an inclusive, public interest view of governance. This contribution aims at providing a reflection on specific features that non-profit enterprises should have, and outlines four main justifications for including stakeholders in production governance: 1) access to knowledge and other resources, 2) trust creation, 3) internal efficiency, 4) ...
Johnson, Dennis L.
Nonprofit marketing is an extension of the planning and management process, and a necessary new skill for the community college manager. Management must teach marketing concepts to faculty and all college personnel and communicate their role in the marketing process of the institution for a successful program. (RC)
A financial statement analysis framework for nonprofit organizations is proposed, based on Nonprofit Commission of Certified Public Accountants Association (Commissione Aziende Nonprofit Ordine Nazionale Dottori Commercialisti) for Italian Nonprofits.
Herrera, Juan Carlos
In the contemporary United States, nonprofits serve as central conduits of urban reform and welfare provision including legal, health and job assistance for racialized neighborhoods. Despite the salience of nonprofit organizations in urban politics, few academic analyses investigate their crucial political work. My work critiques normative academic and popular understandings of nonprofit organizations as ahistorical and nonpolitical service providers fundamentally delinked from the state. In ...
include commercial losses. Rocky Mountain Insurance Information Association is a non-profit consumer information organization . Affiliated with the...million. These estimates do not include commercial losses. Rocky Mountain Insurance Information Association is a non-profit consumer information ... organization . Affiliated with the Insurance Information Institute, RMIIA has been serving consumers and the media since 1952. 22 5.0 Observations
... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Nonprofit Research and Education Corporations (NPCs) Data... (NPCs) Data Collection: a. Nonprofit Research and Education Corporations (NPCs) PC Annual Report... expected cost and burden and includes the actual data collection instrument. ] DATES: Comments must be...
Witmer, Hope; Mellinger, Marcela Sarmiento
Organizational resilience refers to the ability to respond productively to significant disruptive change and transform challenges into opportunities. There is a gap in the literature about resilient nonprofit organizations and its application for identifying organizational conditions for successful adaption to external variables that threaten their existence. The aim of this study was to identify organizational characteristics that point to the resilience of nonprofit behavioral healthcare organizations as they successfully adapt to funding changes. A multiple case study of two behavioral health nonprofit organizations was conducted. Data was collected through interviews and focus groups, and analyzed through a qualitative content analysis. Using the framework of resilience, six themes that equipped these organizations to successfully adapt to funding changes were identified. They included: commitment to the mission, improvisation, community reciprocity, servant and transformational leadership, hope and optimism, and fiscal transparency. The findings suggest that incorporating these qualities into an organizational system equips it to systematically adapt to funding changes and other disruptive challenges. Using resilience as a process and not simply an outcome after recovery, nonprofit organizations can have the capacity to continuously respond to challenges and provide uninterrupted and valuable services to society.
Full Text Available Services are dominantly untouchable products which cannot be physically owned. Services promotion is difficult for its untouchables. Personal sale is very powerful in service companies because customers must interact with employees. Price is very important for service's companies. It has psychological role, economic role and it creates attitude for goal achievement. Marketing goal for nonprofit organizations is to get an answer from target market Development of marketing strategies of nonprofit organizations consists of defining and analyzing target market and creating and maintaining marketing mix. In nonprofit organizations product is usually an idea or a service. Promotion in nonprofit organizations is very important. Personal sale, promotional sale, advertising and publicity are used for communicating an idea and informing people about services.
The nonprofit administers a variety of programs funded by Federal, State, and Local agencies. These programs include Community Service programs, Head Start programs, State Source Reduction Assistance Programs, Pollution Prevention Grants, and Environmental
Anheier, Helmut K.; DiMaggio, Paul
Interest in and research on nonprofit organizations and sectors have developed rapidly in recent years. Much of this work by sociologists has focussed on particular subsectors rather than on nonprofits as a class. This review attempts to extract from a large and varied literature a distinctively sociological perspective on nonprofits, which it contrasts to influential work in economics. Two questions—“Why (and where) are there nonprofit organizations” and “What difference does nonprofitness m...
Brunskog, Jonas; Hwang, Ha Dong; Jeong, Cheol-Ho
Although an impact noise level is objectively evaluated the same according to current standards, a lightweight floor structure is often subjectively judged more annoying than a heavy homogeneous structure. The hypothesis of the present investigation is that the subjective judgment of impact noise...
Should mergers among nonprofit organizations be regulated differently than mergers among for-profit firms? The relevant empirical literature is highly controversial, the theoretical literature is scarce. We analyze the question by modeling duopoly competition with quality-differentiated goods. We
Should mergers among nonprofit organizations be regulated differently than mergers among for-profit firms? The relevant empirical literature is highly controversial, the theoretical literature is scarce. I analyze the question by modeling duopoly competition with quality-differentiated goods. I
Lam, Marcus; Klein, Sacha; Freisthler, Bridget; Weiss, Robert E
Reliable access to dependable, high quality childcare services is a vital concern for large numbers of American families. The childcare industry consists of private nonprofit, private for-profit, and governmental providers that differ along many dimensions, including quality, clientele served, and organizational stability. Nonprofit providers are theorized to provide higher quality services given comparative tax advantages, higher levels of consumer trust, and management by mission driven entrepreneurs. This study examines the influence of ownership structure, defined as nonprofit, for-profit sole proprietors, for-profit companies, and governmental centers, on organizational instability, defined as childcare center closures. Using a cross sectional data set of 15724 childcare licenses in California for 2007, we model the predicted closures of childcare centers as a function of ownership structure as well as center age and capacity. Findings indicate that for small centers (capacity of 30 or less) nonprofits are more likely to close, but for larger centers (capacity 30+) nonprofits are less likely to close. This suggests that the comparative advantages available for nonprofit organizations may be better utilized by larger centers than by small centers. We consider the implications of our findings for parents, practitioners, and social policy.
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonprofit organization. 700.83 Section 700.83 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.83 Nonprofit organization. The term nonprofit organization...
Bockstael, Annelies; Van Renterghem, Timothy; Botteldooren, Dick; D'Haenens, Wendy; Keppler, Hannah; Maes, Leen; Philips, Birgit; Swinnen, Freya; Vinck, Bart
The microphone in real ear (MIRE) protocol allows the assessment of hearing protector's (HPD) attenuation in situ by measuring the difference between the sound pressure outside and inside the ear canal behind the HPD. Custom-made earplugs have been designed with an inner bore to insert the MIRE probe containing two microphones, the reference microphone measuring the sound pressure outside and the measurement microphone registering the sound pressure behind the HPD. Previous research on a head and torso simulator reveals a distinct difference, henceforth called transfer function, between the sound pressure at the MIRE measurement microphone and the sound pressure of interest at the eardrum. In the current study, similar measurements are carried out on humans with an extra microphone to measure the sound pressure at the eardrum. The resulting transfer functions confirm the global frequency dependency found earlier, but also show substantial variability between the ears with respect to the exact frequency and amplitude of the transfer functions' extrema. In addition, finite-difference time-domain numerical models of an ear canal with earplug are developed for each individual ear by including its specific geometrical parameters. This approach leads to a good resemblance between the simulations and their corresponding measurements.
Geller, Stephanie Lessans; Salamon, Lester M.
This article presents the results of a nationwide survey conducted in the spring of 2009 that examined the impacts of the current recession on nonprofit organizations, including museums. The survey identified a host of negative effects that nonprofits have been experiencing as a result of the recession, including reduced organizational revenues,…
Salem, L C; Vogel, Asmus Mejling; Ebstrup, J
functions were assessed with the Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and Addenbrooke's cognitive examination (ACE), and symptoms of depression were rated with Major Depression Inventory (MDI). All interviews and the diagnostic conclusion were blinded to the SMC score. RESULTS: We found that young patients......OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine the quantity and profile of subjective cognitive complaints in young patients as compared with elderly patients referred to a memory clinic. METHODS: Patients were consecutively recruited from the Copenhagen University Hospital Memory Clinic at Rigshospitalet....... In total, 307 patients and 149 age-matched healthy controls were included. Patients were classified in 4 diagnostic groups: dementia, mild cognitive impairment, affective disorders and no cognitive impairment. Subjective memory was assessed with subjective memory complaints (SMC) scale. Global cognitive...
Full Text Available The increasing number of non-governmental organizations around the world, their transformation from citizen initiatives into small civic organizations, and then into international organizations in the most powerful countries, created enough room for more contribution to citizen’s welfare. This also proves that these NGOs have used their experience driven success manuals and have those incorporated within their management practices to achieve their goals. During the last years, the number of books and studies that have been published on understanding the importance of managerial practices in non-profit t organizations at international level has increased. This research will try to explain the irreplaceable role that management practices have in the development and strengthening of an NGO, and in the implementation of financial and human resource management. Also, we will try to present the most realistic situation of NGOs studied in this research, so that our work could directly affect them to improve their performance.
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonprofit organizations. 228.32 Section 228.32 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES ON SOURCE, ORIGIN AND NATIONALITY FOR COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY USAID Conditions Governing the Nationality of Suppliers of Services for USAID Financing § 228.32 Nonprofit...
POLYANIN A.V.; SUROVNEVA K.A.
The article presents the author's approach to the generalization of features and functions of management practices in non-profit organizations, which is dominated by methods of social psychology, heuristic search, intuitive comprehension, establishing trust and highest solidarity in the non-profit organization.
Jesús Vega Encabo
Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation.
The subject of this research is how spokespersons can be used in campaigns of non-profit organizations, with a goal to increase their visibility and gain public support. Namely, many companies employ celebrities for their media campaigns as protagonists and promoters of brand values. With their appearance and engagement, celebrities transfer part of their image and credibility to the brand, which widens and enriches the field of associations which brands trigger in consumers' conscience. Non-...
Organizations that are successful and competitive long-term have learned to efficiently utilize their resources, such as money, people, facilities, and time. Over the last half-century, there have been a variety of theories and techniques put forth on how to do this. One recent theory applied in the aerospace industry is Lean Management (LM), which emphasizes a customer focus and a rigorous elimination of activities that do not add value from the customer's perspective. LM has not, until now, been evaluated for small, nonprofit, one-off production organizations (NOPOs). Previous research on LM focused on for-profit companies and large-scale production organizations, producing relatively similar products repetitively (e.g. automobiles, commercial satellites, aircraft, and launch vehicles). One-off production organizations typically create one-of-a-kind products. The purpose of this research is to examine the applicability of LM to a NOPO. LM will improve resource utilization and thereby competitiveness, as well as exploring a new area of knowledge and research. The research methodology consists of conducting case studies, formal and informal interviews, observation and analysis in order to assess whether and how LM may be beneficial. The research focuses on one particular NOPO, BioServe Space Technologies (BST): a nonprofit, payload development organization. Additional NOPOs were interviewed in order to draw more generalized conclusions about LM benefits. The research demonstrates that LM is applicable to NOPOs, thus providing a tool to improve efficiency and competitiveness. Results from this research are guidelines for payload development organizations to implement LM, and highlighting potential LM weaknesses. A major conclusion is that LM needs some minor modifications to be applicable and useful to NOPOs, particularly in terms of value stream mapping. The LM implementation roadmap developed for NOPOs introduces customized metrics, as well as including standard
V. D. Zelikman
Full Text Available Purpose. Development of evaluation method of quality indicators for non-profit organizations activities in existing domestic conditions. Methodology. To achieve the research purposes a comparative analysis of some existing methods which were suggested by famous foreign experts for evaluation of organizational development level of non-profit organizations was used. Findings. The system of indicators suggested by C. McNamara for organizational development level assessment of non-commercial organizations and its correspondence for existing conditions of non-profit organizations activities in Ukraine have been analyzed. The technique of A. Vakulenko for qualitative evaluation of Russian non-commercial organizations has also been considered which includes five blocks of parameters for evaluation of internal organizational environment factors according their influence for external organizational environment and support of this influence. The possibility of the designated parameters application applications for domestic non-profit organizations is determined. Based on the separated elements of considered methodic the method of quality indicators evaluation of activities effectiveness for non-profit organizations in Ukraine is developed. Originality. The adapted method of quality indicators evaluation for non-profit organizations activities based on an analysis of their assessing existing methods is offered. Practical value. Non-profit organizations activities require usage of the certain material and financial resources. It leads to the need of an objective evaluation of the activity effectiveness for the particular non-profit organization and therefore to development of that assessment methods.
Analyzes the managerial shortcomings of nonprofit organizations and offers some remedies for improving their information systems and then using the data generated to produce better funding procedures and more effective training for top managers. (Author/JG)
Paynter, Sharon; Berner, Marueen
The U.S. social safety net is formed by governmental and nonprofit organizations, which are trying to respond to record levels of need. This is especially true for local level organizations, such as food pantries. The organizational capacity literature has not covered front-line, local, mostly volunteer and low resource organizations in the same depth as larger ones. This analysis is a consideration of whether grassroots nonprofit organizations have the ability to be a strong component of the social safety net. Based on the literature on organizational capacity, a model is developed to examine how service delivery at the local level is affected by organizational capacity. Surprisingly, we find few of the characteristics previously identified as important are statistically significant in this study. Even when so, the material effect is negligible. Current organizational capacity research may apply to larger nonprofits, but not to the tens of thousands of small community nonprofits, a significant limitation to the research to date.
Lewis, Gregory B.
Why are people with same-sex partners more likely than married people to work for nonprofit organizations (NPOs)? Analysis of 2000 Census data suggests that smaller gay–straight pay disparities for men in the nonprofit sector, occupational choices, and ability to afford nonprofit employment explain some overrepresentation of partnered gay men but not of partnered lesbians. Even after controlling for all these factors, people with same-sex partners remain more likely than married people to wor...
Stewart, Louis J; Trussel, John
Although the use of derivatives, particularly interest rate swaps, has grown explosively over the past decade, derivative financial instrument use by nonprofits has received only limited attention in the research literature. Because little is known about the risk management activities of nonprofits, the impact of these instruments on the ability of nonprofits to raise capital may have significant public policy implications. The primary motivation of this study is to determine the types of derivatives used by nonprofits and estimate the frequency of their use among these organizations. Our study also extends contemporary finance theory by an empirical examination of the motivation for interest rate swap usage among nonprofits. Our empirical data came from 193 large nonprofit health care providers that issued debt to the public between 2000 and 2003. We used a univariate analysis and a multivariate analysis relying on logistic regression models to test alternative explanations of interest rate swaps usage by nonprofits, finding that more than 45 percent of our sample, 88 organizations, used interest rate swaps with an aggregate notional value in excess of $8.3 billion. Our empirical tests indicate the primary motive for nonprofits to use interest rate derivatives is to hedge their exposure to interest rate risk. Although these derivatives are a useful risk management tool, under conditions of falling bond market interest rates these derivatives may also expose a nonprofit swap user to the risk of a material unscheduled termination payment. Finally, we found considerable diversity in the informativeness of footnote disclosure among sample organizations that used interest rate swaps. Many nonprofits did not disclose these risks in their financial statements. In conclusion, we find financial managers in large nonprofits commonly use derivative financial instruments as risk management tools, but the use of interest rate swaps by nonprofits may expose them to other risks
Full Text Available The subject of this research is how spokespersons can be used in campaigns of non-profit organizations, with a goal to increase their visibility and gain public support. Namely, many companies employ celebrities for their media campaigns as protagonists and promoters of brand values. With their appearance and engagement, celebrities transfer part of their image and credibility to the brand, which widens and enriches the field of associations which brands trigger in consumers' conscience. Non-profit organizations could get similar benefits out of these campaigns. In a society where there is a certain level of fascination with celebrities, i.e. celebrity culture, their influence can be used not only to attract attention to the goods, but also to ideas. The goal of the paper is to show how spokespersons can influence behavior and attitudes of the public by participating in media campaigns, and also the important aspects of choosing a spokesperson. The paper is supposed to be a starting point for practitioners,so they can design creative ideas based on this technique on the non-profit organizations market, especially in Serbia.
Full Text Available Purpose – To overview the traditions and management perspectives of community and non-profit organizations in Lithuania.Methodology – For the purpose of this research a literature analysis on community and non-profit organization case studies was conducted. The case studies describing stories of success were singled out and leaders of these organizations were interviewed.Findings – The research has showed the growth of the number of community and nonprofit organizations during the last twenty years and the difficulties of collecting the statistical data. This study presupposes the possibility to identify the tendencies of management in community and non-profit organizations, including the following: increasing use of the social networks for communication; proliferation of strategic planning; greater emphasis on educating and empowering new generation of leaders.Research implications – Prior studies in this area in Lithuania have not exhaustively analyzed the components of human resource management of non-profit organizations. An important follow up on this study would be to analyze the human resource management in community organizations.Practical implications – This study covered the management aspects important for the improvement of how community and non-profit organizations work.Originality/Value – This study expands the knowledge on Lithuanian community and non-profit organization development and management.Research type – literature review, research paper.
Fanelli, Carlo; Rudman, Debbie Laliberté; Aldrich, Rebecca M
Drawing on interview and focus group data, this article explores research undertaken as part of a larger research project exploring precarity in the nonprofit employment services sector in a mid-sized Canadian city. We critically survey major legislative changes to Canadian employment and income security policies and programs, including the restructuring of work and labor relations, growth of performance-based contracting-out, erosion of intergovernmental transfers, worker stress, and emotional tolls. Our study's results demonstrate how employment precarity in the nonprofit employment services sector is amplified by top-down and centralized relationships with funding partners and policymaking divorced from the employment experiences of frontline staff. We make the case that it is important to work against rising workplace precarity to strengthen organizational and workplace conditions, as well as build environments more supportive of optimal employment support services. En se fondant sur des entretiens et des données découlant de groupes témoins, cet article présente des explorations entreprises dans une recherche plus large étudiant la précarité dans le secteur des emplois de service dans une ville canadienne de taille moyenne. Nous faisons une revue critique de changements importants intervenus dans la législation portant sur l'emploi au Canada et les politiques et programmes de la sécurité du revenu, incluant la restructuration du travail et des relations de travail, l'augmentation de la privatisation se fondant sur la performance, la diminution des transferts intergouvernementaux, le stress au travail et les conséquences émotionnelles. Les résultats de notre recherche démontrent comment la précarité de l'emploi dans les secteurs des services à but non lucratif est amplifiée par des relations allant du haut vers le bas et centralisée avec des partenaires et des politiques séparés de l'expérience des travailleurs sur le terrain. Nous d
Full Text Available The study of why a fundraising professional would choose to leave his or her employer is critical to the ongoing success of religiously based nonprofit organizations as they work to achieve their mission. Without continuity in the donor relationship, donors will likely leave the organization or become disenfranchised. This study focuses on development professionals at Seventh-Day Adventist institutions across North America. The results of this study are applicable to other religiously based nonprofit organizations. The present article reveals the reasons affecting employee retention and proposes approaches to mitigate the loss of valuable employees. Data were gathered using a structured online survey and analyzed for its descriptive outcomes.
Nelsen, W C
Nonprofit organizations should consider using incentive-based management programs so long as such programs are studied thoughtfully, implemented carefully, and closely tied to other important management practices. The article describes the experiences of one nonprofit organization, Citizens' Scholarship Foundation of America (CSFA), in successfully conducting a staff incentive program during the past several years. The author also reports briefly on the results of a recent survey among CSFA staff involved in the incentive plan, outlining the benefits of such a program in helping the organization to reach its objectives. Finally, the author addresses potential pitfalls to avoid in implementing an effective staff incentive program.
Hansen, Anne Vorre; Langergaard, Luise Li
Resident democracy as a special form of participatory democratic set-up is fundamental in the understanding, and self-understanding, of the non-profit housing sector in Denmark. Through a case study, the paper explores how resident democracy is perceived and narrated between residents and employees...... at a housing association. The study indicates that the meta-story of democracy is disconnected from practice and the lived lives of residents. Three analytical tensions structure the analysis, which relate to the conditions for realizing the democratic ideal embedded in the structure of the sector......, the article discusses conditions for prospective democracy in the Danish non-profit housing sector....
Rapid and unprecedented changes in our modern society have created extremely turbulent environments for nonprofit human service organizations. These changes threaten to transform the very nature of our business in ways difficult to predict and prepare for. The author examines the collective views of 21 purposely sampled executive directors in the city of Baltimore, Maryland on the future of the nonprofit human services sector. In 1 hour face-to-face interviews, subjects were asked to respond to three questions. What major trends will impact the nonprofit sector in the near future? What potential impact do you see these trends having on the nonprofit sector? What strategies would you recommend that executive directors take today to ensure success of their organization in the future? Narrative responses to each question were aggregated, organized into dominant views, and summarized. Subjects identified a host of social, political, economic, and technological trends that will have major effects on the future of the nonprofit sector. Subjects recommend a variety of tactics for helping an agency respond successfully to these forces. These tactics emphasize three critical areas of strategic administration: planning, management, and leadership.
Human milk, widely understood to be beneficial for infants, can be lifesaving for preterm neonates, especially in reducing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis. Donor human milk (DHM) is an option when mothers are unable to provide milk or have an inadequate supply for their infants. Nonprofit donor human milk banks are established to provide safe, processed human milk from milk donated by healthy lactating mothers who have undergone a rigorous screening process. These milk banks, operating under the auspices of the Human Milk Banking Association of North America, obtain, process, and dispense human milk under strict guidelines set by the association. Increasing the supply of donor human milk to meet a dramatic increase in demand poses a significant challenge for nonprofit milk banks. Efforts to increase supply nationwide include education of providers, use of social media to engage potential donors, and outreach to news media. In parallel, milk banks are establishing regional depots to collect donations, and additional milk banks are being developed. This article describes the current nonprofit milk bank industry in the United States, its challenges, and its future prospects. © 2013 by the American College of Nurse‐Midwives.
Full Text Available What high performance means for nonprofit organizations and how to define high performance is still a discussed issue. Building on Paul Light’s work and the Standards of Excellence Codes of Conduct developed by the Maryland Association of Nonprofit Organizations, this research presents how the community, respectively the nonprofit organizations themselves, views high performance and define the characteristics of high performing organizations. The paper also analysis how the community’s perception of high performance compares with the Standards of Excellence Codes of Conduct.
Information and links to EPA web pages that are meant to help businesses and non-profits adhere to EPA regulations and otherwise protect the environment, take advantage of opportunities to collaborate with the EPA, and find training EPA training programs.
When some people think of nonprofit organizations, they think of small charities that are short-staffed, often struggle financially, and provide basic human needs to the most vulnerable in the society. Others think of organizations that support the civic and social infrastructure of communities, states, and nation, and serve as a vital component…
Damman, M.; Heyse, L.; Mills, M.
Although one can assume the work values within nonprofit organizations promote gender equality in promotion decisions, there is preliminary evidence that in the nonprofit sector women are underrepresented in higher management positions. Whereas the mechanisms resulting in underrepresentation of
Given increased competition with for-profit firms, the issue of the comparative advantage of non-profit organizations is renewed. While non-profits may want to differentiate themselves when faced with additional non-profit competition, it is unclear whether they would want to differentiate themselves or converge towards for-profit competitors. This paper addresses this issue by considering the different financing models, human resource systems, and objectives of non-profit organizations, as c...
Grøvle, Lars; Haugen, Anne J; Ihlebaek, Camilla M; Keller, Anne; Natvig, Bård; Brox, Jens I; Grotle, Margreth
Chronic nonspecific low back pain is accompanied by high rates of comorbid mental and physical conditions. The aims of this study were to investigate if patients with specific back pain, that is, sciatica caused by lumbar herniation, report higher rates of subjective health complaints (SHCs) than the general population and if there is an association between change in sciatica symptoms and change in SHCs over a 12-month period. A multicenter cohort study of 466 sciatica patients was conducted with follow-up at 3 months and 1 year. Comorbid SHCs were measured by 27 items of the SHC inventory. Odds ratios (ORs) for each SHC were calculated with comparison to a general population sample (n=928) by logistic regression. The SHC number was calculated by summing all complaints present. At baseline, the ORs for reporting SHCs for the sciatica patients were significantly elevated in 15 of the 27 items with a mean (S.D.) SHC number of 7.5 (4.4), compared to 5.2 (4.4) in the general population (Psciatica, the SHC number was reduced to normal levels. Among those with persisting or worsening sciatica, the number increased to a level almost double that of the general population. Compared to the general population, the prevalence of subjective health complaints in sciatica is increased. During follow-up, the number of health complaints increased in patients with persisting or worsening sciatica. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available When the topic of "marketing" arises in 3 conversation, it's always interesting to hear the numerous perceptions tied to this rather straightforward concept. The full spectrum of responses includes advertising, word-of-mouth, fluff, and my personal favorite - selling something you don't need! I believe the problem with understanding marketing lies in the over-commercialization of the term and leaves business acumen strategy, and execution at the trout door.
... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Nonprofit Research and Education Corporations (NPCs) Data.... Titles: Nonprofit Research and Education Corporations (NPCs) Data Collection: a. Nonprofit Research and Education Corporations (NPCs) PC Annual Report Template, VA Form 10-0510. b. Nonprofit Research and...
The nature and characteristics of the nonprofit brand strength construct are conceptualized. Brand strength is defined as a multidimensional construct, composed by brand familiarity, brand remarkability, and brand attitude. Brand familiarity refers to the level of knowledge the target audience has about the brand object. Brand attitude refers to the degree to which a brand object is perceived favorably by a target group. Brand remarkability refers to the degree to which a brand object is pe...
This thesis consists of two papers. The first gives a game-theoretical treatment of the institutional homogenization of value-oriented firms. It explains why intrinsically motivated, value-oriented firms like non-profits may become similar to for-profit firms in terms of organization and norms. It highlights and explains the pairs: value-oriented and flat organizations in contrast to value-neutral managers and hierarchical organizations. We consider a major donor like the government who deleg...
Ferreira, Lydia Massako; Locali, Rafael Fagionato; Lapin, Guilherme Abbud Franco; Hochman, Bernardo
To investigate the relevance of the term superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) and demonstrate that this term is important enough to be added to the MeSH database and listed in International Anatomical Nomenclature. Terms related to SMAS were selected from original articles retrieved from the ISI Web of Science and MEDLINE (PubMed) databases. Groups of terms were created to define a search strategy with high-sensitivity and restricted to scientific periodicals devoted to plastic surgery. This study included articles between January 1996 and May 2009, whose titles, abstracts, and keywords were searched for SMAS-related terms and all occurrences were recorded. A total of 126 original articles were retrieved from the main periodicals related to plastic surgery in the referred databases. Of these articles, 51.6% had SMAS-related terms in the abstract only, and 25.4% had SMAS-related terms in both the title and abstract. The term 'superficial musculoaponeurotic system' was present as a keyword in 19.8% of the articles. The most frequent terms were 'SMAS' (71.4%) and superficial musculoaponeurotic system (62.7%). The term SMAS refers to a structure relevant enough to start a discussion about indexing it as a keyword and as an official term in Terminologia Anatomica: International Anatomical Terminology.
With diverse missions and multiple service provision strategies, nonprofit human services organizations have worked individually and collaboratively to create responses to social problems throughout the history of United States. This article highlights the important historic roots of the sector in understanding the scope and breadth of nonprofit human service organizations today. Challenges influencing this set of organizations, including the competing values of contracting out versus collaboration and the push-pull of grassroots or community-based versus professionalized orientations, are discussed. The article closes with important questions for nonprofit leaders and policymakers about the role of government in the human services arena.
Liebschutz, S F
Contrary to expectations that a divested federal role would lead to the demise of nonprofit agencies, the relationship between nonprofit and government sectors in New York at the end of the 1980s was stronger than ever. This article presents longitudinal data for six nonprofit agencies in Rochester, New York, to demonstrate "management by groping along" during the Reagan years, behavior that resulted in increased reliance on state and local governments for funds and programs and in different ways of doing business.
This inquiry contributes to the literature on the development of “nonprofit marketing thought” by describing how the field’s early period established a legacy effect on nonprofit marketing scholarship to the present day. This qualitative work uses a wide variety of sources from a protracted historical period in order to more fully inform a perspective on the relevant issues that have influenced the development of nonprofit marketing scholarship. The investigation suggests that, although the d...
Ljiljana Najec Čačija
Full Text Available This paper links the fundraising success of nonprofit organizations to their marketing process. Financial and non-financial dimensions of fundraising performance are included in the study, as to demonstrate both aspects of the intended outcomes. The empirical part of the paper is based on research focusing on Croatian humanitarian organizations and employs the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM methodology to assess the hypotheses regarding the positive influence of the nonprofit marketing activities on two dimensions of fundraising performance. In addition, the paper discusses and empirically verifies the influence of fundraising feedback on the (redefinition of marketing activities. Implications for nonprofit marketing and management practice(s are discussed, along with recommendations for future research.
Lovejoy, Kristen; Saxton, Gregory D
.... To enhance understanding of the communicative functions microblogging serves for organizations, this study examines the Twitter utilization practices of the 100 largest nonprofit organizations in the United States...
Full Text Available This paper defines and describes a framework to classify program activities utilized by nonprofit organizations to achieve public benefit objectives. Drawing on theory and practice from strategy, nonprofit management, and program planning, the paper proposes five program activities differentiated by the value created. Several factors define and differentiate the approaches and serve as decision areas for nonprofit managers when developing program strategies. Classifying program activities facilitates further research as it provides a common language and framework to analyze strategic choices enacted in nonprofit organizations.
Full Text Available Performance measurement has received increasing attention in the nonprofit sector. While the current scholarship has emphasized the balanced use of performance measures, only a limited number of nonprofits have adopted outcome measurement. In this study, we investigate what factors explain a variation in the adoption of outcome measurement based on survey data from 263 human service nonprofits. The results of logistic regression find that human service nonprofits are more likely to adopt outcome measures when they are more risk-taking, influenced by institutional pressures, and have higher human resource and political capacities.
Full Text Available Orientation: A lack of qualitative research exists that investigates work engagement and retention within Belgium and South Africa, particularly within the non-profit sector.Research purpose: The study aimed to gather in-depth qualitative data pertaining to the factors that promote work engagement and retention amongst non-profit employees working within these two countries.Motivation for the study: Because of scarce funding and resources, non-profit organisations are pressured to retain their talented employees, with high levels of turnover being a standard for low-paid, human-service positions. However, when individuals are engaged in their work, they display lower turnover intentions, suggesting the importance of work engagement in relation to retention.Research design, approach and method: Non-probability purposive and convenience sampling was used to organise in-depth interviews with 25 paid non-profit employees working on either a full-time or a part-time basis within Belgium and South Africa. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the qualitative data produced.Main findings: Participants were found to be absorbed in, dedicated to and energised by their work, and revealed numerous aspects promoting their retention including working towards a purpose, finding fulfilment in their tasks and working in a caring environment.Practical/managerial implications: Non-profit organisations should develop positive work environments for their employees to sustain their levels of work engagement, as well as place significance on intrinsic rewards in order to retain employees.Contribution: This study provides insights into the means by which non-profit employees across two nations demonstrate their enthusiasm, pride and involvement in the work that they perform. It moreover sheds light on the factors contributing to such employees intending to leave or stay within the employment of their organisations.
Kimberlin, Sara E; Schwartz, Sara L; Austin, Michael J
Knowledge of organizational history is important for recognizing patterns in effective management and understanding how organizations respond to internal and external challenges. This cross-case analysis of 12 histories of pioneering nonprofit human service organizations contributes an important longitudinal perspective on organizational history, complementing the cross-sectional case studies that dominate the existing research on nonprofit organizations. The literature on organizational growth, including lifecycle models and growth management, is reviewed, along with the literature on organizational resilience. Based on analysis of the 12 organizational histories, a conceptual model is presented that synthesizes key factors in the areas of leadership, internal operations, and external relations that influence organizational growth and resilience to enable nonprofit organizations to survive and thrive over time. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal examples from the organizational histories illustrate the conceptual map. The paper concludes with a discussion of directions for future research on nonprofit organizational history.
Moreno, Doris Hupfeld; Andrade, Laura Helena
Identifying the bipolar (BP) spectrum, including the classic Bipolar I subtype (BP-I), Bipolar II (BP-II) and subthreshold bipolar disorders not meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria has raised growing interest, as these softer expressions of bipolar spectrum have been underdiagnosed in spite of clinical consequences. Data are from the Sao Paulo Epidemiological Catchment Area Study (N=1464). Non-affective controls were compared to BP spectrum groups, based on DSM-IIIR and on the "clinical significance" criteria: Subsyndromal Hypomania (SSH) and Manic Symptoms (MS). The lifetime prevalence of BP subgroups was 8.3% (N=122). All BP-I and -II and around 75% of SSH and MS subjects had a lifetime depressive syndrome. Compared to controls and MS subjects, BP-I, BP-II and SSH groups searched more medical help and mental health services. SSH group displayed higher rates of clinical significance than BP-I subjects, and suicidality was higher in BP groups compared to controls. Even the softer MS group had higher rate of suicide attempts than SSH subjects. This is a cross-sectional study and interviews were conducted by lay personnel. Replication in bigger community samples using a mood spectrum approach is necessary to confirm these findings. However, our findings were very similar to those obtained by other authors. Softer expressions of BP disorders appear in 6.6% of this community sample and have serious clinical consequences, which supports the importance of including these categories in the BP spectrum.
The staff of a nonprofit music support organization plagued with low morale initiated a process of change that the executive director, with the help of a consultant/adult educator, agreed to continue. The change process included seven phases: discovery of need, the helping relationship defined, the change problem identified, goals established,…
Full Text Available Sustainability of nonprofit organizations is a key concern for today’s nonprofit scholars and practitioners. Building upon the nonprofit economics literature, the present paper introduces the distinction between the demand-side and supply-side determinants of nonprofit sustainability and makes the case for the discrepancy between them. This discrepancy presents not only a generic conceptual explanation of the nonprofit sustainability problems but is also applicable to the context of the European rural nonprofit sector. Three arguments are advanced. First, the notorious implementation problems of LEADER partnerships can be explained as a manifestation of the above discrepancy. Second, and related, the rural context implies the tendency of the supply-side determinants of nonprofit sustainability to undermine the demand-side ones. Third, recent empirical findings from the Czech Republic show that this tendency does not necessarily imply the possibility of a clear classification of the demand-side and supply-side sustainability determinants. Rather, those features of rural areas and communities that significantly affect the size of the local nonprofit sector exhibit a controversial entanglement of demand-side and supply-side identities.
Walker, Martha A.
Defines the purpose of a board in a nonprofit organization, the legal standards all board actions are framed around, the functions of the board, and the role and expectations of a board member so that members of these boards can have a more complete understanding of the role they play in their board and in the nonprofit they serve.
... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Status of nonprofit organizations. 2.36 Section 2.36 Labor... Religious Organizations; Protection of Religious Liberty of Department of Labor Social Service Providers and Beneficiaries § 2.36 Status of nonprofit organizations. (a) In general, DOL does not require that an...
Herbst, P.; Prüfer, J.
Abstract This paper formalizes the difference between firms, nonprofits, and cooperatives and identifies optimal organizational choice. In a model of quality provision, we find a clear ranking of quality produced: Firms provide lowest and nonprofits highest levels of quality. Efficiency, however,
Herbst, P.; Prüfer, J.
This paper formalizes the difference between firms, nonprofits, and cooperatives and identifies optimal organizational choice. In a model of quality provision, we find a clear ranking of quality produced: Firms provide lowest and nonprofits highest levels of quality. Efficiency, however, depends on
Miron, Gary; Urschel, Jessica
This is the second "Profiles" report to examine nonprofit education management organizations (EMOs). This report is modeled after the 11 annual "Profiles" that cover for-profit EMOs. While the number of schools operated by for-profit EMOs grew rapidly in the 1990s and is now leveling off, the number of schools operated by nonprofit EMOs has been…
Carman, Joanne G.; Fredericks, Kimberly A.
