WorldWideScience

Sample records for subject headings based

  1. THE SHORT-TERM EFFECT OF A HOME-BASED PROGRAM TO CORRECT FORWARD HEAD POSTURE IN ASYMPTOMATIC SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Omar Abdelnaeem

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neck pain and dysfunction may be the consequence of adopting sustained non-neutral spinal postures. Such postures are associated with increased activation of the neck-shoulder stabilizer muscles, which eventually increase the loading of cervical spine. Forward head posture is a common postural dysfunction that has been associated with many musculoskeletal disorders. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of deep cervical flexor muscles training on the severity of forward head posture in asymptomatic subjects. Methods: Forty-one asymptomatic subjects volunteered in this study. Participants were randomly assigned into an intervention group (n= 20that received a home-based training of deep cervical flexor muscles for 6-weeks, and a control group(n= 21 that received only the assessment procedure. Subjects were assessed at baseline and 6weeks later with regards to the severity of forward head as indicated by the cranio-vertebral angle. Also, the strength and endurance of the deep flexor muscles were assessed. Results: After six weeks, participants in the intervention group showed significant improvement in all measured variables compared to the control group. Furthermore, participants in the intervention group showed significant difference in all measured variables after 6-weeks of training compared to baseline, whereas those in the control group remained the same. Conclusion: Six-weeks of deep cervical training improves forward head posture and deep flexors strength and endurance in asymptomatic subjects. Thus, this exercise could be used as a preventive measure against the development of neck dysfunction in at risk population even before the onset of any symptoms.

  2. Developing a biomedical expert finding system using medical subject headings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harpreet; Singh, Reema; Malhotra, Arjun; Kaur, Manjit

    2013-12-01

    Efficient identification of subject experts or expert communities is vital for the growth of any organization. Most of the available expert finding systems are based on self-nomination, which can be biased, and are unable to rank experts. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a robust and unbiased expert finding system which can quantitatively measure expertise. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a controlled vocabulary developed by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) for indexing research publications, articles and books. Using the MeSH terms associated with peer-reviewed articles published from India and indexed in PubMed, we developed a Web-based program which can be used to identify subject experts and subjects associated with an expert. We have extensively tested our system to identify experts from India in various subjects. The system provides a ranked list of experts where known experts rank at the top of the list. The system is general; since it uses information available with the PubMed, it can be implemented for any country. The expert finding system is able to successfully identify subject experts in India. Our system is unique because it allows the quantification of subject expertise, thus enabling the ranking of experts. Our system is based on peer-reviewed information. Use of MeSH terms as subjects has standardized the subject terminology. The system matches requirements of an ideal expert finding system.

  3. Using MeSH (medical subject headings) to enhance PubMed search strategies for evidence-based practice in physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Randy R; Austin, Tricia M

    2012-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is an important paradigm in health care. Physical therapists report lack of knowledge and time constraints as barriers to EBP. The purpose of this technical report is to illustrate how Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), a controlled vocabulary thesaurus of indexing terms, is used to efficiently search MEDLINE, the largest component of PubMed. Using clinical questions, this report illustrates how search terms common to physical therapist practice do or do not map to appropriate MeSH terms. A PubMed search strategy that takes advantage of text words and MeSH terms is provided. A search of 139 terms and 13 acronyms was conducted to determine whether they appropriately mapped to a MeSH term. The search results were categorized into 1 of 5 outcomes. Nearly half (66/139) of the search terms mapped to an appropriate MeSH term (outcome 1). When a search term did not appropriately map to a MeSH term, it was entered into the MeSH database to search for an appropriate MeSH term. Twenty-one appropriate MeSH terms were found (outcomes 2 and 4), and there were 52 search terms for which an appropriate MeSH term was not found (outcomes 3 and 5). Nearly half of the acronyms did not map to an appropriate MeSH term, and an appropriate MeSH term was not found in the database. The results are based on a limited number of search terms and acronyms. Understanding how search terms map to MeSH terms and using the PubMed search strategy can enable physical therapists to take full advantage of available MeSH terms and should result in more-efficient and better-informed searches.

  4. A data mining approach to selecting herbs with similar efficacy: Targeted selection methods based on medical subject headings (MeSH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yea, Sang-Jun; Seong, BoSeok; Jang, Yunji; Kim, Chul

    2016-04-22

    Natural products have long been the most important source of ingredients in the discovery of new drugs. Moreover, since the Nagoya Protocol, finding alternative herbs with similar efficacy in traditional medicine has become a very important issue. Although random selection is a common method of finding ethno-medicinal herbs of similar efficacy, it proved to be less effective; therefore, this paper proposes a novel targeted selection method using data mining approaches in the MEDLINE database in order to identify and select herbs with a similar degree of efficacy. From among sixteen categories of medical subject headings (MeSH) descriptors, three categories containing terms related to herbal compounds, efficacy, toxicity, and the metabolic process were selected. In order to select herbs of similar efficacy in a targeted way, we adopted the similarity measurement method based on MeSH. In order to evaluate the proposed algorithm, we built up three different validation datasets which contain lists of original herbs and corresponding medicinal herbs of similar efficacy. The average area under curve (AUC) of the proposed algorithm was found to be about 500% larger than the random selection method. We found that the proposed algorithm puts more hits at the front of the top-10 list than the random selection method, and precisely discerns the efficacy of the herbs. It was also found that the AUC of the experiments either remained the same or increased slightly in all three validation datasets as the search range was increased. This study reveals and proves that the proposed algorithm is significantly more accurate and efficient in finding alternative herbs of similar efficacy than the random selection method. As such, it is hoped that this approach will be used in diverse applications in the ethno-pharmacology field. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Using Topic Models to Interpret MEDLINE's Medical Subject Headings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, David; Karimi, Sarvnaz; Cavedon, Lawrence

    We consider the task of interpreting and understanding a taxonomy of classification terms applied to documents in a collection. In particular, we show how unsupervised topic models are useful for interpreting and understanding MeSH, the Medical Subject Headings applied to articles in MEDLINE. We introduce the resampled author model, which captures some of the advantages of both the topic model and the author-topic model. We demonstrate how topic models complement and add to the information conveyed in a traditional listing and description of a subject heading hierarchy.

  6. METHODICAL ENSURING ELECTRONIC SUBJECT ANALYSIS OF DOCUMENTS: FEATURES OF EDITING SUBJECT HEADINGS IN ABIS ABSOTHEQUE UNICODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. М. Бикова

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our article is consideration of questions of electronic subject analysis of documents and methodical ensuring editing subject headings in the electronic catalog. The main objective of our article – to show a technique of editing the dictionary of subject headings, to study and apply this technique in work of libraries of higher education institutions. Object of research is the thesaurus of subject headings of the electronic catalog of the Scientific Library of Odessa I. I. Mechnikov National University. To improve the efficiency and quality of the search capabilities of the electronic catalog needs constant work on its optimization, that is, technical editing of subject headings, the opening of new subject headings and subheadings.  In Scientific library the instruction, which regulates a technique of edition of subject headings, was developed and put into practice and establishes rationing of this process. The main finding of the work should be to improve the level of bibliographic service users and rationalization systematizer. The research findings have the practical value for employees of libraries.

  7. Eye-based head gestures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbegi, Diako; Witzner Hansen, Dan; Pederson, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A novel method for video-based head gesture recognition using eye information by an eye tracker has been proposed. The method uses a combination of gaze and eye movement to infer head gestures. Compared to other gesture-based methods a major advantage of the method is that the user keeps the gaze...... on the interaction object while interacting. This method has been implemented on a head-mounted eye tracker for detecting a set of predefined head gestures. The accuracy of the gesture classifier is evaluated and verified for gaze-based interaction in applications intended for both large public displays and small...... mobile phone screens. The user study shows that the method detects a set of defined gestures reliably....

  8. User's guide to Sears List of subject headings

    CERN Document Server

    Satija, Mohinder P

    2008-01-01

    This book is a companion to the 19th edition of the Sears List and a complete course in the theory and practice of the List for practitioners, teachers, and learners. The object of this small, practical introduction is to be simple, clear, and illustrative, assuming the reader has little prior knowledge either of the Sears List or of subject headings work in general.

  9. Subject Headings for Church or Synagogue Libraries. 2nd Revised Edition. CSLA Guide No. 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Dorothy B.

    This guide to subject headings for church or synagogue libraries begins by providing guidelines for the subject cataloging process. These guidelines are presented under seven headings: (1) Selecting the Subject Heading (by names of persons, religious congregations and orders, sects and denominations, places, holidays, and new subjects); (2)…

  10. Bibliometric perspectives on medical innovation using the medical subject headings of PubMed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Rotolo, D.; Rafols, I.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple perspectives on the nonlinear processes of medical innovations can be distinguished and combined using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) of the MEDLINE database. Focusing on three main branches—"diseases," "drugs and chemicals," and "techniques and equipment"—we use base maps and overlay

  11. CINAHL list of subject headings: a nursing thesaurus revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishel, C C; Graham, K E; Greer, D M; Gupta, A D; Lockwood, D K; Prime, E E

    1985-04-01

    The rationale and methods for revising the thesaurus of one of the major health sciences indexing tools are discussed. Computer production of the Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature and the possibility of online access mandated a revision of the list of subject headings. CINAHL has maintained a policy of responding to user needs and to changes in the nursing and allied health literature, and user input was encouraged during revision of the thesaurus. The methods of structural revision are described, and major changes in the thesaurus are detailed. Modification of the thesaurus is expected to have a far-reaching impact on the retrieval of information in nursing and allied health. Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL) is now available online through DIALOG (file 218) and BRS (access code NAHL).

  12. PHYSIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF HEAD-OUT AQUATIC EXERCISES IN HEALTHY SUBJECTS: A QUALITATIVE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago M Barbosa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades head-out aquatic exercises became one of the most important physical activities within the health system. Massive research has been produced throughout these decades in order to better understand the role of head-out aquatic exercises in populations' health. Such studies aimed to obtain comprehensive knowledge about the acute and chronic response of subjects performing head-out aquatic exercises. For that, it is assumed that chronic adaptations represent the accumulation of acute responses during each aquatic session. The purpose of this study was to describe the "state of the art" about physiological assessment of head-out aquatic exercises based on acute and chronic adaptations in healthy subjects based on a qualitative review. The main findings about acute response of head-out aquatic exercise according to water temperature, water depth, type of exercise, additional equipment used, body segments exercising and music cadence will be described. In what concerns chronic adaptations, the main results related to cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations, muscular strength, flexibility and body composition improvements will be reported

  13. Accuracy of medical subject heading indexing of dental survival analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Danielle M; Clarke, Michael

    2014-01-01

    To assess the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) indexing of articles that employed time-to-event analyses to report outcomes of dental treatment in patients. Articles published in 2008 in 50 dental journals with the highest impact factors were hand searched to identify articles reporting dental treatment outcomes over time in human subjects with time-to-event statistics (included, n = 95), without time-to-event statistics (active controls, n = 91), and all other articles (passive controls, n = 6,769). The search was systematic (kappa 0.92 for screening, 0.86 for eligibility). Outcome-, statistic- and time-related MeSH were identified, and differences in allocation between groups were analyzed with chi-square and Fischer exact statistics. The most frequently allocated MeSH for included and active control articles were "dental restoration failure" (77% and 52%, respectively) and "treatment outcome" (54% and 48%, respectively). Outcome MeSH was similar between these groups (86% and 77%, respectively) and significantly greater than passive controls (10%, P indexed as such. Significantly more time-related MeSH were allocated to the included than the active controls (92% and 79%, respectively, P = .02), or to the passive controls (22%, P < .001). MeSH allocation within MEDLINE to time-to-event dental articles was inaccurate and inconsistent. Statistical MeSH were omitted from 30% of the included articles and incorrectly allocated to 15% of active controls. Such errors adversely impact search accuracy.

  14. Searching the literature using medical subject headings versus text word with PubMed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Angela A; Heskett, Karen M; Davidson, Terence M

    2006-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the performance of two search strategies in the retrieval of information from the National Library of Medicine (NLM) on otolaryngology-head and neck surgery related conditions and diagnoses using PubMed. Two search strategies-one based on the use of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and the second based on text word searching-were compared. The MeSH search provided a more efficient search than the text word search. Head and neck surgeons can most efficiently search the NLM using PubMed as a search engine by initiating the search with MeSH terms. Once a key article is identified, the searcher should use the "Related Articles" feature.

  15. Gastrointestinal Physiology During Head Down Tilt Bedrest in Human Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaksman, Z.; Guthienz, J.; Putcha, L.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Gastrointestinal (GI) motility plays a key role in the physiology and function of the GI tract. It directly affects absorption of medications and nutrients taken by mouth, in addition to indirectly altering GI physiology by way of changes in the microfloral composition and biochemistry of the GI tract. Astronauts have reported nausea, loss of appetite and constipation during space flight all of which indicate a reduction in GI motility and function similar to the one seen in chronic bed rest patients. The purpose of this study is to determine GI motility and bacterial proliferation during -6 degree head down tilt bed rest (HTD). Methods: Healthy male and female subjects between the ages of 25-40 participated in a 60 day HTD study protocol. GI transit time (GITT) was determined using lactulose breath hydrogen test and bacterial overgrowth was measured using glucose breath hydrogen test. H. Pylori colonization was determined using C13-urea breath test (UBIT#). All three tests were conducted on 9 days before HDT, and repeated on HDT days 2, 28, 58, and again on day 7 after HDT. Results: GITT increased during HTD compared to the respective ambulatory control values; GITT was significantly lower on day 7 after HTD. A concomitant increase in bacterial colonization was also noticed during HDT starting after approximately 28 days of HDT. However, H. Pylori proliferation was not recorded during HDT as indicated by UBIT#. Conclusion: GITT significantly decreased during HDT with a concomitant increase in the proliferation of GI bacterial flora but not H. pylori.

  16. Characterization of the Medical Subject Headings thesaurus for pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguet, Fernando; Van Den Boogerd, Lucienne; Salgado, Teresa M; Correr, Cassyano J; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando

    2014-11-15

    The completeness and utility of pharmacy-oriented Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) relative to MeSH terminology pertaining to other healthcare professions (dentistry and nursing) are evaluated. The 2013 version of the MeSH thesaurus-the standard vocabulary used by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) to index articles in PubMed and MEDLINE-was searched for dentistry-, nursing-, and pharmacy-specific terms using a truncation strategy (search terms: nurs*, dent*, and pharm*); the hierarchical level of each term and the number of descendant terms (an indication of the granularity of the associated NLM-indexed content) were determined. PubMed searches were conducted to identify areas of the MeSH hierarchy containing dentistry- and nursing-specific terms but no equivalent pharmacy-specific term. The search of the MeSH thesaurus identified 145 terms representing dentistry-specific activities and 94 and 26 terms specific to nursing and pharmacy practice, respectively. Analysis of the three sets of MeSH terms indicated that dentistry-oriented MeSH terms were generally situated more prominently within the MeSH hierarchy than terms for nursing- and pharmacy-oriented research; the MeSH terminology oriented toward nursing or dentistry practice was relatively more granular, allowing for increased specificity and power of information retrieval during PubMed and MEDLINE searches. Seventeen proposed new MeSH terms describing key areas of pharmacy practice were identified; the inclusion of these terms in the MeSH hierarchy could substantially expand and improve the retrievability of NLM-indexed literature. Imbalances and gaps were found in MeSH coverage of pharmacy concepts and terminology relative to MeSH terminology specific to the nursing and dentistry professions. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. SPARED RECOGNITION CAPACITY IN ELDERLY AND CLOSED-HEAD-INJURY SUBJECTS WITH CLINICAL MEMORY DEFICITS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spikman, J.M.; Berg, I.J.; Deelman, B.G.

    This study describes the performance of three groups of subjects on a pictorial forced-recognition task, the Hundred Pictures Test. The aim was to determine whether subjects with memory deficits (elderly and closed-head-injured subjects) would perform as well as healthy young subjects, both on

  18. Correlation between Trunk Posture and Neck Reposition Sense among Subjects with Forward Head Neck Postures

    OpenAIRE

    Han Suk Lee; Hyung Kuk Chung; Sun Wook Park

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the correlation of abnormal trunk postures and reposition sense of subjects with forward head neck posture (FHP). Methods. In all, postures of 41 subjects were evaluated and the FHP and trunk posture including shoulder, scapular level, pelvic side, and anterior tilting degrees were analyzed. We used the head repositioning accuracy (HRA) test to evaluate neck position senses of neck flexion, neck extension, neck right and left side flexion, and neck right and left rotation...

  19. Activation of rectus capitis posterior major muscles during voluntary retraction of the head in asymptomatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Richard C; Rowan, Jacob J; Bai, Peng; Pierce, Steven J; Shafer-Crane, Gail A; Prokop, Lawrence L

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess levels of electromyographic activity measured from rectus capitis posterior major (RCPM) muscles of asymptomatic subjects as their heads moved from a self-defined neutral position to a retracted position. A 2 × 2 within-subjects factorial research design was used. Disposable, intramuscular electrodes were used to collect electromyographic data from asymptomatic subjects between the ages of 20 and 40 years old. Data analysis was performed using mixed effects β regression models. Activation of RCPM muscles was found to significantly increase (P < .0001) as the head moved from a self-defined neutral position to a retracted position. Rectus capitis posterior major muscle activation levels, measured as a function of head position, have not been previously reported. The findings from this study showed that RCPM muscle activation significantly increases during voluntary retraction of the head. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Energy Data Base: Subject Thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raridon, M.H. (ed.)

    1987-09-01

    This seventh edition of the subject thesaurus contains the standard vocabulary of indexing terms (descriptors) developed and structured by the technical staff of the Office of Scientific and Technical Information as part of its subject indexing activities for building and maintaining the Energy Data Base (EDB) and other energy information data bases for the Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this thesaurus is to enhance the efficiency of information retrieval from these data bases. This structured vocabulary reflects the scope of DOE's research, development, and technological programs and encompasses terminology derived not only from the basic sciences for also from areas of energy resources, conservation, safety, environmental impact, and regulation. There are 21,080 valid descriptors and 5683 forbidden terms in this edition of the Thesaurus. These descriptors are listed alphabetically.

  1. Energy data base: subject thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redford, J.S. (ed.)

    1981-10-01

    The technical staff of the DOE Technical Information Center, during its subject indexing activities, develops and structures a vocabulary that allows consistent machine storage and retrieval of information necessary to the accomplishment of the DOE mission. This thesaurus incorporates that structured vocabulary. The terminology of this thesaurus is used for the subject control of information announced in DOE Energy Research Abstracts, Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis, and various update journals and bulletins in specialized areas. This terminology also facilitates subject searching of the DOE Energy Data Base on the DOE/RECON on-line retrieval system and on other commercial retrieval systems. The rapid expansion of the DOE's activities will result in a commitant thesaurus expansion as information relating to new activities is indexed. Only the terms used in the indexing of documents at the Technical Information Center to date are included. (JSR)

  2. Effect of Head Elevation on Passive Upper Airway Collapsibility in Normal Subjects under Propofol Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masato; Ayuse, Takao; Hoshino, Yuko; Kurata, Shinji; Moromugi, Shunji; Schneider, Hartmut; Kirkness, Jason P.; Schwartz, Alan R.; Oi, Kumiko

    2011-01-01

    Background Head elevation can restore airway patency during anesthesia, although its effect may be offset by concomitant bite opening or accidental neck flexion. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of head elevation on the passive upper airway collapsibility during propofol anesthesia. Method Twenty male subjects were studied, randomized to one of two experimental groups: Fixed-jaw or Free-jaw. Propofol infusion was used for induction and to maintain blood concentration constant at a target level between 1.5 and 2.0 μg/ml. Nasal mask pressure (PN) was intermittently reduced to evaluate the upper airway collapsibility (passive PCRIT) and upstream resistance (RUS) at each level of head elevation (0, 3, 6, & 9 cm). We measured the Frankfort plane (head flexion) and the mandible plane (jaw opening) angles at each level of head elevation. Analysis of variance was used to determine effect of head elevation on PCRIT, head flexion and jaw opening within each group. Results In both groups the Frankfort plane and mandible plane angles increased as with head elevation (P elevation decreased upper airway collapsibility (PCRIT ~ −7 cmH2O at greater than 6 cm elevation) compared to the baseline position (PCRIT ~ −3 cmH2O at 0 cm elevation; P elevating the head position by 6 cm while ensuring mouth closure (centric occlusion) produces substantial decreases in upper airway collapsibility and maintains upper airway patency during anesthesia. PMID:21701378

  3. Effect of head elevation on passive upper airway collapsibility in normal subjects during propofol anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masato; Ayuse, Takao; Hoshino, Yuko; Kurata, Shinji; Moromugi, Shunji; Schneider, Hartmut; Kirkness, Jason P; Schwartz, Alan R; Oi, Kumiko

    2011-08-01

    Head elevation can restore airway patency during anesthesia, although its effect may be offset by concomitant bite opening or accidental neck flexion. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of head elevation on the passive upper airway collapsibility during propofol anesthesia. Twenty male subjects were studied, randomized to one of two experimental groups: fixed-jaw or free-jaw. Propofol infusion was used for induction and to maintain blood at a constant target concentration between 1.5 and 2.0 μg/ml. Nasal mask pressure (PN) was intermittently reduced to evaluate the upper airway collapsibility (passive PCRIT) and upstream resistance (RUS) at each level of head elevation (0, 3, 6, and 9 cm). The authors measured the Frankfort plane (head flexion) and the mandible plane (jaw opening) angles at each level of head elevation. Analysis of variance was used to determine the effect of head elevation on PCRIT, head flexion, and jaw opening within each group. In both groups the Frankfort plane and mandible plane angles increased with head elevation (P elevation decreased upper airway collapsibility (PCRIT ~ -7 cm H₂O at greater than 6 cm elevation) compared with the baseline position (PCRIT ~ -3 cm H₂O at 0 cm elevation; P Elevating the head position by 6 cm while ensuring mouth closure (centric occlusion) produces substantial decreases in upper airway collapsibility and maintains upper airway patency during anesthesia.

  4. Redefining the pharmacology and pharmacy subject category in the journal citation reports using medical subject headings (MeSH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguet, Fernando; Salgado, Teresa M; Santopadre, Claudio; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando

    2017-10-01

    Background The Journal Citation Reports (JCR) Pharmacology and Pharmacy subject category is heterogeneous. The inclusion of journals with basic and clinical scopes, which have different citation patterns, compromises comparability of impact factors among journals within the category. Objective To subdivide the Pharmacology and Pharmacy category into basic pharmacology, clinical pharmacology, and pharmacy based on the analyses of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) as a proxy of journals' scopes. Setting JCR. Method All articles, and respective MeSH, published in 2013, 2014, and 2015 in all journals included in the 2014 JCR Pharmacology and Pharmacy category were retrieved from PubMed. Several models using a combination of the 14 MeSH categories and specific MeSH tree branches were tested using hierarchical cluster analysis. Main outcome measure Distribution of journals across the subcategories of the JCR Pharmacology and Pharmacy subject category. Results A total of 107,847 articles from 214 journals were included. Nine different models combining the MeSH categories M (Persons) and N (Health Care) with specific MeSH tree branches (selected ad-hoc) and Pharmacy-specific MeSH (identified in previous research) consistently grouped 142 journals (66.4%) in homogeneous groups reflecting their basic and clinical pharmacology, and pharmacy scopes. Ultimately, journals were clustered into: 150 in basic pharmacology, 43 in clinical pharmacology, 16 in basic pharmacology and clinical pharmacology, and 5 in pharmacy. Conclusion The reformulation of the Pharmacology and Pharmacy category into three categories was demonstrated by the consistent results obtained from testing nine different clustering models using the MeSH terms assigned to their articles.

  5. Optimization of an Image-Based Talking Head System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Liu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an image-based talking head system, which includes two parts: analysis and synthesis. The audiovisual analysis part creates a face model of a recorded human subject, which is composed of a personalized 3D mask as well as a large database of mouth images and their related information. The synthesis part generates natural looking facial animations from phonetic transcripts of text. A critical issue of the synthesis is the unit selection which selects and concatenates these appropriate mouth images from the database such that they match the spoken words of the talking head. Selection is based on lip synchronization and the similarity of consecutive images. The unit selection is refined in this paper, and Pareto optimization is used to train the unit selection. Experimental results of subjective tests show that most people cannot distinguish our facial animations from real videos.

  6. Head phenotypes based on cephalic index among Ukwuani people ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Head shape based on cephalic index has been used by anthropologists as a measure of classifying humans. Cephalic index is derived from head length and head width. Objective: To find out the dominant head phenotypes based on cephalic index in relation to age. Design: A cross-sectional study.

  7. Comparative Study between the "Lista de Encabezamientos de Materia" by Gloria Escamilla and the "Library of Congress Subject Heading" List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Fernando

    This study shows to what extent Gloria Escamilla's "Lista de Encabezamientos de Materia," the only published Mexican subject heading list, is equivalent to the Library of Congress subject headings (LCSH). A LCSH heading sample is obtained from OCLC's Online Union Catalog. Using the EPIC search from OCLC, 1947 bibliographic records were…

  8. Cumulating the Supplements to the Seventh Edition of LC Subject Headings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy B. Torkington

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available A description is presented of the project of the University of California Library Automation Program to cumulate the 1966 through 1971 supplements to the Library of Congress Subject Headings. The University of California Institute of Library Research MARC processing software, BIBCON, was used, with specially written programs. The resulting cumulation was edited, printed in book form, and made available to libraries. The final task involved merging six MARC files into one file of over 125,000 records and then printing that file in a format similar to that of LC Subject Headings. The project was a cooperative effort with participation by people from several UC campuses.

  9. Analysing the Role of the Subject Head of Department in Secondary Schools in England and Wales: Towards a Theoretical Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Chris; Bolam, Ray

    1998-01-01

    Argues that contingency theory offers a useful basis for considering the work of subject heads of department in (British) secondary schools, particularly if heads are actively trying to influence the quality of teaching and learning in their curriculum areas. Develops a provisional model to shed light on how department heads actually work with…

  10. Quantitative biomedical annotation using medical subject heading over-representation profiles (MeSHOPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Warren A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MEDLINE®/PubMed® indexes over 20 million biomedical articles, providing curated annotation of its contents using a controlled vocabulary known as Medical Subject Headings (MeSH. The MeSH vocabulary, developed over 50+ years, provides a broad coverage of topics across biomedical research. Distilling the essential biomedical themes for a topic of interest from the relevant literature is important to both understand the importance of related concepts and discover new relationships. Results We introduce a novel method for determining enriched curator-assigned MeSH annotations in a set of papers associated to a topic, such as a gene, an author or a disease. We generate MeSH Over-representation Profiles (MeSHOPs to quantitatively summarize the annotations in a form convenient for further computational analysis and visualization. Based on a hypergeometric distribution of assigned terms, MeSHOPs statistically account for the prevalence of the associated biomedical annotation while highlighting unusually prevalent terms based on a specified background. MeSHOPs can be visualized using word clouds, providing a succinct quantitative graphical representation of the relative importance of terms. Using the publication dates of articles, MeSHOPs track changing patterns of annotation over time. Since MeSHOPs are quantitative vectors, MeSHOPs can be compared using standard techniques such as hierarchical clustering. The reliability of MeSHOP annotations is assessed based on the capacity to re-derive the subset of the Gene Ontology annotations with equivalent MeSH terms. Conclusions MeSHOPs allows quantitative measurement of the degree of association between any entity and the annotated medical concepts, based directly on relevant primary literature. Comparison of MeSHOPs allows entities to be related based on shared medical themes in their literature. A web interface is provided for generating and visualizing MeSHOPs.

  11. Quantitative biomedical annotation using medical subject heading over-representation profiles (MeSHOPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Warren A; Ouellette, B F Francis; Wasserman, Wyeth W

    2012-09-27

    MEDLINE®/PubMed® indexes over 20 million biomedical articles, providing curated annotation of its contents using a controlled vocabulary known as Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). The MeSH vocabulary, developed over 50+ years, provides a broad coverage of topics across biomedical research. Distilling the essential biomedical themes for a topic of interest from the relevant literature is important to both understand the importance of related concepts and discover new relationships. We introduce a novel method for determining enriched curator-assigned MeSH annotations in a set of papers associated to a topic, such as a gene, an author or a disease. We generate MeSH Over-representation Profiles (MeSHOPs) to quantitatively summarize the annotations in a form convenient for further computational analysis and visualization. Based on a hypergeometric distribution of assigned terms, MeSHOPs statistically account for the prevalence of the associated biomedical annotation while highlighting unusually prevalent terms based on a specified background. MeSHOPs can be visualized using word clouds, providing a succinct quantitative graphical representation of the relative importance of terms. Using the publication dates of articles, MeSHOPs track changing patterns of annotation over time. Since MeSHOPs are quantitative vectors, MeSHOPs can be compared using standard techniques such as hierarchical clustering. The reliability of MeSHOP annotations is assessed based on the capacity to re-derive the subset of the Gene Ontology annotations with equivalent MeSH terms. MeSHOPs allows quantitative measurement of the degree of association between any entity and the annotated medical concepts, based directly on relevant primary literature. Comparison of MeSHOPs allows entities to be related based on shared medical themes in their literature. A web interface is provided for generating and visualizing MeSHOPs.

  12. Neck kinematics and sternocleidomastoid muscle activation during neck rotation in subjects with forward head posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Man-Sig

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated differences in the kinematics of the neck and activation of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle during neck rotation between subjects with and without forward head posture (FHP). [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight subjects participated in the study (14 with FHP, 14 without FHP). Subjects performed neck rotation in two directions, left and right. The kinematics of rotation-lateral flexion movement patterns were recorded using motion analysis. Activity in the bilateral SCM muscles was measured using surface electromyography. Differences in neck kinematics and activation of SCM between the groups were analyzed by independent t-tests. [Results] Maintaining FHP increased the rotation-lateral flexion ratio significantly in both directions. The FHP group had significantly faster onset time for lateral flexion movement in both directions during neck rotation. Regarding the electromyography of the SCM muscles during neck rotation in both directions, the activity values of subjects with FHP were greater than those of subjects without FHP for the contralateral SCM muscles. [Conclusion] FHP can induce changes in movement in the frontal plane and SCM muscle activation during neck rotation. Thus, clinicians should consider movement in the frontal plane as well as in the sagittal plane when assessing and treating patients with forward head posture. PMID:26696712

  13. Improving information retrieval using Medical Subject Headings Concepts: a test case on rare and chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmoni, Stéfan J; Soualmia, Lina F; Letord, Catherine; Jaulent, Marie-Christine; Griffon, Nicolas; Thirion, Benoît; Névéol, Aurélie

    2012-07-01

    As more scientific work is published, it is important to improve access to the biomedical literature. Since 2000, when Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Concepts were introduced, the MeSH Thesaurus has been concept based. Nevertheless, information retrieval is still performed at the MeSH Descriptor or Supplementary Concept level. The study assesses the benefit of using MeSH Concepts for indexing and information retrieval. Three sets of queries were built for thirty-two rare diseases and twenty-two chronic diseases: (1) using PubMed Automatic Term Mapping (ATM), (2) using Catalog and Index of French-language Health Internet (CISMeF) ATM, and (3) extrapolating the MEDLINE citations that should be indexed with a MeSH Concept. Type 3 queries retrieve significantly fewer results than type 1 or type 2 queries (about 18,000 citations versus 200,000 for rare diseases; about 300,000 citations versus 2,000,000 for chronic diseases). CISMeF ATM also provides better precision than PubMed ATM for both disease categories. Using MeSH Concept indexing instead of ATM is theoretically possible to improve retrieval performance with the current indexing policy. However, using MeSH Concept information retrieval and indexing rules would be a fundamentally better approach. These modifications have already been implemented in the CISMeF search engine.

  14. Vision-Based Tracking System for Head Motion Correction in FMRI Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Tali; Rivlin, Ehud; Gur, Moshe

    This paper presents a new vision-based system for motion correction in functional-MRI experiments. fMRI is a popular technique for studying brain functionality by utilizing MRI technology. In an fMRI experiment a subject is required to perform a task while his brain is scanned by an MRI scanner. In order to achieve a high quality analysis the fMRI slices should be aligned. Hence, the subject is requested to avoid head movements during the entire experiment. However, due to the long duration of such experiments head motion is practically unavoidable. Most of the previous work in this field addresses this problem by extracting the head motion parameters from the acquired MRI data. Therefore, these works are limited to relatively small movements and may confuse head motion with brain activities. In the present work the head movements are detected by a system comprised of two cameras that monitor a specially designed device worn on the subject's head. The system does not depend on the acquired MRI data and therefore can overcome large head movements. Additionally, the system can be extended to cope with inter-block motion and can be integrated into the MRI scanner for real-time updates of the scan-planes. The performance of the proposed system was tested in a laboratory environment and in fMRI experiments. It was found that high accuracy is obtained even when facing large head movements.

