Sample records for subject headings galaxies

  1. Using Topic Models to Interpret MEDLINE's Medical Subject Headings (United States)

    Newman, David; Karimi, Sarvnaz; Cavedon, Lawrence

    We consider the task of interpreting and understanding a taxonomy of classification terms applied to documents in a collection. In particular, we show how unsupervised topic models are useful for interpreting and understanding MeSH, the Medical Subject Headings applied to articles in MEDLINE. We introduce the resampled author model, which captures some of the advantages of both the topic model and the author-topic model. We demonstrate how topic models complement and add to the information conveyed in a traditional listing and description of a subject heading hierarchy.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. М. Бикова


    Full Text Available The purpose of our article is consideration of questions of electronic subject analysis of documents and methodical ensuring editing subject headings in the electronic catalog. The main objective of our article – to show a technique of editing the dictionary of subject headings, to study and apply this technique in work of libraries of higher education institutions. Object of research is the thesaurus of subject headings of the electronic catalog of the Scientific Library of Odessa I. I. Mechnikov National University. To improve the efficiency and quality of the search capabilities of the electronic catalog needs constant work on its optimization, that is, technical editing of subject headings, the opening of new subject headings and subheadings.  In Scientific library the instruction, which regulates a technique of edition of subject headings, was developed and put into practice and establishes rationing of this process. The main finding of the work should be to improve the level of bibliographic service users and rationalization systematizer. The research findings have the practical value for employees of libraries.

  3. User's guide to Sears List of subject headings

    CERN Document Server

    Satija, Mohinder P


    This book is a companion to the 19th edition of the Sears List and a complete course in the theory and practice of the List for practitioners, teachers, and learners. The object of this small, practical introduction is to be simple, clear, and illustrative, assuming the reader has little prior knowledge either of the Sears List or of subject headings work in general.

  4. Narrow head-tail radio galaxies at very high resolution (United States)

    Terni de Gregory, B.; Feretti, L.; Giovannini, G.; Govoni, F.; Murgia, M.; Perley, R. A.; Vacca, V.


    Aims: Narrow-angle tailed (NAT) sources in clusters of galaxies can show on the large scale very narrow tails that are unresolved even at arcsecond resolution. These sources could therefore be classified as one-sided jets. The aim of this paper is to gain new insight into the structure of these sources, and establish whether they are genuine one-sided objects, or if they are two-sided sources. Methods: We observed a sample of apparently one-sided NAT sources at subarcsecond resolution to obtain detailed information on their structure in the nuclear regions of radio galaxies. Results: Most radio galaxies are found to show two-sided jets with sharp bends, and therefore the sources are similar to the more classical NATs, which are affected by strong projection effects. The reduced images (FITS) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  5. Developing a biomedical expert finding system using medical subject headings. (United States)

    Singh, Harpreet; Singh, Reema; Malhotra, Arjun; Kaur, Manjit


    Efficient identification of subject experts or expert communities is vital for the growth of any organization. Most of the available expert finding systems are based on self-nomination, which can be biased, and are unable to rank experts. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a robust and unbiased expert finding system which can quantitatively measure expertise. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a controlled vocabulary developed by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) for indexing research publications, articles and books. Using the MeSH terms associated with peer-reviewed articles published from India and indexed in PubMed, we developed a Web-based program which can be used to identify subject experts and subjects associated with an expert. We have extensively tested our system to identify experts from India in various subjects. The system provides a ranked list of experts where known experts rank at the top of the list. The system is general; since it uses information available with the PubMed, it can be implemented for any country. The expert finding system is able to successfully identify subject experts in India. Our system is unique because it allows the quantification of subject expertise, thus enabling the ranking of experts. Our system is based on peer-reviewed information. Use of MeSH terms as subjects has standardized the subject terminology. The system matches requirements of an ideal expert finding system.

  6. Subject Headings for Church or Synagogue Libraries. 2nd Revised Edition. CSLA Guide No. 8. (United States)

    Kersten, Dorothy B.

    This guide to subject headings for church or synagogue libraries begins by providing guidelines for the subject cataloging process. These guidelines are presented under seven headings: (1) Selecting the Subject Heading (by names of persons, religious congregations and orders, sects and denominations, places, holidays, and new subjects); (2)…

  7. CINAHL list of subject headings: a nursing thesaurus revised. (United States)

    Fishel, C C; Graham, K E; Greer, D M; Gupta, A D; Lockwood, D K; Prime, E E


    The rationale and methods for revising the thesaurus of one of the major health sciences indexing tools are discussed. Computer production of the Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature and the possibility of online access mandated a revision of the list of subject headings. CINAHL has maintained a policy of responding to user needs and to changes in the nursing and allied health literature, and user input was encouraged during revision of the thesaurus. The methods of structural revision are described, and major changes in the thesaurus are detailed. Modification of the thesaurus is expected to have a far-reaching impact on the retrieval of information in nursing and allied health. Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL) is now available online through DIALOG (file 218) and BRS (access code NAHL).

  8. Accuracy of medical subject heading indexing of dental survival analyses. (United States)

    Layton, Danielle M; Clarke, Michael


    To assess the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) indexing of articles that employed time-to-event analyses to report outcomes of dental treatment in patients. Articles published in 2008 in 50 dental journals with the highest impact factors were hand searched to identify articles reporting dental treatment outcomes over time in human subjects with time-to-event statistics (included, n = 95), without time-to-event statistics (active controls, n = 91), and all other articles (passive controls, n = 6,769). The search was systematic (kappa 0.92 for screening, 0.86 for eligibility). Outcome-, statistic- and time-related MeSH were identified, and differences in allocation between groups were analyzed with chi-square and Fischer exact statistics. The most frequently allocated MeSH for included and active control articles were "dental restoration failure" (77% and 52%, respectively) and "treatment outcome" (54% and 48%, respectively). Outcome MeSH was similar between these groups (86% and 77%, respectively) and significantly greater than passive controls (10%, P indexed as such. Significantly more time-related MeSH were allocated to the included than the active controls (92% and 79%, respectively, P = .02), or to the passive controls (22%, P < .001). MeSH allocation within MEDLINE to time-to-event dental articles was inaccurate and inconsistent. Statistical MeSH were omitted from 30% of the included articles and incorrectly allocated to 15% of active controls. Such errors adversely impact search accuracy.

  9. Gastrointestinal Physiology During Head Down Tilt Bedrest in Human Subjects (United States)

    Vaksman, Z.; Guthienz, J.; Putcha, L.


    Introduction: Gastrointestinal (GI) motility plays a key role in the physiology and function of the GI tract. It directly affects absorption of medications and nutrients taken by mouth, in addition to indirectly altering GI physiology by way of changes in the microfloral composition and biochemistry of the GI tract. Astronauts have reported nausea, loss of appetite and constipation during space flight all of which indicate a reduction in GI motility and function similar to the one seen in chronic bed rest patients. The purpose of this study is to determine GI motility and bacterial proliferation during -6 degree head down tilt bed rest (HTD). Methods: Healthy male and female subjects between the ages of 25-40 participated in a 60 day HTD study protocol. GI transit time (GITT) was determined using lactulose breath hydrogen test and bacterial overgrowth was measured using glucose breath hydrogen test. H. Pylori colonization was determined using C13-urea breath test (UBIT#). All three tests were conducted on 9 days before HDT, and repeated on HDT days 2, 28, 58, and again on day 7 after HDT. Results: GITT increased during HTD compared to the respective ambulatory control values; GITT was significantly lower on day 7 after HTD. A concomitant increase in bacterial colonization was also noticed during HDT starting after approximately 28 days of HDT. However, H. Pylori proliferation was not recorded during HDT as indicated by UBIT#. Conclusion: GITT significantly decreased during HDT with a concomitant increase in the proliferation of GI bacterial flora but not H. pylori.

  10. Characterization of the Medical Subject Headings thesaurus for pharmacy. (United States)

    Minguet, Fernando; Van Den Boogerd, Lucienne; Salgado, Teresa M; Correr, Cassyano J; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando


    The completeness and utility of pharmacy-oriented Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) relative to MeSH terminology pertaining to other healthcare professions (dentistry and nursing) are evaluated. The 2013 version of the MeSH thesaurus-the standard vocabulary used by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) to index articles in PubMed and MEDLINE-was searched for dentistry-, nursing-, and pharmacy-specific terms using a truncation strategy (search terms: nurs*, dent*, and pharm*); the hierarchical level of each term and the number of descendant terms (an indication of the granularity of the associated NLM-indexed content) were determined. PubMed searches were conducted to identify areas of the MeSH hierarchy containing dentistry- and nursing-specific terms but no equivalent pharmacy-specific term. The search of the MeSH thesaurus identified 145 terms representing dentistry-specific activities and 94 and 26 terms specific to nursing and pharmacy practice, respectively. Analysis of the three sets of MeSH terms indicated that dentistry-oriented MeSH terms were generally situated more prominently within the MeSH hierarchy than terms for nursing- and pharmacy-oriented research; the MeSH terminology oriented toward nursing or dentistry practice was relatively more granular, allowing for increased specificity and power of information retrieval during PubMed and MEDLINE searches. Seventeen proposed new MeSH terms describing key areas of pharmacy practice were identified; the inclusion of these terms in the MeSH hierarchy could substantially expand and improve the retrievability of NLM-indexed literature. Imbalances and gaps were found in MeSH coverage of pharmacy concepts and terminology relative to MeSH terminology specific to the nursing and dentistry professions. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spikman, J.M.; Berg, I.J.; Deelman, B.G.

    This study describes the performance of three groups of subjects on a pictorial forced-recognition task, the Hundred Pictures Test. The aim was to determine whether subjects with memory deficits (elderly and closed-head-injured subjects) would perform as well as healthy young subjects, both on

  12. Correlation between Trunk Posture and Neck Reposition Sense among Subjects with Forward Head Neck Postures


    Han Suk Lee; Hyung Kuk Chung; Sun Wook Park


    Objective. To assess the correlation of abnormal trunk postures and reposition sense of subjects with forward head neck posture (FHP). Methods. In all, postures of 41 subjects were evaluated and the FHP and trunk posture including shoulder, scapular level, pelvic side, and anterior tilting degrees were analyzed. We used the head repositioning accuracy (HRA) test to evaluate neck position senses of neck flexion, neck extension, neck right and left side flexion, and neck right and left rotation...

  13. LOFAR discovery of an ultra-steep radio halo and giant head-tail radio galaxy in Abell 1132 (United States)

    Wilber, A.; Brüggen, M.; Bonafede, A.; Savini, F.; Shimwell, T.; van Weeren, R. J.; Rafferty, D.; Mechev, A. P.; Intema, H.; Andrade-Santos, F.; Clarke, A. O.; Mahony, E. K.; Morganti, R.; Prandoni, I.; Brunetti, G.; Röttgering, H.; Mandal, S.; de Gasperin, F.; Hoeft, M.


    Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR) observations at 144 MHz have revealed large-scale radio sources in the unrelaxed galaxy cluster Abell 1132. The cluster hosts diffuse radio emission on scales of ∼650 kpc near the cluster centre and a head-tail (HT) radio galaxy, extending up to 1 Mpc, south of the cluster centre. The central diffuse radio emission is not seen in NRAO VLA FIRST Survey, Westerbork Northern Sky Survey, nor in C & D array VLA observations at 1.4 GHz, but is detected in our follow-up Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT) observations at 325 MHz. Using LOFAR and GMRT data, we determine the spectral index of the central diffuse emission to be α = -1.75 ± 0.19 (S ∝ να). We classify this emission as an ultra-steep spectrum radio halo and discuss the possible implications for the physical origin of radio haloes. The HT radio galaxy shows narrow, collimated emission extending up to 1 Mpc and another 300 kpc of more diffuse, disturbed emission, giving a full projected linear size of 1.3 Mpc - classifying it as a giant radio galaxy (GRG) and making it the longest HT found to date. The head of the GRG coincides with an elliptical galaxy (SDSS J105851.01+564308.5) belonging to Abell 1132. In our LOFAR image, there appears to be a connection between the radio halo and the GRG. The turbulence that may have produced the halo may have also affected the tail of the GRG. In turn, the GRG may have provided seed electrons for the radio halo.

  14. Activation of rectus capitis posterior major muscles during voluntary retraction of the head in asymptomatic subjects. (United States)

    Hallgren, Richard C; Rowan, Jacob J; Bai, Peng; Pierce, Steven J; Shafer-Crane, Gail A; Prokop, Lawrence L


    The purpose of this study was to assess levels of electromyographic activity measured from rectus capitis posterior major (RCPM) muscles of asymptomatic subjects as their heads moved from a self-defined neutral position to a retracted position. A 2 × 2 within-subjects factorial research design was used. Disposable, intramuscular electrodes were used to collect electromyographic data from asymptomatic subjects between the ages of 20 and 40 years old. Data analysis was performed using mixed effects β regression models. Activation of RCPM muscles was found to significantly increase (P < .0001) as the head moved from a self-defined neutral position to a retracted position. Rectus capitis posterior major muscle activation levels, measured as a function of head position, have not been previously reported. The findings from this study showed that RCPM muscle activation significantly increases during voluntary retraction of the head. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Head Elevation on Passive Upper Airway Collapsibility in Normal Subjects under Propofol Anesthesia (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masato; Ayuse, Takao; Hoshino, Yuko; Kurata, Shinji; Moromugi, Shunji; Schneider, Hartmut; Kirkness, Jason P.; Schwartz, Alan R.; Oi, Kumiko


    Background Head elevation can restore airway patency during anesthesia, although its effect may be offset by concomitant bite opening or accidental neck flexion. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of head elevation on the passive upper airway collapsibility during propofol anesthesia. Method Twenty male subjects were studied, randomized to one of two experimental groups: Fixed-jaw or Free-jaw. Propofol infusion was used for induction and to maintain blood concentration constant at a target level between 1.5 and 2.0 μg/ml. Nasal mask pressure (PN) was intermittently reduced to evaluate the upper airway collapsibility (passive PCRIT) and upstream resistance (RUS) at each level of head elevation (0, 3, 6, & 9 cm). We measured the Frankfort plane (head flexion) and the mandible plane (jaw opening) angles at each level of head elevation. Analysis of variance was used to determine effect of head elevation on PCRIT, head flexion and jaw opening within each group. Results In both groups the Frankfort plane and mandible plane angles increased as with head elevation (P elevation decreased upper airway collapsibility (PCRIT ~ −7 cmH2O at greater than 6 cm elevation) compared to the baseline position (PCRIT ~ −3 cmH2O at 0 cm elevation; P elevating the head position by 6 cm while ensuring mouth closure (centric occlusion) produces substantial decreases in upper airway collapsibility and maintains upper airway patency during anesthesia. PMID:21701378

  16. Effect of head elevation on passive upper airway collapsibility in normal subjects during propofol anesthesia. (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masato; Ayuse, Takao; Hoshino, Yuko; Kurata, Shinji; Moromugi, Shunji; Schneider, Hartmut; Kirkness, Jason P; Schwartz, Alan R; Oi, Kumiko


    Head elevation can restore airway patency during anesthesia, although its effect may be offset by concomitant bite opening or accidental neck flexion. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of head elevation on the passive upper airway collapsibility during propofol anesthesia. Twenty male subjects were studied, randomized to one of two experimental groups: fixed-jaw or free-jaw. Propofol infusion was used for induction and to maintain blood at a constant target concentration between 1.5 and 2.0 μg/ml. Nasal mask pressure (PN) was intermittently reduced to evaluate the upper airway collapsibility (passive PCRIT) and upstream resistance (RUS) at each level of head elevation (0, 3, 6, and 9 cm). The authors measured the Frankfort plane (head flexion) and the mandible plane (jaw opening) angles at each level of head elevation. Analysis of variance was used to determine the effect of head elevation on PCRIT, head flexion, and jaw opening within each group. In both groups the Frankfort plane and mandible plane angles increased with head elevation (P elevation decreased upper airway collapsibility (PCRIT ~ -7 cm H₂O at greater than 6 cm elevation) compared with the baseline position (PCRIT ~ -3 cm H₂O at 0 cm elevation; P Elevating the head position by 6 cm while ensuring mouth closure (centric occlusion) produces substantial decreases in upper airway collapsibility and maintains upper airway patency during anesthesia.

  17. Comparative Study between the "Lista de Encabezamientos de Materia" by Gloria Escamilla and the "Library of Congress Subject Heading" List. (United States)

    Alvarez, Fernando

    This study shows to what extent Gloria Escamilla's "Lista de Encabezamientos de Materia," the only published Mexican subject heading list, is equivalent to the Library of Congress subject headings (LCSH). A LCSH heading sample is obtained from OCLC's Online Union Catalog. Using the EPIC search from OCLC, 1947 bibliographic records were…

  18. Cumulating the Supplements to the Seventh Edition of LC Subject Headings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy B. Torkington


    Full Text Available A description is presented of the project of the University of California Library Automation Program to cumulate the 1966 through 1971 supplements to the Library of Congress Subject Headings. The University of California Institute of Library Research MARC processing software, BIBCON, was used, with specially written programs. The resulting cumulation was edited, printed in book form, and made available to libraries. The final task involved merging six MARC files into one file of over 125,000 records and then printing that file in a format similar to that of LC Subject Headings. The project was a cooperative effort with participation by people from several UC campuses.

  19. Bibliometric perspectives on medical innovation using the medical subject headings of PubMed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Rotolo, D.; Rafols, I.


    Multiple perspectives on the nonlinear processes of medical innovations can be distinguished and combined using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) of the MEDLINE database. Focusing on three main branches—"diseases," "drugs and chemicals," and "techniques and equipment"—we use base maps and overlay


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago M Barbosa


    Full Text Available In the last decades head-out aquatic exercises became one of the most important physical activities within the health system. Massive research has been produced throughout these decades in order to better understand the role of head-out aquatic exercises in populations' health. Such studies aimed to obtain comprehensive knowledge about the acute and chronic response of subjects performing head-out aquatic exercises. For that, it is assumed that chronic adaptations represent the accumulation of acute responses during each aquatic session. The purpose of this study was to describe the "state of the art" about physiological assessment of head-out aquatic exercises based on acute and chronic adaptations in healthy subjects based on a qualitative review. The main findings about acute response of head-out aquatic exercise according to water temperature, water depth, type of exercise, additional equipment used, body segments exercising and music cadence will be described. In what concerns chronic adaptations, the main results related to cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations, muscular strength, flexibility and body composition improvements will be reported

  1. Analysing the Role of the Subject Head of Department in Secondary Schools in England and Wales: Towards a Theoretical Framework. (United States)

    Turner, Chris; Bolam, Ray


    Argues that contingency theory offers a useful basis for considering the work of subject heads of department in (British) secondary schools, particularly if heads are actively trying to influence the quality of teaching and learning in their curriculum areas. Develops a provisional model to shed light on how department heads actually work with…

  2. Searching the literature using medical subject headings versus text word with PubMed. (United States)

    Chang, Angela A; Heskett, Karen M; Davidson, Terence M


    This study was conducted to investigate the performance of two search strategies in the retrieval of information from the National Library of Medicine (NLM) on otolaryngology-head and neck surgery related conditions and diagnoses using PubMed. Two search strategies-one based on the use of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and the second based on text word searching-were compared. The MeSH search provided a more efficient search than the text word search. Head and neck surgeons can most efficiently search the NLM using PubMed as a search engine by initiating the search with MeSH terms. Once a key article is identified, the searcher should use the "Related Articles" feature.

  3. Neck kinematics and sternocleidomastoid muscle activation during neck rotation in subjects with forward head posture (United States)

    Kim, Man-Sig


    [Purpose] The present study investigated differences in the kinematics of the neck and activation of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle during neck rotation between subjects with and without forward head posture (FHP). [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight subjects participated in the study (14 with FHP, 14 without FHP). Subjects performed neck rotation in two directions, left and right. The kinematics of rotation-lateral flexion movement patterns were recorded using motion analysis. Activity in the bilateral SCM muscles was measured using surface electromyography. Differences in neck kinematics and activation of SCM between the groups were analyzed by independent t-tests. [Results] Maintaining FHP increased the rotation-lateral flexion ratio significantly in both directions. The FHP group had significantly faster onset time for lateral flexion movement in both directions during neck rotation. Regarding the electromyography of the SCM muscles during neck rotation in both directions, the activity values of subjects with FHP were greater than those of subjects without FHP for the contralateral SCM muscles. [Conclusion] FHP can induce changes in movement in the frontal plane and SCM muscle activation during neck rotation. Thus, clinicians should consider movement in the frontal plane as well as in the sagittal plane when assessing and treating patients with forward head posture. PMID:26696712

  4. Correlation between Trunk Posture and Neck Reposition Sense among Subjects with Forward Head Neck Postures (United States)

    Lee, Han Suk; Chung, Hyung Kuk; Park, Sun Wook


    Objective. To assess the correlation of abnormal trunk postures and reposition sense of subjects with forward head neck posture (FHP). Methods. In all, postures of 41 subjects were evaluated and the FHP and trunk posture including shoulder, scapular level, pelvic side, and anterior tilting degrees were analyzed. We used the head repositioning accuracy (HRA) test to evaluate neck position senses of neck flexion, neck extension, neck right and left side flexion, and neck right and left rotation and calculated the root mean square error in trials for each subject. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and regression analysis were used to assess the degree of correlation between the trunk posture and HRA value, and a significance level of α = 0.05 was considered. Results. There were significant correlations between the HRA value of right side neck flexion and pelvic side tilt angle (p postures. Conclusion. Verifying pelvic postures should be prioritized when movement is limited due to the vitiation of the proprioceptive sense of neck caused by FHP. PMID:26583125

  5. Correlation between Trunk Posture and Neck Reposition Sense among Subjects with Forward Head Neck Postures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Suk Lee


    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the correlation of abnormal trunk postures and reposition sense of subjects with forward head neck posture (FHP. Methods. In all, postures of 41 subjects were evaluated and the FHP and trunk posture including shoulder, scapular level, pelvic side, and anterior tilting degrees were analyzed. We used the head repositioning accuracy (HRA test to evaluate neck position senses of neck flexion, neck extension, neck right and left side flexion, and neck right and left rotation and calculated the root mean square error in trials for each subject. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients and regression analysis were used to assess the degree of correlation between the trunk posture and HRA value, and a significance level of α = 0.05 was considered. Results. There were significant correlations between the HRA value of right side neck flexion and pelvic side tilt angle (p<0.05. If pelvic side tilting angle increases by 1 degree, right side neck flexion increased by 0.76 degrees (p=0.026. However, there were no significant correlations between other neck motions and trunk postures. Conclusion. Verifying pelvic postures should be prioritized when movement is limited due to the vitiation of the proprioceptive sense of neck caused by FHP.

  6. Trismus following different treatment modalities for head and neck cancer: a systematic review of subjective measures. (United States)

    Loh, Sook Y; Mcleod, Robert W J; Elhassan, Hassan A


    The aim of this review was to compare systematically the subjective measure of trismus between different interventions to treat head and neck cancer, particularly those of the oropharynx. Using The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Guidelines, Six databases were searched for the text using various terms which include "oropharyngeal/head and neck cancer", "trismus/mouth opening" and the various treatment modalities. Included in the review were clinical studies (> or =10 patients). Three observers independently assessed the papers identified. Among the six studies reviewed, five showed a significantly worst outcome with regard to the quality-of-life questionnaire scores for a radiotherapy or surgery and radiotherapy (RT) ± chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy when compared to surgery alone. Only one study showed no significant difference between surgery alone and other treatment modalities. Subjective quality-of-life measures are a concurrent part of modern surgical practice. Although subjective measures were utilised to measure post operative trismus successfully, there was no consensus as to which treatment modality had overall better outcomes, with conflicting studies in keeping with the current debate in this field. Larger and higher quality studies are needed to compare all three treatment modalities.

  7. Correlation between Trunk Posture and Neck Reposition Sense among Subjects with Forward Head Neck Postures. (United States)

    Lee, Han Suk; Chung, Hyung Kuk; Park, Sun Wook


    To assess the correlation of abnormal trunk postures and reposition sense of subjects with forward head neck posture (FHP). In all, postures of 41 subjects were evaluated and the FHP and trunk posture including shoulder, scapular level, pelvic side, and anterior tilting degrees were analyzed. We used the head repositioning accuracy (HRA) test to evaluate neck position senses of neck flexion, neck extension, neck right and left side flexion, and neck right and left rotation and calculated the root mean square error in trials for each subject. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and regression analysis were used to assess the degree of correlation between the trunk posture and HRA value, and a significance level of α = 0.05 was considered. There were significant correlations between the HRA value of right side neck flexion and pelvic side tilt angle (p neck flexion increased by 0.76 degrees (p = 0.026). However, there were no significant correlations between other neck motions and trunk postures. Verifying pelvic postures should be prioritized when movement is limited due to the vitiation of the proprioceptive sense of neck caused by FHP.

  8. Redefining the pharmacology and pharmacy subject category in the journal citation reports using medical subject headings (MeSH). (United States)

    Minguet, Fernando; Salgado, Teresa M; Santopadre, Claudio; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando


    Background The Journal Citation Reports (JCR) Pharmacology and Pharmacy subject category is heterogeneous. The inclusion of journals with basic and clinical scopes, which have different citation patterns, compromises comparability of impact factors among journals within the category. Objective To subdivide the Pharmacology and Pharmacy category into basic pharmacology, clinical pharmacology, and pharmacy based on the analyses of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) as a proxy of journals' scopes. Setting JCR. Method All articles, and respective MeSH, published in 2013, 2014, and 2015 in all journals included in the 2014 JCR Pharmacology and Pharmacy category were retrieved from PubMed. Several models using a combination of the 14 MeSH categories and specific MeSH tree branches were tested using hierarchical cluster analysis. Main outcome measure Distribution of journals across the subcategories of the JCR Pharmacology and Pharmacy subject category. Results A total of 107,847 articles from 214 journals were included. Nine different models combining the MeSH categories M (Persons) and N (Health Care) with specific MeSH tree branches (selected ad-hoc) and Pharmacy-specific MeSH (identified in previous research) consistently grouped 142 journals (66.4%) in homogeneous groups reflecting their basic and clinical pharmacology, and pharmacy scopes. Ultimately, journals were clustered into: 150 in basic pharmacology, 43 in clinical pharmacology, 16 in basic pharmacology and clinical pharmacology, and 5 in pharmacy. Conclusion The reformulation of the Pharmacology and Pharmacy category into three categories was demonstrated by the consistent results obtained from testing nine different clustering models using the MeSH terms assigned to their articles.

  9. A case study: using social tagging to engage students in learning Medical Subject Headings* (United States)

    Bresnahan, Megan; Flynn, David B.; Harzbecker, Joseph; Blanchard, Mary; Ginn, David


    In exploring new ways of teaching students how to use Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), librarians at Boston University's Alumni Medical Library (AML) integrated social tagging into their instruction. These activities were incorporated into the two-credit graduate course, “GMS MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information,” required for all students in the graduate medical science program. Hands-on assignments and in-class exercises enabled librarians to present MeSH and the concept of a controlled vocabulary in a familiar and relevant context for the course's Generation Y student population and provided students the opportunity to actively participate in creating their education. At the conclusion of these activities, students were surveyed regarding the clarity of the presentation of the MeSH vocabulary. Analysis of survey responses indicated that 46% found the concept of MeSH to be the clearest concept presented in the in-class intervention. PMID:19404497

  10. Internal Lymphedema Correlates with Subjective and Objective Measures of Dysphagia in Head and Neck Cancer Patients. (United States)

    Jackson, Leanne K; Ridner, Sheila H; Deng, Jie; Bartow, Carmin; Mannion, Kyle; Niermann, Ken; Gilbert, Jill; Dietrich, Mary S; Cmelak, Anthony J; Murphy, Barbara A


    Tumor/treatment-related internal lymphedema (IL) and/or external lymphedema (EL) are associated with functional deficits and increased symptom burden in head and neck cancer patients (HNCP). Previously, we noted association between EL/IL and patient-reported dysphagia using the Vanderbilt Head and Neck Symptom Survey (VHNSS) version 1.0. To determine the relationship between IL/EL and subjective and objective measures of swallowing function. Eighty-one HNCP completed: (1) VHNSS version 2.0, including 13 swallowing/nutrition-related questions grouped into three clusters: swallow solids (ss), swallow liquids (sl), and nutrition(nt); (2) physical assessment of EL using Foldi scale; (3) endoscopic assessment of IL using Patterson scale (n = 56); and (4) modified barium swallow study rated by dysphagia outcome and severity scale (DOSS) and in conjunction with a swallow evaluation by National Outcomes Measurement System (NOMS). Examinations were performed at varied time points to assess lymphedema spectrum, from baseline (n = 15, 18.1%) to 18 months post-therapy (n = 20, 24.1%). VHNSS swallow/nutrition items scores correlated with NOMS/DOSS ratings (p nutrition scores correlated with maximum grade of swelling for any single structure on Patterson scale: ss (0.43; p = 0.001); sl (0.38; p = 0.004); nt (0.41; p = 0.002). IL of aryepiglottic/pharyngoepiglottic folds, epiglottis, and pyriform sinus were most strongly correlated with VHNSS and NOMS ratings. NOMS/DOSS ratings correlated with EL (> = -0.34; p nutrition items and EL ( 0.20). IL correlated with subjective and objective measures of swallow dysfunction. Longitudinal analysis of trajectory and impact of IL/EL on dysphagia is ongoing.

  11. Transforming the Medical Subject Headings into Linked Data: Creating the Authorized Version of MeSH in RDF. (United States)

    Bushman, Barbara; Anderson, David; Fu, Gang

    In February 2014 the National Library of Medicine formed the Linked Data Infrastructure Working Group to investigate the potential for publishing linked data, determine best practices for publishing linked data, and prioritize linked data projects, beginning with transforming the Medical Subject Headings as a linked data pilot. This article will review the pilot project to convert the Medical Subject Headings from XML to RDF. It will discuss the collaborative process, the technical and organizational issues tackled, and the future of linked data at the library.

  12. Mapping of medical acronyms and initialisms to Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) across selected systems. (United States)

    Shultz, Mary


    Given the common use of acronyms and initialisms in the health sciences, searchers may be entering these abbreviated terms rather than full phrases when searching online systems. The purpose of this study is to evaluate how various MEDLINE Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) interfaces map acronyms and initialisms to the MeSH vocabulary. The interfaces used in this study were: the PubMed MeSH database, the PubMed Automatic Term Mapping feature, the NLM Gateway Term Finder, and Ovid MEDLINE. Acronyms and initialisms were randomly selected from 2 print sources. The test data set included 415 randomly selected acronyms and initialisms whose related meanings were found to be MeSH terms. Each acronym and initialism was entered into each MEDLINE MeSH interface to determine if it mapped to the corresponding MeSH term. Separately, 46 commonly used acronyms and initialisms were tested. While performance differed widely, the success rates were low across all interfaces for the randomly selected terms. The common acronyms and initialisms tested at higher success rates across the interfaces, but the differences between the interfaces remained. Online interfaces do not always map medical acronyms and initialisms to their corresponding MeSH phrases. This may lead to inaccurate results and missed information if acronyms and initialisms are used in search strategies.

  13. Leveraging output term co-occurrence frequencies and latent associations in predicting medical subject headings. (United States)

    Kavuluru, Ramakanth; Lu, Yuan


    Trained indexers at the National Library of Medicine (NLM) manually tag each biomedical abstract with the most suitable terms from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terminology to be indexed by their PubMed information system. MeSH has over 26,000 terms and indexers look at each article's full text while assigning the terms. Recent automated attempts focused on using the article title and abstract text to identify MeSH terms for the corresponding article. Most of these approaches used supervised machine learning techniques that use already indexed articles and the corresponding MeSH terms. In this paper, we present a new indexing approach that leverages term co-occurrence frequencies and latent term associations computed using MeSH term sets corresponding to a set of nearly 18 million articles already indexed with MeSH terms by indexers at NLM. The main goal of our study is to gauge the potential of output label co-occurrences, latent associations, and relationships extracted from free text in both unsupervised and supervised indexing approaches. In this paper, using a novel and purely unsupervised approach, we achieve a micro-F-score that is comparable to those obtained using supervised machine learning techniques. By incorporating term co-occurrence and latent association features into a supervised learning framework, we also improve over the best results published on two public datasets.

  14. Improving information retrieval using Medical Subject Headings Concepts: a test case on rare and chronic diseases. (United States)

    Darmoni, Stéfan J; Soualmia, Lina F; Letord, Catherine; Jaulent, Marie-Christine; Griffon, Nicolas; Thirion, Benoît; Névéol, Aurélie


    As more scientific work is published, it is important to improve access to the biomedical literature. Since 2000, when Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Concepts were introduced, the MeSH Thesaurus has been concept based. Nevertheless, information retrieval is still performed at the MeSH Descriptor or Supplementary Concept level. The study assesses the benefit of using MeSH Concepts for indexing and information retrieval. Three sets of queries were built for thirty-two rare diseases and twenty-two chronic diseases: (1) using PubMed Automatic Term Mapping (ATM), (2) using Catalog and Index of French-language Health Internet (CISMeF) ATM, and (3) extrapolating the MEDLINE citations that should be indexed with a MeSH Concept. Type 3 queries retrieve significantly fewer results than type 1 or type 2 queries (about 18,000 citations versus 200,000 for rare diseases; about 300,000 citations versus 2,000,000 for chronic diseases). CISMeF ATM also provides better precision than PubMed ATM for both disease categories. Using MeSH Concept indexing instead of ATM is theoretically possible to improve retrieval performance with the current indexing policy. However, using MeSH Concept information retrieval and indexing rules would be a fundamentally better approach. These modifications have already been implemented in the CISMeF search engine.

  15. Distancing, self-esteem, and subjective well-being in head and neck cancer. (United States)

    Devins, Gerald M; Wong, Janice C; Payne, Ada Y M; Lebel, Sophie; Lee, Ruth N F; Mah, Kenneth; Irish, Jonathan; Rodin, Gary


    Distancing (i.e. construing oneself as dissimilar to a negatively-stereotyped group) preserves self-esteem and may benefit other domains of subjective well-being. Head and neck cancer (HNC) is stigmatized because major risk factors include avoidable lifestyle variables (smoking, alcohol consumption, and human papilloma virus). Because the benefits of coping efforts, such as distancing, are most evident when people are under stress, we hypothesize that the psychosocial benefits of distancing will be most pronounced when cancer and its treatment interfere substantially with participation in valued activities and interests (i.e. high illness intrusiveness). To test whether distancing preserves self-esteem and other domains of subjective well-being (SWB) in HNC, especially when illness intrusiveness is high. Five hundred and twenty-two HNC outpatients completed a semantic-differential measure of perceived similarity to the 'cancer patient' and measures of illness intrusiveness, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and psychological well-being in structured interviews. Evaluations of the 'cancer patient' reflected cancer stereotypes. A statistically significant interaction supported the central hypothesis: When people held negative stereotypes, those who construed themselves as similar to the 'cancer patient' reported lower self-esteem than those who construed themselves as dissimilar. Distancing did not benefit other SWB variables. Some results were counter-intuitive: e.g. Emotional distress increased with increasing illness intrusiveness when people did not hold negative cancer stereotypes, but when they held highly negative stereotypes, distress decreased with increasing illness intrusiveness. Overall, distancing preserved self-esteem in people with HNC and was associated with benefits in other SWB domains. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Citation analysis with medical subject Headings (MeSH) using the Web of Knowledge: A new routine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Opthof, T.


    Citation analysis of documents retrieved from the Medline database (at the Web of Knowledge) has been possible only on a case-by-case basis. A technique is presented here for citation analysis in batch mode using both Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) at the Web of Knowledge and the Science Citation

  17. Quantitative biomedical annotation using medical subject heading over-representation profiles (MeSHOPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Warren A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background MEDLINE®/PubMed® indexes over 20 million biomedical articles, providing curated annotation of its contents using a controlled vocabulary known as Medical Subject Headings (MeSH. The MeSH vocabulary, developed over 50+ years, provides a broad coverage of topics across biomedical research. Distilling the essential biomedical themes for a topic of interest from the relevant literature is important to both understand the importance of related concepts and discover new relationships. Results We introduce a novel method for determining enriched curator-assigned MeSH annotations in a set of papers associated to a topic, such as a gene, an author or a disease. We generate MeSH Over-representation Profiles (MeSHOPs to quantitatively summarize the annotations in a form convenient for further computational analysis and visualization. Based on a hypergeometric distribution of assigned terms, MeSHOPs statistically account for the prevalence of the associated biomedical annotation while highlighting unusually prevalent terms based on a specified background. MeSHOPs can be visualized using word clouds, providing a succinct quantitative graphical representation of the relative importance of terms. Using the publication dates of articles, MeSHOPs track changing patterns of annotation over time. Since MeSHOPs are quantitative vectors, MeSHOPs can be compared using standard techniques such as hierarchical clustering. The reliability of MeSHOP annotations is assessed based on the capacity to re-derive the subset of the Gene Ontology annotations with equivalent MeSH terms. Conclusions MeSHOPs allows quantitative measurement of the degree of association between any entity and the annotated medical concepts, based directly on relevant primary literature. Comparison of MeSHOPs allows entities to be related based on shared medical themes in their literature. A web interface is provided for generating and visualizing MeSHOPs.

  18. Quantitative biomedical annotation using medical subject heading over-representation profiles (MeSHOPs). (United States)

    Cheung, Warren A; Ouellette, B F Francis; Wasserman, Wyeth W


    MEDLINE®/PubMed® indexes over 20 million biomedical articles, providing curated annotation of its contents using a controlled vocabulary known as Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). The MeSH vocabulary, developed over 50+ years, provides a broad coverage of topics across biomedical research. Distilling the essential biomedical themes for a topic of interest from the relevant literature is important to both understand the importance of related concepts and discover new relationships. We introduce a novel method for determining enriched curator-assigned MeSH annotations in a set of papers associated to a topic, such as a gene, an author or a disease. We generate MeSH Over-representation Profiles (MeSHOPs) to quantitatively summarize the annotations in a form convenient for further computational analysis and visualization. Based on a hypergeometric distribution of assigned terms, MeSHOPs statistically account for the prevalence of the associated biomedical annotation while highlighting unusually prevalent terms based on a specified background. MeSHOPs can be visualized using word clouds, providing a succinct quantitative graphical representation of the relative importance of terms. Using the publication dates of articles, MeSHOPs track changing patterns of annotation over time. Since MeSHOPs are quantitative vectors, MeSHOPs can be compared using standard techniques such as hierarchical clustering. The reliability of MeSHOP annotations is assessed based on the capacity to re-derive the subset of the Gene Ontology annotations with equivalent MeSH terms. MeSHOPs allows quantitative measurement of the degree of association between any entity and the annotated medical concepts, based directly on relevant primary literature. Comparison of MeSHOPs allows entities to be related based on shared medical themes in their literature. A web interface is provided for generating and visualizing MeSHOPs.

  19. Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) annotations illuminate maize genetics and evolution. (United States)

    Beissinger, Timothy M; Morota, Gota


    High-density marker panels and/or whole-genome sequencing, coupled with advanced phenotyping pipelines and sophisticated statistical methods, have dramatically increased our ability to generate lists of candidate genes or regions that are putatively associated with phenotypes or processes of interest. However, the speed with which we can validate genes, or even make reasonable biological interpretations about the principles underlying them, has not kept pace. A promising approach that runs parallel to explicitly validating individual genes is analyzing a set of genes together and assessing the biological similarities among them. This is often achieved via gene ontology analysis, a powerful tool that involves evaluating publicly available gene annotations. However, additional resources such as Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) can also be used to evaluate sets of genes to make biological interpretations. In this manuscript, we describe utilizing MeSH terms to make biological interpretations in maize. MeSH terms are assigned to PubMed-indexed manuscripts by the National Library of Medicine, and can be directly mapped to genes to develop gene annotations. Once mapped, these terms can be evaluated for enrichment in sets of genes or similarity between gene sets to provide biological insights. Here, we implement MeSH analyses in five maize datasets to demonstrate how MeSH can be leveraged by the maize and broader crop-genomics community. We demonstrate that MeSH terms can be effectively leveraged to generate hypotheses and make biological interpretations in maize, and we provide a pipeline that enables the use of MeSH terms in other plant species.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Omar Abdelnaeem


    Full Text Available Background: Neck pain and dysfunction may be the consequence of adopting sustained non-neutral spinal postures. Such postures are associated with increased activation of the neck-shoulder stabilizer muscles, which eventually increase the loading of cervical spine. Forward head posture is a common postural dysfunction that has been associated with many musculoskeletal disorders. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of deep cervical flexor muscles training on the severity of forward head posture in asymptomatic subjects. Methods: Forty-one asymptomatic subjects volunteered in this study. Participants were randomly assigned into an intervention group (n= 20that received a home-based training of deep cervical flexor muscles for 6-weeks, and a control group(n= 21 that received only the assessment procedure. Subjects were assessed at baseline and 6weeks later with regards to the severity of forward head as indicated by the cranio-vertebral angle. Also, the strength and endurance of the deep flexor muscles were assessed. Results: After six weeks, participants in the intervention group showed significant improvement in all measured variables compared to the control group. Furthermore, participants in the intervention group showed significant difference in all measured variables after 6-weeks of training compared to baseline, whereas those in the control group remained the same. Conclusion: Six-weeks of deep cervical training improves forward head posture and deep flexors strength and endurance in asymptomatic subjects. Thus, this exercise could be used as a preventive measure against the development of neck dysfunction in at risk population even before the onset of any symptoms.

  1. Hyoid bone position and head posture comparison in skeletal Class I and Class II subjects: A retrospective cephalometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawankumar Dnyandeo Tekale


    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the hyoid bone position and the head posture using lateral cephalograms in subjects with skeletal Class I and skeletal Class II pattern and to investigate the gender differences. Materials and Methods: The study used lateral cephalograms of 40 subjects (20 skeletal Class I pattern; 20 skeletal Class II pattern. Lateral cephalograms were traced and analyzed for evaluation of the hyoid bone position and the head posture using 34 parameters. Independent sample t-test was performed to compare the differences between the two groups and between genders in each group. Statistical tests were performed using NCSS 2007 software (NCSST, Kaysville, Utah, USA. Results: The linear measurements between the hyoid bone (H and cervical spine (CV2ia, the nasion-sella line, palatal line nasion line, the anterior nasal spine (ANS to perpendicular projection of H on the NLP (NLP- Nasal Linear Projection (H-NLP/ANS as well as the posterior cranial points (Bo, Ar and S points were found to be less in skeletal Class II subjects. The measurement H-CV2ia was found to be less in males with skeletal Class I pattern and H-CV4ia was found to be less in males with skeletal Class II pattern. The natural head posture showed no significant gender differences. Conclusion: The position of hyoid bone was closer to the cervical vertebra horizontally in skeletal Class II subjects when compared with skeletal Class I subjects. In males, the hyoid bone position was closer to the cervical vertebra horizontally both in skeletal Class I and skeletal Class II subjects.

  2. Revision of the Wayne State University Medical Library subject catalog using the 1966 Medical Subject Heading system. (United States)

    Pings, V M; Ferrario, J A


    Wayne State University Medical Library (WSUML) revised its monograph subject catalog in 1961 utilizing the 1960 edition of MeSH as an authority list. With the introduction of MEDLARS in 1963 by NLM, all topical subheadings were omitted from MeSH. Inasmuch as this omission could not accommodate the needs of WSUML, the 1960 edition of MeSH was retained as a guideline. In January 1966, when MeSH resumed the incorporation of topical subheadings, WSUML was faced with a decision whether to continue the current policy or to adopt the form as presented in the latest edition of MeSH. This report describes the methodology employed in adopting a new policy, the findings which resulted from the change, and an evaluation of this reorganization.

  3. [Predict factors associated with malnutrition from patient generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) in head and neck cancer patients]. (United States)

    Arribas, L; Hurtós, L; Milà, R; Fort, E; Peiró, I


    Patient Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) is a validated tool for nutrition evaluation in patients with cancer. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of malnutrition in head and neck cancer patients at diagnosis and evaluate the independent prognostic factors for malnutrition from PG-SGA. All outpatients attending at the Head and Neck Cancer Multidisciplinary Meeting for primary diagnosis, staging and treatment were evaluated by an oncology dietitian using the patient generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA). Patients with recurrences or secondary tumours will be excluded. 64 patients were evaluated (55 men and 9 women) with an average age of 63 years and body mass index (BMI) of 25.3 kg/m(2) (SD ± 5.18). After the nutritional assessment we observed that 43.8% of patients were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. The most frequent symptom at diagnosis was dysphagia (48.4%) and anorexia (26.6%). From PG-SGA, the main prognostic factors (p<0,001) were the percentage of weight loss, serum albumin levels, BMI and the presence of dysphagia or/and anorexia prior diagnosis. Parameters as BMI, weight loss and low albumin levels at the time of diagnosis in head and neck cancer patients are independent predictors for malnutrition as well as the presence of anorexia or dysphagia.reaffirms the need for sustainability of interventions over time. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. The multi-modal responses of a physical head model subjected to various blast exposure conditions (United States)

    Ouellet, S.; Phillippens, M.


    The local and global biomechanical response of the body to a blast wave is the first step of a sequence that leads to the development of stresses and strains which can exceed the tolerance of brain tissue. These stresses and strains may then lead to neuro-physical changes in the brain and contribute to initiate a cascade of events leading to injury. The specific biomechanical pathways by which the blast energy is transmitted through the head structure are, however, not clearly understood. Multiple transmission mechanisms have been proposed to explain the generation of brain stresses following the impingement of a blast wave on the head. With the use of a physical head model, the work presented here aims at demonstrating that the proposed transmission mechanisms are not mutually exclusive. They are part of a continuum of head responses where, depending on the exposure conditions, a given mechanism may or may not dominate. This article presents the joint analysis of previous blast test results generated with the brain injury protection evaluation device (BIPED) headform under four significantly different exposure conditions. The focus of the analysis is to demonstrate how the nature of the recorded response is highly dependent on the exposure characteristics and consequently, on the method used to reproduce blast exposure in a laboratory environment. The timing and magnitude of the variations in intra-cranial pressures (ICP) were analysed relative to the external pressure field in order to better understand the wave dynamics occurring within the brain structure of the headform. ICP waveforms were also analysed in terms of their energy spectral density to better identify the energy partitioning between the different modes of response. It is shown that the BIPED response is multi-modal and that the energy partitioning between its different modes of response is greatly influenced by exposure characteristics such as external peak overpressure, impulse, blast wave

  5. Dental needs in Brazilian patients subjected to head and neck radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, Ana Carolina de Mesquita Netto; Jorge, Jacks; Almeida, Oslei Paes de; Lopes, Marcio Ajudarte [University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Piracicaba Dental School. Dept. of Oral Diagnosis], e-mail:; Esteves, Sergio Carlos Barros [Center of Oncology, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)


    In spite of its recognized benefits in the treatment of malignant tumors, radiation therapy have several side effects in the head and neck region. The evaluation of oral conditions by a dentist is important to prevent or minimize these problems. The aim of this retrospective review was to analyze the dental needs in 357 patients who received radiotherapy in the head and neck region and were treated at Orocentro/FOP/UNICAMP, between January 1990 and December 2004. Review of patient files showed that dental examination before radiotherapy was not performed in 148 patients (41.5%) and was done in 209 patients (58.5%). From the total of examined patients, 94 (45%) did not require dental procedures at the moment of examination, while 115 (55%) presented some sort of dental need. Following the patients after the radiotherapy, it was observed that the group of patients that was evaluated before radiation presented less need of restorations, root canal filling and dental extractions than those who were not evaluated. The results of this study confirm that the evaluation of oral conditions prior to radiotherapy is essential to minimize the dental needs, emphasizing the importance of the dentist in the multidisciplinary team that treats cancer patients. (author)

  6. Impact of head models in N170 component source imaging: results in control subjects and ADHD patients (United States)

    Beltrachini, L.; Blenkmann, A.; von Ellenrieder, N.; Petroni, A.; Urquina, H.; Manes, F.; Ibáñez, A.; Muravchik, C. H.


    The major goal of evoked related potential studies arise in source localization techniques to identify the loci of neural activity that give rise to a particular voltage distribution measured on the surface of the scalp. In this paper we evaluate the effect of the head model adopted in order to estimate the N170 component source in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients and control subjects, considering faces and words stimuli. The standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography algorithm (sLORETA) is used to compare between the three shell spherical head model and a fully realistic model based on the ICBM-152 atlas. We compare their variance on source estimation and analyze the impact on the N170 source localization. Results show that the often used three shell spherical model may lead to erroneous solutions, specially on ADHD patients, so its use is not recommended. Our results also suggest that N170 sources are mainly located in the right occipital fusiform gyrus for faces stimuli and in the left occipital fusiform gyrus for words stimuli, for both control subjects and ADHD patients. We also found a notable decrease on the N170 estimated source amplitude on ADHD patients, resulting in a plausible marker of the disease.

  7. Comparison of Medical Subject Headings and text-word searches in MEDLINE to retrieve studies on sleep in healthy individuals* (United States)

    Jenuwine, Elizabeth S.; Floyd, Judith A.


    Objective: The objective was to investigate the performance of two search strategies in the retrieval of primary research papers containing descriptive information on the sleep of healthy people from MEDLINE. Methodology: Two search strategies—one based on the use of only Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), the second based on text-word searching—were evaluated as to their specificity and sensitivity in retrieving a set of relevant research papers published in the journal Sleep from 1996 to 2001 that were preselected by a hand search. Results: The subject search provided higher specificity than the text-word search (66% and 47%, respectively) but lower sensitivity (78% for the subject search versus 88% for the text-word search). Each search strategy gave some unique relevant hits. Conclusions: The two search strategies complemented each other and should be used together for maximal retrieval. No combination of MeSH terms could provide comprehensive yet reasonably precise retrieval of relevant articles. The text-word searching had sensitivity and specificity comparable to the subject search. In addition, use of text words “normal,” “healthy,” and “control” in the title or abstract fields to limit the final sets provided an efficient way to increase the specificity of both search strategies. PMID:15243641

  8. Three-Way Catalog Division Combined with Conversion to Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) in a Medium-sized Medical Library *† (United States)

    McNutt, Eleanor M.; Poland, Ursula H.


    Conversion to MeSH and other reasons are enumerated for the division of an undivided dictionary card catalog into a three-way divided catalog, consisting of Proper Names, Titles, and Topical Subjects sections. Methodology of division is described. Conversion from Library of Congress Subject Headings to Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) as an authority list stimulated such concurrent changes as (1) the introduction of a guide card system that eliminates typing of subject headings on catalog cards and (2) the adoption of a filing system that employs reverse chronological order for all types of sequential material in the Proper Names and Titles sections and for all material in the Topical Subjects section. The ancillary decisions, procedures, and methods necessitated by these major conversions are also described. PMID:4462686

  9. Image quality analysis of high-density diffuse optical tomography incorporating a subject-specific head model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxuan eZhan


    Full Text Available High-density diffuse optical tomography (HD-DOT methods have shown significant improvement in localization accuracy and image resolution compared to traditional topographic near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS of the human brain. In this work we provide a comprehensive evaluation of image quality in visual cortex mapping via a simulation study with the use of an anatomical head model derived from MRI data of a human subject. A model of individual head anatomy provides the surface shape and internal structure that allow for the construction of a more realistic physical model for the forward problem, as well as the use of a structural constraint in the inverse problem. The HD-DOT model utilized here incorporates multiple source-detector separations with continuous-wave data with added noise based on experimental results. To evaluate image quality we quantify the localization error and localized volume at half maximum (LVHM throughout a region of interest (ROI within the visual cortex and systematically analyze the use of whole brain tissue spatial constraint within image reconstruction. Our results demonstrate that an image quality with less than 10 mm in localization error and 1000 m3 in LVHM can be obtained up to 13 mm below the scalp surface with a typical unconstrained reconstruction and up to 18 mm deep when a spatial constraint based on the brain tissue is utilized.

  10. Bibliometric Perspectives on Medical Innovation using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) of PubMed

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet; Rafols, Ismael


    Multiple perspectives on the nonlinear processes of medical innovations can be distinguished and combined using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) of the Medline database. Focusing on three main branches-"diseases," "drugs and chemicals," and "techniques and equipment"-we use base maps and overlay techniques to investigate the translations and interactions and thus to gain a bibliometric perspective on the dynamics of medical innovations. To this end, we first analyze the Medline database, the MeSH index tree, and the various options for a static mapping from different perspectives and at different levels of aggregation. Following a specific innovation (RNA interference) over time, the notion of a trajectory which leaves a signature in the database is elaborated. Can the detailed index terms describing the dynamics of research be used to predict the diffusion dynamics of research results? Possibilities are specified for further integration between the Medline database, on the one hand, and the Science Citati...

  11. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo


    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  12. Head-to-toe whole-body MRI in psoriatic arthritis, axial spondyloarthritis and healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggenborg, René Panduro; Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Eshed, Iris


    OBJECTIVES: By whole-body MRI (WBMRI), we aimed to examine the frequency and distribution of inflammatory and structural lesions in PsA patients, SpA patients and healthy subjects (HSs), to introduce global WBMRI inflammation/damage scores, and to assess WBMRI's reproducibility and correlation...... of inflammation and structural damage were constructed, and WBMRI findings were compared with clinical measures and convMRI (SpA/HS: spine and SI joints; PsA/HS: hand). RESULTS: The readability (92-100%) and reproducibility (intrareader intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.62-1.0) were high in spine/SI joint......-15]} and SpA [8 (IQR 2-14)] than in HSs [2.5 (IQR 1-4.5)], both P structural damage scores (erosion, fat infiltration and ankylosis) were higher in SpA [7 (IQR 3-12)] than HSs [1.5 (IQR 0-4.5)], P = 0.012. Correlations between WBMRI and convMRI spine and SI joint scores were ρ = 0...