The authors explore what evaluation looks like, in practice, among today's nonprofit organizations on the basis of their survey results. The types of evaluation activities nonprofit organizations are engaging in on a regular basis, as well as the types of data they are collecting and how they are using these data, are described. How nonprofits…
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracts with nonprofit organizations. 31.108 Section 31.108 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Applicability 31.108 Contracts with nonprofit organizations. Subpart 3...
Brandsen, T.; Pape, U.D.
This article illustrates the development of government–nonprofit collaboration in the Netherlands. It first gives an overview of the scope and structure of the nonprofit sector and voluntary work and then explains the crucial steps in the evolution of the partnership arrangement between the public
Carman, Joanne G.; Fredericks, Kimberly A.; Introcaso, David
The authors review the unique characteristics of nonprofit organizations and explain how nonprofit organizations play a prominent role in providing today's public services. The authors describe how the field of professional evaluation developed in response to government performance-based management initiatives, noting that recent efforts at the…
Lee, Chongmyoung; Nowell, Branda
Performance measurement has gained increased importance in the nonprofit sector, and contemporary literature is populated with numerous performance measurement frameworks. In this article, we seek to accomplish two goals. First, we review contemporary models of nonprofit performance measurement to develop an integrated framework in order to…
Rogers, Cathy; Andrews, Valerie
Little scholarly evidence exists about the communication needs of nonprofit community partners and what they think constitutes an ideal service-learning (SL) relationship. This study seeks to fill this gap by identifying SL projects and relationships that best serve nonprofit community partners with communication needs. The researchers conducted a…
Based on the impressive work of Hopt and von Hippel (2010), I review the comparative corporate governance of non-profit organizations and propose topics for future research. There is evidence of agency problems in non-profit as well as for-profit organizations, but the governance mechanisms...
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost principles for nonprofit participants. 603.635 Section 603.635 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT... § 603.635 Cost principles for nonprofit participants. So as not to force financial system changes for...
The concept of relationship marketing was born from this need for long-term interaction with customers. A variety of factors have over time contributed to a need for marketing in non-profit organisations, such as non-profit sports clubs and recreation centres at local and school levels, to offset the decrease in income and ...
Asaumi, Yasue; Morita, Kiichiro; Nakashima, Youko; Muraoka, Akemi; Uchimura, Naohisa
In the present study, the P300 component of the emotion-loaded visual event-related potential in response to photographs of babies crying or smiling was measured to evaluate cognitive function in elderly subjects, including those with dementia. The subjects were 48 elderly people who consulted a memory disorder clinic. The visual event-related potential was measured using oddball tasks. Brain waves were recorded from four sites. We analyzed the P300 amplitude and latency. Subjects were divided into three groups (the dementia with Alzheimer's disease group [ADG]; the intermediate group [MG], and the healthy group [HG]) based on the Revised Hasegawa Dementia Scale, Mini-mental State Examination scores and the Clinical Dementia Rating. For all subjects, there was a significant positive correlation between P300 latency and Z-score of voxel-based specific regional analysis for Alzheimer's disease for crying or smiling faces. There was a negative correlation between P300 amplitude and Z-score for the crying face. MG subjects were divided into two groups (high risk: HRMG, low risk: LRMG) based on Z-scores (HRMG ≥ 2.0). The P300 amplitude of ADG was significantly smaller than that of HG, and the P300 latency of ADG was significantly longer than those of other groups for crying or smiling faces. The P300 latency of HRMG was significantly longer than that of LRMG for the smiling face. Furthermore, the P300 latency for the crying face was significantly shorter than that for the smiling face in HG and ADG. These findings suggest that analysis of P300 components of the emotion-loaded visual event-related potential may be a useful neuropsychological index for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and high-risk subjects. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Nonprofit Research and Education Corporations (NPCs) Data... to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0783 (Nonprofit Research and Education Corporations (NPCs) Data Collection.... Titles: Nonprofit Research and Education Corporations (NPCs) Data Collection a. Annual Report Template...
María José Sanzo
Full Text Available Business-nonprofit partnerships have gained increased relevance in the context of the evolution of corporate social responsibility strategies and the existence of extremely complex societal and environmental challenges. However, these collaborations are also associated with important ethical concerns. Under such a scenario, this study attempts to shed light on the effects of high value-added partnerships—i.e., those characterized by a process of nonprofit empowerment—on two potential risks of business-nonprofit partnerships: co-optation and loss of personnel’s identification with the nonprofit’s social mission. Based on a two-step survey to a representative sample of Spanish nonprofits involved in social partnerships with firms, results reveal the existence of a mixed influence in both cases, positive and negative. Several implications for practitioners are drawn, specifically about how firms and nonprofits can reduce the negative ethical consequences of partnering.
Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor)
A non-invasive method for analyzing the blood-brain barrier includes obtaining a Raman spectrum of a selected portion of the eye and monitoring the Raman spectrum to ascertain a change to the dynamics of the blood brain barrier.Also, non-invasive methods for determining the brain or blood level of an analyte of interest, such as glucose, drugs, alcohol, poisons, and the like, comprises: generating an excitation laser beam at a selected wavelength (e.g., at a wavelength of about 400 to 900 nanometers); focusing the excitation laser beam into the anterior chamber of an eye of the subject so that aqueous humor, vitreous humor, or one or more conjunctiva vessels in the eye is illuminated; detecting (preferably confocally detecting) a Raman spectrum from the illuminated portion of the eye; and then determining the blood level or brain level (intracranial or cerebral spinal fluid level) of an analyte of interest for the subject from the Raman spectrum. In certain embodiments, the detecting step may be followed by the step of subtracting a confounding fluorescence spectrum from the Raman spectrum to produce a difference spectrum; and determining the blood level and/or brain level of the analyte of interest for the subject from that difference spectrum, preferably using linear or nonlinear multivariate analysis such as partial least squares analysis. Apparatus for carrying out the foregoing methods are also disclosed.
Full Text Available Nonprofit social service organizations in America originally relied on private donations and charitable events to sustain their operations. As the number of nonprofit organizations has proliferated over the last few decades, so has nonprofit dependency on governmental and other sources of revenue. A case study design was used to examine factors that have impacted the survival of the original Indiana Youth Service Bureaus. This study highlights salient factors that influence survival and explores the characteristics and circumstances of selected organizations that enhance their sustainability. The findings suggest that social work administrators need to foster long-term relationships with local funders as a means of enhancing organizational survival.
Johansen, Kirsten L.; Romano, Patrick S.; Chertow, Glenn M.; Mu, Yi; Ishida, Julie H.; Grimes, Barbara; Kaysen, George A.; Nguyen, Danh V.
Summary Background and objectives The vast majority of US dialysis facilities are for-profit and profit status has been associated with processes of care and outcomes in patients on dialysis. This study examined whether dialysis facility profit status was associated with the rate of hospitalization in patients starting dialysis. Design, setting, participants, & methods This was a retrospective cohort study of Medicare beneficiaries starting dialysis between 2005 and 2008 using data from the US Renal Data System. All-cause hospitalization was examined and compared between for-profit and nonprofit dialysis facilities through 2009 using Poisson regression. Companion analyses of cause-specific hospitalization that are likely to be influenced by dialysis facility practices including hospitalizations for heart failure and volume overload, access complications, or hyperkalemia were conducted. Results The cohort included 150,642 patients. Of these, 12,985 (9%) were receiving care in nonprofit dialysis facilities. In adjusted models, patients receiving hemodialysis in for-profit facilities had a 15% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 13% to 18%) higher relative rate of hospitalization compared with those in nonprofit facilities. Among patients receiving peritoneal dialysis, the rate of hospitalization in for-profit versus nonprofit facilities was not significantly different (relative rate, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.17). Patients on hemodialysis receiving care in for-profit dialysis facilities had a 37% (95% CI, 31% to 44%) higher rate of hospitalization for heart failure or volume overload and a 15% (95% CI, 11% to 20%) higher rate of hospitalization for vascular access complications. Conclusions Hospitalization rates were significantly higher for patients receiving hemodialysis in for-profit compared with nonprofit dialysis facilities. PMID:24370770
Due to the increased global political importance of the nonprofit sector, its technological support and organizational characteristics have become important fields of research. In order to conduct effective work, nonprofits need to communicate and coordinate effectively. However, such settings are generally characterized by a lack of resources, an absence of formal hierarchical structures and differences in languages and culture among the activists. Modern technologies could help nonprofit networks in improving their working. In order to design appropriate technological support for such settings, it is important to understand their work practices, which widely differ from traditional business organizations. This book aims to strengthen the body of knowledge by providing user studies and concepts related to user centered technology design process for nonprofit settings. The examination of ethnographic studies and user centered evaluation of IT artifacts in practice will further the understanding of design requ...
Full Text Available The past decade has seen an increase in public attention on the role of campaign donations and outside spending. This has led some donors to seek ways of skirting disclosure requirements, such as by contributing through nonprofits that allow for greater privacy. These nonprofits nonetheless clearly aim to influence policy discussions and have a direct impact, in some cases, on electoral outcomes. We develop a technique for identifying nonprofits engaged in political activity that relies not on their formal disclosure, which is often understated or omitted, but on text analysis of their websites. We generate political activity scores for 339,818 organizations and validate our measure through crowdsourcing. Using our measure, we characterize the number and distribution of political nonprofits and estimate how much these groups spend for political purposes.
This guidance is intended to provide non-profit grant recipients with information to ensure that their organizations remain in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Office of Management (OMB) cost principles, and the terms and conditions.
Delia Corina MIHALȚAN
Full Text Available Due to the crucial importance of financial information in the context of a knowledge society like ours, the present paper aims to highlight the typical aspects of the financial information system in nonprofit organizations, for the very reason that, inside it, the financial information is produced, which is so necessary to the decisional process. Starting from the hypothesis that the financial information system is influenced by the features specific of the nonprofit organizations, we have applied a methodological approach that has led us to the formulation of certain conclusions. We have studied the literature, the legislation in this domain and the practical realities of the nonprofit organizations analyzed. We concluded that the financial information system of the nonprofit organizations is structured according to the activities undertaken, the programs assumed, the type of funding, the type of target group, the budget-based activities and the presence of volunteers.
Julia L Carboni; Sarah P. Maxwell
We employ public management relationship theory to examine how nonprofits can effectively engage social media stakeholders in two-way communication. Though many nonprofit organizations have a social media presence, there is variance in how well organizations use social media to engage stakeholders. Simply having a social media presence is not enough to engage stakeholders. We examine Facebook posts of a stratified random sample of youth development organizations to determine what predicts st...
NAIM KAPUCU; FARHOD YULDASHEV; MARY ANN FELDHEIM
This paper tracks changes in the national disaster management system with regard to the nonprofit sector by looking at the roles ascribed to nonprofit organizations in the Federal Response Plan (FRP), National Response Plan (NRP), and National Response Framework (NRF). Additionally, the data collected from news reports and organizational after action reports about the inter-organizational interactions of emergency management agencies during the September 11 th attacks ...
Anheier, Helmut K.; BenNer, Anver
This volume addresses the need to revisit the economic theories from the last two decades that have contributed to the development of a concentrated research agenda on nonprofit organizations. Long neglected as a topic of theorizing and empirical investigation by mainstream economics in particular, these initial theories of nonprofit organizations from the late 1970s and early 1980s continue to shape theoretical and conceptual efforts. Importantly, their influence extends beyond economics and...
Bøhren, Øyvind; Josefsen, Morten G.
This is the authors’ accepted manuscript to the article. Also published at http://www.ssrn.com/ This paper explores whether ownership matters in a fundamental sense by comparing the performance of stockholder-owned firms with the much less analyzed nonprofit firms. No stakeholder has residual cash flow rights in nonprofit firms, and the control rights are held by customers, employees, and community citizens. Accounting for differences in size and risk and comparing only firms in the same i...
The thesis presents about social media in general and social media for non-profit organizations in Vietnam in particular. The writer wanted to explore the disadvantages that non-profits in Vietnam face when using social media and search for recommendations which helps them to use it more efficiently. In the theoretic part, core concepts related to social media were introduced, namely, definition of social media, its types, the popular platforms, situation of social media in Vietnam, pros...
Allard, Scott W; Smith, Steven Rathgeb
Medicaid reimbursements have become a key source of funding for nonprofit social service organizations operating outside the medical care sector, as well as an important tool for states seeking resources to fund social service programs within a devolving safety net. Drawing on unique survey data of more than one thousand nonprofit social service agencies in seven urban and rural communities, this article examines Medicaid funding of nonprofit social service organizations that target programs at working-age, nondisabled adults. We find that about one-quarter of nonprofit service organizations--mostly providers offering substance abuse and mental health treatment in conjunction with other services--report receiving Medicaid reimbursements, although very few are overly reliant on these funds. We also find Medicaid-funded social service nonprofits to be less accessible to residents of high-poverty neighborhoods or areas with concentrations of black or Hispanic residents than to residents of more affluent and white communities. We should expect that the role of Medicaid within the nonprofit social service sector will shift in the next few years, however, as states grapple with persistent budgetary pressures, rising Medicaid costs, and decisions to participate in the Medicaid expansion provisions contained within the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Copyright © 2014 by Duke University Press.
Luize, Ana P; Menezes, Ana Maria B; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Muiño, Adriana; López, Maria Victorina; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Lisboa, Carmem; Montes de Oca, Maria; Tálamo, Carlos; Celli, Bartolomé; Nascimento, Oliver A; Gazzotti, Mariana R; Jardim, José R
Spirometry is the gold standard for diagnosing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although there are a number of different guideline criteria for deciding who should be selected for spirometric screening, to date it is not known which criteria are the best based on sensitivity and specificity. Firstly, to evaluate the proportion of subjects in the PLATINO Study that would be recommended for spirometry testing according to Global initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD)-modified, American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP), National Lung Health Education Program (NLHEP), GOLD and American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) criteria. Secondly, we aimed to compare the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive and negative predictive values, of these five different criteria. Data from the PLATINO study included information on respiratory symptoms, smoking and previous spirometry testing. The GOLD-modified spirometry indication criteria are based on three positive answers out of five questions: the presence of cough, phlegm in the morning, dyspnoea, age over 40 years and smoking status. Data from 5,315 subjects were reviewed. Fewer people had an indication for spirometry (41.3%) according to the GOLD-modified criteria, and more people had an indication for spirometry (80.4%) by the GOLD and ATS/ERS criteria. A low percentage had previously had spirometry performed: GOLD-modified (14.5%); ACCP (13.2%); NLHEP (12.6%); and GOLD and ATS/ERS (12.3%). The GOLD-modified criteria showed the least sensitivity (54.9) and the highest specificity (61.0) for detecting COPD, whereas GOLD and ATS/ERS criteria showed the highest sensitivity (87.9) and the least specificity (20.8). There is a considerable difference in the indication for spirometry according to the five different guideline criteria. The GOLD-modified criteria recruit less people with the greatest sum of sensitivity and specificity.
Full Text Available Many non-profit organizations (NPOs are facing funding cuts and reduction in voluntary donations during the current economic environment. In ensuring the sustainability of these organizations, the Malaysian government is currently promoting collaborative efforts between the government, social organisations and the private sector in providing social services. The potential advantages of such collaborations include, the risks of providing social services are shared between the government, social organizations and the private sector, build positive perceptions of government as enabler for social organizations, capitalise on social organizations’ collective skills, enthusiasm and innovation in providing social services. However, the current reporting requirement for NPOs in Malaysia may give rise to information asymmetry that can hinder such efforts. Hence, this study aims to examine the current reporting practices of NPOs in Malaysia. Based on content analysis of annual reports of 205 NPOs registered with Registry of Societies for the financial year 2011, this study finds that the overall information reported by the NPOs is relatively weak. NPOs also disclosed relatively high non-financial information as compared to the financial information. Hence, there is a need for more comprehensive reporting guidelines for the NPOs that can facilitate the decision-making needs of the relevant stakeholders.
Brown, M.A.; Prindle, B.; Scherr, M.I.; White, D.L.
Nonprofit agencies are a critical component of the health and human services system in the US. It has been clearly demonstrated by programs that offer energy efficiency services to nonprofits that, with minimal investment, they can educe their energy consumption by ten to thirty percent. This energy conservation potential motivated the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to conceive a project to help states develop energy efficiency programs for nonprofits. The purpose of the project was two-fold: (1) to analyze existing programs to determine which design and delivery mechanisms are particularly effective, and (2) to create model programs for states to follow in tailoring their own plans for helping nonprofits with energy efficiency programs. Twelve existing programs were reviewed, and three model programs were devised and put into operation. The model programs provide various forms of financial assistance to nonprofits and serve as a source of information on energy efficiency as well. After examining the results from the model programs (which are still on-going) and from the existing programs, several replicability factors'' were developed for use in the implementation of programs by other states. These factors -- some concrete and practical, others more generalized -- serve as guidelines for states devising program based on their own particular needs and resources.
John R. McCaskill
Full Text Available This study examines social media efforts among environmentally focused nonprofits. A survey of environmentally focused nonprofits revealed that more than half of these organizations receive government funding. Prior research demonstrates social media is an efficient medium in which to simultaneously communicate with multiple stakeholders. However, stakeholder engagement is likely tied with the need to raise funds. From that basis, we discuss social media use among nonprofits and develop hypotheses about differences in social media use among organizations receiving government funds and those not receiving government funds. Our hypotheses are rooted in resource dependency theory (RDT and dialogic communication theory (DCT. We test our hypotheses on data from environmentally focused nonprofits by comparing the levels of social media engagement with varying levels of their total funding provided by government grants to determine if there is a correlation with the level of public engagement via social media. We find the level of engagement on the social media site Facebook is lower for government-funded environmental nonprofits than privately funded ones. The findings of reduced social media engagement and the dependence upon government funding versus private funding supports the precepts of resource dependency theory.
Vernick, J S
Nonprofit organizations play an important role in advocating for the public's health in the United States. This article describes the rules under US law for lobbying by nonprofit organizations. The 2 most common kinds of non-profits working to improve the public's health are "public charities" and "social welfare organizations." Although social welfare organizations may engage in relatively unlimited lobbying, public charities may not engage in "substantial" lobbying. Lobbying is divided into 2 main categories. Direct lobbying refers to communications with law-makers that take a position on specific legislation, and grassroots lobbying includes attempts to persuade members of the general public to take action regarding legislation. Even public charities may engage in some direct lobbying and a smaller amount of grassroots lobbying. Much public health advocacy, however, is not lobbying, since there are several important exceptions to the lobbying rules. These exceptions include "non-partisan analysis, study, or research" and discussions of broad social problems. Lobbying with federal or earmarked foundation funds is generally prohibited.
Full Text Available This paper tracks changes in the national disaster management system with regard to the nonprofit sector by looking at the roles ascribed to nonprofit organizations in the Federal Response Plan (FRP, National Response Plan (NRP, and National Response Framework (NRF. Additionally, the data collected from news reports and organizational after action reports about the inter-organizational interactions of emergency management agencies during the September 11th attacks and Hurricane Katrina are analyzed by using network analysis tools. The findings of the study indicate that there has been an increase in the interactions of the National Voluntary Organizations Active in Disasters (NVOAD network member organizations on par with policy changes in the NRP to involve nonprofit organizations in the national disaster planning process. In addition, those organizations close to the center of the network experienced enhanced communication and resource acquisition allowing them to successfully accomplish their missions, a finding that supports the development of strong network connections.
Troyer, Glenn T; Brashear, Andrea D; Green, Kelly J
Triggered by corporate scandals, there is increased oversight by governmental bodies and in part by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Corporations are developing corporate governance compliance initiatives to respond to the scrutiny of regulators, legislators, the general public and constituency groups such as investors. Due to state attorney general initiatives, new legislation and heightened oversight from the Internal Revenue Service, nonprofit entities are starting to share the media spotlight with their for-profit counterparts. These developments are changing nonprofit health care organizations as well as the traditional role of the risk manager. No longer is the risk manager focused solely on patients' welfare and safe passage through a complex delivery system. The risk manager must be aware of corporate practices within the organization that could allow the personal objectives of a few individuals to override the greater good of the community in which the nonprofit organization serves.
Kapucu, Naim; Healy, Bridget F; Arslan, Tolga
This paper discusses capacity building activities designed for small nonprofits who are members of the Second Harvest Food Bank of Central Florida's ADEPT program. The Second Harvest Food Bank of Central Florida (SHFBCF) is a nonprofit organization that collects, stores and distributes donated food to more than 450 nonprofit partners in Brevard, Lake, Orange, Osceola, Seminole and Volusia counties. This project sought to delineate, design, and implement the capacity building trainings desired by ADEPT member agencies. It also analyzed the relationship between the number of clients served, number of staff, number of volunteers, and the training needs. At the conclusion of the capacity building trainings, data was collected to gauge participants' perceptions of the capacity building trainings and their perceived impact on the effectiveness of the ADEPT Program and its member agencies. The generalizability and applicability of the research results to other small community-based organizations providing social and human services is also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Musso, Giovanni; Gambino, Roberto; Bo, Simona; Uberti, Barbara; Biroli, Giampaolo; Pagano, Gianfranco; Cassader, Maurizio
The ability of the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria of metabolic syndrome to identify insulin-resistant subjects at increased cardiovascular risk is suboptimal, especially in the absence of obesity and diabetes...
Full Text Available The paper is based on international research and on the ongoing research ofthe authors in the field of professionalization of nonprofit organizations. Deskresearch is supported by the analysis of the results of the pilot project of anorganizational development programme in Hungary. The findings of the empiricalresearch serve as a benchmark for the large sample research. Since thepaper gives insight over changes in the operational environment of nonprofitorganizations that are connected to their learning needs and chosen solutions,and brings practical evidence, it contributes to the current research ofprofessionalization of nonprofit sector organizations internationally.
Jorde, Rolf; Sollid, Stina T; Svartberg, Johan; Joakimsen, Ragnar M; Grimnes, Guri; Hutchinson, Moira Y S
In observational studies vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased risk of infections, whereas the effect of vitamin D supplementation in randomized controlled trials is non-conclusive. Five hundred and eleven subjects with prediabetes were randomized to vitamin D3 (20,000 IU per week) versus placebo for five years. Every sixth month, a questionnaire on respiratory tract infections (RTI) (common cold, bronchitis, influenza) and urinary tract infection (UTI) was filled in. Mean baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level was 60 nmol/L. Two hundred and fifty-six subjects received vitamin D and 255 placebo. One hundred and sixteen subjects in the vitamin D and 111 in the placebo group completed the five-year study. Eighteen subjects in the vitamin D group and 34 subjects in the placebo group reported UTI during the study (p vitamin D on UTI was unrelated to baseline serum 25(OH)D level. Supplementation with vitamin D might prevent UTI, but confirmatory studies are needed.
Full Text Available The paper gives an overview of the roles played by the Hungarian nonprofit organizations in the EU accession process. These roles are as follows:• To encourage and organize a dialogue and direct contacts between the “old” and “new” European citizens. • To assist people in becoming informed about and involved in European networks, to build solidarity and develop participative European citizenship. • To tackle the problems which constitute serious obstacles in the way of meeting European standards. The paper also tries to identify the very first impacts of the EU accession on the Hungarian nonprofit sector. The authors detect the implications of the regional approach for the co-operation between nonprofit organizations and analyze whether the Hungarian third sector and its governmental partner institutions are prepared for a prompt reaction to the accessibility of the EU structural funds.
... resources of a given political area. These resources include but are not limited to the air, land, forests... that section, notwithstanding the number of hours that the historic light station is open to the public... institution may qualify as a medical institution. Museum means a public or nonprofit institution that is...
Karen A. Maguire
Full Text Available The objective of this project is to evaluate the current financial and compliance status of an animal welfare nonprofit organization (NPO by: analysis of trends over time using information reported on tax filings (Form 990; vertical and horizontal analyses of financial statements; analysis of trends over time using information from financial statements; reconciliation of financial statements to Form 990; ratio analysis of Form 990 Information; and comparison of reported information to local analogs and national standards. This project is conducted in collaboration with The Chapin Foundation. This research serves as a research service learning project with the participation of Master of Accountancy graduate students at Coastal Carolina University. Once the results are presented, recommendations are given for improving operational efficiency and achieving best practices. These recommendations are presented in the form of both short-term items to be addressed immediately—defined in this study as within 60 days—and long-term items to be undertaken in the future. Resources for applicable standards and requirements are also provided.
Musso, Giovanni; Gambino, Roberto; Bo, Simona; Uberti, Barbara; Biroli, Giampaolo; Pagano, Gianfranco; Cassader, Maurizio
The ability of the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria of metabolic syndrome to identify insulin-resistant subjects at increased cardiovascular risk is suboptimal, especially in the absence of obesity and diabetes. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with insulin resistance and is emerging as an independent cardiovascular risk factor. We compared the strength of the associations of ATP III criteria and of NAFLD to insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction in nonobese nondiabetic subjects. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) >2, oxidative stress (nitrotyrosine), soluble adhesion molecules (intracellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and E-selectin), and circulating adipokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, leptin, adiponectin, and resistin) were cross-sectionally correlated to ATP III criteria and to NAFLD in 197 unselected nonobese nondiabetic subjects. NAFLD more accurately predicted insulin resistance than ATP III criteria: sensitivity 73 vs. 38% (P = 0.0001); positive predictive value: 81 vs. 62% (P = 0.035); negative predictive value 87 vs. 74% (P = 0.012); positive likelihood ratio 4.39 vs. 1.64 (P = 0.0001); and negative likelihood ratio 0.14 vs. 0.35 (P = 0.0001). Adding NAFLD to ATP III criteria significantly improved their diagnostic accuracy for insulin resistance. Furthermore, NAFLD independently predicted HOMA-IR, nitrotyrosine, and soluble adhesion molecules on logistic regression analysis; the presence of NAFLD entailed more severe oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction, independent of adiposity or any feature of the metabolic syndrome in insulin-resistant subjects. NAFLD is more tightly associated with insulin resistance and with markers of oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction than with ATP III criteria in nonobese nondiabetic subjects and may help identify individuals with increased cardiometabolic risk in this population.
Vock, M.; van Dolen, W.; Kolk, A.
While most research on business-nonprofit partnerships has focused on macro and meso perspectives, this article pays attention to the micro level. Drawing on various theoretical perspectives from both marketing and management, this study conceptually relates the outcomes of active employee
M. Vock (Marlene); W.M. van Dolen (Willemijn); A. Kolk (Ans)
textabstractWhile most research on business-nonprofit partnerships has focused on macro and meso perspectives, this paper pays attention to the micro level. Drawing on various theoretical perspectives from both marketing and management, we conceptually relate the outcomes of active employee
Purpose: The purpose of this Delphi study was to explore the views of experts in the field of nonprofit private colleges and universities in the United States to define branding and identify current barriers to branding, to discover how those barriers can be overcome, and to determine what barriers to branding are likely to occur 5 years in the…
English, Leona M.
This article reports on research with eight board members and eight directors of 10 feminist, nonprofit organizations. A Foucauldian poststructuralist reading of the data gives voice to undertheorized aspects of learning in feminist organizations and makes visible the power relationships. It explores women's learned practices of resistance and…
Hoole, Emily R.
The field of education has been shaken by announcements from prominent foundations (Annenberg Foundation, Pew Charitable Trusts, and Atlantic Philanthropies) that higher education will no longer be a high-priority funding area, due, in part, to a lack of measurable results (Marcy, 2003). Similarly, the nonprofit sector has been taken aback by an…
Grattan, Kelly E.
Constituent Relationship Management ("CRM") is defined as an organization-wide strategy designed to enable the organization to better manage, track and steward its constituents. CRM has benefited for-profit enterprises for nearly three decades. In the nonprofit sector, the concept of CRM is fairly new. Despite the increase in CRM…
Daley, John Michael; Angulo, Julio
A model of diversity in nonprofit boards has these elements: use of language to further interests, levels of civic participation, social exchanges and incentives, socialization and acculturation of board members, and board composition and representation. Attention to these elements can foster inclusive, functionally diverse boards. (SK)
Alaimo, Salvatore P.
The role of nonprofit human service executive directors in their organizations' program evaluation process is described. Recognizing that the leader's perspective from within the organization is fundamental to building capacity for and utilizing program evaluation, this study examines 42 executive directors to determine how they view program…
Miron, Gary; Urschel, Jessica L.
This is the third Profiles report to examine nonprofit education management organizations (EMOs). This report is modeled after the 12 annual reports that cover for-profit EMOs. While the number of schools operated by for-profit EMOs grew rapidly in the 1990s and is now leveling off, the data contained in this report illustrate how the number of…
English, Leona M.; Peters, Nancy
This article reports on interpretive research, influenced by a feminist theoretical framework, with 8 women, in their 20s to 60s, who work or volunteer in feminist nonprofit organizations. Particular emphasis is placed on their experience of transformative learning in these organizations; the linkages with the theory of transformative learning;…
Gudz Petro Vasilovych
Full Text Available The necessity of implementing evaluation of effectiveness in non-profit organizations activity is grounded in this article. Shown adaptation EERL approach based on result monitoring. Analyzed one of the activity effectiveness on the example of the civil organization. Evaluation of effectiveness is important as for organizations to improve their services as to present the results for audience.
Aulgur, Jeffrey J.
Organizational effectiveness is a term without a single definition about the nonprofit community; it is difficult to define, much less measure, due to the wide disparity in that community. Inconsistency in the sector leads to an array of hypotheses in the literature addressing organizational effectiveness. Through a comprehensive examination of a…
Study the factors affecting the choice of higher education nonprofit institutions from candidate's view (Case study: Preuniversity students in Qaemshahr) ... approved by using the same external research and opinions of experts and university professors, finally, data from 320 students were analyzed by using SPSS software.
Eden, Rick; And Others
Indirect costs are costs for activities that benefit more than one project and for which it is difficult to determine how much each project should pay. Developed to provide the staffs of foundations and their nonprofit grant applicants with a basic understanding of the issues associated with indirect costs, the guide is based on more than two…
Nilsson, Anne C; Ostman, Elin M; Holst, Jens Juul
tolerance and related variables after a subsequent standardized breakfast in healthy subjects (n = 15). At breakfast, blood was sampled for 3 h for analysis of blood glucose, serum insulin, serum FFA, serum triacylglycerides, plasma glucagon, plasma gastric-inhibitory peptide, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1...... (GLP-1), serum interleukin (IL)-6, serum IL-8, and plasma adiponectin. Satiety was subjectively rated after breakfast and the gastric emptying rate (GER) was determined using paracetamol as a marker. Breath hydrogen was measured as an indicator of colonic fermentation. Evening meals with barley kernel......-kernel bread compared with WWB. Breath hydrogen correlated positively with satiety (r = 0.27; P metabolic risk variables at breakfast...
My main goal in this text is evaluate methods to costs keying and get information from professional experiences of tax consultant and nonprofit organisation. Tax income of nonprofit organisation in ČR is thought to be difficult.
Raul M. S. Laureano
Full Text Available Non-profit organizations have invested in the development of content for their Facebook pages, believing be an efficient and effective means to publicize its mission and raising resources, whether monetary or human. The purpose of this study is to assess the satisfaction of the participants with the Facebook page, and how that satisfaction influences the dissemination of the organization through the word-of-mouth and the donations practices. In this context, a questionnaire was administered to 204 participants that were aware of the Portuguese non-profit organization “Leigos para o Desenvolvimento” (People for Development. The results show that the participants are satisfied with Facebook page of the organization, and that there is influence of satisfaction on the word-of-mouth and on the frequency and amount of donations. However, satisfaction with the Facebook, itself, does not appear crucial to the realization of donations, either in the present or in future as intended. The study focuses only on one organization and includes a sample that may not represent all the population extracts and so inhibit the generalization of the findings to other populations. The paper includes implications for the development of an effective use of the Facebook as a digital marketing tool that can contribute to the sustainability of non-profit organizations. The study confirms the importance of the Facebook as a digital marketing tool that can contribute to the sustainability of non-profit organizations.
Nilsson, Anne C; Ostman, Elin M; Holst, Jens J; Björck, Inger M E
Low-glycemic index (GI) foods and foods rich in whole grain are associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We studied the effect of cereal-based bread evening meals (50 g available starch), varying in GI and content of indigestible carbohydrates, on glucose tolerance and related variables after a subsequent standardized breakfast in healthy subjects (n = 15). At breakfast, blood was sampled for 3 h for analysis of blood glucose, serum insulin, serum FFA, serum triacylglycerides, plasma glucagon, plasma gastric-inhibitory peptide, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), serum interleukin (IL)-6, serum IL-8, and plasma adiponectin. Satiety was subjectively rated after breakfast and the gastric emptying rate (GER) was determined using paracetamol as a marker. Breath hydrogen was measured as an indicator of colonic fermentation. Evening meals with barley kernel based bread (ordinary, high-amylose- or beta-glucan-rich genotypes) or an evening meal with white wheat flour bread (WWB) enriched with a mixture of barley fiber and resistant starch improved glucose tolerance at the subsequent breakfast compared with unsupplemented WWB (P carbohydrates of the evening meal may affect glycemic excursions and related metabolic risk variables at breakfast through a mechanism involving colonic fermentation. The results provide evidence for a link between gut microbial metabolism and key factors associated with insulin resistance.
... nonprofit budget and credit counseling agency. 58.15 Section 58.15 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF... Qualifications for approval as a nonprofit budget and credit counseling agency. (a) Definition of agency. As used in this section the term “agency” means nonprofit budget and credit counseling agency. (b...
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial management standards for nonprofit participants... Financial Matters § 603.620 Financial management standards for nonprofit participants. So as not to force... organization, expenditure-based TIA requirements for the financial management system of any nonprofit...
Kearns, Kevin P.
The Nonprofit Clinic at the University of Pittsburgh gives graduate students the opportunity to serve as management consultants to nonprofit organizations. This article describes the learning objectives, logistics, and outcomes of the Nonprofit Clinic. Bloom's 1956 taxonomy of learning objectives is employed to assess learning outcomes.
Carman, Joanne G.; Fredericks, Kimberly A.
In this article, we explore the evaluation capacity of today's nonprofit organizations. We report the findings of a cluster analysis that suggest that when it comes to evaluation, there are three types of nonprofit organizations. The first type of nonprofit organization is one that, by most accounts, is satisfied with their evaluation efforts.…
... INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Property § 603.685 Management of real property and equipment by nonprofit participants. For nonprofit... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Management of real property and equipment by nonprofit...
Byrne, Tara Marie
This qualitative study explored the key reasons individuals who work in K-12 education nonprofit organizations enter the field of K-12 nonprofit education and their motivations for doing so. The purpose of this study was to find new strategies for recruiting and retaining K-12 education nonprofit employees by examining the obstacles that exist to…
Cleveland, Gordon; Krashinsky, Michael
Nonprofit child care centers are frequently observed to produce child care which is, on average, of higher quality than care provided in commercial child care centers. In part, this nonprofit advantage is due to different input choices made by nonprofit centers--lower child--staff ratios, better-educated staff and directors, higher rates of…
Hartvigsen, M L; Lærke, H N; Overgaard, A; Holst, J J; Bach Knudsen, K E; Hermansen, K
Prospective studies have shown an inverse relationship between whole grain consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes, where short chain fatty acids (SCFA) may be involved. Our objective was to determine the effect of isolated arabinoxylan alone or in combination with whole grain rye kernels on postprandial glucose, insulin, free fatty acids (FFA), gut hormones, SCFA and appetite in subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Fifteen subjects with MetS participated in this acute, randomised, cross-over study. The test meals each providing 50 g of digestible carbohydrate were as follows: semolina porridge added concentrated arabinoxylan (AX), rye kernels (RK) or concentrated arabinoxylan combined with rye kernels (AXRK) and semolina porridge as control (SE). A standard lunch was served 4 h after the test meals. Blood samples were drawn during a 6-h period, and appetite scores and breath hydrogen were assessed every 30 min. The AXRK meal reduced the acute glucose (P=0.005) and insulin responses (P<0.001) and the feeling of hunger (P=0.005; 0-360 min) compared with the control meal. The AX and AXRK meals increased butyrate and acetate concentrations after 6 h. No significant differences were found for the second meal responses of glucose, insulin, FFA, glucagon-like peptide-1 or ghrelin. Our results indicate a stimulatory effect of arabinoxylan on butyrate and acetate production, however, with no detectable effect on the second meal glucose response. It remains to be tested in a long-term study if a beneficial effect on the glucose response of the isolated arabinoxylan will be related to the SCFA production.