  15. Correlation between Trunk Posture and Neck Reposition Sense among Subjects with Forward Head Neck Postures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han Suk; Chung, Hyung Kuk; Park, Sun Wook

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the correlation of abnormal trunk postures and reposition sense of subjects with forward head neck posture (FHP). Methods. In all, postures of 41 subjects were evaluated and the FHP and trunk posture including shoulder, scapular level, pelvic side, and anterior tilting degrees were analyzed. We used the head repositioning accuracy (HRA) test to evaluate neck position senses of neck flexion, neck extension, neck right and left side flexion, and neck right and left rotation and calculated the root mean square error in trials for each subject. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and regression analysis were used to assess the degree of correlation between the trunk posture and HRA value, and a significance level of α = 0.05 was considered. Results. There were significant correlations between the HRA value of right side neck flexion and pelvic side tilt angle (p postures. Conclusion. Verifying pelvic postures should be prioritized when movement is limited due to the vitiation of the proprioceptive sense of neck caused by FHP. PMID:26583125

  16. Correlation between Trunk Posture and Neck Reposition Sense among Subjects with Forward Head Neck Postures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Suk Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the correlation of abnormal trunk postures and reposition sense of subjects with forward head neck posture (FHP. Methods. In all, postures of 41 subjects were evaluated and the FHP and trunk posture including shoulder, scapular level, pelvic side, and anterior tilting degrees were analyzed. We used the head repositioning accuracy (HRA test to evaluate neck position senses of neck flexion, neck extension, neck right and left side flexion, and neck right and left rotation and calculated the root mean square error in trials for each subject. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients and regression analysis were used to assess the degree of correlation between the trunk posture and HRA value, and a significance level of α = 0.05 was considered. Results. There were significant correlations between the HRA value of right side neck flexion and pelvic side tilt angle (p<0.05. If pelvic side tilting angle increases by 1 degree, right side neck flexion increased by 0.76 degrees (p=0.026. However, there were no significant correlations between other neck motions and trunk postures. Conclusion. Verifying pelvic postures should be prioritized when movement is limited due to the vitiation of the proprioceptive sense of neck caused by FHP.

  17. Trismus following different treatment modalities for head and neck cancer: a systematic review of subjective measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Sook Y; Mcleod, Robert W J; Elhassan, Hassan A

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this review was to compare systematically the subjective measure of trismus between different interventions to treat head and neck cancer, particularly those of the oropharynx. Using The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Guidelines, Six databases were searched for the text using various terms which include "oropharyngeal/head and neck cancer", "trismus/mouth opening" and the various treatment modalities. Included in the review were clinical studies (> or =10 patients). Three observers independently assessed the papers identified. Among the six studies reviewed, five showed a significantly worst outcome with regard to the quality-of-life questionnaire scores for a radiotherapy or surgery and radiotherapy (RT) ± chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy when compared to surgery alone. Only one study showed no significant difference between surgery alone and other treatment modalities. Subjective quality-of-life measures are a concurrent part of modern surgical practice. Although subjective measures were utilised to measure post operative trismus successfully, there was no consensus as to which treatment modality had overall better outcomes, with conflicting studies in keeping with the current debate in this field. Larger and higher quality studies are needed to compare all three treatment modalities.

  18. Correlation between Trunk Posture and Neck Reposition Sense among Subjects with Forward Head Neck Postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han Suk; Chung, Hyung Kuk; Park, Sun Wook

    2015-01-01

    To assess the correlation of abnormal trunk postures and reposition sense of subjects with forward head neck posture (FHP). In all, postures of 41 subjects were evaluated and the FHP and trunk posture including shoulder, scapular level, pelvic side, and anterior tilting degrees were analyzed. We used the head repositioning accuracy (HRA) test to evaluate neck position senses of neck flexion, neck extension, neck right and left side flexion, and neck right and left rotation and calculated the root mean square error in trials for each subject. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and regression analysis were used to assess the degree of correlation between the trunk posture and HRA value, and a significance level of α = 0.05 was considered. There were significant correlations between the HRA value of right side neck flexion and pelvic side tilt angle (p neck flexion increased by 0.76 degrees (p = 0.026). However, there were no significant correlations between other neck motions and trunk postures. Verifying pelvic postures should be prioritized when movement is limited due to the vitiation of the proprioceptive sense of neck caused by FHP.

  19. Speaker Prediction based on Head Orientations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienks, R.J.; Poppe, Ronald Walter; van Otterlo, M.; Poel, Mannes; Poel, M.; Nijholt, A.; Nijholt, Antinus

    2005-01-01

    To gain insight into gaze behavior in meetings, this paper compares the results from a Naive Bayes classifier, Neural Networks and humans on speaker prediction in four-person meetings given solely the azimuth head angles. The Naive Bayes classifier scored 69.4% correctly, Neural Networks 62.3% and

  20. Impact of head models in N170 component source imaging: results in control subjects and ADHD patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrachini, L.; Blenkmann, A.; von Ellenrieder, N.; Petroni, A.; Urquina, H.; Manes, F.; Ibáñez, A.; Muravchik, C. H.

    2011-12-01

    The major goal of evoked related potential studies arise in source localization techniques to identify the loci of neural activity that give rise to a particular voltage distribution measured on the surface of the scalp. In this paper we evaluate the effect of the head model adopted in order to estimate the N170 component source in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients and control subjects, considering faces and words stimuli. The standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography algorithm (sLORETA) is used to compare between the three shell spherical head model and a fully realistic model based on the ICBM-152 atlas. We compare their variance on source estimation and analyze the impact on the N170 source localization. Results show that the often used three shell spherical model may lead to erroneous solutions, specially on ADHD patients, so its use is not recommended. Our results also suggest that N170 sources are mainly located in the right occipital fusiform gyrus for faces stimuli and in the left occipital fusiform gyrus for words stimuli, for both control subjects and ADHD patients. We also found a notable decrease on the N170 estimated source amplitude on ADHD patients, resulting in a plausible marker of the disease.

  1. Comparison of Medical Subject Headings and text-word searches in MEDLINE to retrieve studies on sleep in healthy individuals*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenuwine, Elizabeth S.; Floyd, Judith A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to investigate the performance of two search strategies in the retrieval of primary research papers containing descriptive information on the sleep of healthy people from MEDLINE. Methodology: Two search strategies—one based on the use of only Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), the second based on text-word searching—were evaluated as to their specificity and sensitivity in retrieving a set of relevant research papers published in the journal Sleep from 1996 to 2001 that were preselected by a hand search. Results: The subject search provided higher specificity than the text-word search (66% and 47%, respectively) but lower sensitivity (78% for the subject search versus 88% for the text-word search). Each search strategy gave some unique relevant hits. Conclusions: The two search strategies complemented each other and should be used together for maximal retrieval. No combination of MeSH terms could provide comprehensive yet reasonably precise retrieval of relevant articles. The text-word searching had sensitivity and specificity comparable to the subject search. In addition, use of text words “normal,” “healthy,” and “control” in the title or abstract fields to limit the final sets provided an efficient way to increase the specificity of both search strategies. PMID:15243641

  2. A case study: using social tagging to engage students in learning Medical Subject Headings*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresnahan, Megan; Flynn, David B.; Harzbecker, Joseph; Blanchard, Mary; Ginn, David

    2009-01-01

    In exploring new ways of teaching students how to use Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), librarians at Boston University's Alumni Medical Library (AML) integrated social tagging into their instruction. These activities were incorporated into the two-credit graduate course, “GMS MS 640: Introduction to Biomedical Information,” required for all students in the graduate medical science program. Hands-on assignments and in-class exercises enabled librarians to present MeSH and the concept of a controlled vocabulary in a familiar and relevant context for the course's Generation Y student population and provided students the opportunity to actively participate in creating their education. At the conclusion of these activities, students were surveyed regarding the clarity of the presentation of the MeSH vocabulary. Analysis of survey responses indicated that 46% found the concept of MeSH to be the clearest concept presented in the in-class intervention. PMID:19404497

  3. Internal Lymphedema Correlates with Subjective and Objective Measures of Dysphagia in Head and Neck Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Leanne K; Ridner, Sheila H; Deng, Jie; Bartow, Carmin; Mannion, Kyle; Niermann, Ken; Gilbert, Jill; Dietrich, Mary S; Cmelak, Anthony J; Murphy, Barbara A

    2016-09-01

    Tumor/treatment-related internal lymphedema (IL) and/or external lymphedema (EL) are associated with functional deficits and increased symptom burden in head and neck cancer patients (HNCP). Previously, we noted association between EL/IL and patient-reported dysphagia using the Vanderbilt Head and Neck Symptom Survey (VHNSS) version 1.0. To determine the relationship between IL/EL and subjective and objective measures of swallowing function. Eighty-one HNCP completed: (1) VHNSS version 2.0, including 13 swallowing/nutrition-related questions grouped into three clusters: swallow solids (ss), swallow liquids (sl), and nutrition(nt); (2) physical assessment of EL using Foldi scale; (3) endoscopic assessment of IL using Patterson scale (n = 56); and (4) modified barium swallow study rated by dysphagia outcome and severity scale (DOSS) and in conjunction with a swallow evaluation by National Outcomes Measurement System (NOMS). Examinations were performed at varied time points to assess lymphedema spectrum, from baseline (n = 15, 18.1%) to 18 months post-therapy (n = 20, 24.1%). VHNSS swallow/nutrition items scores correlated with NOMS/DOSS ratings (p nutrition scores correlated with maximum grade of swelling for any single structure on Patterson scale: ss (0.43; p = 0.001); sl (0.38; p = 0.004); nt (0.41; p = 0.002). IL of aryepiglottic/pharyngoepiglottic folds, epiglottis, and pyriform sinus were most strongly correlated with VHNSS and NOMS ratings. NOMS/DOSS ratings correlated with EL (> = -0.34; p nutrition items and EL ( 0.20). IL correlated with subjective and objective measures of swallow dysfunction. Longitudinal analysis of trajectory and impact of IL/EL on dysphagia is ongoing.

  4. Image quality analysis of high-density diffuse optical tomography incorporating a subject-specific head model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxuan eZhan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available High-density diffuse optical tomography (HD-DOT methods have shown significant improvement in localization accuracy and image resolution compared to traditional topographic near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS of the human brain. In this work we provide a comprehensive evaluation of image quality in visual cortex mapping via a simulation study with the use of an anatomical head model derived from MRI data of a human subject. A model of individual head anatomy provides the surface shape and internal structure that allow for the construction of a more realistic physical model for the forward problem, as well as the use of a structural constraint in the inverse problem. The HD-DOT model utilized here incorporates multiple source-detector separations with continuous-wave data with added noise based on experimental results. To evaluate image quality we quantify the localization error and localized volume at half maximum (LVHM throughout a region of interest (ROI within the visual cortex and systematically analyze the use of whole brain tissue spatial constraint within image reconstruction. Our results demonstrate that an image quality with less than 10 mm in localization error and 1000 m3 in LVHM can be obtained up to 13 mm below the scalp surface with a typical unconstrained reconstruction and up to 18 mm deep when a spatial constraint based on the brain tissue is utilized.

  5. Bibliometric Perspectives on Medical Innovation using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) of PubMed

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet; Rafols, Ismael

    2012-01-01

    Multiple perspectives on the nonlinear processes of medical innovations can be distinguished and combined using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) of the Medline database. Focusing on three main branches-"diseases," "drugs and chemicals," and "techniques and equipment"-we use base maps and overlay techniques to investigate the translations and interactions and thus to gain a bibliometric perspective on the dynamics of medical innovations. To this end, we first analyze the Medline database, the MeSH index tree, and the various options for a static mapping from different perspectives and at different levels of aggregation. Following a specific innovation (RNA interference) over time, the notion of a trajectory which leaves a signature in the database is elaborated. Can the detailed index terms describing the dynamics of research be used to predict the diffusion dynamics of research results? Possibilities are specified for further integration between the Medline database, on the one hand, and the Science Citati...

  6. Transforming the Medical Subject Headings into Linked Data: Creating the Authorized Version of MeSH in RDF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, Barbara; Anderson, David; Fu, Gang

    In February 2014 the National Library of Medicine formed the Linked Data Infrastructure Working Group to investigate the potential for publishing linked data, determine best practices for publishing linked data, and prioritize linked data projects, beginning with transforming the Medical Subject Headings as a linked data pilot. This article will review the pilot project to convert the Medical Subject Headings from XML to RDF. It will discuss the collaborative process, the technical and organizational issues tackled, and the future of linked data at the library.

  7. Mapping of medical acronyms and initialisms to Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) across selected systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Mary

    2006-10-01

    Given the common use of acronyms and initialisms in the health sciences, searchers may be entering these abbreviated terms rather than full phrases when searching online systems. The purpose of this study is to evaluate how various MEDLINE Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) interfaces map acronyms and initialisms to the MeSH vocabulary. The interfaces used in this study were: the PubMed MeSH database, the PubMed Automatic Term Mapping feature, the NLM Gateway Term Finder, and Ovid MEDLINE. Acronyms and initialisms were randomly selected from 2 print sources. The test data set included 415 randomly selected acronyms and initialisms whose related meanings were found to be MeSH terms. Each acronym and initialism was entered into each MEDLINE MeSH interface to determine if it mapped to the corresponding MeSH term. Separately, 46 commonly used acronyms and initialisms were tested. While performance differed widely, the success rates were low across all interfaces for the randomly selected terms. The common acronyms and initialisms tested at higher success rates across the interfaces, but the differences between the interfaces remained. Online interfaces do not always map medical acronyms and initialisms to their corresponding MeSH phrases. This may lead to inaccurate results and missed information if acronyms and initialisms are used in search strategies.

  8. Leveraging output term co-occurrence frequencies and latent associations in predicting medical subject headings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavuluru, Ramakanth; Lu, Yuan

    2014-11-01

    Trained indexers at the National Library of Medicine (NLM) manually tag each biomedical abstract with the most suitable terms from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terminology to be indexed by their PubMed information system. MeSH has over 26,000 terms and indexers look at each article's full text while assigning the terms. Recent automated attempts focused on using the article title and abstract text to identify MeSH terms for the corresponding article. Most of these approaches used supervised machine learning techniques that use already indexed articles and the corresponding MeSH terms. In this paper, we present a new indexing approach that leverages term co-occurrence frequencies and latent term associations computed using MeSH term sets corresponding to a set of nearly 18 million articles already indexed with MeSH terms by indexers at NLM. The main goal of our study is to gauge the potential of output label co-occurrences, latent associations, and relationships extracted from free text in both unsupervised and supervised indexing approaches. In this paper, using a novel and purely unsupervised approach, we achieve a micro-F-score that is comparable to those obtained using supervised machine learning techniques. By incorporating term co-occurrence and latent association features into a supervised learning framework, we also improve over the best results published on two public datasets.

  9. Distancing, self-esteem, and subjective well-being in head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devins, Gerald M; Wong, Janice C; Payne, Ada Y M; Lebel, Sophie; Lee, Ruth N F; Mah, Kenneth; Irish, Jonathan; Rodin, Gary

    2015-11-01

    Distancing (i.e. construing oneself as dissimilar to a negatively-stereotyped group) preserves self-esteem and may benefit other domains of subjective well-being. Head and neck cancer (HNC) is stigmatized because major risk factors include avoidable lifestyle variables (smoking, alcohol consumption, and human papilloma virus). Because the benefits of coping efforts, such as distancing, are most evident when people are under stress, we hypothesize that the psychosocial benefits of distancing will be most pronounced when cancer and its treatment interfere substantially with participation in valued activities and interests (i.e. high illness intrusiveness). To test whether distancing preserves self-esteem and other domains of subjective well-being (SWB) in HNC, especially when illness intrusiveness is high. Five hundred and twenty-two HNC outpatients completed a semantic-differential measure of perceived similarity to the 'cancer patient' and measures of illness intrusiveness, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and psychological well-being in structured interviews. Evaluations of the 'cancer patient' reflected cancer stereotypes. A statistically significant interaction supported the central hypothesis: When people held negative stereotypes, those who construed themselves as similar to the 'cancer patient' reported lower self-esteem than those who construed themselves as dissimilar. Distancing did not benefit other SWB variables. Some results were counter-intuitive: e.g. Emotional distress increased with increasing illness intrusiveness when people did not hold negative cancer stereotypes, but when they held highly negative stereotypes, distress decreased with increasing illness intrusiveness. Overall, distancing preserved self-esteem in people with HNC and was associated with benefits in other SWB domains. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Energy information data base: subject thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    The technical staff of the DOE Technical Information Center, during its subject indexing activities, develops and structures a vocabulary that allows consistent machine storage and retrieval of information necessary to the accomplishment of the DOE mission. This thesaurus incorporates that structured vocabulary. The terminology of this thesaurus is used for the subject control of information announced in DOE Energy Research Abstracts, Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis, Solar Energy Update, Geothermal Energy Update, Fossil Energy Update, Fusion Energy Update, and Energy Conservation Update. This terminology also facilitates subject searching of the DOE energy information data base, a research in progress data base, a general and practical energy information data base, power reactor docket information data base, nuclear science abstracts data base, and the federal energy information data base on the DOE on-line retrieval system, RECON. The rapid expansion of the DOE's activities will result in a concomitant thesaurus expansion as information relating to new activities is indexed. Only the terms used in the indexing of documents at the Technical Information Center to date are included. (RWR)

  11. Model-Based Real-Time Head Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ström Jacob

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper treats real-time tracking of a human head using an analysis by synthesis approach. The work is based on the Structure from Motion (SfM algorithm from Azarbayejani and Pentland (1995. We will analyze the convergence properties of the SfM algorithm for planar objects, and extend it to handle new points. The extended algorithm is then used for head tracking. The system tracks feature points in the image using a texture mapped three-dimensional model of the head. The texture is updated adaptively so that points in the ear region can be tracked when the user′s head is rotated far, allowing out-of-plane rotation of up to without losing track. The covariance of the - and the -coordinates are estimated and forwarded to the Kalman filter, making the tracker robust to occlusion. The system automatically detects tracking failure and reinitializes the algorithm using information gathered in the original initialization process.

  12. Subject thesaurus permuted listing: Energy Data Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raridon, M.H. (ed.)

    1987-09-01

    This permuted listing, an appendix to the Energy Data Base: Subject Thesaurus (DOE/TIC-7000-R6), has been prepared to alleviate the problems of entry to a large multidisciplinary thesaurus containing both single and multi-word descriptors. It is designed to be used in conjunction with the Subject Thesaurus and is not to be used alone. Each descriptor, whether a single word or multi-word entry, has been permuted and alphabetized by each significant word. The complete descriptor is given at each point.

  13. Citation analysis with medical subject Headings (MeSH) using the Web of Knowledge: A new routine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Opthof, T.

    2013-01-01

    Citation analysis of documents retrieved from the Medline database (at the Web of Knowledge) has been possible only on a case-by-case basis. A technique is presented here for citation analysis in batch mode using both Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) at the Web of Knowledge and the Science Citation

  14. Energy information data base. Subject thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    The technical staff of the DOE Technical Information Center, during its subject indexing activities, develops and structures a vocabulary that allows consistent machine storage and retrieval of information necessary to the accomplishment of the DOE mission. This thesaurus incorporates that structured vocabulary. The terminology of this thesaurus is used for the subject control of information announced in DOE Energy Research Abstracts, Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis, Solar Energy Update, Geothermal Energy Update, Fossil Energy Update, Fusion Energy Update, Energy Conservation Update, and Power Reactor Docket Information (published for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission). This terminology also facilitates subject searching of the DOE technical information data base, a research in progress data base describing energy-related research, and a general and practical energy information data base on the DOE on-line retrieval system, RECON. The rapid expansion of DOE's activities will result in a concomitant thesaurus expansion as information relating to new activities is indexed. Only the terms used in indexing documents at the Technical Information Center to date are included. (RWR)

  15. Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) annotations illuminate maize genetics and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beissinger, Timothy M; Morota, Gota

    2017-01-01

    High-density marker panels and/or whole-genome sequencing, coupled with advanced phenotyping pipelines and sophisticated statistical methods, have dramatically increased our ability to generate lists of candidate genes or regions that are putatively associated with phenotypes or processes of interest. However, the speed with which we can validate genes, or even make reasonable biological interpretations about the principles underlying them, has not kept pace. A promising approach that runs parallel to explicitly validating individual genes is analyzing a set of genes together and assessing the biological similarities among them. This is often achieved via gene ontology analysis, a powerful tool that involves evaluating publicly available gene annotations. However, additional resources such as Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) can also be used to evaluate sets of genes to make biological interpretations. In this manuscript, we describe utilizing MeSH terms to make biological interpretations in maize. MeSH terms are assigned to PubMed-indexed manuscripts by the National Library of Medicine, and can be directly mapped to genes to develop gene annotations. Once mapped, these terms can be evaluated for enrichment in sets of genes or similarity between gene sets to provide biological insights. Here, we implement MeSH analyses in five maize datasets to demonstrate how MeSH can be leveraged by the maize and broader crop-genomics community. We demonstrate that MeSH terms can be effectively leveraged to generate hypotheses and make biological interpretations in maize, and we provide a pipeline that enables the use of MeSH terms in other plant species.

  16. Two Similarity Metrics for Medical Subject Headings (MeSH): An Aid to Biomedical Text Mining and Author Name Disambiguation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalheiser, Neil R; Bonifield, Gary

    2016-04-06

    In the present paper, we have created and characterized several similarity metrics for relating any two Medical Subject Headings (MeSH terms) to each other. The article-based metric measures the tendency of two MeSH terms to appear in the MEDLINE record of the same article. The author-based metric measures the tendency of two MeSH terms to appear in the body of articles written by the same individual (using the 2009 Author-ity author name disambiguation dataset as a gold standard). The two metrics are only modestly correlated with each other (r = 0.50), indicating that they capture different aspects of term usage. The article-based metric provides a measure of semantic relatedness, and MeSH term pairs that co-occur more often than expected by chance may reflect relations between the two terms. In contrast, the author metric is indicative of how individuals practice science, and may have value for author name disambiguation and studies of scientific discovery. We have calculated article metrics for all MeSH terms appearing in at least 25 articles in MEDLINE (as of 2014) and author metrics for MeSH terms published as of 2009. The dataset is freely available for download and can be queried at http://arrowsmith.psych.uic.edu/arrowsmith_uic/mesh_pair_metrics.html. Handling editor: Elizabeth Workman, MLIS, PhD.

  17. Head pose estimation algorithm based on deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuanming; Liu, Yijun

    2017-05-01

    Head pose estimation has been widely used in the field of artificial intelligence, pattern recognition and intelligent human-computer interaction and so on. Good head pose estimation algorithm should deal with light, noise, identity, shelter and other factors robustly, but so far how to improve the accuracy and robustness of attitude estimation remains a major challenge in the field of computer vision. A method based on deep learning for pose estimation is presented. Deep learning with a strong learning ability, it can extract high-level image features of the input image by through a series of non-linear operation, then classifying the input image using the extracted feature. Such characteristics have greater differences in pose, while they are robust of light, identity, occlusion and other factors. The proposed head pose estimation is evaluated on the CAS-PEAL data set. Experimental results show that this method is effective to improve the accuracy of pose estimation.

  18. Hyoid bone position and head posture comparison in skeletal Class I and Class II subjects: A retrospective cephalometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawankumar Dnyandeo Tekale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the hyoid bone position and the head posture using lateral cephalograms in subjects with skeletal Class I and skeletal Class II pattern and to investigate the gender differences. Materials and Methods: The study used lateral cephalograms of 40 subjects (20 skeletal Class I pattern; 20 skeletal Class II pattern. Lateral cephalograms were traced and analyzed for evaluation of the hyoid bone position and the head posture using 34 parameters. Independent sample t-test was performed to compare the differences between the two groups and between genders in each group. Statistical tests were performed using NCSS 2007 software (NCSST, Kaysville, Utah, USA. Results: The linear measurements between the hyoid bone (H and cervical spine (CV2ia, the nasion-sella line, palatal line nasion line, the anterior nasal spine (ANS to perpendicular projection of H on the NLP (NLP- Nasal Linear Projection (H-NLP/ANS as well as the posterior cranial points (Bo, Ar and S points were found to be less in skeletal Class II subjects. The measurement H-CV2ia was found to be less in males with skeletal Class I pattern and H-CV4ia was found to be less in males with skeletal Class II pattern. The natural head posture showed no significant gender differences. Conclusion: The position of hyoid bone was closer to the cervical vertebra horizontally in skeletal Class II subjects when compared with skeletal Class I subjects. In males, the hyoid bone position was closer to the cervical vertebra horizontally both in skeletal Class I and skeletal Class II subjects.

  19. High resolution, MRI-based, segmented, computerized head phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubal, I.G.; Harrell, C.R.; Smith, E.O.; Smith, A.L.; Krischlunas, P. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    1999-01-01

    The authors have created a high-resolution software phantom of the human brain which is applicable to voxel-based radiation transport calculations yielding nuclear medicine simulated images and/or internal dose estimates. A software head phantom was created from 124 transverse MRI images of a healthy normal individual. The transverse T2 slices, recorded in a 256x256 matrix from a GE Signa 2 scanner, have isotropic voxel dimensions of 1.5 mm and were manually segmented by the clinical staff. Each voxel of the phantom contains one of 62 index numbers designating anatomical, neurological, and taxonomical structures. The result is stored as a 256x256x128 byte array. Internal volumes compare favorably to those described in the ICRP Reference Man. The computerized array represents a high resolution model of a typical human brain and serves as a voxel-based anthropomorphic head phantom suitable for computer-based modeling and simulation calculations. It offers an improved realism over previous mathematically described software brain phantoms, and creates a reference standard for comparing results of newly emerging voxel-based computations. Such voxel-based computations lead the way to developing diagnostic and dosimetry calculations which can utilize patient-specific diagnostic images. However, such individualized approaches lack fast, automatic segmentation schemes for routine use; therefore, the high resolution, typical head geometry gives the most realistic patient model currently available.

  20. Revision of the Wayne State University Medical Library subject catalog using the 1966 Medical Subject Heading system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pings, V M; Ferrario, J A

    1967-01-01

    Wayne State University Medical Library (WSUML) revised its monograph subject catalog in 1961 utilizing the 1960 edition of MeSH as an authority list. With the introduction of MEDLARS in 1963 by NLM, all topical subheadings were omitted from MeSH. Inasmuch as this omission could not accommodate the needs of WSUML, the 1960 edition of MeSH was retained as a guideline. In January 1966, when MeSH resumed the incorporation of topical subheadings, WSUML was faced with a decision whether to continue the current policy or to adopt the form as presented in the latest edition of MeSH. This report describes the methodology employed in adopting a new policy, the findings which resulted from the change, and an evaluation of this reorganization.

  1. [Predict factors associated with malnutrition from patient generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) in head and neck cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas, L; Hurtós, L; Milà, R; Fort, E; Peiró, I

    2013-01-01

    Patient Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) is a validated tool for nutrition evaluation in patients with cancer. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of malnutrition in head and neck cancer patients at diagnosis and evaluate the independent prognostic factors for malnutrition from PG-SGA. All outpatients attending at the Head and Neck Cancer Multidisciplinary Meeting for primary diagnosis, staging and treatment were evaluated by an oncology dietitian using the patient generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA). Patients with recurrences or secondary tumours will be excluded. 64 patients were evaluated (55 men and 9 women) with an average age of 63 years and body mass index (BMI) of 25.3 kg/m(2) (SD ± 5.18). After the nutritional assessment we observed that 43.8% of patients were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. The most frequent symptom at diagnosis was dysphagia (48.4%) and anorexia (26.6%). From PG-SGA, the main prognostic factors (p<0,001) were the percentage of weight loss, serum albumin levels, BMI and the presence of dysphagia or/and anorexia prior diagnosis. Parameters as BMI, weight loss and low albumin levels at the time of diagnosis in head and neck cancer patients are independent predictors for malnutrition as well as the presence of anorexia or dysphagia.reaffirms the need for sustainability of interventions over time. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  2. Noise Reduction for a MEMS-Gyroscope-Based Head Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jiaying; Gerdtman, Christer; Lindén, Maria

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, four different signal processing algorithms which can be applied to reduce the noise from a MEMS-gyroscope-based computer head mouse are presented. MEMS-gyroscopes are small, light, cheap and widely used in many electrical products. MultiPos, a MEMS-gyroscope-based computer head mouse system was designed for persons with movement disorders. Noise such as physiological tremor and electrical noise is a common problem for the MultiPos system. In this study four different signal processing algorithms were applied and evaluated by simulation in MATLAB and implementation in a dsPIC, with aim to minimize the noise in MultiPos. The algorithms were low-pass filter, Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm, Kalman filter and Weighted Fourier Linear Combiner (WFLC) algorithm. Comparisons and system tests show that these signal processing algorithms can be used to improve the MultiPos system. The WFLC algorithm was found the best method for noise reduction in the application of a MEMS-gyroscope-based head mouse.

  3. Palliative radiotherapy in head and neck cancers: Evidence based review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talapatra Kaustav

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck (SCCHN is one of the commonest cancers seen in India, constituting up to 25% of their overall cancer burden. Advanced SCCHN is a bad disease with a poor prognosis and patients usually die of uncontrolled loco-regional disease. Curative intent management of loco-regionally advanced SCCHN has become more evidence-based with active clinical research in the form of large prospective randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses. However, little has been written about palliative radiotherapy (PRT in head and neck cancers. It is widely recognized that PRT provides effective palliation and improved quality-of-life in advanced incurable malignancies. It is in this context that this study proposes to review the existing literature on palliative radiotherapy in advanced incurable SCCHN to help formulate consensus guidelines and recommendations.

  4. The multi-modal responses of a physical head model subjected to various blast exposure conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellet, S.; Phillippens, M.

    2017-11-01

    The local and global biomechanical response of the body to a blast wave is the first step of a sequence that leads to the development of stresses and strains which can exceed the tolerance of brain tissue. These stresses and strains may then lead to neuro-physical changes in the brain and contribute to initiate a cascade of events leading to injury. The specific biomechanical pathways by which the blast energy is transmitted through the head structure are, however, not clearly understood. Multiple transmission mechanisms have been proposed to explain the generation of brain stresses following the impingement of a blast wave on the head. With the use of a physical head model, the work presented here aims at demonstrating that the proposed transmission mechanisms are not mutually exclusive. They are part of a continuum of head responses where, depending on the exposure conditions, a given mechanism may or may not dominate. This article presents the joint analysis of previous blast test results generated with the brain injury protection evaluation device (BIPED) headform under four significantly different exposure conditions. The focus of the analysis is to demonstrate how the nature of the recorded response is highly dependent on the exposure characteristics and consequently, on the method used to reproduce blast exposure in a laboratory environment. The timing and magnitude of the variations in intra-cranial pressures (ICP) were analysed relative to the external pressure field in order to better understand the wave dynamics occurring within the brain structure of the headform. ICP waveforms were also analysed in terms of their energy spectral density to better identify the energy partitioning between the different modes of response. It is shown that the BIPED response is multi-modal and that the energy partitioning between its different modes of response is greatly influenced by exposure characteristics such as external peak overpressure, impulse, blast wave

  5. Dental needs in Brazilian patients subjected to head and neck radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, Ana Carolina de Mesquita Netto; Jorge, Jacks; Almeida, Oslei Paes de; Lopes, Marcio Ajudarte [University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Piracicaba Dental School. Dept. of Oral Diagnosis], e-mail: malopes@fop.unicamp.br; Esteves, Sergio Carlos Barros [Center of Oncology, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In spite of its recognized benefits in the treatment of malignant tumors, radiation therapy have several side effects in the head and neck region. The evaluation of oral conditions by a dentist is important to prevent or minimize these problems. The aim of this retrospective review was to analyze the dental needs in 357 patients who received radiotherapy in the head and neck region and were treated at Orocentro/FOP/UNICAMP, between January 1990 and December 2004. Review of patient files showed that dental examination before radiotherapy was not performed in 148 patients (41.5%) and was done in 209 patients (58.5%). From the total of examined patients, 94 (45%) did not require dental procedures at the moment of examination, while 115 (55%) presented some sort of dental need. Following the patients after the radiotherapy, it was observed that the group of patients that was evaluated before radiation presented less need of restorations, root canal filling and dental extractions than those who were not evaluated. The results of this study confirm that the evaluation of oral conditions prior to radiotherapy is essential to minimize the dental needs, emphasizing the importance of the dentist in the multidisciplinary team that treats cancer patients. (author)

  6. Crowdsourcing based subjective quality assessment of adaptive video streaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahid, M.; Søgaard, Jacob; Pokhrel, J.

    2014-01-01

    humans are considered to be the most valid method of the as- sessment of QoE. Besides lab-based subjective experiments, crowdsourcing based subjective assessment of video quality is gaining popularity as an alternative method. This paper presents insights into a study that investigates perceptual pref......- erences of various adaptive video streaming scenarios through crowdsourcing based subjective quality assessment....

  7. Sensory supplementation system based on electrotactile tongue biofeedback of head position for balance control

    CERN Document Server

    Vuillerme, Nicolas; Chenu, Olivier; Demongeot, Jacques; Payan, Yohan; Danilov, Yuri

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the effects of an artificial head position-based tongue-placed electrotactile biofeedback on postural control during quiet standing under different somatosensory conditions from the support surface. Eight young healthy adults were asked to stand as immobile as possible with their eyes closed on two Firm and Foam support surface conditions executed in two conditions of No-biofeedback and Biofeedback. In the Foam condition, a 6-cm thick foam support surface was placed under the subjects' feet to alter the quality and/or quantity of somatosensory information at the plantar sole and the ankle. The underlying principle of the biofeedback consisted of providing supplementary information about the head orientation with respect to gravitational vertical through electrical stimulation of the tongue. Centre of foot pressure (CoP) displacements were recorded using a force platform. Larger CoP displacements were observed in the Foam than Firm conditions in the two conditions of No...

  8. ERDA energy information data base subject thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    The technical staff of the ERDA Technical Information Center, during its subject indexing activities, develops and structures a vocabulary that allows consistent machine storage and retrieval of information necessary to the accomplishment of the ERDA mission. This thesaurus incorporates that structured vocabulary. Terms in the thesaurus are listed alphabetically; each alphabetic entry is accompanied by a ''word block'' containing all the terms associated with the entry. (RWR)

  9. ERDA energy information data base: subject thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-06-01

    The technical staff of the ERDA Technical Information Center, as part of its subject indexing activities, develops and structures a vocabulary which allows consistent machine storage and retrieval of information. This thesaurus incorporates that structured vocabulary. Terms in the thesaurus are listed alphabetically; each entry is accompanied by a ''word block'' containing all the terms associated with the entry. There are 15,905 approved terms and 4198 forbidden terms in this edition. (RWR)

  10. Three-Way Catalog Division Combined with Conversion to Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) in a Medium-sized Medical Library *†

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, Eleanor M.; Poland, Ursula H.