  13. Activation of biceps femoris long head reduces tibiofemoral anterior shear force and tibial internal rotation torque in healthy subjects. (United States)

    Azmi, Nur Liyana; Ding, Ziyun; Xu, Rui; Bull, Anthony M J


    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) provides resistance to tibial internal rotation torque and anterior shear at the knee. ACL deficiency results in knee instability. Optimisation of muscle contraction through functional electrical stimulation (FES) offers the prospect of mitigating the destabilising effects of ACL deficiency. The hypothesis of this study is that activation of the biceps femoris long head (BFLH) reduces the tibial internal rotation torque and the anterior shear force at the knee. Gait data of twelve healthy subjects were measured with and without the application of FES and taken as inputs to a computational musculoskeletal model. The model was used to investigate the optimum levels of BFLH activation during FES gait in reducing the anterior shear force to zero. This study found that FES significantly reduced the tibial internal rotation torque at the knee during the stance phase of gait (p = 0.0322) and the computational musculoskeletal modelling revealed that a mean BFLH activation of 20.8% (±8.4%) could reduce the anterior shear force to zero. At the time frame when the anterior shear force was zero, the internal rotation torque was reduced by 0.023 ± 0.0167 Nm/BW, with a mean 188% reduction across subjects (p = 0.0002). In conclusion, activation of the BFLH is able to reduce the tibial internal rotation torque and the anterior shear force at the knee in healthy control subjects. This should be tested on ACL deficient subject to consider its effect in mitigating instability due to ligament deficiency. In future clinical practice, activating the BFLH may be used to protect ACL reconstructions during post-operative rehabilitation, assist with residual instabilities post reconstruction, and reduce the need for ACL reconstruction surgery in some cases.

  14. The video head impulse test (vHIT of semicircular canal function – age dependent normative values of VOR gain in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh Andrew McGarvie


    Full Text Available Background/Hypothesis. The video Head Impulse Test (vHIT is now widely used to test the function of each of the six semicircular canals individually by measuring the eye rotation response to an abrupt head rotation in the plane of the canal. The main measure of canal adequacy is the ratio of the eye movement response to the head movement stimulus i.e. the gain of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR. However there is a need for normative data about how VOR gain is affected by age and also by head velocity, to allow the response of any particular patient to be compared to response of healthy subjects in their age range. In this study we determined for all six semicircular canals, normative values of VOR gain, for each canal across a range of head velocities, for healthy subjects in each decade of life.Study Design. The VOR gain was measured for all canals across a range of head velocities for at least 10 healthy subjects in decade age bands: 10-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, 80-89. Methods. The compensatory eye movement response to a small, unpredictable, abrupt head rotation (head impulse was measured by the ICS Impulse prototype system. The same operator delivered every impulse to every subject. Results. VOR gain decreased at high head velocities, but was largely unaffected by age into the 80-89 year age group. There were some small but systematic differences between the two directions of head rotation, which appear to be largely due to the fact that in this study only the right eye was measured. The results are considered in relation to recent evidence about the effect of age on VOR performance.Conclusion. These normative values allow the results of any particular patient to be compared to the values of healthy people in their age range and so allow, for example, detection of whether a patient has a bilateral vestibular loss. VOR gain, as measured directly by the eye movement response to head rotation, seems largely unaffected by

  15. Head repositioning accuracy in patients with neck pain and asymptomatic subjects: concurrent validity, influence of motion speed, motion direction and target distance. (United States)

    Dugailly, Pierre-Michel; De Santis, Roberta; Tits, Mathieu; Sobczak, Stéphane; Vigne, Anna; Feipel, Véronique


    Cervicocephalic kinesthetic deficiencies have been demonstrated in patients with chronic neck pain (NP). On the other hand, authors emphasized the use of different motion speeds for assessing functional impairment of the cervical spine. The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate the head repositioning accuracy in NP patients and control subjects and (2) to assess the influence of target distance, motion speed, motion direction and pain. Seventy-one subjects (36 healthy subjects and 35 NP patients; age 30-55 years) performed the head repositioning test (HRT) at two different speeds for horizontal and vertical movements and at two different distances. For each condition, six consecutive trials were sampled. The study showed the validity and reproducibility of the HRT, confirming a dysfunctional threshold of 4.5°. Normative values of head repositioning error up to 3.6° and 7.1° were identified for healthy and NP subjects, respectively. A distance of 180 cm from the target and a natural motion speed increased HRT accuracy. Repositioning after extension movement showed a significantly larger error in both groups. Intensity, duration of pain as well as pain level did not significantly alter head repositioning error. The assessment of proprioceptive performance in healthy and NP subjects allowed the validation of the HRT. The HRT is a simple, not expensive and fast test, easily implementable in daily practice to assess and monitor treatment and evolution of proprioceptive cervical deficits.

  16. Effects of suboccipital release with craniocervical flexion exercise on craniocervical alignment and extrinsic cervical muscle activity in subjects with forward head posture. (United States)

    Kim, Bo-Been; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Jeong, Hyo-Jung; Cynn, Heon-Seock


    Forward head posture is a head-on-trunk malalignment, which results in musculoskeletal dysfunction and neck pain. To improve forward head posture, both the craniocervical flexion exercise and the suboccipital release technique have been used. The purpose of this study was to compare the immediate effects of craniocervical flexion exercise and suboccipital release combined with craniocervical flexion exercise on craniovertebral angle, cervical flexion and extension range of motion, and the muscle activities of the sternocleidomastoid, anterior scalene, and splenius capitis during craniocervical flexion exercise in subjects with forward head posture. In total, 19 subjects (7 males, 12 females) with forward head posture were recruited using G-power software. Each subject performed craniocervical flexion exercise and suboccipital release combined with craniocervical flexion exercise in random order. After one intervention was performed, the subject took a 20min wash out period to minimize any carry-over effect between interventions. Craniovertebral angle, cervical flexion and extension range of motion, and the muscle activities of the sternocleidomastoid, anterior scalene, and splenius capitis were measured. A one-way, repeated-measures ANOVA was used to assess differences between the effects of the craniocervical flexion exercise and suboccipital release combined with craniocervical flexion exercise interventions in the same group. Craniovertebral angle (pflexion range of motion (pflexion exercise compared to craniocervical flexion exercise alone. The muscle activities of the sternocleidomastoid, anterior scalene, and splenius capitis were significantly lower during suboccipital release combined with craniocervical flexion exercise than during craniocervical flexion exercise alone across all craniocervical flexion exercise phases except the first (all pflexion exercise provided superior benefits relative to craniocervical flexion exercise alone as an intervention for

  17. Two Similarity Metrics for Medical Subject Headings (MeSH): An Aid to Biomedical Text Mining and Author Name Disambiguation. (United States)

    Smalheiser, Neil R; Bonifield, Gary


    In the present paper, we have created and characterized several similarity metrics for relating any two Medical Subject Headings (MeSH terms) to each other. The article-based metric measures the tendency of two MeSH terms to appear in the MEDLINE record of the same article. The author-based metric measures the tendency of two MeSH terms to appear in the body of articles written by the same individual (using the 2009 Author-ity author name disambiguation dataset as a gold standard). The two metrics are only modestly correlated with each other (r = 0.50), indicating that they capture different aspects of term usage. The article-based metric provides a measure of semantic relatedness, and MeSH term pairs that co-occur more often than expected by chance may reflect relations between the two terms. In contrast, the author metric is indicative of how individuals practice science, and may have value for author name disambiguation and studies of scientific discovery. We have calculated article metrics for all MeSH terms appearing in at least 25 articles in MEDLINE (as of 2014) and author metrics for MeSH terms published as of 2009. The dataset is freely available for download and can be queried at Handling editor: Elizabeth Workman, MLIS, PhD.

  18. Transcending Library Catalogs: A Comparative Study of Controlled Terms in Library of Congress Subject Headings and User-Generated Tags in LibraryThing for Transgender Books (United States)

    Adler, Melissa


    Perhaps the greatest power of folksonomies, especially when set against controlled vocabularies like the Library of Congress Subject Headings, lies in their capacity to empower user communities to name their own resources in their own terms. This article analyzes the potential and limitations of both folksonomies and controlled vocabularies for…

  19. Cited References and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) as Two Different Knowledge Representations : Clustering and Mappings at the Paper Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Comins, J.A.; Sorensen, A.A.; Bornmann, L.; Hellsten, I.


    For the biomedical sciences, the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) make available a rich feature which cannot currently be merged properly with widely used citing/cited data. Here, we provide methods and routines that make MeSH terms amenable to broader usage in the study of science indicators: using

  20. Comparison of optic area measurement using fundus photography and optical coherence tomography between optic nerve head drusen and control subjects. (United States)

    Flores-Rodríguez, Patricia; Gili, Pablo; Martín-Ríos, María Dolores; Grifol-Clar, Eulalia


    To compare optic disc area measurement between optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) and control subjects using fundus photography, time-domain optical coherence tomography (TD-OCT) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). We also made a comparison between each of the three techniques. We performed our study on 66 eyes (66 patients) with ONHD and 70 healthy control subjects (70 controls) with colour ocular fundus photography at 20º (Zeiss FF 450 IR plus), TD-OCT (Stratus OCT) with the Fast Optic Disc protocol and SD-OCT (Cirrus OCT) with the Optic Disc Cube 200 × 200 protocol for measurement of the optic disc area. The measurements were made by two observers and in each measurement a correction of the image magnification factor was performed. Measurement comparison using the Student's t-test/Mann-Whitney U test, the intraclass correlation coefficient, Pearson/Spearman rank correlation coefficient and the Bland-Altman plot was performed in the statistical analysis. Mean and standard deviation (SD) of the optic disc area in ONHD and in controls was 2.38 (0.54) mm(2) and 2.54 (0.42) mm(2), respectively with fundus photography; 2.01 (0.56) mm(2) and 1.66 (0.37) mm(2), respectively with TD-OCT, and 2.03 (0.49) mm(2) and 1.75 (0.38) mm(2), respectively with SD-OCT. In ONHD and controls, repeatability of optic disc area measurement was excellent with fundus photography and optical coherence tomography (TD-OCT and SD-OCT), but with a low degree of agreement between both techniques. Optic disc area measurement is smaller in ONHD compared to healthy subjects with fundus photography, unlike time-domain and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in which the reverse is true. Both techniques offer good repeatability, but a low degree of correlation and agreement, which means that optic disc area measurement is not interchangeable or comparable between techniques. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2013 The College of Optometrists.

  1. Quality of pharmacy-specific Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) assignment in pharmacy journals indexed in MEDLINE. (United States)

    Minguet, Fernando; Salgado, Teresa M; van den Boogerd, Lucienne; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando


    The Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is the National Library of Medicine (NLM) controlled vocabulary for indexing articles. Inaccuracies in the MeSH thesaurus have been reported for several areas including pharmacy. To assess the quality of pharmacy-specific MeSH assignment to articles indexed in pharmacy journals. The 10 journals containing the highest number of articles published in 2012 indexed under the MeSH 'Pharmacists' were identified. All articles published over a 5-year period (2008-2012) in the 10 previously selected journals were retrieved from PubMed. MeSH terms used to index these articles were extracted and pharmacy-specific MeSH terms were identified. The frequency of use of pharmacy-specific MeSH terms was calculated across journals. A total of 6989 articles were retrieved from the 10 pharmacy journals, of which 328 (4.7%) were articles not fully indexed and therefore did not contain any MeSH terms assigned. Among the 6661 articles fully indexed, the mean number of MeSH terms was 10.1 (SD = 4.0), being 1.0 (SD = 1.3) considered as Major MeSH. Both values significantly varied across journals. The mean number of pharmacy-specific MeSH terms per article was 0.9 (SD = 1.2). A total of 3490 (52.4%) of the 6661 articles were indexed in pharmacy journals without a single pharmacy-specific MeSH. Of the total 67193 MeSH terms assigned to articles, on average 10.5% (SD = 13.9) were pharmacy-specific MeSH. A statistically significant different pattern of pharmacy-specific MeSH assignment was identified across journals (Kruskal-Wallis P MeSH terms to articles indexed in pharmacy journals can be improved to further enhance evidence gathering in pharmacy. Over half of the articles published in the top-10 journals publishing pharmacy literature were indexed without a single pharmacy-specific MeSH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationships among head posture, pain intensity, disability and deep cervical flexor muscle performance in subjects with postural neck pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun V. Subbarayalu, PhD


    Full Text Available Objectives: Information Technology (IT professionals working with computers gradually develop forward head posture and, as a result, these professionals are susceptible to several neck disorders. This study intended to reveal the relationships between pain intensity, disability, head posture and deep cervical flexor (DCF muscle performance in patients with postural neck pain. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 84 IT professionals who were diagnosed with postural neck pain. The participants were recruited with a random sampling approach. A Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ, the Modified Head Posture Spinal Curvature Instrument (MHPSCI, and the Stabilizer Pressure Biofeedback Unit were used to measure neck pain intensity, neck disability, head posture, and DCF muscle performance, respectively. Results: The Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a significantly strong positive relationship between the VAS and the NPQ (r = 0.734. The cranio-vertebral (CV angle was found to have a significantly negative correlation with the VAS (r = −0.536 and a weak negative correlation with the NPQ (r = −0.389. Conclusion: This study concluded that a smaller CV angle corresponded to greater neck pain intensity and disability. Furthermore, there is no significant relationship between CV angle and DCF muscle performance, indicating that head posture re-education through postural correction exercises would not completely correct the motor control deficits in DCF muscles. In addition, a suitable exercise regimen that exclusively targets the deep cervical flexor muscle to improve its endurance is warranted. Keywords: Craniovertebral angle, Disability deep cervical flexors muscle performance, Head posture, Postural neck pain

  3. Global visibility for global health: Is it time for a new descriptor in Medical Subject Heading (MeSH of MEDLINE/PubMed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marušic´


    Full Text Available Despite a large body of research in global health (almost 9000 articles published in PubMed until 2012, the term “global health” is not included in the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH of the NLM – its controlled vocabulary thesaurus which NLM uses to index articles in MEDL INE. There are only 6 journals currently covered by PubMed which specialize in global health, including Journal of Global Health.

  4. A Remote-Controlled Airbag Device Can Improve Upper Airway Collapsibility by Producing Head Elevation With Jaw Closure in Normal Subjects Under Propofol Anesthesia. (United States)

    Ishizaka, Satoru; Moromugi, Shunji; Kobayashi, Masato; Kajihara, Hiroki; Koga, Kazuya; Sugahara, Hirofumi; Ishimatsu, Takakazu; Kurata, Shinji; Kirkness, Jason P; Oi, Kumiko; Ayuse, Takao


    Continuous maintenance of an appropriate position of the mandible and head purely by manual manipulation is difficult, although the maneuver can restore airway patency during sleep and anesthesia. The aim of this paper was to examine the effect of head elevation with jaw closure using a remote-controlled airbag device, such as the airbag system, on passive upper airway collapsibility during propofol anesthesia. Seven male subjects were studied. Propofol infusion was used for anesthesia induction and maintenance, with a target blood propofol concentration of 1.5-2 [Formula: see text]g/ml. Nasal mask pressure ([Formula: see text]) was intermittently reduced to evaluate upper airway collapsibility (passive [Formula: see text]) and upstream resistance ([Formula: see text]) at three different head and jaw positions, jaw opening position in the supine position, jaw opening position in the sniffing position with 6-cm head elevation, and jaw closure at a 6-cm height sniffing position. The 6-cm height sniffing position with jaw closure was achieved by an airbag device that was attached to the subject's head-like headgear. Patient demographics, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] in each condition were compared using one-way ANOVA with a post hoc Tukey test. [Formula: see text] was considered significant. We also confirmed the effects of our airbag device on improvement of upper airway collapsibility in three obstructive sleep apnea patients in a clinical study. The combination of 6-cm head elevation with jaw closure using the air-inflatable robotic airbag system decreased upper airway collapsibility ([Formula: see text]-cm H[Formula: see text]O) compared with the baseline position ([Formula: see text]-cm H[Formula: see text]O, [Formula: see text]). In the clinical study, there was improvement of upper airway obstruction in sleep apnea patients, including decreased apnea and hypopnea duration and increased the lowest level of oxygen saturation. We demonstrated that

  5. Effects of repeated snowboard exercise in virtual reality with time lags of visual scene behind body rotation on head stability and subjective slalom run performance in healthy young subjects. (United States)

    Wada, Yoshiro; Nishiike, Suetaka; Kitahara, Tadashi; Yamanaka, Toshiaki; Imai, Takao; Ito, Taeko; Sato, Go; Matsuda, Kazunori; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Takeda, Noriaki


    After repeated snowboard exercises in the virtual reality (VR) world with increasing time lags in trials 3-8, it is suggested that the adaptation to repeated visual-vestibulosomatosensory conflict in the VR world improved dynamic posture control and motor performance in the real world without the development of motion sickness. The VR technology was used and the effects of repeated snowboard exercise examined in the VR world with time lags between visual scene and body rotation on the head stability and slalom run performance during exercise in healthy subjects. Forty-two healthy young subjects participated in the study. After trials 1 and 2 of snowboard exercise in the VR world without time lag, trials 3-8 were conducted with 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 s time lags of the visual scene that the computer creates behind board rotation, respectively. Finally, trial 9 was conducted without time lag. Head linear accelerations and subjective slalom run performance were evaluated. The standard deviations of head linear accelerations in inter-aural direction were significantly increased in trial 8, with a time lag of 0.6 s, but significantly decreased in trial 9 without a time lag, compared with those in trial 2 without a time lag. The subjective scores of slalom run performance were significantly decreased in trial 8, with a time lag of 0.6 s, but significantly increased in trial 9 without a time lag, compared with those in trial 2 without a time lag. Motion sickness was not induced in any subjects.

  6. List-Mode PET Motion Correction Using Markerless Head Tracking: Proof-of-Concept With Scans of Human Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Oline Vinter; Sullivan, Jenna M.; Mulnix, Tim


    was time-varying with long drift motions of up to 18 mm and regular step-wise motion of 1–6 mm. The evaluated measures were significantly better for motion-corrected images compared to no MC. The demonstrated system agreed with a commercial integrated system. Motion-corrected images were improved......A custom designed markerless tracking system was demonstrated to be applicable for positron emission tomography (PET) brain imaging. Precise head motion registration is crucial for accurate motion correction (MC) in PET imaging. State-of-the-art tracking systems applied with PET brain imaging rely...... on markers attached to the patient's head. The marker attachment is the main weakness of these systems. A healthy volunteer participating in a cigarette smoking study to image dopamine release was scanned twice for 2 h with $^{11}{\\rm C}$-racolopride on the high resolution research tomograph (HRRT) PET...

  7. Dark matter in galaxies


    Zasov, A. V.; Saburova, A. S.; Khoperskov, A. V.; Khoperskov, S. A.


    Dark matter in galaxies, its abundance, and its distribution remain a subject of long-standing discussion, especially in view of the fact that neither dark matter particles nor dark matter bodies have yet been found. Experts' opinions range from a very large number of completely dark galaxies exist to nonbaryonic dark matter does not exist at all in any significant amounts. We discuss astronomical evidence for the existence of dark matter and its connection with visible matter and examine att...

  8. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof......Galaxy formation is an enormously complex discipline due to the many physical processes that play a role in shaping galaxies. The objective of this thesis is to study galaxy formation with two different approaches: First, numerical simulations are used to study the structure of dark matter and how...... is important, since it helps constraining chemical evolution models at high redshift. A new project studying how the population of galaxies hosting GRBs relate to other galaxy population is outlined in the conclusion of this thesis. The core of this project will be to quantify how the stellar mass function...

  9. Active Galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilerci Eser, Ece

    one is related to the mass estimates of supermassive black holes (SMBHs). Mass estimates of SMBHs are important to understand the formation and evolution of SMBHs and their host galaxies. Black hole masses in Type 1 AGN are measured with the reverberation mapping (RM) technique. Reverberation mapping......Galaxy formation and evolution is one of the main research themes of modern astronomy. Active galaxies such as Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) are important evolutionary stages of galaxies. The ULIRG stage is mostly associated with galaxy mergers...... and interactions. During the interactions of gas-rich galaxies, the gas inflows towards the centers of the galaxies and can trigger both star formation and AGN activity. The ULIRG stage includes rapid star formation activity and fast black hole growth that is enshrouded by dust. Once the AGN emission...

  10. The Arecibo Galaxy Environment Survey IX: the isolated galaxy sample

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Minchin, R.F.; Auld, R.; Davies, J.I.; Karachentsev, I.D.; Keenan, O.; Momjian, E.; Rodriguez, R.; Taber, T.; Taylor, Rhys


    Roč. 455, č. 4 (2016), s. 3430-3435 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG14013; GA ČR GAP209/12/1795 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : individual galaxies NGC 1156 * individual galaxies NGC 5523 * individual galaxies UGC 2082 Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.961, year: 2016

  11. Alcohol-associated acute head trauma in human subjects is associated with early deficits in serum ionized Mg and Ca. (United States)

    Altura, B M; Memon, Z S; Altura, B T; Cracco, R Q


    Acute head trauma (AHT) (caused by motor vehicle accidents that did not produce loss of consciousness or observed brain lesions on CT scan, or falls) was found to result in early (1-8 h after injury) serum deficits in ionized magnesium (IMg2+) and ionized calcium (ICa2+) assessed with ion-selective electrodes (ISEs). Total Mg (TMg) and other electrolytes as well as serum biochemical analytes were all within the normal reference ranges. AHT patients with acute alcohol intoxication (BAC > or = 150 mg/dl) or alcohol abuse (BAC > 200 mg/dl) demonstrated deficits (15-35% less than normal) in IMg2+, but serum TMg levels were normal as were electrolytes and serum biochemical analytes. AHT patients with alcohol intoxication or alcohol abuse required hospitalization for 1-3 days prior to release, whereas AHT patients without alcohol intoxication were released in less than 24 h. The ICa2+/IMg2+ ratio, a sign of increased vascular tone and vascular reactivity, was significantly elevated in AHT patients with alcohol intoxication but not in AHT patients without alcohol intoxication or abuse. These serum divalent cation changes early after traumatic brain injury could be of considerable practicable diagnostic value in the assessment of alcohol-associated head injury. Use of ion-selective electrodes to accurately measure IMg2+ could serve as a logical basis for monitoring the response of the body to AHT.

  12. Star Formation in Tadpole Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casiana Muñoz-Tuñon


    Full Text Available Tadpole Galaxies look like a star forming head with a tail structure to the side. They are also named cometaries. In a series of recent works we have discovered a number of issues that lead us to consider them extremely interesting targets. First, from images, they are disks with a lopsided starburst. This result is rmly  established with long slit spectroscopy in a nearby representative sample. They rotate with the head following the rotation pattern but displaced from the rotation center. Moreover, in a search for extremely metal poor (XMP galaxies, we identied tadpoles as the dominant shapes in the sample - nearly 80% of the local XMP galaxies have a tadpole morphology. In addition, the spatially resolved analysis of the metallicity shows the remarkable result that there is a metallicity drop right at the position of the head. This is contrary to what intuition would say and dicult to explain if star formation has happened from gas processed in the disk. The result could however be understood if the star formation is driven by pristine gas falling into the galaxy disk. If conrmed, we could be unveiling, for the rst time, cool  ows in action in our nearby world. The tadpole class is relatively frequent at high redshift - 10% of resolvable galaxies in the Hubble UDF but less than 1% in the local Universe. They are systems that could track cool ows and test models of galaxy formation.

  13. Development and validation of a numerical model of the swine head subjected to open-field blasts (United States)

    Kalra, A.; Zhu, F.; Feng, K.; Saif, T.; Kallakuri, S.; Jin, X.; Yang, K.; King, A.


    A finite element model of the head of a 55-kg Yucatan pig was developed to calculate the incident pressure and corresponding intracranial pressure due to the explosion of 8 lb (3.63 kg) of C4 at three different distances. The results from the model were validated by comparing findings with experimentally obtained data from five pigs at three different blast overpressure levels: low (150 kPa), medium (275 kPa), and high (400 kPa). The peak values of intracranial pressures from numerical model at different locations of the brain such as the frontal, central, left temporal, right temporal, parietal, and occipital regions were compared with experimental values. The model was able to predict the peak pressure with reasonable percentage differences. The differences for peak incident and intracranial pressure values between the simulation results and the experimental values were found to be less than 2.2 and 29.3%, respectively, at all locations other than the frontal region. Additionally, a series of parametric studies shows that the intracranial pressure was very sensitive to sensor locations, the presence of air bubbles, and reflections experienced during the experiments. Further efforts will be undertaken to correlate the different biomechanical response parameters, such as the intracranial pressure gradient, stress, and strain results obtained from the validated model with injured brain locations once the histology data become available.

  14. The extraordinary structural evolution of massive galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szomoru, Daniel


    Galaxies have changed drastically over the past 10 billion years. This thesis deals with these changes, focusing on evolution in the structure of very massive galaxies with a range of stellar population properties. The main subjects addressed are the rapid changes in the sizes of old galaxies, the

  15. Objective and subjective image quality of primary and recurrent squamous cell carcinoma on head and neck low-tube-voltage 80-kVp computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholtz, Jan-Erik; Kaup, Moritz; Kraft, Johannes; Noeske, Eva-Maria; Schulz, Boris; Burck, Iris; Kerl, J.M.; Bauer, Ralf W.; Lehnert, Thomas; Vogl, Thomas J.; Wichmann, Julian L. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Scheerer, Friedrich [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Cranio-Maxillofacial and Plastic Facial Surgery, Frankfurt (Germany); Wagenblast, Jens [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Frankfurt (Germany)


    To investigate low-tube-voltage 80-kVp computed tomography (CT) of head and neck primary and recurrent squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) regarding objective and subjective image quality. We retrospectively evaluated 65 patients (47 male, 18 female; mean age: 62.1 years) who underwent head and neck dual-energy CT (DECT) due to biopsy-proven primary (n = 50) or recurrent (n = 15) SCC. Eighty peak kilovoltage and standard blended 120-kVp images were compared. Attenuation and noise of malignancy and various soft tissue structures were measured. Tumor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. Subjective image quality was rated by three reviewers using 5-point grading scales regarding overall image quality, lesion delineation, image sharpness, and image noise. Radiation dose was assessed as CT dose index volume (CTDI{sub vol}). Interobserver agreement was calculated using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Mean tumor attenuation (153.8 Hounsfield unit (HU) vs. 97.1 HU), SNR (10.7 vs. 8.3), CNR (8.1 vs. 4.8), and subjective tumor delineation (score, 4.46 vs. 4.13) were significantly increased (all P < 0.001) with 80-kVp acquisition compared to standard blended 120-kVp images. Noise of all measured structures was increased in 80-kVp acquisition (P < 0.001). Overall interobserver agreement was good (ICC, 0.86; 95 % confidence intervals: 0.82-0.89). CTDI{sub vol} was reduced by 48.7 % with 80-kVp acquisition compared to standard DECT (4.85 ± 0.51 vs. 9.94 ± 0.81 mGy cm, P < 0.001). Head and neck CT with low-tube-voltage 80-kVp acquisition provides increased tumor delineation, SNR, and CNR for CT imaging of primary and recurrent SCC compared to standard 120-kVp acquisition with an accompanying significant reduction of radiation exposure. (orig.)

  16. Survey of keyword adjustment of published articles medical subject headings in journal of mazandaran university of medical sciences (2009-2010). (United States)

    Kabirzadeh, Azar; Siamian, Hasan; Abadi, Ebrahim Bagherian Farah; Saravi, Benyamin Mohseni


    NONE DECLARED. Keywords are the most important tools for Information retrieval. They are usually used for retrieval of articles based on contents of information reserved from printed and electronic resources. Retrieval of appropriate keywords from Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) can impact with exact, correctness and short time on information retrieval. Regarding the above mentioned matters, this study was done to compare the Latin keywords was in the articles published in the Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. This is a descriptive study. The data were extracted from the key words of Englsih abstracts of articles published in the years 2009-2010 in the Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences by census method. Checklist of data collection is designed, based on research objectives and literature review which has face validity. Compliance rate in this study was to determine if the keywords cited in this article as a full subject of the main subject headings in a MeSH (Bold and the selected word) is a perfect adjustment. If keywords were cited in the article but the main heading is not discussed in the following main topics to be discussed with reference to See and See related it has considered has partial adjustment. Out of 148 articles published in 12 issues in proposed time of studying, 72 research papers were analyzed. The average numbers of authors in each article were 4 ± 1. Results showed that most of specialty papers 42 (58. 4%), belonging to the (Department of Clinical Sciences) School of Medicine, 11 (15.3%) Basic Science, 6(8.4%) Pharmacy, Nursing and Midwifery 5(6.9%), 4(5.5%) Health, paramedical Sciences 3(4.2%), and non medical article 1(1.3%) school of medicine. In general, results showed that 80 (30%) of key words have been used to complete the adjustment. Also, only 1(1.4%) had complete adjustment with all the MeSH key words and in 8 articles(11.4%) key words of had no adjustment with MeSH. The results showed that only

  17. Scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment, albumin and transferrin for nutritional assessment of gastrostomy fed head or neck cancer patients. (United States)

    Correira Pereira, Marta Alexandra; Santos, Carla Adriana; Almeida Brito, José; Fonseca, Jorge


    Gastrostomy fed head or neck cancer patients frequently have impaired speech capacities. Enteral feeding teams frequently depend on laboratorial or anthropometrical parameters for nutritional assessment. In these patients, this study aimed to evaluate: (1) the practicability of Scored - Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA); (2) their nutritional status using the Scored-PG-SGA; (3) association of serum albumin and transferrin values to the nutritional status rating using PG-SGA. On adult outpatients with head or neck cancer under prolonged (> 1 month) gastrostomy feeding, Scored-PGSGA, albumin and transferrin were evaluated during the same appointment. Scored-PG-SGA was easily feasible in 42 patients, even in patients with speech difficulties. Twenty-five patients were moderately/severely undernourished (PG-SGA/B+C). Scored-PG-SGA rated 41 patients as ≥ 2, thus needing nutritional/ pharmacologic intervention. Albumin was low in 13 patients. Transferrin was low in 19 patients. Average albumin and transferrin in moderately/severely undernourished patients (PG-SGA/B+C) was significantly lower than in well-nourished (PG-SGA/A). There was association between Scored- PG-SGA rating, albumin and transferrin. In PEG fed head or neck cancer patients, PGSGA was practicable and useful, even in patients with impaired speaking skills. Most patients displayed moderate/severe malnutrition (PG-SGA/B+C). Scored-PG-SGA rated 41 patients as needing for nutritional/pharmacological intervention. Scored-PG-SGA should be systematically included in the evaluation of these patients. In these patients, albumin and transferrin levels showed relation with Scored-PG-SGA and should be considered as nutritional biomarkers. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. Incidence of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma among subjects at high risk of lung cancer: results from the Pittsburgh Lung Screening Study. (United States)

    Dixit, Ronak; Weissfeld, Joel L; Wilson, David O; Balogh, Paula; Sufka, Pamela; Siegfried, Jill M; Grandis, Jennifer R; Diergaarde, Brenda


    Earlier detection and diagnosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) should lead to improved outcomes. However, to the authors' knowledge, no effective screening strategy has been identified to date. In the current study, the authors evaluated whether it would be useful to screen subjects targeted for lung cancer screening for HNSCC as well. Medical records, death certificates, and cancer registry and questionnaire data were used to determine the number of observed incident HNSCC cases in the Pittsburgh Lung Screening Study (PLuSS), a cohort of current and former smokers aged ≥50 years with a ≥12.5 pack-year smoking history. The expected number of cases was estimated using stratum-specific incidence rates obtained from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data for 2000 through 2011. The standardized incidence ratio was calculated to examine the difference between the observed and expected number of cases. Of the 3587 at-risk participants in the PLuSS, 23 (0.64%) developed HNSCC over a total of 32,201 person-years of follow-up. This finding was significantly higher than expected based on incidence rates obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program (13.70 cases expected; standardized incidence ratio, 1.68 [95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.52]). The excess burden of HNSCC in the PLuSS was 28.9 cases per 100,000 person-years. Observed incident cases were significantly more often male, had started smoking at a younger age, smoked more per day, and had more pack-years of smoking than the rest of the PLuSS at-risk participants. The results of the current study provide a rationale for offering head and neck cancer screening along with computed tomography screening for lung cancer. Randomized controlled trials that assess the effectiveness of adding examination of the head and neck area to lung cancer screening programs are warranted. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  19. Experimental Investigation of Cavitation as a Possible Damage Mechanism in Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury in Post-Mortem Human Subject Heads. (United States)

    Salzar, Robert S; Treichler, Derrick; Wardlaw, Andrew; Weiss, Greg; Goeller, Jacques


    The potential of blast-induced traumatic brain injury from the mechanism of localized cavitation of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is investigated. While the mechanism and criteria for non-impact blast-induced traumatic brain injury is still unknown, this study demonstrates that local cavitation in the CSF layer of the cranial volume could contribute to these injuries. The cranial contents of three post-mortem human subject (PMHS) heads were replaced with both a normal saline solution and a ballistic gel mixture with a simulated CSF layer. Each were instrumented with multiple pressure transducers and placed inside identical shock tubes at two different research facilities. Sensor data indicates that cavitation may have occurred in the PMHS models at pressure levels below those for a 50% risk of blast lung injury. This study points to skull flexion, the result of the shock wave on the front of the skull leading to a negative pressure in the contrecoup, as a possible mechanism that contributes to the onset of cavitation. Based on observation of intracranial pressure transducer data from the PMHS model, cavitation onset is thought to occur from approximately a 140 kPa head-on incident blast.

  20. Reduced Sympathetic Response to Head-Up Tilt in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment or Mild Alzheimer's Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marte Rognstad Mellingsæter


    Full Text Available Background: Hemodynamic control was compared in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI or mild Alzheimer's dementia (AD as well as in healthy elderly subjects. Methods: Noninvasive, continuous hemodynamic recordings were obtained from 14 patients and 48 controls during supine rest (tilt of 30 and 70°. Cardiac output, end-diastolic volume, total peripheral resistance, heart rate variability (HRV, systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV, and baroreceptor sensitivity were calculated. Results: At 70° tilt, the HRV indices differed significantly, with higher high-frequency (HF variability as well as lower low-frequency (LF variability and LF/HF ratios in the patients. The patients had significantly lower SBPV in the LF range at 30° tilt. Conclusions: The results indicate a poorer sympathetic response to orthostatic stress in MCI and mild AD.

  1. Analysis by NASA's VESGEN Software of Retinal Blood Vessels in Human Subjects Undergoing Head-Down Tilt During 70-Day Bed Rest (United States)

    Vyas, Ruchi J.; Murray, Matthew C.; Predovic, Marina; Lim, Shiyin; Askin, Kayleigh N.; Vizzeri, Gianmarco; Taibbi, Giovanni; Mason, Sara Stroble; Zanello, Susana B.; Young, Millenia; hide


    Significant risks for visual impairment associated with increased intracranial pressure (VIIP) are incurred by microgravity spaceflight, especially long-duration missions [1]. We hypothesize that microgravity-induced fluid shifts result in pathological changes within blood vessels of the retina that precede development of visual and other ocular impairments. Potential contributions of retinal vascular remodeling to VIIP etiology are therefore being investigated for two studies in 30deg infrared (IR) Heidelberg Spectralis(Registered Trademark) images with NASA's innovative VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) software [2,3]. The retrospective studies include: (1) before, during and after (pre, mid and post) 6º head-down tilt (HDT) in human subjects during 70 days of bed rest, and (2) before and after missions to the International Space Station (ISS) by U.S. crew members. Results for both studies are almost complete. A preliminary example for HDT is described below.

  2. Citation Analysis using the Medline Database at the Web of Knowledge: Searching "Times Cited" with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet


    Citation analysis of documents retrieved from the Medline database (at the Web of Knowledge) has been possible only on a case-by-case basis. A technique is here developed for citation analysis in batch mode using both Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) at the Web of Knowledge and the Science Citation Index at the Web of Science. This freeware routine is applied to the case of "Brugada Syndrome," a specific disease and field of research (since 1992). The journals containing these publications are attributed to Web-of-Science Categories other than "Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems"), perhaps because of the possibility of genetic testing for this syndrome in the clinic. With this routine, all the instruments available for citation analysis can be used on the basis of MeSH terms.

  3. Harassment Origin for Kinematic Substructures in Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies?


    Gonzalez-Garcia, A. C.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Balcells, M.


    [EN]We have run high resolution N-body models simulating the encounter of a dwarf galaxy with a bright elliptical galaxy. The dwarf absorbs orbital angular momentum and shows counter-rotating features in the external regions of the galaxy. To explain the core-envelope kinematic decoupling observed in some dwarf galaxies in high-density environments requires nearly head-on collisions and very little dark matter bound to the dwarf. These kinematic structures appear under rather restrictive cond...

  4. Head Start. (United States)

    Greenman, Geri


    Discusses an art project in which students created drawings of mop heads. Explains that the approach of drawing was more important than the subject. States that the students used the chiaroscuro technique, used by Rembrandt and Caravaggio, in which light appears out of the darkness. (CMK)

  5. Galaxy Disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kruit, P. C.; Freeman, K. C.

    The disks of disk galaxies contain a substantial fraction of their baryonic matter and angular momentum, and much of the evolutionary activity in these galaxies, such as the formation of stars, spiral arms, bars and rings, and the various forms of secular evolution, takes place in their disks. The

  6. Compensating for literature annotation bias when predicting novel drug-disease relationships through Medical Subject Heading Over-representation Profile (MeSHOP) similarity. (United States)

    Cheung, Warren A; Ouellette, B F Francis; Wasserman, Wyeth W


    Using annotations to the articles in MEDLINE®/PubMed®, over six thousand chemical compounds with pharmacological actions have been tracked since 1996. Medical Subject Heading Over-representation Profiles (MeSHOPs) quantitatively leverage the literature associated with biological entities such as diseases or drugs, providing the opportunity to reposition known compounds towards novel disease applications. A MeSHOP is constructed by counting the number of times each medical subject term is assigned to an entity-related research publication in the MEDLINE database and calculating the significance of the count by comparing against the count of the term in a background set of publications. Based on the expectation that drugs suitable for treatment of a disease (or disease symptom) will have similar annotation properties to the disease, we successfully predict drug-disease associations by comparing MeSHOPs of diseases and drugs. The MeSHOP comparison approach delivers an 11% improvement over bibliometric baselines. However, novel drug-disease associations are observed to be biased towards drugs and diseases with more publications. To account for the annotation biases, a correction procedure is introduced and evaluated. By explicitly accounting for the annotation bias, unexpectedly similar drug-disease pairs are highlighted as candidates for drug repositioning research. MeSHOPs are shown to provide a literature-supported perspective for discovery of new links between drugs and diseases based on pre-existing knowledge.

  7. Cited references and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) as two different knowledge representations: clustering and mappings at the paper level. (United States)

    Leydesdorff, Loet; Comins, Jordan A; Sorensen, Aaron A; Bornmann, Lutz; Hellsten, Iina


    For the biomedical sciences, the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) make available a rich feature which cannot currently be merged properly with widely used citing/cited data. Here, we provide methods and routines that make MeSH terms amenable to broader usage in the study of science indicators: using Web-of-Science (WoS) data, one can generate the matrix of citing versus cited documents; using PubMed/MEDLINE data, a matrix of the citing documents versus MeSH terms can be generated analogously. The two matrices can also be reorganized into a 2-mode matrix of MeSH terms versus cited references. Using the abbreviated journal names in the references, one can, for example, address the question whether MeSH terms can be used as an alternative to WoS Subject Categories for the purpose of normalizing citation data. We explore the applicability of the routines in the case of a research program about the amyloid cascade hypothesis in Alzheimer's disease. One conclusion is that referenced journals provide archival structures, whereas MeSH terms indicate mainly variation (including novelty) at the research front. Furthermore, we explore the option of using the citing/cited matrix for main-path analysis as a by-product of the software.

  8. Automatic Approach to Morphological Classification of Galaxies With Analysis of Galaxy Populations in Clusters (United States)

    Sultanova, Madina; Barkhouse, Wayne; Rude, Cody


    The classification of galaxies based on their morphology is a field in astrophysics that aims to understand galaxy formation and evolution based on their physical differences. Whether structural differences are due to internal factors or a result of local environment, the dominate mechanism that determines galaxy type needs to be robustly quantified in order to have a thorough grasp of the origin of the different types of galaxies. The main subject of my Ph.D. dissertation is to explore the use of computers to automatically classify and analyze large numbers of galaxies according to their morphology, and to analyze sub-samples of galaxies selected by type to understand galaxy formation in various environments. I have developed a computer code to classify galaxies by measuring five parameters from their images in FITS format. The code was trained and tested using visually classified SDSS galaxies from Galaxy Zoo and the EFIGI data set. I apply my morphology software to numerous galaxies from diverse data sets. Among the data analyzed are the 15 Abell galaxy clusters (0.03 software to examine the properties (e.g. luminosity functions, radial dependencies, star formation rates) of selected galaxies. Due to the large amount of data that will be available from wide-area surveys in the future, the use of computer software to classify and analyze the morphology of galaxies will be extremely important in terms of efficiency. This research aims to contribute to the solution of this problem.

  9. Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Longair, Malcolm S


    This second edition of Galaxy Formation is an up-to-date text on astrophysical cosmology, expounding the structure of the classical cosmological models from a contemporary viewpoint. This forms the background to a detailed study of the origin of structure and galaxies in the Universe. The derivations of many of the most important results are derived by simple physical arguments which illuminate the results of more advanced treatments. A very wide range of observational data is brought to bear upon these problems, including the most recent results from WMAP, the Hubble Space Telescope, galaxy surveys like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey, studies of Type 1a supernovae, and many other observations.

  10. Tesauros y listas de epígrafes: ¿hacia una integración? Thesauri and list of subject headings: towards an integration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Martínez


    Full Text Available Se analizan las semejanzas y diferencias entre los tesauros y las listas de epígrafes, tomando en cuenta el plan de revisión 2003 de la norma estadounidense Z39.19. Esta norma pretende establecer nuevas directrices para todo tipo de vocabulario controlado, en relación con su utilización con nuevas tecnologías. Se concluye que, en efecto, es muy importante revisar toda la normativa referida a los vocabularios controlados, particularmente las de alcance internacional, pero al mismo tiempo se hace necesario tener sumo cuidado en mantener un riguroso control de la terminología, una correcta definición de las relaciones jerárquicas y asociativas y promover la poscoordinación gestionada, en lo posible, mediante sistemas facetados y computarizados.The similarities and differences between thesauri and the lists of subject headings are analyzed, taking into account the work plan for the 2003 revision of the US standard Z39.19. This standard pretends to establish new guidelines for all types of controlled vocabulary in relation to their use with new technologies. We conclude that it is very important to review all the standards for controlled vocabulary, particularly those with international scope, but at the same time, it is necessary to be very careful in maintaining a rigorous control of terminology; a correct definition of hierarchical and associative relationships, and to promote the postcordination, managed, if possible, in faceted and computerized systems.

  11. A data mining approach to selecting herbs with similar efficacy: Targeted selection methods based on medical subject headings (MeSH). (United States)

    Yea, Sang-Jun; Seong, BoSeok; Jang, Yunji; Kim, Chul


    Natural products have long been the most important source of ingredients in the discovery of new drugs. Moreover, since the Nagoya Protocol, finding alternative herbs with similar efficacy in traditional medicine has become a very important issue. Although random selection is a common method of finding ethno-medicinal herbs of similar efficacy, it proved to be less effective; therefore, this paper proposes a novel targeted selection method using data mining approaches in the MEDLINE database in order to identify and select herbs with a similar degree of efficacy. From among sixteen categories of medical subject headings (MeSH) descriptors, three categories containing terms related to herbal compounds, efficacy, toxicity, and the metabolic process were selected. In order to select herbs of similar efficacy in a targeted way, we adopted the similarity measurement method based on MeSH. In order to evaluate the proposed algorithm, we built up three different validation datasets which contain lists of original herbs and corresponding medicinal herbs of similar efficacy. The average area under curve (AUC) of the proposed algorithm was found to be about 500% larger than the random selection method. We found that the proposed algorithm puts more hits at the front of the top-10 list than the random selection method, and precisely discerns the efficacy of the herbs. It was also found that the AUC of the experiments either remained the same or increased slightly in all three validation datasets as the search range was increased. This study reveals and proves that the proposed algorithm is significantly more accurate and efficient in finding alternative herbs of similar efficacy than the random selection method. As such, it is hoped that this approach will be used in diverse applications in the ethno-pharmacology field. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Using MeSH (medical subject headings) to enhance PubMed search strategies for evidence-based practice in physical therapy. (United States)

    Richter, Randy R; Austin, Tricia M


    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is an important paradigm in health care. Physical therapists report lack of knowledge and time constraints as barriers to EBP. The purpose of this technical report is to illustrate how Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), a controlled vocabulary thesaurus of indexing terms, is used to efficiently search MEDLINE, the largest component of PubMed. Using clinical questions, this report illustrates how search terms common to physical therapist practice do or do not map to appropriate MeSH terms. A PubMed search strategy that takes advantage of text words and MeSH terms is provided. A search of 139 terms and 13 acronyms was conducted to determine whether they appropriately mapped to a MeSH term. The search results were categorized into 1 of 5 outcomes. Nearly half (66/139) of the search terms mapped to an appropriate MeSH term (outcome 1). When a search term did not appropriately map to a MeSH term, it was entered into the MeSH database to search for an appropriate MeSH term. Twenty-one appropriate MeSH terms were found (outcomes 2 and 4), and there were 52 search terms for which an appropriate MeSH term was not found (outcomes 3 and 5). Nearly half of the acronyms did not map to an appropriate MeSH term, and an appropriate MeSH term was not found in the database. The results are based on a limited number of search terms and acronyms. Understanding how search terms map to MeSH terms and using the PubMed search strategy can enable physical therapists to take full advantage of available MeSH terms and should result in more-efficient and better-informed searches.

  13. Intracranial hemorrhage alters scalp potential distribution in bioimpedance cerebral monitoring: Preliminary results from FEM simulation on a realistic head model and human subjects. (United States)

    Atefi, Seyed Reza; Seoane, Fernando; Kamalian, Shervin; Rosenthal, Eric S; Lev, Michael H; Bonmassar, Giorgio


    Current diagnostic neuroimaging for detection of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is limited to fixed scanners requiring patient transport and extensive infrastructure support. ICH diagnosis would therefore benefit from a portable diagnostic technology, such as electrical bioimpedance (EBI). Through simulations and patient observation, the authors assessed the influence of unilateral ICH hematomas on quasisymmetric scalp potential distributions in order to establish the feasibility of EBI technology as a potential tool for early diagnosis. Finite element method (FEM) simulations and experimental left-right hemispheric scalp potential differences of healthy and damaged brains were compared with respect to the asymmetry caused by ICH lesions on quasisymmetric scalp potential distributions. In numerical simulations, this asymmetry was measured at 25 kHz and visualized on the scalp as the normalized potential difference between the healthy and ICH damaged models. Proof-of-concept simulations were extended in a pilot study of experimental scalp potential measurements recorded between 0 and 50 kHz with the authors' custom-made bioimpedance spectrometer. Mean left-right scalp potential differences recorded from the frontal, central, and parietal brain regions of ten healthy control and six patients suffering from acute/subacute ICH were compared. The observed differences were measured at the 5% level of significance using the two-sample Welch t-test. The 3D-anatomically accurate FEM simulations showed that the normalized scalp potential difference between the damaged and healthy brain models is zero everywhere on the head surface, except in the vicinity of the lesion, where it can vary up to 5%. The authors' preliminary experimental results also confirmed that the left-right scalp potential difference in patients with ICH (e.g., 64 mV) is significantly larger than in healthy subjects (e.g., 20.8 mV; P potential distributions. Pilot clinical observations with the authors

  14. Outskirts of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Janice; Paz, Armando


    This book consists of invited reviews written by world-renowned experts on the subject of the outskirts of galaxies, an upcoming field which has been understudied so far. These regions are faint and hard to observe, yet hide a tremendous amount of information on the origin and early evolution of galaxies. They thus allow astronomers to address some of the most topical problems, such as gaseous and satellite accretion, radial migration, and merging. The book is published in conjunction with the celebration of the end of the four-year DAGAL project, an EU-funded initial training network, and with a major international conference on the topic held in March 2016 in Toledo. It thus reflects not only the views of the experts, but also the scientific discussions and progress achieved during the project and the meeting. The reviews in the book describe the most modern observations of the outer regions of our own Galaxy, and of galaxies in the local and high-redshift Universe. They tackle disks, haloes, streams, and a...

  15. S0 galaxies in Formax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedregal...[], A. G.; Aragón-Salamanca, A.; Merrifield, M. R.


    Galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD: galaxies: kinematics and dynamics Udgivelsesdato: Oct.1......Galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD: galaxies: kinematics and dynamics Udgivelsesdato: Oct.1...

  16. A Prediction of Response of the Head and Neck of the U.S. Adult Military Population to Dynamic Impact Acceleration from Selected Dynamic Test Subjects. (United States)


    It noceeawy and )Aettfi O haack mombe) Dynamic Response of Head and Neck Physical Characteristics of Head and NecK Mathematical Model Simulationj...response of these volunteers to -Gx sled acca’eratioa at 6 and 15 G’s. Procedures used for comuting the various prameter vilues w-4 coeprisons between...may be used with . mathematical modeling techniques in order to extend and project the NAMRL dynamic response results to the general adult U.S

  17. On order and chaos in the mergers of galaxies (United States)

    Vandervoort, Peter O.


    This paper describes a low-dimensional model of the merger of two galaxies. The governing equations are the complete sets of moment equations of the first and second orders derived from the collisionless Boltzmann equations representing the galaxies. The moment equations reduce to an equation governing the relative motion of the galaxies, tensor virial equations, and equations governing the kinetic energy tensors. We represent the galaxies as heterogeneous ellipsoids with Gaussian stratifications of their densities, and we represent the mean stellar motions in terms of velocity fields that sustain those densities consistently with the equation of continuity. We reduce and solve the governing equations for a head-on encounter of a dwarf galaxy with a giant galaxy. That reduction includes the effect of dynamical friction on the relative motion of the galaxies. Our criterion for chaotic behaviour is sensitivity of the motion to small changes in the initial conditions. In a survey of encounters and mergers of a dwarf galaxy with a giant galaxy, chaotic behaviour arises mainly in non-linear oscillations of the dwarf galaxy. The encounter disrupts the dwarf, excites chaotic oscillations of the dwarf, or excites regular oscillations. Dynamical friction can drive a merger to completion within a Hubble time only if the dwarf is sufficiently massive. The survey of encounters and mergers is the basis for a simple model of the evolution of a `Local Group' consisting of a giant galaxy and a population of dwarf galaxies bound to the giant as satellites on radial orbits.

  18. Dwarf spheroidal galaxies: Keystones of galaxy evolution (United States)

    Gallagher, John S., III; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.


    Dwarf spheroidal galaxies are the most insignificant extragalactic stellar systems in terms of their visibility, but potentially very significant in terms of their role in the formation and evolution of much more luminous galaxies. We discuss the present observational data and their implications for theories of the formation and evolution of both dwarf and giant galaxies. The putative dark-matter content of these low-surface-brightness systems is of particular interest, as is their chemical evolution. Surveys for new dwarf spheroidals hidden behind the stars of our Galaxy and those which are not bound to giant galaxies may give new clues as to the origins of this unique class of galaxy.

  19. Resting-state networks in healthy adult subjects: a comparison between a 32-element and an 8-element phased array head coil at 3.0 Tesla. (United States)

    Paolini, Marco; Keeser, Daniel; Ingrisch, Michael; Werner, Natalie; Kindermann, Nicole; Reiser, Maximilian; Blautzik, Janusch


    Little research exists on the influence of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) head coil's channel count on measured resting-state functional connectivity. To compare a 32-element (32ch) and an 8-element (8ch) phased array head coil with respect to their potential to detect functional connectivity within resting-state networks. Twenty-six healthy adults (mean age, 21.7 years; SD, 2.1 years) underwent resting-state functional MRI at 3.0 Tesla with both coils using equal standard imaging parameters and a counterbalanced design. Independent component analysis (ICA) at different model orders and a dual regression approach were performed. Voxel-wise non-parametric statistical between-group contrasts were determined using permutation-based non-parametric inference. Phantom measurements demonstrated a generally higher image signal-to-noise ratio using the 32ch head coil. However, the results showed no significant differences between corresponding resting-state networks derived from both coils (p coil does not offer any significant advantages in detecting ICA-based functional connectivity within RSNs. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2015 Reprints and permissions:

  20. Secular Evolution in Disk Galaxies (United States)

    Kormendy, John


    Self-gravitating systems evolve toward the most tightly bound configuration that is reachable via the evolution processes that are available to them. They do this by spreading -- the inner parts shrink while the outer parts expand -- provided that some physical process efficiently transports energy or angular momentum outward. The reason is that self-gravitating systems have negative specific heats. As a result, the evolution of stars, star clusters, protostellar and protoplanetary disks, black hole accretion disks and galaxy disks are fundamentally similar. How evolution proceeds then depends on the evolution processes that are available to each kind of self-gravitating system. These processes and their consequences for galaxy disks are the subjects of my lectures and of this Canary Islands Winter School. I begin with a review of the formation, growth and death of bars. Then I review the slow (`secular') rearrangement of energy, angular momentum, and mass that results from interactions between stars or gas clouds and collective phenomena such as bars, oval disks, spiral structure and triaxial dark haloes. The `existence-proof' phase of this work is largely over: we have a good heuristic understanding of how nonaxisymmetric structures rearrange disk gas into outer rings, inner rings and stuff dumped onto the centre. The results of simulations correspond closely to the morphology of barred and oval galaxies. Gas that is transported to small radii reaches high densities. Observations confirm that many barred and oval galaxies have dense central concentrations of gas and star formation. The result is to grow, on timescales of a few Gyr, dense central components that are frequently mistaken for classical (elliptical-galaxy-like) bulges but that were grown slowly out of the disk (not made rapidly by major mergers). The resulting picture of secular galaxy evolution accounts for the richness observed in galaxy structure. We can distinguish between classical and pseudo

  1. Effect of 1% Inspired CO2 During Head-Down Tilt on Ocular Structures, Cerebral Blood Flow, and Visual Acuity in Healthy Human Subjects (United States)

    Laurie, S. S.; Hu, X.; Lee, S. M. C.; Martin, D. S.; Phillips, T. R.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Smith, S. M.; Stenger, M. B.; Taibbi, G.; Zwart, S. R.; hide


    The cephalad fluid shift induced by microgravity has been hypothesized to elevate intracranial pressure (ICP) and contribute to the development of the visual impairment/intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome experienced by many astronauts during and after long-duration space flight. In addition, elevated ambient partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) on the International Space Station (ISS) has also been hypothesized to contribute to the development of VIIP. We seek to determine if an acute, mild CO2 exposure, similar to that occurring on the ISS, combined with the cephalad fluid shift induced by head-down tilt will induce ophthalmic and ICP changes consistent with the VIIP syndrome.