Carver, Vivien; Reinert, Bonita; Range, Lillian M; Campbell, Catherine; Boyd, Nicole
Tobacco settlement money can be allocated to nonprofit organizations or government agencies. Both have advantages and disadvantages. Nonprofit organizations may have relatively (a) more efficiency/flexibility, but less accountability; (b) narrower focus, but less experience; (c) more ability to advocate, but more obligations; (d) more independence from tobacco industry influence, but less funding; and, (e) more public trust, but less visibility. The present case study of the Partnership for a Healthy Mississippi focuses on six interconnected areas: education (school and community), raising awareness, advocacy, service, enforcement, and research. In 1999 and 2000, tobacco use declined in Mississippi, even compared to neighboring states. This unique partnership's multifaceted approach to social change probably facilitated this decline.
Full Text Available The kind of realized mission inflows the sensitivity to risk. Among other factors, the risk results from decision about liquid assets investment level and liquid assets financing. The higher the risk exposure, the higher the level of liquid assets. If the specific risk exposure is smaller, the more aggressive could be the net liquid assets strategy. The organization choosing between various solutions in liquid assets needs to decide what level of risk is acceptable for her owners (or donors and / or capital suppliers. The paper shows how, in authors opinion, decisions, about liquid assets management strategy inflow the risk of the organizations and its economicalresults during realization of main mission. Comparison of theoretical model with empirical data for over 450 Silesian nonprofit organization results suggests that nonprofit organization managing teams choose more risky aggressive liquid assets solutions than for-profit firms.
Julia L Carboni
Full Text Available We employ public management relationship theory to examine how nonprofits can effectively engage social media stakeholders in two-way communication. Though many nonprofit organizations have a social media presence, there is variance in how well organizations use social media to engage stakeholders. Simply having a social media presence is not enough to engage stakeholders. We examine Facebook posts of a stratified random sample of youth development organizations to determine what predicts stakeholder engagement. We find the type of Facebook post is a significant predictor of stakeholder engagement. Longer posts also significantly predict increased stakeholder engagement. At the organizational level, having many posts is a significant negative predictor of stakeholder engagement, indicating that users may feel bombarded and are less likely to engage. Increased organizational spending on advertising as a proportion of total budget is positively associated with stakeholder engagement.
Mukhametov Ruslan Salikhovich
Full Text Available The article is devoted to theoretical and methodological study of non-profit organizations. The author proposes to distinguish the concept of “non-governmental organization” and “non-profit organization” (NPO. The article outlines the main features of the NPO. A lot of attention is paid to the typology of these organizations. The author gave an exhaustive scientific analysis of the forms of NPO activities.
Zhongxian Wang; Ruiliang Yan; Qiyang Chen; Ruben Xing
Data mining involves searching through databases for potentially useful information, such as knowledge rules, patterns, regularities, and other trends hidden in the data. Today, data mining is more widely used than ever before, not only by businesses who seek profits but also by nonprofit organizations, government agencies, private groups and other institutions in the public sector. In this paper, the authors summarize and classify the applications of data mining in the public sector into the...
Kolu, S; Parsons, R J
Because of nonprofit hospitals' charitable contribution to communities, the great majority of these nonprofit hospitals deserve their tax-exempt status. In order for them to maintain this status, hospitals must promote their charitable image in the community. The hospital that is successful in promoting this image will benefit in several ways: 1. The citizens of the community will look on the hospital in a favorable light. 2. The local and state government officials will not feel compelled to vigorously pursue hospital tax dollars. 3. Those people in the community who need charity care will know of its availability. 4. New taxing legislation is less likely to be passed if the legislators know that their public is well educated on the benefits the hospitals provide. Over the years, the image of the hospital has become that of a business rather than that of a charitable service organization. The public has been inundated with information by the media on the business of healthcare rather than the social service role of the hospital. In order for nonprofit institutions to survive, they will need to communicate otherwise the public will remain ignorant, and the repercussions could be disastrous.
Heloisa Candia Hollnagel
Full Text Available The Third Sector entities are relevant to attend to social issues, but the advance on the application of information technology in the public sector and the convergence of databases have brought new requirements for accounting professionals. Particularly, the fiscal framework of the National Classification of Economic Activities (NACE or CNAE in Portuguese is a matter with insufficient academic approach or professional regulation. This article analyzes the impact of incorrect framework for the sustainability of social assistance entities, due to changes introduced by Law No. 12.101/2009. This exploratory study is based on literature, field research (questionnaires with 102 entities in São Paulo, analysis of the codes of NCEA National Register of Legal Entities (CNPJ and their registration in the municipal councils. Initial results indicate that most organizations have not yet found the need to registering themselves, which can make it difficult for obtaining resources and enrollment in public agencies, including negative financial impact. The theme is noteworthy to avoid risk penalty for incorrect tax reporting, therefore it is relevant for accountancy professionals of that type of organization.
Full Text Available BackgroundMany studies suggest that the small ubiquitin-like modifier 4 (SUMO4 M55V gene polymorphism (rs237025 may be associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. However, due to other conflicting results, a clear consensus is lacking in the matter.Objective and methodsA meta-analysis consisting of 6,823 subjects from 10 studies was conducted to elucidate relationship between the SUMO4 M55V gene polymorphism and T2DM. Depending on the heterogeneity of the data, either a fixed or random-effects model would be used to assess the combined odds ratio (ORs and their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI.ResultsSUMO4 gene M55V polymorphism was significantly associated with T2DM in the whole population under allelic (OR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.10–1.28, P = 1.63 × 10−5, recessive (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.14–2.23, P = 0.006, dominant (OR: 0.815, 95% CI: 0.737–0.901, P = 6.89 × 10−5, homozygous (OR: 1.415, 95% CI: 1.170–1.710, P = 0.0003, heterozygous (OR: 1.191, 95% CI: 1.072–1.323, P = 0.001, and additive genetic models (OR: 1.184, 95% CI: 1.097–1.279, P = 1.63 × 10−5. In our subgroup analysis, a significant association was found again in the Chinese population, but not in Japanese or Iranian population.ConclusionSUMO4 gene M55V polymorphism may correlate with increased T2DM risk. Chinese carriers of the V allele of the SUMO4 gene M55V polymorphism may be predisposed to developing T2DM.
Hungerford, Catherine; Hungerford, Alice; Fox, Cathy; Cleary, Michelle
The evolution of Recovery-oriented mental health services in Western nations across the globe has given rise to a growth in community-based psychosocial support services, to assist in meeting the diverse needs of consumers. This article reports findings of research that explored the perceptions of community workers who are employed by non-profit organisations and deliver psychosocial support services to support delivery of Recovery-oriented clinical mental health services. The focus of the research reported in this article includes the benefits and challenges encountered by the community workers when working with clinicians. The research was undertaken as part of a single-case embedded study, which evaluated the implementation of Recovery-oriented approaches to the delivery of clinical mental health services in a major urban centre located in south-eastern Australia. Generally, community workers employed by the non-profit organisations perceived the implementation of Recovery-oriented clinical mental health services to be a positive step forward for consumers. Challenges to the delivery of Recovery-oriented services included issues arising from the many different understandings of what it means to experience mental health Recovery, the quality of communication between the community workers and clinicians and the clinicians' lack of understanding of the role of non-profit organisations and community workers. The article concludes with recommendations to address the challenges involved, with a view to improving the partnerships between community workers and clinicians, and the Recovery journey of people with serious mental illness. © The Author(s) 2016.
Koning, P.; Noailly, J.; Visser, S.
This CPB Document provides a framework for the evaluation of non-profit organisations. This framework addresses the question under which conditions, and, if so, in what way non-profits should be stimulated. Essentially, in order to answer these questions, three steps can be followed: (i) identifying
Full Text Available In a complex and challenging background of the whole country, and the NGO sector also, the non-profit organizations are established with the aim of providing public services to communities where they operate, making them as an intermediary between citizens and authorities. In any democratic society these organizations are meant to serve different types of needs and interests of the community, from both a strategic perspective and ethics, that those which are not covered by other categories of institutions and organizations, mean time providing a framework for civic participation, where citizens may participate to the public life.
Jed DeVaro; Dana Samuelson
We use data from the Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality (MCSUI) employer survey to document a new empirical finding that workers are less likely to receive promotions in nonprofit firms than in for-profit firms. We propose an incentives-based explanation for this result and offer empirical evidence that is consistent with our hypothesis. At the heart of our explanation is a tradeoff between the incentive-provision and job-assignment roles of promotions. While for-profit firms must rely on p...
Duque-Zuluaga, Lola C.; Schneider, Ulrike
The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between the concepts market orientation and organizational performance for nonprofit organizations. To understand the nature of this link in the nonprofit context, the authors will discuss and elaborate on the applicability of both concepts to nonprofits. They will develop multidimensional notions of "societal orientation" and "nonprofit organizational performance," which fit the specific operating environment of nonprofit organizations...
Full Text Available Willie H Oglesby, Ken Slenkovich Department of Health Policy and Management, College of Public Health, Kent State University, Kent, OH, USA Background: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act created new requirements for nonprofit hospitals to conduct a Community Health Needs Assessment (CHNA at least once every 3 years, with a significant tax penalty for noncompliance. While some resources exist to help nonprofit hospital leaders conduct various aspects of a CHNA, few reflect the new Internal Revenue Service requirements. Methods: Many different models of CHNAs have emerged over the years. Although each has its unique features, the essential elements of a CHNA include engaging stakeholders, defining the community, gathering sufficient representative data, prioritizing information, and reporting results. In this paper, we expand upon this basic approach by offering a practical step-by-step guide to conducting CHNAs that meets new Internal Revenue Service regulations. Results: We developed and tested this methodology in partnership with several nonprofit hospital systems in Northeast Ohio, USA. In this paper, we discuss our use of the methodology and identify recommendations for other nonprofit hospital leaders. Conclusion: The methodology presented in this paper is a cost-effective approach to satisfying new CHNA requirements and nonprofit hospital leaders should consider using it or modifying it to fit their unique needs. Keywords: Affordable Care Act, CHNA, community benefit, community hospital
Full Text Available This paper maps the web presence of environmental nonprofit organizations (ENPOs in Canada. It focuses upon a sample of 43 websites which were examined in April/May 2009. All of the websites belong to member organizations of the Climate Action Network-Canada, a peak ENPO with collaborative networks in the United States and Europe. Our interest is in examining the extent to which the online activities of ENPOs correspond with a ‘broadcast’ paradigm—based on the principle of one-way information flow—or a two-way ‘dialogical’ paradigm of communication. Special attention is given to addressing the use of social media technologies (Web 2.0 by these ENPOs, including Facebook, Twitter, RSS feeds and blogs. The findings interrogate the tension between instrumental and dialogical forms of communication. They also demonstrate that although there are cases of effective web-based communication by ENPOs, most are not leveraging the potential these technologies afford for constituency engagement, relationship building and conversation. The findings contribute to scholarship on nonprofit communication, environmental communication, social media and public relations.
Hogg, Rachel A; Varda, Danielle
Community networks that include nonprofit, public, and private organizations have formed around many health issues, such as chronic disease management and healthy living and eating. Despite the increases in the numbers of and funding for cross-sector networks, and the growing literature about them, there are limited data and methods that can be used to assess their effectiveness and analyze their designs. We addressed this gap in knowledge by analyzing the characteristics of 260 cross-sector community health networks that collectively consisted of 7,816 organizations during the period 2008-15. We found that nonprofit organizations were more prevalent than private firms or government agencies in these networks. Traditional types of partners in community health networks such as hospitals, community health centers, and public health agencies were the most trusted and valued by other members of their networks. However, nontraditional partners, such as employer or business groups and colleges or universities, reported contributing relatively high numbers of resources to their networks. Further evidence is needed to inform collaborative management processes and policies as a mechanism for building what the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation describes as a culture of health. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Ferreira, Fernanda A.
We investigate endogenous roles in a competition between a nonprofit firm and a for-profit firm in a homogeneous goods market, by allowing two production periods. We find that the Cournot-type equilibrium and one Stackelberg-type equilibrium where the nonprofit firm becomes the follower exist; however, another tackelberg-type equilibrium where the nonprofit firm becomes the leader does not exist.
Stone, M M; Crittenden, W
This article is a guide to over a hundred journal articles on strategic management in nonprofit organizations, published from 1977 to 1992 in nineteen leading general management or nonprofit journals. The guide provides brief summaries of articles, organized into widely accepted strategic management topic areas and research categories. The article indicates areas where substantial foundations of knowledge exist and where such bases are lacking. It distinguishes between works on general nonprofit management and those on empirical research.
Congressional Researcf9 llkk Service Order Code RL30340 CRS Report for Congress Congressionally Charters Nonprofit Organizations ("Title 36...Congressionally Chartered Nonprofit Organizations (Title 36 Corporations): What They Are and How Congress Treats Them 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Congressionally Chartered Nonprofit Organizations ("Title
Julianne Gassman; Dakotah Reed; Angela Widner
.... This study was designed to answer the following question: Do the activities in the Nonprofit Leadership Alliance Student Associations contribute to the learning and leadership development of students...
Full Text Available In this paper we contrast different aspects of non-profit organizations’ performance from the perspective of their funding sources. Based on previous empirical results indicating that sources of funding influence fundraising performance, we extend the existing research to the analysis of overall non-profit organizational performance. We use the social constructivist approach to non-profit performance to discuss contrasts between privately and publicly funded humanitarian organizations in Croatia. Some differences in growth- and development-oriented measures of nonprofit performance for these groups are identified and discussed in the context of future regional research.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the phenomenon of professionalization that is observable in organizations from the nonprofit sector. Empirical research was conducted among Hungarian nonprofit organizations, and the data were collected within the framework of a country-wide survey. Through the analysis of the research results, the paper provides deeper insights into knowledge about professionalization trends in the nonprofit sector. It proves that organizational development positively impacts nonprofit organizations’ improvement of their professionalization level and the members of these organizations.
Ioana – Julieta Josan
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to summarize the strategies and techniques of communication and public relations applied to non-profit sector.The approach of the paper is to identify the most appropriate strategies and techniques that non-profit sector can use to accomplish its objectives, to highlight specific differences between the strategies and techniques of the profit and non-profit sectors and to identify potential communication and public relations actions in order to increase visibility among target audience, create brand awareness and to change into positive brand sentiment the target perception about the non-profit sector.
Chevreul, Karine; McDaid, David; Farmer, Carrie M; Prigent, Amélie; Park, A-La; Leboyer, Marion; Kupfer, David J; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle
To document the investments made in research on mental disorders by both government and nonprofit nongovernmental organizations in France, the United Kingdom, and the United States. An exhaustive survey was conducted of primary sources of public and nonprofit organization funding for mental health research for the year 2007 in France and the United Kingdom and for fiscal year 2007-2008 in the United States, augmented with an examination of relevant Web sites and publications. In France, all universities and research institutions were identified using the Public Finance Act. In the United Kingdom, we scrutinized Web sites and hand searched annual reports and grant lists for the public sector and nonprofit charitable medical research awarding bodies. In the United States, we included the following sources: the National Institutes of Health, other administrative entities within the Department of Health and Human Services (eg, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), the Department of Education, the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Department of Defense, and the National Science Foundation and, for nonprofit funding, The Foundation Center. We included research on all mental disorders and substance-related disorders using the same keywords. We excluded research on mental retardation and dementia and on the promotion of mental well-being. We used the same algorithm in each country to obtain data for only mental health funding in situations in which funding had a broader scope. France spent $27.6 million (2%) of its health research budget on mental disorders, the United Kingdom spent $172.6 million (7%), and the United States spent $5.2 billion (16%). Nongovernmental funding ranged from 1% of total funding for mental health research in France and the United States to 14% in the United Kingdom. Funding for research on mental disorders accounts for low proportions of research budgets compared with funding levels for research on other major health problems, whereas
Stewart, Louis J; Owhoso, Vincent
This article examines the extent of derivative financial instrument use among US nonprofit health systems and the impact of these financial instruments on their cash flows, reported operating results, and financial risks. Our examination is conducted through a case study of New Jersey hospitals and health systems. We review the existing literature on interest rate derivative instruments and US hospitals and health systems. This literature describes the design of these derivative financial instruments and the theoretical benefits of their use by large health care provider organizations. Our contribution to the literature is to provide an empirical evaluation of derivative financial instruments usage among a geographically limited sample of US nonprofit health systems. We reviewed the audited financial statements of the 49 community hospitals and multi-hospital health systems operating in the state of New Jersey. We found that 8 percent of New Jersey's nonprofit health providers utilized interest rate derivatives with an aggregate principle value of $229 million. These derivative users combine interest rate swaps and caps to lower the effective interest costs of their long-term debt while limiting their exposure to future interest rate increases. In addition, while derivative assets and liabilities have an immaterial balance sheet impact, derivative related gains and losses are a material component of their reported operating results. We also found that derivative usage among these four health systems was responsible for generating positive cash flows in the range of 1 percent to 2 percent of their total 2001 cash flows from operations. As a result of our admittedly limited samples we conclude that interest rate swaps and caps are effective risk management tools. However, we also found that while these derivative financial instruments are useful hedges against the risks of issuing long-term financing instruments, they also expose derivative users to credit, contract
McCue, M J; Clement, J P
The authors analyzed the differences in operational and financial performance between 42 matched pairs of for-profit psychiatric hospitals belonging to multifacility organizations and nonprofit psychiatric hospitals for the fiscal years ending in 1986 through 1990. The pairs of short-term hospitals were matched according to location, standard metropolitan statistical area, or wage index. Analyses were based on data on these hospitals from the Health Care Financing Administration. The groups of variables studied included the hospitals' operational performance and productivity, profitability and payer mix, revenue and expenses, and capital structure. Differences in the mean values of the variables for the for-profit hospitals and the nonprofit hospitals were analyzed by pairwise t tests. The for-profit organization hospitals had significantly higher net revenue, lower salary expenses, and higher profits than the nonprofit hospitals. Patients in the for-profit hospitals had longer stays, and these hospitals had fewer full-time employees per adjusted inpatient day and per adjusted discharge. The higher prices and operating margins of the for-profit hospitals belonging to investor-owned systems reflect the profit-maximizing goal of these facilities. The ability of for-profit organization hospitals to achieve economies of scale in expenses, however, was not evident except in the case of salary expenses.
Oleynik Olga Stepanovna
Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of interaction of regional authorities and the institute of socially oriented non-profit organizations that carry out the activity aimed at solving social problems, the development of civil society in Russia. The forms and activities of socially oriented non-profit organizations are systematically presented. The authors reveal the directions and tools for supporting the activities of socially oriented non-profit organizations by public authorities and local self-government bodies. The authors aimed at fixing the peculiarities of organization and conduct of statistical observation over the activity of socially-oriented organizations in Volgograd region. The organizational events were arranged. They were necessary for the conduct of qualitative statistical analysis of the activity of socially oriented organizations. For the first time the official data on the activity of socially oriented non-profit organizations in Volgograd region, including the information on formation and use of money and other property, was received as a result of the statistical observation. The authors focus on the analysis of the sources of money and other property, reveal the composition of income in non-profit organizations of various organizational and legal forms. The forms of work in socially oriented non-profit organizations of Volgograd region and its results as of 2013 are thoroughly studied. The conducted statistical analysis showed that the significant public sector has been established in the region. It provides the necessary public social services, financial or social assistance to the most vulnerable members of society.
... housing project to a nonprofit organization or public body, two independent appraisals will be ordered... public bodies. 3560.659 Section 3560.659 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Housing Preservation § 3560.659 Sale or transfer to nonprofit organizations and public bodies. (a) Sales...
Kisow, Matthew R.
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act, an attempt to reform publicly traded companies that suffered from a series of scandalous failures in the late 1990's, did not apply to nonprofit organizations. Several high-profile scandals which occurred in the nonprofit sector between 1996 and 2002 led lawmakers to make several unsuccessful attempts at mandating that the…
Bridgeland, John M.; McNaught, Mary; Reed, Bruce; Dunkelman, Marc
This report was written to shine a spotlight on the under-reported plight of America's nonprofit organizations and to make recommendations for how the nation can respond. In the wake of the economic downturn, hospitals, nursing homes, nursery schools, senior centers, soup kitchens, and other nonprofit organizations have been hit by a triple…
Full Text Available This article provides information about a Youth Service Bureau’s (YSB experience in collaborating with court officials to expand services and a subsequent funding base. YSBs, like many other nonprofit human service agencies, have found that partnering with local governmental officials, especially judges, can enhance sustainability. Implications for strengthening partnerships between local nonprofits and county judges are discussed.
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonprofit organizations other than educational and state and local governments. 942.705-5 Section 942.705-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Indirect Cost Rates 942.705-5 Nonprofit...
Carvalho, Ana; Melo, Solange; Ferreira, Ana Paula
The non-profit sector is increasingly important, both in terms of the services rendered to society and level of employment provided. As part of a move towards the professionalization of the sector, training is seen as a vital tool for capacity building. Although the training practices of non-profits are fairly well documented in countries like…
Full Text Available In this paper, the authors propose extending the construct of non-profit leadership to accommodate collaborative and transformational themes. The suggestion is that the resultant broader definition accords with the modern context within which non-profits now operate and feeds into a more resilient model of non-profit leadership. The paper begins with a review of emergent trends in leadership theory and the changing context of the non-profit sector. The argument is made that the extraordinary challenges facing the sector signal the need for fresh new perspectives in leadership. The authors then proceed to examine the significance of a nascent non-profit culture point to a re-alignment of the sector that is informed by transformational principles and a values-orientation. The result is said to be a new model of non-profit and public sector leadership that raises important methodological questions which the authors maintain can inform future analyses of the structure, role, and responsibilities of non-profit leadership. Finally, a world of new possibilities is envisioned, one in which non-profit organizations are strategically repositioned to take advantage of a new values-based ethic that is rooted in principles of integrity, increased self-awareness, a collaborative agenda, intentionality, emphasis of followership, cultural competence, and orientation toward the future.
... software lending by nonprofit libraries. 201.24 Section 201.24 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights... copyright for software lending by nonprofit libraries. (a) Definition. A Warning of Copyright for Software... required by that paragraph, the “Warning of Copyright for Software Rental” shall be affixed to the...
Mullins, D.W.; Milligan, V.; Nieboer, N.E.T.
This paper presents the results of an international collaborative study5 of non-profit housing involving researchers6 in three countries using a common methodology to engage the leaders of non-profit organisations themselves in the research process. The paper draws on earlier work on the
... Community Development Financial Institutions Fund 12 CFR Part 1805 Modification of Financial Reporting... CDFI Fund is amending its regulations regarding the financial reporting requirements for non-profit... regulatory action conforms to the financial reporting requirements for non-profit awardees to the statutory...
Pomeranz, W; Rosenberg, S
Home-chore service delivery can provide nonprofit organizations with opportunities for service, employment, training, and economic development. This article describes the ways that such organizations can fund and develop home-chore programs. It examines the five major funding sources and the opportunities for combining program funds to promote comprehensive care. It then discusses issues to consider in competing for contract bids with proprietary providers. Marketing strategies are outlined for each funding source, including which services to offer and how to project a favorable agency image. This section places special emphasis on ways to tap the often overlooked but largest potential client population, the private pay sector. Finally, there are guidelines and projections for preparing budgets.
Jones, Daniel B; Propper, Carol; Smith, Sarah
Why do many firms in the healthcare sector adopt non-profit status? One argument is that non-profit status serves as a signal of quality when consumers are not well informed. A testable implication is that an increase in consumer information may lead to a reduction in the number of non-profits in a market. We test this idea empirically by exploiting an exogenous increase in consumer information in the US nursing home industry. We find that the information shock led to a reduction in the share of non-profit homes, driven by a combination of home closure and sector switching. The lowest quality non-profits were the most likely to exit. Our results have important implications for the effects of reforms to increase consumer provision in a number of public services. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the sustainability report for the communication of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR in a nonprofit organization. To this aim, an Italian case study is analyzed: the Fondazione Renato Piatti Onlus, a nonprofit organization of Social Utility. In the first part, we analyze the CSR for nonprofit organizations and the sustainability report (also called ‘social balance’. In the second part, we present evidence from the case study. The research is exploratory in nature when considering the connection of corporate social responsibility efforts to the nonprofit sector, a qualitative methodology was chosen over quantitative methods. Specifically, the case study was used to show what strategy a nonprofit organization can develop. Nowadays CSR strategies received a growing attention from both businesses and nonprofit organizations but also from the EU which forced large public-interest entities to present a social balance. For nonprofit organizations, applying social responsibility is not a voluntary issue. Nonprofit organizations have an ethical obligation to their stakeholder and to the public to conduct their activities with accountability and transparency. Scholars have increasingly been studying the impact of corporate social responsibility as a business strategy in for-profit companies. However, there is still lack of researches on how nonprofit organizations implement CSR into the strategy. As a consequence of the above remarks, a large part of nonprofit organizations fails to correctly implement a successful long term CSR strategy. The Fondazione Renato Piatti Onlus belongs to that group that has been able to incorporate social responsibility within the organization, then expanding its content into a social report drawn up in accordance with the guidelines of the Italian Agency for the Third Sector.
This paper describes and analyzes the large variation in the proportion of non-profit providers across different welfare areas in Denmark with specific focus on two selected areas: Primary schools and care homes for elderly. With inspiration from niche theory, the aim is to get a deeper insight...... in the characteristics of the institutional framework in the two areas. The main argument of the paper is that non-profit welfare providers cannot be lumped together. It is necessary to take a closer look at both the differences and similarities across areas, but also across non-profit providers and their public...
Twombly, Eric C; Holtz, Kristen D; Stringer, Kimberly
Promotores are community lay health workers, who provide outreach and services to Latinos. Little research on the promotores programs exists and the focus of this article is to identify the challenges faced by community-based nonprofits when implementing promotores programs. To explore this type of program telephone interviews were conducted with ten promotores academic experts and nonprofit executives. The results suggest that implementation challenges fall into three major categories: the lack of standardized information on promotores programs, labor issues, and organizational costs. Future recommendations are made which highlight promotores recruitment and retention strategies, and the development of a clearinghouse of programmatic implementation information for community-based nonprofits.
Sebastian Ion Ceptureanu
Full Text Available This paper analyses sustainability perceptions in Romanian non-profits by investigating 81 non-profits managers and board members. Using a multidimensional sustainability measurement framework, Success Factor Analysis, as a conceptual model, we measured perceptions on 5 critical sustainability factors: People, Business Model, Operations, Strategy and Culture and concluded that there are significant differences in the perceptions of sustainability depending on respondents’ previous failure experiences. While those which previously experienced failure adopt a long-term approach based on marketization, clear accountability standards and rely on strategy, while the others prefer a short-term approach, focused more on non-profits operations and focus on human resources.
... OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Methodology and Formulas for..., “Notice of Preapplication Review Action”, requesting a formal application to the highest ranking... rating/ranking lists. F. Provisions for providing preference to loan requests from nonprofit...
van Wissen, N.; Wonneberger, A.
Although Facebook provides organizations with the opportunity to easily engage with stakeholders online, very little is known about the effectiveness of organizational communication strategies. This study examines how nonprofit organizations (NPOs) use Facebook to engage with stakeholders through
Weighing the corporate against the nonprofit governance model, the answer may be "neither." Both systems can learn from each other, experts say, and best practices in public companies do not automatically translate to health care boards.
Delia Corina MIHĂLŢAN
Full Text Available The paper work is based on the hypothesis that the financial analysis is insufficient when it comes to reflecting the performance of nonprofit organizations. Our main argument is the social purpose of non-profit organization, which is the reason why the analyst has to find optimal solutions for analyzing their performance while taking into account their social impact. Our research focused on the conceptualizations of the performance of non-profit organizations and the adequacy of the existing models for analyzing it. The research results refer to the limits of financial analysis regarding the performance of non-profit organizations because it can only offer relevant information regarding its effectiveness.
Full Text Available This inquiry contributes to the literature on the development of “nonprofit marketing thought” by describing how the field’s early period established a legacy effect on nonprofit marketing scholarship to the present day. This qualitative work uses a wide variety of sources from a protracted historical period in order to more fully inform a perspective on the relevant issues that have influenced the development of nonprofit marketing scholarship. The investigation suggests that, although the debate on whether or not marketing is a science was nominally resolved years ago, the origins of marketing scholarships as an applied business discipline remain influential. The effects on this influence is a body of research that is fragmented, conflicted, sometimes invalid, and has produced few general theories indicative of a social science. Recommendations are offered for improving the quality of nonprofit marketing scholarship.
Alnoor Ebrahim, assistant professor of urban affairs and planning at Virginia Tech's Washington-Alexandria Architecture Center in Alexandria, Va., will be awarded the 2003 "Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly" Article Award from the Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action at their annual conference in Colorado on Nov. 21. He was one of two recipients of this award and wins a $500 cash prize for his article, "Information Struggles: The Role of Information ...
Full Text Available The present paper deals with the characteristics of nonprofit organizations. It has been written in the literature about how they are defined by various typical aspects. But this paper aims to test the following hypothesis: the characteristics of the nonprofits have a significant impact on their departments and influence the entity to the microeconomic level and its relationships with the social and economic environment.
Fabrício Martins Lacerda
Full Text Available As they strive towards greater professionalism in carrying out their activities, non-profit organizations (NPOs have begun paying attention to project management. The non-profit sector (NPS has also begun to adopt strategic planning techniques, thus making the acceptance of project portfolio management (PPM methodology a natural consequence. This article aims to propose a project portfolio management model adapted to the context of NPOs.
Social media could help nonprofit communities to organize their communication with their members in new and innovative ways. This could contribute to sustaining or improving the participation of members within these communities. Yet little is known of how to measure and understand the offline community effects of social media use. Therefore, the main question of this study is: “How does the use of social media by members of nonprofit communities affect their offline participation?” The Social...
Storhannus, Peter; Larsson, Linnéa
Abstract Type of thesis: Bachelor thesis Number of pages: 98 Title: Understanding leadership in successful Non-profit organizations: a case-study of IKSU Authors: Linnéa Larsson, Peter Storhannus Supervisor: Jessica Eriksson Date: 2008-01-24 Summary: Most leadership research has made within regular corporations or public sector organizations in the business world. However, the research on leadership in the non-profit organizations (NPOs) has been scarce even though these organizations play an...
James D. Hess; Arnold C. Bacigalupo
Non-profit organizations and leaders may benefit from the utilization of behaviors attributed to emotional intelligence. The consideration of emotional intelligence skills becomes a strategy for the development of the non-profit organizational leader’s ability to assess the impact and consequences of decisions, while simultaneously improving the quality and effectiveness of the decision-making process. The purpose of this paper is to identify how emotional intelligence skills can be applied t...
Murphy, Haley; Pudlo, Jason
Community-based organizations, such as nonprofit organizations (NPOs) and churches, play an important role in helping individuals and communities bounce back after a disaster. The nature of disasters requires organizations across sectors to partner together to provide recovery services; however, collaboration is difficult even in times of stability and requires trust and communication to be built through prior collaborative relationships. These prior relationships rarely exist between the majority of the nonprofit sector, churches, and existing emergency management structures. Furthermore, these organizations often have very different cultures, values, and norms that can further hinder successful postdisaster collaboration. The authors use data collected from interviews with nonprofit and church leaders involved in recovery efforts after a series of devastating storms impacted central Oklahoma in 2013 to understand how well nonprofit and church leaders perceive their organizations collaborated with each other and with government and emergency management agencies in response and recovery efforts. Interview data suggest that NPOs and churches without a primary or secondary mission of disaster response and recovery have a difficult time collaborating with organizations involved in existing emergency management structures. The authors suggest that nonprofits with a primary or secondary purpose in disaster response are a potential bridge between other nonprofits and emergency management agencies.
Laureane du Plessis
Full Text Available Purpose and objective: The purpose of this paper is to provide a better understanding of different generations' supporting behaviour towards non-profit organisations (NPOs. It more specifically focuses on uncovering the different methods with which the generations support NPOs; how frequently they support NPOs; the type of NPOs that they prefer supporting; and the reasons why they support NPOs. Problem Investigated: Non-profit organisations (NPOs are facing greater challenges than ever before. They have to compete with a growing number of other NPOs for donations and volunteers. Their traditional support from Baby Boomers is declining as this generation grows older and supports NPOs to a lesser extent than before. NPOs are therefore compelled to pay more attention to younger generations as a possible donor base and source for volunteers. It is therefore critical for an NPO that wishes to survive and prosper to understand the supporting behaviour of the different generations in order to successfully target them to grow the donor and volunteer base. Methodology: A descriptive research design was followed. A self-administered questionnaire was fielded amongst a target population that included Baby Boomers, Generation X and Generation Y consumers residing in Gauteng who have supported an NPO in the previous year. Quota sampling was used to ensure that equal numbers of respondents from the different generations were included, while each quota was filled on the basis of convenience to collect 602 responses for analysis. Findings: The results reveal significant associations between the different generations and different supporting behaviours. Significant differences were also uncovered between the different generations and the reasons for supporting NPOs. The paper reveals a number of marketing strategies NPOs could follow to encourage supporting behaviour from the different generations. Value of the research: This research provides insights into the
Paluzzi, Joan E
Health care and biomedical research environments in the United States are largely characterized by strategic relational practices conducted beyond the public gaze. The very nature of health care has been widely reconceptualized from a response to physical/biological imperatives regulated by health promotion and the epidemiological distribution of diseases to profit/market imperatives regulated by "product/brand" promotion and market dynamics. At critical decision points throughout the system, we find the multinational pharmaceutical industry wielding the influence that its wealth and power have bought. This study contributes to the growing body of work that seeks to illuminate the relationships between the pharmaceutical industry and the various entities that constitute the U.S. health and research systems. Through the use of case studies, it examines the relationships between the multinational pharmaceutical industry and the large disease-specific public and professional nonprofit organizations. It explores several questions, including: Is the concept of what constitutes a conflict of interest being purposefully manipulated? Is the public benevolence afforded to nonprofits extended to their corporate partners in ways that preclude critical oversight of relational dynamics? And are public donations, solicited by and given in good faith to these organizations, inevitably serving the economic interests and profits of donor pharmaceutical companies?
Karikari, Thomas K; Cobham, Ansa E; Ndams, Iliya S
While advances in neuroscience are helping to improve many aspects of human life, inequalities exist in this field between Africa and more scientifically-advanced continents. Many African countries lack the infrastructure and appropriately-trained scientists for neuroscience education and research. Addressing these challenges would require the development of innovative approaches to help improve scientific competence for neuroscience across the continent. In recent years, science-based non-profit organisations (NPOs) have been supporting the African neuroscience community to build state-of-the-art scientific capacity for sustainable education and research. Some of these contributions have included: the establishment of training courses and workshops to introduce African scientists to powerful-yet-cost-effective experimental model systems; research infrastructural support and assistance to establish research institutes. Other contributions have come in the form of the promotion of scientific networking, public engagement and advocacy for improved neuroscience funding. Here, we discuss the contributions of NPOs to the development of neuroscience in Africa.