    1974-01-01

    Conversion to MeSH and other reasons are enumerated for the division of an undivided dictionary card catalog into a three-way divided catalog, consisting of Proper Names, Titles, and Topical Subjects sections. Methodology of division is described. Conversion from Library of Congress Subject Headings to Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) as an authority list stimulated such concurrent changes as (1) the introduction of a guide card system that eliminates typing of subject headings on catalog cards and (2) the adoption of a filing system that employs reverse chronological order for all types of sequential material in the Proper Names and Titles sections and for all material in the Topical Subjects section. The ancillary decisions, procedures, and methods necessitated by these major conversions are also described. PMID:4462686

  11. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  12. Head-to-toe whole-body MRI in psoriatic arthritis, axial spondyloarthritis and healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggenborg, René Panduro; Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Eshed, Iris

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: By whole-body MRI (WBMRI), we aimed to examine the frequency and distribution of inflammatory and structural lesions in PsA patients, SpA patients and healthy subjects (HSs), to introduce global WBMRI inflammation/damage scores, and to assess WBMRI's reproducibility and correlation...... of inflammation and structural damage were constructed, and WBMRI findings were compared with clinical measures and convMRI (SpA/HS: spine and SI joints; PsA/HS: hand). RESULTS: The readability (92-100%) and reproducibility (intrareader intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.62-1.0) were high in spine/SI joint......-15]} and SpA [8 (IQR 2-14)] than in HSs [2.5 (IQR 1-4.5)], both P structural damage scores (erosion, fat infiltration and ankylosis) were higher in SpA [7 (IQR 3-12)] than HSs [1.5 (IQR 0-4.5)], P = 0.012. Correlations between WBMRI and convMRI spine and SI joint scores were ρ = 0...

  13. Effects of head rotation on space- and word-based reading errors in spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Stefan; Keller, Ingo; Kerkhoff, Georg

    2010-11-01

    Patients with right hemisphere lesions often omit or misread words on the left side of a text or the beginning letters of single words which is termed neglect dyslexia (ND). Two types of reading errors are typically observed in ND: omissions and word-based reading errors. The prior are considered as space-based omission errors on the contralesional side of the page, while the latter can be viewed as a kind of stimulus- or word-based reading errors where leftsided parts of a single perceptual entity (the word) are neglected. The head, trunk and eyes are part of a hypothetical egocentric reference frame that is aligned around our body and divides space into a left and right hemispace. Previous neglect studies have shown that head- and trunk-orientation significantly influence contralesional neglect. An open question is whether such egocentric manipulations also influence omissions and word-based errors in paragraph reading in ND. The current study investigated in a sample of right-hemisphere lesioned patients with ND vs. without ND and matched healthy control subjects the influence of head-rotation (HR) on both types of reading errors using controlled indented paragraph reading tests. Passive leftward HR significantly reduced omission errors on the left side of the text in ND, but had no effect on word-based reading errors. In conclusion egocentric manipulations like HR only appear to influence space-based attentional processes in neglect evident as omissions in paragraph reading but have no impact on those attentional processes involved in word identification evident as word-based errors in paragraph reading. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Activation of biceps femoris long head reduces tibiofemoral anterior shear force and tibial internal rotation torque in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Nur Liyana; Ding, Ziyun; Xu, Rui; Bull, Anthony M J

    2018-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) provides resistance to tibial internal rotation torque and anterior shear at the knee. ACL deficiency results in knee instability. Optimisation of muscle contraction through functional electrical stimulation (FES) offers the prospect of mitigating the destabilising effects of ACL deficiency. The hypothesis of this study is that activation of the biceps femoris long head (BFLH) reduces the tibial internal rotation torque and the anterior shear force at the knee. Gait data of twelve healthy subjects were measured with and without the application of FES and taken as inputs to a computational musculoskeletal model. The model was used to investigate the optimum levels of BFLH activation during FES gait in reducing the anterior shear force to zero. This study found that FES significantly reduced the tibial internal rotation torque at the knee during the stance phase of gait (p = 0.0322) and the computational musculoskeletal modelling revealed that a mean BFLH activation of 20.8% (±8.4%) could reduce the anterior shear force to zero. At the time frame when the anterior shear force was zero, the internal rotation torque was reduced by 0.023 ± 0.0167 Nm/BW, with a mean 188% reduction across subjects (p = 0.0002). In conclusion, activation of the BFLH is able to reduce the tibial internal rotation torque and the anterior shear force at the knee in healthy control subjects. This should be tested on ACL deficient subject to consider its effect in mitigating instability due to ligament deficiency. In future clinical practice, activating the BFLH may be used to protect ACL reconstructions during post-operative rehabilitation, assist with residual instabilities post reconstruction, and reduce the need for ACL reconstruction surgery in some cases.

  15. Survey of keyword adjustment of published articles medical subject headings in journal of mazandaran university of medical sciences (2009-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabirzadeh, Azar; Siamian, Hasan; Abadi, Ebrahim Bagherian Farah; Saravi, Benyamin Mohseni

    2013-01-01

    NONE DECLARED. Keywords are the most important tools for Information retrieval. They are usually used for retrieval of articles based on contents of information reserved from printed and electronic resources. Retrieval of appropriate keywords from Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) can impact with exact, correctness and short time on information retrieval. Regarding the above mentioned matters, this study was done to compare the Latin keywords was in the articles published in the Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. This is a descriptive study. The data were extracted from the key words of Englsih abstracts of articles published in the years 2009-2010 in the Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences by census method. Checklist of data collection is designed, based on research objectives and literature review which has face validity. Compliance rate in this study was to determine if the keywords cited in this article as a full subject of the main subject headings in a MeSH (Bold and the selected word) is a perfect adjustment. If keywords were cited in the article but the main heading is not discussed in the following main topics to be discussed with reference to See and See related it has considered has partial adjustment. Out of 148 articles published in 12 issues in proposed time of studying, 72 research papers were analyzed. The average numbers of authors in each article were 4 ± 1. Results showed that most of specialty papers 42 (58. 4%), belonging to the (Department of Clinical Sciences) School of Medicine, 11 (15.3%) Basic Science, 6(8.4%) Pharmacy, Nursing and Midwifery 5(6.9%), 4(5.5%) Health, paramedical Sciences 3(4.2%), and non medical article 1(1.3%) school of medicine. In general, results showed that 80 (30%) of key words have been used to complete the adjustment. Also, only 1(1.4%) had complete adjustment with all the MeSH key words and in 8 articles(11.4%) key words of had no adjustment with MeSH. The results showed that only

  16. Incidence of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma among subjects at high risk of lung cancer: results from the Pittsburgh Lung Screening Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Ronak; Weissfeld, Joel L; Wilson, David O; Balogh, Paula; Sufka, Pamela; Siegfried, Jill M; Grandis, Jennifer R; Diergaarde, Brenda

    2015-05-01

    Earlier detection and diagnosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) should lead to improved outcomes. However, to the authors' knowledge, no effective screening strategy has been identified to date. In the current study, the authors evaluated whether it would be useful to screen subjects targeted for lung cancer screening for HNSCC as well. Medical records, death certificates, and cancer registry and questionnaire data were used to determine the number of observed incident HNSCC cases in the Pittsburgh Lung Screening Study (PLuSS), a cohort of current and former smokers aged ≥50 years with a ≥12.5 pack-year smoking history. The expected number of cases was estimated using stratum-specific incidence rates obtained from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data for 2000 through 2011. The standardized incidence ratio was calculated to examine the difference between the observed and expected number of cases. Of the 3587 at-risk participants in the PLuSS, 23 (0.64%) developed HNSCC over a total of 32,201 person-years of follow-up. This finding was significantly higher than expected based on incidence rates obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program (13.70 cases expected; standardized incidence ratio, 1.68 [95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.52]). The excess burden of HNSCC in the PLuSS was 28.9 cases per 100,000 person-years. Observed incident cases were significantly more often male, had started smoking at a younger age, smoked more per day, and had more pack-years of smoking than the rest of the PLuSS at-risk participants. The results of the current study provide a rationale for offering head and neck cancer screening along with computed tomography screening for lung cancer. Randomized controlled trials that assess the effectiveness of adding examination of the head and neck area to lung cancer screening programs are warranted. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  17. The video head impulse test (vHIT of semicircular canal function – age dependent normative values of VOR gain in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh Andrew McGarvie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Hypothesis. The video Head Impulse Test (vHIT is now widely used to test the function of each of the six semicircular canals individually by measuring the eye rotation response to an abrupt head rotation in the plane of the canal. The main measure of canal adequacy is the ratio of the eye movement response to the head movement stimulus i.e. the gain of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR. However there is a need for normative data about how VOR gain is affected by age and also by head velocity, to allow the response of any particular patient to be compared to response of healthy subjects in their age range. In this study we determined for all six semicircular canals, normative values of VOR gain, for each canal across a range of head velocities, for healthy subjects in each decade of life.Study Design. The VOR gain was measured for all canals across a range of head velocities for at least 10 healthy subjects in decade age bands: 10-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, 80-89. Methods. The compensatory eye movement response to a small, unpredictable, abrupt head rotation (head impulse was measured by the ICS Impulse prototype system. The same operator delivered every impulse to every subject. Results. VOR gain decreased at high head velocities, but was largely unaffected by age into the 80-89 year age group. There were some small but systematic differences between the two directions of head rotation, which appear to be largely due to the fact that in this study only the right eye was measured. The results are considered in relation to recent evidence about the effect of age on VOR performance.Conclusion. These normative values allow the results of any particular patient to be compared to the values of healthy people in their age range and so allow, for example, detection of whether a patient has a bilateral vestibular loss. VOR gain, as measured directly by the eye movement response to head rotation, seems largely unaffected by

  18. Experimental Investigation of Cavitation as a Possible Damage Mechanism in Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury in Post-Mortem Human Subject Heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzar, Robert S; Treichler, Derrick; Wardlaw, Andrew; Weiss, Greg; Goeller, Jacques

    2017-04-15

    The potential of blast-induced traumatic brain injury from the mechanism of localized cavitation of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is investigated. While the mechanism and criteria for non-impact blast-induced traumatic brain injury is still unknown, this study demonstrates that local cavitation in the CSF layer of the cranial volume could contribute to these injuries. The cranial contents of three post-mortem human subject (PMHS) heads were replaced with both a normal saline solution and a ballistic gel mixture with a simulated CSF layer. Each were instrumented with multiple pressure transducers and placed inside identical shock tubes at two different research facilities. Sensor data indicates that cavitation may have occurred in the PMHS models at pressure levels below those for a 50% risk of blast lung injury. This study points to skull flexion, the result of the shock wave on the front of the skull leading to a negative pressure in the contrecoup, as a possible mechanism that contributes to the onset of cavitation. Based on observation of intracranial pressure transducer data from the PMHS model, cavitation onset is thought to occur from approximately a 140 kPa head-on incident blast.

  19. Head repositioning accuracy in patients with neck pain and asymptomatic subjects: concurrent validity, influence of motion speed, motion direction and target distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugailly, Pierre-Michel; De Santis, Roberta; Tits, Mathieu; Sobczak, Stéphane; Vigne, Anna; Feipel, Véronique

    2015-12-01

    Cervicocephalic kinesthetic deficiencies have been demonstrated in patients with chronic neck pain (NP). On the other hand, authors emphasized the use of different motion speeds for assessing functional impairment of the cervical spine. The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate the head repositioning accuracy in NP patients and control subjects and (2) to assess the influence of target distance, motion speed, motion direction and pain. Seventy-one subjects (36 healthy subjects and 35 NP patients; age 30-55 years) performed the head repositioning test (HRT) at two different speeds for horizontal and vertical movements and at two different distances. For each condition, six consecutive trials were sampled. The study showed the validity and reproducibility of the HRT, confirming a dysfunctional threshold of 4.5°. Normative values of head repositioning error up to 3.6° and 7.1° were identified for healthy and NP subjects, respectively. A distance of 180 cm from the target and a natural motion speed increased HRT accuracy. Repositioning after extension movement showed a significantly larger error in both groups. Intensity, duration of pain as well as pain level did not significantly alter head repositioning error. The assessment of proprioceptive performance in healthy and NP subjects allowed the validation of the HRT. The HRT is a simple, not expensive and fast test, easily implementable in daily practice to assess and monitor treatment and evolution of proprioceptive cervical deficits.

  20. Effects of suboccipital release with craniocervical flexion exercise on craniocervical alignment and extrinsic cervical muscle activity in subjects with forward head posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo-Been; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Jeong, Hyo-Jung; Cynn, Heon-Seock

    2016-10-01

    Forward head posture is a head-on-trunk malalignment, which results in musculoskeletal dysfunction and neck pain. To improve forward head posture, both the craniocervical flexion exercise and the suboccipital release technique have been used. The purpose of this study was to compare the immediate effects of craniocervical flexion exercise and suboccipital release combined with craniocervical flexion exercise on craniovertebral angle, cervical flexion and extension range of motion, and the muscle activities of the sternocleidomastoid, anterior scalene, and splenius capitis during craniocervical flexion exercise in subjects with forward head posture. In total, 19 subjects (7 males, 12 females) with forward head posture were recruited using G-power software. Each subject performed craniocervical flexion exercise and suboccipital release combined with craniocervical flexion exercise in random order. After one intervention was performed, the subject took a 20min wash out period to minimize any carry-over effect between interventions. Craniovertebral angle, cervical flexion and extension range of motion, and the muscle activities of the sternocleidomastoid, anterior scalene, and splenius capitis were measured. A one-way, repeated-measures ANOVA was used to assess differences between the effects of the craniocervical flexion exercise and suboccipital release combined with craniocervical flexion exercise interventions in the same group. Craniovertebral angle (pflexion range of motion (pflexion exercise compared to craniocervical flexion exercise alone. The muscle activities of the sternocleidomastoid, anterior scalene, and splenius capitis were significantly lower during suboccipital release combined with craniocervical flexion exercise than during craniocervical flexion exercise alone across all craniocervical flexion exercise phases except the first (all pflexion exercise provided superior benefits relative to craniocervical flexion exercise alone as an intervention for

  1. Loose Coupling of Wearable-Based INSs with Automatic Heading Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz Diaz, Estefania

    2017-01-01

    Position tracking of pedestrians by means of inertial sensors is a highly explored field of research. In fact, there are already many approaches to implement inertial navigation systems (INSs). However, most of them use a single inertial measurement unit (IMU) attached to the pedestrian’s body. Since wearable-devices will be given items in the future, this work explores the implementation of an INS using two wearable-based IMUs. A loosely coupled approach is proposed to combine the outputs of wearable-based INSs. The latter are based on a pocket-mounted IMU and a foot-mounted IMU. The loosely coupled fusion combines the output of the two INSs not only when these outputs are least erroneous, but also automatically favoring the best output. This approach is named smart update. The main challenge is determining the quality of the heading estimation of each INS, which changes every time. In order to address this, a novel concept to determine the quality of the heading estimation is presented. This concept is subject to a patent application. The results show that the position error rate of the loosely coupled fusion is 10 cm/s better than either the foot INS’s or pocket INS’s error rate in 95% of the cases. PMID:29099807

  2. Compensating for literature annotation bias when predicting novel drug-disease relationships through Medical Subject Heading Over-representation Profile (MeSHOP) similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Warren A; Ouellette, B F Francis; Wasserman, Wyeth W

    2013-01-01

    Using annotations to the articles in MEDLINE®/PubMed®, over six thousand chemical compounds with pharmacological actions have been tracked since 1996. Medical Subject Heading Over-representation Profiles (MeSHOPs) quantitatively leverage the literature associated with biological entities such as diseases or drugs, providing the opportunity to reposition known compounds towards novel disease applications. A MeSHOP is constructed by counting the number of times each medical subject term is assigned to an entity-related research publication in the MEDLINE database and calculating the significance of the count by comparing against the count of the term in a background set of publications. Based on the expectation that drugs suitable for treatment of a disease (or disease symptom) will have similar annotation properties to the disease, we successfully predict drug-disease associations by comparing MeSHOPs of diseases and drugs. The MeSHOP comparison approach delivers an 11% improvement over bibliometric baselines. However, novel drug-disease associations are observed to be biased towards drugs and diseases with more publications. To account for the annotation biases, a correction procedure is introduced and evaluated. By explicitly accounting for the annotation bias, unexpectedly similar drug-disease pairs are highlighted as candidates for drug repositioning research. MeSHOPs are shown to provide a literature-supported perspective for discovery of new links between drugs and diseases based on pre-existing knowledge.

  3. Opera house acoustics based on subjective preference theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ando, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on opera house acoustics based on subjective preference theory; it targets researchers in acoustics and vision who are working in physics, psychology, and brain physiology. This book helps readers to understand any subjective attributes in relation to objective parameters based on the powerful and workable model of the auditory system. It is reconfirmed here that the well-known Helmholtz theory, which was based on a peripheral model of the auditory system, may not well describe pitch, timbre, and duration as well as the spatial sensations described in this book, nor overall responses such as subjective preference of sound fields and the annoyance of environmental noise.

  4. Transcending Library Catalogs: A Comparative Study of Controlled Terms in Library of Congress Subject Headings and User-Generated Tags in LibraryThing for Transgender Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    Perhaps the greatest power of folksonomies, especially when set against controlled vocabularies like the Library of Congress Subject Headings, lies in their capacity to empower user communities to name their own resources in their own terms. This article analyzes the potential and limitations of both folksonomies and controlled vocabularies for…

  5. Cited References and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) as Two Different Knowledge Representations : Clustering and Mappings at the Paper Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Comins, J.A.; Sorensen, A.A.; Bornmann, L.; Hellsten, I.

    2016-01-01

    For the biomedical sciences, the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) make available a rich feature which cannot currently be merged properly with widely used citing/cited data. Here, we provide methods and routines that make MeSH terms amenable to broader usage in the study of science indicators: using

  6. Comparison of optic area measurement using fundus photography and optical coherence tomography between optic nerve head drusen and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Rodríguez, Patricia; Gili, Pablo; Martín-Ríos, María Dolores; Grifol-Clar, Eulalia

    2013-03-01

    To compare optic disc area measurement between optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) and control subjects using fundus photography, time-domain optical coherence tomography (TD-OCT) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). We also made a comparison between each of the three techniques. We performed our study on 66 eyes (66 patients) with ONHD and 70 healthy control subjects (70 controls) with colour ocular fundus photography at 20º (Zeiss FF 450 IR plus), TD-OCT (Stratus OCT) with the Fast Optic Disc protocol and SD-OCT (Cirrus OCT) with the Optic Disc Cube 200 × 200 protocol for measurement of the optic disc area. The measurements were made by two observers and in each measurement a correction of the image magnification factor was performed. Measurement comparison using the Student's t-test/Mann-Whitney U test, the intraclass correlation coefficient, Pearson/Spearman rank correlation coefficient and the Bland-Altman plot was performed in the statistical analysis. Mean and standard deviation (SD) of the optic disc area in ONHD and in controls was 2.38 (0.54) mm(2) and 2.54 (0.42) mm(2), respectively with fundus photography; 2.01 (0.56) mm(2) and 1.66 (0.37) mm(2), respectively with TD-OCT, and 2.03 (0.49) mm(2) and 1.75 (0.38) mm(2), respectively with SD-OCT. In ONHD and controls, repeatability of optic disc area measurement was excellent with fundus photography and optical coherence tomography (TD-OCT and SD-OCT), but with a low degree of agreement between both techniques. Optic disc area measurement is smaller in ONHD compared to healthy subjects with fundus photography, unlike time-domain and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in which the reverse is true. Both techniques offer good repeatability, but a low degree of correlation and agreement, which means that optic disc area measurement is not interchangeable or comparable between techniques. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2013 The College of Optometrists.

  7. Humanoid Robot Head Design Based on Uncanny Valley and FACS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jizheng Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional robots are always the focus of artificial intelligence (AI, and intelligent control of robot facial expression is a hot research topic. This paper focuses on the design of humanoid robot head, which is divided into three steps to achieve. The first step is to solve the uncanny valley about humanoid robot, to find and avoid the relationship between human being and robot; the second step is to solve the association between human face and robot head; compared with human being and robots, we analyze the similarities and differences and explore the same basis and mechanisms between robot and human analyzing the Facial Action Coding System (FACS, which guides us to achieve humanoid expressions. On the basis of the previous two steps, the third step is to construct a robot head; through a series of experiments we test the robot head, which could show some humanoid expressions; through human-robot interaction, we find people are surprised by the robot head expression and feel happy.

  8. Assessment of pilot workload - Converging measures from performance based, subjective and psychophysiological techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Arthur F.; Sirevaag, Erik J.; Braune, Rolf

    1986-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between the P300 component of the event-related brain potential (ERP) and the processing demands of a complex real-world task. Seven male volunteers enrolled in an Instrument Flight Rule (IFR) aviation course flew a series of missions in a single engine fixed-based simulator. In dual task conditions subjects were also required to discriminate between two tones differing in frequency. ERPs time-locked to the tones, subjective effort ratings and overt performance measures were collected during two 45 min flights differing in difficulty (manipulated by varying both atmospheric conditions and instrument reliability). The more difficult flight was associated with poorer performance, increased subjective effort ratings, and smaller secondary task P300s. Within each flight, P300 amplitude was negatively correlated with deviations from command headings indicating that P300 amplitude was a sensitive workload metric both between and within the flight missions.

  9. Evaluating the Use of a Strengths-Based Development Tool with Head Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Liz; Woods, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated an educational psychologist's use of a strengths-based development tool with head teachers, in the context of influencing and supporting leaders in school organisations. Nine head teachers completed the "Realise2 Introductory Profile" online strengths assessment and then received a structured debrief…

  10. Eye-based head gestures for interaction in the car

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbeigi, Diako; Witzner Hansen, Dan

    2013-01-01

    that can be used as an alternative input in the multimodal interaction context. Two approaches are described for using this method for interaction with objects inside or outside the car. Some application examples are described where the discrete or continuous head movements in combination with the driver......’s visual attention can be used for controlling the objects inside the car....

  11. The rib head as a landmark in the anterolateral approach to the thoracic spine: a computed tomography-based morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Kyriakos; Amin, Anubhav G; Kretzer, Ryan M; Chaput, Christopher; Tortolani, P Justin; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Baaj, Ali A

    2013-05-01

    The rib head is an important landmark in the anterolateral approach to the thoracic spine. Resection of the rib head is typically the first step in gaining access to the underlying pedicle and ultimately the spinal canal. The goal of this work is to quantify the relationship of the rib head to the spinal canal and adjacent aorta at each thoracic level using CT-based morphometric measurements. One hundred thoracic spine CT scans (obtained in 50 male and 50 female subjects) were evaluated in this study. The width and depth of each vertebra body were measured from T-1 to T-12. In addition, the distance of each rib head to the spinal canal was determined by drawing a line connecting the rib heads bilaterally and measuring the distance to this line from the most ventral aspect of the spinal canal. Finally, the distance of the left rib head to the thoracic aorta was measured at each thoracic level below the aortic arch. The vertebral body depth progressively increased in a rostral to caudal direction. The vertebral body width was at its minimum at T-4 and progressively increased to T-12. The rib head extended beyond the spinal canal maximally at T-1. This distance incrementally decreased toward the caudal levels, with the tip of the rib head lying approximately even with the ventral canal at T-11 and T-12. The distance between the aorta and the left rib head increased in a rostral to caudal direction as well. The rib head is an important landmark in the anterolateral approach to the thoracic spine. At more cephalad levels, a larger portion of rib head requires resection to gain access to the spinal canal. At more caudad levels, there is a safer working distance between the rib head and aorta.

  12. Quality of pharmacy-specific Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) assignment in pharmacy journals indexed in MEDLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguet, Fernando; Salgado, Teresa M; van den Boogerd, Lucienne; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is the National Library of Medicine (NLM) controlled vocabulary for indexing articles. Inaccuracies in the MeSH thesaurus have been reported for several areas including pharmacy. To assess the quality of pharmacy-specific MeSH assignment to articles indexed in pharmacy journals. The 10 journals containing the highest number of articles published in 2012 indexed under the MeSH 'Pharmacists' were identified. All articles published over a 5-year period (2008-2012) in the 10 previously selected journals were retrieved from PubMed. MeSH terms used to index these articles were extracted and pharmacy-specific MeSH terms were identified. The frequency of use of pharmacy-specific MeSH terms was calculated across journals. A total of 6989 articles were retrieved from the 10 pharmacy journals, of which 328 (4.7%) were articles not fully indexed and therefore did not contain any MeSH terms assigned. Among the 6661 articles fully indexed, the mean number of MeSH terms was 10.1 (SD = 4.0), being 1.0 (SD = 1.3) considered as Major MeSH. Both values significantly varied across journals. The mean number of pharmacy-specific MeSH terms per article was 0.9 (SD = 1.2). A total of 3490 (52.4%) of the 6661 articles were indexed in pharmacy journals without a single pharmacy-specific MeSH. Of the total 67193 MeSH terms assigned to articles, on average 10.5% (SD = 13.9) were pharmacy-specific MeSH. A statistically significant different pattern of pharmacy-specific MeSH assignment was identified across journals (Kruskal-Wallis P MeSH terms to articles indexed in pharmacy journals can be improved to further enhance evidence gathering in pharmacy. Over half of the articles published in the top-10 journals publishing pharmacy literature were indexed without a single pharmacy-specific MeSH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of a video-based head motion tracking system for dedicated brain PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anishchenko, S.; Beylin, D.; Stepanov, P.; Stepanov, A.; Weinberg, I. N.; Schaeffer, S.; Zavarzin, V.; Shaposhnikov, D.; Smith, M. F.

    2015-03-01

    Unintentional head motion during Positron Emission Tomography (PET) data acquisition can degrade PET image quality and lead to artifacts. Poor patient compliance, head tremor, and coughing are examples of movement sources. Head motion due to patient non-compliance can be an issue with the rise of amyloid brain PET in dementia patients. To preserve PET image resolution and quantitative accuracy, head motion can be tracked and corrected in the image reconstruction algorithm. While fiducial markers can be used, a contactless approach is preferable. A video-based head motion tracking system for a dedicated portable brain PET scanner was developed. Four wide-angle cameras organized in two stereo pairs are used for capturing video of the patient's head during the PET data acquisition. Facial points are automatically tracked and used to determine the six degree of freedom head pose as a function of time. The presented work evaluated the newly designed tracking system using a head phantom and a moving American College of Radiology (ACR) phantom. The mean video-tracking error was 0.99±0.90 mm relative to the magnetic tracking device used as ground truth. Qualitative evaluation with the ACR phantom shows the advantage of the motion tracking application. The developed system is able to perform tracking with accuracy close to millimeter and can help to preserve resolution of brain PET images in presence of movements.

  14. Relationships among head posture, pain intensity, disability and deep cervical flexor muscle performance in subjects with postural neck pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun V. Subbarayalu, PhD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Information Technology (IT professionals working with computers gradually develop forward head posture and, as a result, these professionals are susceptible to several neck disorders. This study intended to reveal the relationships between pain intensity, disability, head posture and deep cervical flexor (DCF muscle performance in patients with postural neck pain. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 84 IT professionals who were diagnosed with postural neck pain. The participants were recruited with a random sampling approach. A Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ, the Modified Head Posture Spinal Curvature Instrument (MHPSCI, and the Stabilizer Pressure Biofeedback Unit were used to measure neck pain intensity, neck disability, head posture, and DCF muscle performance, respectively. Results: The Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a significantly strong positive relationship between the VAS and the NPQ (r = 0.734. The cranio-vertebral (CV angle was found to have a significantly negative correlation with the VAS (r = −0.536 and a weak negative correlation with the NPQ (r = −0.389. Conclusion: This study concluded that a smaller CV angle corresponded to greater neck pain intensity and disability. Furthermore, there is no significant relationship between CV angle and DCF muscle performance, indicating that head posture re-education through postural correction exercises would not completely correct the motor control deficits in DCF muscles. In addition, a suitable exercise regimen that exclusively targets the deep cervical flexor muscle to improve its endurance is warranted. Keywords: Craniovertebral angle, Disability deep cervical flexors muscle performance, Head posture, Postural neck pain

  15. Global visibility for global health: Is it time for a new descriptor in Medical Subject Heading (MeSH of MEDLINE/PubMed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marušic´

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite a large body of research in global health (almost 9000 articles published in PubMed until 2012, the term “global health” is not included in the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH of the NLM – its controlled vocabulary thesaurus which NLM uses to index articles in MEDL INE. There are only 6 journals currently covered by PubMed which specialize in global health, including Journal of Global Health.

  16. Single-Subject Experimental Design for Evidence-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byiers, Breanne J.; Reichle, Joe; Symons, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs) represent an important tool in the development and implementation of evidence-based practice in communication sciences and disorders. The purpose of this article is to review the strategies and tactics of SSEDs and their application in speech-language pathology research. Method: The authors…

  17. An In-Reflection Strain Sensing Head Based on a Hi-Bi Photonic Crystal Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Lopez-Amo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A photonic crystal fiber-based sensing head is proposed for strain measurements. The sensor comprises a Hi-Bi PCF sensing head to measure interferometric signals in-reflection. An experimental background study of the sensing head is conducted through an optical backscatter reflectometer confirming the theoretical predictions, also included. A cost effective setup is proposed where a laser is used as illumination source, which allows accurate high precision strain measurements. Thus, a sensitivity of ~7.96 dB/me was achieved in a linear region of 1,200 μe.

  18. Energy Data Base: Subject Thesaurus permutated listing. Revision 6, Appendix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redford, J.S. (ed.)

    1984-11-01

    The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, in its role of managing scientific and technical information in support of DOE programs, develops and maintains a standardized vocabulary for indexing this information. This permutated listing, an appendix to the Energy Data Base: Subject Thesaurus (DOE/TIC-7000-R6), has been prepared to alleviate the problems of entry to a large multidisciplinary thesaurus containing both single and multiword descriptors. It is designed to be used in conjunction with the Subject Thesaurus and is not to be used alone.

  19. A Remote-Controlled Airbag Device Can Improve Upper Airway Collapsibility by Producing Head Elevation With Jaw Closure in Normal Subjects Under Propofol Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaka, Satoru; Moromugi, Shunji; Kobayashi, Masato; Kajihara, Hiroki; Koga, Kazuya; Sugahara, Hirofumi; Ishimatsu, Takakazu; Kurata, Shinji; Kirkness, Jason P; Oi, Kumiko; Ayuse, Takao

    2014-01-01

    Continuous maintenance of an appropriate position of the mandible and head purely by manual manipulation is difficult, although the maneuver can restore airway patency during sleep and anesthesia. The aim of this paper was to examine the effect of head elevation with jaw closure using a remote-controlled airbag device, such as the airbag system, on passive upper airway collapsibility during propofol anesthesia. Seven male subjects were studied. Propofol infusion was used for anesthesia induction and maintenance, with a target blood propofol concentration of 1.5-2 [Formula: see text]g/ml. Nasal mask pressure ([Formula: see text]) was intermittently reduced to evaluate upper airway collapsibility (passive [Formula: see text]) and upstream resistance ([Formula: see text]) at three different head and jaw positions, jaw opening position in the supine position, jaw opening position in the sniffing position with 6-cm head elevation, and jaw closure at a 6-cm height sniffing position. The 6-cm height sniffing position with jaw closure was achieved by an airbag device that was attached to the subject's head-like headgear. Patient demographics, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] in each condition were compared using one-way ANOVA with a post hoc Tukey test. [Formula: see text] was considered significant. We also confirmed the effects of our airbag device on improvement of upper airway collapsibility in three obstructive sleep apnea patients in a clinical study. The combination of 6-cm head elevation with jaw closure using the air-inflatable robotic airbag system decreased upper airway collapsibility ([Formula: see text]-cm H[Formula: see text]O) compared with the baseline position ([Formula: see text]-cm H[Formula: see text]O, [Formula: see text]). In the clinical study, there was improvement of upper airway obstruction in sleep apnea patients, including decreased apnea and hypopnea duration and increased the lowest level of oxygen saturation. We demonstrated that

  20. A new shampoo based on neem (Azadirachta indica) is highly effective against head lice in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heukelbach, Jörg; Oliveira, Fabíola A S; Speare, Richard

    2006-09-01

    Because topical compounds based on insecticidal chemicals are the mainstay of head lice treatment, but resistance is increasing, alternatives, such as herbs and oils are being sold to treat head lice. To test a commercial shampoo based on seed extract of Azadirachta indica (neem tree) for its in vitro effect, head lice (n=17) were collected from school children in Australia and immersed in Wash-Away Louse shampoo (Alpha-Biocare GmbH, Germany). Vitality was evaluated for more than 3 h by examination under a dissecting microscope. Positive and negative controls were a commercially available head lice treatment containing permethrin 1% (n=19) and no treatment (n=14). All lice treated with the neem shampoo did not show any vital signs from the initial examination after immersion at 5-30 min; after 3 h, only a single louse showed minor signs of life, indicated by gut movements, a mortality of 94%. In the permethrin group, mortality was 20% at 5 min, 50% at 15 min, and 74% after 3 h. All 14 head lice of the negative control group survived during the observation period. Our data show that Wash-Away Louse is highly effective in vitro against head lice. The neem shampoo was more effective than the permethrin-based product. We speculate that complex plant-based compounds will replace the well-defined chemical pediculicides if resistance to the commonly used products further increases.