  2. Tadpole Galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (United States)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Elmegreen, Debra Meloy


    Tadpole galaxies have a head-tail shape with a large clump of star formation at the head and a diffuse tail or streak of stars off to one side. We measured the head and tail masses, ages, surface brightnesses, and sizes for 66 tadpoles in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF) and looked at the distribution of neighbor densities and tadpole orientations with respect to neighbors. The heads have masses of 107-108 M sun and photometric ages of ~0.1 Gyr for z ~ 2. The tails have slightly larger masses than the heads and comparable or slightly older ages. The most obvious interpretation of tadpoles as young merger remnants is difficult to verify. They have no enhanced proximity to other resolved galaxies as a class, and the heads, typically UDF clump clusters is shown.

  3. The Arecibo Galaxy Environment Survey - VIII. Discovery of an isolated dwarf galaxy in the Local Volume

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Taylor, Rhys; Minchin, R.F.; Herbst, H.; Smith, R.


    Roč. 442, č. 1 (2014), L46-L50 ISSN 0035-8711 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : surveys * galaxies * distances and redshifts Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.107, year: 2014

  4. Multiband Observations of a Local Tadpole Galaxy (United States)

    Elmegreen, Bruce


    We propose WFC3 broadband and Halpha observations of a local tadpole galaxy with a starburst and low metallicity in the head suggestive of ram pressure triggering from cosmological inflow. Such head-tail structure dominates local ultra-low metallicity Blue Compact Dwarfs and it represents 10% of resolved galaxies in the Hubble UDF. We will identify star clusters and measure their properties, including masses and ages, two-point correlations for position as a function of mass and age, and the cluster mass distribution as a function of age. We will also determine the star formation fraction in clusters. These measurements can suggest definite processes for star formation including the importance of turbulent fragmentation. The presence of a super star cluster, if found, will be a model for the formation of metal-poor globular clusters in high redshift dwarf galaxies, which could have formed in similar conditions. The Halpha observations will also show bright rims and nebular structures down to 10's of pc scales. Such structures can indicate pressure sources and nebular flow directions that allow us to understand gas motions inside the starburst head, including pressurized outflows and cosmological inflows. The head is so bright in Halpha that even if only 25% of the ionizing radiation escapes, an inflowing halo stream as far away as 1' will be ionized sufficiently on the surface for our observations to detect it. Thus the proposed galaxy, Kiso 5639, is a prime laboratory to study processes that may be related to cosmic accretion, starburst conditions in primitive galaxies, and the formation of metal-poor globular clusters.

  5. Combining Galaxy-Galaxy Lensing and Galaxy Clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Youngsoo [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Krause, Elisabeth [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Dodelson, Scott [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Jain, Bhuvnesh [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Amara, Adam [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Becker, Matt [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Bridle, Sarah [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Clampitt, Joseph [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Crocce, Martin [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Honscheid, Klaus [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Gaztanaga, Enrique [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Sanchez, Carles [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Wechsler, Risa [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)


    Combining galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clustering is a promising method for inferring the growth rate of large scale structure, a quantity that will shed light on the mechanism driving the acceleration of the Universe. The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is a prime candidate for such an analysis, with its measurements of both the distribution of galaxies on the sky and the tangential shears of background galaxies induced by these foreground lenses. By constructing an end-to-end analysis that combines large-scale galaxy clustering and small-scale galaxy-galaxy lensing, we also forecast the potential of a combined probes analysis on DES datasets. In particular, we develop a practical approach to a DES combined probes analysis by jointly modeling the assumptions and systematics affecting the different components of the data vector, employing a shared halo model, HOD parametrization, photometric redshift errors, and shear measurement errors. Furthermore, we study the effect of external priors on different subsets of these parameters. We conclude that DES data will provide powerful constraints on the evolution of structure growth in the universe, conservatively/ optimistically constraining the growth function to 8%/4.9% with its first-year data covering 1000 square degrees, and to 4%/2.3% with its full five-year data covering 5000 square degrees.

  6. Direct Measurement of Dust Attenuation in z approx. 1.5 Star-Forming Galaxies from 3D-HST: Implications for Dust Geometry and Star Formation Rates (United States)

    Price, Sedona H.; Kriek, Mariska; Brammer, Gabriel B; Conroy, Charlie; Schreiber, Natascha M. Foerster; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Lundren, Britt; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica J.; hide


    The nature of dust in distant galaxies is not well understood, and until recently few direct dust measurements have been possible. We investigate dust in distant star-forming galaxies using near-infrared grism spectra of the 3D-HST survey combined with archival multi-wavelength photometry. These data allow us to make a direct comparison between dust towards star-forming regions (measured using Balmer decrements) and the integrated dust properties (derived by comparing spectral energy distributions [SEDs] with stellar population and dust models) for a statistically significant sample of distant galaxies. We select a sample of 163 galaxies between 1.36 or = 5 and measure Balmer decrements from stacked spectra. First, we stack spectra in bins of integrated stellar dust attenuation, and find that there is extra dust extinction towards star-forming regions (AV,HII is 1.81 times the integrated AV, star), though slightly lower than found for low-redshift starburst galaxies. Next, we stack spectra in bins of specific star formation rate (log sSFR), star formation rate (log SFR), and stellar mass (logM*). We find that on average AV,HII increases with SFR and mass, but decreases with increasing sSFR. The amount of extra extinction also decreases with increasing sSFR and decreasing stellar mass. Our results are consistent with the two-phase dust model - in which galaxies contain both a diffuse and a stellar birth cloud dust component - as the extra extinction will increase once older stars outside the star-forming regions become more dominant. Finally, using our Balmer decrements we derive dust-corrected H(alpha) SFRs, and find evidence that SED fitting produces incorrect SFRs if very rapidly declining SFHs are included in the explored parameter space. Subject headings: dust, extinction- galaxies: evolution- galaxies: high-redshift

  7. Morphology of Seyfert Galaxies


    Chen, Yen-Chen; Hwang, Chorng-Yuan


    We probed the relation between properties of Seyfert nuclei and morphology of their host galaxies. We selected Seyfert galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with redshifts less 0.2 identified by the V\\'{e}ron Catalog (13th). We used the "{\\it{FracDev}}" parameter from SDSS galaxy fitting models to represent the bulge fractions of the Seyfert host galaxies. We found that the host galaxies of Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 are dominated by large bulge fractions, and Seyfert 2 galaxies are more li...

  8. Shell galaxies as laboratories for testing MOND

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bílek, Michal; Ebrová, Ivana; Jungwiert, Bruno; Jílková, L.; Bartošková, Kateřina


    Roč. 93, č. 2 (2015), s. 203-212 ISSN 0008-4204 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010005; Operational Program Research and Development for Innovations(XE) CZ. 1.05/3.2.00/08.0144 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : modified newtonian dynamics * dwarf spheroidal galaxy * elliptic galaxies Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.724, year: 2015

  9. Cam deformity and the omega angle, a novel quantitative measurement of femoral head-neck morphology: a 3D CT gender analysis in asymptomatic subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascarenhas, Vasco V.; Gaspar, Augusto [Hospital da Luz, MSK imaging Unit (UIME), Imaging Center, Lisbon (Portugal); Rego, Paulo [Hospital da Luz, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Lisbon (Portugal); Dantas, Pedro [Hospital CUF Descobertas, Lisbon (Portugal); Soldado, Francisco [Universitat de Barcelona, Hospital Sant Joan de Deu, Barcelona (Spain); Consciencia, Jose G. [NOVA Medical School, Lisbon (Portugal)


    Our objectives were to use 3D computed tomography (CT) to define head-neck morphologic gender-specific and normative parameters in asymptomatic individuals and use the omega angle (Ω ) to provide quantification data on the location and radial extension of a cam deformity. We prospectively included 350 individuals and evaluated 188 asymptomatic hips that underwent semiautomated CT analysis. Different thresholds of alpha angle (α ) were considered in order to analyze cam morphology and determine Ω . We calculated overall and gender-specific parameters for imaging signs of cam morphology (Ω and circumferential α ). The 95 % reference interval limits were beyond abnormal thresholds found in the literature for cam morphology. Specifically, α at 3/1 oclock were 46.9 /60.8 overall, 51.8 /65.4 for men and 45.7 /55.3 for women. Cam prevalence, magnitude, location, and epicenter were significantly gender different. Increasing α correlated with higher Ω , meaning that higher angles correspond to larger cam deformities. Hip morphometry measurements in this cohort of asymptomatic individuals extended beyond current thresholds used for the clinical diagnosis of cam deformity, and α was found to vary both by gender and measurement location. These results suggest that α measurement is insufficient for the diagnosis of cam deformity. Enhanced morphometric evaluation, including 3D imaging and Ω , may enable a more accurate diagnosis. (orig.)

  10. A Zoo of Galaxies (United States)

    Masters, Karen L.


    We live in a universe filled with galaxies with an amazing variety of sizes and shapes. One of the biggest challenges for astronomers working in this field is to understand how all these types relate to each other in the background of an expanding universe. Modern astronomical surveys (like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey) have revolutionised this field of astronomy, by providing vast numbers of galaxies to study. The sheer size of the these databases made traditional visual classification of the types galaxies impossible and in 2007 inspired the Galaxy Zoo project (; starting the largest ever scientific collaboration by asking members of the public to help classify galaxies by type and shape. Galaxy Zoo has since shown itself, in a series of now more than 30 scientific papers, to be a fantastic database for the study of galaxy evolution. In this Invited Discourse I spoke a little about the historical background of our understanding of what galaxies are, of galaxy classification, about our modern view of galaxies in the era of large surveys. I finish with showcasing some of the contributions galaxy classifications from the Galaxy Zoo project are making to our understanding of galaxy evolution.

  11. Enthesitis in patients with psoriatic arthritis, axial spondyloarthritis and healthy subjects assessed by ‘head-to-toe’ whole-body MRI and clinical examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggenborg, René Panduro; Eshed, Iris; Østergaard, Mikkel


    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the ability of whole-body MRI (WBMRI) to detect axial and peripheral enthesitis in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), and in healthy subjects (HS). Furthermore, to develop MRI enthesitis indices based on WBMRI and validate...... and patient global (ρ=0.29-0.31, pimaging modality for evaluation of enthesitis in patients with PsA and axSpA, but requires further investigation before clinical use....

  12. Characterizing the Vertical Distribution of Hydraulic Conductivity Using the Multilevel Slug Test Subject to Skin Effects: Comparison of the Uniform-head and Uniform-flux Wellbore Conditions (United States)

    wei-Chiang, C.; Chen, C. S.


    The multilevel slug test (MLST) is an in-well technique in characterizing the vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity K(z) in granular or fractured formations. In modeling MLST, the well screen is either simulated as a uniform-flux (UF) or a uniform head (UH) condition. This study investigates the impact of the skin effect, positive or negative, on the UH and UF models. The positive skin effect, as associated with a reduced hydraulic conductivity surrounding the well due to drilling mud invasion, is taken into account by making use of a skin factor, Sk.The negative skin effect, as associated with an increased hydraulic conductivity due to overdeveloping of the well, is modeled by using an effective well radius, re, which is greater than or equal to the well radius, rw. The UF and UH models are compared using different values of Sk and re for a variety of the partial penetration ratio of screen length to aquifer thickness, φ, the vertical anisotropy ratio of hydraulic conductivity, κ, and the aspect ratio of rw to the screen length, α. It is found that (1) the two models yield results of negligible difference when the well fully penetrates the aquifer (i.e., φ=1) regardless of the values of α,κ, Sk or re, (2) the two models yield essentially the same results for negative skin for all α and κ, (3) the difference between the two models decreases as Sk gets larger, regardless of the values of α, φ, or κ, yet it becomes negligible for Sk is greater than unity, and (4) when the skin effect is absent, the maximum difference between the two models is within 3-5%. As a result, it is suggested the UF model be used since it is mathematically easier to solve than the UH model, with or without skin effects.

  13. Hubble's Menagerie of Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    typ es form an evolutionary sequence: does one type of galaxy evolve into another? 1. T he D iscovery of G alaxies. A stronom ers began to ponder these issues only after they discovered w hat w as m eant by a galaxy. It w as in the 1920s that astronom ers realised that w e live in a separate galaxy, and that other galaxies w ...

  14. Accretion by the Galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binney, J.; Fraternali, F.; Reylé, C.; Robin, A.; Schultheis, M.

    Cosmology requires at least half of the baryons in the Universe to be in the intergalactic medium, much of which is believed to form hot coronae around galaxies. Star-forming galaxies must be accreting from their coronae. Hi observations of external galaxies show that they have Hi halos associated

  15. Malin1: interacting galaxy pair? (United States)

    Reshetnikov, V. P.; Moiseev, A. V.; Sotnikova, N. Ya.


    Malin1 is a unique, extraordinarily large low-surface brightness galaxy. The structure and the origins of the galaxy are poorly understood. The reason for this is the absence of detailed observational data, especially of high-resolution kinematics. In this Letter, we study the stellar kinematics of the inner part (r probably interacting with the main galaxy - Malin1. This object is clearly seen in many published images of Malin1 but is not mentioned in any astronomical data bases. Malin1B is located at a projected distance of 14kpc from Malin1's nucleus and has small - 65 +/- 16km s-1 - relative velocity, which we determined for the first time. We suggest that the ongoing interaction with Malin1B can explain the main morphological features of Malin1's central region - two-armed spiral structure, a bar and an external one-armed spiral pattern. We also investigated the large-scale environment of Malin1 and postulated that the galaxy SDSSJ123708.91 + 142253.2 might be responsible for the formation of an extended low-surface brightness envelope by means of head-on collision with Malin1 (in the framework of the collision scenario proposed by Mapelli et al.). To test the collisional origins of Malin1's global structure, more observational data and new numerical models are needed. Partly based on observations collected with the 6-m telescope at the Special Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS). E-mail:

  16. Head Injuries (United States)

    ... ATV) Safety Balance Disorders Knowing Your Child's Medical History First Aid: Falls First Aid: Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Getting Help: Know the Numbers Concussions Stay ...

  17. Chemical evolution of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Matteucci, Francesca


    The term “chemical evolution of galaxies” refers to the evolution of abundances of chemical species in galaxies, which is due to nuclear processes occurring in stars and to gas flows into and out of galaxies. This book deals with the chemical evolution of galaxies of all morphological types (ellipticals, spirals and irregulars) and stresses the importance of the star formation histories in determining the properties of stellar populations in different galaxies. The topic is approached in a didactical and logical manner via galaxy evolution models which are compared with observational results obtained in the last two decades: The reader is given an introduction to the concept of chemical abundances and learns about the main stellar populations in our Galaxy as well as about the classification of galaxy types and their main observables. In the core of the book, the construction and solution of chemical evolution models are discussed in detail, followed by descriptions and interpretations of observations of ...

  18. Companions of Bright Barred Shapley Ames Galaxies


    Garcia-Barreto, J. Antonio; Carrillo, Rene; Vera-Villamizar, Nelson


    Companion galaxy environment for a subset of 78 bright and nearby barred galaxies from the Shapley Ames Catalog is presented. Among spiral barred galaxies there are Seyfert galaxies, galaxies with circumnuclear structures, galaxies not associated with any large scale galaxy cloud structure, galaxies with peculiar disk morphology (crooked arms) and galaxies with normal disk morphology; the list includes all Hubble types. The companion galaxy list includes number of companion galaxies within 20...

  19. Galaxy formation and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Mo, Houjun; White, Simon


    The rapidly expanding field of galaxy formation lies at the interface between astronomy, particle physics, and cosmology. Covering diverse topics from these disciplines, all of which are needed to understand how galaxies form and evolve, this book is ideal for researchers entering the field. Individual chapters explore the evolution of the Universe as a whole and its particle and radiation content; linear and nonlinear growth of cosmic structure; processes affecting the gaseous and dark matter components of galaxies and their stellar populations; the formation of spiral and elliptical galaxies; central supermassive black holes and the activity associated with them; galaxy interactions; and the intergalactic medium. Emphasizing both observational and theoretical aspects, this book provides a coherent introduction for astronomers, cosmologists, and astroparticle physicists to the broad range of science underlying the formation and evolution of galaxies.

  20. Classic Galaxy with Glamour (United States)


    This color composite image of nearby NGC 300 combines the visible-light pictures from Carnegie Institution of Washington's 100-inch telescope at Las Campanas Observatory (colored red and yellow), with ultraviolet views from NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. Galaxy Evolution Explorer detectors image far ultraviolet light (colored blue). This composite image traces star formation in progress. Young hot blue stars dominate the outer spiral arms of the galaxy, while the older stars congregate in the nuclear regions which appear yellow-green. Gases heated by hot young stars and shocks due to winds from massive stars and supernova explosions appear in pink, as revealed by the visible-light image of the galaxy. Located nearly 7 million light years away, NGC 300 is a member of a nearby group of galaxies known as the Sculptor Group. It is a spiral galaxy like our own Milky Way.

  1. Galaxy evolution. Galactic paleontology. (United States)

    Tolstoy, Eline


    Individual low-mass stars have very long lives, comparable to the age of the universe, and can thus be used to probe ancient star formation. At present, such stars can be identified and studied only in the Milky Way and in the very closest of our neighboring galaxies, which are predominantly small dwarf galaxies. These nearby ancient stars are a fossil record that can provide detailed information about the physical processes that dominated the epoch of galaxy formation and subsequent evolution.

  2. Galaxies: The Long Wavelength View

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fischer, J


    ... (more than 2 orders of magnitude) in the [C II]/FIR ratios in galaxies extending from blue compact dwarfs, to normal and starburst galaxies, down to elliptical and ultraluminous galaxies (ULICs...

  3. Head Lice (United States)

    ... 1044-1047. Canyon, DV, Speare R, et al . “Spatial and kinetic factors for the transfer of head ... for children. Natural products can give parents false sense of safety If using a natural product or ...

  4. Head First Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Dawn


    Wouldn't it be great if there were a statistics book that made histograms, probability distributions, and chi square analysis more enjoyable than going to the dentist? Head First Statistics brings this typically dry subject to life, teaching you everything you want and need to know about statistics through engaging, interactive, and thought-provoking material, full of puzzles, stories, quizzes, visual aids, and real-world examples. Whether you're a student, a professional, or just curious about statistical analysis, Head First's brain-friendly formula helps you get a firm grasp of statistics

  5. Subject Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    GMRT detection of HI 21 cm-line Absorption from the Peculiar Galaxy in Abell 2125. (K. S. Dwarakanath & F. N. Owen), 1. Hard X-ray Spectrum of Mkn 421 during the Active Phase (R. K. Manchanda), 145. Hα Emission Line Morphologies in Markarian Starburst Galaxies (A. Chitre &. U. C. Joshi), 155. Soft X-ray variability of ...

  6. Clusters of galaxies: beyond the thermal view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaastra, J.S.; Bykov, A.M.; Schindler, S.; Bleeker, J.A.M.; Borgani, S.; Diaferio, A.; Dolag, K.; Durret, F.; Nevalainen, J.; Ohashi, T.; Paerels, F.; Petrosian, V.; Rephaeli, Y.; Richter, P.; Schaye, J.; Werner, N.


    We present the work of an international team at the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) in Bern that worked together to review the current observational and theoretical status of the non-virialised X-ray emission components in clusters of galaxies. The subject is important for the study of

  7. Lopsided spiral galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lopsided spiral galaxies · Outline of the talk: · Collaborators · Background : · Lopsided distribution highlighted first: Baldwin, Lynden-Bell, & Sancisi (1980) · Lopsidedness also seen in an edge-on galaxy : NGC 891 · Slide 7 · Origin of m=1 disk distribution? Early Theoretical models: · Disk response to a lopsided halo ...

  8. Galaxies in Fligh t

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the constellation of Corona Borealis, for example, there is a cluster containing some 400 galaxies. Our Milky Way is a member of a small cluster which embraces among others, the Andromeda Nebula and the two galaxies known as the Magellanic Clouds, which are of a relatively rare type that has no well- defined shape.

  9. Photometric Asymmetry Between Clockwise and Counterclockwise Spiral Galaxies in SDSS (United States)

    Shamir, Lior


    While galaxies with clockwise and counterclockwise handedness are visually different, they are expected to be symmetric in all of their other characteristics. Previous experiments using both manual analysis and machine vision have shown that the handedness of Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies can be predicted with accuracy significantly higher than mere chance using its photometric data alone. However, some of these previous experiments were based on manually classified galaxies, and the results may therefore be subjected to bias originated from the human perception. This paper describes an experiment based on a set of 162,514 galaxies classified automatically to clockwise and counterclockwise spiral galaxies, showing that the source of the asymmetry in Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database is not the human perception bias. The results are compared to two smaller datasets, and confirm the observation that the handedness of SDSS galaxies can be predicted by their photometry. The experiment also shows statistically significant differences in the measured magnitude of SDSS galaxies, according which galaxies with clockwise patterns are brighter than galaxies with counterclockwise patterns. The magnitude of that difference changes across RA ranges, and exhibits a strong correlation with the cosine of the right ascension.



    Here is a sampling of 15 ultraluminous infrared galaxies viewed by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Hubble's sharp vision reveals more complexity within these galaxies, which astronomers are interpreting as evidence of a multiple-galaxy pileup. These images, taken by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, are part of a three-year study of 123 galaxies within 3 billion light-years of Earth. The study was conducted in 1996, 1997, and 1999. False colors were assigned to these photos to enhance fine details within these coalescing galaxies. Credits: NASA, Kirk Borne (Raytheon and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.), Luis Colina (Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, Spain), and Howard Bushouse and Ray Lucas (Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md.)

  11. Gas accretion onto galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Davé, Romeel


    This edited volume presents the current state of gas accretion studies from both observational and theoretical perspectives, and charts our progress towards answering the fundamental yet elusive question of how galaxies get their gas. Understanding how galaxies form and evolve has been a central focus in astronomy for over a century. These studies have accelerated in the new millennium, driven by two key advances: the establishment of a firm concordance cosmological model that provides the backbone on which galaxies form and grow, and the recognition that galaxies grow not in isolation but within a “cosmic ecosystem” that includes the vast reservoir of gas filling intergalactic space. This latter aspect in which galaxies continually exchange matter with the intergalactic medium via inflows and outflows has been dubbed the “baryon cycle”. The topic of this book is directly related to the baryon cycle, in particular its least well constrained aspect, namely gas accretion. Accretion is a rare area of ast...

  12. The galaxy ancestor problem (United States)

    Disney, M. J.; Lang, R. H.


    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) findsgalaxies whose Tolman dimming exceeds 10 mag. Could evolution alone explain these as our ancestor galaxies or could they be representatives of quite a different dynasty whose descendants are no longer prominent today? We explore the latter hypothesis and argue that surface brightness selection effects naturally bring into focus quite different dynasties from different redshifts. Thus, the HST z = 7 galaxies could be examples of galaxies whose descendants are both too small and too choked with dust to be recognizable in our neighbourhood easily today. Conversely, the ancestors of the Milky Way and its obvious neighbours would have completely sunk below the sky at z > 1.2, unless they were more luminous in the past, although their diffused light could account for the missing re-ionization flux. This Succeeding Prominent Dynasties Hypothesis (SPDH) fits the existing observations both naturally and well even without evolution, including the bizarre distributions of galaxy surface brightness found in deep fields, the angular size ˜(1 + z)-1 law, 'downsizing' which turns out to be an 'illusion' in the sense that it does not imply evolution, 'infant mortality', that is, the discrepancy between stars born and stars seen, the existence of 'red nuggets', and finally the recently discovered and unexpected excess of quasar absorption line damped Lyα systems at high redshift. If galaxies were not significantly brighter in the past and the SPDH were true, then a large proportion of galaxies could remain sunk from sight, possibly at all redshifts, and these sunken galaxies could supply the missing re-ionization flux. We show that fishing these sunken galaxies out of the sky by their optical emissions alone is practically impossible, even when they are nearby. More ingenious methods are needed to detect them. It follows that disentangling galaxy evolution through studying ever higher redshift galaxies may be a forlorn hope because one could

  13. Enviromental Effects on Internal Color Gradients of Early-Type Galaxies (United States)

    La Barbera, F.; de Carvalho, R. R.; Gal, R. R.; Busarello, G.; Haines, C. P.; Mercurio, A.; Merluzzi, P.; Capaccioli, M.; Djorgovski, S. G.


    One of the most debated issues of observational and theoretical cosmology is that of how the environment affects the formation and evolution of galaxies. To gain new insight into this subject, we have derived surface photometry for a sample of 3,000 early-type galaxies belonging to 163 clusters with different richness, spanning a redshift range of 0.05 to 0.25. This large data-set is used to analyze how the color distribution inside galaxies depends on several parameters, such as cluster richness, local galaxy density, galaxy luminosity and redshift. We find that the internal color profile of galaxies strongly depends on the environment where galaxies reside. Galaxies in poor and rich clusters are found to follow two distinct trends in the color gradient vs. redshift diagram, with color gradients beeing less steep in rich rather than in poor clusters. No dependence of color gradients on galaxy luminosity is detected both for poor and rich clusters. We find that color gradients strongly depend on local galaxy density, with more shallow gradients in high density regions. Interestingly, this result holds only for low richness clusters, with color gradients of galaxies in rich clusters showing no dependence on local galaxy density. Our results support a reasonable picture whereby young early-type galaxies form in a dissipative collapse process, and then undergo increased (either major or minor) merging activity in richer rather than in poor clusters.

  14. The gravitational dynamics of galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    one could arrive at the number of galaxies of this size in the observable Universe – again around 1011. A few galaxies are bigger and brighter than our own, but many more are smaller, going down to dwarf galaxies which could be ten thousand times less luminous. Nevertheless, galaxies do form a distinct and unique unit ...

  15. Mysterious Blob Galaxies Revealed (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2Figure 3 This image composite shows a giant galactic blob (red, figure 2) and the three merging galaxies NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope discovered within it (yellow, figure 3). Blobs are intensely glowing clouds of hot hydrogen gas that envelop faraway galaxies. They are about 10 times as large as the galaxies they surround. Visible-light images like the one shown in figure 2, reveal the vast extent of blobs, but don't provide much information about their host galaxies. Using its heat-seeking infrared eyes, Spitzer was able to see the dusty galaxies tucked inside one well-known blob located 11 billion light-years away. The findings reveal three monstrously bright galaxies, trillions of times brighter than the Sun, in the process of merging together (figure 3). Spitzer also observed three other blobs located in the same cosmic neighborhood, all of which were found to be glaringly bright. One of these blobs is also known to be a galactic merger, only between two galaxies instead of three. It remains to be seen whether the final two blobs studied also contain mergers. The Spitzer data were acquired by its multiband imaging photometer. The visible-light image was taken by the Blanco Telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chile.

  16. Dwarf galaxies : Important clues to galaxy formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, E


    The smallest dwarf galaxies are the most straight forward objects in which to study star formation processes on a galactic scale. They are typically single cell star forming entities, and as small potentials in orbit around a much larger one they are unlikely to accrete much (if any) extraneous

  17. ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey (United States)

    Dalcanton, Julianne


    Existing HST observations of nearby galaxies comprise a sparse and highly non-uniform archive, making comprehensive comparative studies among galaxies essentially impossible. We propose to secure HST's lasting impact on the study of nearby galaxies by undertaking a systematic, complete, and carefully crafted imaging survey of ALL galaxies in the Local Universe outside the Local Group. The resulting images will allow unprecedented measurements of: {1} the star formation history {SFH} of a >100 Mpc^3 volume of the Universe with a time resolution of Delta[log{t}]=0.25; {2} correlations between spatially resolved SFHs and environment; {3} the structure and properties of thick disks and stellar halos; and {4} the color distributions, sizes, and specific frequencies of globular and disk clusters as a function of galaxy mass and environment. To reach these goals, we will use a combination of wide-field tiling and pointed deep imaging to obtain uniform data on all 72 galaxies within a volume-limited sample extending to 3.5 Mpc, with an extension to the M81 group. For each galaxy, the wide-field imaging will cover out to 1.5 times the optical radius and will reach photometric depths of at least 2 magnitudes below the tip of the red giant branch throughout the limits of the survey volume. One additional deep pointing per galaxy will reach SNR 10 for red clump stars, sufficient to recover the ancient SFH from the color-magnitude diagram. This proposal will produce photometric information for 100 million stars {comparable to the number in the SDSS survey} and uniform multi-color images of half a square degree of sky. The resulting archive will establish the fundamental optical database for nearby galaxies, in preparation for the shift of high-resolution imaging to the near-infrared.

  18. Accretion by the Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binney J.


    Full Text Available Cosmology requires at least half of the baryons in the Universe to be in the intergalactic medium, much of which is believed to form hot coronae around galaxies. Star-forming galaxies must be accreting from their coronae. Hi observations of external galaxies show that they have Hi halos associated with star formation. These halos are naturally modelled as ensembles of clouds driven up by supernova bubbles. These models can fit the data successfully only if clouds exchange mass and momentum with the corona. As a cloud orbits, it is ablated and forms a turbulent wake where cold high-metallicity gas mixes with hot coronal gas causing the prompt cooling of the latter. As a consequence the total mass of Hi increases. This model has recently been used to model the Leiden-Argentina-Bonn survey of Galactic Hi. The values of the model’s parameters that are required to model NGC 891, NGC 2403 and our Galaxy show a remarkable degree of consistency, despite the very different natures of the two external galaxies and the dramatic difference in the nature of the data for our Galaxy and the external galaxies. The parameter values are also consistent with hydrodynamical simulations of the ablation of individual clouds. The model predicts that a galaxy that loses its cool-gas disc for instance through a major merger cannot reform it from its corona; it can return to steady star formation only if it can capture a large body of cool gas, for example by accreting a gas-rich dwarf. Thus the model explains how major mergers can make galaxies “red and dead.”

  19. Updated Nearby Galaxy Catalog


    Karachentsev, Igor D.; Makarov, Dmitry I.; Kaisina, Elena I.


    We present an all-sky catalog of 869 nearby galaxies, having individual distance estimates within 11 Mpc or corrected radial velocities V_{LG} < 600 km/s. The catalog is a renewed and expanded version of the "Catalog of Neighboring Galaxies" by Karachentsev et al. (2004). It collects data on the following observables for the galaxies: angular diameters, apparent magnitudes in FUV-, B-, and K_s- bands, H_alpha and HI fluxes, morphological types, HI-line widths, radial velocities and distance e...

  20. A comparative study of the origin, structure, and indexing language of the Persian and English keywords of articles indexed in the IranMedex database and their compliance with the Persian medical thesaurus and Medical Subject Headings. (United States)

    Parsaei-Mohammadi, Parastoo; Ghasemi, Ali Hossein; Hassanzadeh-Beheshtabad, Raziyeh


    In the present era, thesauri as tools in indexing play an effective role in integrating retrieval preventing fragmentation as well as a multiplicity of terminologies and also in providing information content of documents. This study aimed to investigate the keywords of articles indexed in IranMedex in terms of origin, structure and indexing situation and their Compliance with the Persian Medical Thesaurus and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). This study is an applied research, and a survey has been conducted. Statistical population includes 32,850 Persian articles which are indexed in the IranMedex during the years 1385-1391. 379 cases were selected as sample of the study. Data collection was done using a checklist. In analyzing the findings, the SPSS Software were used. Although there was no significant difference in terms of indexing origin between the proportion of different types of the Persian and English keywords of articles indexed in the IranMedex, the compliance rates of the Persian and English keywords with the Persian medical thesaurus and MeSH were different in different years. In the meantime, the structure of keywords is leaning more towards phrase structure, and a single word structure and the majority of keywords are selected from the titles and abstracts. The authors' familiarity with the thesauri and controlled tools causes homogeneity in assigning keywords and also provides more precise, faster, and easier retrieval of the keywords. It's suggested that a mixture of natural and control languages to be used in this database in order to reach more comprehensive results.

  1. Growing Galaxies Gently (United States)


    New observations from ESO's Very Large Telescope have, for the first time, provided direct evidence that young galaxies can grow by sucking in the cool gas around them and using it as fuel for the formation of many new stars. In the first few billion years after the Big Bang the mass of a typical galaxy increased dramatically and understanding why this happened is one of the hottest problems in modern astrophysics. The results appear in the 14 October issue of the journal Nature. The first galaxies formed well before the Universe was one billion years old and were much smaller than the giant systems - including the Milky Way - that we see today. So somehow the average galaxy size has increased as the Universe has evolved. Galaxies often collide and then merge to form larger systems and this process is certainly an important growth mechanism. However, an additional, gentler way has been proposed. A European team of astronomers has used ESO's Very Large Telescope to test this very different idea - that young galaxies can also grow by sucking in cool streams of the hydrogen and helium gas that filled the early Universe and forming new stars from this primitive material. Just as a commercial company can expand either by merging with other companies, or by hiring more staff, young galaxies could perhaps also grow in two different ways - by merging with other galaxies or by accreting material. The team leader, Giovanni Cresci (Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri) says: "The new results from the VLT are the first direct evidence that the accretion of pristine gas really happened and was enough to fuel vigorous star formation and the growth of massive galaxies in the young Universe." The discovery will have a major impact on our understanding of the evolution of the Universe from the Big Bang to the present day. Theories of galaxy formation and evolution may have to be re-written. The group began by selecting three very distant galaxies to see if they could find evidence

  2. A Catalog of Edge-on Disk Galaxies: From Galaxies with a Bulge to Superthin Galaxies


    Kautsch, S. J.; Grebel, E. K.; Barazza, F. D.; Gallagher, J. S.


    The formation and evolution of disk-dominated galaxies is difficult to explain, yet these objects exist. We therefore embarked on a study aimed at a better understanding of these enigmatic objects. We used data from the SDSS DR1 in order to identify edge-on galaxies with disks in a uniform, reproducible, automated fashion. We identified 3169 edge-on disk galaxies, which we subdivided into disk galaxies with bulge, intermediate types, and simple disk galaxies without any obvious bulge componen...

  3. 'Nomadic' nuclei of galaxies (United States)

    Silchenko, O. K.; Lipunov, V. M.


    In this paper the authors discuss observational and theoretical arguments in favour of hypothesis on "nomad life" of active nuclei inside and outside galaxies as well as its consequences. It may be the anisotropic collapse of a supermassive star, or the disruption of a supermassive binary system after the collapse of one companion that would give birth to such nuclei. The authors predict the existence of veritable quasi-stellar active objects without any ghost galaxies.

  4. Galaxies at High Redshift (United States)

    Bauer, F. E.


    Recent years have seen tremendous progress in finding and charactering star-forming galaxies at high redshifts across the electromagnetic spectrum, giving us a more complete picture of how galaxies evolve, both in terms of their stellar and gas content, as well as the growth of their central supermassive black holes. A wealth of studies now demonstrate that star formation peaked at roughly half the age of the Universe and drops precariously as we look back to very early times, and that their central monsters apparently growth with them. At the highest-redshifts, we are pushing the boundaries via deep surveys at optical, X-ray, radio wavelengths, and more recently using gamma-ray bursts. I will review some of our accomplishments and failures. Telescope have enabled Lyman break galaxies to be robustly identified, but the UV luminosity function and star formation rate density of this population at z = 6 - 8 seems to be much lower than at z = 2 - 4. High escape fractions and a large contribution from faint galaxies below our current detection limits would be required for star-forming galaxies to reionize the Universe. We have also found that these galaxies have blue rest-frame UV colours, which might indicate lower dust extinction at z > 5. There has been some spectroscopic confirmation of these Lyman break galaxies through Lyman-α emission, but the fraction of galaxies where we see this line drops at z > 7, perhaps due to the onset of the Gunn-Peterson effect (where the IGM is opaque to Lyman-α).

  5. Dwarf elliptical galaxies (United States)

    Ferguson, Henry C.; Binggeli, Bruno


    Dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies, with blue absolute magnitudes typically fainter than M(sub B) = -16, are the most numerous type of galaxy in the nearby universe. Tremendous advances have been made over the past several years in delineating the properties of both Local Group satellite dE's and the large dE populations of nearby clusters. We review some of these advances, with particular attention to how well currently availiable data can constrain (a) models for the formation of dE's, (b) the physical and evolutionary connections between different types of galaxies that overlap in the same portion of the mass-spectrum of galaxies, (c) the contribution of dE's to the galaxy luminosity functions in clusters and the field, (d) the star-forming histories of dE's and their possible contribution to faint galaxy counts, and (e) the clustering properties of dE's. In addressing these issues, we highlight the extent to which selection effects temper these constraints, and outline areas where new data would be particularly valuable.

  6. Matching Supernovae to Galaxies (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    One of the major challenges for modern supernova surveys is identifying the galaxy that hosted each explosion. Is there an accurate and efficient way to do this that avoids investing significant human resources?Why Identify Hosts?One problem in host galaxy identification. Here, the supernova lies between two galaxies but though the centroid of the galaxy on the right is closer in angular separation, this may be a distant background galaxy that is not actually near the supernova. [Gupta et al. 2016]Supernovae are a critical tool for making cosmological predictions that help us to understand our universe. But supernova cosmology relies on accurately identifying the properties of the supernovae including their redshifts. Since spectroscopic followup of supernova detections often isnt possible, we rely on observations of the supernova host galaxies to obtain redshifts.But how do we identify which galaxy hosted a supernova? This seems like a simple problem, but there are many complicating factors a seemingly nearby galaxy could be a distant background galaxy, for instance, or a supernovas host could be too faint to spot.The authors algorithm takes into account confusion, a measure of how likely the supernova is to be mismatched. In these illustrations of low (left) and high (right) confusion, the supernova is represented by a blue star, and the green circles represent possible host galaxies. [Gupta et al. 2016]Turning to AutomationBefore the era of large supernovae surveys, searching for host galaxies was done primarily by visual inspection. But current projects like the Dark Energy Surveys Supernova Program is finding supernovae by the thousands, and the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope will likely discover hundreds of thousands. Visual inspection will not be possible in the face of this volume of data so an accurate and efficient automated method is clearly needed!To this end, a team of scientists led by Ravi Gupta (Argonne National Laboratory) has recently

  7. Radial redistribution of gas connected to a distant galaxy versus galaxy encounter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palouš, Jan; Jungwiert, Bruno; Jáchym, Pavel; Růžička, Adam


    Roč. 277, - (2001), s. 489 ISSN 0004-640X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1003601; GA AV ČR IAA3003705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : N-body codes * kinematics and dynamics ISM * galaxies * interactions Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.274, year: 2001

  8. Evidence of Cosmic Accretion in Local Tadpole Galaxies (United States)

    Elmegreen, Debra M.; Elmegreen, Bruce; Sanchez Almeida, Jorge; Munoz-Tunon, Casiana; Rafelski, Marc; Gallagher, John S.; Mendez-Abreu, Jairo; Amorin, R.; Filho, M.; Ascasibar, Y.; Papaderos, P.; Vilchez, J.; Perez-Montero, E.


    Star formation in galaxies over cosmic time may be driven by gas accretion from the cosmic web. Spectra of local extremely metal-poor galaxies (XMPs), obtained using the Gran Telescopio Canarias, show oxygen abundances that decrease by a factor of 5 to 10 in the main star-forming regions compared with the disks in 9 of 10 observed galaxies. The results suggest that the galaxies have accreted metal-poor gas in the starburst regions. Tadpole galaxies, which have a main star-forming head and a tail, are common at high redshift but rare locally. Local tadpoles tend to be XMPs. We present multiband HST WFC3 observations of Kiso 5639, one of the tadpole XMPs in our GTC sample. There are faint extended H alpha filaments, and dense star clusters in the midst of a powerful starburst. The clusters, with log masses of 4 to 5, are reminiscent of those found in other dwarf irregular galaxies where impacting gas streams have been suggested.

  9. Is HEADS in our heads?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Kirsten A; Hertz, Pernille Grarup; Blix, Charlotte


    BACKGROUND: Outpatient clinic visits are a window of opportunity to address health risk behaviors and promote a healthier lifestyle among young people. The HEADS (Home, Education, Eating, Activities, Drugs [i.e. substance use including tobacco, alcohol, and illegal drugs], Sexuality [including...... contraception], Safety, Self-harm) interview is a feasible way of exploring health risk behaviors and resilience. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate how often HEADS topics were addressed according to young patients and staff in pediatric and adult outpatient clinics. METHODS: We conducted...... care professionals participated. We found only small reported differences between staff and young patients regarding whether home, education, and activity were addressed. However, staff reported twice the rate of addressing smoking, alcohol, illegal drugs, sexuality, and contraception compared to young...

  10. The Galaxy Evolution Probe (United States)

    Glenn, Jason; Galaxy Evolution Probe Team


    The Galaxy Evolution Probe (GEP) is a concept for a far-infrared observatory to survey large regions of sky for star-forming galaxies from z = 0 to beyond z = 3. Our knowledge of galaxy formation is incomplete and requires uniform surveys over a large range of redshifts and environments to accurately describe mass assembly, star formation, supermassive black hole growth, interactions between these processes, and what led to their decline from z ~ 2 to the present day. Infrared observations are sensitive to dusty, star-forming galaxies, which have bright polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features and warm dust continuum in the rest-frame mid infrared and cooler thermal dust emission in the far infrared. Unlike previous far-infrared continuum surveys, the GEP will measure photometric redshifts commensurate with galaxy detections from PAH emission and Si absorption features, without the need for obtaining spectroscopic redshifts of faint counterparts at other wavelengths.The GEP design includes a 2 m diameter telescope actively cooled to 4 K and two instruments: (1) An imager covering 10 to 300 um with 25 spectral resolution R ~ 8 bands (with lower R at the longest wavelengths) to detect star-forming galaxies and measure their redshifts photometrically. (2) A 23 – 190 um, R ~ 250 dispersive spectrometer for redshift confirmation and identification of obscured AGN using atomic fine-structure lines. Lines including [Ne V], [O IV], [O III], [O I], and [C II] will probe gas physical conditions, radiation field hardness, and metallicity. Notionally, the GEP will have a two-year mission: galaxy surveys with photometric redshifts in the first year and a second year devoted to follow-up spectroscopy. A comprehensive picture of star formation in galaxies over the last 10 billion years will be assembled from cosmologically relevant volumes, spanning environments from field galaxies and groups, to protoclusters, to dense galaxy clusters.Commissioned by NASA, the

  11. H1 in RSA galaxies (United States)

    Richter, OTTO-G.


    The original Revised Shapley-Ames (RSA) galaxy sample of almost 1300 galaxies has been augmented with further bright galaxies from the RSA appendix as well as newer galaxy catalogs. A complete and homogeneous, strictly magnitude-limited all-sky sample of 2345 galaxies brighter than 13.4 in apparent blue magnitude was formed. New 21 cm H1 line observations for more than 600 RSA galaxies have been combined with all previously available H1 data from the literature. This new extentise data act allows detailed tests of widely accepted 'standard' reduction and analysis techniques.

  12. Seeing Baby Dwarf Galaxies (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Visible/DSS Click on image for larger version Ultraviolet/GALEX Click on image for larger version Poster Version Click on image for larger version The unique ultraviolet vision of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer reveals, for the first time, dwarf galaxies forming out of nothing more than pristine gas likely leftover from the early universe. Dwarf galaxies are relatively small collections of stars that often orbit around larger galaxies like our Milky Way. The forming dwarf galaxies shine in the far ultraviolet spectrum, rendered as blue in the call-out on the right hand side of this image. Near ultraviolet light, also obtained by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, is displayed in green, and visible light from the blue part of the spectrum here is represented by red. The clumps (in circles) are distinctively blue, indicating they are primarily detected in far ultraviolet light. The faint blue overlay traces the outline of the Leo Ring, a huge cloud of hydrogen and helium that orbits around two massive galaxies in the constellation Leo (left panel). The cloud is thought likely to be a primordial object, an ancient remnant of material that has remained relatively unchanged since the very earliest days of the universe. Identified about 25 years ago by radio waves, the ring cannot be seen in visible light. Only a portion of the Leo Ring has been imaged in the ultraviolet, but this section contains the telltale ultraviolet signature of recent massive star formation within this ring of pristine gas. Astronomers have previously only seen dwarf galaxies form out of gas that has already been cycled through a galaxy and enriched with metals elements heavier than helium produced as stars evolve. The visible data come from the Digitized Sky Survey of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Md. The Leo Ring visible image (left

  13. Tidal alignment of galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazek, Jonathan; Vlah, Zvonimir; Seljak, Uroš


    We develop an analytic model for galaxy intrinsic alignments (IA) based on the theory of tidal alignment. We calculate all relevant nonlinear corrections at one-loop order, including effects from nonlinear density evolution, galaxy biasing, and source density weighting. Contributions from density weighting are found to be particularly important and lead to bias dependence of the IA amplitude, even on large scales. This effect may be responsible for much of the luminosity dependence in IA observations. The increase in IA amplitude for more highly biased galaxies reflects their locations in regions with large tidal fields. We also consider the impact of smoothing the tidal field on halo scales. We compare the performance of this consistent nonlinear model in describing the observed alignment of luminous red galaxies with the linear model as well as the frequently used "nonlinear alignment model," finding a significant improvement on small and intermediate scales. We also show that the cross-correlation between density and IA (the "GI" term) can be effectively separated into source alignment and source clustering, and we accurately model the observed alignment down to the one-halo regime using the tidal field from the fully nonlinear halo-matter cross correlation. Inside the one-halo regime, the average alignment of galaxies with density tracers no longer follows the tidal alignment prediction, likely reflecting nonlinear processes that must be considered when modeling IA on these scales. Finally, we discuss tidal alignment in the context of cosmic shear measurements.

  14. Galaxy clusters: Falling into line (United States)

    Sifón, Cristóbal


    Analysis of Hubble Space Telescope observations shows that the well-known alignment between the central galaxy of a galaxy cluster and its host cluster has been in place for at least ten billion years.

  15. Unveiling the Secret of a Virgo Dwarf Galaxy (United States)


    Dwarf galaxies may not be as impressive in appearance as their larger brethren, but they are at least as interesting from a scientific point of view. And sometimes they may have hidden properties that will only be found by means of careful observations, probing the signals of their stars at the faintest level. Such as the entirely unexpected, well developed spiral structure within an otherwise seemingly normal dwarf elliptical galaxy! This is the surprise result of a new study by a team of astronomers [1], headed by Helmut Jerjen from the Australian National University (Canberra) who obtained detailed observations with the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the dwarf galaxy IC 3328 in the Virgo Cluster of Galaxies, some 50 million light-years away. Dwarf galaxies Dwarf galaxies are present in all major clusters of galaxies and dominate by numbers in the universe. They may contain a few (tens of) millions of stars, as compared to galaxies of normal size with hundreds of billions of stars. About two dozen dwarf galaxies are known in the "Local Group" of galaxies of which the Milky Way galaxy in which we live is also a member. The Large and Small Magellanic Clouds are some of the best known dwarf galaxies - they are of the irregular type - while NGC 147 and NGC 205, two companions to the great Andromeda Galaxy, are of the elliptical type. Dwarf elliptical galaxies are characterized by their smooth appearance. From various studies, it is known that they are tri-axial ellipsoids of different degrees of elongation. Some are almost spherical while others are more pancake- or cigar-shaped. Like the elliptical galaxies of normal size, dwarf ellipticals are almost pure aggregates of stars. In contrast, spiral galaxies also contain clouds of gas and dust. The visible mass of spiral galaxies is in a rotating disk. Dwarf ellipticals generally keep their form because of the random motions of their stars. VLT observations of dwarf elliptical galaxies Using the FORS1 multi

  16. Black Hole Caught Zapping Galaxy into Existence? (United States)


    Which come first, the supermassive black holes that frantically devour matter or the enormous galaxies where they reside? A brand new scenario has emerged from a recent set of outstanding observations of a black hole without a home: black holes may be "building" their own host galaxy. This could be the long-sought missing link to understanding why the masses of black holes are larger in galaxies that contain more stars. "The 'chicken and egg' question of whether a galaxy or its black hole comes first is one of the most debated subjects in astrophysics today," says lead author David Elbaz. "Our study suggests that supermassive black holes can trigger the formation of stars, thus 'building' their own host galaxies. This link could also explain why galaxies hosting larger black holes have more stars." To reach such an extraordinary conclusion, the team of astronomers conducted extensive observations of a peculiar object, the nearby quasar HE0450-2958 (see eso0523 for a previous study of this object), which is the only one for which a host galaxy has not yet been detected [1]. HE0450-2958 is located some 5 billion light-years away. Until now, it was speculated that the quasar's host galaxy was hidden behind large amounts of dust, and so the astronomers used a mid-infrared instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope for the observations [2]. At such wavelengths, dust clouds shine very brightly, and are readily detected. "Observing at these wavelengths would allow us to trace dust that might hide the host galaxy," says Knud Jahnke, who led the observations performed at the VLT. "However, we did not find any. Instead we discovered that an apparently unrelated galaxy in the quasar's immediate neighbourhood is producing stars at a frantic rate." These observations have provided a surprising new take on the system. While no trace of stars is revealed around the black hole, its companion galaxy is extremely rich in bright and very young stars. It is forming stars at a rate

  17. Velocity-metallicity correlation for high-z DLA galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledoux, C.; Petitjean, P.; Fynbo, J.P.U.


    Galaxies: halos, galaxies: high-redshift, galaxies: ISM, quasars: absorption lines, cosmology: observations Udgivelsesdato: Oct.......Galaxies: halos, galaxies: high-redshift, galaxies: ISM, quasars: absorption lines, cosmology: observations Udgivelsesdato: Oct....

  18. Detection of Lyman/alpha emission from a DLA galaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, P.; Fynbo, Johan Peter Uldall; Fall, S.M



  19. PEARS Emission Line Galaxies (United States)

    Pirzkal, Nor; Rothberg, Barry; Ly, Chun; Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Grogin, Norman A.; Dahlen, Tomas; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Walsh, Jeremy; Hathi, Nimish P.; hide


    We present a full analysis of the Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) slitless grism spectroscopic data obtained vl'ith the Advanced Camera for Surveys on HST. PEARS covers fields within both the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) North and South fields, making it ideal as a random surveY of galaxies, as well as the availability of a wide variety of ancillary observations to support the spectroscopic results. Using the PEARS data we are able to identify star forming galaxies within the redshift volume 0 = 10(exp 9) Solar M decreases by an order of magnitude at z<=0.5 relative to the number at 0.5 < z < 0.9 in support of the argument for galaxy downsizing.

  20. Hydrodynamic Simulation of Non-thermal Pressure Profiles of Galaxy Clusters


    Nelson, Kaylea; Lau, Erwin T.; Nagai, Daisuke


    Cosmological constraints from X-ray and microwave observations of galaxy clusters are subjected to systematic uncertainties. Non-thermal pressure support due to internal gas motions in galaxy clusters is one of the major sources of astrophysical uncertainties. Using a mass-limited sample of galaxy clusters from a high-resolution hydrodynamical cosmological simulation, we characterize the non-thermal pressure fraction profile and study its dependence on redshift, mass, and mass accretion rate....

  1. Double-Barred Galaxies


    Erwin, Peter


    I present a brief review of what is known about double-barred galaxies, where a small ("inner") bar is nested inside a larger ("outer") bar; the review is focused primarily on their demographics and photometric properties. Roughly 20% of S0--Sb galaxies are double-barred; they may be rarer in later Hubble types. Inner bars are typically ~ 500 pc in radius (~ 12% the size of outer bars), but sizes range from ~ 100 pc to > 1 kpc. The structure of at least some inner bars appears very similar to...