Ferrins, Lori; Pollastri, Michael P
Collaborations between academic, industrial, and nonprofit companies can provide sufficient impetus to propel projects that have little economic return; such projects are prevalent in tropical disease drug discovery. In these collaborations, each partner contributes a unique set of skills and technical expertise which is advantageous to the project as a whole. Highly product-focused processes and specialized expertise sets dominate industry groups. When coupled with the strategic guidance from public-private partnerships and the academic tendency to work on high-risk projects with low financial rewards, a powerful combination results. There are numerous examples throughout the literature about these collaborative efforts to combat a variety of tropical diseases (including leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, African sleeping sickness, and malaria), from all stages of the drug discovery process to the advancement of new drugs into the clinic. However, there is still uncertainty from many academic institutions as to how to establish and engage in these research consortiums. This Viewpoint highlights opportunities, benefits, and suggestions for productive collaborations in this disease space.
James D. Hess
Full Text Available Non-profit organizations and leaders may benefit from the utilization of behaviors attributed to emotional intelligence. The consideration of emotional intelligence skills becomes a strategy for the development of the non-profit organizational leader’s ability to assess the impact and consequences of decisions, while simultaneously improving the quality and effectiveness of the decision-making process. The purpose of this paper is to identify how emotional intelligence skills can be applied to enhance the leadership decision-making processes within the non-profit organization. Goleman’s (2001 and Boyatzis’ et al. (2000 four essential elements of emotional intelligence and their associated 20 behavioral competencies are utilized to develop a methodology for the practical application of emotional intelligence skills to leadership decision-making within the non-profit organization. A checklist of questions and observations is provided to assist non-profit leaders in the improvement of emotional intelligence awareness, as well as the application of emotional intelligence skills to decisions and decision-making processes.
Светлана Анатольевна Калашникова
Full Text Available Nonprofit organization is represented as significant resource for support of children with disabilities which helps to resolve social integration problems efficiently. The characteristic of nonprofit foundation for support children and teenagers with developmental delay and also citizens in hard situation named “Psycholog” (eng. Psychologist, which conducts its activity in Chita City, Transbaikal region is considered. The problem of psychological resource of children with disabilities is denoted as the process and result of interaction in system “human- living environment” in the context of the systematic approach.The potential of nonprofit organization is examined as resource of social training of volunteers and of the formation of their social and professional competence. The theoretic and methodological principles defining the professional attitude of nonprofit organization employees and the content of implementable work programs with children with disabilities are revealed. The support of children with disabilities with the help of nonprofit organization specialists is defined as the efficient social-psychological mechanism, providing the adequate implementation of the idea of social integration.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-6-49
Paulo Reis Mourão
Full Text Available Amateur soccer teams are influenced by different local and regional factors from professional soccer teams. This article revisits the literature on the determinants of soccer performance and the sustainability of non-profit organizations. Using panel data techniques, we conclude that the outcomes of non-profit soccer teams depend on specific local markets and on the institutional environments of nonprofit organizations.
Douven, Rudy C H M; Schut, Frederik T
In this paper we examine the pricing behaviour of nonprofit health insurers in the Dutch social health insurance market. Since for-profit insurers were not allowed in this market, potential spillover effects from the presence of for-profit insurers on the behaviour of nonprofit insurers were absent. Using a panel data set for all health insurers operating in the Dutch social health insurance market over the period 1996-2004, we estimate a premium model to determine which factors explain the price setting behaviour of nonprofit health insurers. We find that financial stability rather than profit maximisation offers the best explanation for health plan pricing behaviour. In the presence of weak price competition, health insurers did not set premiums to maximize profits. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that regulations on financial reserves are needed to restrict premiums. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Horwitz, Jill R; Nichols, Austin
Hospitals operate in markets with varied demographic, competitive, and ownership characteristics, yet research on ownership tends to examine hospitals in isolation. Here we examine three hospital ownership types -- nonprofit, for-profit, and government -- and their spillover effects. We estimate the effects of for-profit market share in two ways, on the provision of medical services and on operating margins at the three types of hospitals. We find that nonprofit hospitals' medical service provision systematically varies by market mix. We find no significant effect of market mix on the operating margins of nonprofit hospitals, but find that for-profit hospitals have higher margins in markets with more for-profits. These results fit best with theories in which hospitals maximize their own output.
Full Text Available The paper is focused on the issue of the taxation of incomes of the non-governmental non-profit organizations, especially the civic associations in the conditions of the Czech Republic and in the selected countries of the European Union (Austria, Slovakia, Germany. The main emphasis is put on the comparison of the corporate income tax of the studied countries. Particularly the tax benefits that are provided to the non-profit organizations in the individual countries are compared here. This paper points to the current situation in the Czech Republic, where there is no clear legislation that would regulate the activities by the studied organizations. Changes in the taxation of the incomes of non-profit organizations are designed to eliminate absences with regard to the simplicity and clarity of the individual provisions, and also to prevent misuse of the benefits and to the speculative behavior of tax entities.
Bryson, John M
Creating Your Strategic Plan is the best-selling companion workbook to Bryson's landmark book, Strategic Planning for Public and Nonprofit Organizations. Whether used with the main text or by itself, this thoroughly revised third edition provides a step-by-step guide to putting strategic planning to work in public and nonprofit organizations. The workbook contains new and revised worksheets and additional material on readiness assessment, teamwork, stakeholder analysis, visioning, strategic issue identification, and implementation. Creating Your Strategic Plan covers each of the ten key steps
Injury prevention programs can use social media to disseminate information and recruit participants. Non-profit organizations have also used social media for fundraising and donor relationship management. Non-profit organizations (NPOs) with injury prevention missions often serve vulnerable populations. Social media platforms have varied levels of access and control of shared content. This variability can present privacy and outreach challenges that are of particular concern for injury prevention NPOs. This case report of social media workshops for injury prevention NPOs presents concerns and strategies for successfully implementing social media campaigns. PMID:25157305
... nonprofit organizations to be fully insured. 404.112 Section 404.112 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Insured Status and Quarters of Coverage Fully Insured Status § 404.112 When we consider certain employees of private nonprofit...
Canning, Patricia M.; Lyon, Mary E.; Kienapple, Kim; Young, Jeffrey
Examined how Canadian day care centers are operated and managed, to identify differences in organizational structure and behavior between non-profit and for-profit centers and characteristics of structure and management linked with high quality care. Found that non-profit centers were more complex, more formalized, and less centralized than…
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false System must be nonprofit or operated on a share-crop basis... Requirements Under Section 13(b)(12) The Irrigation Exemption § 780.407 System must be nonprofit or operated on... on facilities of any irrigation system unless the ditches, canals, reservoirs, or waterways in...
Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, Kansas City, MO.
For some time the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation has been studying the attributes that characterize effective nonprofit organizations. These attributes were identified after a review of the literature, discussions with national leaders, meetings with administrators and funders of nonprofit organizations, and the information from case studies by…
Mullins, D.W.; Milligan, V.; Nieboer, N.E.T.
This paper presents the results of an international collaborative study5 of non-profit housing; one of the main alternatives to public housing developed in many countries. The study involved researchers6 in three countries using a common methodology to engage the leaders of non-profit organisations
Many non-profits are looking at ways that they can leverage the Internet to assist in fund raising. Some organizations are using the Internet as a form of e-commerce to accept online gifts, while others are using the immediacy of the Internet for online auctions.
... Counseling Agencies by United States Trustees AGENCY: Executive Office for United States Trustees (``EOUST... nonprofit budget and credit counseling agencies (``credit counseling agencies'' or ``agencies'') satisfy all... preceding the date of filing a bankruptcy petition, the individual receives adequate counseling from a...
The changing environment has shifted the model of nonprofit organizations from charity to social enterprise, which emphasizes partnerships with business and government. Approaches to volunteer management, recruitment, retention, and recognition are different in social enterprises, and a move beyond human resource management practices is required.…
... organizations engaged abroad in disseminating information which significantly promotes U.S. interests. The... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States nonprofit organizations engaged abroad in disseminating information which significantly promotes U.S. interests. 319.6 Section 319...
Cox, Barbara Jean
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to interview women presidents and leaders in private, nonprofit universities regarding commonalities of perceptions and experiences in the leadership role, to examine the meaning of reactive behavior in the perceptions about their role, how they react or behave in their role, and if they perceived gender…
Full Text Available Recent decades have been marked by a rising interaction between the State and nonprofits in order to addressincreasingly complex public issues. Government-nonprofit relations were guided by a complex and diverse legal framework, that transformed not only the implementation of public policies, but also the auditing practices and control of such relations. Previous studies have shown the influence of NPM reforms in auditing practices and institutions, of particular interest to this research is the Theory of the Audit Explosion (TEA. This paper analyzes the control of government-nonprofits relations, under the perspective of the TEA, specifically trying to comprehend if there is a causal relationship between the growth of government-nonprofit relations and the audit explosion in the Brazilian context, as predicted by the theory. A field research, based on documentary data and interviews, was undertaken in three Brazilian SAIs. The conclusions highlight the limitations of the explanatory capacity of TEA in Brazil. Although a formal audit explosion was observed, as predicted by TEA, there are substantive barriers to the audit explosion. This is mainly due to the organizational and institutional aspects related to governmental fund transfer entities. Such problems reflect the poor quality of the partnerships themselves and might be a consequence of political variables such as the spurious relationships of some parliamentary members or public employees with partner NGOs.
Broom, Lowell S.; Thornton, Jeremy P.; Carson, Charles M.
Social Entrepreneurship (SE) programs have been expanding over the past decade. The emergence of this new discipline can be attributed to two overlapping factors. Students (particularly business students) have expressed an increased desire to blend values, ethics and social causes into their own vocations. At the same time, the nonprofit and…
Berry, Marva L.
Expectations for nonprofit organizations (NPOs) continue to increase. Additionally, it is difficult to successfully carry out the mission of organizations while dealing with decreased funding and reduced staffing. NPOs need to be operationally consistent and precise to achieve pre-defined measures of success. Many factors impact…
Heemskerk, K.; Heemskerk, E.M.; Wats, M.
There is an increased awareness that the performance of boards (good governance) is not only determined by structural determinants but by behavioral determinants as well. These behavioral determinants might be particularly important for public and nonprofit governance, where the role of the board is
Vock, M.; van Dolen, W.; Kolk, A.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore consumers' responses to social alliances, a specific type of corporate social marketing in which companies cooperate with non-profit organizations. This paper extends previous studies that suggested that a social marketing effort may be a
Nieboer, N.; Kroese, R.; Straub, A.
Many studies on policy implementation have emphasized the difficulties of putting policies into practice. The paper presents several ways in which Dutch non-profit housing providers incorporate their energy saving policies in their ‘regular’ housing management regarding the existing stock, such as
Nieboer, N.E.T.; Gruis, V.H.
After the abolishment of object subsidies for housing construction and renovation in the mid1990s, Dutch housing associations, the main non-profit housing providers in the country, heavily relied on market activities, such as selling homes to owner-occupiers, to generate income for their social
Ferreira, Fernanda A.
In this paper, we consider a Cournot competition between a nonprofit firm and a for-profit firm in a homogeneous goods market, with uncertain demand. Given an asymmetric tax schedule, we compute explicitly the Bayesian-Nash equilibrium. Furthermore, we analyze the effects of the tax rate and the degree of altruistic preference on market equilibrium outcomes.
Miron, Gary; Urschel, Jessica L.; Yat Aguilar, Mayra A.; Dailey, Breanna
While past annual "Profiles" reports have focused on either for-profit EMOs (education management organizations) or nonprofit EMOs, this is the first annual "Profiles" report to cover both categories in a single report which allows for easier comparisons. The 2010-2011 school year marked another year of relatively slow growth in the for-profit…
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suppliers of services-privately owned commercial suppliers and nonprofit organizations. 228.53 Section 228.53 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES ON SOURCE, ORIGIN AND NATIONALITY FOR COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY USAID Waivers § 228.53 Suppliers of...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modified weighted guidelines method for nonprofit organizations other than FFRDCs. 215.404-72 Section 215.404-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY...
Eckerd, Adam; Moulton, Stephanie
Evaluating the performance of nonprofit organizations has been of growing importance for the last several decades. Although there is much good that can come out of self-improvement, there is substantial heterogeneity within the sector that calls into question the usefulness of "across the board" evaluation tools. In this article, the authors…
... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative agreements with private nonprofit organizations. 361.31 Section 361.31 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION SERVICES PROGRAM State Plan...
... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplementary accounts required of nonprofit organizations. 1770.16 Section 1770.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTING REQUIREMENTS FOR RUS TELECOMMUNICATIONS BORROWERS Uniform System of Account...
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Do the general grant regulations for nonprofit organizations apply to TAGs? 35.4011 Section 35.4011 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Technical Assistance General § 35.4011 Do the general...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false OMB Circular A-122, cost principles for nonprofit organizations; USAID implementation. 731.770 Section 731.770 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With...
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standards for purchasing systems of nonprofit organizations. 603.705 Section 603.705 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Purchasing § 603.705 Standards for purchasing...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of nonprofit organizations and public-private partnerships. 1006.335 Section 1006.335 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonprofit organizations other than educational and state and local governments. 42.705-5 Section 42.705-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Indirect Cost Rates 42.705-5...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Promoting excess food donation to nonprofit organizations. 52.226-6 Section 52.226-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.226-6...
Full Text Available Financial statements (balance sheet, profit and loss statement intended for profit and non-profit organizations have large number of differences in terms of content of individual items and also with regard to their formal structure. This is due to the existence of different types of accounting entities for which there are created sets of accounting rules. Need for separate set of accounting rules results from their objectives, management rules, performed activities and certain specific of costs, revenues, assets and liabilities. The differences found on the basis of comparative analysis in this paper are evaluated and subsequently there are recommended changes of the statements so that they would be more useful for the purposes of economic analysis. The paper also identified problems that arise in connection with the evaluation of the efficiency of this type of organizations and subsequently there are recommended tools of financial analysis suitable for evaluation of non-profit organizations and the specifics of non-profit sector are pointed out. The paper presents also the proposal to change the Decree 504/2002 Coll. so as to avoid distortion of financial statement closing of non-profit organizations, and also with regard to their higher explanatory power.
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contracts for research with educational institutions and nonprofit organizations. 35.015 Section 35.015 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.015 Contracts for research...
Coughlin, J.; Grove, J.; Irvine, L.; Jacobs, J. F.; Johnson Phillips, S.; Sawyer, A.; Wiedman, J.
This guide is organized around three sponsorship models: utility-sponsored projects, projects sponsored by special purpose entities - businesses formed for the purpose of producing community solar power, and non-profit sponsored projects. The guide addresses issues common to all project models, as well as issues unique to each model.
The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of gendered communication on women's behavioral intentions regarding nonprofit and for-profit entrepreneurship. Women represent half of the U.S. workforce, but only about one third of all American entrepreneurs are women. Feminists have argued that because entrepreneurship is largely understood…
Mittelstaedt, H. Fred; Morris, Michael H.
This study shows that graduates from nonprofit educational institutions outperform graduates from for-profit institutions on the four sections of the certified public accountant (CPA) exam. Specifically, it (1) documents univariate differences in CPA exam scores, score distributions, pass rates, and time to complete the CPA exam; (2) investigates…
Stewart, Louis J
This article examines the recent trends (2006 to 2009) in capital spending among 25 of the largest nonprofit health systems in the United States and analyzes the financing sources that these large nonprofit health care systems used to fund their capital spending. Total capital spending for these 25 nonprofit health entities exceeded $41 billion for the four-year period of this study. Less than 3 percent of total capital spending resulted in mergers and acquisition activities. Total annual capital spending grew at an average annual rate of 17.6 percent during the first three year of this study's period of analysis. Annual capital spending for 2009 fell by more than 22 percent over prior year's level due to the impact of widespread disruption in US tax-exempt variable rate debt markets. While cash inflow from long-term debt issues was a significant source of capital financing, this study's primary finding was that operating cash flow was the predominant source of capital spending funding. Key words: nonprofit, mergers and acquisitions (M&A), capital spending, capital financing.
Craft, Jana L.
Using an exploratory case study approach, this research examined the consistency between espoused and enacted values within a large nonprofit organization known as an ethical leader in the human services industry. This research explored ethical business culture, ethical decision making, deontological and utilitarian moral paradigms and learning…
Zorn, Theodore E.; Flanagin, Andrew J.; Shoham, Mirit Devorah
In this study, nonprofit organizations (NPOs) in New Zealand were surveyed to explore influences on adoption and use of information and communication technologies (ICTs). We sought to extend existing research by considering "institutional" influences alongside organizational and environmental features and by examining how institutional…
... property and equipment? 37.690 Section 37.690 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Property § 37.690 How are nonprofit...
Krasnopolskaya, I.; Skokova, Y.; Pape, U.D.
Government–nonprofit cooperation has been an issue of considerable debate in public management literature. Most studies have focused on Western countries where collaborative forms of government have become a core element in the provision of social services. Less is known about transitional countries
Social media could help nonprofit communities to organize their communication with their members in new and innovative ways. This could contribute to sustaining or improving the participation of members within these communities. Yet little is known of how to measure and understand the offline
Boogaard, C.R.; Fransen, M.L.; Eisend, M.; Langner, T.
In the present research we examined a variety of strategies that consumers may use to resist persuasion towards non-profit and commercial advertising. Based on research by Jacks and Cameron (2003), we investigated seven strategies (i.e., attitude bolstering, counter arguing, negative affect,
Bolton, Elizabeth B.; Brennan, M. A.; Terry, Bryan D.
This article highlights how undergraduate students implemented inquiry-based learning strategies to learn how nonprofit organizations utilize volunteers. In inquiry-based learning, students begin with a problem or question with some degree of focus or structure provided by the professor. The student inquiry showcased in this article was based on a…
Bennike, Søren; Ottesen, Laila
serving as an interest organisation holding and representing the clubs. Yet their organisational peculiarities build on different non-profit regimes due to their different positions in civil society, not least their different state-subsidised cash flows rooted in different rationales. These different...
Calland, David R.
The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate the similarity between the human resource strategies (benefits, due process, employee participation, employee skill level, general training, job enrichment, social interactions, wages) currently utilized at a private, nonprofit university in Virginia, and those reported in the research…
... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What cost principles do I require a nonprofit... DEFENSE DoD GRANT AND AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Award Terms Affecting Participants' Financial, Property, and Purchasing Systems Financial Matters § 37.635 What cost principles do I...
Small non-profit organizations outsource at least one information technology or information assurance process. Outsourcing information technology and information assurance processes has increased every year. The study was to determine the key reasons behind the choice to outsource information technology and information assurance processes. Using…
Young, Dennis R.
Chronicles the evolution of management education for the nonprofit sector from the early 1980s, and discusses program design. No one dominant model has emerged, but four scenarios for future development of the field are explored: integration with business administration; integration with public administration; development of a separate field of…
Wiepking, P.; Bekkers, R.H.F.P.; Osili, U.O.
Why do citizens in religious groups and more religious countries give money to charitable causes? In this article we aim to theoretically and empirically unravel the influence of religious composition on giving to non-profit organizations across countries. Building on theories and research in
Fox, Daniel M
POLICY POINTS: Health policy in the United States has, for more than a century, simultaneously and paradoxically incentivized the growth as well as the commercialization of nonprofit organizations in the health sector. This policy paradox persists during the implementation of the Affordable Care Act of 2010. For more than a century, policy in the United States has incentivized both expansion in the number and size of tax-exempt nonprofit organizations in the health sector and their commercialization. The implementation of the Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA) began yet another chapter in the history of this policy paradox. This article explores the origin and persistence of the paradox using what many scholars call "interpretive social science." This methodology prioritizes history and contingency over formal theory and methods in order to present coherent and plausible narratives of events and explanations for them. These narratives are grounded in documents generated by participants in particular events, as well as conversations with them, observing them in action, and analysis of pertinent secondary sources. The methodology achieves validity and reliability by gathering information from multiple sources and making disciplined judgments about its coherence and correspondence with reality. A paradox with deep historical roots persists as a result of consensus about its value for both population health and the revenue of individuals and organizations in the health sector. Participants in this consensus include leaders of governance who have disagreed about many other issues. The paradox persists because of assumptions about the burden of disease and how to address it, as well as about the effects of biomedical science that is translated into professional education, practice, and the organization of services for the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and management of illness. The policy paradox that has incentivized the growth and commercialization of nonprofits in
Frisella, Margaret M
Surgical Outreach for the Americas is a 501(c)3 nonprofit organization providing surgical care to those in need in developing countries of the Western Hemisphere. Every year since its inception in 2008, teams of surgeons, nurses, and allied health professionals have traveled to areas of need and performed primarily hernia repair surgeries for those without access to affordable health care. Surgical Outreach for the Americas (SOfA) began as a general concept based on World Health Organization statistics claiming that 11% of the global burden of disease can be resolved via surgery. Armed with this information, a group of compassionate and selfless health care professionals planned the first trip, to the Dominican Republic, in January 2009. Building on what was first just an ambition to help others, we now also train surgeons, surgery residents, and nurses in the countries we serve. To date, SOfA has successfully treated 734 patients, with 899 total surgical procedures performed (693 of these under general anesthesia). These procedures include inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, testicular masses, orchiectomies, and various general surgical procedures. Through the efforts of a great many talented individuals and robust fundraising efforts, the SOfA message continues to gain momentum. SOfA not only considers the health and well-being of the disadvantaged through capacity-building efforts but strives to educate and improve the skills of health care professionals in the countries we visit. Our goal is to increase the number of missions each year and begin a 2-fold educational program that (a) provides surgical resident education through participation in mission work and (b) provides local surgeon education in the areas served. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Damman, Marleen; Heyse, Liesbet; Mills, Melinda
Although one can assume the work values within nonprofit organizations promote gender equality in promotion decisions, there is preliminary evidence that in the nonprofit sector women are underrepresented in higher management positions. Whereas the mechanisms resulting in underrepresentation of
L B Mzini
Full Text Available Globally, there is growing recognition of participatory public expenditure management (PPEM. PPEM is seen as the process whereby citizens and civil society organisations participate in the management of public expenditures. The adoption of PPEM is aimed at ensuring greater transparency, better targeting and tracking of resources, and increased overall responsiveness. The Gauteng Department of Health and Social Development (GDHSD is committed to co-operative governance; this includes working with different spheres of government and civil society or non-profit organisations (NPOs. NPOs are required to have a governing committee to manage funds allocated by GDHSD. The committee has the capacity to hold the NPO management accountable for the resources (financial and material entrusted to it by the GDHSD. The effectiveness of NPOs is challenged by poor attendance of board members at meetings, poor understanding of the board’s mandate and responsibilities and lack of experience amongst members. The paradigm of PPEM is still faced with challenges to ensure that significant flows of revenue are accounted for and used effectively for growth and poverty reduction. This study is divided into three components. The first section focuses on the background, the introduction and the conceptual framework. The second part focuses on the empirical study for deriving a benchmark for the South African NPO sector. The third section highlights good practices as well as governance-related challenges. Finally, for further consideration by the GDHSD, a series of recommendations is provided, focusing on how key domestic stakeholders can better contribute to successful participatory budgeting programmes. Keywords: Participatory public expenditure management, non-profit organisations, pro-poor spending, public finance, public financial management, early childhood development. Disciplines: Public Management and Administration, Public Financial Management
... subject inventions. 401.8 Section 401.8 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR TECHNOLOGY POLICY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RIGHTS TO INVENTIONS MADE BY NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS AND SMALL... utilization of subject inventions. (a) Paragraph (h) of the clauses at § 401.14 and its counterpart in the...
Moran, Kenneth A
Recent changes in the United States (US) economy have radically disrupted revenue generation among many institutions within higher education within the US. Chief among these disruptions has been fallout associated with the financial crisis of 2008-2009, which triggered a change in the US higher education environment from a period of relative munificence to a prolonged period of scarcity. The hardest hit by this disruption have been smaller, less wealthy institutions which tend to lack the necessary reserves to financially weather the economic storm. Interestingly, a review of institutional effectiveness among these institutions revealed that while many are struggling, some institutions have found ways to not only successfully cope with the impact of declining revenue, but have been able to capitalize on the disruption and thrive. Organizational response is an important factor in successfully coping with conditions of organizational decline. The study examined the impacts of organizational response on institutional effectiveness among higher education institutions experiencing organizational decline. The study's research question asked why some US higher educational institutions are more resilient at coping with organizational decline than other institutions operating within the same segment of the higher education sector. More specifically, what role does organizational resilience have in helping smaller, private non-profit institutions cope and remain effective during organizational decline? A total of 141 US smaller, private non-profit higher educational institutions participated in the study; specifically, the study included responses from participant institutions' key administrators. 60-item survey evaluated administrator responses corresponding to organizational response and institutional effectiveness. Factor analysis was used to specify the underlying structures of rigidity response, resilience response, and institutional effectiveness. Multiple regression
Holcomb, K E; Stull, C L; Kass, P H
Closure of US equine slaughter facilities in 2007 along with the concomitant economic recession have contributed to a sharp increase in the number of unwanted horses throughout the United States, with estimates totaling 100,000 horses per year. The objective of the study was to obtain comprehensive data regarding nonprofit organizations caring for unwanted horses, along with the characteristics and outcome of horses relinquished to these organizations. Nonprofit organizations that accept relinquished equines were contacted to participate in a 90-question survey. Responding organizations (144 of 326 eligible) in 37 states provided information on 280 cases representative of the 7,990 horses relinquished between 2007 and 2009. Data collected characterized these organizations as being in existence for 6 yr, financially supported through donations and personal funds, dedicated to the care of only 10 to 20 horses on a property of just over 30 acres, and reliant on volunteers for help. Funding was the greatest challenge to continued operation of nonprofit equine organizations, with maintenance costs for the care of a relinquished horse averaging $3,648 per year. Financial hardship, physical inability, or lack of time to care for the horses by owners were the most common reasons for relinquishment, followed by seizure through law enforcement agencies for alleged neglect or abuse. Relinquished horses consisted of mostly light horse breeds (79.3%), with Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses as the most represented breeds. The age of relinquished horses ranged from 3 d to 42 yr old (12.4 ± 0.5 yr). About one-half of the horses entered in the survey were considered unhealthy due to illness, injury, lameness, or poor body condition. For every 4 horses relinquished to a nonprofit organization, only 3 horses were adopted or sold between 2006 and 2009, and many organizations had refused to accept additional horses for lack of resources. The estimated maximum capacity for the 326
Mário Aquino Alves
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to understand the impact of the new Brazilian legislation regulating partnerships between the State and Civil Society (Nonprofit Organizations between 1999 and 2002. The passing of Law No. 9790/99 – known as the Nonprofit Law – created the legal concept of Organizações da Sociedade Civil de Interesse Público – OSCIPs (Public Interest Civil Society Organizations. Based on an exploratory survey, this study, using the Institutional Theory, allowed the analysis of how older organizations (NGOs and traditional social benefit organizations resisted to the adoption of the OSCIP standard due to organizational inertia, while acceptance of the model was greater among younger organizations, in a clear coercive and normative isomorphic development.
Juaneda-Ayensa, Emma; Clavel San Emeterio, Mónica; González-Menorca, Carlos
From an Organizational Behavior perspective, it is important to recognize the links generated between individuals and the organization that encourage a desire for permanence. After more than a half century of research, Organizational Commitment remains one of the open questions in the Psychology of Organizations. It is considered an essential factor for explaining individual behavior in the organization such as satisfaction, turnover intention, or loyalty. In this paper, we analyze different contributions regarding the nature of the bond between the individual and the organization. Taking into account the peculiarities of Non-profit Organizations, we present different interpretation for later validation, comparing results from the Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the four models obtained using exploratory factor analysis, both conducted on a sample of 235 members of Non-profit Organizations.
This article examines the implications of revenue changes on the financial condition of nonprofit hos pitals. I examine these implications empirically by studying the effect of changes in Medicare payments in the Balanced Budget Act of 1997. Using data from the Healthcare Cost Report Information System maintained by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services between 1996 and 2004, I show that even though revenue fell significantly, resulting in a decline in profitability, hospitals did not significantly change their capital structure and use of capital. An important implication of this is a higher cost of borrowing for these hospitals, which can affect future capital accumulation and viability. Nonprofit hospitals are a very important part of the healthcare delivery system in the United States. Medicare patients constitute the single largest segment of their revenue sources. Understanding the consequences of the changes in Medicare reimbursement on hospital finances is useful in framing future revisions of Medicare payments.
Huang, Yu-Chao; Lin, Yi-Pin; Saxton, Gregory D
With the rapid proliferation and adoption of social media among healthcare professionals and organizations, social media-based HIV/AIDS intervention programs have become increasingly popular. However, the question of the effectiveness of the HIV/AIDS messages disseminated on social media has received scant attention in the literature. The current study applies content analysis to examine the relationship between Facebook messaging strategies employed by 110 HIV/AIDS nonprofit organizations and audience reactions in the form of liking, commenting, and sharing behavior. The results reveal that HIV/AIDS nonprofit organizations often use informational messages as one-way communication with their audience instead of dialogic interactions. Some specific types of messages, such as medication-focused messages, engender better audience engagement; in contrast, event-related messages and call-to-action messages appear to translate into lower corresponding audience reactions. The findings provide guidance to HIV/AIDS organizations in developing effective social media communication strategies.
Jansson, S Mikael; Benoit, Cecilia; Casey, Lauren; Phillips, Rachel; Burns, David
Although scientists are continually refining existing knowledge and producing new evidence to improve health care and health care delivery, far too little scientific output finds its way into the tool kits of practitioners. Likewise, the questions that clinicians would like to be answered all too rarely get taken up by researchers. In this article we focus on knowledge translation challenges accompanying a longitudinal research program with nonprofit organizations providing direct and indirect health and social services to disadvantaged groups in one region of Canada. Three essential factors influencing authentic and reciprocal knowledge transfer and utilization between nonprofit service providers and researchers are discussed: strong institutional partnerships, the use of skilled knowledge brokers, and the meaningful involvement of frontline personnel.
As has been true historically, the nonprofit acute-care hospital sector continues to play the dominant role in the nation's health care system. At the same time, the role of philanthropy has changed dramatically. A rough calculation suggests that in 1990, philanthropic dollars accounted for only 1% of health care operating costs and 5% of capital expenditures. By contrast, in New York City in 1940, for example, a major voluntary general hospital received 24% of its income from charitable contributions and only 11.6% from government. This article offers an historical analysis of the changing role of philanthropy and nonprofit hospitals in the structure and operation of the U.S. health care system throughout the 20th century and the implications for current policymaking.
Jansson, S. Mikael; Benoit, Cecilia; Casey, Lauren; Phillips, Rachel; Burns, David
Although scientists are continually refining existing knowledge and producing new evidence to improve health care and health care delivery, far too little scientific output finds its way into the tool kits of practitioners. Likewise, the questions that clinicians would like to be answered all too rarely get taken up by researchers. In this article we focus on knowledge translation challenges accompanying a longitudinal research program with nonprofit organizations providing direct and indirect health and social services to disadvantaged groups in one region of Canada. Three essential factors influencing authentic and reciprocal knowledge transfer and utilization between nonprofit service providers and researchers are discussed: strong institutional partnerships, the use of skilled knowledge brokers, and the meaningful involvement of frontline personnel. PMID:19801416
Juaneda-Ayensa, Emma; Clavel San Emeterio, Mónica; González-Menorca, Carlos
From an Organizational Behavior perspective, it is important to recognize the links generated between individuals and the organization that encourage a desire for permanence. After more than a half century of research, Organizational Commitment remains one of the open questions in the Psychology of Organizations. It is considered an essential factor for explaining individual behavior in the organization such as satisfaction, turnover intention, or loyalty. In this paper, we analyze different contributions regarding the nature of the bond between the individual and the organization. Taking into account the peculiarities of Non-profit Organizations, we present different interpretation for later validation, comparing results from the Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the four models obtained using exploratory factor analysis, both conducted on a sample of 235 members of Non-profit Organizations. PMID:28775699
Full Text Available From an Organizational Behavior perspective, it is important to recognize the links generated between individuals and the organization that encourage a desire for permanence. After more than a half century of research, Organizational Commitment remains one of the open questions in the Psychology of Organizations. It is considered an essential factor for explaining individual behavior in the organization such as satisfaction, turnover intention, or loyalty. In this paper, we analyze different contributions regarding the nature of the bond between the individual and the organization. Taking into account the peculiarities of Non-profit Organizations, we present different interpretation for later validation, comparing results from the Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the four models obtained using exploratory factor analysis, both conducted on a sample of 235 members of Non-profit Organizations.
Potter, M A; Longest, B B
Nonprofit hospitals have traditionally enjoyed charitable exemption from real estate taxes because they provide specific social benefits. However, in the past three decades, major health policy changes at the federal level--most significantly, implementation of the Medicare and Medicaid programs--have weakened this rationale. Federal tax regulations during this period have changed in ways that complement these federal health programs and the accompanying federal interests in encouraging efficiency and performance uniformity among hospitals. States and local governments, however, have different interests, and these may favor a strict set of tax exemption standards that disregard efficiency and elevate the importance of a measurable level of charitable service. Their divergent policies rest on a fundamental value judgment about whether nonprofit hospital care is intrinsically charitable or not. Increasingly, this judgment may be forced upon state courts and legislation by local governments seeking new tax revenues through the elimination of hospitals' exemption from real estate taxes.
Full Text Available Public and nonprofit organizations, entwined in the delivery of public goods and services, are in the midst of challenging economic times. In these circumstances, sound collaborative leadership may help bridge budget and program service delivery shortfalls. In this paper, we examine the administrative dynamics of mutual reliance between two prominent public and nonprofit organizations: public schools and parent-teacher groups (PTGs. We conclude that the partnership is changing as a result of external, economic forces. In essence, we are seeing a threat-rigidity response. The economic crisis may be responsible for causing PTGs to narrow their range of activities away from broader strategic issues that can be addressed through their confrontation activities and advocacy mission towards a narrower focus on classroom activities that protect core school operations, namely instruction.
Liu, G.; Chapleo, Chris; Ko, Wai Wai; Ngugi, Isaac K.
Internal branding refers to an organization’s attempts to persuade its staff to buy-in to the organization’s brand value and transform it into a reality. Drawing from self-determination theory and leadership theory, we seek to develop a deeper understanding of the process of internal branding in the nonprofit sector. More specifically, we propose and examine the mediating effects of the staff’s emotional brand attachment, staff service involvement, and the moderating effect of charismatic lea...
Mena, Maria Inês Pereira Coutinho Falcão
A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics Organizational identity, a social and relational process that is continuously happening, plays a key role in organizations’ performance and communication. Achieving a clear and shared organizational identity enables employees’ alignment and the projection of consistent images to external stakeholders. Non-profit organizations are an inter...
Gumbus, Andra; Wilson, Tom
The balanced scorecard has been referred to as the management innovation of the century, and extensive articles have been written using case studies of organizations that use this performance measurement system. This article addresses the key issues of design and implementation with a step-by-step guide to how to design a balanced scorecard and lessons to avoid implementation problems in government and nonprofit settings.
Saxton, Gregory D.; Guo, Chao; Chiu, I-Hsuan; Feng, Bo
In this study, we examine the social networking practices of the 100 largest nonprofit organizations in the United States. More specifically, we develop a comprehensive classification scheme to delineate these organizations' use of Facebook as a stakeholder engagement tool. We find that there are 5 primary categories of Facebook "statuses", which can be aggregated into three key dimensions - "information", "community", and "action". Our analysis reveals that, though the "informational" use of...