  1. Effects of repeated snowboard exercise in virtual reality with time lags of visual scene behind body rotation on head stability and subjective slalom run performance in healthy young subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshiro; Nishiike, Suetaka; Kitahara, Tadashi; Yamanaka, Toshiaki; Imai, Takao; Ito, Taeko; Sato, Go; Matsuda, Kazunori; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Takeda, Noriaki

    2016-11-01

    After repeated snowboard exercises in the virtual reality (VR) world with increasing time lags in trials 3-8, it is suggested that the adaptation to repeated visual-vestibulosomatosensory conflict in the VR world improved dynamic posture control and motor performance in the real world without the development of motion sickness. The VR technology was used and the effects of repeated snowboard exercise examined in the VR world with time lags between visual scene and body rotation on the head stability and slalom run performance during exercise in healthy subjects. Forty-two healthy young subjects participated in the study. After trials 1 and 2 of snowboard exercise in the VR world without time lag, trials 3-8 were conducted with 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 s time lags of the visual scene that the computer creates behind board rotation, respectively. Finally, trial 9 was conducted without time lag. Head linear accelerations and subjective slalom run performance were evaluated. The standard deviations of head linear accelerations in inter-aural direction were significantly increased in trial 8, with a time lag of 0.6 s, but significantly decreased in trial 9 without a time lag, compared with those in trial 2 without a time lag. The subjective scores of slalom run performance were significantly decreased in trial 8, with a time lag of 0.6 s, but significantly increased in trial 9 without a time lag, compared with those in trial 2 without a time lag. Motion sickness was not induced in any subjects.

  2. List-Mode PET Motion Correction Using Markerless Head Tracking: Proof-of-Concept With Scans of Human Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Oline Vinter; Sullivan, Jenna M.; Mulnix, Tim

    2013-01-01

    was time-varying with long drift motions of up to 18 mm and regular step-wise motion of 1–6 mm. The evaluated measures were significantly better for motion-corrected images compared to no MC. The demonstrated system agreed with a commercial integrated system. Motion-corrected images were improved......A custom designed markerless tracking system was demonstrated to be applicable for positron emission tomography (PET) brain imaging. Precise head motion registration is crucial for accurate motion correction (MC) in PET imaging. State-of-the-art tracking systems applied with PET brain imaging rely...... on markers attached to the patient's head. The marker attachment is the main weakness of these systems. A healthy volunteer participating in a cigarette smoking study to image dopamine release was scanned twice for 2 h with $^{11}{\\rm C}$-racolopride on the high resolution research tomograph (HRRT) PET...

  3. Improving head and neck CTA with hybrid and model-based iterative reconstruction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesten, J M; van der Schaaf, I C; Vos, P C; Willemink, M J; Velthuis, B K

    2015-11-01

    To compare image quality of head and neck computed tomography angiography (CTA) reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP), hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MIR) algorithms. The raw data of 34 studies were simultaneously reconstructed with FBP, HIR (iDose(4), Philips Healthcare, Best, the Netherlands), and with a prototype version of a MIR algorithm (IMR, Philips Healthcare). Objective (contrast-to-noise ratio [CNR], vascular contrast, automatic vessel analysis [AVA], stenosis grade) and subjective image quality (ranking at level of the circle of Willis, carotid bifurcation, and shoulder) of the five reconstructions were compared using repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc analysis. Vascular contrast was significantly higher in both the circle of Willis and carotid bifurcation with both levels of MIR compared to the other reconstruction methods (all pHIR, mid HIR and FBP (pHIR; p>0.33). AVA showed most complete carotids in both MIR-levels, followed by high HIR (p>0.08), mid HIR (pHIR showed the best subjective image quality at the circle of Willis and carotid bifurcation level, followed by mid HIR. At shoulder level, low MIR and high HIR were ranked best, followed by high MIR. Objectively, MIR significantly improved the overall image quality, reduced image noise, and improved automated vessel analysis, whereas FBP showed the lowest objective image quality. Subjectively, the highest level of HIR was considered superior at the level of the circle of Willis and the carotid bifurcation, and along with the lowest level of MIR for the origins of the neck arteries at shoulder level. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Head-to-Head Linkage Containing Bithiophene-Based Polymeric Semiconductors for Highly Efficient Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shengbin; Liao, Qiaogan; Tang, Yumin; Guo, Han; Zhou, Xin; Wang, Yulun; Yang, Tingbin; Liang, Yongye; Cheng, Xing; Liu, Feng; Guo, Xugang

    2016-12-01

    Narrow bandgap (1.37-1.46 eV) polymers incorporating a head-to-head linkage containing 3-alkoxy-3'-alkyl-2,2'-bithiophene are synthesized. The head-to-head linkage enables polymers with sufficient solubility and the noncovalent sulfur-oxygen interaction affords polymers with high degree of backbone planarity and film ordering. When integrated into polymer solar cells, the polymers show a promising power conversion efficiency approaching 10%. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Enhancing improved heuristic drift elimination for step-and-heading based pedestrian dead-reckoning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Luis E; Bahillo, Alfonso; Bataineh, Safaa; Masegosa, Antonio D; Perallos, Asier

    2016-08-01

    Location based services can improve the quality of patient care and increase the efficiency of the healthcare systems. Among the different technologies that provide indoor positioning, inertial sensors based pedestrian dead-reckoning (PDR) is one of the more cost-effective solutions, but its performance is limited by drift problems. Regarding the heading drift, some heuristics make use of the building's dominant directions in order to reduce this problem. In this paper, we enhance the method known as improved heuristic drift elimination (iHDE) to be implemented in a Step-and-Heading (SHS) based PDR system, that allows to place the inertial sensors in almost any location of the user's body. Particularly, wrist-worn sensors will be used. Tests on synthetically generated and real data show that the iHDE method can be used in a SHS-based PDR without losing its heading drift reduction capability.

  6. Head-to-head comparison of adaptive statistical and model-based iterative reconstruction algorithms for submillisievert coronary CT angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Dominik C; Fuchs, Tobias A; Gräni, Christoph; Studer Bruengger, Annina A; Clerc, Olivier F; Mikulicic, Fran; Messerli, Michael; Stehli, Julia; Possner, Mathias; Pazhenkottil, Aju P; Gaemperli, Oliver; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Buechel, Ronny R

    2017-02-15

    Iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms allow for a significant reduction in radiation dose of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). We performed a head-to-head comparison of adaptive statistical IR (ASiR) and model-based IR (MBIR) algorithms to assess their impact on quantitative image parameters and diagnostic accuracy for submillisievert CCTA. CCTA datasets of 91 patients were reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP), increasing contributions of ASiR (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100%), and MBIR. Signal and noise were measured in the aortic root to calculate signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In a subgroup of 36 patients, diagnostic accuracy of ASiR 40%, ASiR 100%, and MBIR for diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) was compared with invasive coronary angiography. Median radiation dose was 0.21 mSv for CCTA. While increasing levels of ASiR gradually reduced image noise compared with FBP (up to - 48%, P ASiR (-59% compared with ASiR 100%; P ASiR 40% and ASiR 100% resulted in substantially lower diagnostic accuracy to detect CAD as diagnosed by invasive coronary angiography compared with MBIR: sensitivity and specificity were 100 and 37%, 100 and 57%, and 100 and 74% for ASiR 40%, ASiR 100%, and MBIR, respectively. MBIR offers substantial noise reduction with increased SNR, paving the way for implementation of submillisievert CCTA protocols in clinical routine. In contrast, inferior noise reduction by ASiR negatively affects diagnostic accuracy of submillisievert CCTA for CAD detection.

  7. Development of Head Injury Assessment Reference Values Based on NASA Injury Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Jeffrey T.; Melvin, John W.; Tabiei, Ala; Lawrence, Charles; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Granderson, Bradley; Feiveson, Alan; Gernhardt, Michael; Patalak, John

    2011-01-01

    NASA is developing a new capsule-based, crewed vehicle that will land in the ocean, and the space agency desires to reduce the risk of injury from impact during these landings. Because landing impact occurs for each flight and the crew might need to perform egress tasks, current injury assessment reference values (IARV) were deemed insufficient. Because NASCAR occupant restraint systems are more effective than the systems used to determine the current IARVs and are similar to NASA s proposed restraint system, an analysis of NASCAR impacts was performed to develop new IARVs that may be more relevant to NASA s context of vehicle landing operations. Head IARVs associated with race car impacts were investigated by completing a detailed analysis of all of the 2002-2008 NASCAR impact data. Specific inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to select 4071 impacts from the 4015 recorder files provided (each file could contain multiple impact events). Of the 4071 accepted impacts, 274 were selected for numerical simulation using a custom NASCAR restraint system and Humanetics Hybrid-III 50th percentile numerical dummy model in LS-DYNA. Injury had occurred in 32 of the 274 selected impacts, and 27 of those injuries involved the head. A majority of the head injuries were mild concussions with or without brief loss of consciousness. The 242 non-injury impacts were randomly selected and representative of the range of crash dynamics present in the total set of 4071 impacts. Head dynamics data (head translational acceleration, translational change in velocity, rotational acceleration, rotational velocity, HIC-15, HIC-36, and the Head 3ms clip) were filtered according to SAE J211 specifications and then transformed to a log scale. The probability of head injury was estimated using a separate logistic regression analysis for each log-transformed predictor candidate. Using the log transformation constrains the estimated probability of injury to become negligible as IARVs approach

  8. Alcohol-associated acute head trauma in human subjects is associated with early deficits in serum ionized Mg and Ca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altura, B M; Memon, Z S; Altura, B T; Cracco, R Q

    1995-01-01

    Acute head trauma (AHT) (caused by motor vehicle accidents that did not produce loss of consciousness or observed brain lesions on CT scan, or falls) was found to result in early (1-8 h after injury) serum deficits in ionized magnesium (IMg2+) and ionized calcium (ICa2+) assessed with ion-selective electrodes (ISEs). Total Mg (TMg) and other electrolytes as well as serum biochemical analytes were all within the normal reference ranges. AHT patients with acute alcohol intoxication (BAC > or = 150 mg/dl) or alcohol abuse (BAC > 200 mg/dl) demonstrated deficits (15-35% less than normal) in IMg2+, but serum TMg levels were normal as were electrolytes and serum biochemical analytes. AHT patients with alcohol intoxication or alcohol abuse required hospitalization for 1-3 days prior to release, whereas AHT patients without alcohol intoxication were released in less than 24 h. The ICa2+/IMg2+ ratio, a sign of increased vascular tone and vascular reactivity, was significantly elevated in AHT patients with alcohol intoxication but not in AHT patients without alcohol intoxication or abuse. These serum divalent cation changes early after traumatic brain injury could be of considerable practicable diagnostic value in the assessment of alcohol-associated head injury. Use of ion-selective electrodes to accurately measure IMg2+ could serve as a logical basis for monitoring the response of the body to AHT.

  9. Modelling of subject specific based segmental dynamics of knee joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, N. H. M.; Ibrahim, B. S. K. K.; Huq, M. S.; Ahmad, M. K. I.

    2017-09-01

    This study determines segmental dynamics parameters based on subject specific method. Five hemiplegic patients participated in the study, two men and three women. Their ages ranged from 50 to 60 years, weights from 60 to 70 kg and heights from 145 to 170 cm. Sample group included patients with different side of stroke. The parameters of the segmental dynamics resembling the knee joint functions measured via measurement of Winter and its model generated via the employment Kane's equation of motion. Inertial parameters in the form of the anthropometry can be identified and measured by employing Standard Human Dimension on the subjects who are in hemiplegia condition. The inertial parameters are the location of centre of mass (COM) at the length of the limb segment, inertia moment around the COM and masses of shank and foot to generate accurate motion equations. This investigation has also managed to dig out a few advantages of employing the table of anthropometry in movement biomechanics of Winter's and Kane's equation of motion. A general procedure is presented to yield accurate measurement of estimation for the inertial parameters for the joint of the knee of certain subjects with stroke history.

  10. Shoe preference based on subjective comfort for walking and running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Pui Wah; Bagdon, Miranda

    2010-01-01

    Subjective comfort of footwear is important for shoe and orthosis design. This study compared shoe preferences between walking and running, using subjective comfort as an outcome tool. Forty-one participants walked and ran 20 times each along a runway in three types of footwear (cushioning, lightweight, and stability) and chose the model that they preferred most for walking and running separately based on subjective comfort. More participants preferred the cushioning model (walking, 34%; running, 41%) or the lightweight model (walking, 44%; running, 41%) over the stability model (walking, 22%; running, 17%). χ² tests revealed no differences between walking and running, runners and nonrunners, and lighter and heavier individuals. Women were more likely (odds ratio = 4.09) to prefer the lightweight model, whereas men preferred the cushioning (odds ratio = 2.05) and stability (odds ratio = 3.19) models. Most participants (71%) chose the same model for both activities. Shoe preference varies among individuals and is influenced by sex. Most people feel comfortable walking and running in the same shoe model.

  11. Intracranial hemorrhage alters scalp potential distribution in bioimpedance cerebral monitoring: Preliminary results from FEM simulation on a realistic head model and human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atefi, Seyed Reza; Seoane, Fernando; Kamalian, Shervin; Rosenthal, Eric S; Lev, Michael H; Bonmassar, Giorgio

    2016-02-01

    Current diagnostic neuroimaging for detection of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is limited to fixed scanners requiring patient transport and extensive infrastructure support. ICH diagnosis would therefore benefit from a portable diagnostic technology, such as electrical bioimpedance (EBI). Through simulations and patient observation, the authors assessed the influence of unilateral ICH hematomas on quasisymmetric scalp potential distributions in order to establish the feasibility of EBI technology as a potential tool for early diagnosis. Finite element method (FEM) simulations and experimental left-right hemispheric scalp potential differences of healthy and damaged brains were compared with respect to the asymmetry caused by ICH lesions on quasisymmetric scalp potential distributions. In numerical simulations, this asymmetry was measured at 25 kHz and visualized on the scalp as the normalized potential difference between the healthy and ICH damaged models. Proof-of-concept simulations were extended in a pilot study of experimental scalp potential measurements recorded between 0 and 50 kHz with the authors' custom-made bioimpedance spectrometer. Mean left-right scalp potential differences recorded from the frontal, central, and parietal brain regions of ten healthy control and six patients suffering from acute/subacute ICH were compared. The observed differences were measured at the 5% level of significance using the two-sample Welch t-test. The 3D-anatomically accurate FEM simulations showed that the normalized scalp potential difference between the damaged and healthy brain models is zero everywhere on the head surface, except in the vicinity of the lesion, where it can vary up to 5%. The authors' preliminary experimental results also confirmed that the left-right scalp potential difference in patients with ICH (e.g., 64 mV) is significantly larger than in healthy subjects (e.g., 20.8 mV; P potential distributions. Pilot clinical observations with the authors

  12. A new head-mounted display-based augmented reality system in neurosurgical oncology: a study on phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutolo, Fabrizio; Meola, Antonio; Carbone, Marina; Sinceri, Sara; Cagnazzo, Federico; Denaro, Ennio; Esposito, Nicola; Ferrari, Mauro; Ferrari, Vincenzo

    2017-12-01

    Benefits of minimally invasive neurosurgery mandate the development of ergonomic paradigms for neuronavigation. Augmented Reality (AR) systems can overcome the shortcomings of commercial neuronavigators. The aim of this work is to apply a novel AR system, based on a head-mounted stereoscopic video see-through display, as an aid in complex neurological lesion targeting. Effectiveness was investigated on a newly designed patient-specific head mannequin featuring an anatomically realistic brain phantom with embedded synthetically created tumors and eloquent areas. A two-phase evaluation process was adopted in a simulated small tumor resection adjacent to Broca's area. Phase I involved nine subjects without neurosurgical training in performing spatial judgment tasks. In Phase II, three surgeons were involved in assessing the effectiveness of the AR-neuronavigator in performing brain tumor targeting on a patient-specific head phantom. Phase I revealed the ability of the AR scene to evoke depth perception under different visualization modalities. Phase II confirmed the potentialities of the AR-neuronavigator in aiding the determination of the optimal surgical access to the surgical target. The AR-neuronavigator is intuitive, easy-to-use, and provides three-dimensional augmented information in a perceptually-correct way. The system proved to be effective in guiding skin incision, craniotomy, and lesion targeting. The preliminary results encourage a structured study to prove clinical effectiveness. Moreover, our testing platform might be used to facilitate training in brain tumour resection procedures.

  13. Single-subject experimental design for evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byiers, Breanne J; Reichle, Joe; Symons, Frank J

    2012-11-01

    Single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs) represent an important tool in the development and implementation of evidence-based practice in communication sciences and disorders. The purpose of this article is to review the strategies and tactics of SSEDs and their application in speech-language pathology research. The authors discuss the requirements of each design, followed by advantages and disadvantages. The logic and methods for evaluating effects in SSED are reviewed as well as contemporary issues regarding data analysis with SSED data sets. Examples of challenges in executing SSEDs are included. Specific exemplars of how SSEDs have been used in speech-language pathology research are provided throughout. SSED studies provide a flexible alternative to traditional group designs in the development and identification of evidence-based practice in the field of communication sciences and disorders.

  14. Development and validation of a numerical model of the swine head subjected to open-field blasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, A.; Zhu, F.; Feng, K.; Saif, T.; Kallakuri, S.; Jin, X.; Yang, K.; King, A.

    2017-11-01

    A finite element model of the head of a 55-kg Yucatan pig was developed to calculate the incident pressure and corresponding intracranial pressure due to the explosion of 8 lb (3.63 kg) of C4 at three different distances. The results from the model were validated by comparing findings with experimentally obtained data from five pigs at three different blast overpressure levels: low (150 kPa), medium (275 kPa), and high (400 kPa). The peak values of intracranial pressures from numerical model at different locations of the brain such as the frontal, central, left temporal, right temporal, parietal, and occipital regions were compared with experimental values. The model was able to predict the peak pressure with reasonable percentage differences. The differences for peak incident and intracranial pressure values between the simulation results and the experimental values were found to be less than 2.2 and 29.3%, respectively, at all locations other than the frontal region. Additionally, a series of parametric studies shows that the intracranial pressure was very sensitive to sensor locations, the presence of air bubbles, and reflections experienced during the experiments. Further efforts will be undertaken to correlate the different biomechanical response parameters, such as the intracranial pressure gradient, stress, and strain results obtained from the validated model with injured brain locations once the histology data become available.

  15. Progress and challenges in the vaccine-based treatment of head and neck cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venuti Aldo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Head and neck (HN cancer represents one of the most challenging diseases because the mortality remains high despite advances in early diagnosis and treatment. Although vaccine-based approaches for the treatment of advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck have achieved limited clinical success, advances in cancer immunology provide a strong foundation and powerful new tools to guide current attempts to develop effective cancer vaccines. This article reviews what has to be rather what has been done in the field for the development of future vaccines in HN tumours.

  16. The Design of Variable Stiffness Massage head Based on Magnetorheological Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu ZhiCheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A controlled massage head is designed to vary the massage intensity rapidly. It bases on the property of magnetorheological fluid stiffness influenced by magnetic field. In this paper, we draw on relevant methods, design electromagnetic structures with numerical analysis software. The method of positive and negative current with permanent magnet compensation is presented to achieve a bigger range of magnetic field strength adjustment. Further, the massage head prototype is manufactured and tested. The experiment data are processed and indicates the design of the magnetic field strength and massage strength can meet the requirements.

  17. p53 oncogene mutations in head and neck cancer based on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to study the p53 mutations in head and neck cancer, we explored the relationship between the different positions of the bases and the amino acids' physical and chemical properties. In this paper, the Euclidean distance (d) was defined. Furthermore, by using improved variation coefficient method, the Euclidean ...

  18. Detecting Probable Cheating during Online Assessments Based on Time Delay and Head Pose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chia Yuan; Craig, Scotty D.; Femiani, John

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of test takers' behaviors during online assessments to detect probable cheating incidents. Specifically, this study focused on the role of time delay and head pose for detection of cheating incidences in a lab-based online testing session. The analysis of a test taker's behavior indicated that not only time…

  19. An Estimator for Attitude and Heading Reference Systems Based on Virtual Horizontal Reference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yunlong; Soltani, Mohsen; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar

    2016-01-01

    The output of the attitude determination systems suffers from large errors in case of accelerometer malfunctions. In this paper, an attitude estimator, based on Virtual Horizontal Reference (VHR), is designed for an Attitude Heading and Reference System (AHRS) to cope with this problem. The VHR m...

  20. Improving head and neck CTA with hybrid and model-based iterative reconstruction techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesten, J. M.; van der Schaaf, I. C.; Vos, P. C.; Willemink, MJ; Velthuis, B. K.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare image quality of head and neck computed tomography angiography (CTA) reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP), hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR) and model-based iterative reconstruction (MIR) algorithms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The raw data of 34 studies were

  1. Learning-based scan plane identification from fetal head ultrasound images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Annangi, Pavan; Gupta, Mithun; Yu, Bing; Padfield, Dirk; Banerjee, Jyotirmoy; Krishnan, Kajoli

    2012-03-01

    Acquisition of a clinically acceptable scan plane is a pre-requisite for ultrasonic measurement of anatomical features from B-mode images. In obstetric ultrasound, measurement of gestational age predictors, such as biparietal diameter and head circumference, is performed at the level of the thalami and cavum septum pelucidi. In an accurate scan plane, the head can be modeled as an ellipse, the thalami looks like a butterfly, the cavum appears like an empty box and the falx is a straight line along the major axis of a symmetric ellipse inclined either parallel to or at small angles to the probe surface. Arriving at the correct probe placement on the mother's belly to obtain an accurate scan plane is a task of considerable challenge especially for a new user of ultrasound. In this work, we present a novel automated learning-based algorithm to identify an acceptable fetal head scan plane. We divide the problem into cranium detection and a template matching to capture the composite "butterfly" structure present inside the head, which mimics the visual cues used by an expert. The algorithm uses the stateof- the-art Active Appearance Models techniques from the image processing and computer vision literature and tie them to presence or absence of the inclusions within the head to automatically compute a score to represent the goodness of a scan plane. This automated technique can be potentially used to train and aid new users of ultrasound.

  2. Resting-state networks in healthy adult subjects: a comparison between a 32-element and an 8-element phased array head coil at 3.0 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, Marco; Keeser, Daniel; Ingrisch, Michael; Werner, Natalie; Kindermann, Nicole; Reiser, Maximilian; Blautzik, Janusch

    2015-05-01

    Little research exists on the influence of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) head coil's channel count on measured resting-state functional connectivity. To compare a 32-element (32ch) and an 8-element (8ch) phased array head coil with respect to their potential to detect functional connectivity within resting-state networks. Twenty-six healthy adults (mean age, 21.7 years; SD, 2.1 years) underwent resting-state functional MRI at 3.0 Tesla with both coils using equal standard imaging parameters and a counterbalanced design. Independent component analysis (ICA) at different model orders and a dual regression approach were performed. Voxel-wise non-parametric statistical between-group contrasts were determined using permutation-based non-parametric inference. Phantom measurements demonstrated a generally higher image signal-to-noise ratio using the 32ch head coil. However, the results showed no significant differences between corresponding resting-state networks derived from both coils (p coil does not offer any significant advantages in detecting ICA-based functional connectivity within RSNs. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. Improving Therapeutic Ratio in Head and Neck Cancer with Adjuvant and Cisplatin-Based Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana G. Marcu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced head and neck cancers are difficult to manage despite the large treatment arsenal currently available. The multidisciplinary effort to increase disease-free survival and diminish normal tissue toxicity was rewarded with better locoregional control and sometimes fewer side effects. Nevertheless, locoregional recurrence is still one of the main reasons for treatment failure. Today, the standard of care in head and neck cancer management is represented by altered fractionation radiotherapy combined with platinum-based chemotherapy. Targeted therapies as well as chronotherapy were trialled with more or less success. The aim of the current work is to review the available techniques, which could contribute towards a higher therapeutic ratio in the treatment of advanced head and neck cancer patients.

  4. NUI framework based on real-time head pose estimation and hand gesture recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hyunduk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural user interface (NUI is used for the natural motion interface without using device or tool such as mice, keyboards, pens and markers. In this paper, we develop natural user interface framework based on two recognition module. First module is real-time head pose estimation module using random forests and second module is hand gesture recognition module, named Hand gesture Key Emulation Toolkit (HandGKET. Using the head pose estimation module, we can know where the user is looking and what the user’s focus of attention is. Moreover, using the hand gesture recognition module, we can also control the computer using the user’s hand gesture without mouse and keyboard. In proposed framework, the user’s head direction and hand gesture are mapped into mouse and keyboard event, respectively.

  5. Integrated Curriculum and Subject-based Curriculum: Achievement and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casady, Victoria

    The research conducted for this mixed-method study, qualitative and quantitative, analyzed the results of an academic year-long study to determine whether the use of an integrated fourth grade curriculum would benefit student achievement in the areas of English language arts, social studies, and science more than a subject-based traditional curriculum. The research was conducted based on the international, national, and state test scores, which show a slowing or lack of growth. Through pre- and post-assessments, student questionnaires, and administrative interviews, the researcher analyzed the phenomenological experiences of the students to determine if the integrated curriculum was a beneficial restructuring of the curriculum. The research questions for this study focused on the achievement and attitudes of the students in the study and whether the curriculum they were taught impacted their achievement and attitudes over the course of one school year. The curricula for the study were organized to cover the current standards, where the integrated curriculum focused on connections between subject areas to help students make connections to what they are learning and the world beyond the classroom. The findings of this study indicated that utilizing the integrated curriculum could increase achievement as well as students' attitudes toward specific content areas. The ANOVA analysis for English language arts was not determined to be significant; although, greater growth in the students from the integrated curriculum setting was recorded. The ANOVA for social studies (0.05) and the paired t-tests (0.001) for science both determined significant positive differences. The qualitative analysis led to the discovery that the experiences of the students from the integrated curriculum setting were more positive. The evaluation of the data from this study led the researcher to determine that the integrated curriculum was a worthwhile endeavor to increase achievement and attitudes

  6. An Orientation Sensor-Based Head Tracking System for Driver Behaviour Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Zhao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Although at present legislation does not allow drivers in a Level 3 autonomous vehicle to engage in a secondary task, there may become a time when it does. Monitoring the behaviour of drivers engaging in various non-driving activities (NDAs is crucial to decide how well the driver will be able to take over control of the vehicle. One limitation of the commonly used face-based head tracking system, using cameras, is that sufficient features of the face must be visible, which limits the detectable angle of head movement and thereby measurable NDAs, unless multiple cameras are used. This paper proposes a novel orientation sensor based head tracking system that includes twin devices, one of which measures the movement of the vehicle while the other measures the absolute movement of the head. Measurement error in the shaking and nodding axes were less than 0.4°, while error in the rolling axis was less than 2°. Comparison with a camera-based system, through in-house tests and on-road tests, showed that the main advantage of the proposed system is the ability to detect angles larger than 20° in the shaking and nodding axes. Finally, a case study demonstrated that the measurement of the shaking and nodding angles, produced from the proposed system, can effectively characterise the drivers’ behaviour while engaged in the NDAs of chatting to a passenger and playing on a smartphone.

  7. Objective and subjective image quality of primary and recurrent squamous cell carcinoma on head and neck low-tube-voltage 80-kVp computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholtz, Jan-Erik; Kaup, Moritz; Kraft, Johannes; Noeske, Eva-Maria; Schulz, Boris; Burck, Iris; Kerl, J.M.; Bauer, Ralf W.; Lehnert, Thomas; Vogl, Thomas J.; Wichmann, Julian L. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Scheerer, Friedrich [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Cranio-Maxillofacial and Plastic Facial Surgery, Frankfurt (Germany); Wagenblast, Jens [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2015-03-26

    To investigate low-tube-voltage 80-kVp computed tomography (CT) of head and neck primary and recurrent squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) regarding objective and subjective image quality. We retrospectively evaluated 65 patients (47 male, 18 female; mean age: 62.1 years) who underwent head and neck dual-energy CT (DECT) due to biopsy-proven primary (n = 50) or recurrent (n = 15) SCC. Eighty peak kilovoltage and standard blended 120-kVp images were compared. Attenuation and noise of malignancy and various soft tissue structures were measured. Tumor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. Subjective image quality was rated by three reviewers using 5-point grading scales regarding overall image quality, lesion delineation, image sharpness, and image noise. Radiation dose was assessed as CT dose index volume (CTDI{sub vol}). Interobserver agreement was calculated using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Mean tumor attenuation (153.8 Hounsfield unit (HU) vs. 97.1 HU), SNR (10.7 vs. 8.3), CNR (8.1 vs. 4.8), and subjective tumor delineation (score, 4.46 vs. 4.13) were significantly increased (all P < 0.001) with 80-kVp acquisition compared to standard blended 120-kVp images. Noise of all measured structures was increased in 80-kVp acquisition (P < 0.001). Overall interobserver agreement was good (ICC, 0.86; 95 % confidence intervals: 0.82-0.89). CTDI{sub vol} was reduced by 48.7 % with 80-kVp acquisition compared to standard DECT (4.85 ± 0.51 vs. 9.94 ± 0.81 mGy cm, P < 0.001). Head and neck CT with low-tube-voltage 80-kVp acquisition provides increased tumor delineation, SNR, and CNR for CT imaging of primary and recurrent SCC compared to standard 120-kVp acquisition with an accompanying significant reduction of radiation exposure. (orig.)

  8. Scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment, albumin and transferrin for nutritional assessment of gastrostomy fed head or neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correira Pereira, Marta Alexandra; Santos, Carla Adriana; Almeida Brito, José; Fonseca, Jorge

    2014-02-01

    Gastrostomy fed head or neck cancer patients frequently have impaired speech capacities. Enteral feeding teams frequently depend on laboratorial or anthropometrical parameters for nutritional assessment. In these patients, this study aimed to evaluate: (1) the practicability of Scored - Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA); (2) their nutritional status using the Scored-PG-SGA; (3) association of serum albumin and transferrin values to the nutritional status rating using PG-SGA. On adult outpatients with head or neck cancer under prolonged (> 1 month) gastrostomy feeding, Scored-PGSGA, albumin and transferrin were evaluated during the same appointment. Scored-PG-SGA was easily feasible in 42 patients, even in patients with speech difficulties. Twenty-five patients were moderately/severely undernourished (PG-SGA/B+C). Scored-PG-SGA rated 41 patients as ≥ 2, thus needing nutritional/ pharmacologic intervention. Albumin was low in 13 patients. Transferrin was low in 19 patients. Average albumin and transferrin in moderately/severely undernourished patients (PG-SGA/B+C) was significantly lower than in well-nourished (PG-SGA/A). There was association between Scored- PG-SGA rating, albumin and transferrin. In PEG fed head or neck cancer patients, PGSGA was practicable and useful, even in patients with impaired speaking skills. Most patients displayed moderate/severe malnutrition (PG-SGA/B+C). Scored-PG-SGA rated 41 patients as needing for nutritional/pharmacological intervention. Scored-PG-SGA should be systematically included in the evaluation of these patients. In these patients, albumin and transferrin levels showed relation with Scored-PG-SGA and should be considered as nutritional biomarkers. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. Maternal antecedents of infants with abnormal head sizes in southwest Nigeria: A community-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolajoko O Olusanya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the socio-demographic antecedents and pregnancy-related history of infants with abnormal head sizes in a developing country. Materials and Methods: An observational study of mother-infant pairs attending routine immunization clinics in an inner-city community in Lagos, Nigeria. Age and gender-specific head circumference was determined with the current Child Growth Standards of the World Health Organization (WHO. Factors independently associated with any abnormal head size (z-score 2SD, based on the adjusted odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI, were explored with multiple logistic regression analyses. Results: Of the 5731 mothers studied, 730 (12.7% had an offspring with an abnormal head size. In the final regression model, teenage mothers (OR:1.86; CI:1.26 - 2.75, mothers with primary or no education (OR:1.65; P = 0.007, multiple pregnancies (OR:3.88; CI:2.53 - 5.95, and delivery in either private hospitals (OR:1.54; CI:1.22 - 1.95 or residential homes (OR:1.50; CI:1.05 - 2.14, compared to government hospitals, were significantly more likely to have offsprings with abnormal head sizes. Conclusions: Community-oriented public health education, targeting prospective mothers with multiple pregnancies, teenage girls, and women with little or no formal education on the potential risk of delivery outside public hospitals, may curtail the burden of abnormal head size of their offspring and reduce the pressure on the already overstretched rehabilitation services in resource-poor countries.

  10. Assessment of model-based image-matching for future reconstruction of unhelmeted sport head impact kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Gregory J; Joodaki, Hamed; Krosshaug, Tron; Forman, Jason L; Crandall, Jeff R; Simms, Ciaran K

    2017-02-28

    Player-to-player contact inherent in many unhelmeted sports means that head impacts are a frequent occurrence. Model-Based Image-Matching (MBIM) provides a technique for the assessment of three-dimensional linear and rotational motion patterns from multiple camera views of a head impact event, but the accuracy is unknown for this application. The goal of this study is to assess the accuracy of the MBIM method relative to reflective marker-based motion analysis data for estimating six degree of freedom head displacements and velocities in a staged pedestrian impact scenario at 40 km/h. Results showed RMS error was under 20 mm for all linear head displacements and 0.01-0.04 rad for head rotations. For velocities, the MBIM method yielded RMS errors between 0.42 and 1.29 m/s for head linear velocities and 3.53-5.38 rad/s for angular velocities. This method is thus beneficial as a tool to directly measure six degree of freedom head positional data from video of sporting head impacts, but velocity data is less reliable. MBIM data, combined in future with velocity/acceleration data from wearable sensors could be used to provide input conditions and evaluate the outputs of multibody and finite element head models for brain injury assessment of sporting head impacts.