  2. Galaxy S II

    CERN Document Server

    Gralla, Preston


    Unlock the potential of Samsung's outstanding smartphone with this jargon-free guide from technology guru Preston Gralla. You'll quickly learn how to shoot high-res photos and HD video, keep your schedule, stay in touch, and enjoy your favorite media. Every page is packed with illustrations and valuable advice to help you get the most from the smartest phone in town. The important stuff you need to know: Get dialed in. Learn your way around the Galaxy S II's calling and texting features.Go online. Browse the Web, manage email, and download apps with Galaxy S II's 3G/4G network (or create you

  3. What Are S0 Galaxies?


    Bergh, Sidney van den


    The data collected in the Shapley-Ames catalog of bright galaxies show that lenticular (S0) galaxies are typically about a magnitude fainter than both elliptical (E) and early spiral (Sa) galaxies. Hubble (1936) was therefore wrong to regard S0 galaxies as being intermediate between morphological types E and Sa. The observation that E5-E7 galaxies are significantly fainter than objects of sub-types E0-E5 suggests that many of the flattest 'ellipticals' may actually be misclassified lenticular...

  4. Featured Image: Identifying Weird Galaxies (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    Hoags Object, an example of a ring galaxy. [NASA/Hubble Heritage Team/Ray A. Lucas (STScI/AURA)]The above image (click for the full view) shows PanSTARRSobservationsof some of the 185 galaxies identified in a recent study as ring galaxies bizarre and rare irregular galaxies that exhibit stars and gas in a ring around a central nucleus. Ring galaxies could be formed in a number of ways; one theory is that some might form in a galaxy collision when a smaller galaxy punches through the center of a larger one, triggering star formation around the center. In a recent study, Ian Timmis and Lior Shamir of Lawrence Technological University in Michigan explore ways that we may be able to identify ring galaxies in the overwhelming number of images expected from large upcoming surveys. They develop a computer analysis method that automatically finds ring galaxy candidates based on their visual appearance, and they test their approach on the 3 million galaxy images from the first PanSTARRS data release. To see more of the remarkable galaxies the authors found and to learn more about their identification method, check out the paper below.CitationIan Timmis and Lior Shamir 2017 ApJS 231 2. doi:10.3847/1538-4365/aa78a3

  5. The Hooked Galaxy (United States)


    Life is not easy, even for galaxies. Some indeed get so close to their neighbours that they get rather distorted. But such encounters between galaxies have another effect: they spawn new generations of stars, some of which explode. ESO's VLT has obtained a unique vista of a pair of entangled galaxies, in which a star exploded. Because of the importance of exploding stars, and particularly of supernovae of Type Ia [1], for cosmological studies (e.g. relating to claims of an accelerated cosmic expansion and the existence of a new, unknown, constituent of the universe - the so called 'Dark Energy'), they are a preferred target of study for astronomers. Thus, on several occasions, they pointed ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) towards a region of the sky that portrays a trio of amazing galaxies. MCG-01-39-003 (bottom right) is a peculiar spiral galaxy, with a telephone number name, that presents a hook at one side, most probably due to the interaction with its neighbour, the spiral galaxy NGC 5917 (upper right). In fact, further enhancement of the image reveals that matter is pulled off MCG-01-39-003 by NGC 5917. Both these galaxies are located at similar distances, about 87 million light-years away, towards the constellation of Libra (The Balance). ESO PR Photo 22/06 ESO PR Photo 22/06 The Hooked Galaxy and its Companion NGC 5917 (also known as Arp 254 and MCG-01-39-002) is about 750 times fainter than can be seen by the unaided eye and is about 40,000 light-years across. It was discovered in 1835 by William Herschel, who strangely enough, seems to have missed its hooked companion, only 2.5 times fainter. As seen at the bottom left of this exceptional VLT image, a still fainter and nameless, but intricately beautiful, barred spiral galaxy looks from a distance the entangled pair, while many 'island universes' perform a cosmic dance in the background. But this is not the reason why astronomers look at this region. Last year, a star exploded in the vicinity of the hook

  6. Jets in Active Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tended regions of emission. These jets, which occur across the electromagnetic spectrum, are powered by supermassive black holes in the centres of the host galaxies. Jets are seen on the scale of parsecs in the nuclear regions to those which power the giant radio sources extending over several mega- parsecs. These jets ...

  7. Formation of Triaxial Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang-Hyeon Park


    Full Text Available Results of N-body simulation of dissipationless cold collapse of spherical gravitating system are presented. We compared the results with properties of elliptical galaxies. The system gradually evolved to triaxial system. The projected density profile is in good agreement with observations. In addition to triaxial instability, it seems that there is another instability.

  8. The Mutable Galaxies -10 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Perhaps one could then compare this with what is observed in galaxies. Let us find out how this can be quantified in order to be able to compare with observations. The second type of stars tend to 'lock up' a fraction of mass since they do not recycle their processed material. Let us call this fraction the 'lock-up fraction', 0:. Let.

  9. Green valley galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim S.


    Full Text Available The “green valley” is a wide region separating the blue and the red peaks in the ultraviolet-optical color magnitude diagram, first revealed using GALEX UV photometry. The term was coined by Christopher Martin (Caltech, in 2005. Green valley highlights the discriminating power of UV to very low relative levels of ongoing star formation, to which the optical colors, including u−r, are insensitive. It corresponds to massive galaxies below the star-forming, “main” sequence, and therefore represents a critical tool for the study of the quenching of star formation and its possible resurgence in otherwise quiescent galaxies. This article reviews the results pertaining to (predominantly disk morphology, structure, environment, dust content and gas properties of green valley galaxies in the local universe. Their relationship to AGN is also discussed. Attention is given to biases emerging from defining the “green valley” using optical colors. We review various evolutionary scenarios and we present evidence for a new one, the quasi-static view of the green valley, in which the majority (but not all of galaxies currently in the green valley were only partially quenched in the distant past and now participate in a slow cosmic decline of star formation, which also drives down the activity on the main sequence, presumably as a result of the dwindling accretion/cooling onto galaxy disks. This emerging synthetic picture is based on the findings from Fang et al. (2012, Salim et al. (2012 and Martin et al. (2007, as well as other results.

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT scanning of the head is typically ...

  11. The impact of galaxy harassment on the globular cluster systems of early-type cluster dwarf galaxies (United States)

    Smith, R.; Sánchez-Janssen, R.; Fellhauer, M.; Puzia, T. H.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Farias, J. P.


    The dynamics of globular cluster systems (GCSs) around galaxies are often used to assess the total enclosed mass, and even to constrain the dark matter distribution. The GCS of a galaxy is typically assumed to be in dynamical equilibrium within the potential of the host galaxy. However cluster galaxies are subjected to a rapidly evolving and, at times, violently destructive tidal field. We investigate the impact of the harassment on the dynamics of GCs surrounding early-type cluster dwarfs, using numerical simulations. We find that the dynamical behaviour of the GCS is strongly influenced by the fraction of bound dark matter fDM remaining in the galaxy. Only when fDM falls to ˜15 per cent do stars and GCs begin to be stripped. Still the observed GC velocity dispersion can be used to measure the true enclosed mass to within a factor of 2, even when fDM falls as low as ˜3 per cent. This is possible partly because unbound GCs quickly separate from the galaxy body. However even the distribution of bound GCs may spatially expand by a factor of 2-3. Once fDM falls into the <3 per cent regime, the galaxy is close to complete disruption, and GCS dynamics can no longer be used to reliably estimate the enclosed mass. In this regime, the remaining bound GCS may spatially expand by a factor of 4 to 8. It may be possible to test if a galaxy is in this regime by measuring the dynamics of the stellar disc. We demonstrate that if a stellar disc is rotationally supported, it is likely that a galaxy has sufficient dark matter that the dynamics of the GCS can be used to reliably estimate the enclosed mass.

  12. Kinematic clues to the origins of starless H I clouds: dark galaxies or tidal debris?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Taylor, Rhys; Davies, J.I.; Jáchym, Pavel; Keenan, O.; Minchin, R.F.; Palouš, Jan; Smith, R.; Wünsch, Richard


    Roč. 467, č. 3 (2017), s. 3648-3661 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG14013; GA ČR GAP209/12/1795 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : galaxies * evolution * spiral galaxies Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.961, year: 2016

  13. Amplitudes of head movements during putative eye-only saccades. (United States)

    Oommen, Brian S; Stahl, John S


    The mechanisms allowing humans and other primates to dissociate head and eye movements during saccades are poorly understood. A more precise knowledge of head movement behavior during apparent eye-only saccades may provide insight into those mechanisms. We studied the distributions of head amplitude in normal humans. In half of the subjects, these distributions indicated the presence of a population of minor ("residual") head movements during eye-only saccades, distinct from the continuum of head movements generated during frank eye-head saccades. Like full-sized head movements, the residual movements grew in proportion to target eccentricity, indicating their drive is derived from the premotor command for the saccade. Furthermore, their amplitudes related most strongly to the head amplitudes obtained when subjects produced full-sized head movements and were reduced when subjects were instructed to perform exclusively eye-only saccades. Both observations suggest that the drive for residual head movements originates downstream of the point in which the head movement command diverges from the generalized gaze shift command. The results are consistent with a model of head control in which a neural gate prevents the common gaze shift command from reaching the head premotor circuitry whenever an eye-only saccade is desired. However, the gate is either imperfect or the multiple pathways that relay gaze shift signals to the head motor circuitry allow for the gate to be circumvented. The results underscore the need for physiological studies to probe neuronal activity related to neck activation during eye-only saccades.

  14. Head Impact Laboratory (HIL) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The HIL uses testing devices to evaluate vehicle interior energy attenuating (EA) technologies for mitigating head injuries resulting from head impacts during mine/...

  15. wft4galaxy: a workflow testing tool for galaxy. (United States)

    Piras, Marco Enrico; Pireddu, Luca; Zanetti, Gianluigi


    Workflow managers for scientific analysis provide a high-level programming platform facilitating standardization, automation, collaboration and access to sophisticated computing resources. The Galaxy workflow manager provides a prime example of this type of platform. As compositions of simpler tools, workflows effectively comprise specialized computer programs implementing often very complex analysis procedures. To date, no simple way to automatically test Galaxy workflows and ensure their correctness has appeared in the literature. With wft4galaxy we offer a tool to bring automated testing to Galaxy workflows, making it feasible to bring continuous integration to their development and ensuring that defects are detected promptly. wft4galaxy can be easily installed as a regular Python program or launched directly as a Docker container-the latter reducing installation effort to a minimum. Available at under the Academic Free License v3.0.

  16. Radio Galaxy Zoo: A Search for Hybrid Morphology Radio Galaxies (United States)

    Kapińska, A. D.; Terentev, I.; Wong, O. I.; Shabala, S. S.; Andernach, H.; Rudnick, L.; Storer, L.; Banfield, J. K.; Willett, K. W.; de Gasperin, F.; Lintott, C. J.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Middelberg, E.; Norris, R. P.; Schawinski, K.; Seymour, N.; Simmons, B.


    Hybrid morphology radio sources (HyMoRS) are a rare type of radio galaxy that display different Fanaroff-Riley classes on opposite sides of their nuclei. To enhance the statistical analysis of HyMoRS, we embarked on a large-scale search of these sources within the international citizen science project, Radio Galaxy Zoo (RGZ). Here, we present 25 new candidate hybrid morphology radio galaxies. Our selected candidates are moderate power radio galaxies ({L}{median}=4.7× {10}24 W Hz-1 sr-1) at redshifts 0.14 1 Mpc) radio galaxies, one resides at the center of a galaxy cluster, and one is hosted by a rare green bean galaxy. Although the origin of the hybrid morphology radio galaxies is still unclear, this type of radio source starts depicting itself as a rather diverse class. We discuss hybrid radio morphology formation in terms of the radio source environment (nurture) and intrinsically occurring phenomena (nature; activity cessation and amplification), showing that these peculiar radio galaxies can be formed by both mechanisms. While high angular resolution follow-up observations are still necessary to confirm our candidates, we demonstrate the efficacy of the RGZ in the pre-selection of these sources from all-sky radio surveys, and report the reliability of citizen scientists in identifying and classifying complex radio sources.

  17. Occurrence of LINER galaxies within the galaxy group environment (United States)

    Coldwell, Georgina V.; Pereyra, Luis; Alonso, Sol; Donoso, Emilio; Duplancic, Fernanda


    We study the properties of a sample of 3967 low-ionization nuclear emission-line region (LINER) galaxies selected from SDSS-DR7, with respect to their proximity to galaxy groups. The host galaxies of LINERs have been analysed and compared with a well-defined control sample of 3841 non-LINER galaxies matched in redshift, luminosity, colour, morphology, age and stellar mass content. We find no difference between LINER and control galaxies in terms of the colour and age of stellar population as a function of the virial mass and distance to the geometric centre of the group. However, we find that LINERs are more likely to populate low-density environments in spite of their morphology, which is typical of high-density regions such as rich galaxy clusters. For rich (poor) galaxy groups, the occurrence of LINERs is approximately two times lower (higher) than the occurrence of matched, non-LINER galaxies. Moreover, LINER hosts do not seem to follow the expected morphology-density relation in groups of high virial mass. The high frequency of LINERs in low-density regions could be due to the combination of a sufficient gas reservoir to power the low-ionization emission and/or enhanced galaxy interaction rates benefiting the gas flow towards their central regions.

  18. Galaxy clusters and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    White, S


    Galaxy clusters are the largest coherent objects in Universe. It has been known since 1933 that their dynamical properties require either a modification of the theory of gravity, or the presence of a dominant component of unseen material of unknown nature. Clusters still provide the best laboratories for studying the amount and distribution of this dark matter relative to the material which can be observed directly -- the galaxies themselves and the hot,X-ray-emitting gas which lies between them.Imaging and spectroscopy of clusters by satellite-borne X -ray telescopes has greatly improved our knowledge of the structure and composition of this intergalactic medium. The results permit a number of new approaches to some fundamental cosmological questions,but current indications from the data are contradictory. The observed irregularity of real clusters seems to imply recent formation epochs which would require a universe with approximately the critical density. On the other hand, the large baryon fraction observ...

  19. Galaxy mapping the cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Geach, James


    Each night, we are able to gaze up at the night sky and look at the thousands of stars that stretch to the end of our individual horizons. But the stars we see are only those that make up our own Milky Way galaxy-but one of hundreds of billions in the whole of the universe, each separated  by inconceivably huge tracts of empty space. In this book, astronomer James Geach tells the rich stories of both the evolution of galaxies and our ability to observe them, offering a fascinating history of how we've come to realize humanity's tiny place in the vast universe.             Taking us on a compel

  20. The Anatomy of Galaxies (United States)

    D'Onofrio, Mauro; Rampazzo, Roberto; Zaggia, Simone; Longair, Malcolm S.; Ferrarese, Laura; Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack W.; van der Kruit, Pieter C.; Laurikainen, Eija; Elmegreen, Debra M.; Combes, Françoise; Bertin, Giuseppe; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Calzetti, Daniela; Moss, David L.; Matteucci, Francesca; Djorgovski, Stanislav George; Fraix-Burnet, Didier; Graham, Alister W. McK.; Tully, Brent R.

    Just after WWII Astronomy started to live its "Golden Age", not differently to many other sciences and human activities, especially in the west side countries. The improved resolution of telescopes and the appearance of new efficient light detectors (e.g. CCDs in the middle eighty) greatly impacted the extragalactic researches. The first morphological analysis of galaxies were rapidly substituted by "anatomic" studies of their structural components, star and gas content, and in general by detailed investigations of their properties. As for the human anatomy, where the final goal was that of understanding the functionality of the organs that are essential for the life of the body, galaxies were dissected to discover their basic structural components and ultimately the mystery of their existence.

  1. The Galaxy's Eating Habits (United States)

    Putman, M. E.; Thom, C.; Gibson, B. K.; Staveley-Smith, L.


    The possibility of a gaseous halo stream which was stripped from the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy is presented. The total mass of the neutral hydrogen along the orbit of the Sgr dwarf in the direction of the Galactic Anti-Center is 4 - 10 × 106 M⊙ (at 36 kpc, the distance to the stellar debris in this region). Both the stellar and gaseous components have negative velocities in this part of the sky, but the gaseous component extends to higher negative velocities. We suggest this gaseous stream was stripped from the main body of the dwarf 0.2 - 0.3 Gyr ago during its current orbit after a passage through a diffuse edge of the Galactic disk with a density > 10-4 cm-3. The gas would then represent the dwarf's last source of star formation fuel and explains how the galaxy was forming stars 0.5-2 Gyr ago.

  2. Black holes and galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Propst, Raphael J


    Galaxies are the basic unit of cosmology. The study of galaxy formation is concerned with the processes that formed a heterogeneous universe from a homogeneous beginning. The physics of galaxy formation is complicated because it deals with the dynamics of stars, thermodynamics of gas and energy production of stars. A black hole is a massive object whose gravitational field is so intense that it prevents any form of matter or radiation to escape. It is hypothesized that the most massive galaxies in the universe- "elliptical galaxies"- grow simultaneously with the supermassive black holes at their centers, giving us much stronger evidence that black holes control galaxy formation. This book reviews new evidence in the field.

  3. A Century of Galaxy Spectroscopy (United States)

    Rubin, Vera C.


    The first successful spectrum of a galaxy, M31, was obtained in 1898 and published in a two-page paper in the young Astrophysical Journal (Scheiner 1899). Thus the first century of galaxy spectroscopy and the first century of the Astrophysical Journal are almost coincident; I celebrate both in this paper. I describe the very early history of the determination of internal kinematics in spiral galaxies, often by quoting the astronomers' own published words. By mid-century, observations with improved optical and radio telescopes offered evidence that much of the matter in a galaxy is dark. As the century ends, research interests have enlarged to include study of spheroidal and disk galaxies with complex nuclear (and other) kinematics. These complicated velocity patterns are understood as the result of interactions, acquisitions, and mergers, and offer clear evidence of the important role of gravitational effects in galaxy evolution.

  4. Galaxies in the Early Universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogager, Jens-Kristian

    in Chapter 3 is found to be a young, star-forming galaxy with evidence for strong outflows of gas. This suggests that the more evolved and metal-rich DLAs overlap with the faint end of the luminosity selected galaxies in terms of mass, metallicity, star formation rate, and age. DLAs are generally observed......Understanding how galaxies evolved from the early Universe through cosmic time is a fundamental part of modern astrophysics. In order to study this evolution it is important to sample the galaxies at various times in a consistent way through time. In regular luminosity selected samples, our...... analyses are biased towards the brightest galaxies at all times (as these are easier to observe and identify). A complementary method relies on the absorption imprint from neutral gas in galaxies, the so-called damped Ly absorbers (DLAs) seen towards distant bright objects. This thesis seeks to understand...

  5. Dust in External Galaxies


    Calzetti, Daniela


    Existing (Spitzer Space Telescope) and upcoming (Herschel Space Telescope) facilities are deepening our understanding of the role of dust in tracing the energy budget and chemical evolution of galaxies. The tools we are developing while exploring the local Universe will in turn become pivotal in the interpretation of the high redshift Universe when near--future facilities (the Atacama Large Millimeter Array [ALMA], the Sub--Millimeter Array [SMA], the Large Millimeter Telescope [LMT], the Jam...

  6. ARCHANGEL: Galaxy Photometry System (United States)

    Schombert, James


    ARCHANGEL is a Unix-based package for the surface photometry of galaxies. While oriented for large angular size systems (i.e. many pixels), its tools can be applied to any imaging data of any size. The package core contains routines to perform the following critical galaxy photometry functions: sky determination; frame cleaning; ellipse fitting; profile fitting; and total and isophotal magnitudes. The goal of the package is to provide an automated, assembly-line type of reduction system for galaxy photometry of space-based or ground-based imaging data. The procedures outlined in the documentation are flux independent, thus, these routines can be used for non-optical data as well as typical imaging datasets. ARCHANGEL has been tested on several current OS's (RedHat Linux, Ubuntu Linux, Solaris, Mac OS X). A tarball for installation is available at the download page. The main routines are Python and FORTRAN based, therefore, a current installation of Python and a FORTRAN compiler are required. The ARCHANGEL package also contains Python hooks to the PGPLOT package, an XML processor and network tools which automatically link to data archives (i.e. NED, HST, 2MASS, etc) to download images in a non-interactive manner.

  7. NCBI BLAST+ integrated into Galaxy


    Cock, Peter J.A.; John M. Chilton; Gr?ning, Bj?rn; James E. Johnson; Soranzo, Nicola


    Background The NCBI BLAST suite has become ubiquitous in modern molecular biology and is used for small tasks such as checking capillary sequencing results of single PCR products, genome annotation or even larger scale pan-genome analyses. For early adopters of the Galaxy web-based biomedical data analysis platform, integrating BLAST into Galaxy was a natural step for sequence comparison workflows. Findings The command line NCBI BLAST+ tool suite was wrapped for use within Galaxy. Appropriate...

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray ... Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...

  9. AGN feedback in galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Antonuccio-Delogu, Vincenzo


    During the past decade, convincing evidence has been accumulated concerning the effect of active galactic nuclei (AGN) activity on the internal and external environment of their host galaxies. Featuring contributions from well-respected researchers in the field, and bringing together work by specialists in both galaxy formation and AGN, this volume addresses a number of key questions about AGN feedback in the context of galaxy formation. The topics covered include downsizing and star-formation time scales in massive elliptical galaxies, the connection between the epochs of supermassive black h

  10. An Exploration of Dusty Galaxies (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    Submillimeter galaxies i.e., galaxies that we detect in the submillimeter wavelength range are mysterious creatures. Its only within the last couple decades that weve had telescope technology capable of observing them, and were only now getting to the point where angular resolution limits allow us to examine them closely. A new study has taken advantage of new capabilities to explore the properties of a sample of 52 of thesegalaxies.Dusty Star FormationSubmillimeter galaxies are generally observed in the early universe. Though theyre faint in other wavebands, theyre extremely luminous in infrared and submillimeter their infrared luminosities are typically trillions of times the Suns luminosity. This is thought to be because these galaxies are very actively forming stars at rates of hundreds of times that of the Milky Way!Example 10 10 true-color images of ten submillimeter galaxies in the authors ALMA-identified sample. [Simpson et al. 2017]Submillimeter galaxies are also extremely dusty, so we dont see their star formation directly in optical wavelengths. Instead, we see the stellar light after its been absorbed and reemitted by interstellar dust lanes were indirectly observing heavily obscured star formation.Why look for submillimeter galaxies? Studying them can help us to learn about galaxy and star formation early in our universes history, and help us to understand how the universe has evolved into what we see locally today.Submillimeter StrugglesDue to angular resolution limitations in the past, we often couldnt pin down the exact locations of submillimeter galaxies, preventing us from examining them properly. But now a team of scientists has used the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter array (ALMA) to precisely locate 52 submillimeter galaxies identified by the Submillimeter Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA-2) in the UKIDSS Ultra Deep Survey field.The precise locations made possible by ALMA allowed the team led by James Simpson (University of Edinburgh

  11. Systematic analysis of head-to-head gene organization: evolutionary conservation and potential biological relevance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Yuan Li


    Full Text Available Several "head-to-head" (or "bidirectional" gene pairs have been studied in individual experiments, but genome-wide analysis of this gene organization, especially in terms of transcriptional correlation and functional association, is still insufficient. We conducted a systematic investigation of head-to-head gene organization focusing on structural features, evolutionary conservation, expression correlation and functional association. Of the present 1,262, 1,071, and 491 head-to-head pairs identified in human, mouse, and rat genomes, respectively, pairs with 1- to 400-base pair distance between transcription start sites form the majority (62.36%, 64.15%, and 55.19% for human, mouse, and rat,respectively of each dataset, and the largest group is always the one with a transcription start site distance of 101 to 200 base pairs. The phylogenetic analysis among Fugu, chicken, and human indicates a negative selection on the separation of head-to-head genes across vertebrate evolution, and thus the ancestral existence of this gene organization. The expression analysis shows that most of the human head-to-head genes are significantly correlated,and the correlation could be positive, negative, or alternative depending on the experimental conditions. Finally, head to-head genes statistically tend to perform similar functions, and gene pairs associated with the significant cofunctions seem to have stronger expression correlations. The findings indicate that the head-to-head gene organization is ancient and conserved, which subjects functionally related genes to correlated transcriptional regulation and thus provides an exquisite mechanism of transcriptional regulation based on gene organization. These results have significantly expanded the knowledge about head-to-head gene organization. Supplementary materials for this study are available at

  12. The luminosity function of field galaxies


    Mahtessian, A. P.


    Schmidt's method for construction of luminosity function of galaxies is generalized by taking into account the dependence of density of galaxies from the distance in the near Universe. The logarithmical luminosity function (LLF) of field galaxies depending on morphological type is constructed. We show that the LLF for all galaxies, and also separately for elliptical and lenticular galaxies can be presented by Schechter function in narrow area of absolute magnitudes. The LLF of spiral galaxies...

  13. Star Formation in Merging Clusters of Galaxies (United States)

    Mansheim, Alison Seiler

    This thesis straddles two areas of cosmology, each of which are active, rich and plagued by controversy in their own right: merging clusters and the environmental dependence of galaxy evolution. While the greater context of this thesis is major cluster mergers, our individual subjects are galaxies, and we apply techniques traditionally used to study the differential evolution of galaxies with environment. The body of this thesis is drawn from two papers: Mansheim et al. 2016a and Mansheim et al. 2016b, one on each system. Both projects benefited from exquisite data sets assembled as part of the Merging Cluster Collaboration (MC2), and Observations of Redshift Evolution in Large Scale Environments (ORELSE) survey, allowing us to scrutinize the evolutionary states of galaxy populations in multiple lights. Multi-band optical and near-infrared imaging was available for both systems, allowing us to calculate photometric redshifts for completeness corrections, colors (red vs. blue) and stellar masses to view the ensemble properties of the populations in and around each merger. High-resolution spectroscopy was also available for both systems, allowing us to confirm cluster members by measuring spectroscopic redshifts, which are unparalleled in accuracy, and gauge star formation rates and histories by measuring the strengths of certain spectral features. We had the luxury of HST imaging for Musket Ball, allowing us to use galaxy morphology as an additional diagnostic. For Cl J0910, 24 mum imaging allowed us to defeat a most pernicious source of uncertainty. Details on the acquisition and reduction of multi-wavelength data for each system are found within each respective chapter. It is important to note that the research presented in Chapter 3 is based on a letter which had significant space restrictions, so much of the observational details are outsourced to papers written by ORELSE collaboration members. Below is a free-standing summary of each project, drawn from the

  14. The dwarf galaxy population of nearby galaxy clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisker, Thorsten; Wittmann, Carolin; Pak, Mina; Janz, Joachim; Bialas, Daniel; Peletier, Reynier; Grebel, Eva; Falcon Barroso, Jesus; Toloba, Elisa; Smakced Collaboration, Focus Collaboration

    The Fornax, Virgo, Ursa Major and Perseus galaxy clusters all have very different characteristics, in terms of their density, mass, and large-scale environment. We can regard these clusters as laboratories for studying environmental influence on galaxy evolution, using the sensitive low-mass


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Almeida, J.; Morales-Luis, A. B. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Terlevich, R.; Terlevich, E. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Cid Fernandes, R., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica-CFM, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, P.O. Box 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)


    We describe a simple step-by-step guide to qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra. Rather than an alternative to existing automated tools, it is put forward as an instrument for quick-look analysis and for gaining physical insight when interpreting the outputs provided by automated tools. Though the recipe is for general application, it was developed for understanding the nature of the Automatic Spectroscopic K-means-based (ASK) template spectra. They resulted from the classification of all the galaxy spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7, thus being a comprehensive representation of the galaxy spectra in the local universe. Using the recipe, we give a description of the properties of the gas and the stars that characterize the ASK classes, from those corresponding to passively evolving galaxies, to H II galaxies undergoing a galaxy-wide starburst. The qualitative analysis is found to be in excellent agreement with quantitative analyses of the same spectra. We compare the mean ages of the stellar populations with those inferred using the code STARLIGHT. We also examine the estimated gas-phase metallicity with the metallicities obtained using electron-temperature-based methods. A number of byproducts follow from the analysis. There is a tight correlation between the age of the stellar population and the metallicity of the gas, which is stronger than the correlations between galaxy mass and stellar age, and galaxy mass and gas metallicity. The galaxy spectra are known to follow a one-dimensional sequence, and we identify the luminosity-weighted mean stellar age as the affine parameter that describes the sequence. All ASK classes happen to have a significant fraction of old stars, although spectrum-wise they are outshined by the youngest populations. Old stars are metal-rich or metal-poor depending on whether they reside in passive galaxies or in star-forming galaxies.

  16. Dark matter and rotation curves of spiral galaxies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křížek, Michal; Křížek, Filip; Somer, L.


    Roč. 25, April (2016), s. 64-77 ISSN 1313-2709 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG15052 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : red dwarf * dark matter * spiral galaxy Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  17. Testing MOND gravity in the shell galaxy NGC 3923

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bílek, Michal; Jungwiert, Bruno; Jílková, L.; Ebrová, Ivana; Bartošková, Kateřina; Křížek, Miroslav


    Roč. 559, November (2013), A110/1-A110/8 ISSN 0004-6361 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : gravitation * elliptical and lenticular galaxies Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.479, year: 2013

  18. Chandra Survey of Nearby Galaxies: The Catalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    She, Rui; Feng, Hua [Department of Engineering Physics and Center for Astrophysics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Ho, Luis C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100087 (China)


    We searched the public archive of the Chandra X-ray Observatory as of 2016 March and assembled a sample of 719 galaxies within 50 Mpc with available Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer observations. By cross-correlation with the optical or near-infrared nuclei of these galaxies, 314 of them are identified to have an X-ray active galactic nucleus (AGN). The majority of them are low-luminosity AGNs and are unlikely X-ray binaries based upon their spatial distribution and luminosity functions. The AGN fraction is around 60% for elliptical galaxies and early-type spirals, but drops to roughly 20% for Sc and later types, consistent with previous findings in the optical. However, the X-ray survey is more powerful in finding weak AGNs, especially from regions with active star formation that may mask the optical AGN signature. For example, 31% of the H ii nuclei are found to harbor an X-ray AGN. For most objects, a single power-law model subject to interstellar absorption is adequate to fit the spectrum, and the typical photon index is found to be around 1.8. For galaxies with a non-detection, their stacked Chandra image shows an X-ray excess with a luminosity of a few times 10{sup 37} erg s{sup −1} on average around the nuclear region, possibly composed of faint X-ray binaries. This paper reports on the technique and results of the survey; in-depth analysis and discussion of the results will be reported in forthcoming papers.

  19. Galaxy collisions: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.H.; Smith, B.F.


    Collisions of spherical galaxies were studied in a series of numerical experiments to see what happens when galaxies collide. Each experiment starts with two model galaxies, each consisting of 50,000 stars, moving toward each other along a specified orbit. Th series of experiments provides a systematic sampling of the parameter space spanned by the initial orbital energy and the initial angular momentum. Deeply penetrating collisions are emphasized. The collisions reported here scale to relative velocities as great as 500 km s/sup -1/, well into the range for collisions within clusters of galaxies. We find: (1) The galaxies contract momentarily to about half their original sizes shortly after close passage. This means that (a) the galaxies have ample time to respond dynamically during close passage; (b) energy first transfers into coherent mass flows within each galaxy; (c) in turn, (a) means that the impulsive and restricted three-body approximations, in which the response is ignored, are not valid for collisions of 1000 km s/sup -1/ or less. (2) The initial galaxies blend into a single dynamical system while they are near each other. This means that concepts such as energy transfer from orbital motion to internal degrees of freedom are not well defined until long after close approach, when two density maxima are well separated and each has settled down to a reasonably steady state.

  20. Nuclear activity in nearby galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filho, Mercedes Esteves


    The main focus of this thesis has been the search for and study of low luminosity AGN. We have detected severa low luminosity AGN in nearby galaxies, revealing that this type of activity can occur in a broad range of galaxy types and powers. Furthermore, we have been able to establish importan

  1. Red galaxies at high redshift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuyts, Stijn Elisabeth Raphaël


    From its origin at the center of a star to the edge, through the surrounding gas and dust in the distant galaxy, through the intergalactic medium, traveling billions of light years only to be reflected by a mirror and captured by a detector; the little amount of light observed from galaxies in the

  2. Squelched Galaxies and Dark Halos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tully, R. Brent; Somerville, Rachel S.; Trentham, Neil; Verheijen, Marc A. W.


    There is accumulating evidence that the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function might be very different in different locations. The luminosity function might be rising in rich clusters and flat in regions of low density. If galaxies form according to the model of hierarchical clustering, then

  3. Dust tori in radio galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wolk, G.; Barthel, P. D.; Peletier, R. F.; Pel, J. W.

    Aims. We investigate the quasar - radio galaxy unification scenario and detect dust tori within radio galaxies of various types. Methods. Using VISIR on the VLT, we acquired sub-arcsecond (similar to 0.40 '') resolution N-band images, at a wavelength of 11.85 mu m, of the nuclei of a sample of 27

  4. Three types of galaxy disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pohlen, M.; Erwin, P.; Trujillo, I.; Beckman, J. E.; Knapen, JH; Mahoney, TJ; Vazdekis, A


    We present our new scheme for the classification of radial stellar surface brightness profiles for disk galaxies. We summarize the current theoretical attempts to understand their origin and give an example of an application by comparing local galaxies with their counterparts at high redshift (z

  5. The gravitational dynamics of galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    called spheroidal or elliptical galaxies form a class more amenable to idealized models, we also have many disc .... use the apparent elliptical outline to infer the angle of inclination between the plane of the galaxy and the plane ..... of f along the trajectory of a given particle in phase space. The dynamical friction term clearly.

  6. Galaxy cluster's rotation (United States)

    Manolopoulou, M.; Plionis, M.


    We study the possible rotation of cluster galaxies, developing, testing, and applying a novel algorithm which identifies rotation, if such does exist, as well as its rotational centre, its axis orientation, rotational velocity amplitude, and, finally, the clockwise or counterclockwise direction of rotation on the plane of the sky. To validate our algorithms we construct realistic Monte Carlo mock rotating clusters and confirm that our method provides robust indications of rotation. We then apply our methodology on a sample of Abell clusters with z ≲ 0.1 with member galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR10 spectroscopic data base. After excluding a number of substructured clusters, which could provide erroneous indications of rotation, and taking into account the expected fraction of misidentified coherent substructure velocities for rotation, provided by our Monte Carlo simulation analysis, we find that ∼23 per cent of our clusters are rotating under a set of strict criteria. Loosening the strictness of the criteria, on the expense of introducing spurious rotation indications, we find this fraction increasing to ∼28 per cent. We correlate our rotation indicators with the cluster dynamical state, provided either by their Bautz-Morgan type or by their X-ray isophotal shape and find for those clusters showing rotation within 1.5 h^{-1}_{70} Mpc that the significance of their rotation is related to the dynamically younger phases of cluster formation but after the initial anisotropic accretion and merging has been completed. Finally, finding rotational modes in galaxy clusters could lead to the necessity of correcting the dynamical cluster mass calculations.

  7. Galaxy NGC 1850 (United States)


    By spying on a neighboring galaxy, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has captured an image of a young, globular-like star cluster -- a type of object unknown in our Milky Way Galaxy. The image, taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, is online at and The camera was designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The double cluster NGC 1850 lies in a neighboring satellite galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud. It has two relatively young components. The main, globular-like cluster is in the center. A smaller cluster is seen below and to the right, composed of extremely hot, blue stars and fainter red T-Tauri stars. The main cluster is about 50 million years old; the smaller one is 4 million years old. A filigree pattern of diffuse gas surrounds NGC 1850. Scientists believe the pattern formed millions of years ago when massive stars in the main cluster exploded as supernovas. Hubble can observe a range of star types in NGC 1850, including the faint, low-mass T-Tauri stars, which are difficult to distinguish with ground-based telescopes. Hubble's fine angular resolution can pick out these stars, even in other galaxies. Massive stars of the OB type emit large amounts of energetic ultraviolet radiation, which is absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere. From Hubble's position above the atmosphere, it can detect this ultraviolet light. NGC 1850, the brightest star cluster in the Large Magellanic Cloud, is in the southern constellation of Dorado, called the Goldfish or the Swordfish. This image was created from five archival exposures taken by the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 between April 3, 1994 and February 6, 1996. More information about the Hubble Space Telescope is online at More information about the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 is at The Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md., manages space

  8. Creating lenticular galaxies with mergers (United States)

    Querejeta, Miguel; Eliche-Moral, M. Carmen; Tapia, Trinidad; Borlaff, Alejandro; van de Ven, Glenn; Lyubenova, Mariya; Martig, Marie; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Méndez-Abreu, Jairo; Zamorano, Jaime; Gallego, Jesús


    Lenticular galaxies (S0s) represent the majority of early-type galaxies in the local Universe, but their formation channels are still poorly understood. While galaxy mergers are obvious pathways to suppress star formation and increase bulge sizes, the marked parallelism between spiral and lenticular galaxies (e.g. photometric bulge-disc coupling) seemed to rule out a potential merger origin. Here, we summarise our recent work in which we have shown, through N-body numerical simulations, that disc-dominated lenticulars can emerge from major mergers of spiral galaxies, in good agreement with observational photometric scaling relations. Moreover, we show that mergers simultaneously increase the light concentration and reduce the angular momentum relative to their spiral progenitors. This explains the mismatch in angular momentum and concentration between spirals and lenticulars recently revealed by CALIFA observations, which is hard to reconcile with simple fading mechanisms (e.g. ram-pressure stripping).

  9. Observing and Simulating Galaxy Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Karen Pardos

    , but 50% smaller _CO factors, with the latter decreasing towards the center of each model galaxy. In a second study, SÍGAME is adapted to model the fine-structure line of singly ionized carbon, [CII] at 158 _m, the most powerful emission line of neutral ISM. Applying SÍGAME to the same type of galaxies......It remains a quest for modern astronomy to answer what main mechanisms set the star formation rate (SFR) of galaxies. Massive galaxies present a good starting point for such a quest due to their relatively easy detection at every redshift. Since stars form out of cold and dense gas, a comprehensive...... model for galaxy evolution should explain any observed connection between SFR and the amount and properties of the molecular gas of the interstellar medium (ISM). In proposed models of that kind, an active galactic nucleus (AGN) phase is often invoked as the cause for the decrease or cease of star...

  10. Relic galaxies: where are they? (United States)

    Peralta de Arriba, L.; Quilis, V.; Trujillo, I.; Cebrián, M.; Balcells, M.


    The finding that massive galaxies grow with cosmic time fired the starting gun for the search of objects which could have survived up to the present day without suffering substantial changes (neither in their structures, neither in their stellar populations). Nevertheless, and despite the community efforts, up to now only one firm candidate to be considered one of these relics is known: NGC 1277. Curiously, this galaxy is located at the centre of one of the most rich near galaxy clusters: Perseus. Is its location a matter of chance? Should relic hunters focus their search on galaxy clusters? In order to reply this question, we have performed a simultaneous and analogous analysis using simulations (Millennium I-WMAP7) and observations (New York University Value-Added Galaxy Catalogue). Our results in both frameworks agree: it is more probable to find relics in high density environments.

  11. NGC 741 - Mergers and AGN feedback on galaxy groups scale (United States)

    Schellenberger, G.; Vrtilek, J.; David, L.; O'Sullivan, E.; Giacintucci, S.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Duchesne, S.; Raychaudhury, S.


    Low mass galaxy cluster systems and groups play an essential role in upcoming cosmological studies like those to be carried out with new instruments such as eROSITA. A detailed understanding of the astrophysical processes taking place in these systems is crucial before using them as cosmological tools. The effects of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and merging processes, although of special importance to quantify biases like selection effects or deviation from hydrostatic equilibrium, are poorly understood on the galaxy group scale. We present an analysis of recent deep Chandra and XMM-Newton integrations of NGC 741, which provides an excellent example of a group with multiple concurrent phenomena: both an old central radio galaxy and a spectacular infalling head-tail source (only 17 kpc from the BCG), strongly-bent jets and a 130 kpc radio trail, intriguing narrow X-ray filaments, and gas sloshing features. Supported principally by X-ray and radio continuum data, we address the merging history of the group, the nature of the X-ray filaments, the extent of gas stripping from NGC 742, the character of (ghost) cavities in the group, and the roles of the central AGN and infalling galaxy in heating the intra-group medium.

  12. Large-scale galaxy bias (United States)

    Jeong, Donghui; Desjacques, Vincent; Schmidt, Fabian


    Here, we briefly introduce the key results of the recent review (arXiv:1611.09787), whose abstract is as following. This review presents a comprehensive overview of galaxy bias, that is, the statistical relation between the distribution of galaxies and matter. We focus on large scales where cosmic density fields are quasi-linear. On these scales, the clustering of galaxies can be described by a perturbative bias expansion, and the complicated physics of galaxy formation is absorbed by a finite set of coefficients of the expansion, called bias parameters. The review begins with a detailed derivation of this very important result, which forms the basis of the rigorous perturbative description of galaxy clustering, under the assumptions of General Relativity and Gaussian, adiabatic initial conditions. Key components of the bias expansion are all leading local gravitational observables, which include the matter density but also tidal fields and their time derivatives. We hence expand the definition of local bias to encompass all these contributions. This derivation is followed by a presentation of the peak-background split in its general form, which elucidates the physical meaning of the bias parameters, and a detailed description of the connection between bias parameters and galaxy (or halo) statistics. We then review the excursion set formalism and peak theory which provide predictions for the values of the bias parameters. In the remainder of the review, we consider the generalizations of galaxy bias required in the presence of various types of cosmological physics that go beyond pressureless matter with adiabatic, Gaussian initial conditions: primordial non-Gaussianity, massive neutrinos, baryon-CDM isocurvature perturbations, dark energy, and modified gravity. Finally, we discuss how the description of galaxy bias in the galaxies' rest frame is related to clustering statistics measured from the observed angular positions and redshifts in actual galaxy catalogs.

  13. Confronting semi-analytic galaxy models with galaxy-matter correlations observed by CFHTLenS (United States)

    Saghiha, Hananeh; Simon, Patrick; Schneider, Peter; Hilbert, Stefan


    Testing predictions of semi-analytic models of galaxy evolution against observations helps to understand the complex processes that shape galaxies. We compare predictions from the Garching and Durham models implemented on the Millennium Simulation (MS) with observations of galaxy-galaxy lensing (GGL) and galaxy-galaxy-galaxy lensing (G3L) for various galaxy samples with stellar masses in the range 0.5 ≤ M∗/ 1010M⊙ Durham models are strongly excluded by the observations at the 95% confidence level because they largely over-predict the amplitudes of the GGL and G3L signals, probably because they predict too many satellite galaxies in massive halos.

  14. Tolerance of the Head and Neck to -Gx Inertial Loading of the Head (United States)


    cervical muscles reduced the inci- dence of "concussion" symptons produced in this animal, Collars on monkeys subjected to flexion producing occipital...muscles reduced the incidence of "concussion" symptoms produced in this animal. Collars on monkeys subjected to flexion producing occipital impacts, were...4 In a repeat run to determine what caused the losA of un- consciousness in Run 133, Stapp, with head held down to aviod amplification of head

  15. Combining Galaxy-Galaxy Lensing and Galaxy Clustering: A Practical Approach (United States)

    Park, Youngsoo; Krause, Elisabeth; Dodelson, Scott; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Dark Energy Survey Collaboration


    Combining galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clustering is a promising method for inferring the growth rate of large scale structure, a quantity that will shed light on the mechanism driving the acceleration of the Universe. The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is a prime candidate for such an analysis, with its measurements of both the distribution of galaxies on the sky and the tangential shears of background galaxies induced by these foreground lenses. By constructing an end-to-end analysis that combines large-scale galaxy clustering and small-scale galaxy-galaxy lensing, we forecast the potential of a combined probes analysis on DES datasets. In particular, we develop a practical approach to a DES combined probes analysis by jointly modeling the assumptions and systematics affecting the data vectors, employing a shared halo model, HOD parametrization, photometric redshift errors, and shear measurement errors. We also study the effect of external priors on different subsets of these parameters. We conclude that data from the first year of DES will provide powerful constraints on the evolution of structure growth in the universe, constraining the growth function to better than 5%.

  16. Lopsided Collections of Satellite Galaxies (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    You might think that small satellite galaxies would be distributed evenly around their larger galactic hosts but local evidence suggests otherwise. Are satellite distributions lopsided throughout the universe?Satellites in the Local GroupThe distribution of the satellite galaxies orbiting Andromeda, our neighboring galaxy, is puzzling: 21 out of 27 ( 80%) of its satellites are on the side of Andromeda closest to us. In a similar fashion, 4 of the 11 brightest Milky Way satellites are stacked on the side closest to Andromeda.It seems to be the case, then, that satellites around our pair of galaxies preferentially occupy the space between the two galaxies. But is this behavior specific to the Local Group? Or is it commonplace throughout the universe? In a recent study, a team of scientists led by Noam Libeskind (Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam, Germany) set out to answer this question.Properties of the galaxies included in the authors sample. Left: redshifts for galaxy pairs. Right: Number of satellite galaxies around hosts. [Adapted from Libeskind et al. 2016]Asymmetry at LargeLibeskind and collaborators tested whether this behavior is common by searching through Sloan Digital Sky Survey observations for galaxy pairs that are similar to the Milky Way/Andromeda pair. The resulting sample consists of 12,210 pairs of galaxies, which have 46,043 potential satellites among them. The team then performed statistical tests on these observations to quantify the anisotropic distribution of the satellites around the host galaxies.Libeskind and collaborators find that roughly 8% more galaxies are seen within a 15 angle facing the other galaxy of a pair than would be expected in a uniform distribution. The odds that this asymmetric behavior is randomly produced, they show, are lower than 1 in 10 million indicating that the lopsidedness of satellites around galaxies in pairs is a real effect and occurs beyond just the Local Group.Caution for ModelingProbability that


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    We present the B-band Tully-Fisher relation for low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. These LSB galaxies follow the same Tully-Fisher relation as normal spiral galaxies. This implies that the mass-to-light ratio (M/L) of LSB galaxies is typically a factor of 2 larger than that of normal galaxies of

  18. Internal and environmental secular evolution of disk galaxies (United States)

    Kormendy, John


    This Special Session is devoted to the secular evolution of disk galaxies. Here `secular' means `slow' i.e., evolution on time scales that are generally much longer than the galaxy crossing or rotation time. Internal and environmentally driven evolution both are covered. I am indebted to Albert Bosma for reminding me at the 2011 Canary Islands Winter School on Secular Evolution that our subject first appeared in print in a comment made by Ivan King (1977) in his introductory talk at the Yale University meeting on The Evolution of Galaxies and Stellar Populations: `John Kormendy would like us to consider the possibility that a galaxy can interact with itself.. . . I'm not at all convinced, but John can show you some interesting pictures.' Two of the earliest papers that followed were Kormendy (1979a, b); the first discusses the interaction of galaxy components with each other, and the second studies these phenomena in the context of a morphological survey of barred galaxies. The earliest modeling paper that we still use regularly is Combes & Sanders (1981), which introduces the now well known idea that box-shaped bulges in edge-on galaxies are side-on, vertically thickened bars. It is gratifying to see how this subject has grown since that time. Hundreds of papers have been written, and the topic features prominently at many meetings (e.g., Block et al. 2004; Falcoń-Barroso & Knapen 2012, and this Special Session). My talk here introduces both internal and environmental secular evolution; a brief abstract follows. My Canary Islands Winter School review covers both subjects in more detail (Kormendy 2012). Kormendy & Kennicutt (2004) is a comprehensive review of internal secular evolution, and Kormendy & Bender (2012) covers environmental evolution. Both of these subject make significant progress at this meeting. Secular evolution happens because self-gravitating systems evolve toward the most tightly bound configuration that is reachable by the evolution processes

  19. Head injury - first aid (United States)

    ... Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the head is typically used to detect: bleeding, brain injury and skull fractures in patients with head injuries. ... hard time staying still, are claustrophobic or have chronic pain, you may find a CT exam to ...

  1. Head and face reconstruction (United States)

    ... Head and face reconstruction To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Head and face reconstruction is surgery to repair or reshape deformities ...

  2. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of CT Scanning of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, ... than regular radiographs (x-rays). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT ...

  3. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others American Stroke Association National Stroke Association ... Computer Tomography (CT) Safety During Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine ...

  4. Newborn head molding (United States)

    Newborn cranial deformation; Molding of the newborn's head; Neonatal care - head molding ... The bones of a newborn baby's skull are soft and flexible, with gaps between the plates of bone. The spaces between the bony plates of ...

  5. Porcine head response to blast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay eShridharani


    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposed porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110-740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3-6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. The bulk head acceleration and the pressure at the surface of the head and in the cranial cavity were measured. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within thirty seconds and the remaining two recovered within 8 minutes following bagging and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80-685 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300-2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385-3845 G’s and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R2=0.90. One standard deviation corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure, and head acceleration are presented to provide experimental data for

  6. Galaxy bias from galaxy-galaxy lensing in the DES science verification data (United States)

    Prat, J.; Sánchez, C.; Miquel, R.; Kwan, J.; Blazek, J.; Bonnett, C.; Amara, A.; Bridle, S. L.; Clampitt, J.; Crocce, M.; Fosalba, P.; Gaztanaga, E.; Giannantonio, T.; Hartley, W. G.; Jarvis, M.; MacCrann, N.; Percival, W. J.; Ross, A. J.; Sheldon, E.; Zuntz, J.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Annis, J.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Fausti Neto, A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Lima, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Melchior, P.; Menanteau, F.; Nord, B.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.


    We present a measurement of galaxy-galaxy lensing around a magnitude-limited (iAB science verification (DES-SV) data. We split these lenses into three photometric-redshift bins from 0.2 to 0.8, and determine the product of the galaxy bias b and cross-correlation coefficient between the galaxy and dark matter overdensity fields r in each bin, using scales above 4 h-1 Mpc comoving, where we find the linear bias model to be valid given our current uncertainties. We compare our galaxy bias results from galaxy-galaxy lensing with those obtained from galaxy clustering and CMB lensing for the same sample of galaxies, and find our measurements to be in good agreement with those in Crocce et al., while, in the lowest redshift bin (z ∼ 0.3), they show some tension with the findings in Giannantonio et al. We measure b · r to be 0.87 ± 0.11, 1.12 ± 0.16 and 1.24 ± 0.23, respectively, for the three redshift bins of width Δz = 0.2 in the range 0.2 < z < 0.8, defined with the photometric-redshift algorithm BPZ. Using a different code to split the lens sample, TPZ, leads to changes in the measured biases at the 10-20 per cent level, but it does not alter the main conclusion of this work: when comparing with Crocce et al. we do not find strong evidence for a cross-correlation parameter significantly below one in this galaxy sample, except possibly at the lowest redshift bin (z ∼ 0.3), where we find r = 0.71 ± 0.11 when using TPZ, and 0.83 ± 0.12 with BPZ.

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... limitations of CT Scanning of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a ... top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT scanning of the head is ...

  8. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, dizziness, and other symptoms of ... content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT ... Perfusion of the Head CT Angiography (CTA) Stroke Brain Tumors Computer Tomography ( ...

  9. Evolving Neural Networks for the Classification of Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantu-Paz, E; Kamath, C


    The FIRST survey (Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-cm) is scheduled to cover 10,000 square degrees of the northern and southern galactic caps. Until recently, astronomers classified radio-emitting galaxies through a visual inspection of FIRST images. Besides being subjective, prone to error and tedious, this manual approach is becoming infeasible: upon completion, FIRST will include almost a million galaxies. This paper describes the application of six methods of evolving neural networks (NNs) with genetic algorithms (GAs) to identify bent-double galaxies. The objective is to demonstrate that GAs can successfully address some common problems in the application of NNs to classification problems, such as training the networks, choosing appropriate network topologies, and selecting relevant features. The results indicate that most of the methods perform equally well on our data, but the feature selection method gives superior results.

  10. Cosmic dawn the search for the first stars and galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Rhee, George


    The visible universe consists of stars and galaxies. One of the challenges of astronomy is to understand how galaxies and stars first came into existence over thirteen billion years ago. This book tells the story of our quest to solve this problem. Four hundred years after Galileo used his telescope to discover the  moons of Jupiter, we are using new telescopes and instruments to search for the first galaxies to form after the Big Bang. This book brings the reader to the current frontier of this subject and lays out some of the exciting developments we can expect in the years to come.

  11. Fred Hoyle: contributions to the theory of galaxy formation (United States)

    Efstathiou, George

    I review two fundamental contributions that Fred Hoyle made to the theory of galaxy formation. Hoyle was the first to propose that protogalaxies acquired their angular momentum via tidal torques from neighbouring perturbations during a period of gravitational instability. To my knowldege, he was also the first to suggest that the masses of galaxies could be explained by the requirement that primordial gas clouds cool radiatively on a suitable timescale. Tidal torques and cooling arguments play a central role in the modern theory of galaxy formation. It is a measure of Hoyle's breadth and inventiveness that he recognized the importance of these processes at such an early stage in the history of the subject.

  12. Galaxies into the Dark Ages (United States)

    Carilli, C. L.; Murphy, E. J.; Ferrara, A.; Dayal, P.


    We consider the capabilities of current and future large facilities operating at 2-3 mm wavelength to detect and image the [C II] 158 μm line from galaxies into the cosmic “dark ages” (z ˜ 10-20). The [C II] line may prove to be a powerful tool in determining spectroscopic redshifts, and galaxy dynamics, for the first galaxies. We emphasize that the nature, and even existence, of such extreme redshift galaxies, remains at the frontier of open questions in galaxy formation. In 40 hr, the Atacama Large Millimeter Array has the sensitivity to detect the integrated [C II] line emission from a moderate metallicity, active star-forming galaxy [{Z}A=0.2 {Z}⊙ ; star formation rate ({SFR})=5 {M}⊙ yr-1], at z = 10 at a significance of 6σ. The next-generation Very Large Array (ngVLA) will detect the integrated [C II] line emission from a Milky Way-like SFR galaxy ({Z}A=0.2 {Z}⊙ , {SFR}=1 {M}⊙ yr-1), at z = 15 at a significance of 6σ. Imaging simulations show that the ngVLA can determine rotation dynamics for active star-forming galaxies at z˜ 15, if they exist. Based on our very limited knowledge of the extreme redshift universe, we calculate the count rate in blind, volumetric surveys for [C II] emission at z˜ 10-20. The detection rates in blind surveys will be slow (of the order of unity per 40 hr pointing). However, the observations are well suited to commensal searches. We compare [C II] with the [O III] 88 μm line, and other ancillary information in high z galaxies that would aid these studies.