Teo, Stephen T T; Yeung, Melissa; Chang, Esther
The main aim of this study is to develop a path model to examine the effect of administrative stressors on nursing work outcomes in a sample of Australian public and non-profit nurses. The implementation of managerial reform initiatives has negative consequences on work outcomes. However, less is known about the effects of these stressors in public and non-profit health care organisations. An online, self-completion questionnaire was sent to a random sample of nurses, employed in nursing-related occupations. Useable surveys were received from 251 nurses. The path model was analysed using SmartPLS software (SmartPLS, Hamburg, Germany). Public and non-profit nurses experienced time and resource administrative-related stressors (such as resource shortage and pay not as good as other people doing similar work). They relied on work-related social support to reduce the negative consequences. Resource stressors led to job dissatisfaction while time stressors led to psychological strain. Nursing staff who reported better psychological health reported higher job satisfaction and higher level of commitment towards their organisations. Context-specific administrative stressors have a negative impact on the work outcomes of public and non-profit nurses. Work-related social support mechanisms were found to mediate the negative consequences of administrative resourcing stressors on nursing job satisfaction. Nursing managers have to be sympathetic and care for the negative experiences of nursing staff, especially when there is an increasing level of administrative expectations during organisational change. Senior management should take note of the stressors caused by the lack of resources such as information, staffing and resources, as these were found to lead to an increase in nurses seeking work-related social support from their peers and supervisors. Effective implementation of these strategies would lead to a nursing workforce, which has higher level of psychological health
Ringer, Allison Catharina
This dissertation addresses the perception of fit in the context of Cause-related marketing (referred to as CRM). The research seeks to develop an understanding of the perception of fit and investigates the role it plays in the evaluation and support for CRM campaigns. This research aims to address the overarching research problem: How does the congruence of nonprofit-forprofit pairings influence consumers' perceptions of fit and consequently their evaluation and support for CRM c...
Doyle, Colleen M
Many Americans do not meet current minimum physical activity recommendations. Although the choice to be physically active is made by individuals, that choice is affected by the social and physical environments in which people live, work, play and learn. Creating environments that are more supportive of physical activity will require policies, practices and programs that individuals may not be able to influence on their own; such changes will require comprehensive, coordinated and collaborative action by a variety of organizational sectors at national, state and local levels. Because of their core-and frequently unique-competencies, many nonprofit organizations are poised to be active players in promoting important changes in policy and community environments that can facilitate lifelong physical activity for all Americans. Review of mission statements and strategic plans of a variety of nonprofit organizations reveal key characteristics and competencies that can be leveraged, frequently across multiple levels and sectors, to promote physical activity. Nonprofit organizations should leverage their unique capabilities, particularly in the areas of advocacy, strategic collaborations and outreach to their membership, volunteer and/or constituent bases to promote policy and environmental changes in support of physical activity.
Mye, Sarah C; Moracco, Kathryn E
As funders continue to emphasize the importance of documented results, nonprofit organizations must work to complete program evaluations that are both valuable and feasible. The purpose of this paper is to document a practical process evaluation of a southeastern nonprofit, a local Meals on Wheels. Using a mixed methods approach, we sought to answer four evaluation questions: (1) What are the essential program components, as identified by key stakeholders; (2) To what extent are volunteers implementing the identified essential components as intended; (3) What is the level of volunteer satisfaction with the program; and (4) What suggestions do stakeholders have for improving the program? Our findings indicate that most aspects of the program were implemented as intended, but inconsistencies occurred when volunteers were unsure of their assigned duties. In addition, volunteers had high levels of satisfaction and specific suggestions for improvement. From these results, we developed a conceptual model of factors contributing to quality of implementation and volunteer satisfaction that may be generalizable to other volunteer-based nonprofits. Specifically, we identified three factors that helped to facilitate satisfaction and performance: leadership, social contact, and fulfillment. Finally, this process evaluation demonstrates the feasibility of developing and implementing evaluation tools in similar organizations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Loriberto Starosky Filho
Full Text Available Non-profit organizations exist all over the world and they have an important role to the economy. These are not aimed at profits and they appeared to develop initiatives of social aspects. The main goal of this research is to check how the wealth is generated and distributed by the non-profits that are enrolled in the Welfare Assistance Council in Blumenau city. This data was gotten through a qualitative, descriptive and documentary research based on analysis of published financial statements of a sample consisting of nineteen non-profit Welfare Assistance Organizations. The results showed that: a To maintain their activities most institutions rely on resources coming from social grants, partnerships and donations; b The added value distributed represents more than fifty percent of the total proceeds in a large number of institutions; c in most organizations the biggest share of the wealth distribution was used to the workers payment; d a low percentage of the wealth is to lenders and government. As a general rule, most organizations presented a very low rate of retentions for themselves because they do not seek profits. Their goals are related to social services activities.
Coyne, Joseph S; Ogle, Natalie M; McPherson, Sterling; Murphy, Sean; Smith, Gary J; Davidson, Gregg Agustín
Nonprofit hospitals are expected to serve their communities as charitable organizations in exchange for the tax exemption benefits they receive. With the passage into law of the Affordable Care Act, additional guidelines were generated in 2010 to ensure nonprofit hospitals are compliant. Nonetheless, the debate continues on whether nonprofit hospitals provide adequate charity care to their patient population. In this study, charity care provided by 29 Washington State nonprofit urban hospitals was examined for 2011 using financial data from the Washington State Department of Health. Charity care levels were compared to both income tax savings and gross revenues to generate two financial ratios that were analyzed according to hospital bed size and nonprofit ownership type. For the first ratio, 97% of the hospitals (28 of 29) were providing charity care in greater amounts than the tax savings they accrued. The average ratio value using total charity care and total income tax savings of all the hospitals in the study was 6.10, and the median value was 3.46. The nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test results by bed size and nonprofit ownership type indicate that ownership type has a significant effect on charity care to gross revenue ratios (p = .020). Our analysis indicates that church-owned hospitals had higher ratios of charity care to gross revenues than did the other two ownership types--government and voluntary--in this sample. Policy implications are offered and further studies are recommended to analyze appropriate levels of charity care in nonprofit hospitals given new requirements for maintaining a hospital's tax-exempt status.
Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen
A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...
Mulroy, E A; Shay, S
Public policymakers increasingly are contracting with nonprofit organizations (NPOs) for innovations in the creation of new service systems in low-income communities. Interorganizational collaboration and cooperation are essential to such innovation. Neighborhood-based institutional arrangements require social work practitioners to work across multiple systems simultaneously--skills that most are not trained to possess. This article develops a theoretical and conceptual framework for neighborhood-based collaboration by NPOs; analyzes the main concepts of innovation in the design and implementation of a collaboration to prevent child maltreatment in an undervalued neighborhood; and draws implications for social policy, social work practice, and social work research.
Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima
This ethnographic study illustrates how staff and management’s sensemaking in conflict in a clerical unit in a Scandinavian nonprofit organization is shaped by institutionalized meanings. Staff and management draw on three institutionalized frameworks when making sense of conflict: The defective...... nonconfrontation as a main strategy in processes of conflict management. Despite the organization’s strong commitment to egalitarianism, the clerical workers view status inequality as the origin of many conflicts and they thereby draw from the same institutionalized meanings of political economy of distributional...
There is a running discussion about the system of financing sport from public budgets and there are opinions that the sport is not sufficiently supported. We know surprisingly little about the situation of non-profit sport clubs and to find a better support system we have to gather information about the environment of sport clubs. What do we know about relations of sport clubs with public authorities and their own sport union/federation and why do we need to know? The aim of this paper is to ...
Full Text Available Nonprofit and voluntary associations around the world are the primary vehicle for representing the voices of citizens in the policy-making process. As scholars who are committed to advancing the role of civil society and the citizen, it is incumbent upon us to provide theoretical and practical frameworks that can assist nonprofits with this important work. In developed nations, the similarity between societal values and structures in democratic countries makes it possible to assess and advance best practices for policy advocacy regardless of the origin of those advocacy models. This research introduces a recently developed conceptual framework originally deployed to diagnose nonprofit organizations in the U.S. engaged in legislative advocacy. Applied to 12 Israeli nonprofit organizations involved in legislative advocacy and seeking to advance change through the legislative process, this paper assesses and expands the proposed model confirming that most facets of the U.S. framework were commonly used by Israeli nonprofits. There is also evidence that culturally embedded norms are the main source for deviations from the model applied in the U.S.
Nelson Oly Ndubisi
Full Text Available Internet promotion, otherwise e-brochure (EB or partial e-commerce adoption by non-profit organisations denotes the use of the Internet to provide business and service related information by academic institutions (as in the present study, non-profit organisations, religious organisations, and government agencies to reduce their expenses or to improve their operations and customer service. A field survey of Malaysian universities was conducted to determine the key factors that facilitate the adoption of non-business EB. Since EB adoption decision is a strategic one, a comprehensive list of potential facilitators for the strategic use of information technology (IT was derived from extant literature and used in collecting data from 65 schools and centres in five public universities in Kota Kinabalu and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The data were factor-analysed to determine the key underlying dimensions of facilitators. On the basis of the resulting five dimensions namely, relative advantage orientation, network orientation, information efficiency orientation, innovativeness orientation, and competitiveness orientation, regression analysis was done to determine the impact of the five dimensions on non-business EB adoption.
Ostrow, Laysha; Hayes, Stephania L.
Objective Mental health peer-run organizations are nonprofits providing venues for support and advocacy among people diagnosed as having mental disorders. It has been proposed that consumer involvement is essential to their operations. This study reported organizational characteristics of peer-run organizations nationwide and how these organizations differ by degree of consumer control. Methods Data were from the 2012 National Survey of Peer-Run Organizations. The analyses described the characteristics of the organizations (N = 380) on five domains of nonprofit research, comparing results for organizations grouped by degree of involvement by consumers in the board of directors. Results Peer-run organizations provided a range of supports and educational and advocacy activities and varied in their capacity and resources. Some variation was explained by the degree of consumer control. Conclusions These organizations seemed to be operating consistently with evidence on peer-run models. The reach of peer-run organizations, and the need for in-depth research, continues to grow. PMID:25639988
Full Text Available Issues of immigrant political incorporation and transnational politics have drawn increased interest among migration scholars. This paper contributes to debates in this field by examining the role of networks, partnerships and collaborations of immigrant community organizations as mechanisms for immigrant political participation both locally and transnationally. These issues are addressed through an ethnographic study of the Hispanic Development Council, an umbrella advocacy organization representing settlement agencies serving Latin American immigrants in Toronto, Canada. Analysis of HDC’s three sets of networks (at the community, city and transnational levels from a geographic and relational approach demonstrates the potentials and limits of nonprofit sector partnerships as mechanisms and concrete spaces for immigrant mobilization, empowerment, and social action in a context of neoliberal governance. It is argued that a combination of partnerships with a range of both state and non-state actors and at multiple scales can be significant in enabling nonprofit organizations to advance the interests of immigrant, minority and disadvantaged communities.
Full Text Available The paper is focused on the issue of taxation of income of non-profit organizations, especially to associations (clubs in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and the United Kingdom. This paper is part of research, where the main emphasis is placed on the comparison of the tax benefits which are provided to non-profit organizations in different countries. This paper points to the current situation in the Czech Republic where despite the changes that have occurred in connection with the new Civil Code, there is still missing clear legislation that would regulate the activities of the monitored organizations. Changes in the taxation of income of non-profit organizations are designed with regard to the elimination of deficiencies in order to prevent the abuse of the benefits and the speculative behavior of tax entities.
Full Text Available The number of nonprofit organizations (NPOs has been growing worldwide in the last few decades. In Japan, the number of NPOs started skyrocketing in the late 1990s and now has reached almost 50,000, a significant increase from fewer than 10,000 in the early 2000s. Despite their increasing importance, the majority of NPOs are financially strained in Japan. To address this issue, this study analyzes data collected from interviews with management-level officials from 50 nonprofit organizations about their activities, management, and marketing in Nagoya, Japan.
Vaughan, Shannon K
In times of fiscal crisis, demand for health and human services increases while revenues shrink, causing funders to focus more intently on identifying the most successful organizations in which to invest scarce resources. This research grew out of interest in enhancing performance assessment of nonprofit organizations expressed by local government managers. A survey of Alliance for Innovation Members explores two primary research questions: 1) what is a successful nonprofit; and 2) what type(s) of performance assessment tools are the most useful. The results strengthen our understanding of what information city and county managers want and why they prefer certain evaluation tools.
... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Include; including. 303.15 Section 303.15 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH...
Gianfranco De Feo
Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this paper is to describe the time spent to activate oncological non-profit clinical trials promoted in Italy by the National Cancer Institute of Naples, following the implementation of recent European laws. METHODOLOGY: Data about the process of activation of 5 non-profit multicentre clinical trials were prospectively collected through a web-based system. The impact of European guidelines was assessed by comparing the efficiency of the process between applications started before and after the decree introducing in Italy the Clinical Trial Application form (MD-CTA. Outcomes of the descriptive analyses were the time to EC opinion, the time to administrative agreement signature after a positive EC opinion, and the cumulative percentage of submissions that came to closure (either positive or negative within four subsequent time cohorts. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From March 2007 to October 2009, 202 applications were submitted to 107 centres. Forty-four (59% applications of those submitted before were successful, compared to 71 (55% of those submitted after MD-CTA. Most of the failures were due to missing EC response (27% and 22% or administrative reasons (10% and 16%, before and after, respectively; very few (4% and 7% were due to EC refusal. The impact of the MD-CTA on time to EC opinion looked positive (median 4.1 vs 2.4 months, before and after, respectively but a subgroup analysis revealed that the impact was limited to a comparison biased by the selection of EC. After a positive EC opinion, there was no difference before and after MD-CTA in the time to administrative agreement signature (median 3.6 and 3.8 months, respectively. A trend to shortening time to closure of the whole submission process over the time was evident, with 58% of the applications coming to closure within 6 months from submission in the most recent cohort. CONCLUSIONS: In our experience there is reassuring evidence of a trend toward shortening the time spent to
Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.
Takeda, Hiroshi; Matsumura, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Katsuhiko; Teratani, Tadamasa; Qiyan, Zhang; Kusuoka, Hideo; Matsuoka, Masami
To share healthcare information and to promote cooperation among healthcare providers and customers (patients) under computerized network environment, a non-profit organization (NPO), named as OCHIS, was established at Osaka, Japan in 2003. Since security and confidentiality issues on the Internet have been major concerns in the OCHIS, the system has been based on healthcare public key infrastructure (HPKI), and found that there remained problems to be solved technically and operationally. An experimental study was conducted to elucidate the central and the local function in terms of a registration authority and a time stamp authority by contracting with the Ministry of Economics and Trading Industries in 2003. This paper describes the experimental design with NPO and the results of the study concerning message security and HPKI. The developed system has been operated practically in Osaka urban area.
Full Text Available This study is an attempt to understand consumers’ perceptions regarding Cause Related Marketing [CRM]. The research findings were based on a survey of 200 consumers in the Brighton area and published data. The research aim was focused on the consumers’ perception of the alliance between corporations and non-profit organisations. The research found that consumers have a better perception of firms that work with charities and good causes than those that do not. They believe that the partnership between corporations and charities has an impact on the good of society. However, they are aware that corporations themselves benefit from this partnership. Concerning good causes, consumers prefer to support those related to Children. The researchers noticed that an individual connection with a cause might have considerable influence on consumer attitudes and behaviour in relation to a specific cause.
Prybil, Lawrence D; Bardach, David R; Fardo, David W
In hospitals and health systems, ensuring that organizational standards for patient care quality are adopted and that processes for monitoring and improving clinical services are in place are among governing boards' most important duties. A recent study examined board oversight of patient care quality in 14 of the country's 15 largest private nonprofit health systems. The findings show that 13 of the 14 boards have standing committees with oversight responsibility for patient quality and safety within their system; 11 of the 14 system boards formally adopt systemwide quality measures and standards; and all 14 regularly receive written reports on systemwide and hospital performance. In recent months, most of these boards had adopted action plans directed at improving their system's performance with respect to patient care quality.
Moriano León, Juan Antonio; Topa Cantisano, Gabriela; Lévy Mangin, Jean-Pierre
This study follows the social identity model of leadership proposed by van Knippenberg and Hogg (2003), in order to examine empirically the mediator effect of leadership prototypicality between social identity, extra effort, and perceived effectiveness of group members. The sample consisted of 109 participants who worked in 22 different work-teams of non-profit organizations (NPO) from Nicaragua and El Salvador. The data analysis was performed through structural equation modeling (SEM). The results show that NPO membership is related to a high level of social identity. In addition, the results confirmed that leadership prototypicality has a significant and positive mediator effect in the relationship between the group identification and the group members' extra effort and the perceived effectiveness of leadership.
Payne, R.A. [Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States)
Nonprofit environmental organizations often have global policy goals. Consequently, they pursue transnational objectives by pressuring influential governments and international institutions. The effectiveness of this strategy as applied to nation-states varies by domestic political structure. First, transnational actors are more likely to achieve their goals in society-dominated rather than they are in state-dominated countries because the former are more open to external inputs to the policy process and provide a greater number of access points. Second, ironically, transnational actors are more likely to achieve success in relatively centralized states if political access is attained. Decentralization invites a cacophony of voices in what may turn into a maelstrom of domestic politics. Relatively centralized corporatist states may prove accessible without the disadvantage of domestic turbulence.
Ljubownikow, Sergej; Crotty, Jo
This article examines Russian human service non-profit organisations (NPOs) to investigate the nature of civil society in a managed democracy. Specifically the focus is on emerging vertical ties between NPOs and ruling and governing elites. Drawing on qualitative data collected from health and education NPOs in three industrial regions, we find that in establishing such vertical ties the role of organisations and individuals within is changing – they have moved away from ignored outsiders towards accessing the circles of power and being tasked with managing the boundary between the state and civil society. In exploring these arrangements this article highlights that in the post-Soviet space, NPOs and the state are closely intertwined resembling co-optation. As a result the democratisation potential of human service NPOs is constrained. In discussing these insights we also draw parallels to contexts in which the state has outsourced welfare service to human service NPOs. PMID:28989196
SKELCHER, CHRIS; SMITH, STEVEN RATHGEB
We propose a novel approach to theorizing hybridity in public and nonprofit organizations. The concept of hybridity is widely used to describe organizational responses to changes in governance, but the literature seldom explains how hybrids arise or what forms they take. Transaction cost and organizational design literatures offer some solutions, but lack a theory of agency. We use the institutional logics approach to theorize hybrids as entities that face a plurality of normative frames. Logics provide symbolic and material elements that structure organizational legitimacy and actor identities. Contradictions between institutional logics offer space for them to be elaborated and creatively reconstructed by situated agents. We propose five types of organizational hybridity – segmented, segregated, assimilated, blended, and blocked. Each type is theoretically derived from empirically observed variations in organizational responses to institutional plurality. We develop propositions to show how our approach to hybridity adds value to academic and policy-maker audiences. PMID:26640298
O'Connor, A. S.; Farr, B.
Remote Sensing as a topic of teaching and research at the university and college level continues to increase. As more data is made freely available and software becomes easier to use, more and more academic and non-profits institutions are turning to remote sensing to solve their tough and large spatial scale problems. Exelis Visual Information Solutions (VIS) has been supporting teaching and research endeavors for over 30 years with a special emphasis over the last 5 years with scientifically proven software and accessible training materials. The Exelis VIS academic program extends to US and Canadian 2 year and 4 year colleges and universities with tools for analyzing aerial and satellite multispectral and hyperspectral imagery, airborne LiDAR and Synthetic Aperture Radar. The Exelis VIS academic programs, using the ENVI Platform, enables labs and classrooms to be outfitted with software and makes software accessible to students. The ENVI software provides students hands on experience with remote sensing software, an easy teaching platform for professors and allows researchers scientifically vetted software they can trust. Training materials are provided at no additional cost and can either serve as a basis for course curriculum development or self paced learning. Non-profit organizations like The Nature Conservancy (TNC) and CGIAR have deployed ENVI and IDL enterprise wide licensing allowing researchers all over the world to have cost effective access COTS software for their research. Exelis VIS has also contributed licenses to the NASA DEVELOP program. Exelis VIS is committed to supporting the academic and NGO community with affordable enterprise licensing, access to training materials, and technical expertise to help researchers tackle today's Earth and Planetary science big data challenges.
Full Text Available Food banks make up an increasing phenomenon of nonprofit organizations answering to new social needs related to the global socioeconomic crisis. In order to explore if they are suitably adapting to their environments in Spain, one of the countries most seriously affected by the crisis in South Europe, this work assumes a hybrid qualitative–quantitative structure composed of an exploratory case study based on semi-structured interviews followed by a survey addressed to all the Spanish food banks. Much of the academic literature has concerned the appropriateness of food banks as a delivery mechanism in the context of welfare state withdrawal. This paper takes this in a different direction by examining Spanish food banks from an organizational management point of view. Wary of concerns about the institutionalization of food charity, on the one hand, and recognizing the escalating daily reliance on food banks, on the other, this paper seeks to address potential technical supply problems and challenges food banks face and open debate about the organizational networks of food banks more generally. The results show nonprofit entities based on a voluntary workforce who run supply chains in order to join both social and business targets. Their situation, performance, resources, mutual relationships and the links with other entities are described, paying special attention to the changes induced by the latest contextual changes. In short, food banks are efficiently organized and well established in their territories as a coherent social movement, although they should improve in their strategic view, coordination, resources and sources of these, to satisfy more adequately their increasingly complex demands.
Liket, Kellie C.; Rey-Garcia, Marta; Maas, Karen E. H.
Nonprofit organizations are under great pressure to use evaluations to show that their programs "work" and that they are "effective." However, empirical evidence indicates that nonprofits struggle to perform useful evaluations, especially when conducted under accountability pressures. An increasing body of evidence highlights…
Vanderstraeten, J.; Matthyssens, P.; van Witteloostuijn, A.
Non-profit organisations, such as economic development incubators, may adapt the balanced scorecard and strategy map in their efforts to improve their internal functioning. In this paper, we employ qualitative research among non-profit economic development incubators in Antwerp, Belgium, to modify
L.C.P.M. Meijs (Lucas); E.M. ten Hoorn (Esther); J.L. Brudney (Jeffrey)
textabstractThis article focuses on the exposure of the typical undergraduate business student to the nonprofit sector and management, as opposed to focusing on learning opportunities available to interested students in particular, as is typically reviewed in research on nonprofit management
Holcomb, Kathryn E; Stull, Carolyn L; Kass, Philip H
Nonprofit equine rescue organizations in the United States provide care for relinquished horses and may offer adoption programs. With an estimated 100,000 "unwanted" horses per year and few municipal shelters providing wholesale euthanasia, there is a need to minimize the number of unwanted horses and maximize their successful transition to new caregivers. This study's objectives were to characterize the relinquishing and adoptive owners interacting with nonprofit rescue organizations. Nonprofit organizations (n = 144) in 37 states provided information by survey on 280 horses relinquished between 2006 and 2009, from which 73 were adopted. Results show the majority of relinquishing owners were women, whereas adoptive owners were primarily families or couples. Most relinquishing owners had previous equine experience and had owned the horse for 1 to 5 years; about half owned 1 other horse. Three quarters of the adoptive owners possessed additional horses housed on their property. The primary use for rehomed horses was for riding or driving. These findings will serve to help develop effective education programs for responsible horse ownership and optimize acceptance criteria and successful adoption strategies of horses by nonprofit organizations.
Cabin, William; Himmelstein, David U; Siman, Michael L; Woolhandler, Steffie
For-profit, or proprietary, home health agencies were banned from Medicare until 1980 but now account for a majority of the agencies that provide such services. Medicare home health costs have grown rapidly since the implementation of a risk-based prospective payment system in 2000. We analyzed recent national cost and case-mix-adjusted quality outcomes to assess the performance of for-profit and nonprofit home health agencies. For-profit agencies scored slightly but significantly worse on overall quality indicators compared to nonprofits (77.18 percent and 78.71 percent, respectively). Notably, for-profit agencies scored lower than nonprofits on the clinically important outcome "avoidance of hospitalization" (71.64 percent versus 73.53 percent). Scores on quality measures were lowest in the South, where for-profits predominate. Compared to nonprofits, proprietary agencies also had higher costs per patient ($4,827 versus $4,075), were more profitable, and had higher administrative costs. Our findings raise concerns about whether for-profit agencies should continue to be eligible for Medicare payments and about the efficiency of Medicare's market-oriented, risk-based home care payment system. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Starcher, Keith O.
As the for-profit business model and a reliance on adjunct faculty continues to grow among faith-based institutions, little research exists on the differences in the characteristics of part-time online faculty in for-profit versus nonprofit environments that could provide guidance to administrators. This study utilized a descriptive,…
Matthews, Nakia S.
It is often necessary for nonprofit organizations (NPOs) to formulate a Request for Proposal (RFP) to procure essential contracted services. This is most common when seeking the services of an external evaluator. Since most NPOs do not have internal evaluation staff, developing an appropriate RFP can be quite challenging. With limited literature…
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are commercial vendors and nonprofit organizations required to operate vending facilities by permit or contractual arrangement? 102-74.70 Section 102-74.70 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMEN...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special considerations-contracts with nonprofit organizations (other than educational institutions). 915.404-4-70-5 Section 915.404-4-70-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract...
Energy Task Force, Washington, DC.
This paper is one of several reports being prepared by the Energy Task Force on the impact of energy supply and cost trends on nonprofit educational institutions. This particular report focuses on the need to render educational facilities more energy-efficient through a program of capital investments focused on the rehabilitation of existing…
As the nonprofit sector continues to grow in size and importance in American society, successful organizations proactively initiate strategic planning so they can be more responsive to changing circumstances, underlying trends, and shifting demands. At times, however, organizations develop elaborate plans that are never implemented. Unfortunately,…
Spencer, Irish Gaymon
With the weakening economy, many nonprofit organizations have cut their budget and are investigating cost cutting expenditures to survive from cutting employees, to cutting services, to cutting business travel. Several industry challenges have resulted in reduced business activity. Increased demands have required practitioners to be innovative in…
... from Nonprofit Management LLC and Jeremy Ryan Claeys, also doing business as Tested Green... certified status. Respondents also claimed that Tested Green was endorsed by the National Green Business.... Comments should refer to ``Tested Green, File No. 102 3064'' to facilitate the organization of comments...
Marije van 't Verlaat
Today, Dutch National Non-profit Sports Organizations (NNSFs) experience financial pressures. Two indications for this are described in this paper i.e. increased competition in the sports sector and changes in subsidy division. Decreasing incomes from subsidies can be compensated with either
Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010
Last week saw the launch of Professors Beyond Borders (PBB), a new non-profit organisation aiming to engage international scholars as volunteers in international disaster recovery and sustainable development. The primary goal of the organisation is to enhance the capacity of communities to organise themselves to solve specific problems via the…
Full Text Available Orientation: Intrinsic rewards are personal, psychological responses to the work thatemployees perform, which stem from the manner in which their work is designed.Research purpose: This study sought to discover in what ways non-profit employees arepsychologically rewarded by the nature of their work tasks. The use of a qualitative approachto data collection and analysis ensured that in-depth responses from participants were gained.Motivation for the study: Intrinsic rewards are of particular importance to non-profitemployees, who tend to earn below-market salaries. This implies that their motivationoriginates predominantly from intrinsic as opposed to extrinsic rewards; yet, research into thisarea of rewards is lacking.Research approach, design and method: In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conductedusing a sample of 15 extrinsically rewarded non-profit employees working within South Africa.Thematic analysis was utilised in order to generate codes which led to the formation of fiveintrinsic rewards categories.Main findings: Intrinsic rewards were classified into five categories, namely (1 MeaningfulWork, (2 Flexible Work, (3 Challenging Work, (4 Varied Work and (5 Enjoyable Work.These rewards each comprise of various subcategories, which provide insight into why suchwork is rewarding to non-profit employees.Practical/managerial implications: Traditional performance management systems shouldbe re-evaluated in the non-profit sector to shift focus towards intrinsic rewards, asopposed to focusing only on the use of extrinsic rewards such as incentives to motivateemployees.Contribution/value-add: The study provides a qualitative understanding of how extrinsicallyrewarded non-profit employees perceive their work to be intrinsically rewarding, whichbridges the empirical gap pertaining to intrinsic rewards within this sector.
Ómar H. Kristmundsson
Full Text Available Non-profit organizations and foundations, a part of the so-called third sector, have for a long period of time been an important part of the Icelandic welfare system. Despite this there is limited statistical and research data on their number and operations. The article includes findings from preliminary research on the subject. A theoretical models and international classification systems are used in the analysis to define their number, functions and operations and relations with the government. The data is derived from the authors’ database on the effects of recent economic crisis and historical data on individual non-profits and foundations. The findings confirm their extensive function in welfare services but a changing role through the 20th. century. Nonprofit-government relations have changed accordingly. Based on the authors’ definition 144 non-profit organizations and foundations were in operation in 2009, the former comprising 85% of the total number. A little less than 6 of every 10 were entities with the primary function of providing public service, approx. 2 of every 10 were member-oriented such as self-help societies and similar ratio campaigning organizations. Organizations providing public service have the largest operating activities and number of employees. Approx. 2/3 of the entities had one or two primary income bases. Most frequently the largest portion of the organizations’ income was provided by the central government. The importance of reliable official data and research on the third sector in Icelandic is emphasized.Félagasamtök og sjálfseignarstofnanir, sem eru hluti af hinum svokallaða þriðja geira, hafa um langa hríð gegnt mikilvægu hlutverki í íslenska velferðarkerfinu. Þrátt fyrir þetta skortir upplýsingar um viðfangsefni, starf þeirra og umfang. Í greininni koma fram niðurstöður frumgreiningar á þessum viðfangsefnum. Notast er við greiningalíkön fræðimanna og al
Ponzio, Todd A; Feindt, Hans; Ferguson, Steven
Biopharmaceuticals are therapeutic products based on biotechnology. They are manufactured by or from living organisms and are the most complex of all commercial medicines to develop, manufacture and qualify for regulatory approval. In recent years biopharmaceuticals have rapidly increased in number and importance with over 400() already marketed in the U.S. and European markets alone. Many companies throughout the world are now ramping up investments in biopharmaceutical R&D and expanding their portfolios through licensing of early-stage biotechnologies from universities and other non-profit research institutions, and there is an increasing number of license agreements for biopharmaceutical product development relative to traditional small molecule drug compounds. This trend will only continue as large numbers of biosimilars and biogenerics enter the market.A primary goal of technology transfer offices associated with publicly-funded, non-profit research institutions is to establish patent protection for inventions deemed to have commercial potential and license them for product development. Such licenses help stimulate economic development and job creation, bring a stream of royalty revenue to the institution and, hopefully, advance the public good or public health by bringing new and useful products to market. In the course of applying for such licenses, a commercial development plan is usually put forth by the license applicant. This plan indicates the path the applicant expects to follow to bring the licensed invention to market. In the case of small molecule drug compounds, there exists a widely-recognized series of clinical development steps, dictated by regulatory requirements, that must be met to bring a new drug to market, such as completion of preclinical toxicology, Phase 1, 2 and 3 testing and product approvals. These steps often become the milestone/benchmark schedule incorporated into license agreements which technology transfer offices use to monitor
BURGESS, MARY ELLEN, ED.
PART 1 OF THIS PROGRAM GUIDE LISTS TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE AGENCIES AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS FOR THE FAR EAST, TOGETHER WITH ADDRESSES, TELEPHONE NUMBERS, EXECUTIVE OFFICERS, PROGRAM DIRECTORS, COUNTRIES SERVED, AND ESTIMATED COSTS. PART 2 GIVES PROGRAM DATA (ORGANIZATIONS, OPERATING AND SUPPORT PROGRAMS, TYPES OF ASSISTANCE, REGIONAL REPRESENTATIVES,…
Jalloh, Mohamed; Wood, Joshua P; Fredley, Mary; deVries, Catherine R
Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) face both training and infrastructural challenges for surgical care, particularly for specialty care, such as for urology. Practitioners charged with caring for these patients have few options for basic or advanced training. IVUmed, a nonprofit organization, has for 20 years supported urological educational programs in 30 LMICs by coordinating a network of US and international academic and private providers, institutions, industry partners, and professional societies. IVUmed's motto, "Teach One, Reach Many" has emphasized a teach-the-teacher approach. Program partners, such as Hopital General de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal, have advanced from little urological subspecialty availability to having the capacity to treat a wide range of conditions while also teaching surgeons from Senegal and neighboring countries. Long-term program commitments; effective communication; and a shared vision among the program site, the coordinating nongovernmental organization, and supporting organizations facilitate the development of thriving surgical teaching programs capable of serving local communities and conducting outreach training. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Kim, Tae Hyun; McCue, Michael J
Capital investments in the latest medical equipment and the replacement of aging facilities are critical decisions for sustaining hospitals' financial viability. A recent survey over the period 1997 to 2001 found that hospitals increased their capital expenditures by only 1%. The aim of this study is to gain insight into the changes in market, operational, and financial factors that may have influenced hospital capital investment during this period. The sample consisted of a panel of nonprofit hospitals operating between 1998 and 2001. Capital investment was measured on the basis of capital purchases for buildings, fixtures, and movable equipment during a fiscal year. The results suggest that liquidity-the availability of internal funds-is a critical determinant of capital investment in both urban and rural facilities. From a market perspective, findings indicate that growth in the over-65 population led to increases in the capital investment of rural hospitals. Financially, an increase in cash flow also was strongly related to a change in capital investment among urban facilities. Surprisingly, rural hospitals with aging plants and equipment had declining capital investment.
This notice offers interested parties an opportunity to comment on a proposed revision to Circular A-122, "Cost Principles for Nonprofit Organizations." The proposed revision establishes special provisions for costs related to political advocacy. Similar revisions are being simultaneously proposed for civilian and defense contractors through appropriate actions by the Department of Defense, NASA and GSA, the three agencies with authority to issue procurement regulations. The purpose of these proposals is to ensure that federal tax dollars are not used, directly or indirectly, for the support of political advocacy. Over the past 25 years, the volume of federal activity conducted through grantees and contractors has dramatically grown. Sound management of federal grants and contracts has correspondingly gained in importance. The responsibility of the President through OMB to improve the management of the executive branch of government with a view to efficient and economical service, and to fulfill other statutory and constitutional responsibilities, extends to issues of grant and contract management no less than to issues of direct federal activity.
Full Text Available Eastern part of the Republic of Croatia as a tourist destination is not fully valorized yet, despite its natural values and rich cultural heritage. Stronger contribution to touristic development could be ensured by Kopački rit Nature Park as potentially great tourist attractor. Its flora and fauna attract people for educational and tourist reasons. Tourism in nature parks has certain limitations due to primary goals which are protection and preservation of nature together with sustainable management of nature resources and ensuring an undisturbed course of natural processes. The aim of this research is to emphasize importance of marketing tools implementation in process of tourist activities development. Through application of marketing techniques and especially nonprofit marketing, primary goals related to nature protection can be harmonized with development of self-financing through tourism activities. Research was conducted by using case study methodology. Relevant persons for the topic were interviewed and from collected information SWOT analysis was made which may be used for policy suggestions in process of creation adequate tourist products and services together with ensuring quality education for visitors and minimizing visitors influence on natural resources.
Full Text Available The numerous empirical and conceptual studies that have been conducted over recent years concerning the social responsibility of enterprises and their contributions towards sustainable development have given very little consideration to non-profit organizations (NPOs. This is surprising, because NPOs are confronted with very similar challenges to profit-orientated enterprises regarding their evolution into sustainable organizations. This paper is a preliminary conceptual study and explores the question of why the corporate social responsibility, or corporate sustainability, of NPOs has to date been both neglected by research establishments and also extensively ignored by the NPOs during their day-to-day practical management. The example of church and pastoral institutions in Germany is used to demonstrate the extent to which they take account of ecological and social aspects in their management systems and processes and, thus, implement sustainable management within their day-to-day practice. The paper concludes with some proposals for further empirical and conceptual research projects, which are designed to analyze developments within NPOs with relation to the integration of sustainability into their management systems and processes.