  11. Effects of 45-day -6° head-down bed rest on the time-based prospective memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, SiYi; Zhou, RenLai; Xiu, LiChao; Chen, ShanGuang; Chen, XiaoPing; Tan, Cheng

    2013-03-01

    The research explored the effects of 45-day -6° head-down bed rest (HDBR) simulation of microgravity on the time-based prospective memory (PM) with 16 males. The time-based prospective memory task was performed on the 2nd day before HDBR, on the 11th, 20th, 32nd, and 40th days during HDBR, and on the 8th day after HDBR, and subjects' anxiety and depression feelings were recorded simultaneously using Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The results demonstrated that it showed decreased accuracy of PM responses and frequency of clock checks during and after bed rest; long term bed rest did not induce significant emotional changes. The deficit of prospective memory performance induced by long term HDBR may result from a lack of aerobic physical activity or changes in the prefrontal cortex, but it remains to be determined.

  12. Specialize or risk disappearance - empirical evidence of anisomerism based on comparative and developmental studies of gnathostome head and limb musculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Rui; Ziermann, Janine M; Linde-Medina, Marta

    2015-08-01

    William K. Gregory was one of the most influential authors defending the existence of an evolutionary trend in vertebrates from a higher degree of polyisomerism (more polyisomeric or 'serial' anatomical structures arranged along any body axis) to cases of anisomerism (specialization or loss of at least some original polyisomeric structures). Anisomerism was the subject of much interest during the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries, particularly due to the influence of the Romantic German School and the notion of 'primitive archetype' and because it was conceptually linked to other crucial biological issues (e.g. complexity, scala naturae, progress, modularity or phenotypic integration). However, discussions on anisomerism and related issues (e.g. Williston's law) have been almost exclusively based on hard tissues. Here we provide the first detailed empirical test, and discussion, of anisomerism based on quantitative data obtained from phylogenetic and comparative analyses of the head and forelimb muscles of gnathostomes. Our results strongly support the existence of such a trend in both forelimb and head musculature. For instance, the last common ancestor (LCA) of extant tetrapods likely had 38 polyisomeric muscles (PMs) out of a total of 70 forelimb muscles (i.e. 54%), whereas in the LCAs of extant amniotes and of mammals these numbers were 38/73 (52%) and 21/67 (31%), and in humans are 11/59 (19%). Interestingly, the number of PMs that became specialized during the forelimb evolutionary transition from the LCA of extant tetrapods to humans (13) is very similar to the number of PMs that became lost (14), indicating that both specialization and loss contributed equally to the trend towards anisomerism. By contrast, during the evolution of the head musculature from the LCA of gnathostomes to humans a total of 27 PMs were lost whereas only one muscle became specialized. Importantly, the evolutionary trend towards anisomerism is not related to a general

  13. The IBM HeadTracking Pointer: improvements in vision-based pointer control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldsen, Rick

    2008-07-01

    Vision-based head trackers have been around for some years and are even beginning to be commercialized, but problems remain with respect to usability. Users without the ability to use traditional pointing devices--the intended audience of such systems--have no alternative if the automatic bootstrapping process fails. There is room for improvement in face tracking, and the pointer movement dynamics do not support accurate and efficient pointing. This paper describes the IBM HeadTracking Pointer, a system which attempts to directly address some of these issues. Head gestures are used to provide the end user a greater level of autonomous control over the system. A novel face-tracking algorithm reduces drift under variable lighting conditions, allowing the use of absolute, rather than relative, pointer positioning. Most importantly, the pointer dynamics have been designed to take into account the constraints of head-based pointing, with a non-linear gain which allows stability in fine pointer movement, high speed on long transitions and adjustability to support users with different movement dynamics. User studies have identified some difficulties with training the system and some characteristics of the pointer motion that take time to get used to, but also good user feedback and very promising performance results.

  14. Reduced Sympathetic Response to Head-Up Tilt in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment or Mild Alzheimer's Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marte Rognstad Mellingsæter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemodynamic control was compared in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI or mild Alzheimer's dementia (AD as well as in healthy elderly subjects. Methods: Noninvasive, continuous hemodynamic recordings were obtained from 14 patients and 48 controls during supine rest (tilt of 30 and 70°. Cardiac output, end-diastolic volume, total peripheral resistance, heart rate variability (HRV, systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV, and baroreceptor sensitivity were calculated. Results: At 70° tilt, the HRV indices differed significantly, with higher high-frequency (HF variability as well as lower low-frequency (LF variability and LF/HF ratios in the patients. The patients had significantly lower SBPV in the LF range at 30° tilt. Conclusions: The results indicate a poorer sympathetic response to orthostatic stress in MCI and mild AD.

  15. Analysis by NASA's VESGEN Software of Retinal Blood Vessels in Human Subjects Undergoing Head-Down Tilt During 70-Day Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Ruchi J.; Murray, Matthew C.; Predovic, Marina; Lim, Shiyin; Askin, Kayleigh N.; Vizzeri, Gianmarco; Taibbi, Giovanni; Mason, Sara Stroble; Zanello, Susana B.; Young, Millenia; hide

    2017-01-01

    Significant risks for visual impairment associated with increased intracranial pressure (VIIP) are incurred by microgravity spaceflight, especially long-duration missions [1]. We hypothesize that microgravity-induced fluid shifts result in pathological changes within blood vessels of the retina that precede development of visual and other ocular impairments. Potential contributions of retinal vascular remodeling to VIIP etiology are therefore being investigated for two studies in 30deg infrared (IR) Heidelberg Spectralis(Registered Trademark) images with NASA's innovative VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) software [2,3]. The retrospective studies include: (1) before, during and after (pre, mid and post) 6º head-down tilt (HDT) in human subjects during 70 days of bed rest, and (2) before and after missions to the International Space Station (ISS) by U.S. crew members. Results for both studies are almost complete. A preliminary example for HDT is described below.

  16. Citation Analysis using the Medline Database at the Web of Knowledge: Searching "Times Cited" with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2012-01-01

    Citation analysis of documents retrieved from the Medline database (at the Web of Knowledge) has been possible only on a case-by-case basis. A technique is here developed for citation analysis in batch mode using both Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) at the Web of Knowledge and the Science Citation Index at the Web of Science. This freeware routine is applied to the case of "Brugada Syndrome," a specific disease and field of research (since 1992). The journals containing these publications are attributed to Web-of-Science Categories other than "Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems"), perhaps because of the possibility of genetic testing for this syndrome in the clinic. With this routine, all the instruments available for citation analysis can be used on the basis of MeSH terms.

  17. An Evidence-Based Discussion of Heading the Ball and Concussions in High School Soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, R Dawn; Currie, Dustin W; Pierpoint, Lauren A; Grubenhoff, Joseph A; Fields, Sarah K

    2015-09-01

    Soccer, originally introduced as a safer sport for children and adolescents, has seen a rapid increase in popularity in the United States over the past 3 decades. Recently, concerns have been raised regarding the safety of soccer ball heading (when an athlete attempts to play the ball in the air with his or her head) given the rise in concussion rates, with some calling for a ban on heading among soccer players younger than 14 years. To evaluate trends over time in boys' and girls' soccer concussions, to identify injury mechanisms commonly leading to concussions, to delineate soccer-specific activities during which most concussions occur, to detail heading-related soccer concussion mechanisms, and to compare concussion symptom patterns by injury mechanism. Retrospective analysis of longitudinal surveillance data collected from 2005-2006 through 2013-2014 in a large, nationally representative sample of US high schools. Participants were boys and girls who were high school soccer players. Concussions sustained during high school-sanctioned soccer games and practices. Mechanism and sport-specific activity of concussion. Overall, 627 concussions were sustained during 1,393,753 athlete exposures (AEs) among girls (4.50 concussions per 10,000 AEs), and 442 concussions were sustained during 1,592,238 AEs among boys (2.78 concussions per 10,000 AEs). For boys (68.8%) and girls (51.3%), contact with another player was the most common concussion mechanism. Heading was the most common soccer-specific activity, responsible for 30.6% of boys' concussions and 25.3% of girls' concussions. Contact with another player was the most common mechanism of injury in heading-related concussions among boys (78.1%) and girls (61.9%). There were few differences in concussion symptom patterns by injury mechanism. Although heading is the most common activity associated with concussions, the most frequent mechanism was athlete-athlete contact. Such information is needed to drive evidence-based

  18. A Novel Cluster Head Selection Algorithm Based on Fuzzy Clustering and Particle Swarm Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Qingjian; Pan, Qianqian; Du, Huimin; Cao, Cen; Zhai, Yuqing

    2017-01-01

    An important objective of wireless sensor network is to prolong the network life cycle, and topology control is of great significance for extending the network life cycle. Based on previous work, for cluster head selection in hierarchical topology control, we propose a solution based on fuzzy clustering preprocessing and particle swarm optimization. More specifically, first, fuzzy clustering algorithm is used to initial clustering for sensor nodes according to geographical locations, where a sensor node belongs to a cluster with a determined probability, and the number of initial clusters is analyzed and discussed. Furthermore, the fitness function is designed considering both the energy consumption and distance factors of wireless sensor network. Finally, the cluster head nodes in hierarchical topology are determined based on the improved particle swarm optimization. Experimental results show that, compared with traditional methods, the proposed method achieved the purpose of reducing the mortality rate of nodes and extending the network life cycle.

  19. Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Geri

    2000-01-01

    Discusses an art project in which students created drawings of mop heads. Explains that the approach of drawing was more important than the subject. States that the students used the chiaroscuro technique, used by Rembrandt and Caravaggio, in which light appears out of the darkness. (CMK)

  20. Comparison of complementary and Kalman filter based data fusion for attitude heading reference system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Tariqul; Islam, Md. Saiful; Shajid-Ul-Mahmud, Md.; Hossam-E-Haider, Md

    2017-12-01

    An Attitude Heading Reference System (AHRS) provides 3D orientation of an aircraft (roll, pitch, and yaw) with instantaneous position and also heading information. For implementation of a low cost AHRS system Micro-electrical-Mechanical system (MEMS) based sensors are used such as accelerometer, gyroscope, and magnetometer. Accelerometers suffer from errors caused by external accelerations that sums to gravity and make accelerometers based rotation inaccurate. Gyroscopes can remove such errors but create drifting problems. So for getting the precise data additionally two very common and well known filters Complementary and Kalman are introduced to the system. In this paper a comparison of system performance using these two filters is shown separately so that one would be able to select filter with better performance for his/her system.

  1. Design of video surveillance and tracking system based on attitude and heading reference system and PTZ camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Xie, Xiaofang; Wang, Yan

    2017-04-01

    Based on the AHRS (Attitude and Heading Reference System) and PTZ (Pan/Tilt/Zoom) camera, we designed a video monitoring and tracking system. The overall structure of the system and the software design are given. The key technologies such as serial port communication and head attitude tracking are introduced, and the codes of the key part are given.

  2. Modeling karst spring hydrograph recession based on head drop at sinkholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangquan; Goldscheider, Nico; Field, Malcolm S.

    2016-11-01

    Spring discharge often responds to rainfall with a rapid increase followed by a slower recession, and the mode of recession is often exponential-like. We propose a new model of the response of spring discharge to rainfall based on the square law for turbulent conduit flow. The new non-exponential model is compared against the exponential model under specific constraints. A hydrograph of St. Marks River in Florida is used to illustrate that when the change in ;sinkhole head; (defined as the hydraulic head at the upstream end of the karst conduit connected to the spring) is relatively small, the solution of the new model is close to that of the exponential model, which extends the validity and application of the exponential solution. When the change in sinkhole head is very large, the solutions from the two models clearly differ from each other. Limitations of the non-exponential model are analyzed by simulation of a hydrograph observed downstream of Wakulla Springs. It is concluded that both solutions are applicable when spring response is smaller than or comparable to the base flow, but are nonphysical when the response is much larger than the base discharge.

  3. Cited references and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) as two different knowledge representations: clustering and mappings at the paper level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leydesdorff, Loet; Comins, Jordan A; Sorensen, Aaron A; Bornmann, Lutz; Hellsten, Iina

    2016-01-01

    For the biomedical sciences, the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) make available a rich feature which cannot currently be merged properly with widely used citing/cited data. Here, we provide methods and routines that make MeSH terms amenable to broader usage in the study of science indicators: using Web-of-Science (WoS) data, one can generate the matrix of citing versus cited documents; using PubMed/MEDLINE data, a matrix of the citing documents versus MeSH terms can be generated analogously. The two matrices can also be reorganized into a 2-mode matrix of MeSH terms versus cited references. Using the abbreviated journal names in the references, one can, for example, address the question whether MeSH terms can be used as an alternative to WoS Subject Categories for the purpose of normalizing citation data. We explore the applicability of the routines in the case of a research program about the amyloid cascade hypothesis in Alzheimer's disease. One conclusion is that referenced journals provide archival structures, whereas MeSH terms indicate mainly variation (including novelty) at the research front. Furthermore, we explore the option of using the citing/cited matrix for main-path analysis as a by-product of the software.

  4. PERBANDINGAN KEEFEKTIFAN ANTARA PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING SETTING NUMBERED HEAD TOGETHER DAN SETTING JIGSAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miftakhus Sholikhah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan: (1 keefektifan problem-based learning dengan setting model pembelajaran kooperatif tipe Numbered Head Together (PBL-NHT dan problem-based learning dengan setting model pembelajaran kooperatif tipe jigsaw; dan (2 pembelajaran yang lebih efektif antara PBL-NHT dan PBL-Jigsaw ditinjau dari prestasi belajar matematika, kemampuan berpikir kritis, dan disposisi matematis siswa kelas X SMA. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimen semu (quasi eksperimen, yang menggunakan rancangan pretest-postest non-equivalen multiple-group design. Instrumen yang digunakan adalah tes prestasi belajar matematika, tes kemampuan berpikir kritis, dan angket disposisi matematis. Data dianalisis menggunakan uji multivariat (MANOVA dan independent sample t-test. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kedua model pembelajaran ini efektif ditinjau dari kemampuan berpikir kritis dan disposisi matematis, tetapi tidak efektif ditinjau dari prestasi belajar matematika. PBL-Jigsaw lebih efektif dibandingkan PBL-NHT ditinjau dari disposisi matematis, tetapi tidak berbeda jika ditinjau dari kemampuan berpikir kritis matematis dan prestasi belajar matematika. Kata Kunci: problem-based learning, numbered head together, jigsaw, prestasi belajar matematika, kemampuan berpikir kritis, disposisi matematis   THE COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING OF NUMBERED HEAD TOGETHER AND THAT OF THE JIGSAW Abstract This study aims to describe: (1 the effectiveness of problem-based learning of the numbered head together (PBL-NHT type and that of jigsaw (PBL-Jigsaw type, and (2 the more effective teaching between PBL-NHT and PBL-Jigsaw in terms of learning achievement, critical thinking skills, and mathematics dispositions of class X students. This study was a quasi-experiment using a pretest-posttest with the non-equivalent multiple-group design. The instruments used were a math achievement test, critical thinking test, and

  5. Video-based eyetracking methods and algorithms in head-mounted displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Hong; Krishnaswamy, Prasanna; Rolland, Jannick P.

    2006-05-01

    Head pose is utilized to approximate a user’s line-of-sight for real-time image rendering and interaction in most of the 3D visualization applications using head-mounted displays (HMD). The eye often reaches an object of interest before the completion of most head movements. It is highly desirable to integrate eye-tracking capability into HMDs in various applications. While the added complexity of an eyetracked-HMD (ET-HMD) imposes challenges on designing a compact, portable, and robust system, the integration offers opportunities to improve eye tracking accuracy and robustness. In this paper, based on the modeling of an eye imaging and tracking system, we examine the challenges and identify parametric requirements for video-based pupil-glint tracking methods in an ET-HMD design, and predict how these parameters may affect the tracking accuracy, resolution, and robustness. We further present novel methods and associated algorithms that effectively improve eye-tracking accuracy and extend the tracking range.

  6. [Head masters' perception of school-based hostility in Alicante, Spain: a qualitative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Fernández, Carmen; Hernández-Aguado, Ildefonso; Torres Cantero, Alberto M

    2006-01-01

    There is growing social concern about school violence but little is known about how this situation is experienced in the schools. The objective of this study was to know the perception that School's head masters have of the school-based hostility, on their causes, how they value current preventive strategies, and their recommendations to develop future preventive interventions. We conducted an exploratory study with 14 semistructured interviews of School's head masters. Interviews were conducted at the Schools between May and June 2003 in 1 independent school, 9 state comprehensive schools, and 4 other comprehensive schools within the city of Alicante. The perception of the head masters is that the prevalence of violence is low, more verbal than physical and within gender. They identify lack of punctuality, absenteeism and lack of interest as forms of hostility. As causes they identified age, family problems, school environment, society, media (TV and video-games) and poor language skills. Preventive methods in use were, on one hand, extra-lessons and transversal contents foreseen in the Education Law and common to all schools, and, on the other hand, ideological and pedagogical contents which were specific of some centres. Recommendations focused in demands for increased economic support and skilled human resources. School-based violence is not perceived as an alarming school issue, nor by its magnitude neither by the immediate causes and students' characteristics to which it is associated. A heavier emphasis is placed on external and environmental causes perceived as much more difficult to confront.

  7. Cluster-based spectrum sensing for cognitive radios with imperfect channel to cluster-head

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Ghorbel, Mahdi

    2012-04-01

    Spectrum sensing is considered as the first and main step for cognitive radio systems to achieve an efficient use of spectrum. Cooperation and clustering among cognitive radio users are two techniques that can be employed with spectrum sensing in order to improve the sensing performance by reducing miss-detection and false alarm. In this paper, within the framework of a clustering-based cooperative spectrum sensing scheme, we study the effect of errors in transmitting the local decisions from the secondary users to the cluster heads (or the fusion center), while considering non-identical channel conditions between the secondary users. Closed-form expressions for the global probabilities of detection and false alarm at the cluster head are derived. © 2012 IEEE.

  8. Soya oil-based shampoo superior to 0.5% permethrin lotion for head louse infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Ian F; Kay, Katrina; Burgess, Nazma A; Brunton, Elizabeth R

    2011-01-01

    This was a randomized, assessor-blind, controlled comparison of a soya oil- based medical device shampoo with a medicinal permethrin lotion in an alcohol vehicle for treatment of head louse infestation to generate data suitable for a regulatory submission to achieve reimbursable status for the shampoo product. We treated 91 children and adults, divided between two sites, on two occasions 9 days apart. Participants washed their hair and towel-dried it before treatment. The shampoo was used twice for 30 minutes each time. The lotion was used for 30 minutes followed by rinsing. Assessments were made by dry detection combing on days 2, 9, 11, and 14 after the first treatment. According to present knowledge, this combing technique does not influence the overall head louse populations or outcome of treatment. The soya oil shampoo was significantly (P shampoo was more effective than the permethrin lotion, more cosmetically acceptable, and less irritant.

  9. Analytical network process based optimum cluster head selection in wireless sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farman, Haleem; Javed, Huma; Jan, Bilal; Ahmad, Jamil; Ali, Shaukat; Khalil, Falak Naz; Khan, Murad

    2017-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are becoming ubiquitous in everyday life due to their applications in weather forecasting, surveillance, implantable sensors for health monitoring and other plethora of applications. WSN is equipped with hundreds and thousands of small sensor nodes. As the size of a sensor node decreases, critical issues such as limited energy, computation time and limited memory become even more highlighted. In such a case, network lifetime mainly depends on efficient use of available resources. Organizing nearby nodes into clusters make it convenient to efficiently manage each cluster as well as the overall network. In this paper, we extend our previous work of grid-based hybrid network deployment approach, in which merge and split technique has been proposed to construct network topology. Constructing topology through our proposed technique, in this paper we have used analytical network process (ANP) model for cluster head selection in WSN. Five distinct parameters: distance from nodes (DistNode), residual energy level (REL), distance from centroid (DistCent), number of times the node has been selected as cluster head (TCH) and merged node (MN) are considered for CH selection. The problem of CH selection based on these parameters is tackled as a multi criteria decision system, for which ANP method is used for optimum cluster head selection. Main contribution of this work is to check the applicability of ANP model for cluster head selection in WSN. In addition, sensitivity analysis is carried out to check the stability of alternatives (available candidate nodes) and their ranking for different scenarios. The simulation results show that the proposed method outperforms existing energy efficient clustering protocols in terms of optimum CH selection and minimizing CH reselection process that results in extending overall network lifetime. This paper analyzes that ANP method used for CH selection with better understanding of the dependencies of

  10. Systematic analysis of head-to-head gene organization: evolutionary conservation and potential biological relevance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Yuan Li

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Several "head-to-head" (or "bidirectional" gene pairs have been studied in individual experiments, but genome-wide analysis of this gene organization, especially in terms of transcriptional correlation and functional association, is still insufficient. We conducted a systematic investigation of head-to-head gene organization focusing on structural features, evolutionary conservation, expression correlation and functional association. Of the present 1,262, 1,071, and 491 head-to-head pairs identified in human, mouse, and rat genomes, respectively, pairs with 1- to 400-base pair distance between transcription start sites form the majority (62.36%, 64.15%, and 55.19% for human, mouse, and rat,respectively of each dataset, and the largest group is always the one with a transcription start site distance of 101 to 200 base pairs. The phylogenetic analysis among Fugu, chicken, and human indicates a negative selection on the separation of head-to-head genes across vertebrate evolution, and thus the ancestral existence of this gene organization. The expression analysis shows that most of the human head-to-head genes are significantly correlated,and the correlation could be positive, negative, or alternative depending on the experimental conditions. Finally, head to-head genes statistically tend to perform similar functions, and gene pairs associated with the significant cofunctions seem to have stronger expression correlations. The findings indicate that the head-to-head gene organization is ancient and conserved, which subjects functionally related genes to correlated transcriptional regulation and thus provides an exquisite mechanism of transcriptional regulation based on gene organization. These results have significantly expanded the knowledge about head-to-head gene organization. Supplementary materials for this study are available at http://www.scbit.org/h2h.

  11. Optimal contracts based on subjective performance evaluations and reciprocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebald, Alexander Christopher; Walzl, Markus

    2015-01-01

    As demonstrated in a recent laboratory experiment (see Sebald & Walzl, 2014), individuals tend to sanction others who subjectively evaluate their performance whenever this assessment falls short of the individuals’ self-evaluation. Interestingly, this is the case even if the individuals’ earnings...... are unaffected by the subjective performance appraisal. Hence, performance feedback which falls short of agents’ self- evaluations can be interpreted as an unkind act that triggers a negatively reciprocal response not only if the assessment determines agents’ earnings but also when it lacks monetary consequences...

  12. Efficacy and Safety of a Mineral Oil-Based Head Lice Shampoo: A Randomized, Controlled, Investigator-Blinded, Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Luise; Eertmans, Frank; Wolf, Doerte; Rossel, Bart; Adriaens, Els

    2016-01-01

    Due to increased resistance and safety concerns with insecticide-based pediculicides, there is growing demand for head lice treatments with a physical mode of action. Certain mineral oils kill lice by blocking spiracles or by disrupting the epicuticular wax layer. The present study was performed to evaluate efficacy and safety of a mineral oil-based shampoo. This randomized, controlled, investigator-blinded, monocentric study (EudraCT registration no. 2014-002918-23) was performed from October 2014-June 2015 in Germany. A mineral oil shampoo (Mosquito® Med Läuse Shampoo 10 in Germany, Paranix or Silcap shampoo elsewhere), registered as medical device, was compared to a conventional, locally reimbursed, pyrethroid-based pediculicide (Goldgeist® Forte solution). In total, 107 patients (>1 year) with confirmed head lice infestation were included (test arm: n = 53; control arm: n = 54). All subjects received two applications of either test or control product at day 0 and day 7, according to the instructions for use. Efficacy and safety was evaluated directly, 1h and 24h after first application, before and after second treatment, and at day 10. The main objective was demonstrating a cure rate for the test product, being superior to 70% at day 10. Cure rates at day 10 (corrected for re-infestation) for the test product (96.1%) and control (94%) significantly exceeded the pre-defined target (70%) (p shampoo) can be safe and effective alternatives for insecticide-based pediculicides, with less risk for development of resistance because of the physical mode of action. German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS) DRKS00009753 and EudraCT database 2014-002918-23.

  13. Agent-based modeling of subjective well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baggio, J.; Papyrakis, E.

    2014-01-01

    There has been extensive empirical research in recent years pointing to a weak correlation between economic growth and subjective well-being (happiness), at least for developed economies (i.e. the so-called 'Easterlin paradox'). Recent findings from the behavioural sciences and happiness literature

  14. iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of the Initiation of Head Regeneration in Planarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xiaofang; Wang, Gaiping; Qin, Yanli; Zang, Xiayan; Li, Pengfei; Geng, Zhi; Xue, Deming; Dong, Zimei; Ma, Kexue; Chen, Guangwen; Xu, Cunshuan

    2015-01-01

    The planarian Dugesia japonica has amazing ability to regenerate a head from the anterior ends of the amputated stump with maintenance of the original anterior-posterior polarity. Although planarians present an attractive system for molecular investigation of regeneration and research has focused on clarifying the molecular mechanism of regeneration initiation in planarians at transcriptional level, but the initiation mechanism of planarian head regeneration (PHR) remains unclear at the protein level. Here, a global analysis of proteome dynamics during the early stage of PHR was performed using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomics strategy, and our data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002100. The results showed that 162 proteins were differentially expressed at 2 h and 6 h following amputation. Furthermore, the analysis of expression patterns and functional enrichment of the differentially expressed proteins showed that proteins involved in muscle contraction, oxidation reduction and protein synthesis were up-regulated in the initiation of PHR. Moreover, ingenuity pathway analysis showed that predominant signaling pathways such as ILK, calcium, EIF2 and mTOR signaling which were associated with cell migration, cell proliferation and protein synthesis were likely to be involved in the initiation of PHR. The results for the first time demonstrated that muscle contraction and ILK signaling might played important roles in the initiation of PHR at the global protein level. The findings of this research provide a molecular basis for further unraveling the mechanism of head regeneration initiation in planarians.

  15. How Ego-threats Facilitate Contracts Based on Subjective Evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebald, Alexander; Walzl, Markus

    We show that individuals' desire to protect their self-esteem against ego-threatening feedback can mitigate moral hazard in environments with purely subjective performance evaluations. In line with evidence from social psychology we assume that agents' react aggressively to evaluations by the pri......We show that individuals' desire to protect their self-esteem against ego-threatening feedback can mitigate moral hazard in environments with purely subjective performance evaluations. In line with evidence from social psychology we assume that agents' react aggressively to evaluations...... by the principal which do not coincide with their own positive self-perceptions and thereby generate costs of conflict for the principal. We identify conditions for a positive welfare effect of increasing costs of conflict or increasing sensitivity to ego-threats, and a negative welfare effect of a more...

  16. The Use of Single-Subject Research to Identify Evidence-Based Practice in Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Robert H.; Carr, Edward G.; Halle, James; McGee, Gail; Odom, Samuel; Wolery, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Single-subject research plays an important role in the development of evidence-based practice in special education. The defining features of single-subject research are presented, the contributions of single-subject research for special education are reviewed, and a specific proposal is offered for using single-subject research to document…

  17. Tesauros y listas de epígrafes: ¿hacia una integración? Thesauri and list of subject headings: towards an integration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Martínez

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan las semejanzas y diferencias entre los tesauros y las listas de epígrafes, tomando en cuenta el plan de revisión 2003 de la norma estadounidense Z39.19. Esta norma pretende establecer nuevas directrices para todo tipo de vocabulario controlado, en relación con su utilización con nuevas tecnologías. Se concluye que, en efecto, es muy importante revisar toda la normativa referida a los vocabularios controlados, particularmente las de alcance internacional, pero al mismo tiempo se hace necesario tener sumo cuidado en mantener un riguroso control de la terminología, una correcta definición de las relaciones jerárquicas y asociativas y promover la poscoordinación gestionada, en lo posible, mediante sistemas facetados y computarizados.The similarities and differences between thesauri and the lists of subject headings are analyzed, taking into account the work plan for the 2003 revision of the US standard Z39.19. This standard pretends to establish new guidelines for all types of controlled vocabulary in relation to their use with new technologies. We conclude that it is very important to review all the standards for controlled vocabulary, particularly those with international scope, but at the same time, it is necessary to be very careful in maintaining a rigorous control of terminology; a correct definition of hierarchical and associative relationships, and to promote the postcordination, managed, if possible, in faceted and computerized systems.

  18. Efficacy and Safety of a Mineral Oil-Based Head Lice Shampoo: A Randomized, Controlled, Investigator-Blinded, Comparative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luise Wolf

    Full Text Available Due to increased resistance and safety concerns with insecticide-based pediculicides, there is growing demand for head lice treatments with a physical mode of action. Certain mineral oils kill lice by blocking spiracles or by disrupting the epicuticular wax layer. The present study was performed to evaluate efficacy and safety of a mineral oil-based shampoo.This randomized, controlled, investigator-blinded, monocentric study (EudraCT registration no. 2014-002918-23 was performed from October 2014-June 2015 in Germany. A mineral oil shampoo (Mosquito® Med Läuse Shampoo 10 in Germany, Paranix or Silcap shampoo elsewhere, registered as medical device, was compared to a conventional, locally reimbursed, pyrethroid-based pediculicide (Goldgeist® Forte solution. In total, 107 patients (>1 year with confirmed head lice infestation were included (test arm: n = 53; control arm: n = 54. All subjects received two applications of either test or control product at day 0 and day 7, according to the instructions for use. Efficacy and safety was evaluated directly, 1h and 24h after first application, before and after second treatment, and at day 10. The main objective was demonstrating a cure rate for the test product, being superior to 70% at day 10.Cure rates at day 10 (corrected for re-infestation for the test product (96.1% and control (94% significantly exceeded the pre-defined target (70% (p < 0.001, 2-sided, 1-sample, chi-square test with confirmed non-inferiority for the test product. Over all visits, cure rates were consistently higher for the test product, whereas more initially-cured subjects remained lice-free until end of study (78%; control: 60%. Both products were safe and well tolerated, offering good esthetical effects.This study showed that substance-based medical devices (including the tested mineral oil shampoo can be safe and effective alternatives for insecticide-based pediculicides, with less risk for development of resistance because

  19. A Semantics-based Communication System for Dysphasic Subjects

    CERN Document Server

    Vaillant, P

    1997-01-01

    Dysphasic subjects do not have complete linguistic abilities and only produce a weakly structured, topicalized language. They are offered artificial symbolic languages to help them communicate in a way more adapted to their linguistic abilities. After a structural analysis of a corpus of utterances from children with cerebral palsy, we define a semantic lexicon for such a symbolic language. We use it as the basis of a semantic analysis process able to retrieve an interpretation of the utterances. This semantic analyser is currently used in an application designed to convert iconic languages into natural language; it might find other uses in the field of language rehabilitation.

  20. Acoustical simulation based on head-tracked auralization and measured high-resolution head related transfer function (HRTF) and impulse responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnert, Wolfgang; Feistel, Stefan; Moldrzyk, Christoph

    2004-10-01

    A very desirable feature of modern acoustical simulation programs is the easy, fast and reliable auralization of the prediction results. In this paper we consider a new auralization method, based on a head-tracked headphone system with high spatial resolution and real-time convolution. We discuss the way to measure the directional head-related transfer functions, the calculation of the directional binaural impulse responses and the realization as a real-time convolution software. Furthermore, high-resolution impulse responses have been measured to compare reality, measurement and prediction results of an example room. The measurements were performed with a newly developed software tool EASERA. We conclude that, using this new method, auralization results are obtained equivalent to the human perception in reality.

  1. Electromyography-based analysis of human upper limbs during 45-day head-down bed-rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Anshuang; Wang, Chunhui; Qi, Hongzhi; Li, Fan; Wang, Zheng; He, Feng; Zhou, Peng; Chen, Shanguang; Ming, Dong

    2016-03-01

    Muscle deconditioning occurs in response to simulated or actual microgravity. In spaceflight, astronauts become monkey-like for mainly using their upper limbs to control the operating system and to complete corresponding tasks. The changes of upper limbs' athletic ability will directly affect astronauts' working performance. This study investigated the variation trend of surface electromyography (sEMG) during prolonged simulated microgravity. Eight healthy males participating in this study performed strict 45-day head-down bed-rest (HDBR). On the 5th day of pre-HDBR, and the 15th, the 30th and the 45th days of HDBR, the subjects performed maximum pushing task and maximum pulling task, and sEMG was collected from upper limbs synchronously. Each subject's maximum volunteer contractions of both the tasks during these days were compared, showing no significant change. However, changes were detected by sEMG-based analysis. It was found that integrated EMG, root mean square, mean frequency, fuzzy entropy of deltoid, and fuzzy entropy of triceps brachii changed significantly when comparing pre-HDBR with HDBR. The variation trend showed a recovery tendency after significant decline, which is inconsistent with the monotonic variation of lower limbs that was proved by previous research. These findings suggest that EMG changes in upper limbs during prolonged simulated microgravity, but has different variation trend from lower limbs.