  13. Stellar populations of shell galaxies (United States)

    Carlsten, S. G.; Hau, G. K. T.; Zenteno, A.


    We present a study of the inner (out to ∼1 Reff) stellar populations of nine shell galaxies. We derive stellar population parameters from long-slit spectra by both analysing the Lick indices of the galaxies and by fitting single stellar population model spectra to the full galaxy spectra. The results from the two methods agree reasonably well. A few of the shell galaxies appear to have lower central Mg2 index values than the general population of galaxies of the same central velocity dispersion, which is possibly due to a past interaction event. Our sample shows a relation between central metallicity and velocity dispersion that is consistent with previous samples of non-shell galaxies. Analysing the metallicity gradients in our sample, we find an average gradient of -0.16 ± 0.10 dex decade-1 in radius. We compare this with formation models to constrain the merging history of shell galaxies. We argue that our galaxies likely have undergone major mergers but it is unclear whether the shells formed from these events or from separate minor mergers. Additionally, we find evidence for young stellar populations ranging in age from 500 Myr to 4-5 Gyr in four of the galaxies, allowing us to speculate on the age of the shells. For NGC 5670, we use a simple dynamical model to find the time required to produce the observed distribution of shells to be roughly consistent with the age of the young subpopulation, suggesting that the shells and subpopulation possibly formed from the same event.

  14. Fire within the Antennae Galaxies (United States)


    This false-color image composite from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope reveals hidden populations of newborn stars at the heart of the colliding 'Antennae' galaxies. These two galaxies, known individually as NGC 4038 and 4039, are located around 68 million light-years away and have been merging together for about the last 800 million years. The latest Spitzer observations provide a snapshot of the tremendous burst of star formation triggered in the process of this collision, particularly at the site where the two galaxies overlap. The image is a composite of infrared data from Spitzer and visible-light data from Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, Ariz. Visible light from stars in the galaxies (blue and green) is shown together with infrared light from warm dust clouds heated by newborn stars (red). The two nuclei, or centers, of the merging galaxies show up as yellow-white areas, one above the other. The brightest clouds of forming stars lie in the overlap region between and left of the nuclei. Throughout the sky, astronomers have identified many of these so-called 'interacting' galaxies, whose spiral discs have been stretched and distorted by their mutual gravity as they pass close to one another. The distances involved are so large that the interactions evolve on timescales comparable to geologic changes on Earth. Observations of such galaxies, combined with computer models of these collisions, show that the galaxies often become forever bound to one another, eventually merging into a single, spheroidal-shaped galaxy. Wavelengths of 0.44 microns are represented in blue, .70 microns in green and 8.0 microns in red. This image was taken on Dec. 24, 2003.

  15. The Assembly of Galaxy Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrier, Joel C.; Stewart, Kyle R.; Bullock, James S.; Purcell, Chris W.; Barton, Elizabeth J.; Wechsler, Risa H.


    We study the formation of fifty-three galaxy cluster-size dark matter halos (M = 10{sup 14.0-14.76} M{sub {circle_dot}}) formed within a pair of cosmological {Lambda}CDM N-body simulations, and track the accretion histories of cluster subhalos with masses large enough to host {approx} 0.1L{sub *} galaxies. By associating subhalos with cluster galaxies, we find the majority of galaxies in clusters experience no 'pre-processing' in the group environment prior to their accretion into the cluster. On average, {approx} 70% of cluster galaxies fall into the cluster potential directly from the field, with no luminous companions in their host halos at the time of accretion; and less than {approx} 12% are accreted as members of groups with five or more galaxies. Moreover, we find that cluster galaxies are significantly less likely to have experienced a merger in the recent past ({approx}< 6 Gyr) than a field halo of the same mass. These results suggest that local, cluster processes like ram-pressure stripping, galaxy harassment, or strangulation play the dominant role in explaining the difference between cluster and field populations at a fixed stellar mass; and that pre-evolution or past merging in the group environment is of secondary importance for setting cluster galaxy properties for most clusters. The accretion times for z = 0 cluster members are quite extended, with {approx} 20% incorporated into the cluster halo more than 7 Gyr ago and {approx} 20% within the last 2 Gyr. By comparing the observed morphological fractions in cluster and field populations, we estimate an approximate time-scale for late-type to early-type transformation within the cluster environment to be {approx} 6 Gyr.

  16. Surface photometry of new nearby dwarf galaxies


    Makarova, L. N.; Karachentsev, I. D.; Grebel, E. K.; Barsunova, O. Yu.


    We present CCD surface photometry of 16 nearby dwarf galaxies, many of which were only recently discovered. Our sample comprises both isolated galaxies and galaxies that are members of nearby galaxy groups. The observations were obtained in the Johnson B and V bands (and in some cases in Kron-Cousins I). We derive surface brightness profiles, total magnitudes, and integrated colors. For the 11 galaxies in our sample with distance estimates the absolute B magnitudes lie in the range of -10>Mb>...

  17. Star Formation Histories of Nearby Dwarf Galaxies


    Grebel, Eva K.


    Properties of nearby dwarf galaxies are briefly discussed. Dwarf galaxies vary widely in their star formation histories, the ages of their subpopulations, and in their enrichment history. Furthermore, many dwarf galaxies show evidence for spatial variations in their star formation history; often in the form of very extended old populations and radial gradients in age and metallicity. Determining factors in dwarf galaxy evolution appear to be both galaxy mass and environment. We may be observi...

  18. Thick Disks of Lenticular Galaxies


    Pohlen, M.; Balcells, M.; Luetticke, R.; Dettmar, R. -J.


    Thick disks are faint and extended stellar components found around several disk galaxies including our Milky Way. The Milky Way thick disk, the only one studied in detail, contains mostly old disk stars (~10 Gyr), so that thick disks are likely to trace the early stages of disk evolution. Previous detections of thick disk stellar light in external galaxies have been originally made for early-type, edge-on galaxies but detailed 2D thick/thin disk decompositions have been reported for only a sc...

  19. The kinematics of lopsided galaxies


    Noordermeer, Edo; Sparke, Linda S.; Levine, Stephen E.


    Lopsidedness is a common feature in galaxies, both in the distribution of light and in the kinematics. We investigate the kinematics of a model for lopsided galaxies that consists of a disc lying off-centre in a dark halo, and circling around the halo centre. We search for families of stable, closed, non-crossing orbits, and assume that gas in our galaxies moves on these orbits. Several of our models show strong lopsided gas kinematics, especially the ones in which the disc spins around its a...

  20. Samsung Galaxy Tabs for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Gookin, Dan


    A colorful, entertaining, and informative guide to the Samsung Galaxy family of tablets Samsung's bestselling Galaxy Tabs may come in multiple sizes, but they all share the wildly popular Android operating system and are packed with tons of top-notch tablet features. This full-color book shows you how to enjoy all the things your Galaxy Tab can do, regardless of model: browse the web, handle e-mail, manage your social media, make phone calls and video chat, read e-books, take and share photos, play music, and more. Author Dan Gookin, famous for his skill in demystifying technology, takes you

  1. Dark matter in elliptical galaxies (United States)

    Carollo, C. M.; Zeeuw, P. T. DE; Marel, R. P. Van Der; Danziger, I. J.; Qian, E. E.


    We present measurements of the shape of the stellar line-of-sight velocity distribution out to two effective radii along the major axes of the four elliptical galaxies NGC 2434, 2663, 3706, and 5018. The velocity dispersion profiles are flat or decline gently with radius. We compare the data to the predictions of f = f(E, L(sub z)) axisymmetric models with and without dark matter. Strong tangential anisotropy is ruled out at large radii. We conclude from our measurements that massive dark halos must be present in three of the four galaxies, while for the fourth galaxy (NGC 2663) the case is inconclusive.

  2. On the Relative Mass Column Densities of Giant Star-forming Complexes in Clumpy GOODS Galaxies (United States)

    Elmegreen, Debra M.; Elmegreen, B.; Marcus, M.; Shahinyan, K.; Yau, A.; Petersen, M.


    Some galaxies in the HST ACS images of GOODS fields show an extremely clumpy structure, like the clump clusters and chain galaxies we have studied in the UDF. The GOODS galaxies are at lower redshift than the UDF galaxies, and are therefore less subject to morphology corrections due to bandshifting. These lower redshift cases may also show evolutionary trends toward modern spiral galaxies. Here we investigate the ratio of clump mass column density to background disk column density in all of the clump clusters in GOODS. Population synthesis models are used to convert colors and surface brightnesses into age and mass column densities. We compare these ratios to analogous measurements in GOODS spirals. There is a clear trend toward less prominent clumps in spirals than in clump clusters. The large column density ratios in many clump clusters are consistent with our simulations (e.g., Bournaud et al. 2007), which suggest that clumps interact and migrate toward the center to make a bulge.

  3. Observations and Models of Galaxy Assembly Bias (United States)

    Campbell, Duncan A.


    The assembly history of dark matter haloes imparts various correlations between a halo’s physical properties and its large scale environment, i.e. assembly bias. It is common for models of the galaxy-halo connection to assume that galaxy properties are only a function of halo mass, implicitly ignoring how assembly bias may affect galaxies. Recently, programs to model and constrain the degree to which galaxy properties are influenced by assembly bias have been undertaken; however, the extent and character of galaxy assembly bias remains a mystery. Nevertheless, characterizing and modeling galaxy assembly bias is an important step in understanding galaxy evolution and limiting any systematic effects assembly bias may pose in cosmological measurements using galaxy surveys.I will present work on modeling and constraining the effect of assembly bias in two galaxy properties: stellar mass and star-formation rate. Conditional abundance matching allows for these galaxy properties to be tied to halo formation history to a variable degree, making studies of the relative strength of assembly bias possible. Galaxy-galaxy clustering and galactic conformity, the degree to which galaxy color is correlated between neighbors, are sensitive observational measures of galaxy assembly bias. I will show how these measurements can be used to constrain galaxy assembly bias and the peril of ignoring it.

  4. Vestibulopathy and age effects on head stability during chair rise. (United States)

    McGibbon, C A; Krebs, D E; Scarborough, D M


    It is unknown how vestibular dysfunction and age differentially affect balance control during functional activities. The objective of this study was to gain insight into the effects of age and vestibulopathy on head control when rising from a chair. Head relative to trunk (head-on-trunk) sagittal plane angular and linear control strategies were studied in patients with bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) and in healthy subjects aged 30-80 years. A two-way analysis of variance was used to compare head-on-trunk kinematics by age (young vs elderly) and diagnosis (healthy vs BVH) at the time of liftoff from the seat. Angular control strategies differed with age but not diagnosis: young (healthy and BVH) subjects stabilized head rotations in space while elderly (healthy and BVH) subjects stabilized head rotations on the trunk. In contrast, linear control strategies differed by diagnosis but not age: BVH subjects (young and old) allowed a greater rate of head-on-trunk translation while healthy subjects (young and old) inhibited such translations. Young BVH subjects stabilized head-in-space rotations (as did young healthy subjects) without a functioning vestibular system, suggesting cervicocollic reflex and/or other sensory compensation for vestibular loss. Elderly BVH subjects stabilized head rotation with respect to the trunk, as did healthy elders, but did not stabilize head-on-trunk translations, suggesting a reliance on passive mechanical responses of the neck to sense head movements. We conclude that compensation strategies used by patients with vestibulopathy are age-dependent and appear to be more tractable in the younger BVH patient.

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head ... limitations of MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is ...

  6. Eye-Head Coordination for Visual Cognitive Processing (United States)

    Fang, Yu; Nakashima, Ryoichi; Matsumiya, Kazumichi; Kuriki, Ichiro; Shioiri, Satoshi


    We investigated coordinated movements between the eyes and head (“eye-head coordination”) in relation to vision for action. Several studies have measured eye and head movements during a single gaze shift, focusing on the mechanisms of motor control during eye-head coordination. However, in everyday life, gaze shifts occur sequentially and are accompanied by movements of the head and body. Under such conditions, visual cognitive processing influences eye movements and might also influence eye-head coordination because sequential gaze shifts include cycles of visual processing (fixation) and data acquisition (gaze shifts). In the present study, we examined how the eyes and head move in coordination during visual search in a large visual field. Subjects moved their eyes, head, and body without restriction inside a 360° visual display system. We found patterns of eye-head coordination that differed those observed in single gaze-shift studies. First, we frequently observed multiple saccades during one continuous head movement, and the contribution of head movement to gaze shifts increased as the number of saccades increased. This relationship between head movements and sequential gaze shifts suggests eye-head coordination over several saccade-fixation sequences; this could be related to cognitive processing because saccade-fixation cycles are the result of visual cognitive processing. Second, distribution bias of eye position during gaze fixation was highly correlated with head orientation. The distribution peak of eye position was biased in the same direction as head orientation. This influence of head orientation suggests that eye-head coordination is involved in gaze fixation, when the visual system processes retinal information. This further supports the role of eye-head coordination in visual cognitive processing. PMID:25799510


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Zhizheng; Kong, Xu; Fan, Lulu, E-mail:, E-mail: [Center of Astrophysics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)


    We present research on the morphologies, spectra, and environments of ≈2350 'green valley' galaxies at 0.2 < z < 1.0 in the COSMOS field. The bimodality of dust-corrected NUV–r {sup +} color is used to define 'green valley'; it removes dusty star-forming galaxies from galaxies that are truly transitioning between the blue cloud and the red sequence. Morphological parameters of green galaxies are intermediate between those of blue and red galaxy populations, both on the Gini-asymmetry and the Gini-M{sub 20} planes. Approximately 60%-70% of green disk galaxies have intermediate or big bulges, and only 5%-10% are pure disk systems, based on morphological classification using the Zurich Estimator of Structural Types. The obtained average spectra of green galaxies are intermediate between blue and red ones in terms of [O II], Hα, and Hβ emission lines. Stellar population synthesis on the average spectra shows that green galaxies are on average older than blue galaxies but younger than red galaxies. Green galaxies and blue galaxies have similar projected galaxy density (Σ{sub 10}) distributions at z > 0.7. At z < 0.7, the fractions of M{sub *} < 10{sup 10.0} M{sub ☉} green galaxies located in a dense environment are found to be significantly larger than those of blue galaxies. The morphological and spectral properties of green galaxies are consistent with the transitioning population between the blue cloud and the red sequence. The possible mechanisms for quenching star formation activities in green galaxies are discussed. The importance of active galactic nucleus feedback cannot be well constrained in our study. Finally, our findings suggest that environmental conditions, most likely starvation and harassment, significantly affect the transformation of M{sub *} < 10{sup 10.0} M{sub ☉} blue galaxies into red galaxies, especially at z < 0.5.

  8. Astronomy: Quasars signpost massive galaxies (United States)

    Bouwens, Rychard


    The neighbourhoods of extremely bright astronomical objects called quasars in the early Universe have been incompletely probed. Observations suggest that these regions harbour some of the most massive known galaxies. See Letter p.457

  9. Globular Clusters - Guides to Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Richtler, Tom; Joint ESO-FONDAP Workshop on Globular Clusters


    The principal question of whether and how globular clusters can contribute to a better understanding of galaxy formation and evolution is perhaps the main driving force behind the overall endeavour of studying globular cluster systems. Naturally, this splits up into many individual problems. The objective of the Joint ESO-FONDAP Workshop on Globular Clusters - Guides to Galaxies was to bring together researchers, both observational and theoretical, to present and discuss the most recent results. Topics covered in these proceedings are: internal dynamics of globular clusters and interaction with host galaxies (tidal tails, evolution of cluster masses), accretion of globular clusters, detailed descriptions of nearby cluster systems, ultracompact dwarfs, formations of massive clusters in mergers and elsewhere, the ACS Virgo survey, galaxy formation and globular clusters, dynamics and kinematics of globular cluster systems and dark matter-related problems. With its wide coverage of the topic, this book constitute...

  10. Secular Evolution of Spiral Galaxies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Xiaolei


    It is now a well established fact that galaxies undergo significant morphological transformation during their lifetimes, manifesting as an evolution along the Hubble sequence from the late to the early Hubble types...

  11. Enhancing the view of a million galaxies (United States)


    reveal over a million galaxies, of all types and sizes and in a range of environments, covering various phases of their evolution. "The SXDS multi-wavelength survey, with its unprecedented width and depth, is already bringing new insights into the structure of the Universe at earlier times," said Prof Mike Watson, head of the XMM-Newton Survey Science Centre, at the University of Leicester, United Kingdom, and one of the scientists involved in the SXDS. The broad wavelength range spanned by the SXDS data also allows scientists to estimate distances to most galaxies in the field, providing in practice a three-dimensional map of this part of the Universe. With this information at hand, astronomers can study the history of the Universe in much more detail. For example, they can determine very accurately where and when stars formed in galaxies and whether larger galaxies formed before or after smaller objects. They can also measure how many galaxies formed together in the same cluster and which was originally their shape. Some of the preliminary discoveries already made with these data will be presented and discussed at a scientific workshop taking place later this week in Kyoto, Japan. The SXDS team, however, believe that the only way to fully exploit the scientific potential of the data is to release them and make them available to researchers worldwide. From today, professional astronomers, students and even amateur astronomers will be able to test their observational or theoretical results against the SXDS data. "With a large and comprehensive data set like this, there are innumerable research possibilities," said Dr Kazuhiro Sekiguchi from the NAOJ Subaru Telescope, Hawaii, USA, and the coordinator of the Japanese SXDS team. "Other researchers can look at our data with a new perspective and begin answering questions that we may have overlooked, or do not have the time or human resources to address," he added. Besides the XMM-Newton and Subaru Telescope images, the SXDS

  12. Massive star clusters in galaxies. (United States)

    Harris, William E


    The ensemble of all star clusters in a galaxy constitutes its star cluster system. In this review, the focus of the discussion is on the ability of star clusters, particularly the systems of old massive globular clusters (GCs), to mark the early evolutionary history of galaxies. I review current themes and key findings in GC research, and highlight some of the outstanding questions that are emerging from recent work.

  13. Hydrodynamic simulation of non-thermal pressure profiles of galaxy clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Kaylea; Nagai, Daisuke [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Lau, Erwin T., E-mail: [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)


    Cosmological constraints from X-ray and microwave observations of galaxy clusters are subjected to systematic uncertainties. Non-thermal pressure support due to internal gas motions in galaxy clusters is one of the major sources of astrophysical uncertainties. Using a mass-limited sample of galaxy clusters from a high-resolution hydrodynamical cosmological simulation, we characterize the non-thermal pressure fraction profile and study its dependence on redshift, mass, and mass accretion rate. We find that the non-thermal pressure fraction profile is universal across redshift when galaxy cluster radii are defined with respect to the mean matter density of the universe instead of the commonly used critical density. We also find that the non-thermal pressure is predominantly radial, and the gas velocity anisotropy profile exhibits strong universality when galaxy cluster radii are defined with respect to the mean matter density of the universe. However, we find that the non-thermal pressure fraction is strongly dependent on the mass accretion rate of the galaxy cluster. We provide fitting formulae for the universal non-thermal pressure fraction and velocity anisotropy profiles of gas in galaxy clusters, which should be useful in modeling astrophysical uncertainties pertinent to using galaxy clusters as cosmological probes.

  14. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen


    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  15. The nuclear properties and extended morphologies of powerful radio galaxies: the roles of host galaxy and environment (United States)

    Miraghaei, H.; Best, P. N.


    Powerful radio Galaxies exist as either compact or extended sources, with the extended sources traditionally classified by their radio morphologies as Fanaroff-Riley (FR) type I and II sources. FRI/FRII and compact radio galaxies have also been classified by their optical spectra into two different types: high excitation (HERG; quasar-mode) and low excitation (LERG; jet-mode). We present a catalogue of visual morphologies for a complete sample of >1000 1.4-GHz-selected extended radio sources from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We study the environment and host galaxy properties of FRI/FRII and compact sources, classified into HERG/LERG types, in order to separate and distinguish the factors that drive the radio morphological variations from those responsible for the spectral properties. Comparing FRI LERGs with FRII LERGs at fixed stellar mass and radio luminosity, we show that FRIs typically reside in richer environments and are hosted by smaller galaxies with higher mass surface density; this is consistent with extrinsic effects of jet disruption driving the Fanaroff-Riley (FR) dichotomy. Using matched samples of HERGs and LERGs, we show that HERG host galaxies are more frequently star forming, with more evidence for disc-like structure than LERGs, in accordance with currently favoured models of fundamentally different fuelling mechanisms. Comparing FRI/FRII LERGs with compact LERGs, we find the primary difference is that compact objects typically harbour less massive black holes. This suggests that lower mass black holes may be less efficient at launching stable radio jets, or do so for shorter times. Finally, we investigate rarer sub-classes: wide-angle-tailed, head-tail, FR-hybrid and double-double sources.

  16. Enhancement classification of galaxy images (United States)

    Jenkinson, John

    With the advent of astronomical imaging technology developments, and the increased capacity of digital storage, the production of photographic atlases of the night sky have begun to generate volumes of data which need to be processed autonomously. As part of the Tonantzintla Digital Sky Survey construction, the present work involves software development for the digital image processing of astronomical images, in particular operations that preface feature extraction and classification. Recognition of galaxies in these images is the primary objective of the present work. Many galaxy images have poor resolution or contain faint galaxy features, resulting in the misclassification of galaxies. An enhancement of these images by the method of the Heap transform is proposed, and experimental results are provided which demonstrate the image enhancement to improve the presence of faint galaxy features thereby improving classification accuracy. The feature extraction was performed using morphological features that have been widely used in previous automated galaxy investigations. Principal component analysis was applied to the original and enhanced data sets for a performance comparison between the original and reduced features spaces. Classification was performed by the Support Vector Machine learning algorithm.

  17. AGN feedback in dwarf galaxies? (United States)

    Dashyan, Gohar; Silk, Joseph; Mamon, Gary A.; Dubois, Yohan; Hartwig, Tilman


    Dwarf galaxy anomalies, such as their abundance and cusp-core problems, remain a prime challenge in our understanding of galaxy formation. The inclusion of baryonic physics could potentially solve these issues, but the efficiency of stellar feedback is still controversial. We analytically explore the possibility of feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in dwarf galaxies and compare AGN and supernova (SN) feedback. We assume the presence of an intermediate-mass black hole within low-mass galaxies and standard scaling relations between the relevant physical quantities. We model the propagation and properties of the outflow and explore the critical condition for global gas ejection. Performing the same calculation for SNe, we compare the ability of AGNs and SNe to drive gas out of galaxies. We find that a critical halo mass exists below which AGN feedback can remove gas from the host halo and that the critical halo mass for an AGN is greater than the equivalent for SNe in a significant part of the parameter space, suggesting that an AGN could provide an alternative and more successful source of negative feedback than SNe, even in the most massive dwarf galaxies.

  18. Submillimeter Galaxies as Progenitors of Compact Quiescent Galaxies (United States)

    Toft, S.; Smolcic, V.; Magnelli, B.; Karim, A.; Zirm, A.; Michalowski, M.; Capak, P.; Sheth, K.; Schawinski, K.; Krogager, J.-K.; hide


    Three billion years after the big bang (at redshift z = 2), half of the most massive galaxies were already old, quiescent systems with little to no residual star formation and extremely compact with stellar mass densities at least an order of magnitude larger than in low-redshift ellipticals, their descendants. Little is known about how they formed, but their evolved, dense stellar populations suggest formation within intense, compact starbursts 1-2 Gyr earlier (at 3 < z < 6). Simulations show that gas-rich major mergers can give rise to such starbursts, which produce dense remnants. Submillimeter-selected galaxies (SMGs) are prime examples of intense, gas-rich starbursts.With a new, representative spectroscopic sample of compact, quiescent galaxies at z = 2 and a statistically well-understood sample of SMGs, we show that z = 3-6 SMGs are consistent with being the progenitors of z = 2 quiescent galaxies, matching their formation redshifts and their distributions of sizes, stellar masses, and internal velocities. Assuming an evolutionary connection, their space densities also match if the mean duty cycle of SMG starbursts is 42(sup+40) -29 Myr (consistent with independent estimates), which indicates that the bulk of stars in these massive galaxies were formed in a major, early surge of star formation. These results suggest a coherent picture of the formation history of the most massive galaxies in the universe, from their initial burst of violent star formation through their appearance as high stellar-density galaxy cores and to their ultimate fate as giant ellipticals.

  19. Submillimeter galaxies as progenitors of compact quiescent galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toft, S.; Zirm, A.; Krogager, J.-K.; Man, A. W. S. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Mariesvej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Smolčić, V.; Krpan, J. [Physics Department, University of Zagreb, Bijenička cesta 32, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Magnelli, B.; Karim, A. [Argelander Institute for Astronomy, Auf dem Hügel 71, Bonn, D-53121 (Germany); Michalowski, M. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Capak, P. [Spitzer Science Center, 314-6 Caltech, 1201 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sheth, K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Schawinski, K. [ETH Zurich, Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Wuyts, S.; Lutz, D.; Staguhn, J.; Berta, S. [MPE, Postfach 1312, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Sanders, D. [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Mccracken, H. [Institut dAstrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Riechers, D., E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, 220 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)


    Three billion years after the big bang (at redshift z = 2), half of the most massive galaxies were already old, quiescent systems with little to no residual star formation and extremely compact with stellar mass densities at least an order of magnitude larger than in low-redshift ellipticals, their descendants. Little is known about how they formed, but their evolved, dense stellar populations suggest formation within intense, compact starbursts 1-2 Gyr earlier (at 3 < z < 6). Simulations show that gas-rich major mergers can give rise to such starbursts, which produce dense remnants. Submillimeter-selected galaxies (SMGs) are prime examples of intense, gas-rich starbursts. With a new, representative spectroscopic sample of compact, quiescent galaxies at z = 2 and a statistically well-understood sample of SMGs, we show that z = 3-6 SMGs are consistent with being the progenitors of z = 2 quiescent galaxies, matching their formation redshifts and their distributions of sizes, stellar masses, and internal velocities. Assuming an evolutionary connection, their space densities also match if the mean duty cycle of SMG starbursts is 42{sub −29}{sup +40} Myr (consistent with independent estimates), which indicates that the bulk of stars in these massive galaxies were formed in a major, early surge of star formation. These results suggest a coherent picture of the formation history of the most massive galaxies in the universe, from their initial burst of violent star formation through their appearance as high stellar-density galaxy cores and to their ultimate fate as giant ellipticals.

  20. Do Galaxies Follow Darwinian Evolution? (United States)


    Using VIMOS on ESO's Very Large Telescope, a team of French and Italian astronomers have shown the strong influence the environment exerts on the way galaxies form and evolve. The scientists have for the first time charted remote parts of the Universe, showing that the distribution of galaxies has considerably evolved with time, depending on the galaxies' immediate surroundings. This surprising discovery poses new challenges for theories of the formation and evolution of galaxies. The 'nature versus nurture' debate is a hot topic in human psychology. But astronomers too face similar conundrums, in particular when trying to solve a problem that goes to the very heart of cosmological theories: are the galaxies we see today simply the product of the primordial conditions in which they formed, or did experiences in the past change the path of their evolution? ESO PR Photo 17/06 ESO PR Photo 45/06 Galaxy Distribution in Space In a large, three-year long survey carried out with VIMOS [1], the Visible Imager and Multi-Object Spectrograph on ESO's VLT, astronomers studied more than 6,500 galaxies over a wide range of distances to investigate how their properties vary over different timescales, in different environments and for varying galaxy luminosities [2]. They were able to build an atlas of the Universe in three dimensions, going back more than 9 billion years. This new census reveals a surprising result. The colour-density relation, that describes the relationship between the properties of a galaxy and its environment, was markedly different 7 billion years ago. The astronomers thus found that the galaxies' luminosity, their initial genetic properties, and the environments they reside in have a profound impact on their evolution. "Our results indicate that environment is a key player in galaxy evolution, but there's no simple answer to the 'nature versus nurture' problem in galaxy evolution," said Olivier Le Fèvre from the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille

  1. Galaxy bias from galaxy-galaxy lensing in the DES Science Verification Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prat, J.; et al.


    We present a measurement of galaxy-galaxy lensing around a magnitude-limited ($i_{AB} < 22.5$) sample of galaxies selected from the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification (DES-SV) data. We split these lenses into three photometric-redshift bins from 0.2 to 0.8, and determine the product of the galaxy bias $b$ and cross-correlation coefficient between the galaxy and dark matter overdensity fields $r$ in each bin, using scales above 4 Mpc/$h$ comoving, where we find the linear bias model to be valid given our current uncertainties. We compare our galaxy bias results from galaxy-galaxy lensing with those obtained from galaxy clustering (Crocce et al. 2016) and CMB lensing (Giannantonio et al. 2016) for the same sample of galaxies, and find our measurements to be in good agreement with those in Crocce et al. (2016), while, in the lowest redshift bin ($z\\sim0.3$), they show some tension with the findings in Giannantonio et al. (2016). Our results are found to be rather insensitive to a large range of systematic effects. We measure $b\\cdot r$ to be $0.87\\pm 0.11$, $1.12 \\pm 0.16$ and $1.24\\pm 0.23$, respectively for the three redshift bins of width $\\Delta z = 0.2$ in the range $0.2galaxy sample, except possibly at the lowest redshift bin ($z\\sim 0.3$), where we find $r = 0.71 \\pm 0.11$ when using TPZ, and $0.83 \\pm 0.12$ with BPZ, assuming the difference between the results from the two probes can be solely attributed to the cross-correlation parameter.

  2. Head Injuries in Soccer. (United States)

    Myrick, Karen M


    Soccer is currently the most popular and fastest growing sport worldwide, with approximately 265 million registered soccer players existing around the world. The popularity of the sport, coupled with the high incidence of 18.8-21.5 head injuries per 1,000 player hours reported, make it essential that clinicians, coaches, and the athletes, have a solid understanding of head injuries. The successful rehabilitation of athletes with head injuries relies upon early and accurate identification strategies and implementation of appropriate return to play measures across all areas in the continuum of care. Soccer is a frequently played sport, and head injuries are common. Therefore, it is imperative that clinicians, coaches, and the athletes themselves have a solid understanding of head injury prevention, diagnosis, and treatment options. The purpose of this article was to provide rehabilitation nurses with current information regarding frequently occurring head injuries in the widespread sport of soccer. © 2015 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  3. Globular Clusters for Faint Galaxies (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    The origin of ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) has posed a long-standing mystery for astronomers. New observations of several of these faint giants with the Hubble Space Telescope are now lending support to one theory.Faint-Galaxy MysteryHubble images of Dragonfly 44 (top) and DFX1 (bottom). The right panels show the data with greater contrast and extended objects masked. [van Dokkum et al. 2017]UDGs large, extremely faint spheroidal objects were first discovered in the Virgo galaxy cluster roughly three decades ago. Modern telescope capabilities have resulted in many more discoveries of similar faint galaxies in recent years, suggesting that they are a much more common phenomenon than we originally thought.Despite the many observations, UDGs still pose a number of unanswered questions. Chief among them: what are UDGs? Why are these objects the size of normal galaxies, yet so dim? There are two primary models that explain UDGs:UDGs were originally small galaxies, hence their low luminosity. Tidal interactions then puffed them up to the large size we observe today.UDGs are effectively failed galaxies. They formed the same way as normal galaxies of their large size, but something truncated their star formation early, preventing them from gaining the brightness that we would expect for galaxies of their size.Now a team of scientists led by Pieter van Dokkum (Yale University) has made some intriguing observations with Hubble that lend weight to one of these models.Globulars observed in 16 Coma-cluster UDGs by Hubble. The top right panel shows the galaxy identifications. The top left panel shows the derived number of globular clusters in each galaxy. [van Dokkum et al. 2017]Globulars GaloreVan Dokkum and collaborators imaged two UDGs with Hubble: Dragonfly 44 and DFX1, both located in the Coma galaxy cluster. These faint galaxies are both smooth and elongated, with no obvious irregular features, spiral arms, star-forming regions, or other indications of tidal interactions

  4. Head and Neck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Liselotte; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Loft, Annika


    Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography with FDG of the head and neck region is mainly used for the diagnosis of head and neck cancer, for staging, treatment evaluation, relapse, and planning of surgery and radio therapy. This article is a practical guide of imaging techniques......, including a detailed protocol for FDG PET in head and neck imaging, physiologic findings, and pitfalls in selected case stories....

  5. Galaxy Zoo: Mergers - Dynamical models of interacting galaxies (United States)

    Holincheck, Anthony J.; Wallin, John F.; Borne, Kirk; Fortson, Lucy; Lintott, Chris; Smith, Arfon M.; Bamford, Steven; Keel, William C.; Parrish, Michael


    The dynamical history of most merging galaxies is not well understood. Correlations between galaxy interaction and star formation have been found in previous studies, but require the context of the physical history of merging systems for full insight into the processes that lead to enhanced star formation. We present the results of simulations that reconstruct the orbit trajectories and disturbed morphologies of pairs of interacting galaxies. With the use of a restricted three-body simulation code and the help of citizen scientists, we sample 105 points in parameter space for each system. We demonstrate a successful recreation of the morphologies of 62 pairs of interacting galaxies through the review of more than 3 million simulations. We examine the level of convergence and uniqueness of the dynamical properties of each system. These simulations represent the largest collection of models of interacting galaxies to date, providing a valuable resource for the investigation of mergers. This paper presents the simulation parameters generated by the project. They are now publicly available in electronic format at Though our best-fitting model parameters are not an exact match to previously published models, our method for determining uncertainty measurements will aid future comparisons between models. The dynamical clocks from our models agree with previous results of the time since the onset of star formation from starburst models in interacting systems and suggest that tidally induced star formation is triggered very soon after closest approach.

  6. XMM-Newton and Chandra Observations of the Galaxy Group NGC 5044. 1; Evidence for Limited Multiphase Hot Gas (United States)

    Buote, David A.; Lewis, Aaron D.; Brighenti, Fabrizio; Mathews, William G.


    additional heating at larger radii may be associated with the evolution of the cold front near R approx. 50 kpc, as suggested by the sharp edge in the EPIC images. Subject headings: cooling flows - galaxies: formation - galaxies: halos - intergalactic medium - X-rays: galaxies: clusters

  7. Probing the mechanism of saccade-associated head movements through observations of head movement propensity and cognition in the elderly. (United States)

    Thumser, Zachary C; Adams, Nancy L; Lerner, Alan J; Stahl, John S


    Humans may accomplish gaze shifts by eye-only saccades or combined eye-head saccades. The mechanisms that determine whether the head moves remain poorly understood. Many observations can be explained if phylogenetically ancient circuits generate eye-head saccades by default and frontal cerebral structures interrupt this synergy when eye-only saccades are preferable. Saccade-associated head movements have been reported to increase in the elderly. To test the hypothesis of frontal inhibition of head movements, we investigated whether the increase is associated with a decline in frontal cognitive function. We measured head movement tendencies and cognition in volunteers aged 61-80. Measures of head movement tendency included the customary range of eye eccentricity, customary range of head eccentricity, range of target eccentricities evoking predominantly eye-only saccades, and two measures of head amplitude variation as a function of target eccentricity. Cognitive measures encompassed verbal fluency, verbal memory, non-verbal memory, and executive function. There was no correlation between cognition and any measure of head movement tendency. We combined these elderly data with measurements of head movements in a group aged 21-67 and found mildly reduced, not increased, head movement tendencies with age. However, when confronted with a task that could be accomplished without moving the head, young subjects were more likely to cease all head movements. While inconclusive regarding the hypothesis of inhibition of saccade-associated head movements by cerebral structures, the results indicate the need to distinguish between mechanisms that define head movement tendencies and mechanisms that adapt head motion to the geometry of a specific task.

  8. Head-to-toe whole-body MRI in psoriatic arthritis, axial spondyloarthritis and healthy subjects: first steps towards global inflammation and damage scores of peripheral and axial joints. (United States)

    Poggenborg, René Panduro; Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Eshed, Iris; Sørensen, Inge Juul; Møller, Jakob M; Madsen, Ole Rintek; Thomsen, Henrik S; Østergaard, Mikkel


    By whole-body MRI (WBMRI), we aimed to examine the frequency and distribution of inflammatory and structural lesions in PsA patients, SpA patients and healthy subjects (HSs), to introduce global WBMRI inflammation/damage scores, and to assess WBMRI's reproducibility and correlation with conventional MRI (convMRI). WBMRI (3.0-T) of patients with peripheral PsA (n = 18) or axial SpA (n = 18) and of HS (n = 12) was examined for proportion of evaluable features (readability) and the presence and pattern of lesions in axial and peripheral joints. Furthermore, global WBMRI scores of inflammation and structural damage were constructed, and WBMRI findings were compared with clinical measures and convMRI (SpA/HS: spine and SI joints; PsA/HS: hand). The readability (92-100%) and reproducibility (intrareader intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.62-1.0) were high in spine/SI joint, but lower in the distal peripheral joints. Wrists, shoulders, knees, ankles and MTP joints were most commonly involved, with frequency of synovitis > bone marrow oedema (BMO) > erosion. WBMRI global BMO scores of peripheral and axial joints were higher in PsA {median 7 [interquartile range (IQR) 3-15]} and SpA [8 (IQR 2-14)] than in HSs [2.5 (IQR 1-4.5)], both P joint scores were ρ = 0.20-0.78. WBMRI allows simultaneous assessment of peripheral and axial joints in PsA and SpA, and the distribution of inflammatory and structural lesions and global scores can be determined. The study strongly encourages further development and longitudinal testing of WBMRI techniques and assessment methods in PsA and SpA. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  9. Star Formation Activity of Barred Spiral Galaxies (United States)

    Kim, Eunbin; Hwang, Ho Seong; Chung, Haeun; Lee, Gwang-Ho; Park, Changbom; Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo; Kim, Sungsoo S.


    We study the star formation activity of nearby galaxies with bars using a sample of late-type galaxies at 0.02≤slant z≤slant 0.05489 and {M}rgas in strongly barred galaxies are smaller than those in non-barred galaxies, and the gas metallicity is higher in strongly barred galaxies than in non-barred galaxies. The gas properties of weakly barred galaxies again show no difference from those of non-barred galaxies. We stack the optical spectra of barred and non-barred galaxies in several mass bins and fit to the stacked spectra with a spectral fitting code, STARLIGHT. We find no significant difference in stellar populations between barred and non-barred galaxies for both strongly and weakly barred galaxies. Our results are consistent with the idea that the star formation activity of barred galaxies was enhanced in the past along with significant gas consumption, and is currently lower than or similar to that of non-barred galaxies. The past star formation enhancement depends on the strength of bars.

  10. The Thousand-Ruby Galaxy (United States)


    ESO's Wide Field Imager has captured the intricate swirls of the spiral galaxy Messier 83, a smaller look-alike of our own Milky Way. Shining with the light of billions of stars and the ruby red glow of hydrogen gas, it is a beautiful example of a barred spiral galaxy, whose shape has led to it being nicknamed the Southern Pinwheel. Messier 83, M83 ESO PR Photo 25/08 Spiral Galaxy Messier 83 This dramatic image of the galaxy Messier 83 was captured by the Wide Field Imager at ESO's La Silla Observatory, located high in the dry desert mountains of the Chilean Atacama Desert. Messier 83 lies roughly 15 million light-years away towards the huge southern constellation of Hydra (the sea serpent). It stretches over 40 000 light-years, making it roughly 2.5 times smaller than our own Milky Way. However, in some respects, Messier 83 is quite similar to our own galaxy. Both the Milky Way and Messier 83 possess a bar across their galactic nucleus, the dense spherical conglomeration of stars seen at the centre of the galaxies. This very detailed image shows the spiral arms of Messier 83 adorned by countless bright flourishes of ruby red light. These are in fact huge clouds of glowing hydrogen gas. Ultraviolet radiation from newly born, massive stars is ionising the gas in these clouds, causing the great regions of hydrogen to glow red. These star forming regions are contrasted dramatically in this image against the ethereal glow of older yellow stars near the galaxy's central hub. The image also shows the delicate tracery of dark and winding dust streams weaving throughout the arms of the galaxy. Messier 83 was discovered by the French astronomer Nicolas Louis de Lacaille in the mid 18th century. Decades later it was listed in the famous catalogue of deep sky objects compiled by another French astronomer and famous comet hunter, Charles Messier. Recent observations of this enigmatic galaxy in ultraviolet light and radio waves have shown that even its outer desolate regions

  11. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): A “No Smoking” Zone for Giant Elliptical Galaxies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khosroshahi, Habib G.; Raouf, Mojtaba; Miraghaei, Halime; Brough, Sarah; Croton, Darren J.; Driver, Simon; Graham, Alister; Baldry, Ivan; Brown, Michael; Prescott, Matt; Wang, Lingyu


    We study the radio emission of the most massive galaxies in a sample of dynamically relaxed and unrelaxed galaxy groups from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly survey. The dynamical state of the group is defined by the stellar dominance of the brightest group galaxy (BGG), e.g., the luminosity gap between



    These four close-up views are taken from a head-on collision between two spiral galaxies, called the Antennae galaxies, seen at image center. The scale bar at the top of each image is 1,500 light-years across. [Left images] The collision triggers the birth of new stars in brilliant blue star clusters, the brightest of which contains roughly a million stars. The star clusters are blue because they are very young, the youngest being only a few million years old, a mere blink of the eye on the astronomical time scale. [Right images] These close-up views of the cores of each galaxy show entrapped dust and gas funneled into the center. The nucleus of NGC 4038 (lower right) is obscured by dust which dims and reddens starlight by scattering the shorter, bluer wavelengths. This is also the reason the young star clusters in the dusty regions appear red instead of blue. This natural-color image is a composite of four separately filtered images taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2), on January 20, 1996. Resolution is 15 light-years per pixel (picture element). Credit: Brad Whitmore (STScI), and NASA

  13. The Road to Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Keel, William C


    The formation of galaxies is one of the greatest puzzles in astronomy, the solution is shrouded in the depths of space and time, but has profound implications for the universe we observe today. The book discusses the beginnings of the process from cosmological observations and calculations, considers the broad features of galaxies that we need to explain and what we know of their later history. The author compares the competing theories for galaxy formation and considers the progress expected from new generations of powerful telescopes both on earth and in space. In this second edition the author has retained the observationally-based approach of the first edition, a feature which was particularly well-reviewed: Writing in Nature, Carlton Baugh noted in February 2003 that “It is refreshing, in a market dominated by theorists, to come across a book on galaxy formation written from an observational perspective. The Road to Galaxy Formation should prove to be a handy primer on observations for graduate student...

  14. Three intervening galaxy absorbers towards GRB 060418

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellison, S. L.; Vreeswijk, P.; Ledoux, C.


    Dust, extinction: galaxies: ISM: quasars: absorption lines: gamma-rays: bursts Udgivelsesdato: 10 August......Dust, extinction: galaxies: ISM: quasars: absorption lines: gamma-rays: bursts Udgivelsesdato: 10 August...

  15. Statistical study of some Lee galaxy groups (United States)

    Mohamed, Sabry A.; Fouad, Ahmed M.


    Compact groups of galaxies are systems of small number of galaxies close to each other. They are a good laboratory to study galaxy properties, such as structure, morphology and evolution which are affected by the environment and galaxy interactions. We applied the tree clustering technique (the Euclidean separation distance coefficients) to test the physical reality of groups and used certain criteria (Sabry et al., 2009) depending on the physical attributes of the galaxies. The sample of the data is the quintets groups of Lee compact groups of galaxies (Lee et al., 2004). It is based on a modified version of Hickson's criteria (Hickson, 1982). The results reveal the membership of each galaxy and how it is related to its group. The tables of groups and their members are included. Our results indicates that 12 Groups are real groups with real members while 18 Groups have one galaxy that has attribute discordant and should be discarded from its group.

  16. Cosmology: Photons from dwarf galaxy zap hydrogen (United States)

    Erb, Dawn K.


    The detection of photons sufficiently energetic to ionize neutral hydrogen, coming from a compact, star-forming galaxy, offers clues to how the first generation of galaxies may have reionized hydrogen gas in the early Universe. See Letter p.178

  17. Multiple Supernova Explosions in a Forming Galaxy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Masayuki Umemura; Andrea Ferrara


    Ultra-high resolution hydrodynamic simulations using 1024 3 grid points are performed of a very large supernova burst in a forming galaxy, with properties similar to those inferred for Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — DATA MINING THE GALAXY ZOO MERGERS STEVEN BAEHR, ARUN VEDACHALAM, KIRK BORNE, AND DANIEL SPONSELLER Abstract. Collisions between pairs of galaxies usually end in the...

  19. Ammonia Thermometry of Star Forming Galaxies


    Mangum, Jeffrey G.; Darling, Jeremy; Henkel, Christian; Menten, Karl M.; MacGregor, Meredith; Svoboda, Brian E.; Schinnerer, Eva


    With a goal toward deriving the physical conditions in external galaxies, we present a study of the ammonia (NH$_3$) emission and absorption in a sample of star forming systems. Using the unique sensitivities to kinetic temperature afforded by the excitation characteristics of several inversion transitions of NH$_3$, we have continued our characterization of the dense gas in star forming galaxies by measuring the kinetic temperature in a sample of 23 galaxies and one galaxy offset position se...

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, ... is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside ...

  1. Head Injuries in Children (United States)

    Pennington, Nicole


    School nurses play a crucial role in injury prevention and initial treatment when injuries occur at school. The role of school nurses includes being knowledgeable about the management of head injuries, including assessment and initial treatment. The school nurse must be familiar with the outcomes of a head injury and know when further evaluation…

  2. Abnormal Head Position (United States)

    ... non-ocular causes of an abnormal head position? Congenital shortening of the neck muscles (sternocleidomastoid) can cause a head tilt. This is ... amblyopia) are other treatment alternatives. Physical therapy helps congenital torticollis from tight neck muscles. Updated ... Terms & Conditions Most Common ...

  3. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of CT Scanning of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside of ...

  4. Head Start in Action. (United States)

    Riley, Clara M. D.; Epps, Frances M. J.

    Records and observations from a summer Head Start program, conducted in Los Angeles by Delta Sigma Theta, are delineated in this book. It relates firsthand experiences of the participating personnel as they developed and implemented a Head Start program for some 300 children. The book is divided into three sections. Section I,…

  5. Porcine head response to blast. (United States)

    Shridharani, Jay K; Wood, Garrett W; Panzer, Matthew B; Capehart, Bruce P; Nyein, Michelle K; Radovitzky, Raul A; Bass, Cameron R 'dale'


    Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposes porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110 to 740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3 to 6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. Instrumentation was placed on the porcine head to measure bulk acceleration, pressure at the surface of the head, and pressure inside the cranial cavity. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within 30 s and the remaining two recovered within 8 min following respiratory assistance and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80 to 390 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300-2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385 to 3845 G's and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R(2) = 0.90). One SD corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure (ICP), and head acceleration are

  6. Magnetogravitodynamics model of galaxy formation (United States)

    Greyber, Howard D.


    Unless the tau neutrino is discovered to have an appropriate size mass, the theories of galaxy formation involving only gravity may not fit the observations. A model within the Big Bang hypothesis is described with processes occurring after ``Breakout'' that lead to the concentration of matter along thin spatially curved current sheets. When a critical density is reached, gravitational collapse occurs, forming galaxies in many places along thin spatially curved sheets surrounding huge voids, in a cellular structure, as in the observations by Geller, Huchra et al. The origin of a primordial magnetic field concentrated in the sheets is explained. The model predicts that much of the missing dark matter is located along the thin spatially curved sheets of galaxies.

  7. Statistics of the galaxy distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez, Vicent J


    Over the last decade, statisticians have developed new statistical tools in the field of spatial point processes. At the same time, observational efforts have yielded a huge amount of new cosmological data to analyze. Although the main tools in astronomy for comparing theoretical results with observation are statistical, in recent years, cosmologists have not been generally aware of the developments in statistics and vice versa.Statistics of the Galaxy Distribution describes both the available observational data on the distribution of galaxies and the applications of spatial statistics in cosmology. It gives a detailed derivation of the statistical methods used to study the galaxy distribution and the cosmological physics needed to formulate the statistical models. Because the prevalent approach in cosmological statistics has been frequentist, the authors focus on the most widely used of these methods, but they also explore Bayesian techniques that have become popular in large-scale structure studies.Describi...

  8. Formation of dwarf ellipticals and dwarf irregular galaxies by interaction of giant galaxies under environmental influence


    Chattopadhyay, Tanuka; Debsarma, Suma; Karmakar, Pradip; Davoust, Emmanuel


    A model is proposed for the formation of gas-rich dwarf irregular galaxies and gas-poor, rotating dwarf elliptical galaxies following the interaction between two giant galaxies as a function of space density. The formation of dwarf galaxies is considered to depend on a random variable, the tidal index theta, an environmental parameter defined by Karachentsev et al. (2004), such that for theta less than zero, the formation of dwarf irregular galaxy is assured whereas for theta greater than zer...


    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  10. Dark matter in low surface brightness galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Blok, WJG; McGaugh, SS; Persic, M; Salucci, P


    Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies form a large population of disc galaxies that extend the Hubble sequence towards extreme late-types. They are only slowly evolving, and still in an early evolutionary state. The Tully-Fisher relation and rotation curves of LSB galaxies both show that LSB

  11. Central condensations in Seyfert galaxies. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afanas' ev, V.L.; Pimonov, A.A.; Terebizh, V.Yu. (AN SSSR, Nizhnij Arkhyz. Spetsial' naya Astrofizicheskaya Observatoriya)


    Results of observations with scanning photometer of 7 normal and 17 Seyfert galaxies show that in the Seyfert galaxies a central regions of 3-4 kpc in size exist noted for the high stellar density. A correlation between the volume luminosity of spherical component and the luminosity of the galaxy nucleus is found.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies are galaxies dominated by an exponential disc whose central surface brightness is much fainter than the value of mu(B)(0) = 21.65 +/- 0.30 mag arcsec(-2) found by Freeman. In this paper we present broadband photometry of a sample of 21 late-type LSB galaxies.

  13. Resolving gas-phase metallicity in galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, D.J.


    Galaxies are environments where gas coalesces, cools, and is converted into stars. However, it remains unclear the exact mechanisms through which galaxies acquire, redistribute and lose their gas. The fresh gas that flows into galaxies is primarily composed of Hydrogen and Helium. But because a

  14. Galaxies with "rows": A new catalog (United States)

    Butenko, M. A.; Khoperskov, A. V.


    Galaxies with "rows" in Vorontsov-Velyaminov's terminology stand out among the variety of spiral galactic patterns. A characteristic feature of such objects is the sequence of straight-line segments that forms the spiral arm. In 2001 A. Chernin and co-authors published a catalog of such galaxies which includes 204 objects from the Palomar Atlas. In this paper, we supplement the catalog with 276 objects based on an analysis of all the galaxies from the New General Catalogue and Index Catalogue. The total number of NGC and IC galaxies with rows is 406, including the objects of Chernin et al. (2001). The use of more recent galaxy images allowed us to detect more "rows" on average, compared with the catalog of Chernin et al. When comparing the principal galaxy properties we found no significant differences between galaxies with rows and all S-typeNGC/IC galaxies.We discuss twomechanisms for the formation of polygonal structures based on numerical gas-dynamic and collisionless N-body calculations, which demonstrate that a spiral pattern with rows is a transient stage in the evolution of galaxies and a system with a powerful spiral structure can pass through this stage. The hypothesis of A. Chernin et al. (2001) that the occurrence frequency of interacting galaxies is twice higher among galaxies with rows is not confirmed for the combined set of 480 galaxies. The presence of a central stellar bar appears to be a favorable factor for the formation of a system of "rows".

  15. X-ray Galaxy Clusters & Cosmology (United States)

    Ettori, Stefano


    I present a summary of the four lectures given on these topics: (i) Galaxy Clusters in a cosmological context: an introduction; (ii) Galaxy Clusters in X-ray: how and what we observe, limits and prospects; (iii) X-ray Galaxy Clusters and Cosmology: total mass, gas mass & systematics; (iv) Properties of the ICM: scaling laws and metallicity.

  16. Stars at Low Metallicity in Dwarf Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, Eline; Battaglia, Giuseppina; Cole, Andrew; Hunt, LK; Madden, S; Schneider, R


    Dwarf galaxies offer an opportunity to understand the properties of low metallicity star formation both today and at the earliest times at the, epoch of the formation of the first stars. Here we concentrate on two galaxies in the Local Group: the dwarf irregular galaxy Leo A, which has been the

  17. The Metallicity of Void Dwarf Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreckel, K.; Croxall, K.; Groves, B.; van de Weygaert, R.; Pogge, R. W.

    The current ΛCDM cosmological model predicts that galaxy evolution proceeds more slowly in lower density environments, suggesting that voids are a prime location to search for relatively pristine galaxies that are representative of the building blocks of early massive galaxies. To test the

  18. Dark Matter in Low Surface Brightness Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, W. J. G. de; McGaugh, S. S.