Hoshiko, Sumi; Smith, Daniel; Fan, Cathyn; Jones, Carrie R.; McNeel, Sandra V. [Environmental Health Investigations Branch, California Department of Public Health, Richmond, CA (United States); Cohen, Ronald A. [Children' s Hospital and Research Center Oakland, Department of Radiology, Oakland, CA (United States)
Radiation exposure from medical sources now equals or exceeds that from natural background sources, largely attributable to a 20-fold increase in CT use since 1980. Increasing exposure to children and fetuses is of most concern due to their heightened susceptibility. More recently, CT use may be leveling or decreasing, but it is unclear whether this change is widespread or varies by type of institution. We sought to characterize trends in CT utilization in California hospitals and emergency departments among children and pregnant women, looking at different types of facilities, such as teaching, private, public and nonprofit institutions. We examined frequency of CT examinations by year from 229 facilities reporting CT usage in routinely collected California statewide data for 2005-2012. We modeled trends overall and by facility type. CT scans for pediatric and pregnant patient visits in the emergency department increased initially, then started to decline after 2008. Among hospital admissions, rates declined or leveled after 2005. In the emergency department, CT rates varied between types of facilities, with teaching hospitals reducing use sooner and more sharply than other types of facilities. CT utilization in California among children and pregnant women has begun to level or decline. Still, population exposure remains at historically high levels, warranting consideration of potential public health implications. Further examination of reasons for trends among hospital types, particularly how teaching hospitals have reduced rates of CT utilization, may help identify strategies for CT reduction without compromising patient care. (orig.)
Three to four million individuals struggle with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in the United States at any given time. OCD can be a debilitating disorder associated with significant quality-of-life and occupational impairment. First-line treatments for OCD (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and exposure and response prevention therapy) have been shown to be effective; yet, many individuals suffering from OCD experience multiple barriers to accessing these treatments. In fact, it can take as many as 17 years from onset of symptoms to effective treatment. Given the need to increase access to and utilization of effective treatments, direct-to-consumer marketing in the context of OCD appears crucial. The International OCD Foundation (formerly the Obsessive Compulsive Foundation) was established as a nonprofit organization with a mission to educate the public and mental health professionals about appropriate practice guidelines, raise awareness of the disorder, and ensure that individuals looking for treatment find the necessary resources. This paper reviews the obstacles those struggling with OCD face in their attempts to alleviate suffering, as well as the direct-to-consumer strategies and tactics used by the International OCD Foundation to improve access to empirically supported, effective treatment. Copyright Â© 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
These proposed rules implement sections 102, 321, 322 and 323 of Pub. L. 98-21 (the Social Security Amendments of 1983). Generally, these provisions: (1) Mandatorily cover for Social Security purposes employees of private nonprofit organizations; (2) Provide additional Social Security coverage for certain work performed outside the United States (U.S.); (3) Provide coverage under the Social Security program for certain foreign earned income; (4) Provide special Social Security insured status requirements for certain nonprofit organization employees covered as a result of these amendments; and (5) Provide Social Security coverage for employment and self-employment that is identified as "covered" for purposes of title II of the Social Security Act (the Act) by the provisions of a totalization agreement between the U.S. and another country.
Full Text Available Despite a high number of non-profit organizations and their important social function a comprehensive legislation on their activities does not exist in Iceland, as is the case for most other operating entities. In the article existing rules on non-profit activities in Iceland are analyzed. In addition, the entity, non-profit organizations, is defined, and rules on their establishment, member participation, organization, accountability and obligations are described. The analysis will also focus on current regulation on fundraising, business activities, taxation and income from the government. A comparison of non-profit organizations and foundations is performed.Þrátt fyrir fjölda félagasamtaka og þýðingarmikið samfélagslegt hlutverk þeirra eru ekki í gildi heildarlög á Íslandi um starfsemi þeirra eins og um flest önnur félagaform. Í greininni er fjallað um þær reglur sem þó gilda um starfsemi félagasamtaka eða almennra félaga eins og þau eru nefnd í félagarétti. Auk skilgreiningar á félagaforminu er þeim reglum lýst sem gilda um stofnun þeirra, félagsaðild, skipulag, ábyrgð og skuldbindingar. Einnig er rætt um þá reglu um gjörð sem gildir um tekjuöflun félagasamtaka, atvinnustarfsemi, skattlagningu og fjárveitingar frá hinu opinbera. Gerður er samanburður á félagasamtökum og sjálfseignarstofnunum sem starfa á sambærilegum vettvangi.
Robertson K. Tengeh
This paper investigates strategic planning to understand managers’ perception of its benefits to Non-Profit Organisations (NPOs). The investigation was preceded by a review and repertoire of theoretical evidence of NPOs integration of strategic planning in support of management function: a management tool designed for and used mainly by businesses. The study was based on the application of quantitative data collection and analysis to understand respondents’ perceptions. The paper found consid...
Dale C MacKrell
Full Text Available This paper reports on the educational aspects of an information systems work-integrated learning (WIL capstone project for an organization which operates to alleviate homelessness in the Australian non-profit sector. The methodology adopted for the study is Action Design Research (ADR which draws on action research and design research as a means for framing a project's progress. Reflective insights by the project stakeholders, namely, students, academics, and the non-profit client, reveal a curriculum at work through internal features of the organization; personal features of the participants and features of the external environment. Preliminary findings suggest that students in a WIL project for a non-profit are highly engaged, especially when they become aware of the project’s social value. As well, the improvement of professional skills and emotional intelligence by students is more likely in real-life practice settings than in other less authentic WIL activities, equipping graduates for the workforce with both strong disciplinary and generic skills. Win-win-win synergies through project collaboration represent worthwhile outcomes to education, industry and research.
Stewart, Louis J; Smith, Pamela C
This study examines the impact of the 2008 global financial crisis on large US nonprofit health systems. We proceed from an analysis of the contemporary capital financing practices of 25 of the nation's largest nonprofit hospitals and health systems. We find that these institutions relied on operating cash flows, public issues of insured variable rate debt, and accumulated investment to meet their capital financing needs. The combined use of these three financial instruments provided these organizations with $22.4 billion of long-term capital at favorable terms and the lowest interest rates. Our analysis further indicates that the extensive utilization of bond insurance, auction rate debt, and interest rate derivatives created significant risk exposures for these health systems. These risks were realized by the broader global financial crisis of 2008. Findings indicate these health systems incurred large losses from the early retirement of their variable rate debt. In addition, many organizations were forced to post nearly $1 billion of liquid collateral due to the falling values of their interest rate derivatives. Finally, the investment portfolios of these large nonprofit health systems suffered millions of dollars of unrealized capital losses, which may minimize their ability to finance future capital investment requirements.
Full Text Available The paper describes in detail the accounting principle of prudence in non-profit organizations and financial institutions. It defines its application in such organizations and based on comparison it evaluates the practical use of the prudence principle and its reflection in the accounting books. The main focus is on differences in applying the prudence principle that result from differences in the purpose activities and methods of asset management in these organizations. The practical application of the prudence principle in accounting consists mainly in the creation and use of provisions and impairments. These methods are defined by the Implementing Regulation to the Accounting Act No. 563/1991. The paper also provides tables where the creation and use of impairments and provisions in the above-mentioned organizations is compared with how business companies proceed in creating impairments and provisions. The key legislation standardizing accounting in the Czech Republic is the Accounting Act No. 563/1991, as amended, which stipulates the general accounting principles, the so-called accounting philosophy. The accounting is built around the general accounting principles, which are perceived as the pillars of accounting. Even though they are not stipulated in any particular law, they are legally enforceable and their ignorance can be sanctioned. The general accounting principles represent a set of rules to be observed in keeping the accounting books, preparing the accounting reports and submitting the accounting reports to users. The keystone accounting principle is the principle of true and fair refl ection of facts the essential goal of which is to report in the fi nancial statement actual assets and the fi nancial position of the accounting unit with an essential focus on reporting events that occurred during the accounting period with respect to their content.
Full Text Available In its struggle to find funding, non-profit organisations world-wide are increasingly using social marketing strategies. This approach potentially influences non governmental organisations (NGOs and community based organisations (CBOs in their communication with their “clients”, i.e. those persons and com-munities in need of development. Marketing strategies con-sequently become instruments in achieving social development, with as main premise that behaviour could be changed by means of persuasive, top-down communication. Social marketing, with its roots in marketing, has a strong focus on persuasion and favours top-down communication rather than dialogical communication strategies suggested by the par-ticipatory development communication approach. It is also questionable whether social marketing can be equated with the principles of a Biblically informed approach to communication. With these questions in mind, this article discusses Biblical views on communication and the participatory development communication approach. A critique of the social marketing approach is then offered. It is argued here that there is no clear-cut answer as to whether social marketing could be described as participatory. What is clear is that there are many different views on social marketing, as is the case with participatory approaches. It would thus seem more correct to place social marketing on a participation continuum, rather than to define it as being participatory and thus per definition ethical or not. Finally, a number of suggestions are made which could bring it more in line with the participatory communication approach as well as Biblical principles on com-munication.
Full Text Available Neoliberal policies have created economic disparities and increased the gap between the rich and the poor in Canada. The Mulroney government initiated neoliberal revisions to the Canadian social welfare state as it quietly changed complex regulations that impacted the welfare and well-being of Canadians. This government worked “by stealth” and with little consultation to dismantle key components of the social welfare state, while publicly pronouncing its sacred value. In Ontario, neoliberal policies are identified with the Harris government’s visible and public attack on the poor, on women and on those marginalized by race. The Harris government made significant cuts to services offered by non-governmental organizations (NGOs and, in particular, to women’s organizations and advocacy groups. This paper examines the impact of neoliberalism by exploring changes through such policies in the relationship between the state and non-profit organizations in Ontario. It is based on initial findings from qualitative research conducted in 2010 and 2011 with three YWCA organizations. It characterizes a shift from the way NGO-state relationships were depicted by Katherine Scott in 2003 as a “frayed rope” about to break, to being represented by an image of multiple “tight strings.” This research forms part of a dissertation examining how the neoliberal policies that have reduced government support for, and downloaded responsibilities to, the non-profit sector have affected the capacity of community-based women’s organizations to implement a feminist agenda in their work with women. The timeframe studied, from 2003 to 2008, builds on the now extensive scholarly research on the impact of neoliberal policies that occurred from 1995 to 2003, the years led by Progressive Conservative Premiers Mike Harris and Ernie Eves. It closely examines continuities and discontinuities between the two governments, revealing many dangers for women buried in
Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang
The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.
... Who Knows What? (log-in required) Select Page Visual Impairment, Including Blindness Mar 31, 2017 Links updated, ... doesn’t wear his glasses. Back to top Visual Impairments in Children Vision is one of our ...
Rensink, Arend; Bézivin, J.; Heckel, R.
Discussions about model-driven approaches tend to be hampered by terminological confusion. This is at least partially caused by a lack of formal precision in defining the basic concepts, including that of "model" and "thing being modelled" - which we call subject in this paper. We propose a minimal
Jansen, MA, Robert
Includes one diagnostic test and three complete tests, all questions answered and explained, self-assessment guides, and subject reviews. Also features test strategies, QR codes to short instructional videos, and a detailed appendix with equations, physical constants, and a basic math review.
This paper attempts to make important connections between listening and inclusive education and the refusal to listen and exclusion. Two lines of argument are advanced. First, if educators and learners are to include each other within their educational institutions as unique individuals, then they will need to listen attentively to each other.…
Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.
A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.
Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...... people regard as a prerequisite for participating in local community politics. Based on a fieldwork in two villages of Panchthar district in eastern Nepal, this article explores how these changes strengthen or weaken women’s political agency and how this is reflected in their participation in community...
Kastrup Nielsen, Sebastian; Svejvig, Per
collaboration. Cultural dimensions from Hofstede and other researchers are examined to take spe-cific actions to reduce the cultural gap between developed and developing countries. The culture also affects the implementation process, which this paper has found an appropriate solution for. This, together......This paper seeks to describe some of the challenges in the implementation of IS in a non-profit or-ganization in a developing country. When people from developed countries assist in the process of making requirements specification, an understanding of local culture is essential for a successful...
Kretser, Alison; Murphy, Delia; Dwyer, Johanna
Scientific integrity is at the forefront of the scientific research enterprise. This paper provides an overview of key existing efforts on scientific integrity by federal agencies, foundations, nonprofit organizations, professional societies, and academia from 1989 to April 2016. It serves as a resource for the scientific community on scientific integrity work and helps to identify areas in which more action is needed. Overall, there is tremendous activity in this area and there are clear linkages among the efforts of the five sectors. All the same, scientific integrity needs to remain visible in the scientific community and evolve along with new research paradigms. High priority in instilling these values falls upon all stakeholders.
Cristiano Rocha Heckert
Full Text Available Este artigo examina a qualidade de serviços nas organizações do terceiro setor. Por meio de revisão da literatura e de um estudo de caso, discutem-se as diferenças na aplicação do conceito de qualidade de serviços (expectativas X percepção dos clientes no terceiro setor em comparação com as empresas de mercado. Conclui-se que as organizações do terceiro setor não apresentam um único tipo de cliente, mas diversos stakeholders que assumem esse papel. Cada um desses atores possui diferentes expectativas com relação à instituição e apresenta diferentes critérios de avaliação da qualidade de seus serviços. Destaca-se, ainda, que, em função de valores como "justiça" e "solidariedade", fundamentais neste tipo de organização, o processo de prestação de serviços assume especial relevância no terceiro setor, sendo muitas vezes tão ou mais importante que os resultados obtidos.This article analyses service quality in nonprofit organizations. Based on a literature review and a case study, it discusses the differences in applying the service quality concept (customer expectations X perception in the nonprofit sector, in comparison to for-profit companies. It concludes that nonprofits don't present a single type of customer, but several stakeholders playing that role. Each of those actors has different expectations towards the organization and presents different criteria when evaluating service quality. It should also be pointed that, due to values such as "justice" and "solidarity", essential in that type of organization, the service deliver process assumes special importance in nonprofits and, sometimes, become as or even more important than the results obtained.
Luz I. Gracia Morales
Full Text Available Nonprofit organizations (NPOs with federal income tax exemption must file the 990 Form and answer questions about corporate governance. In this study, a logistic regression analysis was performed using the data reported in the 990 Form to examine the relation between the variables of the element of opportunity and NPOs with questionable zero administrative and fundraising expenses. The regression did not find a relation between them. However, a relation was found between one of the element of opportunity variables, the whistleblower policy, and the efficiency measure of a program expense ratio greater that 65%.
F. Lee Tucker
Full Text Available Modern breast imaging, including magnetic resonance imaging, provides an increasingly clear depiction of breast cancer extent, often with suboptimal pathologic confirmation. Pathologic findings guide management decisions, and small increments in reported tumor characteristics may rationalize significant changes in therapy and staging. Pathologic techniques to grossly examine resected breast tissue have changed little during this era of improved breast imaging and still rely primarily on the techniques of gross inspection and specimen palpation. Only limited imaging information is typically conveyed to pathologists, typically in the form of wire-localization images from breast-conserving procedures. Conventional techniques of specimen dissection and section submission destroy the three-dimensional integrity of the breast anatomy and tumor distribution. These traditional methods of breast specimen examination impose unnecessary limitations on correlation with imaging studies, measurement of cancer extent, multifocality, and margin distance. Improvements in pathologic diagnosis, reporting, and correlation of breast cancer characteristics can be achieved by integrating breast imagers into the specimen examination process and the use of large-format sections which preserve local anatomy. This paper describes the successful creation of a large-format pathology program to routinely serve all patients in a busy interdisciplinary breast center associated with a community-based nonprofit health system in the United States.
This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CPIS04), Stream, Lagoon or Other Waste Waster (not including tailwater recovery) as an Irrigation Source (LWWIS) on agricultural land by county (nri_is04)
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CPIS04), Stream,...
Newton, Cameron; Teo, Stephen T T; Pick, David; Yeung, Melissa; Salamonson, Yenna
To integrate existing theoretical perspectives on change management, subjective fit and occupational stress to better understand the effects of change on employee adjustment. Although subjective fit with organizational goals and objectives has been shown to have positive effects on employee adjustment, its role in the organizational change-occupational stress context is not understood. This represents a caveat in research when considering the notion that those who feel that they fit with the organization's goals may be better equipped to reconcile and deal with change. A cross-sectional survey of nurses from public and non-profit sector hospitals was conducted. Data were collected from 252 public and non-profit sector nurses via online surveys. Data were collected from June-October in 2010. Structural equation modelling was used to test the direct and indirect effects among the focal variables. The results showed that public and non-profit nurses experience flexibility-limiting and flexibility-promoting change initiatives and that these are differentially related to the perception of administrative stressors and adjustment with these relationships directly and indirectly influenced by perceptions of subjective fit. Flexibility-limiting change initiatives led to lower levels of subjective fit, higher levels of administrative stressors and less favourable adjustment. On the other hand, flexibility-promoting change practices led to higher levels of subjective fit, lower levels of administrative stressors and ultimately better adjustment. The results further the theoretical understanding of the role of subjective fit in organizational change and occupational stress theories. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bailey, P.; Dean, C.; Collier, J.; Dasappa, V.; Goldberg, W. [ICF, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States)
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on December 29, 1993, promulgated self-guarantee requirements that materials licensees may use to demonstrate financial assurance for decommissioning costs. However, nonprofit colleges and universities, nonprofit hospitals, and for-profit firms that do not issue bonds are currently precluded, by their unique accounting and financial reporting systems, or by other features of their business practices, from using the financial tests for self-guarantors adopted by the NRC. This Report evaluates several alternative financial tests that might serve as the basis for self-guarantee by these three categories of licensees.
The Department of Commerce is implementing Office of Management and Budget (OMB) guidance provided in Circular A-133, "Audits of Institutions of Higher Education and Other Nonprofit Organizations." As a result of this interim final rule, institutions of higher education and other nonprofit organizations that receive Federal assistance are required to periodically perform audits and submit the audit reports to the Federal government. This interim final rule establishes uniform audit requirements applicable to these organizations and defines the Department's responsibilities for implementing and monitoring these requirements.
... those areas termed ``areas of greatest need'' under NSP1, ``target geographies'' under NSP2, and those... appropriate HOC. The subject line for each such email submission must read, ``ATTENTION--NSP NAID PROCESSING.../or occupied the property at the time of the notice of foreclosure, copies of the tenant lease...
Potvin, S; Aubin, G; Stip, E
Given the extent, magnitude and functional significance of the neurocognitive deficits of schizophrenia, growing attention has been paid recently to patients' self-awareness of their own deficits. Thus far, the literature has shown either that patients fail to recognize their cognitive deficits or that the association between subjective and objective cognition is weak in schizophrenia. The reasons for this lack of consistency remain unexplained but may have to do, among others, with the influence of potential confounding clinical variables and the choice of the scale used to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits. In the current study, we sought to examine the relationships between subjective and objective cognitive performance in schizophrenia, while controlling for the influence of sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Eighty-two patients with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (DSM-IV criteria) were recruited. Patients' subjective cognitive complaints were evaluated with the Subjective Scale to Investigate Cognition in Schizophrenia (SSTICS), the most frequently used scale to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Neurocognition was evaluated with working memory, planning and visual learning tasks taken from Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery. The Stroop Color-Word test was also administered. Psychiatric symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. The relationships between subjective and objective cognition were evaluated with multivariate hierarchic linear regression analyses, taking into consideration potential confounders such as sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Finally, a factor analysis of the SSTICS was performed. For the SSTICS total score, the regression analysis produced a model including two predictors, namely visual learning and Stoop interference performance, explaining a moderate portion of the variance
Schneider, Kimberly T; DeSouza, Eros R; Durst, Renee N
We examined perceptions of spirituality and meaning among 192 employees (77% female) from a non-profit organization in a mid-sized Midwestern city in the United States. We hypothesized that employees' values related to workplace spirituality would be positively related to various measures of job satisfaction and general meaning in life. We also examined employees' perceptions of the fit of their co-workers' values with the agency mission and predicted that these perceptions would act as a moderator of the relationship between employees' workplace spirituality and job satisfaction. Our hypotheses were generally supported. Spirituality predicted work contributing to the meaning of life and various facets of job satisfaction. Implications of the importance of employees' perceptions of organizational fit related to spirituality and the perceived fit of co-workers' values with the organizational mission are discussed.
Razis, V; Razis, N
This paper considers a broad spectrum of literature concerning the limitations and value of applying marketing management principles from the private sector to public or non-profit organizations. The Child Accident Prevention Foundation of Southern Africa is used as a principle case-study. The authors conclude that there is much to be gained from applying a more systematic approach, providing one adapts business strategies to more complex social environments and objectives. Since both marketing and social issues share the challenge of 'sensitivity serving and satisfying human needs,' (Kotler, 1983 p 272) there are also some instances where business can learn from the experience of social organizations in attempts to influence human behavior.
Kretser, Alison; Murphy, Delia; Dwyer, Johanna
ABSTRACT Scientific integrity is at the forefront of the scientific research enterprise. This paper provides an overview of key existing efforts on scientific integrity by federal agencies, foundations, nonprofit organizations, professional societies, and academia from 1989 to April 2016. It serves as a resource for the scientific community on scientific integrity work and helps to identify areas in which more action is needed. Overall, there is tremendous activity in this area and there are clear linkages among the efforts of the five sectors. All the same, scientific integrity needs to remain visible in the scientific community and evolve along with new research paradigms. High priority in instilling these values falls upon all stakeholders. PMID:27748637
Robertson K. Tengeh
Full Text Available This paper investigates strategic planning to understand managers’ perception of its benefits to Non-Profit Organisations (NPOs. The investigation was preceded by a review and repertoire of theoretical evidence of NPOs integration of strategic planning in support of management function: a management tool designed for and used mainly by businesses. The study was based on the application of quantitative data collection and analysis to understand respondents’ perceptions. The paper found considerable increase and popularity in the usage of strategic planning by NPOs having learned about its benefits from prior working experience in businesses. Even though, there is an increase in NPOs’ usage of strategic planning because of envisaged benefit, other NPOs’ Managers simply do not have enough time, skills and resources to deploy them in their respective NPOs. With limited and competitive funding, the use of strategic planning becomes competitive imperatives for NPOs seeking to attract the much needed funds to support and promote their operations in South Africa.
Full Text Available This research aims in analyzing the capacity development of non-profit organizations in the growth stage through six internal components and four external components at Papuan Pesat Foundation. The approach used in the research is the action research based on the soft systems methodology that consists of two activities that had been done simultaneously, which are the research interest and the problem solving interest (McKay and Marshall, 2001. It fulfills criteria that are systematically desirable and culturally feasible (Flood an Jackson, 1991. Whilst the theory used is according to Brothers and Sherman (2012 that states that there are six internal components that should be strengthened in the growth stage, which are the leadership, the organization’s culture, the role of the board, programs’ extension, the management and infrastructure, the financial sustainable. Afterwards, according to De Vita, et. al. (2001 there are four organization’s external components that should be maintained, which are the social demographic, the economy/market, the politic and values, and the norms. The result of this research shows the research interest, that the organization needs to be equipped with the transformational leadership, the simple structure design, and the improvement of the role of the board. For the problem solving interest, it needs the working programs’ extension through the correct formulation process, the human resources management, the organization’s financial sustainability. Then the external components which need to be formed are the collaboration among the non-profit organizations, the local government, the private sectors, business activities, politic participations and the public relation.
Nonprofit Sector: Treatment and Reimbursement of Indirect Costs Vary among Grants, and Depend Significantly on Federal, State, and Local Government Practices. Report to the Chairman, Committee on the Budget, House of Representatives. GAO-10-477
Czerwinski, Stanley J.
Nonprofits are key partners in delivering federal services yet reportedly often struggle to cover their indirect costs (costs not readily identifiable with particular programs or projects). This raises concerns about fiscal strain on the sector. To provide information on nonprofits' indirect cost reimbursement, especially when funding flows…
Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other.
Aitimov, Bolat Zh.; Dussipov, Erkin Sh.; Altynbekkyzy, Alua; Ashimova, Dinara I.; Nurbek, Dana T.; Urazymbetov, Talgat E.
Environmental issues have become a central issue, which is considered not only at the state level, but also in the international arena. At the moment the main initiators of drawing attention to the environment are the environmental non-profit organizations. In developed countries, these organizations provide full support to the government and…
Tripuraneni, Vinaya L.
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify the leadership orientation of the academic library leader considered ideal by faculty, administrators and librarians in private, non-profit, doctoral universities in Southern California. Theoretical Framework: The theoretical framework used for this study was Bolman and Deal's Leadership…
Skinner, Mark W; Rosenberg, Mark W
This paper contributes to the current debates surrounding private delivery of health care services by addressing the distinctive challenges, constraints and opportunities facing for-profit and non-profit providers of long-term care in rural and small town settings. It focuses on the empirical case of Ontario, Canada where extensive restructuring of long-term care, under the rubric of managed competition, has been underway since the mid-1990s. In-depth interviews with 72 representatives from local governments, public health institutions and authorities, for-profit and non-profit organisations, and community groups during July 2003 to December 2003 form the platform for a qualitative analysis of the implications of managed competition as it relates to the provision of long-term care in the countryside. The results suggest that the introduction and implementation of managed competition has accentuated the problems of service provision in rural communities, and that the long-standing issues of caregiving in rural situations transcend the differences, perceived or otherwise, between for-profit and non-profit provision. Understanding the implications of market-oriented long-term care restructuring initiatives for providers, and their clients, in rural situations requires a re-focussing of research beyond the for- versus non-profit dichotomy.
Jennifer Amanda Jones; Robert Donmoyer
.... In 2011, for example, the Chronicle of Philanthropy included social entrepreneurs, along with philanthrocapitalism, B corporations, impact investing, and microfinance on its list of "Philanthropy's...
Full Text Available We analysed the role of socially oriented NGOs and volunteer services in the implementation of the objectives of National Strategy for Action on Children 2012–2017 and priority activities in the provision of services to vulnerable children and their families. The article provides the examples of innovative social practices and technologies developed and implemented by NGOs, which become generally accepted, widely used, and codified later. We show the role of the nonprofit institutions for the implementing the international experience. There is an increasing of the role of socially oriented NGOs as a partner of the regional authorities in the formulation and implementation of social policy modernization in the constituent entities of the Russian Federation over the past few years, including the organi- zation of interdepartmental and multidisciplinary interaction. The paper provides detailed analysis of the significance of the volunteer institution in the creation of conditions for development and socialization of children-orphans and children with disabilities, to identify further relevant activities in the context of deinstitu- tionalization of children in different categories without parental care, and trans- ferred to family care forms. The analysis showed that effective socially oriented NGOs, volunteer movements and public sector hampered by inadequate legal framework, weak activity of charitable organizations at the municipal level, the uncertainty of the evaluation of the action of NGOs and its effectiveness (lack of evaluation criteria, lack of staff training system for NCOs, "the fear of the authorities” is to transfer certain functions and powers as the national partner, the false perception of NGOs as a source of wealth and additional resources.
Hänninen, T; Reinikainen, K J; Helkala, E L; Koivisto, K; Mykkänen, L; Laakso, M; Pyörälä, K; Riekkinen, P J
To evaluate the relationship between objectively measured memory functions and subjective complaints of memory disturbance and whether subjective complaints are affected by some personality traits or affective states. Cross-sectional two-group comparison. The city of Kuopio in Eastern Finland, considered representative of the urban elderly population of Finland. Originally 403 subjects aged 67-78 years from the random sample and then two matched study groups initially including eighteen subjects but only ten in the final analysis. Screening and follow-up examinations of subjects with and without subjective memory complaints: (1) Memory functions: Benton's visual retention test and the paired-associated learning subtest of Wechsler Memory Scale. (2) Memory complaints: Memory Complaint Questionnaire. (3) Personality traits and affective state: Two subscales from Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and Geriatric Depression Scale. Complaints of memory loss did not correlate with the actual memory performance in the tests. However, those subjects who most emphatically complained of memory disturbance had greater tendencies toward somatic complaining, higher feelings of anxiety about their physical health, and more negative feelings of their own competence and capabilities than those who did not complain of memory deterioration associated with aging. The study suggests that subjective feelings of memory impairment are more closely associated with personality traits than with actual memory performance in normal elderly people.
... CONSTRUCTION-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS, OPERATING-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS AND OF VESSELS SOLD OR ADJUSTED UNDER THE MERCHANT SHIP SALES ACT 1946 § 289.2 Vessels included. Vessels subject to the provisions of this part are: (a) All vessels which may in the future be constructed or sold with construction...
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a known risk factor for acute ozone-associated respiratory disease. Ozone causes an immediate decrease in lung function and increased airway inflammation. The role of atopy and asthma in modulation of ozone-induced inflammation has not been determined. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether atopic status modulates ozone response phenotypes in human subjects. METHODS: Fifty volunteers (25 healthy volunteers, 14 atopic nonasthmatic subjects, and 11 atopic asthmatic subjects not requiring maintenance therapy) underwent a 0.4-ppm ozone exposure protocol. Ozone response was determined based on changes in lung function and induced sputum composition, including airway inflammatory cell concentration, cell-surface markers, and cytokine and hyaluronic acid concentrations. RESULTS: All cohorts experienced similar decreases in lung function after ozone. Atopic and atopic asthmatic subjects had increased sputum neutrophil numbers and IL-8 levels after ozone exposure; values did not significantly change in healthy volunteers. After ozone exposure, atopic asthmatic subjects had significantly increased sputum IL-6 and IL-1beta levels and airway macrophage Toll-like receptor 4, Fc(epsilon)RI, and CD23 expression; values in healthy volunteers and atopic nonasthmatic subjects showed no significant change. Atopic asthmatic subjects had significantly decreased IL-10 levels at baseline compared with healthy volunteers; IL-10 levels did not significa
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to broaden previous work on organizational learning and the factors that influence learning in organizational settings. Design/methodology/approach: Qualitative and quantitative research methods that included in-depth interviews and questionnaire distribution were used. Data gathered were analyzed using…
Dumnazev Dmitrii Alekseevich
Full Text Available In order to promote the provision of quality social services, priority for national social policy, the author of this article proposes a scheme for the distribution of funds, including the ability to bid and budget allocation scheme involving business sector in the financing and distribution of funds for implementation of the most socially significant projects of NGOs.
...) The promotion of political ideas includes issue advocacy, election influencing activity, and research...) Training, education, or business information, other than that which is necessary to enable recipients to... through accounting records that paragraph (c)(4)(ii) of this section is satisfied, has a written policy...
This booklet includes descriptions of new communications technologies and case studies of how they can be used in planning for appropriate and effective use of technology to enhance service to the public. Single-page overviews of satellites, broadcasting, videotex, cable television, microcomputers, teleconferencing, personal video, and telephones…
Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan
Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.
Pop Nicolae Al.
Full Text Available In contemporary Marketing theory and practice, debates regarding the role and place of the homonymous activity within the company are frequent. The development of a marketing mentality, as specialists state, allows the implementation of a marketing vision in all the organization’s departments, regardless of the activities performed. The economic theory enunciates all the more the existence of a marketing doctrine urged to ensure the methodological frame of the organization regarding market and consumer orientation. Based upon two selective exploratory market research performed among the major distributors of electro-technical materials and electro-technical solutions integrators, respectively among some public faculties’ management the authors want to examine the existence and the decision makers’ responsiveness regarding the implementation of a marketing mentality in one’s organization. The conclusions concern both business environment and academic non-profit organizations’ activity. The connection between the marketing mentality as an essential premise for the development of the entrepreneurial university concept is also emphasized.
Mitchell, Nia S; Furniss, Anna L; Helmkamp, Laura J; Van Pelt, Rachael E
Clinically significant weight loss (CSWL) is ≥5% of initial weight. The purpose of the study is to determine factors associated with women achieving CSWL in Take Off Pounds Sensibly (TOPS), a national, nonprofit weight loss program. This is a retrospective analysis of 48,674 females who joined TOPS from 2005 to 2011 and had a birth date in the database. Predictors of CSWL were evaluated using log-binomial regression and adjusted relative risks [99% CI] for participant age, initial weight, number of members per chapter, and chapter age. Older women were more likely to achieve CSWL, with women ≥70 years 1.23 (1.18, 1.28) times more likely to achieve CSWL compared to women 18 to lose weight as those in chapters less than 10 years old. Women in TOPS were more likely to achieve CSWL if older, ≥113 kg, and in larger, newer chapters. Future studies should address ways to modify the program to improve achievement of CSWL.
Bryson, John M; Alston, Farnum K
Based on John Bryson's acclaimed comprehensive approach to strategic planning, the Implementing and Sustaining Your Strategic Plan workbook provides a step-by-step process, tools, techniques, and worksheets to help successfully implement, manage, and troubleshoot an organization's strategy over the long haul. This new and immensely practical workbook helps organizations work through the typical challenges of leading implementation for sustained change. It spotlights the importance of effective leadership for long-term successful strategic plan implementation. The authors include a wealth of to
Full Text Available The increasing emphasis on aid effectiveness, accountability and impact measurement in international development and humanitarian work has generated a requirement for high quality internal systems for the management of programmes. To help to address this requirement, Trócaire adopted Results Based Management in the 20 countries in which it works. This paper provides an overview of Trócaire’s RBM journey, including the process of embedding the new approach in the organisation, lessons learnt from this process, the subsequent benefits that are emerging at field programme level and the challenges going forward.
Giacomo, Degli Antoni; Fabio, Sabatini
We use a unique dataset to study how participation in two specific types of nonprofit organizations, i.e. social welfare associations and social cooperatives, affects individual social capital. A descriptive analysis shows that both the types of organization have a positive impact. The econometric analysis reveals that social welfare associations play a significantly greater role in the development of volunteers' networks of cooperative relationships, favouring the creation of weak ties which...
The purpose of this thesis is to study leadership and management traits and styles within small non-profit office settings (less than 15 employees) in the U.S. from a leader and manager perspective. The thesis is partially about leadership and management as contrary versus intangible in relations to recognized factors of importance for the organization. A common expression describing a manager and a leader found in literature is, "Manager are people who do things right and leaders are people ...
Justin B. Dickerson
Episodic mood disorders are often associated with alcohol dependence. Few studies have explored the contribution of episodic mood disorders to length of stay among those hospitalized with alcohol dependence syndrome. Filling this research gap could improve care for patients while minimizing hospital utilization costs. This study was a cross-sectional analysis of the National Hospital Discharge Survey. ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes were used to identify those admitted to a private or non-profit hos...
Bachhuber, Marcus A; Southern, William N; Cunningham, Chinazo O
Opioid use disorders are frequently associated with medical and psychiatric comorbidities (eg, HIV infection and depression), as well as social problems (eg, lack of health insurance). Comprehensive services addressing these conditions improve outcomes. To compare the proportion of for-profit, nonprofit, and public opioid treatment programs offering comprehensive services, which are not mandated by government regulations. Cross-sectional analysis of opioid treatment programs offering outpatient care in the United States (n=1036). Self-reported offering of communicable disease (HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and viral hepatitis) testing, psychiatric services (screening, assessment and diagnostic evaluation, and pharmacotherapy), and social services support (assistance in applying for programs such as Medicaid). Mixed-effects logistic regression models were developed to adjust for several county-level factors. Of opioid treatment programs, 58.0% were for profit, 33.5% were nonprofit, and 8.5% were public. Nonprofit programs were more likely than for-profit programs to offer testing for all communicable diseases [adjusted odds ratios (AOR), 1.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2, 2.5], all psychiatric services (AOR, 8.0; 95% CI, 4.9, 13.1), and social services support (AOR, 3.3; 95% CI, 2.3, 4.8). Public programs were also more likely than for-profit programs to offer communicable disease testing (AOR, 6.4; 95% CI, 3.5, 11.7), all psychiatric services (AOR, 25.8; 95% CI, 12.6, 52.5), and social services support (AOR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.4, 4.3). For-profit programs were significantly less likely than nonprofit and public programs to offer comprehensive services. Interventions to increase the offering of comprehensive services are needed, particularly among for-profit programs.