  2. Rich: Region-based Intelligent Cluster-Head Selection and Node Deployment Strategy in Concentric-based WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAN, C.-S.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In a random deployment, sensor nodes are scattered randomly in the sensing field. Hence, the coverage can not be guaranteed. In contrast, the coverage of uniformly deployment is in general larger than the random deployment. However, uniformly deployment strategy may cause unbalanced traffic pattern in wireless sensor networks (WSNs. In this situation, larger load may be imposed to CHs (cluster heads around the sink. Therefore, CHs close to the sink use up their energy earlier than those farther away from the sink. To overcome this problem, we propose a novel node deployment strategy in the concentric model, namely, Region-based Intelligent Cluster-Head selection and node deployment strategy (called Rich. The coverage, energy consumption and data routing issues are well investigated and taken into consideration in the proposed Rich scheme. The simulation results show that the proposed Rich alleviates the unbalanced traffic pattern significantly, prolongs network lifetime and achieves satisfactory coverage ratio.

  3. Monte Carlo-based QA for IMRT of head and neck cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, F.; Sham, J.; Ma, C.-M.; Li, J.-S.

    2007-06-01

    It is well-known that the presence of large air cavity in a dense medium (or patient) introduces significant electronic disequilibrium when irradiated with megavoltage X-ray field. This condition may worsen by the possible use of tiny beamlets in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Commercial treatment planning systems (TPSs), in particular those based on the pencil-beam method, do not provide accurate dose computation for the lungs and other cavity-laden body sites such as the head and neck. In this paper we present the use of Monte Carlo (MC) technique for dose re-calculation of IMRT of head and neck cancers. In our clinic, a turn-key software system is set up for MC calculation and comparison with TPS-calculated treatment plans as part of the quality assurance (QA) programme for IMRT delivery. A set of 10 off-the-self PCs is employed as the MC calculation engine with treatment plan parameters imported from the TPS via a graphical user interface (GUI) which also provides a platform for launching remote MC simulation and subsequent dose comparison with the TPS. The TPS-segmented intensity maps are used as input for the simulation hence skipping the time-consuming simulation of the multi-leaf collimator (MLC). The primary objective of this approach is to assess the accuracy of the TPS calculations in the presence of air cavities in the head and neck whereas the accuracy of leaf segmentation is verified by fluence measurement using a fluoroscopic camera-based imaging device. This measurement can also validate the correct transfer of intensity maps to the record and verify system. Comparisons between TPS and MC calculations of 6 MV IMRT for typical head and neck treatments review regional consistency in dose distribution except at and around the sinuses where our pencil-beam-based TPS sometimes over-predicts the dose by up to 10%, depending on the size of the cavities. In addition, dose re-buildup of up to 4% is observed at the posterior nasopharyngeal

  4. A Reward-Based Behavioral Platform to Measure Neural Activity during Head-Fixed Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew H. Micallef

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the neural computations that contribute to behavior requires recording from neurons while an animal is behaving. This is not an easy task as most subcellular recording techniques require absolute head stability. The Go/No-Go sensory task is a powerful decision-driven task that enables an animal to report a binary decision during head-fixation. Here we discuss how to set up an Ardunio and Python based platform system to control a Go/No-Go sensory behavior paradigm. Using an Arduino micro-controller and Python-based custom written program, a reward can be delivered to the animal depending on the decision reported. We discuss the various components required to build the behavioral apparatus that can control and report such a sensory stimulus paradigm. This system enables the end user to control the behavioral testing in real-time and therefore it provides a strong custom-made platform for probing the neural basis of behavior.

  5. Enthesitis in patients with psoriatic arthritis, axial spondyloarthritis and healthy subjects assessed by ‘head-to-toe’ whole-body MRI and clinical examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggenborg, René Panduro; Eshed, Iris; Østergaard, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the ability of whole-body MRI (WBMRI) to detect axial and peripheral enthesitis in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), and in healthy subjects (HS). Furthermore, to develop MRI enthesitis indices based on WBMRI and validate...... and patient global (ρ=0.29-0.31, pimaging modality for evaluation of enthesitis in patients with PsA and axSpA, but requires further investigation before clinical use....

  6. Abusive head trauma: Differentiation between impact and non-impact cases based on neuroimaging findings and skeletal surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn, T., E-mail: t.sieswerda@amc.nl [Department of Forensic Medicine, Netherlands Forensic Institute, The Hague (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center/Emma Children' s Hospital, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Robben, S.G.F., E-mail: s.robben@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Maastricht University Medical Center, P.O. Box 5800, 6202 AZ Maastricht (Netherlands); Karst, W.A., E-mail: w.karst@nfi.minvenj.nl [Department of Forensic Medicine, Netherlands Forensic Institute, P.O. Box 24044, 2490 AA The Hague (Netherlands); Moesker, F.M., E-mail: f.moesker@erasmusmc.nl [Faculty of Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Aalderen, W.M. van, E-mail: w.m.vanaalderen@amc.nl [Department of Paediatrics, Academic Medical Center/Emma Children' s Hospital, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Laméris, J.S., E-mail: j.s.lameris@amc.nl [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rijn, R.R. van, E-mail: r.r.vanrijn@amc.nl [Department of Forensic Medicine, Netherlands Forensic Institute, The Hague (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center/Emma Children' s Hospital, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-03-15

    Objectives: To determine whether imaging findings can be used to differentiate between impact and non-impact head trauma in a group of fatal and non-fatal abusive head trauma (AHT) victims. Methods: We included all AHT cases in the Netherlands in the period 2005–2012 for which a forensic report was written for a court of law, and for which imaging was available for reassessment. Neuroradiological and musculoskeletal findings were scored by an experienced paediatric radiologist. Results: We identified 124 AHT cases; data for 104 cases (84%) were available for radiological reassessment. The AHT victims with a skull fracture had fewer hypoxic ischaemic injuries than AHT victims without a skull fracture (p = 0.03), but the relative difference was small (33% vs. 57%). There were no significant differences in neuroradiological and musculoskeletal findings between impact and non-impact head trauma cases if the distinction between impact and non-impact head trauma was based on visible head injuries, as determined by clinical examination, as well as on the presence of skull fractures. Conclusions: Neuroradiological and skeletal findings cannot discriminate between impact and non-impact head trauma in abusive head trauma victims.

  7. iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of the Initiation of Head Regeneration in Planarians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofang Geng

    Full Text Available The planarian Dugesia japonica has amazing ability to regenerate a head from the anterior ends of the amputated stump with maintenance of the original anterior-posterior polarity. Although planarians present an attractive system for molecular investigation of regeneration and research has focused on clarifying the molecular mechanism of regeneration initiation in planarians at transcriptional level, but the initiation mechanism of planarian head regeneration (PHR remains unclear at the protein level. Here, a global analysis of proteome dynamics during the early stage of PHR was performed using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics strategy, and our data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002100. The results showed that 162 proteins were differentially expressed at 2 h and 6 h following amputation. Furthermore, the analysis of expression patterns and functional enrichment of the differentially expressed proteins showed that proteins involved in muscle contraction, oxidation reduction and protein synthesis were up-regulated in the initiation of PHR. Moreover, ingenuity pathway analysis showed that predominant signaling pathways such as ILK, calcium, EIF2 and mTOR signaling which were associated with cell migration, cell proliferation and protein synthesis were likely to be involved in the initiation of PHR. The results for the first time demonstrated that muscle contraction and ILK signaling might played important roles in the initiation of PHR at the global protein level. The findings of this research provide a molecular basis for further unraveling the mechanism of head regeneration initiation in planarians.

  8. MIDA: A Multimodal Imaging-Based Detailed Anatomical Model of the Human Head and Neck.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ida Iacono

    Full Text Available Computational modeling and simulations are increasingly being used to complement experimental testing for analysis of safety and efficacy of medical devices. Multiple voxel- and surface-based whole- and partial-body models have been proposed in the literature, typically with spatial resolution in the range of 1-2 mm and with 10-50 different tissue types resolved. We have developed a multimodal imaging-based detailed anatomical model of the human head and neck, named "MIDA". The model was obtained by integrating three different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI modalities, the parameters of which were tailored to enhance the signals of specific tissues: i structural T1- and T2-weighted MRIs; a specific heavily T2-weighted MRI slab with high nerve contrast optimized to enhance the structures of the ear and eye; ii magnetic resonance angiography (MRA data to image the vasculature, and iii diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to obtain information on anisotropy and fiber orientation. The unique multimodal high-resolution approach allowed resolving 153 structures, including several distinct muscles, bones and skull layers, arteries and veins, nerves, as well as salivary glands. The model offers also a detailed characterization of eyes, ears, and deep brain structures. A special automatic atlas-based segmentation procedure was adopted to include a detailed map of the nuclei of the thalamus and midbrain into the head model. The suitability of the model to simulations involving different numerical methods, discretization approaches, as well as DTI-based tensorial electrical conductivity, was examined in a case-study, in which the electric field was generated by transcranial alternating current stimulation. The voxel- and the surface-based versions of the models are freely available to the scientific community.

  9. Radiation therapy for head and neck cancers a case-based review

    CERN Document Server

    Beyzadeoglu, Murat; Selek, Ugur

    2014-01-01

    This evidence-based guide to the current management of cancer cases at all head and neck sites will assist in the appropriate selection and delineation of tumor volumes/fields for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), including volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Each tumor site-related chapter presents, from the perspective of an academic expert, several actual cases at different stages in order to clarify specific clinical concepts. The coverage includes case presentation, a case-related literature review, patient preparation, simulation, contouring, treatment planning, treatment delivery, and follow-up. The text is accompanied by illustrations ranging from slice-by-slice delineations on planning CT images to finalized plan evaluations based on detailed acceptance criteria. The book will be of value for residents, fellows, practicing radiation oncologists, and medical physicists interested in clinical radiation oncology.

  10. Estimation of Aircraft Attitude/Heading Based on the Polarization of Electromagnetic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Hong-mei

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates the full use of an orthogonal decoupling signal model to describe the 3-D construction of polarized electromagnetic waves. The maximum likelihood method and MUSIC algorithm were introduced into the parameter estimation of partially polarized waves. Attitude reference information for an aircraft that was calibrated by an information base station was delivered by polarized electromagnetic waves. Through receiving and processing the information of the aircraft, a single electromagnetic vector sensor can acquire the aircraft attitude in a geographic coordinate system. Differing from the triangle calculation method which relies on a multi-point measurement, the proposed method only needs a base station signal and a single receiver on the motion platform to realize the posture perception of aircraft. It can therefore serve as a substitute for aircraft attitude navigation and aircraft heading navigation. The introduction of the motion platform attitude estimation algorithm provides a technology support for engineering applications.

  11. Home-based application of sphenopalatine ganglion block for head and neck cancer pain management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti R Sanghavi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Head and neck cancer pain is intractable and difficult to manage. Many a times it is difficult to treat with oral opioids and adjuvants. Aim: This study aims to study the effects of transnasal sphenopalatine ganglion block (SPGB, administered using cotton swab/ear bud by patients' caretaker, at home, for pain management. Study Design: This is a prospective, single-arm observational study conducted on 100 head and neck cancer patients, from January 2014 to December 2015. Patients and caretaker were given a demonstration of the procedure using sterile cotton swab/ear buds. They were advised to repeat the procedure when their visual analog score (VAS was more than 5. They continued with the oral analgesics. They kept the records of pre- and post-procedure pain score (VAS, the frequency of repetition, ease of performance of procedure, and morphine requirement. A paired t-test (SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. Results: A significant reduction in pain was noted by a decrease in mean VAS from 8.57 ± 1.31 to 2.46 ± 1.23 (P 0.05 mg per day, at the end of 2 months. Ease of performance was observed in 88 patients. Conclusion: The home-based application of SPGB is an easy, safe, and cost-effective method to manage cancer pain. It provides excellent immediate pain relief with a minimum side effect. It can be performed bilaterally, repeatedly and even with a feeding tube in place.

  12. Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy in head and neck malignancies: early preclinical experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englhard, Anna; Girschick, Susanne; Mack, Brigitte; Volgger, Veronika; Gires, Oliver; Conderman, Christian; Stepp, Herbert; Betz, Christian Stephan

    2013-06-01

    Background: Malignancies of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) are conventionally diagnosed by white light endoscopy, biopsy and histopathology. Probe-based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy (pCLE) is a novel non-invasive technique which offers in vivo surface and sub-surface imaging of tissue. It produces pictures of cellular architecture comparable to histology without the need for biopsy. It has already been successfully used in different clinical subspecialties to help in the diagnosis and treatment planning of inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. PCLE needs to be used in combination with specific or non-specific contrast agents. In this study we evaluated the potential use of pCLE in combination with non-specific and specific contrast agents to distinguish between healthy mucosa and invasive carcinoma. Methods: Tissue samples from healthy mucosa and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were taken during surgery. After topical application of three different contrast agents, samples were examined using different pCLE-probes and a Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM). Images were then compared to the corresponding histological slides and cryosections. Results: Initial results show that pCLE in combination with fluorophores allows visualization of cellular and structural components. Imaging of different layers was possible using three distinct pCLEprobes. Conclusion: pCLE is a promising non-invasive technique that may be a useful adjunct in the evaluation, diagnosis and treatment planning of head and neck malignancies.

  13. Quaternion-Based Unscented Kalman Filter for Accurate Indoor Heading Estimation Using Wearable Multi-Sensor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuebing Yuan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Inertial navigation based on micro-electromechanical system (MEMS inertial measurement units (IMUs has attracted numerous researchers due to its high reliability and independence. The heading estimation, as one of the most important parts of inertial navigation, has been a research focus in this field. Heading estimation using magnetometers is perturbed by magnetic disturbances, such as indoor concrete structures and electronic equipment. The MEMS gyroscope is also used for heading estimation. However, the accuracy of gyroscope is unreliable with time. In this paper, a wearable multi-sensor system has been designed to obtain the high-accuracy indoor heading estimation, according to a quaternion-based unscented Kalman filter (UKF algorithm. The proposed multi-sensor system including one three-axis accelerometer, three single-axis gyroscopes, one three-axis magnetometer and one microprocessor minimizes the size and cost. The wearable multi-sensor system was fixed on waist of pedestrian and the quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV for heading estimation experiments in our college building. The results show that the mean heading estimation errors are less 10° and 5° to multi-sensor system fixed on waist of pedestrian and the quadrotor UAV, respectively, compared to the reference path.

  14. Quaternion-based unscented Kalman filter for accurate indoor heading estimation using wearable multi-sensor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xuebing; Yu, Shuai; Zhang, Shengzhi; Wang, Guoping; Liu, Sheng

    2015-05-07

    Inertial navigation based on micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) inertial measurement units (IMUs) has attracted numerous researchers due to its high reliability and independence. The heading estimation, as one of the most important parts of inertial navigation, has been a research focus in this field. Heading estimation using magnetometers is perturbed by magnetic disturbances, such as indoor concrete structures and electronic equipment. The MEMS gyroscope is also used for heading estimation. However, the accuracy of gyroscope is unreliable with time. In this paper, a wearable multi-sensor system has been designed to obtain the high-accuracy indoor heading estimation, according to a quaternion-based unscented Kalman filter (UKF) algorithm. The proposed multi-sensor system including one three-axis accelerometer, three single-axis gyroscopes, one three-axis magnetometer and one microprocessor minimizes the size and cost. The wearable multi-sensor system was fixed on waist of pedestrian and the quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for heading estimation experiments in our college building. The results show that the mean heading estimation errors are less 10° and 5° to multi-sensor system fixed on waist of pedestrian and the quadrotor UAV, respectively, compared to the reference path.

  15. A Prediction of Response of the Head and Neck of the U.S. Adult Military Population to Dynamic Impact Acceleration from Selected Dynamic Test Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    It noceeawy and )Aettfi O haack mombe) Dynamic Response of Head and Neck Physical Characteristics of Head and NecK Mathematical Model Simulationj...response of these volunteers to -Gx sled acca’eratioa at 6 and 15 G’s. Procedures used for comuting the various prameter vilues w-4 coeprisons between...may be used with . mathematical modeling techniques in order to extend and project the NAMRL dynamic response results to the general adult U.S

  16. Recruiting Pregnant Patients for Survey Research: A Head to Head Comparison of Social Media-Based Versus Clinic-Based Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admon, Lindsay; Haefner, Jessica K; Kolenic, Giselle E; Chang, Tammy; Davis, Matthew M; Moniz, Michelle H

    2016-12-21

    Recruiting a diverse sample of pregnant women for clinical research is a challenging but crucial task for improving obstetric services and maternal and child health outcomes. To compare the feasibility and cost of recruiting pregnant women for survey research using social media-based and clinic-based approaches. Advertisements were used to recruit pregnant women from the social media website Facebook. In-person methods were used to recruit pregnant women from the outpatient clinic of a large, tertiary care center. In both approaches, potential respondents were invited to participate in a 15-minute Web-based survey. Each recruitment method was monitored for 1 month. Using bivariate statistics, we compared the number, demographic characteristics, and health characteristics of women recruited and the cost per completed survey for each recruitment method. The social media-based approach recruited 1178 women and the clinic-based approach recruited 219 women. A higher proportion of subjects recruited through social media identified as African American (29.4%, 207/705 vs 11.2%, 20/179), reported household incomes vs 25.8%, 47/182), reported being in early pregnancy (18.6%, 135/726 vs 10.4%, 19/183 first trimester), and rated their health as fair or poor (22.2%, 160/722 vs 8.2%, 15/183; all Psocial media had earned a college degree (21.3%, 153/717 vs 62.3%, 114/183) and were married or in a domestic partnership (45.7%, 330/722 vs 72.1%, 132/183; all PSocial media-based recruitment costs were US $14.63 per completed survey, compared with US $23.51 for clinic-based recruitment. Web-based recruitment through a social networking platform is a feasible, inexpensive, and rapid means of recruiting a large, diverse sample of pregnant women for survey research.

  17. The head leads the body: a curvature-based kinematic description of C. elegans

    CERN Document Server

    Padmanabhan, Venkat; Solomon, Deepak E; Armstrong, Andrew; Rumbaugh, Kendra P; Vanapalli, Siva A; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy

    2012-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans, a free-living soil nematode, propels itself by producing undulatory body motion and displays a rich variety of body shapes and trajectories during its locomotion in complex environments. Here we show that the complex shapes and trajectories of C. elegans have a simple analytical description in curvature representation. Our model is based on the assumption that the curvature wave is generated in the head segment of the worm body and propagates backwards. We have found that a simple harmonic function for the curvature can capture multiple worm shapes during the undulatory movement. The worm body trajectories can be well represented in terms of piecewise sinusoidal curvature with abrupt changes in amplitude, wavevector, and phase.

  18. Statistics-Based Prediction Analysis for Head and Neck Cancer Tumor Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Azimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the current radiation therapy planning systems, which are based on pre-treatment Computer Tomography (CT images, assume that the tumor geometry does not change during the course of treatment. However, tumor geometry is shown to be changing over time. We propose a methodology to monitor and predict daily size changes of head and neck cancer tumors during the entire radiation therapy period. Using collected patients' CT scan data, MATLAB routines are developed to quantify the progressive geometric changes occurring in patients during radiation therapy. Regression analysis is implemented to develop predictive models for tumor size changes through entire period. The generated models are validated using leave-one-out cross validation. The proposed method will increase the accuracy of therapy and improve patient's safety and quality of life by reducing the number of harmful unnecessary CT scans.

  19. A compact bike head lamp design based on a white LED operated at one watt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yi-Chien; Cai, Jhih-You; Chen, Chin-Wei; Sun, Ching-Cherng

    2012-06-01

    A design of a compact bike head lamp meeting the K mark regulation based on a white LED by Cree XP-C is presented. The proposed design contains three parts, one is a parabolic mirror, another is a flat mirror and the other is a lens. The design performed a contrast of 66.7 across the cut-off line by the K-mark regulation, and a prototype fabricated by a simple CNC machining was measured a contrast of 12.4 across the cut-off line. The successful design requests the LED operated at only 1 W, and it enables an user to operate the lamp longer with energy saving.

  20. A head-to-head comparison of SCRalyze and Ledalab, two model-based methods for skin conductance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Dominik R

    2014-12-01

    Model-based analysis of skin conductance responses (SCR) can furnish less noisy estimates of sympathetic arousal (SA) than operational peak scoring approaches, as shown in previous work. Here, I compare two model-based methods for analysis of evoked (stimulus-locked) SCR, implemented in two software packages, SCRalyze and Ledalab, with respect to their sensitivity in recovering SA. Four datasets are analysed to compare predictive validity, i.e. the sensitivity to distinguish pairs of SA states that are known to be different. SCRalyze was significantly better able than Ledalab to recover this known difference in four out of five tested contrasts and comparable in the remaining one. SCRalyze performed significantly better than conventional analysis in all contrasts. I conclude that the model-based method engendered in SCRalyze is currently the best available approach to provide robust and sensitive estimates of sympathetic arousal. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A depth-based head-mounted visual display to aid navigation in partially sighted individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L Hicks

    Full Text Available Independent navigation for blind individuals can be extremely difficult due to the inability to recognise and avoid obstacles. Assistive techniques such as white canes, guide dogs, and sensory substitution provide a degree of situational awareness by relying on touch or hearing but as yet there are no techniques that attempt to make use of any residual vision that the individual is likely to retain. Residual vision can restricted to the awareness of the orientation of a light source, and hence any information presented on a wearable display would have to limited and unambiguous. For improved situational awareness, i.e. for the detection of obstacles, displaying the size and position of nearby objects, rather than including finer surface details may be sufficient. To test whether a depth-based display could be used to navigate a small obstacle course, we built a real-time head-mounted display with a depth camera and software to detect the distance to nearby objects. Distance was represented as brightness on a low-resolution display positioned close to the eyes without the benefit focussing optics. A set of sighted participants were monitored as they learned to use this display to navigate the course. All were able to do so, and time and velocity rapidly improved with practise with no increase in the number of collisions. In a second experiment a cohort of severely sight-impaired individuals of varying aetiologies performed a search task using a similar low-resolution head-mounted display. The majority of participants were able to use the display to respond to objects in their central and peripheral fields at a similar rate to sighted controls. We conclude that the skill to use a depth-based display for obstacle avoidance can be rapidly acquired and the simplified nature of the display may appropriate for the development of an aid for sight-impaired individuals.

  2. Soya oil-based shampoo superior to 0.5% permethrin lotion for head louse infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazma A Burgess

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ian F Burgess1, Katrina Kay1,2, Nazma A Burgess1, Elizabeth R Brunton11Medical Entomology Centre, Insect Research and Development Limited, Cambridge, 2Leeds Primary Care Trust, Leeds, UKBackground: This was a randomized, assessor-blind, controlled comparison of a soya oil-based medical device shampoo with a medicinal permethrin lotion in an alcohol vehicle for treatment of head louse infestation to generate data suitable for a regulatory submission to achieve reimbursable status for the shampoo product.Methods: We treated 91 children and adults, divided between two sites, on two occasions 9 days apart. Participants washed their hair and towel-dried it before treatment. The shampoo was used twice for 30 minutes each time. The lotion was used for 30 minutes followed by rinsing. Assessments were made by dry detection combing on days 2, 9, 11, and 14 after the first treatment. According to present knowledge, this combing technique does not influence the overall head louse populations or outcome of treatment.Results: The soya oil shampoo was significantly (P < 0.01 more effective than the lotion for both intention to treat (62.2% versus 34.8% successful treatment and per-protocol (74.3% versus 36.8% success groups. Post-treatment assessments showed the necessity for repeat treatment, but that a 9-day interval was too long because if eggs hatched after the first treatment, the lice could grow old enough to lay eggs before the second treatment.Conclusion: The soya oil-based shampoo was more effective than the permethrin lotion, more cosmetically acceptable, and less irritant.Keywords: pediculosis, medical device, medicinal product, insecticide, vegetable oil

  3. Fast in-situ tool inspection based on inverse fringe projection and compact sensor heads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthias, Steffen; Kästner, Markus; Reithmeier, Eduard

    2016-11-01

    Inspection of machine elements is an important task in production processes in order to ensure the quality of produced parts and to gather feedback for the continuous improvement process. A new measuring system is presented, which is capable of performing the inspection of critical tool geometries, such as gearing elements, inside the forming machine. To meet the constraints on sensor head size and inspection time imposed by the limited space inside the machine and the cycle time of the process, the measuring device employs a combination of endoscopy techniques with the fringe projection principle. Compact gradient index lenses enable a compact design of the sensor head, which is connected to a CMOS camera and a flexible micro-mirror based projector via flexible fiber bundles. Using common fringe projection patterns, the system achieves measuring times of less than five seconds. To further reduce the time required for inspection, the generation of inverse fringe projection patterns has been implemented for the system. Inverse fringe projection speeds up the inspection process by employing object-adapted patterns, which enable the detection of geometry deviations in a single image. Two different approaches to generate object adapted patterns are presented. The first approach uses a reference measurement of a manufactured tool master to generate the inverse pattern. The second approach is based on a virtual master geometry in the form of a CAD file and a ray-tracing model of the measuring system. Virtual modeling of the measuring device and inspection setup allows for geometric tolerancing for free-form surfaces by the tool designer in the CAD-file. A new approach is presented, which uses virtual tolerance specifications and additional simulation steps to enable fast checking of metric tolerances. Following the description of the pattern generation process, the image processing steps required for inspection are demonstrated on captures of gearing geometries.

  4. Helping Head Start Parents Promote Their Children's Kindergarten Adjustment: The Research-Based Developmentally Informed Parent Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, Karen L.; Welsh, Janet A.; Heinrichs, Brenda S.; Nix, Robert L.; Mathis, Erin T.

    2015-01-01

    Head Start enhances school readiness during preschool, but effects diminish after children transition into kindergarten. Designed to promote sustained gains, the Research-based Developmentally Informed (REDI) Parent program (REDI-P) provided home visits before and after the kindergarten transition, giving parents evidence-based learning games,…

  5. A practical, evidence-based, comprehensive (PEC) physical examination for diagnosing pathology of the long head of the biceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Samuel; Krill, Michael K; Amoo-Achampong, Kelms; Kwon, KiHyun; Nwachukwu, Benedict U; McCormick, Frank

    2017-08-01

    Clinical examination of the shoulder joint has gained attention as clinicians aim to use an evidence-based examination of the biceps tendon, with the desire for a proper diagnosis while minimizing costly imaging procedures. The purpose of this study is to create a decision tree analysis that enables the development of a clinical algorithm for diagnosing long head of biceps (LHB) pathology. A literature review of Level I and II diagnostic studies was conducted to extract characteristics of clinical tests for LHB pathology through a systematic review of PubMed, Medline, Ovid, and Cochrane Review databases. Tests were combined in series and parallel to determine sensitivities and specificities, and positive and negative likelihood ratios were determined for each combination using a subjective pretest probability. The "gold standard" for diagnosis in all included studies was arthroscopy or arthrotomy. The optimal testing modality was use of the uppercut test combined with the tenderness to palpation of the biceps tendon test. This combination achieved a sensitivity of 88.4% when performed in parallel and a specificity of 93.8% when performed in series. These tests used in combination optimize post-test probability accuracy greater than any single individual test. Performing the uppercut test and biceps groove tenderness to palpation test together has the highest sensitivity and specificity of known physical examinations maneuvers to aid in the diagnosis of LHB pathology compared with diagnostic arthroscopy (practical, evidence-based, comprehensive examination). A decision tree analysis aides in the practical, evidence-based, comprehensive examination diagnostic accuracy post-testing based on the ordinal scale pretest probability. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Power deposition in the head and neck of an anatomically based human body model for plane wave exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinniswood, A D; Furse, C M; Gandhi, O P

    1998-08-01

    At certain frequencies, when the human head becomes a resonant structure, the power absorbed by the head and neck, when the body is exposed to a vertically polarized plane wave propagating from front to back, becomes significantly larger than would ordinarily be expected from its shadow cross section. This has possible implications in the study of the biological effects of electromagnetic fields. Additionally the frequencies at which these resonances occur are not readily predicted by simple approximations of the head in isolation. In order to determine these resonant conditions an anatomically based model of the whole human body has been used, with the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm to accurately determine field propagation, specific absorption rate (SAR) distributions and power absorption in both the whole body and the head region (head and neck). This paper shows that resonant frequencies can be determined using two methods. The first is by use of the accurate anatomically based model (with heterogeneous tissue properties) and secondly using a model built from parallelepiped sections (for the torso and legs), an ellipsoid for the head and a cylinder for the neck. This approximation to the human body is built from homogeneous tissue the equivalent of two-thirds the conductivity and dielectric constant of that of muscle. An IBM SP-2 supercomputer together with a parallel FDTD code has been used to accommodate the large problem size. We find resonant frequencies for the head and neck at 207 MHz and 193 MHz for the isolated and grounded conditions, with absorption cross sections that are respectively 3.27 and 2.62 times the shadow cross section.

  7. Recognition and Evaluation of Clinical Section Headings in Clinical Documents Using Token-Based Formulation with Conditional Random Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Jie Dai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic health record (EHR is a digital data format that collects electronic health information about an individual patient or population. To enhance the meaningful use of EHRs, information extraction techniques have been developed to recognize clinical concepts mentioned in EHRs. Nevertheless, the clinical judgment of an EHR cannot be known solely based on the recognized concepts without considering its contextual information. In order to improve the readability and accessibility of EHRs, this work developed a section heading recognition system for clinical documents. In contrast to formulating the section heading recognition task as a sentence classification problem, this work proposed a token-based formulation with the conditional random field (CRF model. A standard section heading recognition corpus was compiled by annotators with clinical experience to evaluate the performance and compare it with sentence classification and dictionary-based approaches. The results of the experiments showed that the proposed method achieved a satisfactory F-score of 0.942, which outperformed the sentence-based approach and the best dictionary-based system by 0.087 and 0.096, respectively. One important advantage of our formulation over the sentence-based approach is that it presented an integrated solution without the need to develop additional heuristics rules for isolating the headings from the surrounding section contents.

  8. A Comparative Experimental Study on Head-Disk Touch-Down Detectability Based on Off-Track Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Xiang Chen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To further increase the hard-disk drive’s areal density, the head-disk spacing needs to be reduced to sub 1 nm and it requires accurately detect the head-disk touch down (TD. The off-track-vibration-based TD detection methods are widely applied in current hard-disk drive (HDD for head-disk TD detection. However, few studies perform on how to improve the off-track-vibration-based TD detection sensitivity. In this paper, a comparative experimental study was conducted between comparative two off-track-vibration-based TD detection methods: one is based on the low-frequency-forced vibration; the other is based on the off-track-structure vibration. Besides, the skew angle, touch down area (TDA, and the head-stack assembly (HSA rotation inertia effects on TD detectability were discussed. Bigger skew angle and bigger TDA are helpful for good TD sensitivity for these two methods. To the method based on low frequency forced vibration, the smaller HSA rotation inertia design is also helpful.

  9. Effects of Web-Based Support on Early Head Start Home Visitors' Use of Evidence-Based Intervention Decision Making and Growth in Children's Expressive Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzhardt, Jay; Greenwood, Charles R.; Walker, Dale; Anderson, Rawni; Howard, Waylon; Carta, Judith J.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated Early Head Start home visitors' use of evidence-based practices and the efficacy of a web-based system to support these practices. Home visitors learned to use 3 evidence-based practices: (a) frequent assessment of children's early communication for screening and progress monitoring, (b) 2 home-based language-promoting…

  10. Common site of subchondral insufficiency fractures of the femoral head based on three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, Kenyu; Yamamoto, Takuaki; Motomura, Goro; Karasuyama, Kazuyuki; Sonoda, Kazuhiko; Kubo, Yusuke; Iwamoto, Yukihide [Kyushu University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the common sites of subchondral insufficiency fractures of the femoral head (SIF) based on three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of MR images. In 33 hips of 31 consecutive patients diagnosed with SIF, 3-D reconstruction of the bone, fracture, and acetabular edge was performed using MR images. These 3-D images were used to measure the fractured areas and clarify the positional relationship between the fracture and degree of acetabular coverage. The fractured area in the anterior portion was significantly larger than in the posterior area. In 11 cases, the fractures contacted the acetabular edge and were distributed on the lateral portion. The indices of acetabular coverage (center-edge angle and acetabular head index) in these cases were less than the normal range. In the remaining 22 cases, the fractures were apart from the acetabular edge and distributed on the mediolateral centerline of the femoral head. The majority of these cases had normal acetabular coverage. The common site of SIF is the anterior portion. In addition, two types of SIF are proposed: (1) Lateral type: the contact stress between the acetabular edge and lateral portion of the femoral head causes SIF based on the insufficient acetabular coverage, and (2) Central type: the contact stress between the acetabular surface and the mediolateral center of the femoral head causes SIF independent from the insufficiency of acetabular coverage. These findings may be useful for considering the treatment and prevention of SIF. (orig.)