    Abstract: Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies form a large population of disc galaxies that extend the Hubble sequence towards extreme late-types. They are only slowly evolving, and still in an early evolutionary state. The Tully-Fisher relation and rotation curves of LSB galaxies both show that

  19. 10 billion years of massive Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, Edward Nairne Cunningham


    The most massive galaxies in the local universe are not forming new stars -- but we don’t know why. As a step towards figuring out why big galaxies stop forming stars, we set out to measure when they stop forming stars. By looking at the colors of massive galaxies have changed over 10 billion

  20. On the subject-predicate relation and subject agreement in SiSwati ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper also argues that subject agreement is a purely syntactic phenomenon that takes place in a spec-head relationship. It proposes that subject agreement is triggered by verbs, and that multiple subject agreement within a clause occurs when auxiliary verbs iterate. The theoretical consequences of the analysis ...

  1. Galaxy Mergers Moulding the CGM (United States)

    Hani, Maan H.; Sparre, Martin; Ellison, Sara L.; Torrey, Paul; Vogelsberger, Mark


    Galaxies are surrounded by sizeable gas reservoirs which host a significant amount of metals: the circum-galactic medium (CGM). The CGM acts as a mediator between the galaxy and the extra-galactic medium. However, our understanding of how galaxy mergers, a major evolutionary transformation, impact the CGM remains deficient. We present a theoretical study of the effect of galaxy mergers on the CGM: We use hydrodynamical cosmological zoom-in simulations of a major merger selected from the Illustris project such that the z=0 descendant is a Milky Way-like galaxy, and then re-simulated at a 40 times higher mass resolution. We include post-processing ionization modelling. This work demonstrates the effect the merger has on the characteristic size of the CGM, its metallicity and the predicted covering fraction of various commonly observed gas-phase species, such as H I, C IV and O VI. We show that merger-induced outflows can increase the CGM metallicity by 0.2-0.3 dex within 0.5 Gyr post-merger. These effects last up to 6 Gyr post-merger. While the merger increases the total metal covering fractions by factors of 2-3, the covering fractions of commonly observed UV ions decrease due to the hard ionizing radiation from the active galactic nucleus. The case study of the single simulated major merger presented in this work demonstrates the significant impact that a galaxy interaction can have on the size, metallicity and observed column densities of the CGM (Hani et al. in prep).

  2. Driving with head-slaved camera system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oving, A.B.; Erp, J.B.F. van


    In a field experiment, we tested the effectiveness of a head-slaved camera system for driving an armoured vehicle under armour. This system consists of a helmet-mounted display (HMD), a headtracker, and a motion platform with two cameras. Subjects performed several driving tasks on paved and in

  3. The HIX galaxy survey II: HI kinematics of HI eXtreme galaxies (United States)

    Lutz, K. A.; Kilborn, V. A.; Koribalski, B. S.; Catinella, B.; Józsa, G. I. G.; Wong, O. I.; Stevens, A. R. H.; Obreschkow, D.; Dénes, H.


    By analysing a sample of galaxies selected from the HI Parkes All Sky Survey (HIPASS) to contain more than 2.5 times their expected HI content based on their optical properties, we investigate what drives these HI eXtreme (HIX) galaxies to be so HI-rich. We model the H I kinematics with the Tilted Ring Fitting Code TiRiFiC and compare the observed HIX galaxies to a control sample of galaxies from HIPASS as well as simulated galaxies built with the semi-analytic model DARK SAGE. We find that (1) H I discs in HIX galaxies are more likely to be warped and more likely to host H I arms and tails than in the control galaxies, (2) the average H I and average stellar column density of HIX galaxies is comparable to the control sample, (3) HIX galaxies have higher H I and baryonic specific angular momenta than control galaxies, (4) most HIX galaxies live in higher-spin haloes than most control galaxies. These results suggest that HIX galaxies are H I-rich because they can support more H I against gravitational instability due to their high specific angular momentum. The majority of the HIX galaxies inherits their high specific angular momentum from their halo. The H I content of HIX galaxies might be further increased by gas-rich minor mergers. This paper is based on data obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) through the large program C 2705.

  4. 1 CFR 21.19 - Composition of part headings. (United States)


    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Composition of part headings. 21.19 Section 21.19 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PREPARATION, TRANSMITTAL, AND PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS PREPARATION OF DOCUMENTS SUBJECT TO CODIFICATION General Headings § 21.19 Composition...

  5. Learning people's names following severe closed-head injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milders, M.V.

    Although problems remembering people's names rank highly among the subjective complaints of patients with closed-head injuries, very few studies have examined their memory for people's names by objective measurements. An experiment is reported in which patients with severe closed-head injuries and

  6. Parental determinants of offspring head circumference using a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The baby's head circumference was measured immediately after birth. The data were subjected to multivariate analysis. Results: The parental variables that were most predictive of babies' head circumference were mid-parental weight, maternal height, maternal weight gain during pregnancy and maternal age. Conclusion: ...

  7. Sweating the small stuff: simulating dwarf galaxies, ultra-faint dwarf galaxies, and their own tiny satellites (United States)

    Wheeler, Coral Rose

    that can continue to form stars in isolation after reionization. Finally, we perform a systematic Bayesian analysis of rotation vs. dispersion support (vrot/sigma) in 40 dwarf galaxies throughout the Local Volume (LV) over a stellar mass range 103.5 M sun < M* < 108 Msun. We find that the stars in 80% of the LV dwarf galaxies studied -- both satellites and isolated systems -- are dispersion-supported. These results challenge the traditional view that the stars in gas-rich dwarf irregulars (dIrrs) are distributed in cold, rotationally-supported stellar disks, while gas-poor dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) are kinematically distinct in having dispersion supported stars. We apply the same Bayesian analysis to four of the FIRE/Gizmo hydrodynamic zoom-in simulations of isolated dwarf galaxies (109 Msun < M vir < 1010 Msun) and show that the simulated isolated dIrr galaxies have stellar ellipticities and stellar vrot/sigma ratios that are consistent with the observed population of dIrrs and dSphs without the need to subject these dwarfs to any external perturbations or tidal forces. We posit that most dwarf galaxies form as puffy, dispersion-dominated systems, rather than cold, angular momentum-supported disks. If this is the case, then transforming a dIrr into a dSph may require little more than removing its gas.

  8. Escape of ionizing radiation from star-forming regions in Young galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razoumov, A; Sommer-Larsen, Jesper


    Galaxies: Formation, Galaxies: Intergalactic Medium, ISM: H II Regions, Radiative Transfer Udgivelsesdato: Nov. 10......Galaxies: Formation, Galaxies: Intergalactic Medium, ISM: H II Regions, Radiative Transfer Udgivelsesdato: Nov. 10...

  9. Baseline head in Olkiluoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahokas, H.; Tammisto, E.; Lehtimaeki, T. (Poeyry Environment Oy, Vantaa (Finland))


    As part of the programme for the final disposal of the spent nuclear fuel, Posiva Oy investigates the prevailing hydrological conditions on Olkiluoto island. The hydrological investigations have included several kinds of hydrological tests such as measurements of hydraulic conductivity by flow logging and a double-packer tool as well as interference tests by pumping, in order to study the hydraulic connections between the drillholes. In addition, long-term monitoring of groundwater level and groundwater head as well as measurements of flow conditions in open drillholes, groundwater salinity (in situ EC), precipitation (including snow), sea-water level, surface flow (runoff) etc. have been part of the investigation programme aiming at the characterization of the bedrock. The data have been used in the compilation of deterministic hydro-zones and hydraulic properties for numerical flow modelling to study the flow pattern on Olkiluoto island. In addition, the compiled bedrock models have been used in the planning of the repository layout and in the analyses of the transport of radionuclides and the functionality of engineered barriers. This report focuses on the measurements of groundwater head by means of multi-packers and in connection with flow loggings. The determination of the undisturbed groundwater head (baseline head) in terms of the in situ fresh water head is the main goal of this report. The density of groundwater is strongly dependent on salinity and due to the saline groundwater deep in the bedrock in Olkiluoto the term fresh water head is used instead of hydraulic head. Taking the density of groundwater into account, the gradient of the residual pressure, which actually causes groundwater flow can be calculated. The measured and calculated heads are converted into corresponding in situ fresh water heads, which correspond to the water level (metres above sea level) in the hose that runs from the packed-off section to the ground surface. This means that

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive ... top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the head is ...

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR imaging of the head is performed ...

  12. Ulnar head replacement. (United States)

    Herbert, Timothy J; van Schoonhoven, Joerg


    Recent years have seen an increasing awareness of the anatomical and biomechanical significance of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). With this has come a more critical approach to surgical management of DRUJ disorders and a realization that all forms of "excision arthroplasty" can only restore forearm rotation at the expense of forearm stability. This, in turn, has led to renewed interest in prosthetic replacement of the ulnar head, a procedure that had previously fallen into disrepute because of material failures with early implants, in particular, the Swanson silicone ulnar head replacement. In response to these early failures, a new prosthesis was developed in the early 1990s, using materials designed to withstand the loads across the DRUJ associated with normal functional use of the upper limb. Released onto the market in 1995 (Herbert ulnar head prosthesis), clinical experience during the last 10 years has shown that this prosthesis is able to restore forearm function after ulnar head excision and that the materials (ceramic head and noncemented titanium stem), even with normal use of the limb, are showing no signs of failure in the medium to long term. As experience with the use of an ulnar head prosthesis grows, so does its acceptance as a viable and attractive alternative to more traditional operations, such as the Darrach and Sauve-Kapandji procedures. This article discusses the current indications and contraindications for ulnar head replacement and details the surgical procedure, rehabilitation, and likely outcomes.

  13. Watching a Cannibal Galaxy Dine (United States)


    A new technique using near-infrared images, obtained with ESO's 3.58-metre New Technology Telescope (NTT), allows astronomers to see through the opaque dust lanes of the giant cannibal galaxy Centaurus A, unveiling its "last meal" in unprecedented detail - a smaller spiral galaxy, currently twisted and warped. This amazing image also shows thousands of star clusters, strewn like glittering gems, churning inside Centaurus A. Centaurus A (NGC 5128) is the nearest giant, elliptical galaxy, at a distance of about 11 million light-years. One of the most studied objects in the southern sky, by 1847 the unique appearance of this galaxy had already caught the attention of the famous British astronomer John Herschel, who catalogued the southern skies and made a comprehensive list of nebulae. Herschel could not know, however, that this beautiful and spectacular appearance is due to an opaque dust lane that covers the central part of the galaxy. This dust is thought to be the remains of a cosmic merger between a giant elliptical galaxy and a smaller spiral galaxy full of dust. Between 200 and 700 million years ago, this galaxy is indeed believed to have consumed a smaller spiral, gas-rich galaxy - the contents of which appear to be churning inside Centaurus A's core, likely triggering new generations of stars. First glimpses of the "leftovers" of this meal were obtained thanks to observations with the ESA Infrared Space Observatory , which revealed a 16 500 light-year-wide structure, very similar to that of a small barred galaxy. More recently, NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope resolved this structure into a parallelogram, which can be explained as the remnant of a gas-rich spiral galaxy falling into an elliptical galaxy and becoming twisted and warped in the process. Galaxy merging is the most common mechanism to explain the formation of such giant elliptical galaxies. The new SOFI images, obtained with the 3.58-metre New Technology Telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory

  14. Samsung Galaxy S5 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, Bill


    Explore Samsung's next generation Galaxy smartphone Do you want an easy-to-follow guide to everything your new Galaxy S5 smartphone can do? From the basics of texting and accessing the Internet to the most advanced features and new software apps, Samsung Galaxy S5 For Dummies makes the need for tech support obsolete. The Galaxy S5 is designed to be faster and more powerful than ever. This latest release in the market-leading line of smartphones is full of new features for you to explore with the help of Samsung Galaxy S5 For Dummies. With over 1 million apps available for the Google Android o

  15. Star-Formation Histories of MUSCEL Galaxies (United States)

    Young, Jason; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Xuesong Wang, Sharon


    The MUSCEL program (MUltiwavelength observations of the Structure, Chemistry and Evolution of LSB galaxies) uses combined ground-based/space-based data to determine the spatially resolved star-formation histories of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. LSB galaxies are paradoxical in that they are gas rich but have low star-formation rates. Here we present our observations and fitting technique, and the derived histories for select MUSCEL galaxies. It is our aim to use these histories in tandem with velocity fields and metallicity profiles to determine the physical mechanism(s) that give these faint galaxies low star-formation rates despite ample gas supplies.

  16. Investigating Galaxy Merger Signatures with IGNITE (United States)

    Zagursky, Matthew J.; Lotz, J. M.


    I present the software package IGNITE, the Interacting Galaxy Non-Interactive Tail Extractor. Its purpose is to locate tidal tails and quantify their morphological and photometric properties. I demonstrate the effective use of IGNITE on the case galaxy of NGC 2623 and report the photometric and morphological signatures of tidal tails in this galaxy. The future of the IGNITE package is a merge with other successful software packages aimed at quantifying merging galaxies to further enhance the accuracy of the quantitative measurements of morphologies and photometry profiles of merging galaxy candidates

  17. Galaxy Evolution in Clusters Since z ~ 1 (United States)

    Aragón-Salamanca, A.

    Galaxy clusters provide some of the most extreme environments in which galaxies evolve, making them excellent laboratories to study the age old question of "nature" vs. "nurture" in galaxy evolution. Here I review some of the key observational results obtained during the last decade on the evolution of the morphology, structure, dynamics, star-formation history and stellar populations of cluster galaxies since the time when the Universe was half its present age. Many of the results presented here have been obtained within the ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS) and Space Telescope A901/02 Galaxy Evolution Survey (STAGES) collaborations.

  18. PROFILER: 1D galaxy light profile decomposition (United States)

    Ciambur, Bogdan C.


    Written in Python, PROFILER analyzes the radial surface brightness profiles of galaxies. It accurately models a wide range of galaxies and galaxy components, such as elliptical galaxies, the bulges of spiral and lenticular galaxies, nuclear sources, discs, bars, rings, and spiral arms with a variety of parametric functions routinely employed in the field (Sérsic, core-Sérsic, exponential, Gaussian, Moffat and Ferrers). In addition, Profiler can employ the broken exponential model (relevant for disc truncations or antitruncations) and two special cases of the edge-on disc model: namely along the major axis (in the disc plane) and along the minor axis (perpendicular to the disc plane).

  19. Subject-verb number (disagreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Isac


    Full Text Available This paper discusses cases of number mismatches between subjects and verbs. The main proposal is that subject-verb agreement is not in number but in a different feature, that we call Cardinality. Cardinality is a feature of DPs that is computed on the basis of number features and collectivity features carried by various heads in the DP. The “computation” of the Cardinality feature proceeds internal to the feature matrix of one lexical item - the D. The values of the number and collectivity features carried by various heads in the DP are transferred to the D by means of a feature checking mechanism and the value of the Cardinality feature is then derived from these.

  20. Blueberry Galaxies: The Lowest Mass Young Starbursts (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Wang, Junxian


    Searching for extreme emission line galaxies allows us to find low-mass metal-poor galaxies that are good analogs of high redshift Lyα emitting galaxies. These low-mass extreme emission line galaxies are also potential Lyman-continuum leakers. Finding them at very low redshifts (z≲ 0.05) allows us to be sensitive to even lower stellar masses and metallicities. We report on a sample of extreme emission line galaxies at z≲ 0.05 (blueberry galaxies). We selected them from SDSS broadband images on the basis of their broadband colors and studied their properties with MMT spectroscopy. From the entire SDSS DR12 photometric catalog, we found 51 photometric candidates. We spectroscopically confirm 40 as blueberry galaxies. (An additional seven candidates are contaminants, and four remain without spectra.) These blueberries are dwarf starburst galaxies with very small sizes (<1 kpc) and very high ionization ([O III]/[O II] ˜ 10-60). They also have some of the lowest stellar masses ({log}(M/{M}⊙ )˜ 6.5{--}7.5) and lowest metallicities (7.1< 12+{log}({{O}}/{{H}})< 7.8) of starburst galaxies. Thus, they are small counterparts to green pea galaxies and high redshift Lyα emitting galaxies.

  1. The Cambridge photographic atlas of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    König, Michael


    Galaxies - the Milky Way's siblings - offer a surprising variety of forms and colours. Displaying symmetrical spiral arms, glowing red nebulae or diffuse halos, even the image of a galaxy can reveal much about its construction. All galaxies consist of gas, dust and stars, but the effects of gravity, dark matter and the interaction of star formation and stellar explosions all influence their appearances. This volume showcases more than 250 of the most beautiful galaxies within an amateur's reach and uses them to explain current astrophysical research. It features fantastic photographs, unique insights into our knowledge, tips on astrophotography and essential facts and figures based on the latest science. From the Andromeda Galaxy to galaxy clusters and gravitational lenses, the nature of galaxies is revealed through these stunning amateur photographs. This well illustrated reference atlas deserves a place on the bookshelves of astronomical imagers, observers and armchair enthusiasts.

  2. Colours, luminosity functions and counts of galaxies (United States)

    Saracco, P.; Chincarini, G.; Iovino, A.


    Standard models for deep galaxy counts are based on luminosity functions (LFs) that have a relatively flat faint end (alpha~-1.0). Galaxy counts in the B band exceed the prediction of such models from a factor of 2 to more than a factor of 5, forcing the introduction of strong luminosity and/or density evolution. Recently Marzke, Huchra & Geller, using the CfA redshift survey sample, found that the number of galaxies in the range -16<2.5 for dwarf galaxies, we reproduce well also the observed K-band deep galaxy counts. This assumption is supported by the strong correlation we found between B-K colour of galaxies and their infrared absolute magnitude: galaxies become bluer with decreasing luminosity.

  3. Star formation suppression in compact group galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alatalo, K.; Appleton, P. N.; Lisenfeld, U.


    on poststarburst galaxies with molecular reservoirs, indicates that galaxies do not need to expel their molecular reservoirs prior to quenching SF and transitioning from blue spirals to red early-type galaxies. This may imply that SF quenching can occur without the need to starve a galaxy of cold gas first.......We present CO(1-0) maps of 12 warm H-2-selected Hickson Compact Groups (HCGs), covering 14 individually imaged warm H2 bright galaxies, with the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter Astronomy. We found a variety of molecular gas distributions within the HCGs, including regularly rotating disks......, bars, rings, tidal tails, and possibly nuclear outflows, though the molecular gas morphologies are more consistent with spirals and earlytype galaxies than mergers and interacting systems. Our CO-imaged HCG galaxies, when plotted on the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, shows star formation (SF) suppression...

  4. Angular Momentum of Dwarf Galaxies (United States)

    Butler, Kirsty M.; Obreschkow, Danail; Oh, Se-Heon


    We present measurements of baryonic mass {M}{{b}} and specific angular momentum (sAM) {j}{{b}} in 14 rotating dwarf Irregular (dIrr) galaxies from the LITTLE THINGS sample. These measurements, based on 21 cm kinematic data from the Very Large Array and stellar mass maps from the Spitzer Space Telescope, extend previous AM measurements by more than two orders of magnitude in {M}{{b}}. The dwarf galaxies show systematically higher {j}{{b}} values than expected from the {j}{{b}}\\propto {M}{{b}}2/3 scaling of spiral galaxies, representative of a scale-free galaxy formation scenario. This offset can be explained by decreasing baryon mass fractions {f}{{M}}={M}{{b}}/{M}{dyn} (where {M}{dyn} is the dynamical mass) with decreasing {M}{{b}} (for {M}{{b}}< {10}11 {M}⊙ ). We find that the sAM of neutral atomic hydrogen (H I) alone is about 2.5 times higher than that of the stars. The M-j relation of H I is significantly steeper than that of the stars, as a direct consequence of the systematic variation of the H I fraction with {M}{{b}}.

  5. What powers luminous infrared galaxies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutz, D; Genzel, R; Sternberg, A; Netzer, H; Kunze, D; Rigopoulou, D; Sturm, E; Egami, E; Feuchtgruber, H; Moorwood, AFM; deGraauw, T


    Based on the initial data sets taken with the ISO short wavelength spectrometer (SWS) we present a first discussion of the source of luminosity of (ultra-)luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). By comparison of observations of 2.5-45 mu m lines to classical starbursts and active galactic nuclei and by

  6. Galaxy Classifications with Deep Learning (United States)

    Lukic, Vesna; Brüggen, Marcus


    Machine learning techniques have proven to be increasingly useful in astronomical applications over the last few years, for example in object classification, estimating redshifts and data mining. One example of object classification is classifying galaxy morphology. This is a tedious task to do manually, especially as the datasets become larger with surveys that have a broader and deeper search-space. The Kaggle Galaxy Zoo competition presented the challenge of writing an algorithm to find the probability that a galaxy belongs in a particular class, based on SDSS optical spectroscopy data. The use of convolutional neural networks (convnets), proved to be a popular solution to the problem, as they have also produced unprecedented classification accuracies in other image databases such as the database of handwritten digits (MNIST †) and large database of images (CIFAR ‡). We experiment with the convnets that comprised the winning solution, but using broad classifications. The effect of changing the number of layers is explored, as well as using a different activation function, to help in developing an intuition of how the networks function and to see how they can be applied to radio galaxy images.

  7. Interactions and Mergers of Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 3. Interactions and Mergers of Galaxies. S M Alladin S N Hasan. General Article Volume 12 Issue 3 March 2007 pp 13-26. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  8. The Subject Headings of the Morris Swett Library, USAFAS. Revised. (United States)


    Sparrow) S7 (Sparrow I) S71 (Sparrow II) S72 (Sparrow III) S73 ( Sprint ) S78 (Talos-W) T2 (Terrier) T3 (Terrier iB) T31 (TOW) (Typhoon) T9 (XSSM-A-1... VOLLEYBALL (GV 1017) VOLTAGE DIVIDERS VOLTOHMETER (TK 7879.2) VOLTURNO, BATTLE OF THE, 1943 (D 763.161 V7) VOLUNTEERS, MILITARY (UB 323) VOODOOISM

  9. Galaxies on Top of Quasars: Probing Dwarf Galaxies in the SDSS (United States)

    Straka, Lorrie; York, D. G.; Noterdaeme, P.; Srianand, R.; Bowen, D. V.; Khare, P.; Bishof, M.; Whichard, Z.; Kulkarni, V. P.


    Absorption lines from galaxies at intervening redshifts in quasar spectra are sensitive probes of metals and gas that are otherwise invisible due to distance or low surface brightness. However, in order to determine the environments these absorption lines arise in, we must detect these galaxies in emission as well. Galaxies on top of quasars (GOTOQs) are low-z galaxies found intervening with background quasars in the SDSS. These galaxies have been flagged for their narrow galactic emission lines present in quasar spectra in the SDSS. Typically, the low-z nature of these galaxies allows them to be easily detected in SDSS imaging. However, a number of GOTOQs (about 10%), despite being detected in spectral emission, are NOT seen in SDSS imaging. This implies that these may be dark galaxies, dwarf galaxies, or similarly low surface brightness galaxies. Additionally, about 25% of those detected in imaging are dwarf galaxies according to their L* values. Dwarf galaxies have long been underrepresented in observations compared to theory and are known to have large extents in dark matter. Given their prevalence here in our sample we must ask what role they play in quasar absorption line systems (QSOALS). Recent detections of 21-cm galaxies with few stars imply that aborted star formation in dark matter sub halos may produce QSOALS. Thus, this sub sample of galaxies offers a unique technique for probing dark and dwarf galaxies. The sample and its properties will be discussed, including star formation rates and dust estimates, as well as prospects for the future.

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you! Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery ... Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to ...

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tomography (CT) Safety During Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear ... or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search the ...

  12. Overview of Head Injuries (United States)

    ... brain. If the head injury is very severe, mechanical ventilation may be used. Doctors control blood pressure and minimize the amount of brain swelling by adjusting the amount of intravenous fluids given and sometimes by giving intravenous drugs that ...

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... headaches, dizziness, and other symptoms of aneurysm, bleeding, stroke and brain tumors. It also helps your doctor ... scanning provides more detailed information on head injuries, stroke , brain tumors and other brain diseases than regular ...

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be necessary. Your doctor will explain the exact reason why another exam is requested. Sometimes a follow- ... limitations of CT Scanning of the Head? A person who is very large may not fit into ...

  15. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medically necessary because of potential risk to the baby. This risk is, however, minimal with head CT ... intravenous contrast indicate mothers should not breastfeed their babies for 24-48 hours after contrast medium is ...

  16. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... assess head injuries, severe headaches, dizziness, and other symptoms of aneurysm, bleeding, stroke and brain tumors. It ... within the brain shortly after a patient exhibits symptoms of a stroke. a stroke, especially with a ...

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scans in children should always be done with low-dose technique. top of page What are the ... page Additional Information and Resources Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and ...

  18. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this tunnel. Rotating around you, the x-ray tube and electronic x-ray detectors are located opposite ... medically necessary because of potential risk to the baby. This risk is, however, minimal with head CT ...

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... microphone. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways CT scanning works very much ... head CT scanning. Manufacturers of intravenous contrast indicate mothers should not breastfeed their babies for 24-48 ...

  20. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, dizziness, and other symptoms of aneurysm, ... cancer. In emergency cases, it can reveal internal injuries and bleeding quickly enough to help save lives. ...

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... traditional x-rays, particularly of soft tissues and blood vessels. CT scanning provides more detailed information on head injuries, stroke , brain tumors and other brain diseases than regular radiographs (x-rays). top of page ...

  2. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... used to detect: bleeding, brain injury and skull fractures in patients with head injuries. bleeding caused by ... a few seconds, and even faster in small children. Such speed is beneficial for all patients but ...

  3. TCGA head Neck (United States)

    Investigators with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have discovered genomic differences – with potentially important clinical implications – in head and neck cancers caused by infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV).

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... microphone. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways CT scanning works very much ... for Head and Neck Cancer Others American Stroke Association National Stroke Association top of page This page ...

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... images of internal organs, bones, soft tissue and blood vessels provide greater detail than traditional x-rays, particularly of soft tissues and blood vessels. CT scanning provides more detailed information on head ...

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sometimes compared to looking into a loaf of bread by cutting the loaf into thin slices. When ... for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others American Stroke Association National Stroke Association ...

  7. Early Head Start Evaluation (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Early Head Start or community services as usual;direct assessments and...

  8. Head Start Impact Study (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Nationally representative, longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Head Start or community services as usual;direct...

  9. Head CT scan (United States)

    ... be: Stored Viewed on a monitor Printed on film Three-dimensional models of the head area can ... when you have certain other signs or symptoms Hearing loss (in some people) Symptoms of damage to ...

  10. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and other symptoms of aneurysm, bleeding, stroke and brain tumors. It also helps your doctor to evaluate your ... provides more detailed information on head injuries, stroke , brain tumors and other brain diseases than regular radiographs (x- ...

  11. Head and Neck Cancer (United States)

    ... increase the risk of head and neck cancer. Environmental or occupational inhalants. Inhaling asbestos, wood dust, paint ... from the American Society of Clinical Oncology. Review dictionary articles to help understand medical phrases and terms ...

  12. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... used to detect: bleeding, brain injury and skull fractures in patients with head injuries. bleeding caused by ... are present in the paranasal sinuses. plan radiation therapy for cancer of the brain or other tissues. ...

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... used to detect: bleeding, brain injury and skull fractures in patients with head injuries. bleeding caused by ... is also performed to: evaluate the extent of bone and soft tissue damage in patients with facial ...

  14. On the occurrence of galaxy harassment (United States)

    Bialas, D.; Lisker, T.; Olczak, C.; Spurzem, R.; Kotulla, R.


    Context. Tidal interactions of galaxies in galaxy clusters have been proposed as one potential explanation of the morphology-density relation at low masses. Earlier studies have shown that galaxy harassment is a suitable mechanism for inducing a morphological transformation from low-mass late-type disk galaxies to the abundant early-type galaxies. Aims: The efficiency of tidal transformation is expected to depend strongly on the orbit of a galaxy within the cluster halo. The orbit determines both the strength of the cluster's global tidal field and the probability of encounters with other cluster members. Here we aim to explore these dependencies. Methods: We use a combination of N-body simulation and Monte-Carlo method to study the efficiency of the transformation of late-type galaxies by tidal interactions on different orbits in a galaxy cluster. Additionally, we investigate the effect of an inclination between the disk of the infalling galaxy and its orbital plane. We compare our results to observational data to assess the possible relevance of such transformations for the existing cluster galaxy population. Results: We find that galaxies that entered a cluster from the outskirts are unlikely to be significantly transformed (stellar mass loss ≤6%). Closer to the cluster centre, tidal interactions are a more efficient mechanism (stellar mass loss up to 50%) for producing harassed galaxies. The inclination of the disk can reduce the mass loss significantly, yet it amplifies the thickening of the galaxy disk. Galaxies with smaller sizes on intermediate orbits are nearly unaffected by tidal interactions. The tidal influence on an infalling galaxy and the likelihood that it leads to galaxy harassment make a very stochastical process that depends on the galaxy's specific history. Conclusions: We conclude that harassment is a suitable mechanism that could explain the transformation of at least a fraction of galaxies inside galaxy clusters. However, the transformation

  15. Subject cataloguing of the works of fiction at the National and University Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Kovač


    Full Text Available The article reviews the principles of construction and policies of application of subject headings to works of fiction at the National and University Library in Ljubljana, Slovenia. The records are created in COMARC format, and the literary type, genre and the language of a document are each assigned a code, whereas literature is also indexed by using UDC class numbers. The principles for constructing and assigning subject headings for fiction are in accordance with the IFLA Principles Underlying Subject Heading Languages, and the rules of the Slovenian General List of Subject Headings (2002. The author presents the general and more specific rules and procedures for the construction of subject headings. Most frequently used subject headings for the works of fiction are name, topical or geographic headings.

  16. Effects of Soccer Heading on Brain Structure and Function (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Carolina; Lasmar, Rodrigo Pace; Caramelli, Paulo


    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with more than 265 million players worldwide, including professional and amateur ones. Soccer is unique in comparison to other sports, as it is the only sport in which participants purposely use their head to hit the ball. Heading is considered as an offensive or defensive move whereby the player’s unprotected head is used to deliberately impact the ball and direct it during play. A soccer player can be subjected to an average of 6–12 incidents of heading the ball per competitive game, where the ball reaches high velocities. Moreover, in practice sessions, heading training, which involves heading the ball repeatedly at low velocities, is common. Although the scientific community, as well as the media, has focused on the effects of concussions in contact sports, the role of subconcussive impacts, as it can occur during heading, has recently gained attention, considering that it may represent an additional mechanism of cumulative brain injury. The purpose of this study is to review the existing literature regarding the effects of soccer heading on brain structure and function. Only in the last years, some investigations have addressed the impact of heading on brain structure, by using neuroimaging techniques. Similarly, there have been some recent studies investigating biochemical markers of brain injury in soccer players. There is evidence of association between heading and abnormal brain structure, but the data are still preliminary. Also, some studies have suggested that subconcussive head impacts, as heading, could cause cognitive impairment, whereas others have not corroborated this finding. Questions persist as to whether or not heading is deleterious to cognitive functioning. Further studies, especially with longitudinal designs, are needed to clarify the clinical significance of heading as a cause of brain injury and to identify risk factors. Such investigations might contribute to the establishment of safety

  17. Effects of soccer heading on brain structure and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Oliveira Rodrigues


    Full Text Available Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with more than 265 million players worldwide, including professional and amateur ones. Soccer is unique in comparison to other sports, as it is the only sport in which participants purposely use their head to hit the ball. Heading is considered an offensive or defensive move whereby the player’s unprotected head is used to deliberately impact the ball and direct it during play. A soccer player can be subjected to an average of six to twelve incidents of heading the ball per competitive game, where the ball reaches high velocities. Moreover, in practice sessions, heading training, which involves heading the ball repeatedly at low velocities, is common. Although the scientific community, as well as the media, has focused on the effects of concussions in contact sports, the role of subconcussive impacts, as it can occur during heading, has recently gained attention, considering that it may represent an additional mechanism of cumulative brain injury. The purpose of this study is to review the existing literature regarding the effects of soccer heading on brain structure and function. Only in the last years some investigations have addressed the impact of heading on brain structure, by using neuroimaging techniques. Similarly, there have been some recent studies investigating biochemical markers of brain injury in soccer players. There is evidence of association between heading and abnormal brain structure, but the data are still preliminary. Also, some studies have suggested that subconcussive head impacts, as heading, could cause cognitive impairment, whereas others have not corroborated this finding. Questions persist as to whether or not heading is deleterious to cognitive functioning. Further studies, especially with longitudinal designs, are needed to clarify the clinical significance of heading as a cause of brain injury and to identify risk factors. Such investigations might contribute to the

  18. Galaxy-galaxy and galaxy-cluster lensing with the SDSS and FIRST surveys (United States)

    Demetroullas, C.; Brown, M. L.


    We perform a galaxy-galaxy lensing study by correlating the shapes of ∼2.7 × 105 galaxies selected from the VLA FIRST (Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty centimetres) radio survey with the positions of ∼38.5 million Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies, ∼132 000 Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) and ∼78 000 SDSS galaxies that are also detected in the VLA FIRST survey. The measurements are conducted on angular scales θ ≲ 1200 arcsec. On scales θ ≲ 200 arcsec, we find that the measurements are corrupted by residual systematic effects associated with the instrumental beam of the VLA data. Using simulations, we show that we can successfully apply a correction for these effects. Using the three lens samples (the SDSS DR10 sample, the BCG sample and the SDSS-FIRST matched object sample), we measure a tangential shear signal that is inconsistent with 0 at the 10.2σ, 3.8σ and 9σ levels, respectively. Fitting an NFW model to the detected signals, we find that the ensemble mass profile of the BCG sample agrees with the values in the literature. However, the mass profiles of the SDSS DR10 and the SDSS-FIRST matched object samples are found to be shallower and steeper than results in the literature, respectively. The best-fitting Virial masses for the SDSS DR10, BCG and SDSS-FIRST matched samples, derived using an NFW model and allowing for a varying concentration factor, are M_{200}^SDSS-DR10 = (1.2 ± 0.4) × 10^{12} M_{⊙}, M_{200}^BCG = (1.4 ± 1.3) × 10^{13} M_{⊙} and M_{200}^SDSS-FIRST =8.0 ± 4.2 × 10^{13} M_{⊙}, respectively. These results are in good agreement (within ∼2σ) with values in the literature. Our findings suggest that for galaxies to be bright both in the radio and in the optical, they must be embedded in very dense environment on scales R ≲ 1 Mpc.

  19. New Fast Lane towards Discoveries of Clusters of Galaxies Inaugurated (United States)


    /Chilean team of astronomers known as the XMM-LSS consortium [2], used the large field-of-view and the high sensitivity of ESA's X-ray observatory XMM-Newton to search for remote clusters of galaxies and map out their distribution in space. They could see back about 7,000 million years to a cosmological era when the Universe was about half its present size and age, when clusters of galaxies were more tightly packed. Tracking down the clusters is a painstaking, multi-step process, requiring both space and ground-based telescopes. Indeed, from X-ray images with XMM, it was possible to select several tens of cluster candidate objects, identified as areas of enhanced X-radiation (cf PR Photo 19b/03). But having candidates is not enough ! They must be confirmed and further studied with ground-based telescopes. In tandem with XMM-Newton, Pierre uses the very-wide-field imager attached to the 4-m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, to take an optical snapshot of the same region of space. A tailor-made computer programme then combs the XMM-Newton data looking for concentrations of X-rays that suggest large, extended structures. These are the clusters and represent only about 10% of the detected X-ray sources. The others are mostly distant active galaxies. Back to the Ground ESO PR Photo 19c/03 ESO PR Photo 19c/03 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 481 pix - 84k [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 961 pix - 1M] ESO PR Photo 19d/03 ESO PR Photo 19d/03 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 488 pix - 44k [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 976 pix - 520k] Captions: PR Photo 19c/03 represents the XMM-Newton X-ray contour map of the cluster's probable extent superimposed upon the CFHT I-band image. A concentration of distant galaxies is conspicuous, thus confirming the X-ray detection. The symbols indicate the galaxies which have been subject to a subsequent spectroscopic measurement and found to be cluster members (triangles flag emission line galaxies). The individual galaxies in the cluster can then be targeted for further

  20. Coordinates of Human Visual and Inertial Heading Perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Thomas Crane

    Full Text Available Heading estimation involves both inertial and visual cues. Inertial motion is sensed by the labyrinth, somatic sensation by the body, and optic flow by the retina. Because the eye and head are mobile these stimuli are sensed relative to different reference frames and it remains unclear if a perception occurs in a common reference frame. Recent neurophysiologic evidence has suggested the reference frames remain separate even at higher levels of processing but has not addressed the resulting perception. Seven human subjects experienced a 2s, 16 cm/s translation and/or a visual stimulus corresponding with this translation. For each condition 72 stimuli (360° in 5° increments were delivered in random order. After each stimulus the subject identified the perceived heading using a mechanical dial. Some trial blocks included interleaved conditions in which the influence of ±28° of gaze and/or head position were examined. The observations were fit using a two degree-of-freedom population vector decoder (PVD model which considered the relative sensitivity to lateral motion and coordinate system offset. For visual stimuli gaze shifts caused shifts in perceived head estimates in the direction opposite the gaze shift in all subjects. These perceptual shifts averaged 13 ± 2° for eye only gaze shifts and 17 ± 2° for eye-head gaze shifts. This finding indicates visual headings are biased towards retina coordinates. Similar gaze and head direction shifts prior to inertial headings had no significant influence on heading direction. Thus inertial headings are perceived in body-centered coordinates. Combined visual and inertial stimuli yielded intermediate results.

  1. An Interacting Galaxy System along a Filament in a Void

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beygu, B.; Kreckel, K.; van de Weijgaert, R.; van der Hulst, J. M.; van Gorkom, J. H.

    Cosmological voids provide a unique environment for the study of galaxy formation and evolution. The galaxy population in their interiors has properties significantly different from average field galaxies. As part of our Void Galaxy Survey (VGS), we have found a system of three interacting galaxies

  2. Do satellite galaxies trace matter in galaxy clusters ? (United States)

    Wang, Chunxiang; Li, Ran; Gao, Liang; Shan, Huanyuan; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Wang, Wenting; Chen, Gang; Makler, Martin; Pereira, Maria E. S.; Wang, Lin; Maia, Marcio AG; Erben, Thomas


    The spatial distribution of satellite galaxies encodes rich information of the structure and assembly history of galaxy clusters. In this paper, we select a redMaPPer cluster sample in SDSS Stripe 82 region with 0.1 ≤ z ≤ 0.33, 20 0.7. Using the high-quality weak lensing data from CS82 Survey, we constrain the mass profile of this sample. Then we compare directly the mass density profile with the satellite number density profile. We find that the total mass and number density profiles have the same shape, both well fitted by an NFW profile. The scale radii agree with each other within 1σ error (r_s,gal=0.34_{-0.03}^{+0.04}Mpc vs r_s=0.37_{-0.10}^{+0.15}Mpc ).

  3. The Environment of Galaxies at Low Redshift (United States)

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Ivezić, Željko


    We compare environmental effects in two analogous samples of galaxies, one from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the other from a semianalytic model (SAM) based on the Millennium Simulation (MS), to test to what extent current SAMs of galaxy formation are reproducing environmental effects. We estimate the large-scale environment of each galaxy using a Bayesian density estimator based on distances to all 10 nearest neighbors, and we compare broadband photometric properties of the two samples as a function of environment. The feedbacks implemented in the semianalytic model produce a qualitatively correct galaxy population with similar environmental dependence as that seen in SDSS galaxies. In detail, however, the colors of MS galaxies exhibit an exaggerated dependence on environment: the field contains too many blue galaxies, whereas clusters contain too many red galaxies, compared to the SDSS sample. We also find that the MS contains a population of highly clustered, relatively faint red galaxies with velocity dispersions comparable to their Hubble flow. Such high-density galaxies, if they exist, would be overlooked in any low-redshift survey, since their membership to a cluster cannot be determined because of the "fingers-of-God" effect.

  4. Galaxy Zoo: quantitative visual morphological classifications for 48 000 galaxies from CANDELS (United States)

    Simmons, B. D.; Lintott, Chris; Willett, Kyle W.; Masters, Karen L.; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Häußler, Boris; Kaviraj, Sugata; Krawczyk, Coleman; Kruk, S. J.; McIntosh, Daniel H.; Smethurst, R. J.; Nichol, Robert C.; Scarlata, Claudia; Schawinski, Kevin; Conselice, Christopher J.; Almaini, Omar; Ferguson, Henry C.; Fortson, Lucy; Hartley, William; Kocevski, Dale; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Mortlock, Alice; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Bamford, Steven P.; Grogin, N. A.; Lucas, Ray A.; Hathi, Nimish P.; McGrath, Elizabeth; Peth, Michael; Pforr, Janine; Rizer, Zachary; Wuyts, Stijn; Barro, Guillermo; Bell, Eric F.; Castellano, Marco; Dahlen, Tomas; Dekel, Avishai; Ownsworth, Jamie; Faber, Sandra M.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Fontana, Adriano; Galametz, Audrey; Grützbauch, Ruth; Koo, David; Lotz, Jennifer; Mobasher, Bahram; Mozena, Mark; Salvato, Mara; Wiklind, Tommy


    We present quantified visual morphologies of approximately 48 000 galaxies observed in three Hubble Space Telescope legacy fields by the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) and classified by participants in the Galaxy Zoo project. 90 per cent of galaxies have z ≤ 3 and are observed in rest-frame optical wavelengths by CANDELS. Each galaxy received an average of 40 independent classifications, which we combine into detailed morphological information on galaxy features such as clumpiness, bar instabilities, spiral structure, and merger and tidal signatures. We apply a consensus-based classifier weighting method that preserves classifier independence while effectively down-weighting significantly outlying classifications. After analysing the effect of varying image depth on reported classifications, we also provide depth-corrected classifications which both preserve the information in the deepest observations and also enable the use of classifications at comparable depths across the full survey. Comparing the Galaxy Zoo classifications to previous classifications of the same galaxies shows very good agreement; for some applications, the high number of independent classifications provided by Galaxy Zoo provides an advantage in selecting galaxies with a particular morphological profile, while in others the combination of Galaxy Zoo with other classifications is a more promising approach than using any one method alone. We combine the Galaxy Zoo classifications of `smooth' galaxies with parametric morphologies to select a sample of featureless discs at 1 ≤ z ≤ 3, which may represent a dynamically warmer progenitor population to the settled disc galaxies seen at later epochs.

  5. A class of compact dwarf galaxies from disruptive processes in galaxy clusters. (United States)

    Drinkwater, M J; Gregg, M D; Hilker, M; Bekki, K; Couch, W J; Ferguson, H C; Jones, J B; Phillipps, S


    Dwarf galaxies have attracted increased attention in recent years, because of their susceptibility to galaxy transformation processes within rich galaxy clusters. Direct evidence for these processes, however, has been difficult to obtain, with a small number of diffuse light trails and intra-cluster stars being the only signs of galaxy disruption. Furthermore, our current knowledge of dwarf galaxy populations may be very incomplete, because traditional galaxy surveys are insensitive to extremely diffuse or compact galaxies. Aware of these concerns, we recently undertook an all-object survey of the Fornax galaxy cluster. This revealed a new population of compact members, overlooked in previous conventional surveys. Here we demonstrate that these 'ultra-compact' dwarf galaxies are structurally and dynamically distinct from both globular star clusters and known types of dwarf galaxy, and thus represent a new class of dwarf galaxy. Our data are consistent with the interpretation that these are the remnant nuclei of disrupted dwarf galaxies, making them an easily observed tracer of galaxy disruption.

  6. Properties and spatial distribution of galaxy superclusters (United States)

    Liivamägi, Lauri Juhan


    Astronomy is a science that can offer plenty of unforgettable imagery, and the large-scale distribution of galaxies is no exception. Among the first features the viewer's eye is likely to be drawn to, are large concentrations of galaxies - galaxy superclusters, contrasting to the seemingly empty regions beside them. Superclusters can extend from tens to over hundred megaparsecs, they contain from hundreds to thousands of galaxies, and many galaxy groups and clusters. Unlike galaxy clusters, superclusters are clearly unrelaxed systems, not gravitationally bound as crossing times exceed the age of the universe, and show little to no radial symmetry. Superclusters, as part of the large-scale structure, are sensitive to the initial power spectrum and the following evolution. They are massive enough to leave an imprint on the cosmic microwave background radiation. Superclusters can also provide an unique environment for their constituent galaxies and galaxy clusters. In this study we used two different observational and one simulated galaxy samples to create several catalogues of structures that, we think, correspond to what are generally considered galaxy superclusters. Superclusters were delineated as continuous over-dense regions in galaxy luminosity density fields. When calculating density fields several corrections were applied to remove small-scale redshift distortions and distance-dependent selection effects. Resulting catalogues of objects display robust statistical properties, showing that flux-limited galaxy samples can be used to create nearly volume-limited catalogues of superstructures. Generally, large superclusters can be regarded as massive, often branching filamentary structures, that are mainly characterised by their length. Smaller superclusters, on the other hand, can display a variety of shapes. Spatial distribution of superclusters shows large-scale variations, with high-density concentrations often found in semi-regularly spaced groups. Future

  7. Compact quiescent galaxies at intermediate redshifts {sup ,}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Li-Yen; Stockton, Alan; Shih, Hsin-Yi [Institute of Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)


    From several searches of the area common to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope Infrared Deep Sky Survey, we have selected 22 luminous galaxies between z ∼ 0.4 and z ∼ 0.9 that have colors and sizes similar to those of the compact quiescent galaxies at z > 2. By exploring structural parameters and stellar populations, we found that most of these galaxies actually formed most of their stars at z < 2 and are generally less compact than those found at z > 2. Several of these young objects are disk-like or possibly prolate. This lines up with several previous studies that found that massive quiescent galaxies at high redshifts often have disk-like morphologies. If these galaxies were to be confirmed to be disk-like, their formation mechanism must be able to account for both compactness and disks. On the other hand, if these galaxies were to be confirmed to be prolate, the fact that prolate galaxies do not exist in the local universe would indicate that galaxy formation mechanisms have evolved over cosmic time. We also found five galaxies forming over 80% of their stellar masses at z > 2. Three of these galaxies appear to have been modified to have spheroid-like morphologies, in agreement with the scenario of 'inside-out' buildup of massive galaxies. The remaining galaxies, SDSS J014355.21+133451.4 and SDSS J115836.93+021535.1, have truly old stellar populations and disk-like morphologies. These two objects would be good candidates for nearly unmodified compact quiescent galaxies from high redshifts that are worth future study.

  8. SImulator of GAlaxy Millimetre/submillimetre Emission (SÍGAME): CO emission from massive z = 2 main-sequence galaxies (United States)

    Olsen, Karen P.; Greve, Thomas R.; Brinch, Christian; Sommer-Larsen, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jesper; Toft, Sune; Zirm, Andrew


    We present SÍGAME (SImulator of GAlaxy Millimetre/submillimetre Emission), a new numerical code designed to simulate the 12CO rotational line spectrum of galaxies. Using sub-grid physics recipes to post-process the outputs of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations, a molecular gas phase is condensed out of the hot and partly ionized SPH gas. The gas is subjected to far-UV radiation fields and cosmic ray ionization rates which are set to scale with the local star formation rate volume density. Level populations and radiative transport of the CO lines are solved with the 3D radiative transfer code LIME. We have applied SÍGAME to cosmological SPH simulations of three disc galaxies at z = 2 with stellar masses in the range ˜0.5-2 × 1011 M⊙ and star formation rates ˜40-140 M⊙ yr-1. Global CO luminosities and line ratios are in agreement with observations of disc galaxies at z ˜ 2 up to and including J = 3-2 but falling short of the few existing J=5-4 observations. The central 5 kpc regions of our galaxies have CO 3 - 2/1 - 0 and 7 - 6/1 - 0 brightness temperature ratios of ˜0.55-0.65 and ˜0.02-0.08, respectively, while further out in the disc the ratios drop to more quiescent values of ˜0.5 and <0.01. Global CO-to-H2 conversion (αCO) factors are {˜eq } 1.5 {{M_{⊙}} pc^{-2} (K km s^{-1})^{-1}}, i.e. ˜2-3 times below the typically adopted values for disc galaxies, and αCO increases with radius, in agreement with observations of nearby galaxies. Adopting a top-heavy Giant Molecular Cloud (GMC) mass spectrum does not significantly change the results. Steepening the GMC density profiles leads to higher global line ratios for Jup ≥ 3 and CO-to-H2 conversion factors [{˜eq } 3.6 {{M_{⊙}} pc^{-2} (K km s^{-1})^{-1}}].

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head ... limitations of MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is ...

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful ... Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that ...

  11. The Importance of Properly Compensating for Head Movements During MEG Acquisition Across Different Age Groups. (United States)

    Larson, Eric; Taulu, Samu


    Unlike EEG sensors, which are attached to the head, MEG sensors are located outside the head surface on a fixed external device. Subject head movements during acquisition thus distort the magnetic field distributions measured by the sensors. Previous studies have looked at the effect of head movements, but no study has comprehensively looked at the effect of head movements across age groups, particularly in infants. Using MEG recordings from subjects ranging in age from 3 months through adults, here we first quantify the variability in head position as a function of age group. We then combine these measured head movements with brain activity simulations to determine how head movements bias source localization from sensor magnetic fields measured during movement. We find that large amounts of head movement, especially common in infant age groups, can result in large localization errors. We then show that proper application of head movement compensation techniques can restore localization accuracy to pre-movement levels. We also find that proper noise covariance estimation (e.g., during the baseline period) is important to minimize localization bias following head movement compensation. Our findings suggest that head position measurement during acquisition and compensation during analysis is recommended for researchers working with subject populations or age groups that could have substantial head movements. This is especially important in infant MEG studies.

  12. Galaxy-galaxy lensing estimators and their covariance properties (United States)

    Singh, Sukhdeep; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Seljak, Uroš; Slosar, Anže; Vazquez Gonzalez, Jose


    We study the covariance properties of real space correlation function estimators - primarily galaxy-shear correlations, or galaxy-galaxy lensing - using SDSS data for both shear catalogues and lenses (specifically the BOSS LOWZ sample). Using mock catalogues of lenses and sources, we disentangle the various contributions to the covariance matrix and compare them with a simple analytical model. We show that not subtracting the lensing measurement around random points from the measurement around the lens sample is equivalent to performing the measurement using the lens density field instead of the lens overdensity field. While the measurement using the lens density field is unbiased (in the absence of systematics), its error is significantly larger due to an additional term in the covariance. Therefore, this subtraction should be performed regardless of its beneficial effects on systematics. Comparing the error estimates from data and mocks for estimators that involve the overdensity, we find that the errors are dominated by the shape noise and lens clustering, which empirically estimated covariances (jackknife and standard deviation across mocks) that are consistent with theoretical estimates, and that both the connected parts of the four-point function and the supersample covariance can be neglected for the current levels of noise. While the trade-off between different terms in the covariance depends on the survey configuration (area, source number density), the diagnostics that we use in this work should be useful for future works to test their empirically determined covariances.

  13. Are We Really Missing Small Galaxies? (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    One long-standing astrophysical puzzle is that of so-called missing dwarf galaxies: the number of small dwarf galaxies that we observe is far fewer than that predicted by theory. New simulations, however, suggest that perhaps theres no mystery after all.Missing DwarfsDark-matter cosmological simulations predict many small galaxy halos for every large halo that forms. [The Via Lactea project]Models of a lambda-cold-dark-matter (CDM) universe predict the distribution of galaxy halo sizes throughout the universe, suggesting there should be many more small galaxies than large ones. In what has become known as the missing dwarf problem, however, we find that while we observe the expected numbers of galaxies at the larger end of the scale, we dont see nearly enough small galaxies to match the predictions.Are these galaxies actually missing? Are our predictions wrong? Or are the galaxies there and were just not spotting them? A recent study led by Alyson Brooks (Rutgers University) uses new simulations to explore whatscausing the difference between theory and observation.The fraction of detectable halos as a function of velocity, according to the authors simulations. Below 35 km/s, the detectability of the galaxies drops precipitously. [Brooks et al. 2017]Simulating Galactic VelocitiesBecause we cant weigh a galaxy directly, one proxy used for galaxy mass is its circular velocity; the more massive a galaxy, the faster gas and stars rotate around its center. The discrepancy between models and observations lies in whats known as the galaxy velocity function, which describes the number density of galaxies for a given circular velocity. While theory and observations agree for galaxies with circular velocities above 100 km/s, theory predicts far more dwarfs below this velocity than we observe.To investigate this problem, Brooks and collaborators ran a series of cosmological simulations based on our understanding of a CDM universe. Instead of exploring the result using only

  14. ROSAT Discovers Unique, Distant Cluster of Galaxies (United States)


    measured (by obtaining spectra of the arcs and measuring their redshift). The masses of galaxy clusters are important for the determination, for instance of the mean density and distribution of matter in the universe. This is because these clusters are the most massive, clearly defined objects known and as such trace these parameters in the universe on very large scales. Another possibility to derive the cluster mass is offered by X-ray observations, because the distribution of the hot, X-ray emitting gas traces the gravitational field of the cluster. Recently, in some clusters there has been a discrepancy between the mass determined in this way and that found from gravitational lensing effects. The team of astronomers now hopes that follow-up X-ray observations of RXJ1347.5-1145 will help to solve this puzzle. Moreover, the combination of extremely high X-ray brightness and the possibility to perform a rather accurate mass determination by the gravitational lensing effect makes this particular cluster a truly unique object. In view of the exceptional X-ray brightness, a very high mass is expected. The exact determination will be possible, as soon as spectra have been obtained of the two arcs. Contrary to what is the case in other clusters, this will not be so difficult, due to their unusual brightness and their ideal geometrical configuration. [1] This is a joint Press Release of ESO and the Max-Planck-Society. It is accompanied by a B/W photo. [2] The investigation described in this Press Release is the subject of a Letter to the Editor which will soon appear in the European journal Astronomy & Astrophysics, with the following authors: Sabine Schindler (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik and Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Garching, Germany), Hans Boehringer, Doris M. Neumann and Ulrich G. Briel (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching, Germany), Luigi Guzzo (Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Merate, Italy), Guido Chincarini

  15. SImulator of GAlaxy Millimetre/submillimetre Emission (SIGAME): CO emission from massive z=2 main-sequence galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Karen P.; Greve, Thomas R.; Brinch, Christian


    is condensed out of the hot and partly ionized SPH gas. The gas is subjected to far-UV radiation fields and cosmic ray ionization rates which are set to scale with the local star formation rate volume density. Level populations and radiative transport of the CO lines are solved with the 3D radiative transfer...... code lime. We have applied sígame to cosmological SPH simulations of three disc galaxies at z = 2 with stellar masses in the range ∼0.5–2 × 1011 M⊙ and star formation rates ∼40–140 M⊙ yr−1. Global CO luminosities and line ratios are in agreement with observations of disc galaxies at z ∼ 2 up.......5 and Cloud (GMC) mass spectrum does...