The present historiographical review discusses the subjective dimension of Nazism, an ideology and regime that needed translation into self-definitions, gender roles, and bodily practices to implant itself in German society and mobilize it for racial war. These studies include biographies of some of
Lee, M; Hill, S; Scullin, J
The purpose of this study was to examine the responses of normal living subjects to the application of anteroposterior forces to the ribcage. Seventeen subjects aged between 25 and 37 years were tested during slow oscillatory loading while breath-holding at the end of a normal expiration. The mean stiffness coefficient was found to be 9.4 N mm(-1) (SD 2.9) and the mean gradient of the force-strain relation was 1888 N (SD 646). Comparison with previously published cadaver data indicates that the embalmed cadaver ribcage stiffness is in the order of three times stiffer than living subjects, while fresh cadavers showed comparable stiffness to living subjects. A number of studies have used models to predict and understand the behaviour of the thoracic spine. Validation of the behaviour of models which include the thoracic spine and ribcage depends on comparison of model response predictions with observed responses of human subjects. The present study provides data on the anteroposterior compressibility of the ribcage of living subjects which may be suitable for use in model validation studies. Copyright © 1994. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Raridon, M.H. (ed.)
The International Energy Subject Thesaurus contains the standard vocabulary to indexing terms (descriptors) developed and structured to build and maintain energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and (2) the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) staff representing the more than ninety countries and organizations recording and indexing information for the international nuclear information community. ETDE member countries are also members of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). Nuclear information indexed and recorded for INIS by these ETDE member countries is also included in the ETDE Energy Data Base, and indexing terminology is therefore cooperatively standardized for use in both information systems. This structured vocabulary reflects the scope of international energy research, development, and technological programs and encompasses terminology derived not only from the basic sciences but also from the areas of energy resources, conservation, safety, environmental impact, and regulation.
Terms and conditions for Diesel Emissions Reduction Act Smartway financing projects where an eligible nonprofit grantee is implementing a loan program and loan Recipients will use the loan funds for activities that trigger Davis Bacon
Use this T&C for DERA Smartway financing projects where an eligible nonprofit grantee is implementing a loan program and loan Recipients will use the loan funds for activities that trigger Davis Bacon.
Emrich, Teri E; Cohen, Joanna E; Lou, Wendy Y; L'Abbé, Mary R
Concern has been raised that the coexistence of multiple front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition rating systems in a marketplace may mislead consumers into believing that a specific food with a FOP is 'healthier' than foods without the symbol. Eleven summary indicator FOP systems are in use in Canada, including one non-profit developed system, the Heart and Stroke Foundation's Health Check™, and ten manufacturer-developed systems, like Kraft's Sensible Solutions™. This study evaluated FOP's potential to mislead consumers by comparing the number of products qualifying to carry a given FOP symbol to the number of products that actually carry the symbol. The nutritional criteria for the Health Check™ and the Sensible Solutions™ systems were applied to a 2010-2011 Canadian national database of packaged food products. The proportion of foods qualifying for a given FOP system was compared to the proportion carrying the symbol using McNemar's test. Criteria were available to categorize 7503 and 3009 of the 10,487 foods in the database under Health Check™ and Sensible Solutions™, respectively. Overall 45% of the foods belonging to a Health Check™ category qualified for Health Check's™ symbol, while only 7.5% of the foods carried the symbol. Up to 79.1% of the foods belonging to a Sensible Solutions™, category qualified for Sensible Solutions's™ symbol while only 4.1% of the foods carried the symbol. The level of agreement between products qualifying for and carrying FOP systems was poor to moderate in the majority of food categories for both systems. More than 75% of the products in 24 of the 85 Health Check™ subcategories and 9 of 11 Sensible Solution™ categories/subcategories qualified for their respective symbols based on their nutritional composition. FOP systems as they are currently applied are not, in most instances, a useful guide to identifying healthier food products in the supermarket as many more products qualify for these systems than the number
Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.
Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions, and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must...
Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.
Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must ...
van Wijnbergen-Huitink, Janneke; van Wijbergen-Huitink, Janneke; Meier, Cécile
This introductory chapter traces some of the considerations on the basis of which relativistic approaches to subjective meaning became en vogue. In doing so, the chapter provides an overview of the relevant linguistic and philosophical issues when developing a treatment of subjectivity. In addition,
The term ‘subjective safety in traffic’ refers to people feeling unsafe in traffic or, more generally, to anxiety regarding being unsafe in traffic for oneself and/or others. Subjective safety in traffic can lead to road users limiting their mobility and social activities, which is one of the
J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)
textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed
When Lois Barber, executive director of the non-profit group EarthAction, began efforts to press for U.S. Senate ratification of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification several years ago, the treaty's purpose tripped up some people, she said. They wondered whether it might be a treaty related to military personnel who had abandoned their service, de-certification of something or other, or even an overabundance of after-dinner treats. While the issue may not yet rate highly on the U.S. radar screen, U.S. Senate ratification of the Convention to Combat Desertification (CCD) on November 17, 2000 and entry into force of the treaty in the United States on February 2, 2001, could bring additional focus on desertification from the scientific community and policy-makers, according to a number of experts involved with the issue. The treaty now has been ratified by 174 countries.
Full Text Available The contribution of modern science to the progress of civilization is immeasurable. Even its tendency toward exclusive concentration on the objective world has had salutary effects of great value. Modern science has wiped away much that was merely superstitious or speculative. Its rejection of unfounded opinions and prejudices has helped the thinking mind question conventional beliefs, shed preferences and prejudices, and challenge established authority. But modern systems thinking inherited from natural science is the suppression of the subjective dimension of reality. Many complex systems are an attempt to define and represent all subjective experience in physical terms. The modern man has a bias towards objectivity. The powerful influence of sense impressions on his mind and thinking makes him ignore the subjective experience and consider only objective facts as a valid, legitimate and representation of reality. Observing objective factors that are physical is easier than observing subjective factors that are subtle. The mechanistic view of reality has led to the rejection of the role of the individual in social development as insignificant. The individuals determine the development of society. Their social power has its roots both in subjective factors and objective factors. Economy, politics, society, and culture are inseparable dimensions of a single integrated reality. Subject and object constitute an integrated whole. The mind sees them as separate and independent. Or it views one as completely subordinate to the other. Unbiased approach to the study of all human experiences may prove that subject and object are interdependent dimensions or elements of reality.
Redford, J.S. (ed.)
The technical staff of the DOE Technical Information Center, during its subject indexing activities, develops and structures a vocabulary that allows consistent machine storage and retrieval of information necessary to the accomplishment of the DOE mission. This thesaurus incorporates that structured vocabulary. The terminology of this thesaurus is used for the subject control of information announced in DOE Energy Research Abstracts, Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis, and various update journals and bulletins in specialized areas. This terminology also facilitates subject searching of the DOE Energy Data Base on the DOE/RECON on-line retrieval system and on other commercial retrieval systems. The rapid expansion of the DOE's activities will result in a commitant thesaurus expansion as information relating to new activities is indexed. Only the terms used in the indexing of documents at the Technical Information Center to date are included. (JSR)
Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.
To have a complete human science in the mental health field it is essential to give adequate attention to both the objective and the subjective data related to people with psychiatric disorders. The tendency in the past has been to ignore or discount one or the other of these data sources. Subjective data are particularly neglected, sometimes considered (only) part of the "art" of medicine since the usual methodologies of the physical sciences in themselves are not adequate to reflect the nature, elusiveness, and complexity of human subjective experience. The complete experience of hallucinated voices, for instance, often includes not only the voices themselves but also terrible anguish and terrifying inability to concentrate. But even such descriptors fall unnecessarily short of reflecting the data of the experience, thus leaving research, theory, and treatment with incomplete information. To represent adequately the subjective data it is essential to recognize that besides the usual discursive knowledge and methods of traditional physical science, a second kind of knowledge and method is required to reflect the depth of human experience. To accomplish this, we must employ approaches to narrative and the arts that are uniquely capable of capturing the nature of these experiences. Only by attending seriously in our research, training, theory, and practice to the unique nature of subjective data is it possible to have a true human science for our field.
Grein, H-J; Schmidt, O; Ritsche, A
Reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement is limited by various factors. The main factors affecting reproducibility include the characteristics of the measurement method and of the subject and the examiner. This article presents the results of a study on this topic, focusing on the reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement in healthy eyes. The results of previous studies are not all presented in the same way by the respective authors and cannot be fully standardized without consulting the original scientific data. To the extent that they are comparable, the results of our study largely correspond largely with those of previous investigations: During repeated subjective refraction measurement, 95% of the deviation from the mean value was approximately ±0.2 D to ±0.65 D for the spherical equivalent and cylindrical power. The reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement in healthy eyes is limited, even under ideal conditions. Correct assessment of refraction results is only feasible after identifying individual variability. Several measurements are required. Refraction cannot be measured without a tolerance range. The English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink (under supplemental).
This article considers whether it is fortunate that data protection rules, as a starting point, apply to all physical persons as data subjects, or whether it would be better to differentiate between kinds of persons on grounds of their ability to act as a data subject. In order to protect all...... persons, it is argued that a principle of care should be part of data protection law....
Brunskog, Jonas; Hwang, Ha Dong; Jeong, Cheol-Ho
annoyance, using simulated binaural room impulse responses, with sources being a moving point source or a non-moving surface source, and rooms being a room with a reverberation time of 0.5 s or an anechoic room. The paper concludes that no strong effect of the source localization on the annoyance can...
Henne, Karsten; Rheinberg, Anke; Melzer-Krick, Beate; Conrads, Georg
Actinobacteria came into focus of being potential caries-associated pathogens and could, together with the established Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli thus function as caries indicator species. Here we analyzed the role and diagnostic predictive value of the acidogenic-aciduric species Scardovia wiggsiae and Bifidobacterium dentium together with S. mutans, lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in biofilm of non-cavitated (n = 20) and cavitated (n = 6) caries lesions versus controls (n = 30). For the genus Bifidobacterium and for B. dentium new sets of primers were designed. Based on real-time quantitative PCR and confirmed by DNA sequencing we found a higher prevalence (61.5%) of S. wiggsiae in caries lesions than in controls (40%). However, among the controls we found three individuals with both the highest absolute and relative S. wiggsiae numbers. Testing for S. mutans revealed the same prevalence as S. wiggsiae in caries lesions (61.5%) but in controls its prevalence was only 10%. B. dentium was never found in healthy plaque but in 30.8% of clinical cases, with the highest numbers in cavitated lesions. The Bifidobacterium-genus specific PCR had less discriminative power as more control samples were positive. We calculated the relative abundances and applied receiver operating characteristic analyses. The top results of specificity (93% and 87%) and sensitivity (100% and 88%) were found when the constraint set was "Lactobacillus relative abundance ≥0.02%" and "two aciduric species with a relative abundance of each ≥0.007%". Combinatory measurement of several aciduric taxa may be useful to reveal caries activity or even to predict caries progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Aligned with the broader movement from structuralism to the post-structuralisms [Lather, P. 2013. "Methodology-21: What Do We Do in the Afterward?" "International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education" 26 (6): 634-645; St. Pierre, E. A. 2009. "Afterword: Decentering Voice in Qualitative Inquiry." In "Voice…
Colombel, M; Rebillard, C; Nathou, C; Dollfus, S
Puerperal psychosis (PP) is a psychiatric disorder that occurs in 1 out of 1000 pregnancies. Well known since antiquity, its symptoms have often been described in mothers, but few studies have successfully investigated a related disorder in fathers. The characteristic of this pathology is more related to its appearance than to its semiological description which is why its nosographic place is always discussed. The objective here is to focus on the definition of PP and to suggest an entity for both genders. Our case report focused on the clinical description of an eighteen-year-old man suffering from an acute psychosis episode that occurred around the birth of his first child. Delusion followed a sudden decline in mood that lasted for a short period of time during the course of the third trimester of his wife's pregnancy. The delirium was rich with auditory and cenesthesic hallucinations, pregnancy and birth denial, feeling movements and hearing voices in his stomach. The symptoms disappeared after one month of treatment via an antipsychotic drug, risperidone. We can confirm that the symptomatic description of the disorder in this patient fits the classical descriptions of PP. Two elements make the PP different from other acute psychoses: the context of pregnancy and delirium focused on the child which can lead to a child murder. The absence of a framework precisely defining the PP does not improve its prevention and can lead to legal attitudes rather than medical care. Men suffering from acute psychosis in a context of pregnancy are submitted to the same risks as women. It is necessary to emphasize descriptions of PP in men to redefine the disease and consider that this entity involves both men and women. Copyright © 2016 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Rizza, Stefano; Copetti, Massimiliano; Cardellini, Marina; Menghini, Rossella; Pecchioli, Chiara; Luzi, Alessio; Di Cola, Giovanni; Porzio, Ottavia; Ippoliti, Arnaldo; Romeo, Franco; Pellegrini, Fabio; Federici, Massimo
Atherosclerosis disease is a leading cause for mortality and morbidity. The narrowing/rupture of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque is accountable for acute cardiovascular events. However, despite of an intensive research, a reliable clinical method which may disclose a vulnerable patient is still unavailable. We tested the association of ADAM17 (A Disintegrin and Metallo Protease Domain 17) circulating substrates (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sIL6R and sTNFR1) with a second major cardiovascular events [MACEs] (cardiovascular death, peripheral artery surgeries, non-fatal myocardial infarction and non-fatal stroke) in 298 patients belonging to the Vascular Diabetes (AVD) study. To evaluate ADAM17 activity we create ADAM17 score through a RECPAM model. Finally we tested the discrimination ability and the reclassification of clinical models. At follow-up (mean 47 months, range 1-118 months), 55 MACEs occurred (14 nonfatal MI, 14 nonfatal strokes, 17 peripheral artery procedures and 10 cardiovascular deaths) (incidence = 7.8% person-years). An increased risk for incident events was observed among the high ADAM17 score individuals both in univariable (HR 19.20, 95% CI 15.82-63.36, p atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
such as concepts, aboutness, topic, isness and ofness are also briefly presented. The conclusion is that the most fruitful way of defining “subject” (of a document) is the documents informative or epistemological potentials, that is, the documents potentials of informing users and advance the development......This article presents and discuss the concept “subject” or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document......-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts...
Sajardo, Antonia; Chaves, Rafael
En este trabajo se abordan sucesivamente las siguientes cuestiones. En primer lugar se estudia el criterio definitorio utilizado desde este enfoque que permite identificar y delimitar al Tercer Sector, en este caso Non-profit Sector. A continuación se analizan las principales construcciones teóricas que han sido edificadas para justificar la aparición de este sector y para estudiar sus roles económicos en nuestras economías. Finalmente, por un lado, se destacan las principales limitaciones ex...
Nagao, K.; Nielsen, H.B.
We study a complex action theory (CAT) whose path runs over not only past but also future. We show that, if we regard a matrix element defined in terms of the future state at time T and the past state at time TA as an expectation value in the CAT, then we are allowed to have the Heisenberg equation......, Ehrenfest's theorem, and the conserved probability current density. In addition,we showthat the expectation value at the present time t of a future-included theory for large T - t and large t - T corresponds to that of a future-not-included theory with a proper inner product for large t - T. Hence, the CAT...
Jahn, R G; Dunne, B J
Over the greater portion of its long scholarly history, the particular form of human observation, reasoning, and technical deployment we properly term "science" has relied at least as much on subjective experience and inspiration as it has on objective experiments and theories. Only over the past few centuries has subjectivity been progressively excluded from the practice of science, leaving an essentially secular analytical paradigm. Quite recently, however, a compounding constellation of newly inexplicable physical evidence, coupled with a growing scholarly interest in the nature and capability of human consciousness, are beginning to suggest that this sterilization of science may have been excessive and could ultimately limit its epistemological reach and cultural relevance. In particular, an array of demonstrable consciousness-related anomalous physical phenomena, a persistent pattern of biological and medical anomalies, systematic studies of mind/brain relationships and the mechanics of human creativity, and a burgeoning catalogue of human factors effects within contemporary information processing technologies, all display empirical correlations with subjective aspects that greatly complicate, and in many cases preclude, their comprehension on strictly objective grounds. However, any disciplined re-admission of subjective elements into rigorous scientific methodology will hinge on the precision with which they can be defined, measured, and represented, and on the resilience of established scientific techniques to their inclusion. For example, any neo-subjective science, while retaining the logical rigor, empirical/theoretical dialogue, and cultural purpose of its rigidly objective predecessor, would have the following requirements: acknowledgment of a proactive role for human consciousness; more explicit and profound use of interdisciplinary metaphors; more generous interpretations of measurability, replicability, and resonance; a reduction of ontological
What is a 'we' – a collective – and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity – and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas...... practices. Through this dialogue, it develops an original trans-disciplinary critical theory and practice of collective subjectivity for which the ongoing construction and overcoming of common sense, or ideology, is central. It also points to ways of relating discourse with agency, and fertilizing insights...... from interactionism and ideology theories in a cultural-historical framework....
Uysal, Recep; Satici, Seydi Ahmet; Satici, Begüm; Akin, Ahmet
In this study, the mediator and moderator effects of subjective vitality on the relationship between life satisfaction and subjective happiness were investigated. The participants were 378 university students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Subjective Vitality Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Subjective…
Casarett, David; Karlawish, Jason; Asch, David A
CONTEXT Cash payments are often used to compensate subjects who participate in research. However, ethicists have argued that these payments might constitute an undue inducement. OBJECTIVES To determine whether potential subjects agree with theoretical arguments that a payment could be an undue inducement. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS Survey of 350 prospective jurors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Belief that a $500 payment for research participation would impair their own, and others' ability to think carefully about the risks and benefits of a clinical trial. RESULTS Two hundred sixty-one jurors (74.6%) believed that a $500 payment would impair subjects' ability to think carefully about the risks and benefits of research. Ninety-six of 120 (80%) expressed this concern about subjects with a low income ($50,000). In contrast, only 69 (19.7%) of jurors believed that a $500 payment would influence them. Jurors who believed that this payment would influence them reported lower incomes and less education. CONCLUSION Members of the general public share ethical concerns about the influence of payments for research, although they believe that these concerns are more applicable to others than to themselves.
Three models are proposed to describe the strategy applied by a subject when he is confronted with two successive time intervals and is required to deal with some relation between them, for example, by telling which was the longer by adjusting the second to match the first. (Author)
Baandrup, Lone; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Jennum, Poul Jørgen
and subjective sleep quality during benzodiazepine discontinuation and whether sleep variables were associated with benzodiazepine withdrawal. Eligible patients included adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder and long-term use of benzodiazepines in combination...... with antipsychotics. All participants gradually tapered the use of benzodiazepines after randomization to add-on treatment with melatonin versus placebo. Here we report a subsample of 23 patients undergoing sleep recordings (one-night polysomnography) and 55 patients participating in subjective sleep quality ratings....... Melatonin had no effect on objective sleep efficiency, but significantly improved self-reported sleep quality. Reduced benzodiazepine dosage at the 24-week follow-up was associated with a significantly decreased proportion of stage 2 sleep. These results indicate that prolonged-release melatonin has some...
Lundgaard Andersen, Linda
Fieldwork is one of the important methods in educational, social, and organisational research. In fieldwork, the researcher takes residence for a shorter or longer period amongst the subjects and settings to be studied. The aim of this is to study the culture of people: how people seem to make...... sense of their lives and which moral, professional, and ethical values seem to guide their behaviour and attitudes. In fieldwork, the researcher has to balance participation and observation in her attempts at representation. Consequently, the researcher’s academic and life-historical subjectivity...... are important filters for fieldwork. In general, fieldwork can be understood as processes where field reports and field analysis are determined by how the researcher interacts with and experiences the field, the events and informants in it, and how she subsequently develops an ethnography. However, fieldwork...
/reading subject) manifests itself in the material mark on the page. The study shows how this indexical reference to a ‘subject’ is manipulated and used as a mask through which a writer/painter can perform a certain ‘subject’. Through analyses of the various levels on which the ‘subject’ is represented...... in the early as well as the contemporary avant-garde, it becomes clear that the ‘subject’ is an unstable category that can be exposed to manipulation and play. Handwriting is performing as a signature (as an index), but is at the same time similar to the signature of a subject (an icon) and a verbal construct...
Subject sensitive invariantism is the view that whether a subject knows depends on what is at stake for that subject: the truth-value of a knowledge-attribution is sensitive to the subject's practical interests. I argue that subject sensitive invariantism cannot accept a very plausible principle for
Jensen, Peter; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus
Background Epidemiological data have established an association between cardiovascular disease and psoriasis. Only one general population study has so far compared prevalences of cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with psoriasis and control subjects. We aimed to determine the prevalence...... of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with and without psoriasis in the general population. Methods During 2006-2008, a cross-sectional study was performed in the general population in Copenhagen, Denmark. A total of 3471 subjects participated in a general health examination that included assessment of current...... between subjects with and without psoriasis with regard to traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions Our results contrast with the hitherto-reported increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in subjects with psoriasis in the general US population. However, our results agree with those of other...
Newcomer, Kathryn; Brass, Clinton T.
The "performance movement" has been a subject of enthusiasm and frustration for evaluators. Performance measurement, data analytics, and program evaluation have been treated as different tasks, and those addressing them speak their own languages in their own circles. We suggest that situating performance measurement and data analytics…
Ivan Luiz Ecco
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze, based on the agency theory, the existence of agency conflicts in management by results in a professional education nonprofit organization. For the program, the case study method was used in a nonprofit professional education organization, located in the state of Santa Catarina. The study examined the contract between the Headquarters of the Organization (which represents in this study, according to theory of agency, the principal and its School Units (representing, the agents to accomplish goals. The results show that the asymmetry of information and organizational culture are factors that contribute to the problem of agency and the determination of an optimal contract should take into consideration such situations. The main conclusion is that agency problems are also present in nonprofit organizations, even when an instrument for the management by results is implemented.O objetivo deste artigo é analisar, à luz da teoria da agência, a existência de conflitos de agência, em uma gestão por resultados, de uma organização educacional sem fins lucrativos. Para sua realização utilizou-se o método de estudo de caso em uma organização de educação profissional sem fins lucrativos, situada no Estado de Santa Catarina. O estudo analisou o contrato celebrado entre a Sede da Organização (que representa neste estudo, segundo a teoria da agência, o principal e suas Unidades Escolares (consideradas os agentes para o cumprimento de metas. Os resultados demonstram que a assimetria de informação e a cultura organizacional são fatores quecontribuem para que o problema de agência ocorra e a determinação de um contrato ótimo deveria levar em consideração tais situações. A principal conclusão é de que os problemas de agência também estão presentes nas organizações sem fins lucrativos, mesmo quando se implanta um instrumento para realizar a gestão por resultados.
Edward M. Corrado
Full Text Available A primordial aspect of the Sartrian critique of alienation concerns understanding the analytic ideology as the domination of materiality over the symbolic, in other words as the reification of the human, and therefore as anticulture. In the context of contemporary nihilism, the decoding of the mechanisms which consign praxis to the practico-inert requires a critique of the relations between the social sciences and philosophy, which in its turn implies a new theory of the relation between what Sartre calls the "notion" (the area of subjectivity and the "concept" (objectivity, From this perspective, the deconstruction of the established frontiers between the social sciences and philosophy, and between the conceptual and the narrative, is corelative to a redefinition of the relation between theory and practice.
Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)
Benson, Etienne S
Argument In recent decades, through the work of Jane Goodall and other ethologists, the practice of giving personal names to nonhuman animals who are the subjects of scientific research has become associated with claims about animal personhood and scientific objectivity. While critics argue that such naming practices predispose the researcher toward anthropomorphism, supporters suggest that it sensitizes the researcher to individual differences and social relations. Both critics and supporters agree that naming tends to be associated with the recognition of individual animal rights. The history of the naming of research animals since the late nineteenth century shows, however, that the practice has served a variety of purposes, most of which have raised few ethical or epistemological concerns. Names have been used to identify research animals who play dual roles as pets, workers, or patients, to enhance their market value, and to facilitate their identification in the field. The multifaceted history of naming suggests both that the use of personal names by Goodall and others is less of a radical break with previous practices than it might first appear to be and that the use of personal names to recognize the individuality, sentience, or rights of nonhuman animals faces inherent limits and contradictions.
Vinogradov, G. P.
The problem of constructing a choice model of an agent with endogenous purposes of evolution is under debate. It is demonstrated that its solution requires the development of well-known methods of decision-making while taking into account the relation of action mode motivation to an agent’s ambition to implement subjectively understood interests and the environment state. The latter is submitted for consideration as a purposeful state situation model that exists only in the mind of an agent. It is the situation that is a basis for getting an insight into the agent’s ideas on the possible selected action mode results. The agent’s ambition to build his confidence in the feasibility of the action mode and the possibility of achieving the desired state requires him to use the procedures of forming an idea model based on the measured values of environment state. This leads to the gaming approach for the choice problem and its solution can be obtained on a set of trade-off alternatives.
Full Text Available The specific aspects which determined the way some groups of students conducted their work in a university laboratory, made us understand the articulation of these groups´s dynamics, from elements that were beyond the reach of cognition. In more specific terms the conduction and the maintenance of the groups student´s dynamics were explicited based on a intergame between the non conscious strategies, shared anonymously, and the efforts of the individuals in working based on their most objective task. The results and issues we have reached so far, using a reference the work developed by W.R.Bion, with therapeutical groups, gave us the possibility for understanding the dynamics of the student´s experimental work through a new approach that approximates the fields of cognition and subjectivity. This approximation led us to a deeper reflection about the issues which may be involved in the teaching process, particularly in situations which the teacher deals with the class, organised in groups.
This study originated in an observation of the return of medical and individual-oriented explanations in conceptualizing the problematization of students in Denmark. The study will include analyses of files of 125 Danish students from a ‘helpschool’ that focuses on children with special education...
This paper studies how subjectivity in capitalist culture can be characterized. Building on Lacan's later seminars XVI, XVII, XVIII, and XIX, the author first outlines Lacan's general discourse theory, which includes four characteristic discourses: the discourse of the master, the discourse of the university, the discourse of the hysteric and the discourse of the analyst. Next, the author explores the subjectivity and the mode of dealing with jouissance and semblance, which is entailed in a f...
Kunliang Qiu; Xuehui Lu; Riping Zhang; Geng Wang; Mingzhi Zhang
Purpose. To determine the corneal biomechanical properties by using the Ocular Response Analyzer? and to investigate potential factors associated with the corneal biomechanics in healthy myopic subjects. Methods. 135 eyes from 135 healthy myopic subjects were included in this cross-sectional observational study. Cornea hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), cornea-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc), and Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg) were determined with the ...
de Haas, Nynke; van Kemenade, Ans
This article presents new evidence for the early history of the Northern Subject Rule in the form of an exhaustive corpus study of plural present-tense indicative verb forms in Northern and Northern Midlands early Middle English, analysed in relation to their syntactic context, including subject
Towards a definition of SUBJECT in binding domains and subject-oriented anaphors 27 and it holds little explanatory value. At best, EPP ensures that the highest argument will move to subject position. The final property I will discuss here is the fact that, in some languages (e.g. Icelandic and. Dutch), there is a subset of ...
IJBE Volume 1
Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1EPA, 1Agrotourism, 148AHP, 148balance scorecard, 63batik tulis Rolla Junior, 23Broiler, 90business model canvas, 137business performance,32capital structure, 81cashew industry,158CHAID,106CLI,42coal transportation service,63company’s characteristics, 81competitive advantage, 12competitive strategy, 127consumer satisfaction, 51CSI, 42customer loyalty, 42customer satisfaction,42decision of visitors, 72development strategy, 23development,158entrepreneurship, 32Feasibility studies, 90FEM, 81gap analysis, 1Indonesia Stock Exchange, 177Indosat, 137investor,177Kawah Putih, 72kedai sop durian lodaya (KSDL,51klassen typology, 96leading sector, 96less cash society, 137liquidity ratio, 165location quotient, 96logistic regression, 115market, 177marketing development strategy, 148Marketing mix, 72mobile payment, 137modern and Traditional cage, 90multiple regression analyse,165multiple regression, 177net working capital, 165organic tofu product, 115Padang, 106paired comparison, 63partnership, 1, 32Pecking Order Theory, 81PLS, 81Portfolio, 96power, 32product quality, 51profitability ratio, 165Prol Tape Primadona, 127purchase decision, 115purchase intention, 51purchasing interest,115QSPM, 23, 127refilled drinking water, 106seed,1segmentation, 106SEM, 42, 51service quality, 51SMEs, 96specialty coffee, 12stock,177strategic diagnosis,137strategy, 158Sukorambi Botanic Garden, 148SWOT, 23, 127, 148, 158SWOT-AHP, 12tourists,72UD. Primadona, 127value chain, 12VRIO,12 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1Adiningsih, Kartika Puspitasari,42Aknesia, Vharessa,12Amalia, Firda Rachma,90Andati, Trias, 177Anggraeni, Lukytawati,23Asriani,158Daryanto, Arief,12, 90Djamaludin, MD., 42Djohar, Setiadi,96Fachrodji, Achmad,72Fahmi, Idqan,1, 63, 127Fasyni, Awisal,106Hubeis, Musa,148Iskandar, Dodi,51Juanda, Bambang, 165Kirbrandoko, 12, 106, 115Lumbantoruan, Dewi Margareth,96Maulana, TB Nur Ahmad,81Muksin, 148Mukti Soleh, Cecep,63Najib, Mukhamad,106Noor, Tajudin,81
IJBE Volume 2
Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2access credit, 93acquisition, 177AHP, 61, 82, 165arena simulation,43BMC, 69Bojonegoro, 69brand choice, 208brand image, 208brand positioning, 208bullwhip effect, 43burger buns, 1business synergy and financial reports, 177capital structure, 130cluster, 151coal reserves, 130coffee plantation, 93competitiveness, 82consumer behaviour, 33consumer complaint behavior, 101cooking spices, 1crackers, 1cross sectional analytical, 139crosstab, 101CSI, 12direct selling, 122discriminant analysis, 33economic value added, 130, 187employee motivation, 112employee performance, 112employees, 139EOQ, 23farmer decisions, 93farmer group, 52financial performance evaluation, 187financial performance, 52, 177financial ratio, 187financial report, 187fiva food, 23food crops, 151horticulture, 151imports, 151improved capital structure, 177IPA, 12leading sector, 151life insurance, 165LotteMart, 43main product, 61marketing mix, 33, 165matrix SWOT, 69MPE, 61multiple linear regression, 122muslim clothing, 197Ogun, 139Pangasius fillet, 82Pati, 93pearson correlation, 101perceived value, 208performance suppy chain, 23PLS, 208POQ, 23portfolio analyzing, 1product, 101PT SKP, 122pulp and papers, 187purchase decision, 165purchase intention, 33remuneration, 112re-purchasing decisions, 197sales performance, 122sawmill, 52SCOR, 23sekolah peternakan rakyat, 69SEM, 112SERVQUAL, 12Sido Makmur farmer groups, 93SI-PUHH Online, 12small and medium industries (IKM, 61socio-demographic, 139sport drink, 208stress, 139supply chain, 43SWOT, 82the mix marketing, 197Tobin’s Q, 130trade partnership, 52uleg chili sauce, 1 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2Achsani, Noer Azam, 177Andati, Trias, 52, 177Andihka, Galih, 208Arkeman, Yandra, 43Baga, Lukman M, 69Cahyanugroho, Aldi, 112Daryanto, Arief, 12David, Ajibade, 139Djoni, 122Fahmi, Idqan, 1Fattah, Muhammad Unggul Abdul, 61Hakim, Dedi Budiman, 187Harianto, 93Hartoyo, 101Homisah, 1Hubeis, Musa, 112Hutagaol, M. Parulian, 93Jaya, Stevana
Full Text Available This paper moves between two streets: Liverpool Road in the Sydney suburb of Ashfield and Via Sarpi in the Italian city of Milan. What connects these streets is that both have become important sites for businesses in the Chinese diaspora. Moreover, both are streets on which locals have expressed desires for Chinese signs to be translated into the national lingua franca. The paper argues that the cultural politics inherent in this demand for translation cannot be fully understood in the context of national debates about diversity and integration. It is also necessary to consider the emergence of the official Chinese Putonghua as global language, which competes with English but also colonizes dialects and minority languages. In the case of these dual language signs, the space between languages can neither be reduced to a contact zone of minority and majority cultures nor celebrated as a ‘third space’ where the power relations implied by such differences are subverted. At stake is rather a space characterised by what Naoki Sakai calls the schema of co-figuration, which allows the representation of translation as the passage between two equivalents that resemble each other and thus makes possible their determination as conceptually different and comparable. Drawing on arguments about translation and citizenship, the paper critically interrogates the ethos of interchangeability implied by this regime of translation. A closing argument is made for a vision of the common that implies neither civilisational harmony nor the translation of all values into a general equivalent. Primary sources include government reports, internet texts and media stories. These are analyzed using techniques of discourse analysis and interpreted with the help of secondary literature concerning globalisation, language and migration. The disciplinary matrix cuts and mixes between cultural studies, translation studies, citizenship studies, globalization studies and
This handbook serves as a guide to understanding and implementing the Federal regulations and US DOE Orders established to protect human research subjects. Material in this handbook is directed towards new and continuing institutional review board (IRB) members, researchers, institutional administrators, DOE officials, and others who may be involved or interested in human subjects research. It offers comprehensive overview of the various requirements, procedures, and issues relating to human subject research today.
..., and a copy of the patent application (including an English-language version if filed in a language... disclosure of the invention for a determination of ownership rights. (3) Confidentiality. Any examination of... organization or small business firm contractor. As prescribed in 970.2703-1(b)(2), insert the following clause...
Marina Ivanovna Ilyushina
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the moment the subject – resources of a person. Be caused, “loss” possible resources: lack of personal self-realization, the maladjustment of the individual in a social environment, obstructed line of identity, which in some cases is accompanied by incomplete personal self-actualization and self-sufficiency. The article emphasizes the importance of the subjective component in understanding, identifying, understanding, mobilization, conservation and accumulation of resources of the individual. Man is an active Converter to your reality, where he and reality are the result of the conversion and source conversion. The author proposed the concept of “subjective resource” as a necessary factor for quality of life of the individual, achievement of tops of her self-improvement and self-development, both professionally and personally. Subjective component emphasizes the role of the individual in the conservation, transformation, accumulation, the reallocation of resources. Purpose. The subject of analysis is the awareness, understanding person own resources – the subjective resourcest. The author aims to describe the subjective resourcest as psychological and acmeological phenomenon to reveal its essence and to suggest the methodology of the study of this phenomenon, showing the importance of verbalization resources through associative image without relying on the visibility and relying on her. Methodology. The basis of the study form a General theoretical methods (theoretical analysis, including psychological analysis, generalization, systematization, system description. Results. The results of the work lies in the fact that the author has defined the concept of “subjective resourcesthe” and proposed methodology of the study. The obtained results may be of interest to improve the efficiency of the work to define the resources of the individual. The results and method of determining a subjective resource
The Circumstances and Subjects of "Eco-Farming" through the Collaboration among Cultivation and Livestock Farming : The Analysis of Cases based on "The Nonprofit Making Business Model of Social Entrepreneur"
This research investigated the cases of "Eco-Farming" through the construction system combination of crop cultivation and livestock farming, for the purpose of preserving the natural ecosystem and responding to the needs of consumers who look for safety and reliability in agricultural products. The research further presented conditions in which to realize such agriculture. The conditions are as follows: (1) A leader exists, in which s/he develops the ideas of sales operation as well as collab...
Dina Alexandra Marques Miragaia
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyse the efficiency of non-profit sports clubs and identify the perceptions of their directors with regards to the stakeholders that exert the greatest influence over club efficiency levels. In order to analyse the efficiency of these clubs, we made recourse to the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA method. We also applied the Mann-Whitney test, to identify whether there are significant differences between efficient and non-efficient clubs with regards to the influence held by their stakeholders. We thus report that the majority of clubs operate efficiently. Both the efficient and the non-efficient clubs classify the club managers, members, sponsors, fans and athletes as the most important stakeholders to their efficiency levels. The results convey how there are no significant differences among the management team perceptions on the role of stakeholders in attaining club efficiency. The study also details the respective procedures that inefficient clubs should adopt in order to approximate the efficiency frontier.