  11. IMPLEMENTING AN ATTACHMENT-BASED PARENTING INTERVENTION WITHIN HOME-BASED EARLY HEAD START: HOME-VISITORS' PERCEPTIONS AND EXPERIENCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Allison L; Aparicio, Elizabeth M; Berlin, Lisa J; Jones Harden, Brenda

    2017-07-01

    Implementation of evidence-based interventions in "real-world" settings is enhanced when front-line staff view the intervention as acceptable, appropriate, and feasible. This qualitative study addresses Early Head Start (EHS) home visitors' perceptions and experiences of an evidence-based parenting intervention, the Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up program (M. Dozier, O. Lindhiem, & J. Ackerman, 2005), when added to EHS services as usual within the context of a research-practice partnership. Thematic analysis of in-depth, qualitative interviews indicates that home visitors experienced the intervention as positive and helpful for EHS families. Some challenges included scheduling and uncertainty regarding the goals of the intervention. Concerns over participation in the research centered on information exchange, confidentiality, and time limitations. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  12. In vitro pediculicidal activity of herbal shampoo base on Thai local plants against head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassami, Watcharawit; Soonwera, Mayura

    2013-04-01

    Head lice infestation, a worldwide head infestation caused Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, is an important public health problem in Thailand. Several chemical pediculicides have lost in efficacy due to increasing resistance of lice against insecticide. Therefore, non-toxic alternative products, such as natural products from plants, e.g. plant extract pediculicides, are needed for head lice control. The aims of this study were to evaluate the potential of pediculicidal activity of herbal shampoo base on three species of Thai local plants (Accacia concinna (Willd.) DC, Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. and Tamarindus indica Linn.) against head lice and to compare them with carbaryl shampoo (Hafif shampoo®; 0.6% w/v carbaryl) and non-treatment control in order to assess their in vitro. Doses of 0.12 and 0.25 ml/cm2 of each herbal shampoo were applied to filter paper, and ten head lice were place on the filter paper. The mortalities of head lice on the filter paper were recorded at 1, 5, 10, 30 and 60 min by sterio-microscope. All herbal shampoos at 0.25 ml/cm2 were more effective pediculicide than carbaryl shampoo with 100% mortality at 5 min. The median lethal time (LT50) of all herbal shampoos at 0.25 ml/cm2 showed no significant differences over at 0.12 ml/cm2 (Pshampoo, followed by Av. bilimbi extract shampoo and Ac. concinna extract shampoo, with LT50 valuesshampoos have high potential of pediculicide to head lice treatments for schoolchildren.

  13. Electric field calculations in brain stimulation based on finite elements: an optimized processing pipeline for the generation and usage of accurate individual head models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windhoff, Mirko; Opitz, Alexander; Thielscher, Axel

    2013-04-01

    The need for realistic electric field calculations in human noninvasive brain stimulation is undisputed to more accurately determine the affected brain areas. However, using numerical techniques such as the finite element method (FEM) is methodologically complex, starting with the creation of accurate head models to the integration of the models in the numerical calculations. These problems substantially limit a more widespread application of numerical methods in brain stimulation up to now. We introduce an optimized processing pipeline allowing for the automatic generation of individualized high-quality head models from magnetic resonance images and their usage in subsequent field calculations based on the FEM. The pipeline starts by extracting the borders between skin, skull, cerebrospinal fluid, gray and white matter. The quality of the resulting surfaces is subsequently improved, allowing for the creation of tetrahedral volume head meshes that can finally be used in the numerical calculations. The pipeline integrates and extends established (and mainly free) software for neuroimaging, computer graphics, and FEM calculations into one easy-to-use solution. We demonstrate the successful usage of the pipeline in six subjects, including field calculations for transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation. The quality of the head volume meshes is validated both in terms of capturing the underlying anatomy and of the well-shapedness of the mesh elements. The latter is crucial to guarantee the numerical robustness of the FEM calculations. The pipeline will be released as open-source, allowing for the first time to perform realistic field calculations at an acceptable methodological complexity and moderate costs. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A PRECEDE-PROCEED based educational intervention in quality of life of women-headed households in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solhi, Mahnaz; Shabani Hamedan, Marziyeh; Salehi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women-headed households are more exposed to social damages than other women. Such condition remarkably influences the women's health-related life quality. The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of an educational intervention in quality of life of women-headed households under protection of Tehran Welfare Organization, in 2015. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study with control group, 180 women-headed households participated. Sampling method was random allocation. Data collection tools were Life Quality standard questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF) and a researcher-made questionnaire about structures of ecological and educational diagnosis phase of PRECEDE-PROCEED model. Validity and reliability of the questionnaire approved in a primary study. Based on the results obtained from the primary study, the intervention was performed in the case group only. Participants were followed one and three months after intervention. Data were analyzed through SPSS v. 15 software using descriptive and analytical tests. Results: Before intervention no significant difference was observed among the mean scores of life quality, behavioral factors, and knowledge, enabling, and reinforcing factors in the two groups. But, one month and three months after intervention a significant difference was observed between the mean scores of these variables (in five instances pwomen-headed households' quality of life. The innovation of this study is using such intervention on quality of life in women-headed households for the first time.

  15. Leiomyosarcoma of the head and neck: A 17-year single institution experience and review of the National Cancer Data Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Alan D; Farquhar, Douglas R; Brody, Robert M; Parasher, Arjun K; Carey, Ryan M; Purkey, Michael T; Nagda, Danish A; Brooks, John S; Hartner, Lee P; Brant, Jason A; Newman, Jason G

    2017-12-29

    Leiomyosarcoma is a rare neoplasm of the head and neck. The purpose of this study was to present our single-institution case series of head and neck leiomyosarcoma and a review of cases in the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB). Patients with head and neck leiomyosarcoma at the University of Pennsylvania and in the NCDB were identified. Demographic characteristics, tumor factors, treatment paradigms, and outcomes were evaluated for prognostic significance. Nine patients with head and neck leiomyosarcoma from the institution were identified; a majority had high-grade disease and cutaneous leiomyosarcoma, with a 5-year survival rate of 50%. Two hundred fifty-nine patients with leiomyosarcoma were found in the NCDB; macroscopic positive margins and high-grade disease were associated with poor prognosis (P < .01), and positive surgical margins were related to adjuvant radiation (P < .001). Head and neck leiomyosarcoma presents at a high grade and is preferentially treated with surgery. Several demographic and tumor-specific factors are associated with outcomes and prognosis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Subject Expression in L2 Spanish: Convergence of Generative and Usage-Based Perspectives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyzik, Eve

    2017-01-01

    The extensive literature on subject expression in Spanish makes for rich comparisons between generative (formal) and usage-based (functional) approaches to language acquisition. This article explores how the problem of subject expression has been conceptualized within each research tradition, as well as unanswered questions that both approaches…

  17. Visual prosody and speech intelligibility: head movement improves auditory speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munhall, K G; Jones, Jeffery A; Callan, Daniel E; Kuratate, Takaaki; Vatikiotis-Bateson, Eric

    2004-02-01

    People naturally move their heads when they speak, and our study shows that this rhythmic head motion conveys linguistic information. Three-dimensional head and face motion and the acoustics of a talker producing Japanese sentences were recorded and analyzed. The head movement correlated strongly with the pitch (fundamental frequency) and amplitude of the talker's voice. In a perception study, Japanese subjects viewed realistic talking-head animations based on these movement recordings in a speech-in-noise task. The animations allowed the head motion to be manipulated without changing other characteristics of the visual or acoustic speech. Subjects correctly identified more syllables when natural head motion was present in the animation than when it was eliminated or distorted. These results suggest that nonverbal gestures such as head movements play a more direct role in the perception of speech than previously known.

  18. Structured Light-Based Motion Tracking in the Limited View of an MR Head Coil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erikshøj, M.; Olesen, Oline Vinter; Conradsen, Knut

    2013-01-01

    of the facial surface. The point clouds are continuously realigned to a reference scan to obtain pose estimates. The system has been tested on a mannequin head performing controlled rotational and translational axial movements within the head coil outside the range of the magnetic field. The RMS of the residual......A markerless motion tracking (MT) system developed for use in PET brain imaging has been tested in the limited field of view (FOV) of the MR head coil from the Siemens Biograph mMR. The system is a 3D surface scanner that uses structured light (SL) to create point cloud reconstructions...

  19. The Research on Coordinated Decision-Making Method Tax System Based on Subject Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoji Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Academically, the research of subject database of tax system aims to set up an efficient, harmonious virtual data application environment. Subject data, in application and management, has been on demand polymerized and autonomously collaborated and has reached a balance between instantaneity and accuracy. This paper defines the connotation and characteristics enterprise informationization, designs a value system of enterprise informationization which is subject database oriented, and builds a model for the import of the subject database of enterprise informationization. Meantime, this paper describes the structure of the subject database based information import model and forges the model’s theoretical basis of subject data import in tax system. Using the model can make an analysis on the information of data warehouse, storage information, and tax information to provide decision support for the tax administrators.

  20. MRI-Based Multiscale Model for Electromagnetic Analysis in the Human Head with Implanted DBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ida Iacono

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS is an established procedure for the treatment of movement and affective disorders. Patients with DBS may benefit from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to evaluate injuries or comorbidities. However, the MRI radio-frequency (RF energy may cause excessive tissue heating particularly near the electrode. This paper studies how the accuracy of numerical modeling of the RF field inside a DBS patient varies with spatial resolution and corresponding anatomical detail of the volume surrounding the electrodes. A multiscale model (MS was created by an atlas-based segmentation using a 1 mm3 head model (mRes refined in the basal ganglia by a 200 μm2 ex-vivo dataset. Four DBS electrodes targeting the left globus pallidus internus were modeled. Electromagnetic simulations at 128 MHz showed that the peak of the electric field of the MS doubled (18.7 kV/m versus 9.33 kV/m and shifted 6.4 mm compared to the mRes model. Additionally, the MS had a sixfold increase over the mRes model in peak-specific absorption rate (SAR of 43.9 kW/kg versus 7 kW/kg. The results suggest that submillimetric resolution and improved anatomical detail in the model may increase the accuracy of computed electric field and local SAR around the tip of the implant.

  1. High brightness MEMS mirror based head-up display (HUD) modules with wireless data streaming capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanovic, Veljko; Kasturi, Abhishek; Hachtel, Volker

    2015-02-01

    A high brightness Head-Up Display (HUD) module was demonstrated with a fast, dual-axis MEMS mirror that displays vector images and text, utilizing its ~8kHz bandwidth on both axes. Two methodologies were evaluated: in one, the mirror steers a laser at wide angles of shelf lenses and a MEMS mirror in combination with a MEMS controller to enable precise movement of the mirror's X- and Y-axis. The MEMS controller offers both USB and wireless streaming capability and we utilize a library of functions on a host computer for creating content and controlling the mirror. Integration with smart phone applications is demonstrated, utilizing the mobile device both for content generation based on various messages or data, and for content streaming to the MEMS controller via Bluetooth interface. The display unit is highly resistant to vibrations and shock, and requires only ~1.5W to operate, even with content readable in sunlit outdoor conditions. The low power requirement is in part due to a vector graphics approach, allowing the efficient use of laser power, and also due to the use of a single, relatively high efficiency laser and simple optics.

  2. Portrait of a process: arts-based research in a head and neck cancer clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Mark A; Lydiatt, William M; Aita, Virginia A; Robbins, Regina E; McNeilly, Dennis P; Desmarais, Michele Marie

    2016-03-01

    The role of art in medicine is complex, varied and uncertain. To examine one aspect of the relationship between art and medicine, investigators analysed the interactions between a professional artist and five adult patients with head and neck cancer as they cocreated portraits in a clinical setting. The artist and four members of an interdisciplinary team analysed the portraits as well as journal entries, transcripts of portrait sessions and semistructured interviews. Over the course of 5 months, 24 artworks evolved from sittings that allowed both the patients and the artist to collaborate around stories of illness, suffering and recovery. Using narrative inquiry and qualitative arts-based research techniques five emergent themes were identified: embracing uncertainties; developing trusting relationships; engaging in reflective practices; creating shared stories; and empowerment. Similar themes are found in successful physician-patient relationships. This paper will discuss these findings and potential implications for healthcare and medical education. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. A novel rat head gaze determination system based on optomotor responses

    OpenAIRE

    Mengbo You; Toshiyuki Yamane; Hiroshi Tomita; Eriko Sugano; Takuya Akashi

    2017-01-01

    The optomotor response of animals is commonly used to measure their visual performance, e.g., rats of different genetically altered strains or various drug tests. With the presentation of stimuli using computer screens or projectors, the common idea focuses on measuring the eye movement or head and/or body movement to characterize changes of the head gaze. However, traditional methods rely on either the invasive fixation of animals, or the judgment of a human observer who reports the stimulus...

  4. Genetic polymorphisms in DNA base excision repair gene XRCC1 and the risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietruszewska Wioletta

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genes of base excision repair (BER pathway have been extensively studied in the association with various human cancers. We performed a case-control study to test the association between two common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of XRCC1 gene with human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC. Methods The genotype analysis of Arg194Trp and Arg399Gln gene polymorphisms for 92 HNSCC patients and 124 controls of cancer free subjects, in Polish population were performed using the PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP with endonuclease MspI. Results No altered risk has been found individually for these SNPs, however haplotypes analysis showed high association with head and neck cancer. The highest frequency, according to wild-type of Arg194Arg and Arg399Arg genotypes, was identified for Arg194Trp-Arg399Arg haplotype (OR, 2.96; 95% CI, 1.01–8.80. Conclusion Finally, we identified the combined Arg194Trp-Arg399Arg genotype of base excision repair gene XRCC1 that was associated with HNSCC and may have an impact on identification of a high-risk cancer population.

  5. Scaling head-neck response data and derivation of 5th percentile female side-impact dummy head-neck response requirements in NBDL test conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.; Wisgerhof, R.P.; Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Been, B.W.

    2009-01-01

    The head-neck biofidelity of side-impact dummies can be assessed according to the response requirements for the head-neck system based on mid-size male human subjects as published in ISO TR9790. These criteria are largely based on volunteer tests performed at the Naval Biodynamics Laboratory (NBDL)

  6. Subject Combination and Electrode Selection in Cooperative Brain-Computer Interface Based on Event Related Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Cecotti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available New paradigms are required in Brain-Computer Interface (BCI systems for the needs and expectations of healthy people. To solve this issue, we explore the emerging field of cooperative BCIs, which involves several users in a single BCI system. Contrary to classical BCIs that are dependent on the unique subject’s will, cooperative BCIs are used for problem solving tasks where several people shall be engaged by sharing a common goal. Similarly as combining trials over time improves performance, combining trials across subjects can significantly improve performance compared with when only a single user is involved. Yet, cooperative BCIs may only be used in particular settings, and new paradigms must be proposed to efficiently use this approach. The possible benefits of using several subjects are addressed, and compared with current single-subject BCI paradigms. To show the advantages of a cooperative BCI, we evaluate the performance of combining decisions across subjects with data from an event-related potentials (ERP based experiment where each subject observed the same sequence of visual stimuli. Furthermore, we show that it is possible to achieve a mean AUC superior to 0.95 with 10 subjects and 3 electrodes on each subject, or with 4 subjects and 6 electrodes on each subject. Several emerging challenges and possible applications are proposed to highlight how cooperative BCIs could be efficiently used with current technologies and leverage BCI applications.

  7. Effect of 1% Inspired CO2 During Head-Down Tilt on Ocular Structures, Cerebral Blood Flow, and Visual Acuity in Healthy Human Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, S. S.; Hu, X.; Lee, S. M. C.; Martin, D. S.; Phillips, T. R.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Smith, S. M.; Stenger, M. B.; Taibbi, G.; Zwart, S. R.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The cephalad fluid shift induced by microgravity has been hypothesized to elevate intracranial pressure (ICP) and contribute to the development of the visual impairment/intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome experienced by many astronauts during and after long-duration space flight. In addition, elevated ambient partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) on the International Space Station (ISS) has also been hypothesized to contribute to the development of VIIP. We seek to determine if an acute, mild CO2 exposure, similar to that occurring on the ISS, combined with the cephalad fluid shift induced by head-down tilt will induce ophthalmic and ICP changes consistent with the VIIP syndrome.

  8. Epidemiology of head injury in Malaysian children: a hospital-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohana, J; Ong, L C; Abu Hassan, A

    1998-09-01

    A prospective observational study was carried out at the Emergency Department, Hospital Kuala Lumpur to determine the proportion of accidental head injury among children and the circumstances of injury. The study was carried out from November 1993 to January 1994 on all children below 14 years who presented to the Emergency Department with accidental head injury. Accidental head injury made up (4.75%) of all cases seen at the Casualty Department. The ratio of boys to girls was 2:1. The mean age of head injured children was 5.2 (S.D. 3.63) years. The leading cause of head injury was fall (63%) followed by road traffic accidents (RTA) in (30.7%) while the rest were due to 'impact' (injury caused by flying object or missiles) injuries. More than half (54.4%) of those injured in RTA were pedestrians. Pedestrian injury was particularly important in the 5-< 14 years age group, where adult supervision was lacking in two thirds of the children. None of the patients who were involved in vehicle-related injuries had used a suitable protective or restraining device. All three patients who died were from this group. This study emphasises the need for stricter enforcement of laws related to the use of protective devices and measures to decrease child pedestrian injury. The issues of lack of adult supervision, both in and outside the home need to be addressed.

  9. Population-based reference values for the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Head and Neck module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerlid, Eva; Adnan, Ali; Silander, Ewa

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish population-based norms for the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Head and Neck 35 (EORTC QLQ-HN35) to be used as references to facilitate the interpretation of results from health-related quality of life (HRQOL) studies of patients with head and neck cancer. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and QLQ-HN35 were sent to a random sample representing the Swedish general population. The response rate was 69% (1504 participants of 2200 invited). The scores for the QLQ-C30 were comparable to previously published reference values. The reference values for the QLQ-HN35 were low, indicating few head and neck-specific problems in the population. For illustrative purposes, we also compared these reference values to our previously published HRQOL results obtained from patients with head and neck cancer at diagnosis and from 3-year survivors. These new reference values for EORTC QLQ-HN35 may be useful in future HRQOL studies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Subject-based discriminative sparse representation model for detection of concealed information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Amir; Moradi, Mohammad Hassan; Vand, Safa Rafiei

    2017-05-01

    The use of machine learning approaches in concealed information test (CIT) plays a key role in the progress of this neurophysiological field. In this paper, we presented a new machine learning method for CIT in which each subject is considered independent of the others. The main goal of this study is to adapt the discriminative sparse models to be applicable for subject-based concealed information test. In order to provide sufficient discriminability between guilty and innocent subjects, we introduced a novel discriminative sparse representation model and its appropriate learning methods. For evaluation of the method forty-four subjects participated in a mock crime scenario and their EEG data were recorded. As the model input, in this study the recurrence plot features were extracted from single trial data of different stimuli. Then the extracted feature vectors were reduced using statistical dependency method. The reduced feature vector went through the proposed subject-based sparse model in which the discrimination power of sparse code and reconstruction error were applied simultaneously. Experimental results showed that the proposed approach achieved better performance than other competing discriminative sparse models. The classification accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the presented sparsity-based method were about 93%, 91% and 95% respectively. Using the EEG data of a single subject in response to different stimuli types and with the aid of the proposed discriminative sparse representation model, one can distinguish guilty subjects from innocent ones. Indeed, this property eliminates the necessity of several subject EEG data in model learning and decision making for a specific subject. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Subjective Cognitive Workload, Interactivity and Feedback in a Web-Based Writing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Lisa; MacKay, Bruce R.

    2006-01-01

    This investigation compares and analyses the experiences and subjective cognitive workload of students undertaking a lesson on an aspect of micro-level writing skills in a web-based and paperbased version. Both versions of the lesson were based on the principles of interactive learning, specifically on a modified version of Chou's (2003) model.…

  12. Definition of quality indicators in microsurgery in head and neck reconstruction based on a 5-year follow-up without a loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, P; Poort, L; Böckmann, R; Lethaus, B

    2013-01-01

    Microsurgical tissue transfer is a standard procedure in reconstructive surgery of defects in head and neck oncology patients. According to the literature vascular thrombosis occurs in 8-14% of cases and is considered to be the main reason for flap failure. A review of the literature on this subject was carried out and related to the quality guidelines of the Department of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery in the Maastricht University Medical Centre. We defined quality indicators and quality goals for the reconstruction of head and neck defects. We investigated whether or not these parameters are practicable in a specialized head and neck cancer unit. We included 81 consecutive patients with oral cancer/osteoradionecrosis of the mandible who received a microsurgical free tissue transfer for reconstruction. The patients were treated in our institution between August 2007 and December 2011. Patient data were collected in a prospective database. Follow-up was conducted in the Department of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery. Data were analysed for the defined reference groups, and the results were compared with the quality goals. Median follow-up was 29.1 (range 1-55) months. There were only six (7.4%) immediate complications leading to compromised flaps. Among the complications were four (5.0%) anastomosis-related complications and two haematomas (2.5%). There was no flap loss. Based on the quality goals we were able to reach an overall flap success rate of 100%. Most of the defined quality goals can be attained in a specialized head and neck unit. Careful patient selection, pharmacologic, non-pharmacologic and surgical measures for preventing thrombosis, such as meticulous micro-vascular surgery are considered to be essential. No consensus in the literature was found on how complications could best be prevented. The role of a standardized pre-, peri- and postoperative management is presented. The importance of thorough planning and the technical skill of the reconstructive

  13. The impact of a community-based oral, head and neck cancer screening for reducing tobacco consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapner, Edie R; Bauer, Kellie L; Wise, Justin C

    2011-11-01

    Examine the usefulness of large-scale community-based head and neck cancer screening for reducing tobacco use in an at-risk population. Questions answered: (1) Is participating in a community-based head and neck cancer screening related to a reduction in tobacco usage? (2) Do differing factors between participants predict behavior change? Survey based with a longitudinal follow-up component. Atlanta Motor Speedway during a National Association of Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) race event. Recruited NASCAR fans (n = 620). Initial screening and 11-question survey for 6-month telephone follow-up. One hundred fifty-six participants (25%) required medical follow-up. Chi-square analysis indicated a significantly higher proportion of smokers (13%) evidenced positive findings compared to nonsmokers (8%) or past smokers (6%). Kruskal-Wallis analysis followed by Dunn's multiple comparison post hoc test indicated smokers were from a significantly lower socioeconomic status background compared to nonsmokers. Analysis of variance indicated contacted participants reported smoking significantly fewer cigarettes per day 6 months postscreening compared to the number of cigarettes smoked at the baseline. Forty-four (59%) participants reported reducing the number of cigarettes smoked per day, and 11 participants reported quitting smoking. The authors have demonstrated that large-scale community-based head and neck cancer screenings can be effectively implemented in nonmedical venues. This study demonstrated that targeting education for reduction of risk factors in the NASCAR population positively affected tobacco cessation.

  14. Magnetic Nanoparticle-Based Hyperthermia for Head & Neck Cancer in Mouse Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qun; Wang, Luning; Cheng, Rui; Mao, Leidong; Arnold, Robert D.; Howerth, Elizabeth W.; Chen, Zhuo G.; Platt, Simon

    2012-01-01

    In this study, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle induced hyperthermia is applied for treatment of head and neck cancer using a mouse xenograft model of human head and neck cancer (Tu212 cell line). A hyperthermia system for heating iron oxide nanoparticles was developed by using alternating magnetic fields. Both theoretical simulation and experimental studies were performed to verify the thermotherapy effect. Experimental results showed that the temperature of the tumor center has dramatically elevated from around the room temperature to about 40oC within the first 5-10 minutes. Pathological studies demonstrate epithelial tumor cell destruction associated with the hyperthermia treatment. PMID:22287991

  15. Development of steel head joints with fiberglass sucker rod on the base of contact stresses investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopey, B.V.; Kopey, L.B. [Ivano-Frankivsk State Technical Oil and Gas University (Ukraine); Maksymuk, A.V.; Shcherbyna, N.M. [National Ukrainian Academy of Sciences (Ukraine)

    1998-12-31

    The methods of calculation of contact stresses during cylinder shell tube - steel bandage interaction are presented. Tymoshenko`s generalized theory of shells serves as a basis for investigating steel head to fiberglass sucker rod joint strength. This theory allows to consider mechanical performance of composite materials. The problem is reduced to solving Fredholm integral equation of second degree. The numeric analysis is performed. Several joints of composite body with steel head are proposed. The full-size sucker rod fatigue tests are performed to determine the fatigue limit under the bending and axial cyclic loads in the medium of oil well fluids. (orig.)

  16. Helping Head Start Parents Promote Their Children's Kindergarten Adjustment: The Research-Based Developmentally Informed Parent Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, Karen L; Welsh, Janet A; Heinrichs, Brenda S; Nix, Robert L; Mathis, Erin T

    2015-01-01

    Head Start enhances school readiness during preschool, but effects diminish after children transition into kindergarten. Designed to promote sustained gains, the Research-based Developmentally Informed (REDI) Parent program (REDI-P) provided home visits before and after the kindergarten transition, giving parents evidence-based learning games, interactive stories, and guided pretend play to use with their children. To evaluate impact, two hundred 4-year-old children in Head Start REDI classrooms were randomly assigned to REDI-P or a comparison condition (mail-home math games). Beyond the effects of the classroom program, REDI-P promoted significant improvements in child literacy skills, academic performance, self-directed learning, and social competence, demonstrating the utility of the approach in promoting gains in cognitive and social-emotional skills evident after the transition into kindergarten. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  17. Evidence of Cognitive Dysfunction after Soccer Playing with Ball Heading Using a Novel Tablet-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Angela H.; Patel, Saumil S.; Sereno, Anne B.

    2013-01-01

    Does frequent head-to-ball contact cause cognitive dysfunctions and brain injury to soccer players? An iPad-based experiment was designed to examine the impact of ball-heading among high school female soccer players. We examined both direct, stimulus-driven, or reflexive point responses (Pro-Point) as well as indirect, goal-driven, or voluntary point responses (Anti-Point), thought to require cognitive functions in the frontal lobe. The results show that soccer players were significantly slower than controls in the Anti-Point task but displayed no difference in Pro-Point latencies, indicating a disruption specific to voluntary responses. These findings suggest that even subconcussive blows in soccer can result in cognitive function changes that are consistent with mild traumatic brain injury of the frontal lobes. There is great clinical and practical potential of a tablet-based application for quick detection and monitoring of cognitive dysfunction. PMID:23460843

  18. MO-E-17A-08: Attenuation-Based Size Adjusted, Scanner-Independent Organ Dose Estimates for Head CT Exams: TG 204 for Head CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, K; Bostani, M; Cagnon, C; McNitt-Gray, M [UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Zankl, M [Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen GmbH, Neuherberg (Germany); DeMarco, J [UCLA Department of Radiation Oncology, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: AAPM Task Group 204 described size specific dose estimates (SSDE) for body scans. The purpose of this work is to use a similar approach to develop patient-specific, scanner-independent organ dose estimates for head CT exams using an attenuation-based size metric. Methods: For eight patient models from the GSF family of voxelized phantoms, dose to brain and lens of the eye was estimated using Monte Carlo simulations of contiguous axial scans for 64-slice MDCT scanners from four major manufacturers. Organ doses were normalized by scannerspecific 16 cm CTDIvol values and averaged across all scanners to obtain scanner-independent CTDIvol-to-organ-dose conversion coefficients for each patient model. Head size was measured at the first slice superior to the eyes; patient perimeter and effective diameter (ED) were measured directly from the GSF data. Because the GSF models use organ identification codes instead of Hounsfield units, water equivalent diameter (WED) was estimated indirectly. Using the image data from 42 patients ranging from 2 weeks old to adult, the perimeter, ED and WED size metrics were obtained and correlations between each metric were established. Applying these correlations to the GSF perimeter and ED measurements, WED was calculated for each model. The relationship between the various patient size metrics and CTDIvol-to-organ-dose conversion coefficients was then described. Results: The analysis of patient images demonstrated the correlation between WED and ED across a wide range of patient sizes. When applied to the GSF patient models, an exponential relationship between CTDIvol-to-organ-dose conversion coefficients and the WED size metric was observed with correlation coefficients of 0.93 and 0.77 for the brain and lens of the eye, respectively. Conclusion: Strong correlation exists between CTDIvol normalized brain dose and WED. For the lens of the eye, a lower correlation is observed, primarily due to surface dose variations. Funding

  19. Nutrient-based dietary patterns and the risk of head and neck cancer: a pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Edefonti, V; Hashibe, M; Ambrogi, F; Parpinel, M; Bravi, F; Talamini, R; Levi, F.; Yu, G.; Morgenstern, H.; Kelsey, K.; Mcclean, M; Schantz, S; Zhang, Z.; Chuang, S.; Boffetta, P

    2011-01-01

    Background The association between dietary patterns and head and neck cancer has rarely been addressed. Patients and methods We used individual-level pooled data from five case-control studies (2452 cases and 5013 controls) participating in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology consortium. A posteriori dietary patterns were identified through a principal component factor analysis carried out on 24 nutrients derived from study-specific food-frequency questionnaires. Odds ratios (...

  20. Atlas-Based Automatic Generation of Subject-Specific Finite Element Tongue Meshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijar, Ahmad; Rohan, Pierre-Yves; Perrier, Pascal; Payan, Yohan

    2016-01-01

    Generation of subject-specific 3D finite element (FE) models requires the processing of numerous medical images in order to precisely extract geometrical information about subject-specific anatomy. This processing remains extremely challenging. To overcome this difficulty, we present an automatic atlas-based method that generates subject-specific FE meshes via a 3D registration guided by Magnetic Resonance images. The method extracts a 3D transformation by registering the atlas' volume image to the subject's one, and establishes a one-to-one correspondence between the two volumes. The 3D transformation field deforms the atlas' mesh to generate the subject-specific FE mesh. To preserve the quality of the subject-specific mesh, a diffeomorphic non-rigid registration based on B-spline free-form deformations is used, which guarantees a non-folding and one-to-one transformation. Two evaluations of the method are provided. First, a publicly available CT-database is used to assess the capability to accurately capture the complexity of each subject-specific Lung's geometry. Second, FE tongue meshes are generated for two healthy volunteers and two patients suffering from tongue cancer using MR images. It is shown that the method generates an appropriate representation of the subject-specific geometry while preserving the quality of the FE meshes for subsequent FE analysis. To demonstrate the importance of our method in a clinical context, a subject-specific mesh is used to simulate tongue's biomechanical response to the activation of an important tongue muscle, before and after cancer surgery.

  1. Computed tomographic findings in dogs with head trauma and development of a novel prognostic computed tomography-based scoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Orit; Peery, Dana; Bdolah-Abram, Tali; Moscovich, Efrat; Kelmer, Efrat; Klainbart, Sigal; Milgram, Joshua; Shamir, Merav H

    2017-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize CT findings and outcomes in dogs with head trauma and design a prognostic scale. ANIMALS 27 dogs admitted to the Koret School Veterinary Teaching Hospital within 72 hours after traumatic head injury that underwent CT imaging of the head. PROCEDURES Data were extracted from medical records regarding dog signalment, history, physical and neurologic examination findings, and modified Glasgow coma scale scores. All CT images were retrospectively evaluated by a radiologist unaware of dog status. Short-term (10 days after trauma) and long-term (≥ 6 months after trauma) outcomes were determined, and CT findings and other variables were analyzed for associations with outcome. A prognostic CT-based scale was developed on the basis of the results. RESULTS Cranial vault fractures, parenchymal abnormalities, or both were identified via CT in 24 of 27 (89%) dogs. Three (11%) dogs had only facial bone fractures. Intracranial hemorrhage was identified in 16 (59%) dogs, cranial vault fractures in 15 (56%), midline shift in 14 (52%), lateral ventricle asymmetry in 12 (44%), and hydrocephalus in 7 (26%). Hemorrhage and ventricular asymmetry were significantly and negatively associated with short- and long-term survival, respectively. The developed 7-point prognostic scale included points for hemorrhage, midline shift or lateral ventricle asymmetry, cranial vault fracture, and depressed fracture (1 point each) and infratentorial lesion (3 points). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The findings reported here may assist in determining prognoses for other dogs with head trauma. The developed scale may be useful for outcome assessment of dogs with head trauma; however, it must be validated before clinical application.

  2. Structure-based molecular simulations reveal the enhancement of biased Brownian motions in single-headed kinesin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Kanada

    Full Text Available Kinesin is a family of molecular motors that move unidirectionally along microtubules (MT using ATP hydrolysis free energy. In the family, the conventional two-headed kinesin was experimentally characterized to move unidirectionally through "walking" in a hand-over-hand fashion by coordinated motions of the two heads. Interestingly a single-headed kinesin, a truncated KIF1A, still can generate a biased Brownian movement along MT, as observed by in vitro single molecule experiments. Thus, KIF1A must use a different mechanism from the conventional kinesin to achieve the unidirectional motions. Based on the energy landscape view of proteins, for the first time, we conducted a set of molecular simulations of the truncated KIF1A movements over an ATP hydrolysis cycle and found a mechanism exhibiting and enhancing stochastic forward-biased movements in a similar way to those in experiments. First, simulating stand-alone KIF1A, we did not find any biased movements, while we found that KIF1A with a large friction cargo-analog attached to the C-terminus can generate clearly biased Brownian movements upon an ATP hydrolysis cycle. The linked cargo-analog enhanced the detachment of the KIF1A from MT. Once detached, diffusion of the KIF1A head was restricted around the large cargo which was located in front of the head at the time of detachment, thus generating a forward bias of the diffusion. The cargo plays the role of a diffusional anchor, or cane, in KIF1A "walking."

  3. Subject Knowledge Development by Science Student Teachers: The Role of University Tutors and School-Based Subject Mentors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youens, Bernadette; McCarthy, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Following the introduction of a National Curriculum for Science, all secondary science teachers in England need to be prepared to teach all aspects of a broad and balanced science curriculum. This is the second paper in which we explore science student teachers' subject knowledge development during a one-year postgraduate teacher preparation…

  4. Minor head injury: CT-based strategies for management--a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.; Dippel, D.W.; Nederkoorn, P.J.; Dekker, H.M.; Vos, P.E.; Kool, D.R.; Rijssel, D.A. van; Hofman, P.A.; Twijnstra, A.; Tanghe, H.L.; Hunink, M.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the cost-effectiveness of using selective computed tomographic (CT) strategies with that of performing CT in all patients with minor head injury (MHI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The internal review board approved the study; written informed consent was obtained from all interviewed

  5. Minor Head Injury: CT-based Strategies for Management - A Cost-effectiveness Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Marion; Dippel, Diederik W. J.; Nederkoorn, Paul J.; Dekker, Helena M.; Vos, Pieter E.; Kool, Digna R.; van Rijssel, Daphne A.; Hofman, Paul A. M.; Twijnstra, Albert; Tanghe, Hervé L. J.; Hunink, M. G. Myriam

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the cost-effectiveness of using selective computed tomographic (CT) strategies with that of performing CT in all patients with minor head injury (MHI). Materials and methods: The internal review board approved the study; written informed consent was obtained from all interviewed

  6. Incidence of hospital referred head injuries in Norway: a population based survey from the Stavanger region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heskestad, Ben; Baardsen, Roald; Helseth, Eirik

    2009-01-01

    it with previous Norwegian studies. METHODS: All head injured patients referred to Stavanger University Hospital during a one-year period (2003) were registered in a partly prospective and partly retrospective study. The catchment area for the hospital is strictly defined to a local population of 283...