  16. Dark Matter Equilibria in Galaxies and Galaxy Systems (United States)

    Lapi, A.; Cavaliere, A.


    In the dark matter (DM) halos embedding galaxies and galaxy systems the "entropy" K ≡ σ2/ρ2/3 (a quantity that combines the radial velocity dispersion σ with the density ρ) is found from intensive N-body simulations to follow a power-law run K vprop r α throughout the halos' bulk, with α around 1.25. Taking up from phenomenology just that α≈ const. applies, we cut through the rich analytic contents of the Jeans equation describing the self-gravitating equilibria of the DM; we specifically focus on computing and discussing a set of novel physical solutions that we name α-profiles, marked by the entropy slope α itself, and by the maximal gravitational pull κcrit(α) required for a viable equilibrium to hold. We then use an advanced semianalytic description for the cosmological buildup of halos to constrain the values of α to within the narrow range 1.25-1.29 from galaxies to galaxy systems; these correspond to halos' current masses in the range 1011-1015 M sun. Our range of α applies since the transition time that—both in our semianalytic description and in state-of-the-art numerical simulations—separates two development stages: an early violent collapse that comprises a few major mergers and enforces dynamical mixing, followed by smoother mass addition through slow accretion. In our range of α we provide a close fit for the relation κcrit(α), and discuss a related physical interpretation in terms of incomplete randomization of the infall kinetic energy through dynamical mixing. We also give an accurate analytic representation of the α-profiles with parameters derived from the Jeans equation; this provides straightforward precision fits to recent detailed data from gravitational lensing in and around massive galaxy clusters, and thus replaces the empirical Navarro-Frenk-White formula relieving the related problems of high concentration and old age. We finally stress how our findings and predictions as to α and κcrit contribute to

  17. Visual prosody and speech intelligibility: head movement improves auditory speech perception. (United States)

    Munhall, K G; Jones, Jeffery A; Callan, Daniel E; Kuratate, Takaaki; Vatikiotis-Bateson, Eric


    People naturally move their heads when they speak, and our study shows that this rhythmic head motion conveys linguistic information. Three-dimensional head and face motion and the acoustics of a talker producing Japanese sentences were recorded and analyzed. The head movement correlated strongly with the pitch (fundamental frequency) and amplitude of the talker's voice. In a perception study, Japanese subjects viewed realistic talking-head animations based on these movement recordings in a speech-in-noise task. The animations allowed the head motion to be manipulated without changing other characteristics of the visual or acoustic speech. Subjects correctly identified more syllables when natural head motion was present in the animation than when it was eliminated or distorted. These results suggest that nonverbal gestures such as head movements play a more direct role in the perception of speech than previously known.

  18. Spatially resolved galaxy kinematics from hydrodynamic simulations (United States)

    Hung, Chao-Ling


    The recent advent of optical/near-infrared integral field spectrographs (IFS) have revealed the internal dynamics of hundreds of star-forming galaxies at 1work to use idealized galaxy merger simulations to determine the timescale over which interaction/merger signatures are visible, and the implications on our interpretation of the merger/disk nature of galaxies that display a smooth velocity gradient. Further, I will discuss our work to derive kinematic properties of simulated galaxies using the zoom-in cosmological simulations from the FIRE project. These results can inform us what might be the physical drivers of an enhanced intrinsic velocity dispersion of high-z star-forming galaxies, an important characteristic of these galaxies from recent large IFS surveys.

  19. Cosmology with void-galaxy correlations. (United States)

    Hamaus, Nico; Wandelt, Benjamin D; Sutter, P M; Lavaux, Guilhem; Warren, Michael S


    Galaxy bias, the unknown relationship between the clustering of galaxies and the underlying dark matter density field is a major hurdle for cosmological inference from large-scale structure. While traditional analyses focus on the absolute clustering amplitude of high-density regions mapped out by galaxy surveys, we propose a relative measurement that compares those to the underdense regions, cosmic voids. On the basis of realistic mock catalogs we demonstrate that cross correlating galaxies and voids opens up the possibility to calibrate galaxy bias and to define a static ruler thanks to the observable geometric nature of voids. We illustrate how the clustering of voids is related to mass compensation and show that volume-exclusion significantly reduces the degree of stochasticity in their spatial distribution. Extracting the spherically averaged distribution of galaxies inside voids from their cross correlations reveals a remarkable concordance with the mass-density profile of voids.

  20. Galaxy evolution in clusters since z=1 (United States)

    Aragón-Salamanca, A.


    It is now 30 years since Alan Dressler published his seminal paper onthe morphology-density relation. Although there is still much to learnon the effect of the environment on galaxy evolution, extensive progress has been made since then both observationally and theoretically.Galaxy clusters provide some of the most extreme environments in which galaxies evolve, making them excellent laboratories to study the age old question of "nature'' vs. "nurture'' in galaxy evolution. Here I review some of the key observational results obtained during the last decade on the evolution of the morphology, structure, dynamics, star-formation history and stellar populations of cluster galaxies since the time when the universe was half its present age.Many of the results presented here have been obtainedwithin the ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS) and Space Telescope A901/02 Galaxy Evolution Survey (STAGES) collaborations.

  1. Constructing a WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas (United States)

    Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, F.; Tsai, C. W.; Petty, S.; Cluver, M.; Assef, Roberto J.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Bridge, C.; Donoso, E.; hide


    After eight months of continuous observations, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mapped the entire sky at 3.4 micron, 4.6 micron, 12 micron, and 22 micron. We have begun a dedicated WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas project to fully characterize large, nearby galaxies and produce a legacy image atlas and source catalog. Here we summarize the deconvolution techniques used to significantly improve the spatial resolution of WISE imaging, specifically designed to study the internal anatomy of nearby galaxies. As a case study, we present results for the galaxy NGC 1566, comparing the WISE enhanced-resolution image processing to that of Spitzer, Galaxy Evolution Explorer, and ground-based imaging. This is the first paper in a two-part series; results for a larger sample of nearby galaxies are presented in the second paper.

  2. Dissipational galaxy formation - Confrontation with observations (United States)

    Silk, J.; Norman, C.


    An exploration is presented of the hypothesis that a protogalaxy consists of an aggregate of interacting gas clouds which undergo mergers with neighboring systems, as envisaged by both the hierarchical clustering and fragmentation schemes of galaxy formation. Both gaseous dissipation and violet relaxation play fundamental roles in this galaxy formation model, in order to account for such diverse structural and dynamical properties of spheroidal galaxies as velocity anisotropy and metallicity gradients. Protogalaxy mergers during the initial stages of galaxy clustering can account for the observed spatial distribution of spiral, S0, and elliptical galaxies, and galaxy formation can occur slowly and at late epochs, since the time scale for disk formation is less than about 10 to the 10th years.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Amy; Wang Lifan; Krisciunas, Kevin; Freeland, Emily, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)


    We performed an integrated optical polarization survey of 70 nearby galaxies to study the relationship between linear polarization and galaxy properties. To date this is the largest survey of its kind. The data were collected at McDonald Observatory using the Imaging Grism Polarimeter on the Otto Struve 2.1 m telescope. Most of the galaxies did not have significant level of linear polarization, where the bulk is <1%. A fraction of the galaxies showed a loose correlation between the polarization and position angle of the galaxy, indicating that dust scattering is the main source of optical polarization. The unbarred spiral galaxies are consistent with the predicted relationship with inclination from scattering models of {approx}sin{sup 2} i.

  4. Tidal Disruption Event Host Galaxies in the Context of the Local Galaxy Population (United States)

    Law-Smith, Jamie; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Ellison, Sara L.; Foley, Ryan J.


    We study the properties of tidal disruption event (TDE) host galaxies in the context of a catalog of ∼500,000 galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We explore whether selection effects can account for the overrepresentation of TDEs in E+A/post-starburst galaxies by creating matched galaxy samples. Accounting for possible selection effects due to black hole (BH) mass, redshift completeness, strong active galactic nucleus presence, bulge colors, and surface brightness can reduce the apparent overrepresentation of TDEs in E+A host galaxies by a factor of ∼4 (from ∼×100–190 to ∼×25–48), but cannot fully explain the preference. We find that TDE host galaxies have atypical photometric properties compared to similar, “typical” galaxies. In particular, TDE host galaxies tend to live in or near the “green valley” between star-forming and passive galaxies, and have bluer bulge colors ({{Δ }}(g-r)≈ 0.3 mag), lower half-light surface brightnesses (by ∼1 mag/arcsec2), higher Sérsic indices ({{Δ }}{n}{{g}}≈ 3), and higher bulge-to-total-light ratios ({{Δ }}B/T≈ 0.5) than galaxies with matched BH masses. We find that TDE host galaxies appear more centrally concentrated and that all have high galaxy Sérsic indices and B/T fractions—on average in the top 10% of galaxies of the same BH mass—suggesting a higher nuclear stellar density. We identify a region in the Sérsic index and BH mass parameter space that contains ∼2% of our reference catalog galaxies but ≥slant 60 % of TDE host galaxies. The unique photometric properties of TDE host galaxies may be useful for selecting candidate TDEs for spectroscopic follow-up observations in large transient surveys.

  5. Pediatric head injury. (United States)

    Tulipan, N


    Pediatric head injury is a public health problem that exacts a high price from patients, their families and society alike. While much of the brain damage in head-injured patients occurs at the moment of impact, secondary injuries can be prevented by aggressive medical and surgical intervention. Modern imaging devices have simplified the task of diagnosing intracranial injuries. Recent advances in monitoring technology have made it easier to assess the effectiveness of medical therapy. These include intracranial pressure monitoring devices that are accurate and safe, and jugular bulb monitoring which provides a continuous, qualitative measure of cerebral blood flow. The cornerstones of treatment remain hyperventilation and osmotherapy. Despite maximal treatment, however, the mortality and morbidity associated with pediatric head injury remains high. Reduction of this mortality and morbidity will likely depend upon prevention rather than treatment.

  6. The interstellar medium in galaxies

    CERN Document Server


    It has been more than five decades ago that Henk van de Hulst predicted the observability of the 21-cm line of neutral hydrogen (HI ). Since then use of the 21-cm line has greatly improved our knowledge in many fields and has been used for galactic structure studies, studies of the interstellar medium (ISM) in the Milky Way and other galaxies, studies of the mass distribution of the Milky Way and other galaxies, studies of spiral struc­ ture, studies of high velocity gas in the Milky Way and other galaxies, for measuring distances using the Tully-Fisher relation etc. Regarding studies of the ISM, there have been a number of instrumen­ tal developments over the past decade: large CCD's became available on optical telescopes, radio synthesis offered sensitive imaging capabilities, not only in the classical 21-cm HI line but also in the mm-transitions of CO and other molecules, and X-ray imaging capabilities became available to measure the hot component of the ISM. These developments meant that Milky Way was n...

  7. Evolution of the extinction curves in galaxies


    Asano, Ryosuke S.; Takeuchi, Tsutomu T.; Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Nozawa, Takaya


    We investigate the evolution of extinction curves in galaxies based on our evolution model of grain size distribution. In this model, we considered various processes: dust formation by SNe II and AGB stars, dust destruction by SN shocks in the ISM, metal accretion onto the surface of grains (referred to as grain growth), shattering and coagulation. We find that the extinction curve is flat in the earliest stage of galaxy evolution. As the galaxy is enriched with dust, shattering becomes effec...

  8. New Observations of Polar Ring Galaxies (United States)

    Sparke, L. S.; Cox, A. L.

    Polar ring systems are `multi-spin galaxies' (Rubin 1994): different components have discrepant axes of rotation. The outer gas-rich material in polar orbit appears to be a late acquisition; it shares neither the rotation nor the symmetry axis of the early-type inner galaxy, which contains little gas and consists largely of old stars. These systems represent galaxy mergers that are not yet completed.

  9. The resolved history of galaxy evolution. (United States)

    Brinchmann, Jarle


    We briefly review the study of the evolution of galaxies from an observational point of view, with particular emphasis on the role of the Hubble Space Telescope in probing the evolution of the different morphological types of galaxy. We show how using the stellar mass of galaxies as a tracer of evolution can improve our understanding of the physical process taking place before turning our eyes towards the future and giving an overview of what we can expect from future advances in technology.

  10. Massive relic galaxies prefer dense environments (United States)

    Peralta de Arriba, Luis; Quilis, Vicent; Trujillo, Ignacio; Cebrián, María; Balcells, Marc


    We study the preferred environments of z ∼ 0 massive relic galaxies (M⋆ ≳ 1010 M⊙ galaxies with little or no growth from star formation or mergers since z ∼ 2). Significantly, we carry out our analysis on both a large cosmological simulation and an observed galaxy catalogue. Working on the Millennium I-WMAP7 simulation we show that the fraction of today massive objects which have grown less than 10 per cent in mass since z ∼ 2 is ∼0.04 per cent for the whole massive galaxy population with M⋆ ≳ 1010 M⊙. This fraction rises to ∼0.18 per cent in galaxy clusters, confirming that clusters help massive galaxies remain unaltered. Simulations also show that massive relic galaxies tend to be closer to cluster centres than other massive galaxies. Using the New York University Value-Added Galaxy Catalogue, and defining relics as M⋆ ≳ 1010 M⊙ early-type galaxies with colours compatible with single-stellar population ages older than 10 Gyr, and which occupy the bottom 5-percentile in the stellar mass-size distribution, we find 1.11 ± 0.05 per cent of relics among massive galaxies. This fraction rises to 2.4 ± 0.4 per cent in high-density environments. Our findings point in the same direction as the works by Poggianti et al. and Stringer et al. Our results may reflect the fact that the cores of the clusters are created very early on, hence the centres host the first cluster members. Near the centres, high-velocity dispersions and harassment help cluster core members avoid the growth of an accreted stellar envelope via mergers, while a hot intracluster medium prevents cold gas from reaching the galaxies, inhibiting star formation.

  11. The TANGO Project: Thorough ANalysis of radio-Galaxies Observations (United States)

    Ocaña Flaquer, Breezy; Leon Tanne, Stephane; Combes, Francoise; Lim, Jeremy


    We present a sample of radio galaxies selected only on the basis of radio continuum emission and we confirm that these galaxies have lower molecular gas mass than other elliptical galaxies with different selection criteria.

  12. Fossil evidence for spin alignment of Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies in filaments (United States)

    Jones, Bernard J. T.; van de Weygaert, Rien; Aragón-Calvo, Miguel A.


    We search for and find fossil evidence that the spin axes of galaxies in cosmic web filaments relative to their host filaments are not randomly distributed. This indicates the fact that the action of large-scale tidal torques affected the alignments of galaxies located in cosmic filaments. To this end, we constructed a catalogue of clean filaments containing edge-on galaxies. We started by applying the multiscale morphology filter technique to the galaxies in a redshift-distortion-corrected version of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5. From this sample, we extracted 426 filaments that contained edge-on galaxies (b/a analysis using `feature measures' indicates that the distribution of orientations of these edge-on galaxies relative to their parent filament deviates significantly from what would be expected on the basis of a random distribution of orientations. Fewer than 1 per cent of orientation histograms generated from simulated random distributions show the same features as observed in the data histogram. The interpretation of this result may not be immediately apparent, but it is easy to identify a population of 14 objects whose spin axes are aligned perpendicular to the spine of the parent filament (cosθ evidence of alignment yields relatively few candidate objects, but it does not suffer from the dilution effects inherent in correlation analysis of large samples. The candidate objects could be the subjects of a programme of observations aimed at understanding in what way they might differ from their non-aligned counterparts.

  13. Galaxy Zoo: Major Galaxy Mergers Are Not a Significant Quenching Pathway (United States)

    Weigel, Anna K.; Schawinski, Kevin; Caplar, Neven; Carpineti, Alfredo; Hart, Ross E.; Kaviraj, Sugata; Keel, William C.; Kruk, Sandor J.; Lintott, Chris J.; Nichol, Robert C.; Simmons, Brooke D.; Smethurst, Rebecca J.


    We use stellar mass functions to study the properties and the significance of quenching through major galaxy mergers. In addition to SDSS DR7 and Galaxy Zoo 1 data, we use samples of visually selected major galaxy mergers and post-merger galaxies. We determine the stellar mass functions of the stages that we would expect major-merger-quenched galaxies to pass through on their way from the blue cloud to the red sequence: (1) major merger, (2) post-merger, (3) blue early type, (4) green early type, and (5) red early type. Based on their similar mass function shapes, we conclude that major mergers are likely to form an evolutionary sequence from star formation to quiescence via quenching. Relative to all blue galaxies, the major-merger fraction increases as a function of stellar mass. Major-merger quenching is inconsistent with the mass and environment quenching model. At z˜ 0, major-merger-quenched galaxies are unlikely to constitute the majority of galaxies that transition through the green valley. Furthermore, between z˜ 0-0.5, major-merger-quenched galaxies account for 1%-5% of all quenched galaxies at a given stellar mass. Major galaxy mergers are therefore not a significant quenching pathway, neither at z˜ 0 nor within the last 5 Gyr. The majority of red galaxies must have been quenched through an alternative quenching mechanism that causes a slow blue to red evolution. .

  14. Galaxy Zoo: evidence for rapid, recent quenching within a population of AGN host galaxies (United States)

    Smethurst, R. J.; Lintott, C. J.; Simmons, B. D.; Schawinski, K.; Bamford, S. P.; Cardamone, C. N.; Kruk, S. J.; Masters, K. L.; Urry, C. M.; Willett, K. W.; Wong, O. I.


    We present a population study of the star formation history of 1244 Type 2 active galactic nuclei (AGN) host galaxies, compared to 6107 inactive galaxies. A Bayesian method is used to determine individual galaxy star formation histories, which are then collated to visualize the distribution for quenching and quenched galaxies within each population. We find evidence for some of the Type 2 AGN host galaxies having undergone a rapid drop in their star formation rate within the last 2 Gyr. AGN feedback is therefore important at least for this population of galaxies. This result is not seen for the quenching and quenched inactive galaxies whose star formation histories are dominated by the effects of downsizing at earlier epochs, a secondary effect for the AGN host galaxies. We show that histories of rapid quenching cannot account fully for the quenching of all the star formation in a galaxy's lifetime across the population of quenched AGN host galaxies, and that histories of slower quenching, attributed to secular (non-violent) evolution, are also key in their evolution. This is in agreement with recent results showing that both merger-driven and non-merger processes are contributing to the co-evolution of galaxies and supermassive black holes. The availability of gas in the reservoirs of a galaxy, and its ability to be replenished, appear to be the key drivers behind this co-evolution.

  15. Are ring galaxies the ancestors of giant low surface brightness galaxies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mapelli, M.; Moore, B.; Ripamonti, E.; Mayer, L.; Colpi, M.; Giordan, L.


    We simulate the collisional formation of a ring galaxy and we integrate its evolution up to 1.5 Gyr after the interaction. About 100-200 Myr after the collision, the simulated galaxy is very similar to observed ring galaxies (e.g. Cartwheel). After this stage, the ring keeps expanding and fades.

  16. Deep spectroscopy in nearby galaxy clusters - III. Orbital structure of galaxies in Abell 85 (United States)

    Aguerri, J. A. L.; Agulli, I.; Diaferio, A.; Dalla Vecchia, C.


    Galaxies in clusters are strongly affected by their environment. They evolve according to several physical mechanisms that are active in clusters. Their efficiency can strongly depend on the orbital configuration of the galaxies. Our aim is to analyse the orbits of the galaxies in the cluster Abell 85, based on the study of the galaxy velocity anisotropy parameter. We have solved the Jeans equation under the assumption that the galaxies in A 85 are collisionless objects, within the spherically symmetric gravitational potential of the virialized cluster. The mass of the cluster was estimated with X-ray and caustic analyses. We find that the anisotropy profile of the full galaxy population in A 85 is an increasing monotonic function of the distance from the cluster centre: on average, galaxies in the central region (r/r200 blue galaxies are on less radial orbits than red galaxies. The different families of cluster galaxies considered here have the pseudo phase-space density profiles Q(r) and Qr(r) consistent with the profiles expected in virialized dark matter haloes in N-body simulations. This result suggests that the galaxies in A 85 have reached dynamical equilibrium within the cluster potential. Our results indicate that the origin of the blue and red colours of the different galaxy populations is the different orbital shape rather than the accretion time.

  17. Extinction in the Galaxy from surface brightnesses of ESO-LV galaxies : Testing "standard" extinction maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choloniewski, J.; Valentijn, E. A.

    A new method for the determination of the extinction in the Galaxy is proposed. The method uses surface brightnesses of external galaxies in the B and R-bands. The observational data have been taken from the ESO-LV galaxy catalog. As a first application of our model we derive the ratio of R-band to

  18. Head and Neck Reconstruction. (United States)

    Wong, Shannon; Melin, Alyson; Reilly, Debra


    Management of head and neck burns involves acute and intermediate phases. Acutely, the goals are establish a secure airway and treat life-threatening injuries. Then, optimize nutrition, assess extent of the burn, perform local wound care, and provide eye protection. Management depends on the degree of the head and neck burn. Postinjury splinting and rehabilitation are vital to healing. After the acute inflammation has resolved and the scars have matured, reconstruction begins with the goals of restoring both function and aesthetics. Reconstruction ranges from simple scar release, to skin grafting, and possibly free flap reconstruction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Head first Ajax

    CERN Document Server

    Riordan, Rebecca M


    Ajax is no longer an experimental approach to website development, but the key to building browser-based applications that form the cornerstone of Web 2.0. Head First Ajax gives you an up-to-date perspective that lets you see exactly what you can do -- and has been done -- with Ajax. With it, you get a highly practical, in-depth, and mature view of what is now a mature development approach. Using the unique and highly effective visual format that has turned Head First titles into runaway bestsellers, this book offers a big picture overview to introduce Ajax, and then explores the use of ind

  20. A Review of Instrumented Equipment to Investigate Head Impacts in Sport


    PATTON, Declan A.


    Contact, collision, and combat sports have more head impacts as compared to noncontact sports; therefore, such sports are uniquely suited to the investigation of head impact biomechanics. Recent advances in technology have enabled the development of instrumented equipment, which can estimate the head impact kinematics of human subjects in vivo. Literature pertaining to head impact measurement devices was reviewed and usage, in terms of validation and field studies, of such devices was discuss...

  1. Investigations of Galaxy Clusters Using Gravitational Lensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesner, Matthew P. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States)


    In this dissertation, we discuss the properties of galaxy clusters that have been determined using strong and weak gravitational lensing. A galaxy cluster is a collection of galaxies that are bound together by the force of gravity, while gravitational lensing is the bending of light by gravity. Strong lensing is the formation of arcs or rings of light surrounding clusters and weak lensing is a change in the apparent shapes of many galaxies. In this work we examine the properties of several samples of galaxy clusters using gravitational lensing. In Chapter 1 we introduce astrophysical theory of galaxy clusters and gravitational lensing. In Chapter 2 we examine evidence from our data that galaxy clusters are more concentrated than cosmology would predict. In Chapter 3 we investigate whether our assumptions about the number of galaxies in our clusters was valid by examining new data. In Chapter 4 we describe a determination of a relationship between mass and number of galaxies in a cluster at higher redshift than has been found before. In Chapter 5 we describe a model of the mass distribution in one of the ten lensing systems discovered by our group at Fermilab. Finally in Chapter 6 we summarize our conclusions.

  2. Detailed Quantitative Classifications of Galaxy Morphology (United States)

    Nair, Preethi


    Understanding the physical processes responsible for the growth of galaxies is one of the key challenges in extragalactic astronomy. The assembly history of a galaxy is imprinted in a galaxy’s detailed morphology. The bulge-to-total ratio of galaxies, the presence or absence of bars, rings, spiral arms, tidal tails etc, all have implications for the past merger, star formation, and feedback history of a galaxy. However, current quantitative galaxy classification schemes are only useful for broad binning. They cannot classify or exploit the wide variety of galaxy structures seen in nature. Therefore, comparisons of observations with theoretical predictions of secular structure formation have only been conducted on small samples of visually classified galaxies. However large samples are needed to disentangle the complex physical processes of galaxy formation. With the advent of large surveys, like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and WFIRST, the problem of statistics will be resolved. However, the need for a robust quantitative classification scheme will still remain. Here I will present early results on promising machine learning algorithms that are providing detailed classifications, identifying bars, rings, multi-armed spiral galaxies, and Hubble type.

  3. Are star formation rates of galaxies bimodal? (United States)

    Feldmann, Robert


    Star formation rate (SFR) distributions of galaxies are often assumed to be bimodal with modes corresponding to star-forming and quiescent galaxies, respectively. Both classes of galaxies are typically studied separately, and SFR distributions of star-forming galaxies are commonly modelled as lognormals. Using both observational data and results from numerical simulations, I argue that this division into star-forming and quiescent galaxies is unnecessary from a theoretical point of view and that the SFR distributions of the whole population can be well fitted by zero-inflated negative binomial distributions. This family of distributions has three parameters that determine the average SFR of the galaxies in the sample, the scatter relative to the star-forming sequence and the fraction of galaxies with zero SFRs, respectively. The proposed distributions naturally account for (i) the discrete nature of star formation, (ii) the presence of 'dead' galaxies with zero SFRs and (iii) asymmetric scatter. Excluding 'dead' galaxies, the distribution of log SFR is unimodal with a peak at the star-forming sequence and an extended tail towards low SFRs. However, uncertainties and biases in the SFR measurements can create the appearance of a bimodal distribution.

  4. Search for High Redshift Galaxy Clusters (United States)

    Haarsma, D. B.; Butler, A. R.; Donahue, M. E.; Bruch, S. S.


    Distant galaxy clusters are key to understanding many current questions in cosmology, structure formation, and galaxy evolution, yet few z>1 clusters have been identified. The ROSAT Optical X-ray Survey (Donahue et al. 2002 ApJ 569, 689) searched for galaxy clusters using both optical and x-ray detection methods. While many clusters appeared in both wavebands, 10 targets which showed extended x-ray emission (a unique signature of cluster gas) did not show significant I-band emission (expected from elliptical galaxies in the cluster). These targets may be galaxy clusters with redshift greater than 1, which would appear faint in I due to the 400 nm break in elliptical galaxy spectra. In J and K bands, such galaxies would be easier to detect, and in April 2005 we imaged the 10 fields in J and K with the FLAMINGOS camera on the NOAO 4m telescope. The infrared colors are useful in identifying clusters, because all elliptical galaxies in a cluster are expected to have similar colors (i.e. the red sequence). We report preliminary identifications of high redshift galaxy clusters in our sample.

  5. BioBlend.objects: metacomputing with Galaxy. (United States)

    Leo, Simone; Pireddu, Luca; Cuccuru, Gianmauro; Lianas, Luca; Soranzo, Nicola; Afgan, Enis; Zanetti, Gianluigi


    BioBlend.objects is a new component of the BioBlend package, adding an object-oriented interface for the Galaxy REST-based application programming interface. It improves support for metacomputing on Galaxy entities by providing higher-level functionality and allowing users to more easily create programs to explore, query and create Galaxy datasets and workflows. BioBlend.objects is available online at The new object-oriented API is implemented by the galaxy/objects subpackage. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. Clinical measurement of compensatory torsional eye movement during head tilt. (United States)

    Lim, Han Woong; Kim, Ji Hong; Park, Seung Hun; Oh, Sei Yeul


    To measure the degree of compensatory torsional eye movement during head tilt using a fundus photography method. We enrolled 55 healthy subjects who were 20-66 years of age. Fundus photographs were obtained in the presumed baseline position and in stepwise head tilt positions to evaluate ocular torsion using a non-mydriatic fundus camera. Horizontal marks on the nose were photographed simultaneously to evaluate head tilt. Images were analysed using Photoshop to measure the degree of ocular torsion and head tilt. A consistent compensatory torsional eye movement was observed in all subjects during head tilt. The degree of compensatory torsional eye movement showed a positive correlation with the angle of head tilt. Ocular torsional disconjugacy was observed during head tilt, with larger excycloductional eye movement than incycloductional eye movement (4.88 ± 2.91° versus 4.50 ± 2.76°, p eye movement was significantly associated with the degree of head tilt (β = 0.191, p eye movement. Considering the availability of fundus photography in clinical ophthalmology practice, the proposed method can be used as a clinical tool to measure compensatory torsional eye movement. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Head and neck position sense. (United States)

    Armstrong, Bridget; McNair, Peter; Taylor, Denise


    Traumatic minor cervical strains are common place in high-impact sports (e.g. tackling) and premature degenerative changes have been documented in sports people exposed to recurrent impact trauma (e.g. scrummaging in rugby) or repetitive forces (e.g. Formula 1 racing drivers, jockeys). While proprioceptive exercises have been an integral part of rehabilitation of injuries in the lower limb, they have not featured as prominently in the treatment of cervical injuries. However, head and neck position sense (HNPS) testing and re-training may have relevance in the management of minor sports-related neck injuries, and play a role in reducing the incidence of ongoing pain and problems with function. For efficacious programmes to be developed and tested, fundamental principles associated with proprioception in the cervical spine should be considered. Hence, this article highlights the importance of anatomical structures in the cervical spine responsible for position sense, and how their interaction with the CNS affects our ability to plan and execute effective purposeful movements. This article includes a review of studies examining position sense in subjects with and without pathology and describes the effects of rehabilitation programmes that have sought to improve position sense. In respect to the receptors providing proprioceptive information for the CNS, the high densities and complex arrays of spindles found in cervical muscles suggest that these receptors play a key role. There is some evidence suggesting that ensemble encoding of discharge patterns from muscle spindles is relayed to the CNS and that a pattern recognition system is used to establish joint position and movement. Sensory information from neck proprioceptive receptors is processed in tandem with information from the vestibular system. There are extensive anatomical connections between neck proprioceptive inputs and vestibular inputs. If positional information from the vestibular system is inaccurate or

  8. Merging Galaxies Create a Binary Quasar (United States)


    Astronomers have found the first clear evidence of a binary quasar within a pair of actively merging galaxies. Quasars are the extremely bright centers of galaxies surrounding super-massive black holes, and binary quasars are pairs of quasars bound together by gravity. Binary quasars, like other quasars, are thought to be the product of galaxy mergers. Until now, however, binary quasars have not been seen in galaxies that are unambiguously in the act of merging. But images of a new binary quasar from the Carnegie Institution's Magellan telescope in Chile show two distinct galaxies with "tails" produced by tidal forces from their mutual gravitational attraction. "This is really the first case in which you see two separate galaxies, both with quasars, that are clearly interacting," says Carnegie astronomer John Mulchaey who made observations crucial to understanding the galaxy merger. Most, if not all, large galaxies, such as our galaxy the Milky Way, host super-massive black holes at their centers. Because galaxies regularly interact and merge, astronomers have assumed that binary super-massive black holes have been common in the Universe, especially during its early history. Black holes can only be detected as quasars when they are actively accreting matter, a process that releases vast amounts of energy. A leading theory is that galaxy mergers trigger accretion, creating quasars in both galaxies. Because most such mergers would have happened in the distant past, binary quasars and their associated galaxies are very far away and therefore difficult for most telescopes to resolve. The binary quasar, labeled SDSS J1254+0846, was initially detected by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, a large scale astronomical survey of galaxies and over 120,000 quasars. Further observations by Paul Green of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and colleagues* using NASA's Chandra's X-ray Observatory and telescopes at Kitt Peak National Observatory in Arizona and Palomar

  9. The effect of head movement and head positioning on sound field audiometry. (United States)

    Shaw, Paul; Greenwood, Hannah


    Positioning and maintaining the subject's head at the calibration point (CP) of the sound field (SF) during SF assessment remains a challenge. The purpose of this study was to investigate the sound pressure level (SPL) at head positions likely to be encountered in routine audiological practice. Eight National Health Service SF clinics were used to obtain SPL measurements. Part 1 of the study investigated SPL variability at positions around the CP (0.15 m and 0.30 m). Parts 2 and 3 of the study, investigated the SPL at two typical head heights of the infant population. Only sound field measures were obtained. Part 1: 32% and 40% of measurements of SPL around the CP were >2 dB different from the SPL at the CP (0.15 m and 0.30 m). Parts 2 and 3: 55% and 38% of measurements of SPL, at the two infant head heights, were >2 dB from the SPL at the CP. Variability in SPL, due to head movement, is to be expected when performing SF audiometry. Furthermore, the typical head heights of infants will introduce additional variability, unless the position of the CP is chosen carefully.

  10. Enhancement of subject description of fiction with annotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Šauperl


    Full Text Available In Slovenia, subject description of fiction was traditionally limited to the Universal Decimal Classification number, which was mainly assigned for shelving. Readers found their books by browsing the library shelves, while librarians had to rely on their personal familiarity with the library collection if they wanted to advise readers on the selection of books. Subject description, such as is often associated with non-literary works, would require a lot of time. Therefore, we wanted to know whether reading book reviews in newspapers could replace reading the entire literary work. We analysed a small sample of book reviews written by literary critics and published in Slovenian newspapers and compared them to the reviews, written by librarians for the same literary works (in the »Priporočamo!« project. We realized that the content is different. However, they could be used for identification of additional subject headings. The same findings resulted from a similar analysis of literary works written for children. Concepts, that seemed potentially appropriate subject headings, often actually do not appear in the Slovenian subject headings or subject headings from the Pionirska knjižnica of Ljubljana. Both subject heading lists should include a larger number of abstract concepts, which more often appear in literary than in non-literary works. Both subject heading lists should also be coordinated.

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos ... head injuries, stroke , brain tumors and other brain diseases than regular radiographs (x-rays). top of page ...

  12. Lubricating the swordfish head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videler, John J.; Haydar, Deniz; Snoek, Roelant; Hoving, Henk-Jan T.; Szabo, Ben G.

    The swordfish is reputedly the fastest swimmer on Earth. The concave head and iconic sword are unique characteristics, but how they contribute to its speed is still unknown. Recent computed tomography scans revealed a poorly mineralised area near the base of the rostrum. Here we report, using

  13. Waco Head Start Program. (United States)

    Porter, Para

    The Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 led to the formation of three separate Head Start Programs in Waco, Texas. The first year, 1,500 children were involved. Of these, 40 percent were Negro, 30 percent Latin American, and 30 percent white. All teachers received a week of preparatory study at the University of Texas. The program involved four areas…

  14. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head ...

  15. Ultrasound: Head (For Parents) (United States)

    ... a safe and painless test that uses sound waves to make images of the brain. During the examination, an ultrasound machine sends sound ... The fontanel provides an opening for the sound waves to get through and reach the brain. Why It's Done Doctors order head ultrasounds when ...

  16. Silva as the Head

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie


    The head of the performance design programme is substituted by a sister's academy delegate. this performance situation formed part of a week of semesterstart where the students and professors visited Sister's Academy, Malmø. I participated in the Sister's Academy as visiting researcher and here...

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams Blood Clots CT Perfusion of the Head CT Angiography ( ...

  18. Head nurses as middle managers. (United States)

    Johnston, P F


    The relationship between head nurses and their staff nurses influences staff turnover rates and job satisfaction. In this article the author describes the measures taken by the management of Greater Southeast Community Hospital in response to an increasing turnover rate among staff RNs. In recognition of the head nurse role vis-d-vis attrition rates and job satisfaction, head nurses were upgraded to department head status and rigorous head nurse performance standards were developed. These standards required clinical expertise, managerial competence, and accountability. It is the author's contention that clinical practice and staff morale are directly related to a clearly defined head nurse role.

  19. Coma cluster ultradiffuse galaxies are not standard radio galaxies (United States)

    Struble, Mitchell F.


    Matching members in the Coma cluster catalogue of ultradiffuse galaxies (UDGs) from SUBARU imaging with a very deep radio continuum survey source catalogue of the cluster using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) within a rectangular region of ∼1.19 deg2 centred on the cluster core reveals matches consistent with random. An overlapping set of 470 UDGs and 696 VLA radio sources in this rectangular area finds 33 matches within a separation of 25 arcsec; dividing the sample into bins with separations bounded by 5, 10, 20 and 25 arcsec finds 1, 4, 17 and 11 matches. An analytical model estimate, based on the Poisson probability distribution, of the number of randomly expected matches within these same separation bounds is 1.7, 4.9, 19.4 and 14.2, each, respectively, consistent with the 95 per cent Poisson confidence intervals of the observed values. Dividing the data into five clustercentric annuli of 0.1° and into the four separation bins, finds the same result. This random match of UDGs with VLA sources implies that UDGs are not radio galaxies by the standard definition. Those VLA sources having integrated flux >1 mJy at 1.4 GHz in Miller, Hornschemeier and Mobasher without SDSS galaxy matches are consistent with the known surface density of background radio sources. We briefly explore the possibility that some unresolved VLA sources near UDGs could be young, compact, bright, supernova remnants of Type Ia events, possibly in the intracluster volume.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Xinfa [School of Science, Nanchang University, Jiangxi 330031 (China)


    In this study, I apply cluster analysis and perform comparative studies of clustering properties between galaxies and groups of galaxies. It is found that the number of objects N{sub max} of the richest system and the maximal length D{sub max} of the largest system for groups in all samples are apparently larger than ones for galaxies, and that galaxies preferentially form isolated, paired, and small systems, while groups preferentially form grouped and clustered systems. These results show that groups are more strongly clustered than galaxies, which is consistent with statistical results of the correlation function.

  1. Star Formation in low mass galaxies (United States)

    Mehta, Vihang


    Our current hierarchical view of the universe asserts that the large galaxies we see today grew via mergers of numerous smaller galaxies. As evidenced by recent literature, the collective impact of these low mass galaxies on the universe is more substantial than previously thought. Studying the growth and evolution of these low mass galaxies is critical to our understanding of the universe as a whole. Star formation is one of the most important ongoing processes in galaxies. Forming stars is fundamental to the growth of a galaxy. One of the main goals of my thesis is to analyze the star formation in these low mass galaxies at different redshifts.Using the Hubble UltraViolet Ultra Deep Field (UVUDF), I investigate the star formation in galaxies at the peak of the cosmic star formation history using the ultraviolet (UV) light as a star formation indicator. Particularly, I measure the UV luminosity function (LF) to probe the volume-averaged star formation properties of galaxies at these redshifts. The depth of the UVUDF is ideal for a direct measurement of the faint end slope of the UV LF. This redshift range also provides a unique opportunity to directly compare UV to the "gold standard" of star formation indicators, namely the Hα nebular emission line. A joint analysis of the UV and Hα LFs suggests that, on average, the star formation histories in low mass galaxies (~109 M⊙) are more bursty compared to their higher mass counterparts at these redshifts.Complementary to the analysis of the average star formation properties of the bulk galaxy population, I investigate the details of star formation in some very bursty galaxies at lower redshifts selected from Spitzer Large Area Survey with Hyper-Suprime Cam (SPLASH). Using a broadband color-excess selection technique, I identify a sample of low redshift galaxies with bright nebular emission lines in the Subaru-XMM Deep Field (SXDF) from the SPLASH-SXDF catalog. These galaxies are highly star forming and have

  2. Head injuries, heading, and the use of headgear in soccer. (United States)

    Niedfeldt, Mark W


    Soccer has more than 265 million players around the world and is the only contact sport with purposeful use of the head for controlling and advancing the ball. Head contact in soccer has the potential to cause acute traumatic brain injury including concussion or, potentially, a pattern of chronic brain injury. Although early retrospective research on the effects of soccer heading seemed to suggest that purposeful heading may contribute to long-term cognitive impairment, prospective controlled studies do not support this and, in fact, suggest that purposeful heading may not be a risk factor for cognitive impairment. Headgear has not been shown to be effective in reducing ball impact but may be helpful in reducing the force of non-ball-related impacts to the head. There are concerns that universal use of headgear may cause more aggressive heading and head challenges, leading to increased risk of injury.

  3. A Modern Picture of Barred Galaxy Dynamics (United States)

    Petersen, Michael; Weinberg, Martin; Katz, Neal


    Observations of disk galaxies suggest that bars are responsible for altering global galaxy parameters (e.g. structures, gas fraction, star formation rate). The canonical understanding of the mechanisms underpinning bar-driven secular dynamics in disk galaxies has been largely built upon the analysis of linear theory, despite galactic bars being clearly demonstrated to be nonlinear phenomena in n-body simulations. We present simulations of barred Milky Way-like galaxy models designed to elucidate nonlinear barred galaxy dynamics. We have developed two new methodologies for analyzing n-body simulations that give the best of both powerful analytic linear theory and brute force simulation analysis: orbit family identification and multicomponent torque analysis. The software will be offered publicly to the community for their own simulation analysis.The orbit classifier reveals that the details of kinematic components in galactic disks (e.g. the bar, bulge, thin disk, and thick disk components) are powerful discriminators of evolutionary paradigms (i.e. violent instabilities and secular evolution) as well as the basic parameters of the dark matter halo (mass distribution, angular momentum distribution). Multicomponent torque analysis provides a thorough accounting of the transfer of angular momentum between orbits, global patterns, and distinct components in order to better explain the underlying physics which govern the secular evolution of barred disk galaxies.Using these methodologies, we are able to identify the successes and failures of linear theory and traditional n-body simulations en route to a detailed understanding of the control bars exhibit over secular evolution in galaxies. We present explanations for observed physical and velocity structures in observations of barred galaxies alongside predictions for how structures will vary with dynamical properties from galaxy to galaxy as well as over the lifetime of a galaxy, finding that the transfer of angular

  4. Parametrizing the stellar haloes of galaxies (United States)

    D'Souza, Richard; Kauffman, Guinevere; Wang, Jing; Vegetti, Simona


    We study the stellar haloes of galaxies out to 70-100 kpc as a function of stellar mass and galaxy type by stacking aligned r- and g-band images from a sample of 45 508 galaxies from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 9 in the redshift range 0.06 ≤ z ≤ 0.1 and in the mass range 1010.0 M⊙ < M* < 1011.4 M⊙. We derive surface brightness profiles to a depth of almost μr ˜ 32 mag arcsec-2. We find that the ellipticity of the stellar halo is a function of galaxy stellar mass and that the haloes of high-concentration galaxies are more elliptical than those of low-concentration galaxies. Where the g - r colour of the stellar halo can be measured, we find that the stellar light is always bluer than in the main galaxy. The colour of the stellar halo is redder for more massive galaxies. We further demonstrate that the full two-dimensional surface intensity distribution of our galaxy stacks can only be fit through multicomponent Sérsic models. Using the fraction of light in the outer component of the models as a proxy for the fraction of accreted stellar light, we show that this fraction is a function of stellar mass and galaxy type. The fraction of accreted stellar light rises from 30 to 70 per cent and from 2 to 25 per cent for high- and low-concentration galaxies, respectively, over the mass range 1010.0-1011.4 M⊙.

  5. Important Nearby Galaxies without Accurate Distances (United States)

    McQuinn, Kristen


    The Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) and its offspring programs (e.g., THINGS, HERACLES, KINGFISH) have resulted in a fundamental change in our view of star formation and the ISM in galaxies, and together they represent the most complete multi-wavelength data set yet assembled for a large sample of nearby galaxies. These great investments of observing time have been dedicated to the goal of understanding the interstellar medium, the star formation process, and, more generally, galactic evolution at the present epoch. Nearby galaxies provide the basis for which we interpret the distant universe, and the SINGS sample represents the best studied nearby galaxies.Accurate distances are fundamental to interpreting observations of galaxies. Surprisingly, many of the SINGS spiral galaxies have numerous distance estimates resulting in confusion. We can rectify this situation for 8 of the SINGS spiral galaxies within 10 Mpc at a very low cost through measurements of the tip of the red giant branch. The proposed observations will provide an accuracy of better than 0.1 in distance modulus. Our sample includes such well known galaxies as M51 (the Whirlpool), M63 (the Sunflower), M104 (the Sombrero), and M74 (the archetypal grand design spiral).We are also proposing coordinated parallel WFC3 UV observations of the central regions of the galaxies, rich with high-mass UV-bright stars. As a secondary science goal we will compare the resolved UV stellar populations with integrated UV emission measurements used in calibrating star formation rates. Our observations will complement the growing HST UV atlas of high resolution images of nearby galaxies.

  6. Radial Head Fractures (United States)

    Jordan, Robert W.; Jones, Alistair DR.


    Background: Radial head fractures are common elbow injuries in adults and are frequently associated with additional soft tissue and bone injuries. Methods: A literature search was performed and the authors’ personal experiences are reported. Results: Mason type I fractures are treated non-operatively with splinting and early mobilisation. The management of Mason type II injuries is less clear with evidence supporting both non-operative treatment and internal fixation. The degree of intra-articular displacement and angulation acceptable for non-operative management has yet to be conclusively defined. Similarly the treatment of type III and IV fractures remain controversial. Traditional radial head excision is associated with valgus instability and should be considered only for patients with low functional demands. Comparative studies have shown improved results from internal fixation over excision. Internal fixation should only be attempted when anatomic reduction and initiation of early motion can be achieved. Authors have reported that results from fixation are poorer and complication rates are higher if more than three fragments are present. Radial head arthroplasty aims to reconstruct the native head and is indicated when internal fixation is not feasible and in the presence of complex elbow injuries. Overstuffing of the radiocapitellar joint is a frequent technical fault and has significant adverse effects on elbow biomechanics. Modular design improves the surgeon’s ability to reconstruct the native joint. Two randomised controlled trials have shown improved clinical outcomes and lower complication rate following arthroplasty when compared to internal fixation. Conclusion: We have presented details regarding the treatment of various types of radial head fractures - further evidence, however, is still required to provide clarity over the role of these different management strategies. PMID:29290880

  7. A Curious Pair of Galaxies (United States)


    The ESO Very Large Telescope has taken the best image ever of a strange and chaotic duo of interwoven galaxies. The images also contain some surprises -- interlopers both far and near. ESO PR Photo 11a/09 A Curious Pair of Galaxies ESO PR Video 11a/09 Arp 261 zoom in ESO PR Video 11b/09 Pan over Arp 261 Sometimes objects in the sky that appear strange, or different from normal, have a story to tell and prove scientifically very rewarding. This was the idea behind Halton Arp's catalogue of Peculiar Galaxies that appeared in the 1960s. One of the oddballs listed there is Arp 261, which has now been imaged in more detail than ever before using the FORS2 instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope. The image proves to contain several surprises. Arp 261 lies about 70 million light-years distant in the constellation of Libra, the Scales. Its chaotic and very unusual structure is created by the interaction of two galaxies that are engaged in a slow motion, but highly disruptive close encounter. Although individual stars are very unlikely to collide in such an event, the huge clouds of gas and dust certainly do crash into each other at high speed, leading to the formation of bright new clusters of very hot stars that are clearly seen in the picture. The paths of the existing stars in the galaxies are also dramatically disrupted, creating the faint swirls extending to the upper left and lower right of the image. Both interacting galaxies were probably dwarfs not unlike the Magellanic Clouds orbiting our own galaxy. The images used to create this picture were not actually taken to study the interacting galaxies at all, but to investigate the properties of the inconspicuous object just to the right of the brightest part of Arp 261 and close to the centre of the image. This is an unusual exploding star, called SN 1995N, that is thought to be the result of the final collapse of a massive star at the end of its life, a so-called core collapse supernova. SN 1995N is unusual because

  8. Predicting galaxy star formation rates via the co-evolution of galaxies and haloes (United States)

    Watson, Douglas F.; Hearin, Andrew P.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Becker, Matthew R.; Behroozi, Peter S.; Skibba, Ramin A.; Reyes, Reinabelle; Zentner, Andrew R.; van den Bosch, Frank C.


    In this paper, we test the age matching hypothesis that the star formation rate (SFR) of a galaxy of fixed stellar mass is determined by its dark matter halo formation history, e.g. more quiescent galaxies reside in older haloes. We present new Sloan Digital Sky Survey measurements of the galaxy two-point correlation function and galaxy-galaxy lensing as a function of stellar mass and SFR, separated into quenched and star-forming galaxy samples to test this simple model. We find that our age matching model is in excellent agreement with these new measurements. We also find that our model is able to predict: (1) the relative SFRs of central and satellite galaxies, (2) the SFR dependence of the radial distribution of satellite galaxy populations within galaxy groups, rich groups, and clusters and their surrounding larger scale environments, and (3) the interesting feature that the satellite quenched fraction as a function of projected radial distance from the central galaxy exhibits an ˜r-.15 slope, independent of environment. These accurate predictions are intriguing given that we do not explicitly model satellite-specific processes after infall, and that in our model the virial radius does not mark a special transition region in the evolution of a satellite. The success of the model suggests that present-day galaxy SFR is strongly correlated with halo mass assembly history.

  9. Quantitative Morphology of High-Redshift Galaxies Using GALEX Ultraviolet Images of Nearby Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bum-Suk Yeom


    Full Text Available We present simulations of the optical-band images of high-redshift galaxies utilizing 845 near-ultraviolet (NUV images of nearby galaxies obtained through the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX. We compute the concentration (C, asymmetry (A, Gini (G, and M20 parameters of the GALEX NUV/Sloan Digital Sky Survey r-band images at z ~ 0 and their artificially redshifted optical images at z = 0.9 and 1.6 in order to quantify the morphology of galaxies at local and high redshifts. The morphological properties of nearby galaxies in the NUV are presented using a combination of morphological parameters, in which earlytype galaxies are well separated from late-type galaxies in the G–M20, C–M20, A–C, and A–M20 planes. Based on the distribution of galaxies in the A–C and G–M20 planes, we examine the morphological K-correction (i.e., cosmological distance effect and bandshift effect. The cosmological distance effect on the quantitative morphological parameters is found to be significant for early-type galaxies, while late-type galaxies are more greatly affected by the bandshift effect. Knowledge of the morphological K-correction will set the foundation for forthcoming studies on understanding the quantitative assessment of galaxy evolution.

  10. Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): probing the merger histories of massive galaxies via stellar populations (United States)

    Ferreras, I.; Hopkins, A. M.; Gunawardhana, M. L. P.; Sansom, A. E.; Owers, M. S.; Driver, S.; Davies, L.; Robotham, A.; Taylor, E. N.; Konstantopoulos, I.; Brough, S.; Norberg, P.; Croom, S.; Loveday, J.; Wang, L.; Bremer, M.


    The merging history of galaxies can be traced with studies of dynamically close pairs. These consist of a massive primary galaxy and a less massive secondary (or satellite) galaxy. The study of the stellar populations of secondary (lower mass) galaxies in close pairs provides a way to understand galaxy growth by mergers. Here we focus on systems involving at least one massive galaxy - with stellar mass above 1011M⊙ in the highly complete Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. Our working sample comprises 2692 satellite galaxy spectra (0.1 ≤ z ≤ 0.3). These spectra are combined into high S/N stacks, and binned according to both an 'internal' parameter, the stellar mass of the satellite galaxy (i.e. the secondary), and an 'external' parameter, selecting either the mass of the primary in the pair, or the mass of the corresponding dark matter halo. We find significant variations in the age of the populations with respect to environment. At fixed mass, satellites around the most massive galaxies are older and possibly more metal-rich, with age differences ˜1-2 Gyr within the subset of lower mass satellites (˜1010 M⊙). These variations are similar when stacking with respect to the halo mass of the group where the pair is embedded. The population trends in the lower mass satellites are consistent with the old stellar ages found in the outer regions of massive galaxies.

  11. The Unexpected Past of a Dwarf Galaxy (United States)


    New Light on Cannibalism in the Local Group of Galaxies The Local Group of Galaxies consists of a few large spiral galaxies - for instance the Milky Way galaxy in which we live, and the Andromeda galaxy that is visible to the unaided eye in the northern constellation of the same name - as well as two dozen much smaller galaxies of mostly irregular shape. Whereas the larger galaxies have extended halos of very old stars, no such halos have ever been seen around the smaller ones. Now, however, Dante Minniti and Albert Zijlstra [1], working at the ESO 3.5-metre New Technology Telescope (NTT), have found a large halo of old and metal-poor stars around one of the dwarf galaxies in the Local Group. This finding is quite unexpected. It revises our understanding of star formation in these galaxies and provides important information about the past evolution of galaxies [2]. Galaxy halos The Milky Way galaxy is surrounded by a large, roughly spherical halo of old stars. The diameter is about 100,000 light years and the stars therein, known as Population II stars, are among the oldest known, with ages of 10 billion years or even more. They also differ from the younger stars nearer to the main plane of the Milky Way (in which our 4.7 billion year old Sun is located) by being very metal-poor. Many of the halo stars consist almost solely of hydrogen and helium, reflecting the composition of matter in the young Universe. This halo is important for our understanding of the processes that led to the formation of the Milky Way galaxy. It is believed that many of the halo stars and those of the same type found in globular clusters existed already before the Milky Way had fully formed. Galaxy cannibalism Many astronomers suspect that galaxies evolve and gradually grow larger and heavier by practising cannibalism on their own kind. In this picture, when two galaxies collide in space, the stars and nebulae in the smaller one will disperse and soon be taken over by the larger one, which

  12. The Origin of Prolate Rotation in Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies Formed by Mergers of Disky Dwarfs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ebrová, Ivana; Lokas, E.