Ali Riza ERDEM
Full Text Available In conventional education process, there have always been certain obstacles throughout the human history. From that point of view, “Open and Distance Education” are the ones which are much more sensitive to quality and to the dissemination of knowledge to society as well as having certain advantages in getting over matters rather than in-class processes. In our country, for public institutions, the vitality of “strategic planning” has recently been recognized and established as a legal substructure. Besides, organizations and educational institutions of the government, which legally offers “Open and Distance Education” without any profit concern, are also responsible for creating a strategic guide-line. A process established by Bryson for public institutions, “A Ten-Step Strategic Planning Process” could be used in those strategic planning of the educational institutions of the government, which are of nonprofit concern, to ease strategic thought and organizational momentum by their administrators in on attendant, careful, and logical way.
Yli-Uotila, Tiina; Kaunonen, Marja; Pylkkänen, Liisa; Suominen, Tarja
To describe the phases of the cancer trajectory when social support, in the form of electronic counselling services, as provided by the non-profit cancer societies, is needed, as well as how these services are integrated into the cancer care in public healthcare. In this descriptive qualitative study a purposive sample of patients with cancer (n = 12) were interviewed. The data were content analysed inductively. Social support was needed when emotional well-being was weakened, when the body broke, when the care pathway induced unawareness, and when empowerment needed strengthening. There was no need for social support when well-being was considered in balance. The electronic counselling services were integrated into cancer care by supporting the patient with cancer emotionally, developing the informational expertise of the patient with cancer, expanding the opportunities for support, and supporting public healthcare. Integration required improvements to the actions of the patients and various actors involved in the healthcare system. There was no integration due to the health status of the patient and the sufficiency of the primary support sources. The received social support was not integrated into the actual cancer treatment process of the patient with cancer in the public healthcare system. The phases of support needed in the cancer trajectory as defined by the patient differ from the traditional biomedical phases of treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
In this work, I shall deal with the psychodynamic approach to subjectivity in P.V.C. To this effect, I want to develop the concept of subject and subjectivity, its variation and historical-social construction and its approach in counselling, from a psychodynamic conceptual framework in P.V.C. with a short reference to the theoretical sources on which this approach is founded. Departamento de Psicología
Dr Harriët Jager-Wittenaar; Martine J. Sealy; Suzanne Kasenic; Elizabeth Isenring; Faith D. Ottery; Susan P. DeBolt
Purpose: The Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA), including the PG-SGA Short Form (SF, aka ‘abridged’), was originally developed in the mid 1990’s as a scored, patient self-report, paperbased instrument and has been widely validated. The PG-SGA (SF) has been used for screening,
Full Text Available This paper discusses the various subjects embedded in cognitive psychotherapy. The cognitive model developed by Beck, considered as a rationalist and modernist model, will exemplify these subjects. Cognitive therapy should be placed in the modernist historical context and related to a subject characterized as having rationality and the ability to observe and detect cognitions, emotions and behaviors. The paper develops this background introducing three main subject types. The first is the introspective and conscious subject, who is able to observe what is within oneself, has free access, and is conscious of one's cognitive world. The second is the cognitive miser that describes the subject who enters into therapy. The final subject identified, is the trained scientist who is able to develop a more objective knowledge, changing faulty schemas and cognitive distortions. This subject is the one most looked for in cognitive therapy. We could connect these subjects to some of the main elements of cognitive therapy such as the concept of ABC, assessment procedures, cognitive techniques or the relevance of schemas. Finally, the paper suggests some issues for study that could contribute to the theoretical and clinical evolution of cognitive psychotherapy.
Pol, Sreymom; Fox-Lewis, Shivani; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Turner, Claudia
The purpose of this evaluation is to explore the impact of the new hospital community engagement programme (comprised of a Young Persons Advisory Group and a Science Café) on community members and other stakeholders, with regard to their attitudes, skills and degree of engagement in a paediatric hospital in Cambodia. Data collection included feedback questionnaires and reflections produced after each YPAG and Science Café event. Further questionnaires and reflective interviews were conducted to gather the views of key stakeholders. Data were analysed by thematic content analysis and numerical data were expressed using descriptive statistics. The vast majority of participants expressed their enjoyment and satisfaction of the hospital community engagement programme. Delivering the programme in the right manner for the target audiences, by prioritising their needs was key to this. Participants valued the programmes in terms of the knowledge delivered around good health practices, the skills developed such as confidence and responsibility for their health, and the provision of opportunities to voice their opinions. All stakeholders recognised the importance of the programme in improving the quality of the healthcare service provided at the hospital. In order to have a successful hospital community engagement programme, understanding the target audience is essential. The engagement programme must be delivered in the right way to meet the needs of community members, including right communication, right setting, right people and right timing. This will ultimately result in a meaningful programme that is able to empower community members, potentially resulting in lasting change in healthcare practices. In conclusion, the gap between hospitals and the community could narrow, allowing everyone to interact and learn from each other.
Full Text Available The purpose of this evaluation is to explore the impact of the new hospital community engagement programme (comprised of a Young Persons Advisory Group and a Science Café on community members and other stakeholders, with regard to their attitudes, skills and degree of engagement in a paediatric hospital in Cambodia.Data collection included feedback questionnaires and reflections produced after each YPAG and Science Café event. Further questionnaires and reflective interviews were conducted to gather the views of key stakeholders. Data were analysed by thematic content analysis and numerical data were expressed using descriptive statistics.The vast majority of participants expressed their enjoyment and satisfaction of the hospital community engagement programme. Delivering the programme in the right manner for the target audiences, by prioritising their needs was key to this. Participants valued the programmes in terms of the knowledge delivered around good health practices, the skills developed such as confidence and responsibility for their health, and the provision of opportunities to voice their opinions. All stakeholders recognised the importance of the programme in improving the quality of the healthcare service provided at the hospital.In order to have a successful hospital community engagement programme, understanding the target audience is essential. The engagement programme must be delivered in the right way to meet the needs of community members, including right communication, right setting, right people and right timing. This will ultimately result in a meaningful programme that is able to empower community members, potentially resulting in lasting change in healthcare practices. In conclusion, the gap between hospitals and the community could narrow, allowing everyone to interact and learn from each other.
Fox-Lewis, Shivani; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Turner, Claudia
Objective The purpose of this evaluation is to explore the impact of the new hospital community engagement programme (comprised of a Young Persons Advisory Group and a Science Café) on community members and other stakeholders, with regard to their attitudes, skills and degree of engagement in a paediatric hospital in Cambodia. Design Data collection included feedback questionnaires and reflections produced after each YPAG and Science Café event. Further questionnaires and reflective interviews were conducted to gather the views of key stakeholders. Data were analysed by thematic content analysis and numerical data were expressed using descriptive statistics. Results The vast majority of participants expressed their enjoyment and satisfaction of the hospital community engagement programme. Delivering the programme in the right manner for the target audiences, by prioritising their needs was key to this. Participants valued the programmes in terms of the knowledge delivered around good health practices, the skills developed such as confidence and responsibility for their health, and the provision of opportunities to voice their opinions. All stakeholders recognised the importance of the programme in improving the quality of the healthcare service provided at the hospital. Conclusions In order to have a successful hospital community engagement programme, understanding the target audience is essential. The engagement programme must be delivered in the right way to meet the needs of community members, including right communication, right setting, right people and right timing. This will ultimately result in a meaningful programme that is able to empower community members, potentially resulting in lasting change in healthcare practices. In conclusion, the gap between hospitals and the community could narrow, allowing everyone to interact and learn from each other. PMID:28771631
Kottow Andrea R
Full Text Available Abstract Based on the distinction between living body and lived body, we describe the disease-subject as representing the impact of disease on the existential life-project of the subject. Traditionally, an individual's subjectivity experiences disorders of the body and describes ensuing pain, discomfort and unpleasantness. The idea of a disease-subject goes further, representing the lived body suffering existential disruption and the possible limitations that disease most probably will impose. In this limit situation, the disease-subject will have to elaborate a new life-story, a new character or way-of-being-in-the-world, it will become a different subject. Health care professionals need to realize that patients are not mere observers of their body, for they are immersed in a reassesment of values, relationships, priorities, perhaps even life-plans. Becoming acquainted with literature's capacity to create characters, modify narratives and depict life-stories in crisis, might sharpen physicians' hermeneutic acumen and make them more receptive to the quandaries of disease-subjects facing major medical and existential decisions in the wake of disruptive disease.
Hansen, Brian Benjamin
The article presents a theory of the subject, based on the work of Jacques Lacan, using the concepts of alienation, separation and liberation.......The article presents a theory of the subject, based on the work of Jacques Lacan, using the concepts of alienation, separation and liberation....
Rodriquez, A A; Agre, J C; Franke, T M
To compare strength and endurance variables obtained in the quadriceps muscles of postpolio and control subjects over a 7-year interval with macro and single fiber electromyography (EMG) variables. A controlled inception cohort study. Neuromuscular research laboratory of a university hospital. A cohort of 23 postpolio and 14 control subjects. All postpolio subjects had a history, physical examination, and EMG consistent with previous poliomyelitis, and had greater than antigravity strength in the quadriceps muscle tested. Unstable postpolio subjects acknowledged new quadriceps weakness over the 7-year period of the study (n = 11), and stable postpolio subjects denied new weakness of the quadriceps over the same period (n = 12). All subjects had tests of neuromuscular function of the quadriceps muscles at the onset of this study and yearly over a 7-year period. EMG variables were determined on a separate day after the seventh year of neuromuscular measurements. Neuromuscular variables measured were isometric knee extension peak torque, isometric endurance (time to inability to maintain knee extensor contraction at 40% of maximal torque), tension time index (TTI) (product of isometric endurance time and 40% of maximal torque), and recovery of torque at 10 minutes after the endurance test. EMG variables were macro EMG and single fiber EMG (jitter, fiber density, and percent blocking). Unstable postpolio subjects did not lose strength more rapidly than stable postpolio subjects or control subjects. Unstable postpolio subjects were significantly weaker, had decreased TTI, larger macro EMG amplitude, greater jitter, blocking, and fiber density in comparison with stable postpolio subjects (all p postpolio group (p .05) with neuromuscular or EMG variables in control, stable, or unstable postpolio subjects.
The logical language PROLOG is used for the definition and characterization of groups of subjects. The groups are firstly defined by sets of variables with comparable scales. Secondly, the single members of the groups are characterized by logically structured combinations of variables which do not necessarily have comparable scales. The performance of the characterizations is estimated by determining the rates sensitivity and specificity. The new classification method is applied in a follow-up study including the assessment of the activity of 76 healthy subjects during two controlled experiments. The classification with PROLOG is then compared with the methods of logistic regression and with discriminant analysis. The comparisons demonstrate that, under similar conditions, the results of a classification with PROLOG parallel the results of statistically based classification procedures. In addition, PROLOG permits characterizations of single subjects based on variables from different scientific disciplines.
Lawson, Anton E.
Niaz (1990) presents arguments in favor of the retention of Piaget's epistemic subject as a theoretical construct to guide research and practice in science education and psychology. The intent of this article is to point out the weaknesses of those arguments and to suggest that the weight of evidence argues against the existence of the logical thinker postulated by Piaget. Therefore, contrary to Niaz's conclusion that the acceptance of Piaget's epistemic subject will facilitate the development of cognitive theories with greater explanatory power, the conclusion is reached that Piaget's epistemic subject is dead and that continued acceptance of this aspect of Piagetian theory would be counterproductive.
This is a supplement to International Energy: Subject Thesaurus (ETDE/PUB--2(Rev.1)), which replaced DOE/TIC-7000--the EDB Subject Thesaurus. This supplement is provided periodically to keep International Energy: Subject Thesaurus recipients up-to-date on valid vocabulary terms (descriptors) used in building and maintaining several international energy information databases. Each issue contains all new terms added since the publication of the Thesaurus. Each supplement is a cumulative listing of the new terms, so that each issue replaces the previous one.
Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor
Forty-three subjects worked in a private office with switchable electrochromic windows, manually-operated Venetian blinds, and dimmable fluorescent lights. The electrochromic window had a visible transmittance range of approximately 3-60%. Analysis of subject responses and physical data collected during the work sessions showed that the electrochromic windows reduced the incidence of glare compared to working under a fixed transmittance (60%) condition. Subjects used the Venetian blinds less often and preferred the variable transmittance condition, but used slightly more electric lighting with it than they did when window transmittance was fixed.
Justin B. Dickerson
Full Text Available Episodic mood disorders are often associated with alcohol dependence. Few studies have explored the contribution of episodic mood disorders to length of stay among those hospitalized with alcohol dependence syndrome. Filling this research gap could improve care for patients while minimizing hospital utilization costs. This study was a cross-sectional analysis of the National Hospital Discharge Survey. ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes were used to identify those admitted to a private or non-profit hospital with alcohol dependence syndrome, and a co-morbid diagnosis of an episodic mood disorder (n=358. Descriptive statistics were used to highlight differences in key demographic and hospital variables between those with and without episodic mood disorders. Negative binomial regression was used to associate episodic mood disorders with hospital length of stay. Incidence rate ratios were calculated. Co-morbid episodic mood disorders (b=0.31, P=0.001, referral to a hospital by a physician (b=0.35, P=0.014, and increasing age (b= 0.01, P=0.001 were associated with longer hospital stays. Hospital patients with an admitting diagnosis of alcohol dependence syndrome were 36% more likely to have a longer hospital stay if they also had a co-morbid diagnosis of an episodic mood disorder (IRR=1.36, CI=1.14-1.62. Patients admitted to a hospital with alcohol dependence syndrome should be routinely screened for episodic mood disorders. Opportunities exist for enhanced transitional care between acute, ambulatory, and community-based care settings to lower hospital utilization.
Moshabela, Mosa; Gitomer, Shira; Qhibi, Bongiwe; Schneider, Helen
In an effort to increase understanding of formation of the community and home-based care economy in South Africa, we investigated the origin and development of non-profit organisations (NPOs) providing home- and community-based care for health and social services in a remote rural area of South Africa. Over a three-year period (2010-12), we identified and tracked all NPOs providing health care and social services in Bushbuckridge sub-district through the use of local government records, snowballing techniques, and attendance at NPO networking meetings--recording both existing and new NPOs. NPO founders and managers were interviewed in face-to-face in-depth interviews, and their organisational records were reviewed. Forty-seven NPOs were formed prior to the study period, and 14 during the study period--six in 2010, six in 2011 and two in 2012, while four ceased operation, representing a 22% growth in the number of NPOs during the study period. Histories of NPOs showed a steady rise in the NPO formation over a 20-year period, from one (1991-1995) to 12 (1996-2000), 16 (2001-2005) and 24 (2006-2010) new organisations formed in each period. Furthermore, the histories of formation revealed three predominant milestones--loose association, formal formation and finally registration. Just over one quarter (28%) of NPOs emerged from a long-standing community based programme of 'care groups' of women. Founders of NPOs were mostly women (62%), with either a religious motivation or a nursing background, but occasionally had an entrepreneurial profile. We observed rapid growth of the NPO sector providing community based health and social services. Women dominated the rural NPO sector, which is being seen as creating occupation and employment opportunities. The implications of this growth in the NPO sector providing community based health and social services needs to be further explored and suggests the need for greater coordination and possibly regulation.
Belén García Álvarez
Full Text Available Non-Profit Organizations must deal too with corporate governance problems. Therefore, it can be convenient that these types of Organizations have Codes of Good Corporate Governance in order to achieve an optimum attainment of their purposes of general interest and a higher responsibility and efficiency in the administration of the organization. This necessity makes clear especially in Organizations with partnership public-private. In a Code of Good Corporate Governance must deal several aspects, as transparency, accountability, duties and rights of donors and beneficiaries of the foundation, duties fiduciaries of the board members and directors, and enforcement (including options of private enforcement. A las entidades sin ánimo de lucro como, señaladamente las fundaciones, también se debe extender la noción de gobierno corporativo. En este sentido, resulta conveniente que las propias entidades se doten de instrumentos internos como puede ser un código de buen gobierno en aras de lograr una óptima consecución de los fines de interés general y una mayor responsabilidad y eficiencia en la administración de la entidad. Esta necesidad se acrecienta en las fundaciones por medio de las cuales se plasma la colaboración público-privada. En un código de esta naturaleza deben tratarse diversos aspectos, entre los que cabe destacar los mecanismos para lograr un mayor transparencia informativa y un mayor control de la fundación, así como la posición jurídica de los colaboradores, beneficiarios y donantes de la fundación. Igualmente, deben abordarse con rigor y profundidad los deberes de los miembros del Patronato, así como de los órganos directivos de la fundación. Asimismo, deben establecerse medidas para conseguir un adecuado cumplimiento de las disposiciones del código de buen gobierno. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2043112
Jung, Dietrich; Petersen, Marie Juul; Sparre, Sara Lei
Examining modern Muslim identity constructions, the authors introduce a novel analytical framework to Islamic Studies, drawing on theories of successive modernities, sociology of religion, and poststructuralist approaches to modern subjectivity, as well as the results of extensive fieldwork in th...
Jung, Dietrich; Petersen, Marie Juul; Sparre, Sara Lei
Examining modern Muslim identity constructions, the authors introduce a novel analytical framework to Islamic Studies, drawing on theories of successive modernities, sociology of religion, and poststructuralist approaches to modern subjectivity, as well as the results of extensive fieldwork...
Adam J. Kolber
... laws pay little attention to such differences. I make two central claims: First, a successful justification of punishment must take account of offenders' subjective experiences when assessing punishment severity...
Full Text Available The article presents a view of a problem of subjective illness theory in context of coping behavior. The article compiles the results of the latest studies of coping; discloses the way subjective illness theory affects the illness coping and patient's health; presents the study of differences in coping behaviour of patients at risk of heart attack and oncology. The article is recommended for specialists, concerned with psychological reasons of pathogenic processes and coping strategies of patients.
Full Text Available In recent work on null subject languages it has been claimed that preverbal subjects are always (clitic-left dislocated. In this paper, we argue against this claim, on the grounds of empirical evidence from European Portuguese concerning agreement facts, asymmetries between preverbal subjects and clitic-left dislocated XPs with respect to minimality effects, the existence of languages with a mixed system (null expletive subjects and full referential ones, language acquisition data, the behavior of negative QPs and interpretation facts, and propose a non-uniform analysis of preverbal subjects and clitic-left dislocated XPs that derives their topic interpretation from a predication rule stated configurationally (section 2. Our account of the SVO and VSO orders displayed in European Portuguese relies on a specific formulation of the EPP parameter, on the locality constraint Attract Closest X and on the independently motivated claim that V-movement targets T in European Portuguese (section 3. Under our analysis, the computational system generates equally economical SVO and VSO derivations and discourse considerations, at the appropriate interface, rule out the unfelicitous ones.
Full Text Available The research is oriented on improvement of environmental management system (EMS using BSC (Balanced Scorecard model that presents strategic model of measurem ents and improvement of organisational performance. The research will present approach of objectives and environmental management me trics involvement (proposed by literature review in conventional BSC in "Ad Barska plovi dba" organisation. Further we will test creation of ECO-BSC model based on business activities of non-profit organisations in order to improve envir onmental management system in parallel with other systems of management. Using this approach we may obtain 4 models of BSC that includ es elements of environmen tal management system for AD "Barska plovidba". Taking into acc ount that implementation and evaluation need long period of time in AD "Barska plovidba", the final choice will be based on 14598 (Information technology - Software product evaluation and ISO 9126 (Software engineering - Product quality using AHP method. Those standards are usually used for evaluation of quality software product and computer programs that serve in organisation as support and factors for development. So, AHP model will be bas ed on evolution criteria based on suggestion of ISO 9126 standards and types of evaluation from two evaluation teams. Members of team & will be experts in BSC and environmental management system that are not em ployed in AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation. The members of team 2 will be managers of AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation (including manage rs from environmental department. Merging results based on previously cr eated two AHP models, one can obtain the most appropriate BSC that includes elements of environmental management system. The chosen model will present at the same time suggestion for approach choice including ecological metrics in conventional BSC model for firm that has at least one ECO strategic orientation.
Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)
An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.
Siesling, Sabine; Zwan, J.M.V.D.; Izarzugaza, I.; Jaal, J.; Treasure, T.; Foschi, R.; Ricardi, U.; Groen, H.; Tavilla, A.; Ardanaz, E.
Rare thoracic cancers include those of the trachea, thymus and mesothelioma (including peritoneum mesothelioma). The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare thoracic tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002,
Siesling, Sabine; van der Zwan, Jan Maarten; Izarzugaza, Isabel; Jaal, Jana; Treasure, Tom; Foschi, Roberto; Ricardi, Umberto; Groen, Harry; Tavilla, Andrea; Ardanaz, Eva
Rare thoracic cancers include those of the trachea, thymus and mesothelioma (including peritoneum mesothelioma). The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare thoracic tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002,
M.A. Hills (Mark); P. Klint (Paul); J.J. Vinju (Jurgen)
htmlabstractDynamic languages include a number of features that are challenging to model properly in static analysis tools. In PHP, one of these features is the include expression, where an arbitrary expression provides the path of the file to include at runtime. In this paper we present two
This study was based on the subjective responses of the masons that are performing physical activity of blocklaying in the outdoor condition in outdoor condition in outdoor condition in Ogun State Nigeria. A total of 204 masons were investigated on the average of seventeen. Ogun State Nigeria. A total of 204 masons were ...
Sarigianides, Sophia Tatiana
In this dissertation, I analyze teacher, literacy coach and researcher subjectivities in a five-year study of on-site professional development with middle-grade Language Arts teachers in a school designated by its district and state as severely underperforming. Interested in the role of research interviews as both research method and cultural…
Objective: Heart failure (HF) is a common pathology worldwide. Associated emotional pain is an important risk factor of increased morbidity and secondary psychopathology. Methods: Subjects in stable state of HF attending the cardiology clinic of Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH) were recruited into the study.
In this paper, I compare three different views of the relation between subjectivity and modernity: one proposed by Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, a second by theorists of institutionalised individualisation, and a third by writers in the Foucaultian tradition of studies of the history of governmentalities. The theorists were chosen because they represent very different understandings of the relation between contemporary history and subjectivity. My purpose is to ground psychoanalytic theory about what humans need in history and so to question what it means to talk ahistorically about what humans need in order to thrive psychologically. Only in so doing can one assess the relation between psychoanalysis and progressive politics. I conclude that while psychoanalysis is a discourse of its time, it can also function as a counter-discourse and can help us understand the effects on subjectivity of a more than thirty year history in the West of repudiating dependency needs and denying interdependence. PMID:23678239
Osterloh, K.R.S.; Ewert, U. [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Berlin (Germany)
Principally, any imaging technology consists of two consecutive, though strictly separated processes: data acquisition and subsequent processing to generate an image that can be looked at, either on a monitor screen or printed on paper. Likewise, the physiological process of viewing can be separated into vision and perception, though these processes are much more overlapping. Understanding the appearance of a subject requires the entire sequence from receiving the information carried e.g. by photons up to an appropriate processing leading to the perception of the subject shown. As a consequence, the imagination of a subject is a result of both, technological and physiological processes. Whenever an evaluation of an image is critical, also the physiological part of the processing should be considered. However, an image has two dimensions in the first place and reality is spatial, it has three dimensions. This problem has been tackled on a philosophical level at least since Platon's famous discussion on the shadow image in a dark cave. The mere practical point is which structural details can be perceived and what may remain undetected depending on the mode of presentation. This problem cannot be resolved without considering each single step of visual perception. Physiologically, there are three 'tools' available to understanding the spatial structure of a subject: binocular viewing, following the course of perspective projection and motion to collect multiple aspects. Artificially, an object may be cut in various ways to display the interior or covering parts could be made transparent within a model. Samples will be shown how certain details of a subject can be emphasised or hidden depending on the way of presentation. It needs to be discussed what might help to perceive the true spatial structure of a subject with all relevant details and what could be misleading. (authors)
Hartvigsen, M L; Lærke, H N; Overgaard, A
of digestible carbohydrate were as follows: semolina porridge added concentrated arabinoxylan (AX), rye kernels (RK) or concentrated arabinoxylan combined with rye kernels (AXRK) and semolina porridge as control (SE). A standard lunch was served 4 h after the test meals. Blood samples were drawn during a 6-h...
Артур Нарманович Мамедов
Full Text Available Informative capacity of participial construction of source and target languages contributes to a more complex and multi aspect image of an expensive car. Dangling participles and attributive clauses placed after the determined word are being used in translation of extended adjectives with participles I and II. These grammatical transformations connected with reconstruction of semantic structure remain logically rational argumentation of an advertising text of the source language.
Krajcik, Michal; Tomasi, Roberta; Simone, Angela
heating or by a combination of radiant floor heating and mixing ventilation system. The vertical air temperature distribution was more uniform for floor heating. The discomfort due to cold feet/lower legs was higher for warm air heating, but no significant difference in thermal perceptions between the two...... lower floor temperature, warmer supply air, and less homogeneous vertical temperature profile, but it did not result in thermal discomfort on feet/lower legs or discomfort due to a vertical air temperature difference higher than for a displacement ventilation system alone, where the floor temperature...
Yue, Xiao D; Leung, Chun-Lok; Hiranandani, Neelam A
Playfulness has been referred to as a disposition that involves reframing a situation to amuse others and to make the situation more stimulating and enjoyable. It may serve to shift one's perspective when dealing with environmental threats. Despite all the benefits of playfulness towards psychological well-being, it remains a largely understudied subject in psychology, particularly in Chinese societies. Hence, this study examined the association between adult playfulness, humor styles, and subjective happiness among a sample of 166 university students in Hong Kong and 159 students in Guangzhou, who completed a self-administered questionnaire, including the Short Measure for Adult Playfulness, the Chinese Humor Styles Questionnaire, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed that adult playfulness was positively correlated with affiliative humor, self-enhancing humor, and subjective happiness in both Hong Kong and Guangzhou samples. By its implication, highly playful Chinese students preferred using affiliative and self-enhancing humor to amuse themselves and others. © The Author(s) 2016.
This article aims to contribute to understandings of youth homelessness and subjectivity by analysing identity construction in terms of young people's negotiation of the structural and institutional environment of youth homelessness. I suggest that while existing literature on this topic concentrates mainly on micro-social encounters, the…
Olesen, Henning Salling
The HSR Focus presents a psycho-societal approach to qualitative empirical research in several areas of everyday social life. It is an approach which integrates a theory of subjectivity and an interpretation methodology which integrates hermeneutic experiences from text analysis and psychoanalysis...
This article discusses student pressure as a subject of debate. The latest debate about schoolwork is being fueled by three recent books: "The Homework Myth" by Alfie Kohn, "The Case Against Homework" by Sara Bennett and Nancy Kalish, and "The Overachievers", by Alexandra Robbins, which depicts overextended high…
In spite of the fact that we are all bombarded with sexual messages every day, the subject of relationship and sexuality education for students with intellectual and developmental disabilities continues to be a taboo one. Generally speaking, the author has found it is not the parents of those young people who are reluctant to have the discussion,…
The general content of the three editions of the Duden dictionary has undergone few changes. The most substantial changes are the addition of syllabification and the deletion of antonomy in respect of lemmata in the second and third editions. The concept of dictionary subject matter is questioned...
S. Z. Gontcharov
Full Text Available Based on the comparative analysis of different kinds of philosophic thinking, the paper reveals the advantages of subjective philosophy – the most adequate universal essentiality of socialized human being, opening the prospects for Russia as the creative society of cultural spontaneous activity. Objective principle of thinking is limited by the logic of outward definition. According to the above logic, people are regarded as tiny parts of social mechanism, the objects of manipulation. Separating action from spontaneous activity, object changes from self-alteration of human subject, executive functions from norm-creating ones brings about alienated practices and such social situation that makes individuals perceive their own existence as alien non- existence, or opposing existence.Subjectivity is a form of social activity regarding individuals and groups according to their ability in self-definition, self-organizing, self-control, norm-creating, as well as their actual rights and duties in social spheres of needs and objectives, and their feasible power over forces of nature and society. Subjective philosophy perceives the material production as the means for cultivating wholesome and spontaneously active individuals due to educational fundamentality and cultural prosperity. Accordingly, accumulation of capital turns into accumulation of culture and personal creativity growth. The results of the undertaken analysis and its conclusions can be implemented in developing creative anthropological bases for philosophy, pedagogy, psychology, economics, political science, as well as the relating discipline teaching.
Alessandra Del Ré
Full Text Available Considering the hypothesis that Bakhtin and his Circle‟s reflections can help us think about issues involving the field of Language Acquisition, in addition to the fact that there are only a few works developed within this perspective in Brazil, in this article, we intend to discuss the notions of “subject”, “subjectivity”,“individuality” and “singularity”, drawing on Bakhtin‟s theory. Thus, in order to make this discussion clearer, we bring data from the speech of young children, from 1.8 to 3 years old, who were filmed in natural contexts interacting with their parents and relatives. From these data, we could verify, among other things, that children, as individuals who constitute themselves as subjects in and throughlanguage, bring marks to their discourse, revealing their subjectivity (through lexical, morphological, syntactic or genre choices.
Pfeiffer, P.A.; Kennedy, J.M.; Marchertas, A.H.
Pretest predictions were made by the staff of the Engineering Mechanics Program at ANL for the response of the 1:6-scale reinforced concrete containment model that was tested to failure by liner tearing and leakage at the Sandia National Laboratories. Questions have been raised in regard to possible effects of temperature in combination with internal pressure on the behavior of the model. Specifically, if the containment had been subjected to elevated temperature as well as internal pressure, what differences in pressure capacity, failure mechanism and location would have been predicted when compared to the analysis of internal pressure alone. The purpose of this paper is to address these questions. 3 refs., 9 figs.
Bowyer, S. M.; Lajiness-O'Neill, R.; Weiland, B. J.; Mason, K.; Tepley, N.
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to determine the neuroanatomical location of working memory (WM) processes. Differences between subjects with dyslexia (SD; n=5) and normal readers (NR; n=5) were studied during two WM tasks. A spatial WM task (SMW) consisted of blocks visually presented in one of 12 positions for 2 s each. Subjects were to determine if the current position matched the position presented 2 slides earlier (N-Back Test). The verbal task (VMW) consisted of presentation of a single letter. The location of cortical activity during SWM in NR (determined with MR-FOCUSS analysis) was in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) and right angular gyrus (AG). Similar activation was seen in SD with a slight delay of approximately 20 ms. During VWM activity was seen in LEFT STG and LEFT AG in NR. In contrast for SD, activation was in the RIGHT STG and RIGHT AG. This study demonstrates the possibility to differentiate WM processing in subjects with and without learning disorders.
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U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...
Pristed Nielsen, Helene
Based on theories of public sphere participation and deliberative democracy, this book presents empirical results from a study of experiences with including Aboriginal and Maori groups in political decision-making in respectively Western Australia and New Zealand......Based on theories of public sphere participation and deliberative democracy, this book presents empirical results from a study of experiences with including Aboriginal and Maori groups in political decision-making in respectively Western Australia and New Zealand...
Perches, Sara; Collados, M Victoria; Ares, Jorge
Refraction techniques make it possible to determine the most appropriate sphero-cylindrical lens prescription to achieve the best possible visual quality. Among these techniques, subjective refraction (i.e., patient's response-guided refraction) is the most commonly used approach. In this context, this paper's main goal is to present a simulation software that implements in a virtual manner various subjective-refraction techniques--including Jackson's Cross-Cylinder test (JCC)--relying all on the observation of computer-generated retinal images. This software has also been used to evaluate visual quality when the JCC test is performed in multifocal-contact-lens wearers. The results reveal this software's usefulness to simulate the retinal image quality that a particular visual compensation provides. Moreover, it can help to gain a deeper insight and to improve existing refraction techniques and it can be used for simulated training.
Lyons, Heidi Ann
A majority of Americans have a casual sexual experience before transitioning to adulthood. Little research has yet to examine how identity influences causal sexual behavior. The current study fills this gap in the literature by examining if subjective adult identity predicts casual sexual behavior net of life course transitions in a national sample of Americans. To answer this research question, the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health is utilized. Structural equation modeling results show the older and more adult-like individuals feel the less likely they are to report a recent casual sexual partner. Once life course factors are included in the model, subjective identity is no longer associated with casual sex. Practitioners who work with adult populations need to consider how life course transitions influence casual sexual behavior.
Chaĭlakhian, L M
The paper is concerned with some problems of terminology, in particular the term "bioinformatics". In the last few years, the term "bioinformatics" has been intensively used among molecular biologists to indicate a subject that is only a constituent of genomics and is considered to involve a computer-assisted analysis of all data on nucleotide sequences of DNA. However, a wide circle of scientists, including biologists, physicists, mathematicians, and specialists in the field of cybernetics, informatics, and other disciplines have accepted and accept, as a rule, the "bioinformatics" as a synonym of science cybernetics and as a successor of this science. In this case, the subject of science "bioinformatics" should embrace not only genomics but practically all sections of the biological science. It should involve a study of information processes (storage, transfer, and processing of information, etc.) participating in the regulation and control at all levels of living systems, from macromolecules to the brain of higher animals and human.
Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.
The dilemma of designing an advanced undergraduate laboratory lies in the desire to teach and reinforce basic principles and techniques while at the same time exposing students to the excitement of research. We report here on a one-semester, project-based biochemistry laboratory that combines the best features of a cookbook approach (high success rate, achievement of defined goals) with those of an investigative, discovery-based approach (student involvement in the experimental design, excitement of real research). Individual modules may be selected and combined to meet the needs of different courses and different institutions. The central theme of this lab is protein purification and design. This laboratory accompanies the first semester of biochemistry (Structure and Function of Macromolecules, a course taken mainly by junior and senior chemistry and biological chemistry majors). The protein chosen as the object of study is the enzyme lysozyme, which is utilized in all projects. It is suitable for a student lab because it is easily and inexpensively obtained from egg white and is extremely stable, and its high isoelectric point (pI = 11) allows for efficient separation from other proteins by ion-exchange chromatography. Furthermore, a literature search conducted by the resourceful student reveals a wealth of information, since lysozyme has been the subject of numerous studies. It was the first enzyme whose structure was determined by crystallography (1). Hendrickson et al. (2) have previously described an intensive one-month laboratory course centered around lysozyme, although their emphasis is on protein stability rather than purification and engineering. Lysozyme continues to be the focus of much exciting new work on protein folding and dynamics, structure and activity (3 - 5). This lab course includes the following features: (i) reinforcement of basic techniques, such as preparation of buffers, simple enzyme kinetics, and absorption spectroscopy; (ii
This textbook teaches classical mechanics as one of the foundations of physics. It describes the mechanical stability and motion in physical systems ranging from the molecular to the galactic scale. Aside from the standard topics of mechanics in the physics curriculum, this book includes an introduction to the theory of elasticity and its use in selected modern engineering applications, e.g. dynamic mechanical analysis of viscoelastic materials. The text also covers many aspects of numerical mechanics, ranging from the solution of ordinary differential equations, including molecular dynamics simulation of many particle systems, to the finite element method. Attendant Mathematica programs or parts thereof are provided in conjunction with selected examples. Numerous links allow the reader to connect to related subjects and research topics. Among others this includes statistical mechanics (separate chapter), quantum mechanics, space flight, galactic dynamics, friction, and vibration spectroscopy. An introductory...
This paper examines issues relating to the design/redesign of the pedagogy of interdisciplinary undergraduate subjects. Examples include: (a) law subjects for students in Business Management or Building and Surveying; (b) "English Communication for Business" for students in English; and (c) "Information technology in Business" for students in…
Subjects and outcome measures: The study subjects were adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 41, aged 40–70 years) participating in a nutrition education intervention (one-year randomised controlled trial). The intervention was based on the assessed nutrition education needs of the target group, and included the ...