    Roč. 813, č. 1 (2015), 10/1-10/15 ISSN 0004-637X Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : galaxies * fundamental parameters * kinematics and dynamics Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.909, year: 2015

  13. The Arecibo Galaxy Environment Survey - X. The structure of halo gas around M33

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Keenan, O.; Davies, J.I.; Taylor, Rhys; Minchin, R.F.


    Roč. 456, č. 1 (2016), s. 951-960 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG14013; GA ČR GAP209/12/1795 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : galaxies * clusters * radio lines Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.961, year: 2016

  14. Eight per cent leakage of Lyman continuum photons from a compact, star-forming dwarf galaxy.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Izotov, Y.I.; Orlitová, Ivana; Schaerer, D.; Thuan, T.X.; Verhamme, A.; Guseva, N.G.; Worseck, G.


    Roč. 529, č. 7585 (2016), s. 178-180 ISSN 0028-0836 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-20666P Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : digital sky survey * emission-line galaxies * small-magellanic-cloud Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 40.137, year: 2016

  15. Advances and trends of head-up and head-down display systems in automobiles (United States)

    Betancur, J. Alejandro; Osorio-Gomez, Gilberto; Agudelo, J. David


    Currently, in the automotive industry the interaction between drivers and Augmented Reality (AR) systems is a subject of analysis, especially the identification of advantages and risks that this kind of interaction represents. Consequently, this paper attempts to put in evidence the potential applications of Head-Up (Display (HUD) and Head-Down Display (HDD) systems in automotive vehicles, showing applications and trends under study. In general, automotive advances related to AR devices suggest the partial integration of the HUD and HDD in automobiles; however, the right way to do it is still a moot point.

  16. Tracing the first stars and galaxies of the Milky Way (United States)

    Griffen, Brendan F.; Dooley, Gregory A.; Ji, Alexander P.; O'Shea, Brian W.; Gómez, Facundo A.; Frebel, Anna


    We use 30 high-resolution dark matter haloes of the Caterpillar simulation suite to probe the first stars and galaxies of Milky Way-mass systems. We quantify the environment of the high-z progenitors of the Milky Way and connect them to the properties of the host and satellites today. We identify the formation sites of the first generation of Population III (Pop III) stars (z ˜ 25) and first galaxies (z ˜ 22) with several different models based on a minimum halo mass. This includes a simple model for radiative feedback, the primary limitation of the model. Through this method we find approximately 23 000 ± 5000 Pop III potentially star-forming sites per Milky Way-mass host, though this number is drastically reduced to ˜550 star-forming sites if feedback is included. The majority of these haloes identified form in isolation (96 per cent at z = 15) and are not subject to external enrichment by neighbouring haloes (median separation ˜1 kpc at z = 15), though half merge with a system larger than themselves within 1.5 Gyr. Using particle tagging, we additionally trace the Pop III remnant population to z = 0 and find an order of magnitude scatter in their number density at small (i.e. r 50 kpc) galactocentric radii. We provide fitting functions for determining the number of progenitor minihalo and atomic cooling halo systems that present-day satellite galaxies might have accreted since their formation. We determine that observed dwarf galaxies with stellar masses below 104.6 M⊙ are unlikely to have merged with any other star-forming systems.

  17. Antiplatelet therapy and the outcome of subjects with intracranial injury: the Italian SIMEU study


    Fabbri, Andrea; Servadei, Franco; Marchesini, Giulio; Bronzoni, Carolina; Montesi, Danilo; Arietta, Luca


    Introduction Pre-injury antithrombotic therapy might influence the outcome of subjects with head injuries and positive computed tomography (CT) scans. We aimed to determine the potential risk of pre-injury antiplatelet drug use on short- and long-term outcome of head injured subjects admitted to emergency departments (EDs) in Italy for extended observation. Methods A total of 1,558 adult subjects with mild, moderate and severe head injury admitted to Italian EDs were studied. In multivariable...

  18. Host Galaxy Identification for Supernova Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Ravi R.; Kuhlmann, Steve; Kovacs, Eve; Spinka, Harold; Kessler, Richard; Goldstein, Daniel A.; Liotine, Camille; Pomian, Katarzyna; D’Andrea, Chris B.; Sullivan, Mark; Carretero, Jorge; Castander, Francisco J.; Nichol, Robert C.; Finley, David A.; Fischer, John A.; Foley, Ryan J.; Kim, Alex G.; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Sako, Masao; Scolnic, Daniel M.; Smith, Mathew; Tucker, Brad E.; Uddin, Syed; Wolf, Rachel C.; Yuan, Fang; Abbott, Tim M. C.; Abdalla, Filipe B.; Benoit-Lévy, Aurélien; Bertin, Emmanuel; Brooks, David; Rosell, Aurelio Carnero; Kind, Matias Carrasco; Cunha, Carlos E.; Costa, Luiz N. da; Desai, Shantanu; Doel, Peter; Eifler, Tim F.; Evrard, August E.; Flaugher, Brenna; Fosalba, Pablo; Gaztañaga, Enrique; Gruen, Daniel; Gruendl, Robert; James, David J.; Kuehn, Kyler; Kuropatkin, Nikolay; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Miquel, Ramon; Plazas, Andrés A.; Romer, A. Kathy; Sánchez, Eusebio; Schubnell, Michael; Sevilla-Noarbe, Ignacio; Sobreira, Flávia; Suchyta, Eric; Swanson, Molly E. C.; Tarle, Gregory; Walker, Alistair R.; Wester, William


    Host galaxy identification is a crucial step for modern supernova (SN) surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), which will discover SNe by the thousands. Spectroscopic resources are limited, so in the absence of real-time SN spectra these surveys must rely on host galaxy spectra to obtain accurate redshifts for the Hubble diagram and to improve photometric classification of SNe. In addition, SN luminosities are known to correlate with host-galaxy properties. Therefore, reliable identification of host galaxies is essential for cosmology and SN science. We simulate SN events and their locations within their host galaxies to develop and test methods for matching SNe to their hosts. We use both real and simulated galaxy catalog data from the Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalog and MICECATv2.0, respectively. We also incorporate "hostless" SNe residing in undetected faint hosts into our analysis, with an assumed hostless rate of 5%. Our fully automated algorithm is run on catalog data and matches SNe to their hosts with 91% accuracy. We find that including a machine learning component, run after the initial matching algorithm, improves the accuracy (purity) of the matching to 97% with a 2% cost in efficiency (true positive rate). Although the exact results are dependent on the details of the survey and the galaxy catalogs used, the method of identifying host galaxies we outline here can be applied to any transient survey.

  19. The void galaxy survey: Star formation properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beygu, B.; Kreckel, K.; van der Hulst, J. M.; Jarrett, T. H.; Peletier, R.; van de Weygaert, R.; van Gorkom, J. H.; Aragon-Calvo, M. A.


    We study the star formation properties of 59 void galaxies as part of the Void Galaxy Survey (VGS). Current star formation rates are derived from H α and recent star formation rates from near-UV imaging. In addition, infrared 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 μm Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer emission is

  20. Star clusters in the Whirlpool Galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepmaker, R.A.


    This thesis presents the results of observational studies of the star cluster population in the interacting spiral galaxy M51, also known as the Whirlpool galaxy. Observations taken by the Hubble Space Telescope in the optical and the near-UV are used to determine fundamental properties of the star

  1. AO Observations of Three Powerful Radio Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Vries, W; van Bruegel, W; Quirrenbach, A


    The host galaxies of powerful radio sources are ideal laboratories to study active galactic nuclei (AGN). The galaxies themselves are among the most massive systems in the universe, and are believed to harbor supermassive black holes (SMBH). If large galaxies are formed in a hierarchical way by multiple merger events, radio galaxies at low redshift represent the end-products of this process. However, it is not clear why some of these massive ellipticals have associated radio emission, while others do not. Both are thought to contain SMBHs, with masses proportional to the total luminous mass in the bulge. It either implies every SMBH has recurrent radio-loud phases, and the radio-quiet galaxies happen to be in the ''low'' state, or that the radio galaxy nuclei are physically different from radio-quiet ones, i.e. by having a more massive SMBH for a given bulge mass. Here we present the first results from our adaptive optics imaging and spectroscopy pilot program on three nearby powerful radio galaxies. Initiating a larger, more systematic AO survey of radio galaxies (preferentially with Laser Guide Star equipped AO systems) has the potential of furthering our understanding of the physical properties of radio sources, their triggering, and their subsequent evolution.

  2. Nature and nurture in galaxy formation simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, Marcel Richard


    We study several aspects of the formation of galaxies, using numerical simulations. We investigate the influence of about thirty different sub-grid physics recipes for cooling, star formation, supernova feedback, AGN feedback etc. on the resulting galaxy populations with large SPH simulations. We

  3. Relics as Probes of Galaxy Cluster Mergers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Galaxy clusters grow by mergers with other clusters and galaxy groups. These mergers create shocks within the intracluster medium (ICM). It is proposed that particles can be accelerated to extreme energies within the shocks. In the presence of a magnetic field these particles should then form large regions emitting ...

  4. Star Formation in Merging Galaxies Using FIRE (United States)

    Perez, Adrianna; Hung, Chao-Ling; Naiman, Jill; Moreno, Jorge; Hopkins, Philip


    Galaxy interactions and mergers are efficient mechanisms to birth stars at rates that are significantly higher than found in our Milky Way galaxy. The Kennicut-Schmidt (KS) relation is an empirical relationship between the star-forming rate and gas surface densities of galaxies (Schmidt 1959; Kennicutt 1998). Although most galaxies follow the KS relation, the high levels of star formation in galaxy mergers places them outside of this otherwise tight relationship. The goal of this research is to analyze the gas content and star formation of simulated merging galaxies. Our work utilizes the Feedback In Realistic Environments (FIRE) model (Hopkins et al., 2014). The FIRE project is a high-resolution cosmological simulation that resolves star-forming regions and incorporates stellar feedback in a physically realistic way. In this work, we have noticed a significant increase in the star formation rate at first and second passage, when the two black holes of each galaxy approach one other. Next, we will analyze spatially resolved star-forming regions over the course of the interacting system. Then, we can study when and how the rates that gas converts into stars deviate from the standard KS. These analyses will provide important insights into the physical mechanisms that regulate star formation of normal and merging galaxies and valuable theoretical predictions that can be used to compare with current and future observations from ALMA or the James Webb Space Telescope.

  5. Measuring galaxy potentials using shell kinematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merrifield, MR; Kuijken, K


    We show that the kinematics of the shells seen around some elliptical galaxies provide a new, independent means for measuring the gravitational potentials of elliptical galaxies out to large radii. A numerical simulation of a set of shells formed in the merger between an elliptical and a smaller

  6. Spectrophotometry of nearby field galaxies : The data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, RA; Fabricant, D; Franx, M; Caldwell, N

    We have obtained integrated and nuclear spectra as well as U, B, R surface photometry for a representative sample of 196 nearby galaxies. These galaxies span the entire Hubble sequence in morphological type, as well as a wide range of luminosities (M(B) = -14 to -22). Here we present the

  7. Dwarf Galaxies in the Local Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, Eline; Bruzual, GA; Charlot, S


    Within the Local Universe galaxies can be studied in great detail star by star. The Color-Magnitude Diagram synthesis analysis method is well established as the most accurate way to determine the detailed star formation history of galaxies going back to the earliest times. This approach received a

  8. HNC, HCN and CN in seyfert galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez-Beaupuits, J. P.; Aalto, S.; Gerebro, H.


    Aims. Bright HNC 1-0 emission, rivalling that of HCN 1-0, has been found towards several Seyfert galaxies. This is unexpected since traditionally HNC is a tracer of cold (10 K) gas, and the molecular gas of luminous galaxies like Seyferts is thought to have bulk kinetic temperatures surpassing 50 K.

  9. Stellar Relics from the Early Galaxy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 27, 2016 ... Galactic halo; chemical evolution; metal poor stars; chemical abundances; inner halo; outer halo; globular clusters; ultra-faint dwarf galaxies. Abstract. We reviewed the recent progress in the field of stellar/galactic archeology, which is a study of the relics from the early galaxy. The oldest and most pristine ...

  10. The Evolution of Nearby Dwarf Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, E.; Koleva, M; Prugniel, P; Vauglin,

    Within the Local Universe galaxies can be studied in great detail star by star. The Colour-Magnitude Diagram synthesis analysis method is well established as the most accurate way to determine the detailed star formation history of galaxies going back to the earliest times. This approach has

  11. Galaxies interactions and induced star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Kennicutt Jr, Robert C; Barnes, JE


    The papers that make up this volume present a comprehensive review of the field of galaxy interaction. Galaxies are dynamic forces that evolve, interact, merge, blaze and reshape. This book offers a historical perspective and studies such topics as induced star formation.

  12. Kinematic analysis of Sculptor Group galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, RHM; Valtonen, MJ; Flynn, C


    An analysis of the kinematics of the five major spiral galaxies in the Sculptor Group is presented. These galaxies are analyzed using the method of harmonic expansion of the velocity field as described in Schoenmakers, Franx and de Zeeuw (1997). Three different types of kinematic distortions were

  13. Multiple mechanisms quench passive spiral galaxies (United States)

    Fraser-McKelvie, Amelia; Brown, Michael J. I.; Pimbblet, Kevin; Dolley, Tim; Bonne, Nicolas J.


    We examine the properties of a sample of 35 nearby passive spiral galaxies in order to determine their dominant quenching mechanism(s). All five low-mass (M⋆ galaxies are located in the rich Virgo cluster. This is in contrast to low-mass spiral galaxies with star formation, which inhabit a range of environments. We postulate that cluster-scale gas stripping and heating mechanisms operating only in rich clusters are required to quench low-mass passive spirals, and ram-pressure stripping and strangulation are obvious candidates. For higher mass passive spirals, while trends are present, the story is less clear. The passive spiral bar fraction is high: 74 ± 15 per cent, compared with 36 ± 5 per cent for a mass, redshift and T-type matched comparison sample of star-forming spiral galaxies. The high mass passive spirals occur mostly, but not exclusively, in groups, and can be central or satellite galaxies. The passive spiral group fraction of 74 ± 15 per cent is similar to that of the comparison sample of star-forming galaxies at 61 ± 7 per cent. We find evidence for both quenching via internal structure and environment in our passive spiral sample, though some galaxies have evidence of neither. From this, we conclude no one mechanism is responsible for quenching star formation in passive spiral galaxies - rather, a mixture of mechanisms is required to produce the passive spiral distribution we see today.

  14. Kinematically Decoupled Cores in Dwarf (Elliptical) Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toloba, E.; Peletier, R. F.; Guhathakurta, P.; van de Ven, G.; Boissier, S.; Boselli, A.; Brok, M. d.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Hensler, G.; Janz, J.; Laurikainen, E.; Lisker, T.; Paudel, S.; Ryś, A.; Salo, H.

    An overview is given of what we know about the frequency of kinematically decoupled cores in dwarf elliptical galaxies. New observations show that kinematically decoupled cores happen just as often in dwarf elliptical as in ordinary early-type galaxies. This has important consequences for the

  15. Stellar chemical signatures and hierarchical galaxy formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venn, KA; Irwin, M; Shetrone, MD; Tout, CA; Hill, [No Value; Tolstoy, E

    To compare the chemistries of stars in the Milky Way dwarf spheroidal (dSph) satellite galaxies with stars in the Galaxy, we have compiled a large sample of Galactic stellar abundances from the literature. When kinematic information is available, we have assigned the stars to standard Galactic

  16. The Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxy IZw18

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musella, I.; Marconi, M.; Fiorentino, G.; Clementini, G.; Aloisi, A.; Annibali, F.; Contreras, R.; Saha, A.; Tosi, M.; van der Marel, R. P.


    We present the results obtained for the Blue compact galaxy IZw18 on the basis of ACS HST data obtained from our group. In particular, we discuss the stellar population and the variable stars content of this galaxy to get information about its star formation history and distance.

  17. Gas Kinematics in GRB Host Galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arabsalmani, Maryam

    The star formation history of the Universe is one of the most complex and interesting chapters in our quest to understand galaxy formation and evolution. Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are beacons of actively star forming galaxies from redshifts near zero back to the cosmic dawn. In addition, they provide...

  18. Galaxy kinematics from counter-dispersed imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, NG; Taylor, K


    Determining the internal kinematics of a galaxy from planetary nebulae (PN) is usually a two-step process in which the candidate PN are first identified in a target galaxy and then, in a follow-up run, spectra are obtained. We have implemented a new technique in which two dispersed images at the

  19. The HIX Galaxy Survey: The Most HI Rich Galaxies In The Southern Hemisphere (United States)

    Lutz, Katharina


    When comparing the gas content of galaxies with their current star formation rate, it has been found that the gas consumption time scale is much smaller than the age of galaxies. In addition, the metallicity within galaxies is much smaller than expected from closed box modelling of galaxies. These discrepancies suggest that galaxies must replenish their gas reservoirs by accretion of metal-poor gas from the intergalactic medium.In order to investigate this process of gas accretion in more detail we target local galaxies that host an atomic hydrogen (HI) disc at least 2.5 times more massive than expected from their optical properties using scaling relations. For this sample of galaxies, we have been collecting a multiwavelength data set consisting of deep ATCA HI interferometry, ANU SSO 2.3m WiFeS optical integral field spectroscopy and publicly available photometry from GALEX (ultraviolet), WISE and 2MASS (both infrared).We find that these galaxies are normal star-forming spiral galaxies. However, their specific angular momentum is higher than in control galaxies, which allows these galaxies to support a massive HI disc.With the help of the HI interferometry and the optical IFU spectra, we are searching for signs of recent gas accretion. These signs may include among other things non-circular motion of HI, warped or lopsided HI discs, both of which can be identified through tilted-ring modelling of the HI disc or inhomogeneities in the IFU-based metallicity maps.In my talk I will first compare the HI rich galaxies to the control sample and the general galaxy population. I will then move on to the most HI massive galaxy in our sample and discuss its HI kinematics and its gas-phase oxygen abundance distribution in more detail. To conclude I will give an outlook on the more detailed HI kinematics of the remaining HI rich sample.

  20. Voluntary head stabilization in space during trunk movements in weightlessness (United States)

    Amblard, B.; Assaiante, C.; Fabre, J.-C.; Martin, N.; Massion, J.; Mouchnino, L.; Vernazza, S.

    The ability to voluntarily stabilize the head in space during lateral rhythmic oscillations of the trunk has been investigated during parabolic flights. Five healthy young subjects, who gave informed consent, were examined. The movements were performed with eyes open or eyes closed, either during phases of microgravity or phases of normal gravity. The main result to emerge from this study is that the head may be stabilized in space about the roll axis under microgravity conditions with, as well as without vision, despite the reduction of the vestibular afferent and the muscle proprioceptive inputs. Moreover, the absence of head stabilization about the yaw axis confirms that the degrees of freedom of the neck can be independently controlled, as it was previously shown [1]. These results seem to indicate that voluntary head stabilization does not depend crucially upon static vestibular afferents. Head stabilization in space may be in fact organized on the basis of either dynamic vestibular afferents or a postural body scheme.

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful magnetic field, radio waves and a computer to produce ...

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... content. Related Articles and Media MR Angiography (MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain ...

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Articles and Media MR Angiography (MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Alzheimer's Disease Head Injury Brain Tumors Images related to ...

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of MRI of the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging ( ... brain) in routine clinical practice. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? MR ...

  5. Childhood Head and Neck Irradiation (United States)

    ... Thyroid Association ® Childhood Head & Neck Irradiation What is the thyroid gland? The thyroid gland ... Thyroid Association ® Childhood Head & Neck Irradiation Thyroid nodules (see Thyroid Nodule brochure) • Thyroid nodules ...

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others : American Stroke Association National Stroke Association ... MRA) Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Magnetic Resonance Imaging ( ...

  7. An abundance of phenomena: mergers, AGN feedback, radio galaxies, sloshing, and filaments in the NGC 741 group (United States)

    Vrtilek, Jan M.; Schellenberger, Gerrit; David, Laurence P.; O'Sullivan, Ewan; Giacintucci, Simona; Johnston-Hollitt, Melanie; Duchesne, Stefan; Raychaudhury, Somak


    While AGN and mergers are thought to play important roles in group and cluster evolution, their effects in galaxy groups are poorly understood. We show recent results from an analysis of deep Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of NGC 741, which provides an excellent example of a group with multiple concurrent phenomena: both an old central radio galaxy and a spectacular infalling head-tail source, strongly-bent jets, a 100kpc radio trail, intriguing narrow X-ray filaments, and gas sloshing features. Supported principally by X-ray and radio continuum data, we address the merging history of the group, the nature of the X-ray filaments, the extent of gas stripping from NGC 742, the character of cavities in the group, and the roles of the central AGN and infalling galaxy in heating the intra-group medium.

  8. Evolution of Galaxies in the Cosmic Web (United States)

    Darvish Sarvestani, Behnam


    We study the effects of environment on the evolution of galaxies, with an emphasis on two different approaches towards the definition of environment: (1) environment defined based on the local surface density of galaxies and (2) environment defined based on the major components of the cosmic web; i.e., filaments, clusters and the field. In the first approach, surface density field is estimated using a variety of estimators and tested with simulations. Using the estimated surface densities assigned to galaxies, we observe a strong environmental dependence on the properties of galaxies (e.g., SFR, sSFR and the quiescent fraction) at z ≤ 1. We explore the fractional role of stellar mass and environment in quenching the star-formation. In the second approach, we use the Multi-scale Morphology Filter algorithm to disentangle the density field into its component. We apply this method to a sample of star-forming galaxies for a large-scale structure at z ˜0.84 in the HiZELS-COSMOS field. We show that the observed median SFR, stellar mass, sSFR, the mean SFR-mass relation and its scatter for star-forming galaxies do not strongly depend on the cosmic web. However, the fraction of Halpha star-forming galaxies varies with environment and is enhanced in filaments. Furthermore, we study the physical properties of a spectroscopic sample of star-forming galaxies in a large filament in the COSMOS field at z ˜0.53, with spectroscopic data taken with the Keck/DEIMOS spectrograph, and compare them with a control sample of field galaxies. We spectroscopically confirm the presence of a large galaxy filament (˜ 8 Mpc). We show that within the uncertainties, the ionization parameter, EW, EW versus sSFR relation, EW versus stellar mass relation, line-of-sight velocity dispersion, dynamical mass, and stellar-to-dynamical mass ratio are similar for filament and field star-forming galaxies. However, we show that on average, filament star-forming galaxies are more metal-enriched (˜ 0

  9. A panchromatic view of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Boselli, Alessandro


    Describing how to investigate all kinds of galaxies through a multifrequency analysis, this text is divided into three different sections. The first describes the data currently available at different frequencies, from X-rays to UV, optical, infrared and radio millimetric and centimetric, while explaining their physical meaning. In the second section, the author explains how these data can be used to determine physical parameters and quantities, such as mass and temperature. The final section is devoted to describing how the derived quantities can be used in a multifrequency analysis to study

  10. Birth of a new galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Rodgers, L


    Scientists using the Hubble telescope have been amazed by the number of stars being created in galaxy NGC 3310. But while some scientists are observing the birth of new stars, others are predicting the end of the universe. According to supersymmetry it is possible that the universe could spontaneously change to a state where the electric force is switched off, resulting in the disintegration of all matter. Called 'vacuum fluctuation', this event is even less likely than winning the lottery jackpot twice in the same day however (1/2 page).

  11. Quantifying the Stellar Mass Density of the Universe out to z~9-10: Ultra-Deep Spitzer Observations of Two Highly Magnified z~9-10 Galaxies (United States)

    Bouwens, Rychard; Zheng, Wei; Moustakas, Leonidas; Postman, Marc; Coe, Dan; Bradley, Larry; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Donahue, Megan; Labbe, Ivo; Smit, Renske; Zitrin, Adi


    Measurements of the stellar mass in galaxies to increasingly high redshifts provide us one of the most powerful ways of gauging early galaxy build-up. Combining ultra- deep IRAC imaging observations with deep WFC3/IR observations have allowed astronomers both to identify and estimate masses for sources out to redshifts as high as z~8. However, it has been difficult to extend such studies to even higher redshifts due to the incredible faintness and rarity of typical z~9-10 galaxies. One method for stepping beyond the normal S/N limitations is to take advantage of gravitational lensing by massive galaxy clusters to magnify faint z>8 sources, but to do so, we must know where the magnified sources lie. Fortunately, utilizing the huge investment of HST time in the 524-orbit CLASH program, we have been able to identify 100s of z~5-8 galaxies and even 4 extremely tantalizing z~9-11 galaxy candidates. To extend our measurement of galaxy masses to the earliest possible times, we require ultra-deep Spitzer observations on these candidates to accurately measure their rest-frame optical properties. While two of the z~9-11 candidates are the subject of deep IRAC observations as a result of an approved program, the other two will not be the subject of such observations. Given the considerable galaxy-to-galaxy variations in the mass-to-light ratio, ultra-deep Spitzer observations are needed for all four z~9-11 candidates to establish the typical properties of galaxies in this epoch. We propose to obtain such observations over the two z~9 candidates lacking such observations. Not only will our proposed observations substantially improve our ability to estimate the stellar mass density at z~9-11, but it will play a pivotal role in characterizing the stellar masses and other properties of 20-30 other gravitationally lensed z~4-8 galaxies behind these clusters.

  12. Star Formation Rate Maps of Nearby Galaxies (United States)

    Stone, Frances H.; Pooley, David


    A key component of many extragalactic studies is the correlation of a galaxy’s overall star formation rate with a particular type of astronomical object (like supernovae or luminous X-ray sources). While these correlations have allowed for considerable progress in understanding the nature, formation, and diversity of these objects, the overall star formation rate is a rather blunt instrument. Star formation is not uniform across a galaxy, and maps of local star formation rates can be made. A well calibrated method by Leroy et al. (2007) employs a weighted combination of far ultraviolet (FUV) data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer Telescope (GALEX) and 24-micron data from the Spitzer Space Telescope. We have applied this method to archival images of several nearby galaxy as part of an ongoing effort to build a star formation rate atlas of thousands of nearby galaxies. We present results for some of the most active star forming galaxies we have analyzed so far.

  13. Linear clusters of galaxies - A194 (United States)

    Chapman, G. N. F.; Geller, M. J.; Huchra, J. P.


    New measurements for 160 redshifts and previous measurements for 108 other redshifts are presented for galaxies within 5 deg of A194. The galaxy distribution in A194 is shown to be inconsistent with a spherically symmetric King model. A mass-to-light ratio is derived using the virial theorem which is lower than the mean for the groups in the CfA redshift survey (Huchra and Geller, 1982; Geller, 1984). A nonparametric test for galaxy-cluster alignment and a Chi-squared test are used to search for alignment of galaxy major axes with the axis of A194. Evidence for neither luminosity segregation nor significant differences in the velocity or surface distributions of galaxies as a function of morphological type is found.

  14. Quasar Absorption Lines and SDSS Galaxies (United States)

    Shoemaker, Emileigh Suzanne; Scott, Jennifer E.; Oldak, Katarzyna


    We present the results of a study of the sightlines of 45 low redshift quasars (0.06 footprint of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We use both the SDSS DR12 galaxy photometric data, including photometric redshifts, and the measured properties of the absorbers along with the known absorption characteristics of the intergalactic medium and the circumgalactic medium of galaxies to assign the most probable galaxy matches for each absorber in the sample, using estimated galaxy luminosities and virial radii as a discriminator. We show that the scheme can recover known galaxy-absorber matches found from spectroscopic data and thus provides a method for identifying likely pairs in photometric data sets as well as targets for spectroscopic follow up.

  15. Spectroscopy of superluminous supernova host galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leloudas, G.; Kruehler, T.; Schulze, S


    Superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) are very bright explosions that were only discovered recently and that show a preference for occurring in faint dwarf galaxies. Understanding why stellar evolution yields different types of stellar explosions in these environments is fundamental in order to both...... uncover the elusive progenitors of SLSNe and to study star formation in dwarf galaxies. In this paper, we present the first results of our project to study SUperluminous Supernova Host galaxIES, focusing on the sample for which we have obtained spectroscopy. We show that SLSNe-I and SLSNe-R (hydrogen......-poor) often (~50% in our sample) occur in a class of galaxies that is known as Extreme Emission Line Galaxies (EELGs). The probability of this happening by chance is negligible and we therefore conclude that the extreme environmental conditions and the SLSN phenomenon are related. In contrast, SLSNe...

  16. Clusters and Groups of Galaxies : International Meeting

    CERN Document Server

    Giuricin, G; Mezzetti, M


    The large-scale structure of the Universe and systems Clusters, and Groups of galaxies are topics like Superclusters, They fully justify the meeting on "Clusters of great interest. and Groups of Galaxies". The topics covered included the spatial distribution and the clustering of galaxies; the properties of Superclusters, Clusters and Groups of galaxies; radio and X-ray observations; the problem of unseen matter; theories concerning hierarchical clustering, pancakes, cluster and galaxy formation and evolution. The meeting was held at the International Center for Theoretical Physics in Trieste (Italy) from September 13 to September 16, 1983. It was attended by about 150 participants from 22 nations who presented 67 invited lectures (il) and contributed papers (cp), and 45 poster papers (pp). The Scientific Organizing Committee consisted of F. Bertola, P. Biermann, A. Cavaliere, N. Dallaporta, D. Gerba1, M. Hack, J . V . Peach, D. Sciama (Chairman), G. Setti, M. Tarenghi. We are particularly indebted to D. Scia...

  17. Head circumference in Iranian infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeili


    Full Text Available Introduction: Head circumference (HC measurement is one of the important parameter for diagnosis of neurological, developmental disorders and dysmorphic syndromes. Recognition of different disorders requires an understanding of normal variation for HC size, in particular, in infancy period with most rapid growth of the brain. Because of international and interracial standard chart differences about anthropometric indices, some differences from local to local, generation to generation and changes in ethnic mix of population and socioeconomic factors, periodic revolution of HC size is suggested. The aims of our study were presenting local HC standard for an Iranian infant population and comparison with the American national center of health statistics (NCHS charts accepted by WHO. Methods: 1003 subjects aged from birth to 24 months apparently healthy normal children enrolled randomly in this cross sectional study. HC size were measured and recorded. Tables and graphs were depicted by Excel Microsoft Office 2007. We use two tailed t-student test for statistical analysis. Results: The mean of HC size in boys was larger than girls. The curves were followed a similar pattern to NCHS based on a visual comparison. Overall our subjects in both sexes at birth time had smaller HC size than NCHS. In other ages our children had larger HC size than those of NCHS. Conclusion: Because of international and interracial difference of HC size. We recommend in each area of the world, local anthropometric indices are constructed and used clinically. In addition more extensive and longitudinally design comprehensive studies is suggested.

  18. NGC 741—Mergers and AGN Feedback on a Galaxy-group Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schellenberger, G.; Vrtilek, J. M.; David, L.; O’Sullivan, E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Giacintucci, S. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Code 7213, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Duchesne, S. W. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, 6140 (New Zealand); Raychaudhury, S., E-mail: [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)


    Low-mass galaxy cluster systems and groups will play an essential role in upcoming cosmological studies, such as those to be carried out with eROSITA. Though the effects of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and merging processes are of special importance to quantify biases like selection effects or deviations from hydrostatic equilibrium, they are poorly understood on the galaxy-group scale. We present an analysis of recent deep Chandra and XMM-Newton integrations of NGC 741 that provides an excellent example of a group with multiple concurrent phenomena: both an old central radio galaxy and a spectacular infalling head-tail source, strongly bent jets, a 100-kpc radio trail, intriguing narrow X-ray filaments, and gas-sloshing features. Supported principally by X-ray and radio continuum data, we address the merging history of the group, the nature of the X-ray filaments, the extent of gas-stripping from NGC 742, the character of cavities in the group, and the roles of the central AGN and infalling galaxy in heating the intra-group medium.

  19. NGC 741—Mergers and AGN Feedback on a Galaxy-group Scale (United States)

    Schellenberger, G.; Vrtilek, J. M.; David, L.; O'Sullivan, E.; Giacintucci, S.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Duchesne, S. W.; Raychaudhury, S.


    Low-mass galaxy cluster systems and groups will play an essential role in upcoming cosmological studies, such as those to be carried out with eROSITA. Though the effects of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and merging processes are of special importance to quantify biases like selection effects or deviations from hydrostatic equilibrium, they are poorly understood on the galaxy-group scale. We present an analysis of recent deep Chandra and XMM-Newton integrations of NGC 741 that provides an excellent example of a group with multiple concurrent phenomena: both an old central radio galaxy and a spectacular infalling head-tail source, strongly bent jets, a 100-kpc radio trail, intriguing narrow X-ray filaments, and gas-sloshing features. Supported principally by X-ray and radio continuum data, we address the merging history of the group, the nature of the X-ray filaments, the extent of gas-stripping from NGC 742, the character of cavities in the group, and the roles of the central AGN and infalling galaxy in heating the intra-group medium.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Günthardt, G. I.; Agüero, M. P. [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Laprida 854, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); Díaz, R. J., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Gemini Observatory, AURA (United States)


    We present a kinematic catalog for 21 M51-type galaxies. It consists of radial velocity distributions observed with long-slit spectroscopy along different position angles, for both the main and satellite components. We detect deviations from circular motion in most of the main galaxies of each pair, due to the gravitational perturbation produced by the satellite galaxy. However, some systems do not show significant distortions in their radial velocity curves. We found some differences between the directions of the photometric and kinematic major axes in the main galaxies with a bar subsystem. The Tully–Fisher relation in the B -band and Ks -band for the present sample of M51-type systems is flatter than in isolated galaxies. Using the radial velocity data set, we built a synthetic normalized radial velocity distribution, as a reference for future modeling of these peculiar systems. The synthetic rotation curve, representing the typical rotation curve of the main galaxy in an M51-type pair, is near to solid body-like inside 4 kpc, and then is nearly flat within the radial range 5–15 kpc. The relative position angles between the major axis of the main galaxy and the companion’s location, as well as the amplitude of the velocity difference, indicate that the orbital motion of the satellite has a large projection on the equatorial plane of the main galaxy. In addition, the differences in radial velocity between the two galaxies indicate that the satellite’s orbital motion is within the range of amplitudes of the rotation curve of the main galaxy, and all the M51-type systems studied here, except for one, are gravitationally bound.

  1. Ring galaxies as the cradle for ULXs (United States)

    Wolter, Anna


    Ring galaxies are unique laboratories where the effects of galaxy interactions can be studied and the final stages of stellar evolution investigated. They are characterized by high star formation rates (SFR) and low metallicity, which favours the formation of high mass remnants. The few ring galaxies for which high resolution X-ray data are available show enhanced X-ray emission, and large numbers of Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). Due to the peculiar morphology of ring galaxies, detected point sources in the ring are very likely to be physically associated with the galaxy, reducing the problem of contamination from spurious sources which affects other samples. However the evidence in the X-ray band is based on a very scanty sample of four galaxies.In order to find an unbiased sample with which to compare these findings, we have selected all the peculiar galaxies labelled as collisional rings with a spectroscopic redshift z<0.02 from the Arp & Madore `Catalogue of southern peculiar galaxies and associations'. This selection produces a sample of 12 galaxies which we have observed with Chandra and XMM-Newton. We will discuss the results of these observations and support for current models that propose low metallicity environments as the ideal cradle for ULXs. We will compare the results from this statistically selected sample with those from brighter and known ring galaxies in order to asses the likelihood to find IMBHs due to collision events. We will address the presence of other signs of interaction, from high SFR to multiwavelenght morphology and spectra (eg. IR, Halpha..).

  2. Genetic parameters for subjectively assessed wool and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The only noteworthy maternal correlation among wool traits was estimated between QUAL and COL at 0.39 ± 0.18 (Table 6). Table 5 Genetic (rg), phenotypic (rp), environmental (re) and maternal (rm) correlations (± s.e.) among subjectively assessed conformation traits. Trait rg re rp rm. General head conformation (GEN) X.

  3. Where are we heading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noto, L.A. [Mobil Corporation, (United States)


    The present paper deals with different aspects connected to the global petroleum industry by discussing the way of heading. The aspects cover themes like new frontiers, new relationships, sanctions, global climate change, new alliances and new technology. New frontiers and relationships concern domestic policy affecting the industry, and sanctions are discussed in connection with trade. The author discusses the industry`s participation in the global environmental policy and new alliances to provide greater opportunity for developing new technology

  4. Radial Head Fractures


    Jordan, Robert W.; Jones, Alistair DR.


    Background: Radial head fractures are common elbow injuries in adults and are frequently associated with additional soft tissue and bone injuries. Methods: A literature search was performed and the authors’ personal experiences are reported. Results: Mason type I fractures are treated non-operatively with splinting and early mobilisation. The management of Mason type II injuries is less clear with evidence supporting both non-operative treatment and internal fixation. The degree of intra-arti...

  5. Resolving Gas-Phase Metallicity In Galaxies (United States)

    Carton, David


    Chapter 2: As part of the Bluedisk survey we analyse the radial gas-phase metallicity profiles of 50 late-type galaxies. We compare the metallicity profiles of a sample of HI-rich galaxies against a control sample of HI-'normal' galaxies. We find the metallicity gradient of a galaxy to be strongly correlated with its HI mass fraction {M}{HI}) / {M}_{\\ast}). We note that some galaxies exhibit a steeper metallicity profile in the outer disc than in the inner disc. These galaxies are found in both the HI-rich and control samples. This contradicts a previous indication that these outer drops are exclusive to HI-rich galaxies. These effects are not driven by bars, although we do find some indication that barred galaxies have flatter metallicity profiles. By applying a simple analytical model we are able to account for the variety of metallicity profiles that the two samples present. The success of this model implies that the metallicity in these isolated galaxies may be in a local equilibrium, regulated by star formation. This insight could provide an explanation of the observed local mass-metallicity relation. Chapter 3 We present a method to recover the gas-phase metallicity gradients from integral field spectroscopic (IFS) observations of barely resolved galaxies. We take a forward modelling approach and compare our models to the observed spatial distribution of emission line fluxes, accounting for the degrading effects of seeing and spatial binning. The method is flexible and is not limited to particular emission lines or instruments. We test the model through comparison to synthetic observations and use downgraded observations of nearby galaxies to validate this work. As a proof of concept we also apply the model to real IFS observations of high-redshift galaxies. From our testing we show that the inferred metallicity gradients and central metallicities are fairly insensitive to the assumptions made in the model and that they are reliably recovered for galaxies

  6. Cluster Physics with Merging Galaxy Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandor M. Molnar


    Full Text Available Collisions between galaxy clusters provide a unique opportunity to study matter in a parameter space which cannot be explored in our laboratories on Earth. In the standard LCDM model, where the total density is dominated by the cosmological constant ($Lambda$ and the matter density by cold dark matter (CDM, structure formation is hierarchical, and clusters grow mostly by merging.Mergers of two massive clusters are the most energetic events in the universe after the Big Bang,hence they provide a unique laboratory to study cluster physics.The two main mass components in clusters behave differently during collisions:the dark matter is nearly collisionless, responding only to gravity, while the gas is subject to pressure forces and dissipation, and shocks and turbulenceare developed during collisions. In the present contribution we review the different methods used to derive the physical properties of merging clusters. Different physical processes leave their signatures on different wavelengths, thusour review is based on a multifrequency analysis. In principle, the best way to analyze multifrequency observations of merging clustersis to model them using N-body/HYDRO numerical simulations. We discuss the results of such detailed analyses.New high spatial and spectral resolution ground and space based telescopeswill come online in the near future. Motivated by these new opportunities,we briefly discuss methods which will be feasible in the near future in studying merging clusters.

  7. Joint analysis of galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clustering: Methodology and forecasts for Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y.; Krause, E.; Dodelson, S.; Jain, B.; Amara, A.; Becker, M. R.; Bridle, S. L.; Clampitt, J.; Crocce, M.; Fosalba, P.; Gaztanaga, E.; Honscheid, K.; Rozo, E.; Sobreira, F.; Sánchez, C.; Wechsler, R. H.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Fausti Neto, A.; Fernandez, E.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; James, D. J.; Kent, S.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Marshall, J. L.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Nichol, R. C.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Roe, N.; Romer, A. K.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Soares-Santos, M.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Weller, J.; Zuntz, J.


    The joint analysis of galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clustering is a promising method for inferring the growth function of large scale structure. Our analysis will be carried out on data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES), with its measurements of both the distribution of galaxies and the tangential shears of background galaxies induced by these foreground lenses. We develop a practical approach to modeling the assumptions and systematic effects affecting small scale lensing, which provides halo masses, and large scale galaxy clustering. Introducing parameters that characterize the halo occupation distribution (HOD), photometric redshift uncertainties, and shear measurement errors, we study how external priors on different subsets of these parameters affect our growth constraints. Degeneracies within the HOD model, as well as between the HOD and the growth function, are identified as the dominant source of complication, with other systematic effects sub-dominant. The impact of HOD parameters and their degeneracies necessitate the detailed joint modeling of the galaxy sample that we employ. Finally, we conclude that DES data will provide powerful constraints on the evolution of structure growth in the universe, conservatively/optimistically constraining the growth function to 7.9%/4.8% with its first-year data that covered over 1000 square degrees, and to 3.9%/2.3% with its full five-year data that will survey 5000 square degrees, including both statistical and systematic uncertainties.

  8. Metallic Winds in Dwarf Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles-Valdez, F.; Rodríguez-González, A.; Hernández-Martínez, L.; Esquivel, A., E-mail: [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, 04510, Mexico City (Mexico)


    We present results from models of galactic winds driven by energy injected from nuclear (at the galactic center) and non-nuclear starbursts. The total energy of the starburst is provided by very massive young stellar clusters, which can push the galactic interstellar medium and produce an important outflow. Such outflow can be a well or partially mixed wind, or a highly metallic wind. We have performed adiabatic 3D N -Body/Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics simulations of galactic winds using the gadget-2 code. The numerical models cover a wide range of parameters, varying the galaxy concentration index, gas fraction of the galactic disk, and radial distance of the starburst. We show that an off-center starburst in dwarf galaxies is the most effective mechanism to produce a significant loss of metals (material from the starburst itself). At the same time, a non-nuclear starburst produces a high efficiency of metal loss, in spite of having a moderate to low mass loss rate.

  9. The HIX galaxy survey I: Study of the most gas rich galaxies from HIPASS (United States)

    Lutz, K. A.; Kilborn, V. A.; Catinella, B.; Koribalski, B. S.; Brown, T. H.; Cortese, L.; Dénes, H.; Józsa, G. I. G.; Wong, O. I.


    We present the H I eXtreme (HIX) galaxy survey targeting some of the most H I rich galaxies in the Southern hemisphere. The 13 HIX galaxies have been selected to host the most massive H I discs at a given stellar luminosity. We compare these galaxies to a control sample of average galaxies detected in the H I Parkes All Sky Survey (HIPASS). As the control sample is matched in stellar luminosity, we find that the stellar properties of HIX galaxies are similar to the control sample. Furthermore, the specific star formation rate and optical morphology do not differ between HIX and control galaxies. We find, however, the HIX galaxies to be less efficient in forming stars. For the most H I massive galaxy in our sample (ESO075-G006, log M_{H I} [M⊙] = (10.8 ± 0.1)), the kinematic properties are the reason for inefficient star formation and H I excess. Examining the Australian Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) H I imaging and Wide Field Spectrograph (WiFeS) optical spectra of ESO075-G006 reveals an undisturbed galaxy without evidence for recent major, violent accretion events. A tilted ring fitted to the H I disc together with the gas-phase oxygen abundance distribution supports the scenario that gas has been constantly accreted on to ESO075-G006 but the high specific angular momentum makes ESO075-G006 very inefficient in forming stars. Thus, a massive H I disc has been built up.

  10. Head injuries in helmeted child bicyclists. (United States)

    Grimard, G.; Nolan, T.; Carlin, J. B.


    OBJECTIVE: To determine the characteristics and the severity of head and facial injuries to helmeted child bicyclists, and whether the helmet contributed to the injury, and to study factors related to bicycle accidents. DESIGN: Retrospective review of two case series. Children sustaining head injury while not wearing helmets were studied as a form of reference group. SETTING: Large paediatric teaching hospital. SUBJECTS: 34 helmeted child bicyclists and 155 non-helmeted bicyclists, aged 5-14 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of injuries, type of injuries, injury severity score, deaths, and accident circumstances. RESULTS: 79% of the head injuries of the helmeted child group were mild and two thirds of these had facial injuries. Children in the helmet group were in a greater proportion of bike-car collisions than the no helmet group and at least 15% of the helmets were lost on impact. There were no injuries secondary to the helmet. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the head injuries sustained by the helmeted children were of mild severity and there was no evidence to suggest that the helmet contributed to injury. Nevertheless, consideration should be given to designing a facial protector for the bicycle helmet and to improvement of the fastening device. PMID:9345988

  11. Tracking Galaxy Evolution Through Low-Frequency Radio ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Galaxies: active—galaxies: evolution—galaxies: individual: Speca—galaxies: individual: NGC ..... AGN-heated hot gas bubbles is nearly 1056 ergs and that is comparable to ener- getic impact of low-power ..... the probability may be, can create the central engines capable of launching massive energy feedback to the host ...

  12. Evolution of dwarf galaxies in the Centaurus A group


    Makarova, L.; Makarov, D.


    We consider star formation properties of dwarf galaxies in Cen A group observed within our HST/ACS projects number 9771 and 10235. We model color-magnitude diagrams of the galaxies under consideration and measure star formation rate and metallicity dependence on time. We study environmental dependence of the galaxy evolution and probable origin of the dwarf galaxies in the group.

  13. Diverse Group of Galaxy Types, NGC 3190 Field (United States)


    Ultraviolet image of a diverse group of galaxy types. NGC 3190 is a dusty edge on spiral galaxy. NGC 3187 is highly distorted. The two are separated by only 35 kilo-parsecs (about half the diameter of our own Milky Way galaxy). A ring, elliptical, and other irregular galaxies are also present.

  14. Carotenoid intake and head and neck cancer: a pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium


    Leoncini, Emanuele; Edefonti, Valeria; Hashibe, Mia; Parpinel, Maria; Cadoni, Gabriella; FERRARONI, MONICA; Serraino, Diego; Matsuo, Keitaro; Olshan, Andrew F.; Zevallos, Jose P.; Winn, Deborah M.; Moysich, Kirsten; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Morgenstern, Hal; Levi, Fabio


    Food and nutrition play an important role in head and neck cancer (HNC) etiology; however, the role of carotenoids remains largely undefined. We explored the relation of HNC risk with the intake of carotenoids within the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium. We pooled individual-level data from 10 case–control studies conducted in Europe, North America, and Japan. The analysis included 18,207 subjects (4414 with oral and pharyngeal cancer, 1545 with laryngeal cancer, and...

  15. Dusty Feedback from Massive Black Holes in Two Elliptical Galaxies (United States)

    Temi, P.; Brighenti, F.; Mathews, W. G.; Amblard, A.; Riguccini, L.


    Far-infrared dust emission from elliptical galaxies informs us about galaxy mergers, feedback energy outbursts from supermassive black holes and the age of galactic stars. We report on the role of AGN feedback observationally by looking for its signatures in elliptical galaxies at recent epochs in the nearby universe. We present Herschel observations of two elliptical galaxies with strong and spatially extended FIR emission from colder grains 5-10 kpc distant from the galaxy cores. Extended excess cold dust emission is interpreted as evidence of recent feedback-generated AGN energy outbursts in these galaxies, visible only in the FIR, from buoyant gaseous outflows from the galaxy cores.

  16. Small-scale galaxy clustering in the eagle simulation (United States)

    Artale, M. Celeste; Pedrosa, Susana E.; Trayford, James W.; Theuns, Tom; Farrow, Daniel J.; Norberg, Peder; Zehavi, Idit; Bower, Richard G.; Schaller, Matthieu


    We study present-day galaxy clustering in the eagle cosmological hydrodynamical simulation. eagle's galaxy formation parameters were calibrated to reproduce the redshift z = 0.1 galaxy stellar mass function, and the simulation also reproduces galaxy colours well. The simulation volume is too small to correctly sample large-scale fluctuations and we therefore concentrate on scales smaller than a few mega parsecs. We find very good agreement with observed clustering measurements from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey, when galaxies are binned by stellar mass, colour or luminosity. However, low-mass red galaxies are clustered too strongly, which is at least partly due to limited numerical resolution. Apart from this limitation, we conclude that eagle galaxies inhabit similar dark matter haloes as observed GAMA galaxies, and that the radial distribution of satellite galaxies, as a function of stellar mass and colour, is similar to that observed as well.

  17. Galaxy clusters in the cosmic web (United States)

    Acebrón, A.; Durret, F.; Martinet, N.; Adami, C.; Guennou, L.


    Simulations of large scale structure formation in the universe predict that matter is essentially distributed along filaments at the intersection of which lie galaxy clusters. We have analysed 9 clusters in the redshift range 0.4DAFT/FADA survey, which combines deep large field multi-band imaging and spectroscopic data, in order to detect filaments and/or structures around these clusters. Based on colour-magnitude diagrams, we have selected the galaxies likely to be in the cluster redshift range and studied their spatial distribution. We detect a number of structures and filaments around several clusters, proving that colour-magnitude diagrams are a reliable method to detect filaments around galaxy clusters. Since this method excludes blue (spiral) galaxies at the cluster redshift, we also apply the LePhare software to compute photometric redshifts from BVRIZ images to select galaxy cluster members and study their spatial distribution. We then find that, if only galaxies classified as early-type by LePhare are considered, we obtain the same distribution than with a red sequence selection, while taking into account late-type galaxies just pollutes the background level and deteriorates our detections. The photometric redshift based method therefore does not provide any additional information.

  18. Galaxy luminosity function: evolution at high redshift (United States)

    Martinet, N.; Durret, F.; Guennou, L.; Adami, C.


    There are some disagreements about the abundance of faint galaxies in high redshift clusters. DAFT/FADA (Dark energy American French Team) is a medium redshift (0.4galaxy clusters ideal to tackle these problems. We present cluster galaxy luminosity functions (GLFs) based on photometric redshifts for 30 clusters in B, V, R and I restframe bands. We show that completeness is a key parameter to understand the different observed behaviors when fitting the GLFs. We also investigate the evolution of GLFs with redshift for red and blue galaxy populations separately. We find a drop of the faint end of red GLFs which is more important at higher redshift while the blue GLF faint end remains flat in our redshift range. These results can be interpreted in terms of galaxy quenching. Faint blue galaxies transform into red ones which enrich the red sequence from high to low redshifts in clusters while some blue galaxies are still accreted from the environment, compensating for this evolution so that the global GLF does not seem to evolve.

  19. Efficiency of Metal Mixing in Dwarf Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, Yutaka [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Saitoh, Takayuki R., E-mail: [Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)


    Metal mixing plays a critical role in the enrichment of metals in galaxies. The abundance of elements such as Mg, Fe, and Ba in metal-poor stars helps us understand the metal mixing in galaxies. However, the efficiency of metal mixing in galaxies is not yet understood. Here we report a series of N -body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of dwarf galaxies with different efficiencies of metal mixing using a turbulence-induced mixing model. We show that metal mixing apparently occurs in dwarf galaxies from Mg and Ba abundances. We find that a scaling factor for metal diffusion larger than 0.01 is necessary to reproduce the measured abundances of Ba in dwarf galaxies. This value is consistent with the value expected from turbulence theory and experiments. We also find that the timescale of metal mixing is less than 40 Myr. This timescale is shorter than the typical dynamical times of dwarf galaxies. We demonstrate that the determination of a degree of scatters of Ba abundance by the observation will help us to better constrain the efficiency of metal mixing.

  20. Tidal dwarf galaxies in cosmological simulations (United States)

    Ploeckinger, Sylvia; Sharma, Kuldeep; Schaye, Joop; Crain, Robert A.; Schaller, Matthieu; Barber, Christopher


    The formation and evolution of gravitationally bound, star forming substructures in tidal tails of interacting galaxies, called tidal dwarf galaxies (TDG), has been studied, until now, only in idealized simulations of individual pairs of interacting galaxies for pre-determined orbits, mass ratios and gas fractions. Here, we present the first identification of TDG candidates in fully cosmological simulations, specifically the high-resolution simulations of the EAGLE suite. The finite resolution of the simulation limits their ability to predict the exact formation rate and survival time-scale of TDGs, but we show that gravitationally bound baryonic structures in tidal arms already form in current state-of-the-art cosmological simulations. In this case, the orbital parameter, disc orientations as well as stellar and gas masses and the specific angular momentum of the TDG forming galaxies are a direct consequence of cosmic structure formation. We identify TDG candidates in a wide range of environments, such as multiple galaxy mergers, clumpy high-redshift (up to z = 2) galaxies, high-speed encounters and tidal interactions with gas-poor galaxies. We present selection methods, the properties of the identified TDG candidates and a road map for more quantitative analyses using future high-resolution simulations.