  7. Web-based Visualisation of Head Pose and Facial Expressions Changes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliatakis, Grigorios; Vidakis, Nikolaos; Triantafyllidis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    and accurately estimate head pose changes in unconstrained environment. In order to complete the secondary process of recognising four universal dominant facial expressions (happiness, anger, sadness and surprise), emotion recognition via facial expressions (ERFE) was adopted. After that, a lightweight data...

  8. Machine-vision-based identification of broken inserts in edge profile milling heads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Robles, Laura; Azzopardi, George; Alegre, Enrique; Petkov, Nicolai

    This paper presents a reliable machine vision system to automatically detect inserts and determine if they are broken. Unlike the machining operations studied in the literature, we are dealing with edge milling head tools for aggressive machining of thick plates (up to 12 centimetres) in a single

  9. Osseointegrated implant-based dental rehabilitation in head and neck reconstruction patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ch'ng, Sydney; Skoracki, Roman J; Selber, Jesse C; Yu, Peirong; Martin, Jack W; Hofstede, Theresa M; Chambers, Mark S; Liu, Jun; Hanasono, Matthew M

    2016-04-01

    Dental restoration is an integral part of head and neck cancer reconstruction. We evaluated the success rate of osseointegrated implants in patients with head and neck cancer, comparing outcomes between implants placed in fibula free flaps to those placed in native mandibular and maxillary bone. A total of 1132 implants were placed in 246 patients. The overall implant loss rate was 3.7% and was higher in fibula flaps (8.2%) compared to the native mandible (2.6%) and maxilla (2.2%), although these differences did not reach statistical significance (p = .059 and p = .053, respectively). The failure rate was 8.0% for implants placed after radiation and 3.6% in patients who did not undergo radiation (p = .097). Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) occurred in 19 patients (7.7%) after implant placement, and tobacco use was found to be a risk factor (p = .027). Osseointegrated implants are reliable in patients with head and neck cancer, including those undergoing bony free flap reconstruction. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E321-E327, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. p53 oncogene mutations in head and neck cancer based on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-26

    Jan 26, 2012 ... Key words: Weighted Euclidean distance, head and neck cancer, p53, physical and chemical properties, amino acids. INTRODUCTION. The p53 is a gene that codes for a protein that regulates the cell cycle and hence functions as a tumor suppressor. It is very important in maintaining genetic stability and.

  11. Teratozoospermia Classification Based on the Shape of Sperm Head Using OTSU Threshold and Decision Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masdiyasa I Gede Susrama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Teratozoospermia is one of the results of expert analysis of male infertility, by conducting lab tests microscopically to determine the morphology of spermatozoa, one of which is the normal and abnormal form of the head of spermatozoa. The laboratory test results are in the form of a complete image of spermatozoa. In this study, the shape of the head of spermatozoa was taken from a WHO standards book. The pictures taken had a fairly clear imaging and still had noise, thus to differentiate between the head of normal and abnormal spermatozoa, several processes need to be performed, which include: a pre-process or image adjusting, a threshold segmentation process using Otsu threshold method, and a classification process using a decision tree. Training and test data are presented in stages, from 5 to 20 data. Test results of using Otsu segmentation and a decision tree produced different errors in each level of training data, which were 70%, 75%, and 80% for training data of size 5×2, 10×2, and 20×2, respectively, with an average error of 75%. Thus, this study of using Otsu threshold segmentation and a Decision Tree can classify the form of the head of spermatozoa as abnormal or Normal

  12. Design of an anti head check profile based on stress relief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dollevoet, R.P.B.J.

    2010-01-01

    Head Checking (HC) is a major type of Rolling Contact Fatigue (RCF) in railway rails across the globe. It mainly occurs on curved tracks in the rail shoulder of the gauge side and at the gauge corner because of the large lateral force. The related track radii are between 500 – 3000 m. It initiates

  13. Designing randomized-controlled trials to improve head-louse treatment: systematic review using a vignette-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do-Pham, Giao; Le Cleach, Laurence; Giraudeau, Bruno; Maruani, Annabel; Chosidow, Olivier; Ravaud, Philippe

    2014-03-01

    Head-louse infestation remains a public health problem. Despite published randomized-controlled trials, no consensus-based clinical practice guidelines for its management emerged because of the heterogeneity of trial methodologies. Our study was undertaken to attempt to find an optimal trial framework: minimizing the risk of bias, while taking feasibility into account. To do so, we used the vignette-based method. A systematic review first identified trials on head-louse infestation; 49 were selected and their methodological constraints assessed. Methodological features were extracted and combined by arborescence to generate a broad spectrum of potential designs, called vignettes, yielding 357 vignettes. A panel of 48 experts then rated one-on-one comparisons of those vignettes to obtain a ranking of the designs. Methodological items retained for vignette generation were income level of the population, types of treatments compared, randomization unit, blinding, treatment-administration site, diagnosis method and criteria, and primary outcome measure. The expert panel selected vignettes with cluster randomization, centralized treatment administration, and blinding of the outcome assessor. The vignette method identified optimal designs to standardize future head-louse treatment trials, thereby obtaining valid conclusions and comparable data from future trials, and appears to be a reliable way to generate evidence-based guidelines.

  14. Evaluation of cervical posture improvement of children with cerebral palsy after physical therapy based on head movements and serious games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Miguel A; Raya, Rafael; Muzzioli, Luca; Morelli, Daniela; Otero, Abraham; Iosa, Marco; Cincotti, Febo; Rocon, Eduardo

    2017-08-18

    This paper presents the preliminary results of a novel rehabilitation therapy for cervical and trunk control of children with cerebral palsy (CP) based on serious videogames and physical exercise. The therapy is based on the use of the ENLAZA Interface, a head mouse based on inertial technology that will be used to control a set of serious videogames with movements of the head. Ten users with CP participated in the study. Whereas the control group (n = 5) followed traditional therapies, the experimental group (n = 5) complemented these therapies with a series of ten sessions of gaming with ENLAZA to exercise cervical flexion-extensions, rotations and inclinations in a controlled, engaging environment. The ten work sessions yielded improvements in head and trunk control that were higher in the experimental group for Visual Analogue Scale, Goal Attainment Scaling and Trunk Control Measurement Scale (TCMS). Significant differences (27% vs. 2% of percentage improvement) were found between the experimental and control groups for TCMS (p < 0.05). The kinematic assessment shows that there were some improvements in the active and the passive range of motion. However, no significant differences were found pre- and post-intervention. Physical therapy that combines serious games with traditional rehabilitation could allow children with CP to achieve larger function improvements in the trunk and cervical regions. However, given the limited scope of this trial (n = 10) additional studies are needed to corroborate this hypothesis.

  15. Subject-Specific Sparse Dictionary Learning for Atlas-Based Brain MRI Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Snehashis; He, Qing; Sweeney, Elizabeth; Carass, Aaron; Reich, Daniel S; Prince, Jerry L; Pham, Dzung L

    2015-09-01

    Quantitative measurements from segmentations of human brain magnetic resonance (MR) images provide important biomarkers for normal aging and disease progression. In this paper, we propose a patch-based tissue classification method from MR images that uses a sparse dictionary learning approach and atlas priors. Training data for the method consists of an atlas MR image, prior information maps depicting where different tissues are expected to be located, and a hard segmentation. Unlike most atlas-based classification methods that require deformable registration of the atlas priors to the subject, only affine registration is required between the subject and training atlas. A subject-specific patch dictionary is created by learning relevant patches from the atlas. Then the subject patches are modeled as sparse combinations of learned atlas patches leading to tissue memberships at each voxel. The combination of prior information in an example-based framework enables us to distinguish tissues having similar intensities but different spatial locations. We demonstrate the efficacy of the approach on the application of whole-brain tissue segmentation in subjects with healthy anatomy and normal pressure hydrocephalus, as well as lesion segmentation in multiple sclerosis patients. For each application, quantitative comparisons are made against publicly available state-of-the art approaches.

  16. Subject Specific Sparse Dictionary Learning for Atlas Based Brain MRI Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Snehashis; He, Qing; Sweeney, Elizabeth; Carass, Aaron; Reich, Daniel S.; Prince, Jerry L.; Pham, Dzung L.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative measurements from segmentations of human brain magnetic resonance (MR) images provide important biomarkers for normal aging and disease progression. In this paper, we propose a patch-based tissue classification method from MR images that uses a sparse dictionary learning approach and atlas priors. Training data for the method consists of an atlas MR image, prior information maps depicting where different tissues are expected to be located, and a hard segmentation. Unlike most atlas-based classification methods that require deformable registration of the atlas priors to the subject, only affine registration is required between the subject and training atlas. A subject specific patch dictionary is created by learning relevant patches from the atlas. Then the subject patches are modeled as sparse combinations of learned atlas patches leading to tissue memberships at each voxel. The combination of prior information in an example-based framework enables us to distinguish tissues having similar intensities but different spatial locations. We demonstrate the efficacy of the approach on the application of whole brain tissue segmentation in subjects with healthy anatomy and normal pressure hydrocephalus, as well as lesion segmentation in multiple sclerosis patients. For each application, quantitative comparisons are made against publicly available, state-of-the art approaches. PMID:26340685

  17. A model of head-related transfer functions based on a state-space analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Norman Herkamp

    This dissertation develops and validates a novel state-space method for binaural auditory display. Binaural displays seek to immerse a listener in a 3D virtual auditory scene with a pair of headphones. The challenge for any binaural display is to compute the two signals to supply to the headphones. The present work considers a general framework capable of synthesizing a wide variety of auditory scenes. The framework models collections of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) simultaneously. This framework improves the flexibility of contemporary displays, but it also compounds the steep computational cost of the display. The cost is reduced dramatically by formulating the collection of HRTFs in the state-space and employing order-reduction techniques to design efficient approximants. Order-reduction techniques based on the Hankel-operator are found to yield accurate low-cost approximants. However, the inter-aural time difference (ITD) of the HRTFs degrades the time-domain response of the approximants. Fortunately, this problem can be circumvented by employing a state-space architecture that allows the ITD to be modeled outside of the state-space. Accordingly, three state-space architectures are considered. Overall, a multiple-input, single-output (MISO) architecture yields the best compromise between performance and flexibility. The state-space approximants are evaluated both empirically and psychoacoustically. An array of truncated FIR filters is used as a pragmatic reference system for comparison. For a fixed cost bound, the state-space systems yield lower approximation error than FIR arrays for D>10, where D is the number of directions in the HRTF collection. A series of headphone listening tests are also performed to validate the state-space approach, and to estimate the minimum order N of indiscriminable approximants. For D = 50, the state-space systems yield order thresholds less than half those of the FIR arrays. Depending upon the stimulus uncertainty, a

  18. Whisking kinematics enables object localization in head-centered coordinates based on tactile information from a single vibrissa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne En-Tzu Yang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During active tactile exploration with their whiskers (vibrissae, rodents can rapidly orient to an object even though there are very few proprioceptors in the whisker muscles. Thus a long-standing question in the study of the vibrissal system is how the rat can localize an object in head-centered coordinates without muscle-based proprioception. We used a three-dimensional model of whisker bending to simulate whisking motions against a peg to investigate the possibility that the 3D mechanics of contact from a single whisker are sufficient for localization in head-centered coordinates. Results show that, for nearly all whiskers in the array, purely tactile signals at the whisker base – as would be measured by mechanoreceptors, in whisker-centered coordinates – could be used to determine the location of a vertical peg in head-centered coordinates. Both the roll and the elevation components of whisking kinematics contribute to the uniqueness and resolution of the localization. These results offer an explanation for a behavioral study showing that rats can more accurately determine the horizontal angle of an object if one column, rather than one row, of whiskers is spared.

  19. Eliminating drift of the head gesture reference to enhance Google Glass-based control of an NAO humanoid robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian Mao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a strategy for hand-free control of an NAO humanoid robot via head gesture detected by Google Glass-based multi-sensor fusion. First, we introduce a Google Glass-based robot system by integrating the Google Glass and the NAO humanoid robot, which is able to send robot commands through Wi-Fi communications between the Google Glass and the robot. Second, we detect the operator’s head gestures by processing data from multiple sensors including accelerometers, geomagnetic sensors and gyroscopes. Next, we use a complementary filter to eliminate drift of the head gesture reference, which greatly improves the control performance. This is accomplished by the high-pass filter component on the control signal. Finally, we conduct obstacle avoidance experiments while navigating the robot to validate the effectiveness and reliability of this system. The experimental results show that the robot is smoothly navigated from its initial position to its destination with obstacle avoidance via the Google Glass. This hands-free control system can benefit those with paralysed limbs.

  20. Room Volume Estimation Based on Ambiguity of Short-Term Interaural Phase Differences Using Humanoid Robot Head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Shimoyama

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Humans can recognize approximate room size using only binaural audition. However, sound reverberation is not negligible in most environments. The reverberation causes temporal fluctuations in the short-term interaural phase differences (IPDs of sound pressure. This study proposes a novel method for a binaural humanoid robot head to estimate room volume. The method is based on the statistical properties of the short-term IPDs of sound pressure. The humanoid robot turns its head toward a sound source, recognizes the sound source, and then estimates the ego-centric distance by its stereovision. By interpolating the relations between room volume, average standard deviation, and ego-centric distance experimentally obtained for various rooms in a prepared database, the room volume was estimated by the binaural audition of the robot from the average standard deviation of the short-term IPDs at the estimated distance.

  1. Dynamic variability of the heading-flowering stages of single rice in China based on field observations and NDVI estimations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao; Song, Xiao; Chen, Yi; Wang, Pin; Wei, Xing; Tao, Fulu

    2015-05-01

    Although many studies have indicated the consistent impact of warming on the natural ecosystem (e.g., an early flowering and prolonged growing period), our knowledge of the impacts on agricultural systems is still poorly understood. In this study, spatiotemporal variability of the heading-flowering stages of single rice was detected and compared at three different scales using field-based methods (FBMs) and satellite-based methods (SBMs). The heading-flowering stages from 2000 to 2009 with a spatial resolution of 1 km were extracted from the SPOT/VGT NDVI time series data using the Savizky-Golay filtering method in the areas in China dominated by single rice of Northeast China (NE), the middle-lower Yangtze River Valley (YZ), the Sichuan Basin (SC), and the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau (YG). We found that approximately 52.6 and 76.3 % of the estimated heading-flowering stages by a SBM were within ±5 and ±10 days estimation error (a root mean square error (RMSE) of 8.76 days) when compared with those determined by a FBM. Both the FBM data and the SBM data had indicated a similar spatial pattern, with the earliest annual average heading-flowering stages in SC, followed by YG, NE, and YZ, which were inconsistent with the patterns reported in natural ecosystems. Moreover, diverse temporal trends were also detected in the four regions due to different climate conditions and agronomic factors such as cultivar shifts. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the FBM and the SBM in both the regional average value of the phenological stages and the trends, implying the consistency and rationality of the SBM at three scales.

  2. Cam deformity and the omega angle, a novel quantitative measurement of femoral head-neck morphology: a 3D CT gender analysis in asymptomatic subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascarenhas, Vasco V.; Gaspar, Augusto [Hospital da Luz, MSK imaging Unit (UIME), Imaging Center, Lisbon (Portugal); Rego, Paulo [Hospital da Luz, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Lisbon (Portugal); Dantas, Pedro [Hospital CUF Descobertas, Lisbon (Portugal); Soldado, Francisco [Universitat de Barcelona, Hospital Sant Joan de Deu, Barcelona (Spain); Consciencia, Jose G. [NOVA Medical School, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2017-05-15

    Our objectives were to use 3D computed tomography (CT) to define head-neck morphologic gender-specific and normative parameters in asymptomatic individuals and use the omega angle (Ω ) to provide quantification data on the location and radial extension of a cam deformity. We prospectively included 350 individuals and evaluated 188 asymptomatic hips that underwent semiautomated CT analysis. Different thresholds of alpha angle (α ) were considered in order to analyze cam morphology and determine Ω . We calculated overall and gender-specific parameters for imaging signs of cam morphology (Ω and circumferential α ). The 95 % reference interval limits were beyond abnormal thresholds found in the literature for cam morphology. Specifically, α at 3/1 oclock were 46.9 /60.8 overall, 51.8 /65.4 for men and 45.7 /55.3 for women. Cam prevalence, magnitude, location, and epicenter were significantly gender different. Increasing α correlated with higher Ω , meaning that higher angles correspond to larger cam deformities. Hip morphometry measurements in this cohort of asymptomatic individuals extended beyond current thresholds used for the clinical diagnosis of cam deformity, and α was found to vary both by gender and measurement location. These results suggest that α measurement is insufficient for the diagnosis of cam deformity. Enhanced morphometric evaluation, including 3D imaging and Ω , may enable a more accurate diagnosis. (orig.)

  3. Glycemic response of rice, wheat and finger millet based diabetic food formulations in normoglycemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobana, Shanmugam; Kumari, Singh R Usha; Malleshi, Nagappa G; Ali, Syed Z

    2007-08-01

    Food formulations suitable as dietary supplements to diabetic subjects based on wheat, decorticated finger millet, popped (aralu) and expanded (puri) rice each blended separately with legumes, non-fat dry milk, vegetable oils, spices and a few hypoglycemic ingredients were formulated. The formulations contained 13.0-18.3% protein, 11.3-11.8% fat, 59.9-67.5% starch and 13.2-18.0% dietary fiber. A 50-g equivalent carbohydrate portion of the foods in the form of thick porridge was provided to eight healthy adult subjects and the postprandial blood glucose response was determined. The Glycemic Index (GI) values were 55.4+/-9, 93.4+/-7, 105+/-6 and 109+/-8 for wheat-based, millet-based, aralu-based and puri-based formulations. The variations in the GI could be attributed to the nature of available as well as non-available (non-starchy polysaccharides) carbohydrates in the foods besides the processing undergone by the cereal ingredients. The higher GI of rice formulations could be due to the easily digestible nature of starches and also their lower dietary fiber contents. The study revealed the suitability of wheat-based formulation as a food supplement or as meal replacer in diabetic subjects but the unsuitability of rice-based formulations.

  4. Evaluation of a Knowledge-Based Planning Solution for Head and Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tol, Jim P., E-mail: j.tol@vumc.nl; Delaney, Alexander R.; Dahele, Max; Slotman, Ben J.; Verbakel, Wilko F.A.R.

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: Automated and knowledge-based planning techniques aim to reduce variations in plan quality. RapidPlan uses a library consisting of different patient plans to make a model that can predict achievable dose-volume histograms (DVHs) for new patients and uses those models for setting optimization objectives. We benchmarked RapidPlan versus clinical plans for 2 patient groups, using 3 different libraries. Methods and Materials: Volumetric modulated arc therapy plans of 60 recent head and neck cancer patients that included sparing of the salivary glands, swallowing muscles, and oral cavity were evenly divided between 2 models, Model{sub 30A} and Model{sub 30B}, and were combined in a third model, Model{sub 60}. Knowledge-based plans were created for 2 evaluation groups: evaluation group 1 (EG1), consisting of 15 recent patients, and evaluation group 2 (EG2), consisting of 15 older patients in whom only the salivary glands were spared. RapidPlan results were compared with clinical plans (CP) for boost and/or elective planning target volume homogeneity index, using HI{sub B}/HI{sub E} = 100 × (D2% − D98%)/D50%, and mean dose to composite salivary glands, swallowing muscles, and oral cavity (D{sub sal}, D{sub swal}, and D{sub oc}, respectively). Results: For EG1, RapidPlan improved HI{sub B} and HI{sub E} values compared with CP by 1.0% to 1.3% and 1.0% to 0.6%, respectively. Comparable D{sub sal} and D{sub swal} values were seen in Model{sub 30A}, Model{sub 30B}, and Model{sub 60}, decreasing by an average of 0.1, 1.0, and 0.8 Gy and 4.8, 3.7, and 4.4 Gy, respectively. However, differences were noted between individual organs at risk (OARs), with Model{sub 30B} increasing D{sub oc} by 0.1, 3.2, and 2.8 Gy compared with CP, Model{sub 30A}, and Model{sub 60}. Plan quality was less consistent when the patient was flagged as an outlier. For EG2, RapidPlan decreased D{sub sal} by 4.1 to 4.9 Gy on average, whereas HI{sub B} and HI{sub E} decreased by 1.1% to

  5. Identifying Evidence-Based Special Education Interventions from Single-Subject Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jennifer; Sugai, George

    2013-01-01

    Special educators are required to use evidence-based academic and behavioral interventions in their classrooms (U.S. Department of Education, 2010). No rigorous and comprehensive database currently exists to support educators. Within the field of special education, single-subject research is the primary research methodology (Horner, Carr, Halle,…

  6. Methods for Evidence-Based Practice: Quantitative Synthesis of Single-Subject Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadish, William R.; Rindskopf, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Good quantitative evidence does not require large, aggregate group designs. The authors describe ground-breaking work in managing the conceptual and practical demands in developing meta-analytic strategies for single subject designs in an effort to add to evidence-based practice. (Contains 2 figures.)

  7. Use of the single subject design for practice based primary care research

    OpenAIRE

    Janosky, J.

    2005-01-01

    The use of a single subject research design is proposed for practice based primary care research. An overview of the rationale of the design, an introduction to the methodology, strengths, limitations, a sample of recent literature citations, a working example, and possible clinical applications are presented.

  8. Evaluation of a Group-Based Trauma Recovery Program in Gaza: Students' Subjective Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Ian; Abdullah, Ghassan

    2012-01-01

    Internationally, evaluation of group-based trauma recovery programs has relied upon normative outcome measures, with no studies systematically analyzing children's subjective experience for program development. In contrast, the current study explored children's experience of a Gazan recovery program "in their own words." Twenty-four…

  9. Evaluating Standards-Based Assessment Rubrics in a Postgraduate Public Health Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, James; Phongsavan, Philayrath

    2017-01-01

    Standards-based assessment rubrics are recognised as an important tool for ensuring clear criteria in higher education. Most of the available evidence on rubrics comes from studies with face-to-face undergraduate students. Our study evaluated the introduction of rubrics into a postgraduate subject that included both online and face-to-face…

  10. Sex differences in subjective and actigraphic sleep measures: A population-based study of elderly persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, J.F. van den; Miedema, H.M.E.; Tulen, J.H.M.; Hofman, A.; Neven, A.K.; Tiemeier, H.

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate and explain sex differences in subjective and actigraphic sleep parameters in community-dwelling elderly persons. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: The study was embedded in the Rotterdam Study, a population-based study. Participants: Nine hundred fifty-six

  11. Comparison of Coping Strategies of Student Teachers Based on Their Subject of Specialisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. M., Majitha; Sajan, K. S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to find out the difference in the mean scores of coping strategies of student teachers based on their subject of specialisation. A total of 558 student teachers were selected for the study. Results indicate that there exists a significant difference in the mean scores of Coping Strategies of student teachers of Arts…

  12. TERRAIN: FETAL GROWTH TELEHEALTH SYSTEM BASED ON 2D FETAL HEAD IMAGE USING RANDOMIZED HOUGH TRANSFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robeth Rahmatullah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR is one of many fetal abnormalities, which has high contribution on maternal mortality rate and perinatal mortality rate in Indonesia. Apparently, IUGR impact can be reduced if only the symptoms are detected earlier and the correct treatment is applied. However, fetal growth detection and monitoring process in Indonesia is obstructed because the number of physicians is very limited and ultrasonography (USG devices are expensive. Moreover, both the physicians and USG devices are only available in big cities. To answer those problems, this research proposed an intelligent system that can provide fetal growth telemonitoring in rural areas. This system consists of three components: portable USG device, mobile application which is developed using Android operating system, and server application which is developed using Django. The main feature of this system is automatic fetal head parameter detection and its ability to operate in the limited internet access environment. In this system, automatic fetal head parameter detection uses RHT method to approximate fetal head’s ellipse shape. Experiment result shows that RHT detection ability with ∆ellipse average of 79.564 and running time average of 0.373 second.

  13. Acoustic property reconstruction of a neonate Yangtze finless porpoise's (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis) head based on CT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chong; Wang, Zhitao; Song, Zhongchang; Wang, Kexiong; Wang, Ding; Au, Whitlow W L; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The reconstruction of the acoustic properties of a neonate finless porpoise's head was performed using X-ray computed tomography (CT). The head of the deceased neonate porpoise was also segmented across the body axis and cut into slices. The averaged sound velocity and density were measured, and the Hounsfield units (HU) of the corresponding slices were obtained from computed tomography scanning. A regression analysis was employed to show the linear relationships between the Hounsfield unit and both sound velocity and density of samples. Furthermore, the CT imaging data were used to compare the HU value, sound velocity, density and acoustic characteristic impedance of the main tissues in the porpoise's head. The results showed that the linear relationships between HU and both sound velocity and density were qualitatively consistent with previous studies on Indo-pacific humpback dolphins and Cuvier's beaked whales. However, there was no significant increase of the sound velocity and acoustic impedance from the inner core to the outer layer in this neonate finless porpoise's melon.

  14. Chloride binding of cement-based materials subjected to external chloride environment - A review

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Q; Shi, C.; Schutter, G. de; K. Audenaert; Deng, D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the chloride binding of cement-based materials subjected to external chloride environments. Chloride ion exist either in the pore solution, chemically bound to the hydration products, or physically held to the surface of the hydration products. Chloride binding of cement-based material is very complicated and influenced by many factors, such as chloride concentration, cement composition, hydroxyl concentration, cation of chloride salt, temperature, supplementary cementing m...

  15. A versatile software package for inter-subject correlation based analyses of fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppi, Jukka-Pekka; Pajula, Juha; Tohka, Jussi

    2014-01-01

    In the inter-subject correlation (ISC) based analysis of the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, the extent of shared processing across subjects during the experiment is determined by calculating correlation coefficients between the fMRI time series of the subjects in the corresponding brain locations. This implies that ISC can be used to analyze fMRI data without explicitly modeling the stimulus and thus ISC is a potential method to analyze fMRI data acquired under complex naturalistic stimuli. Despite of the suitability of ISC based approach to analyze complex fMRI data, no generic software tools have been made available for this purpose, limiting a widespread use of ISC based analysis techniques among neuroimaging community. In this paper, we present a graphical user interface (GUI) based software package, ISC Toolbox, implemented in Matlab for computing various ISC based analyses. Many advanced computations such as comparison of ISCs between different stimuli, time window ISC, and inter-subject phase synchronization are supported by the toolbox. The analyses are coupled with re-sampling based statistical inference. The ISC based analyses are data and computation intensive and the ISC toolbox is equipped with mechanisms to execute the parallel computations in a cluster environment automatically and with an automatic detection of the cluster environment in use. Currently, SGE-based (Oracle Grid Engine, Son of a Grid Engine, or Open Grid Scheduler) and Slurm environments are supported. In this paper, we present a detailed account on the methods behind the ISC Toolbox, the implementation of the toolbox and demonstrate the possible use of the toolbox by summarizing selected example applications. We also report the computation time experiments both using a single desktop computer and two grid environments demonstrating that parallelization effectively reduces the computing time. The ISC Toolbox is available in https://code.google.com/p/isc-toolbox/

  16. Recruiting Pregnant Patients for Survey Research: A Head to Head Comparison of Social Media-Based Versus Clinic-Based Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Admon, Lindsay; Haefner, Jessica K; Kolenic, Giselle E; Chang, Tammy; Davis, Matthew M.; Moniz, Michelle H

    2016-01-01

    Background Recruiting a diverse sample of pregnant women for clinical research is a challenging but crucial task for improving obstetric services and maternal and child health outcomes. Objective To compare the feasibility and cost of recruiting pregnant women for survey research using social media-based and clinic-based approaches. Methods Advertisements were used to recruit pregnant women from the social media website Facebook. In-person methods were used to recruit pregnant women from the ...

  17. Molecular genetics of paragangliomas of the skull base and head and neck region: implications for medical and surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Ibrahim; Husain, Qasim; Baredes, Soly; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Jyung, Robert W; Liu, James K

    2014-02-01

    Paragangliomas are rare, slow-growing tumors that frequently arise in the head and neck, with the carotid bodies and temporal bone of the skull base being the most common sites. These neoplasms are histologically similar to pheochromocytomas that form in the adrenal medulla and are divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic subtypes based on functionality. Skull base and head and neck region paragangliomas (SHN-PGs) are almost always derived from parasympathetic tissue and rarely secrete catecholamines. However, they can cause significant morbidity by mass effect on various cranial nerves and major blood vessels. While surgery for SHN-PG can be curative, postoperative deficits and recurrences make these lesions challenging to manage. Multiple familial syndromes predisposing individuals to development of paragangliomas have been identified, all involving mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase complex of mitochondria. Mutations in this enzyme lead to a state of "pseudohypoxia" that upregulates various angiogenic, survival, and proliferation factors. Moreover, familial paraganglioma syndromes are among the rare inherited diseases in which genomic imprinting occurs. Recent advances in gene arrays and transcriptome/exome sequencing have identified an alternate mutation in sporadic SHN-PG, which regulates proto-oncogenic pathways independent of pseudohypoxia-induced factors. Collectively these findings demonstrate that paragangliomas of the skull base and head and neck region have a distinct genetic signature from sympathetic-based paragangliomas occurring below the neck, such as pheochromocytomas. Paragangliomas serve as a unique model of primarily surgically treated neoplasms whose future will be altered by the elucidation of their genomic complexities. In this review, the authors present an analysis of the molecular genetics of SHN-PG and provide future directions in patient care and the development of novel therapies.

  18. Characterizing the Vertical Distribution of Hydraulic Conductivity Using the Multilevel Slug Test Subject to Skin Effects: Comparison of the Uniform-head and Uniform-flux Wellbore Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    wei-Chiang, C.; Chen, C. S.

    2016-12-01

    The multilevel slug test (MLST) is an in-well technique in characterizing the vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity K(z) in granular or fractured formations. In modeling MLST, the well screen is either simulated as a uniform-flux (UF) or a uniform head (UH) condition. This study investigates the impact of the skin effect, positive or negative, on the UH and UF models. The positive skin effect, as associated with a reduced hydraulic conductivity surrounding the well due to drilling mud invasion, is taken into account by making use of a skin factor, Sk.The negative skin effect, as associated with an increased hydraulic conductivity due to overdeveloping of the well, is modeled by using an effective well radius, re, which is greater than or equal to the well radius, rw. The UF and UH models are compared using different values of Sk and re for a variety of the partial penetration ratio of screen length to aquifer thickness, φ, the vertical anisotropy ratio of hydraulic conductivity, κ, and the aspect ratio of rw to the screen length, α. It is found that (1) the two models yield results of negligible difference when the well fully penetrates the aquifer (i.e., φ=1) regardless of the values of α,κ, Sk or re, (2) the two models yield essentially the same results for negative skin for all α and κ, (3) the difference between the two models decreases as Sk gets larger, regardless of the values of α, φ, or κ, yet it becomes negligible for Sk is greater than unity, and (4) when the skin effect is absent, the maximum difference between the two models is within 3-5%. As a result, it is suggested the UF model be used since it is mathematically easier to solve than the UH model, with or without skin effects.

  19. Analysis of SAR distribution in human head of antenna used in wireless power transform based on magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Feixiang; Wei, Zhiqiang; Cong, Yanping; Chi, Haokun; Yin, Bo; Sun, Mingui

    2017-07-20

    In this paper, a novel wireless power transfer antenna system was designed for human head implantable devices. The antenna system used the structure of three plates and four coils and operated at low frequencies to transfer power via near field. In order to verify the electromagnetic radiation safety on the human head, the electromagnetic intensity and specific absorption rate (SAR) were studied by finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) method. A three-layer model of human head including skin, bone and brain tissues was constructed. The transmitting and receiving antenna were set outside and inside the model. The local and average SAR were simulated at the resonance frequency of 18.67 MHz in two situations, in one scenario both transmitting and receiving coil worked, while in the other scenario only the transmitting coil worked. The results showed that the maximum of 10 g SAR average value of human thoracic were 0.142 W/kg and 0.148 W/kg, respectively, both were lower than the international safety standards for human body of the ICNIRP and FCC, which verified the safety of the human body in wireless power transmission based on magnetic coupling resonance.

  20. Plagiarism education and prevention a subject-driven case-based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bradley, Cara

    2011-01-01

    Academic librarians and university instructors worldwide are grappling with an increasing incidence of student plagiarism. Recent publications urge educators to prevent plagiarism by teaching students about the issue, and some have advocated the value of a subject-specific approach to plagiarism prevention education. There is, however, a complete lack of resources and guidance for librarians and instructors who want to adopt this approach in their teaching. This book opens with a brief overview of plagiarism today, followed by arguments in favour of a subject-based approach. The rest of the bo

  1. Subject oriented and problem based text materials as a subject of flexible foreign language reading in research projects

    OpenAIRE

    SEROVA TAMARA S.; PIPCHENKO ELENA L.

    2014-01-01

    The article introduces the academic research work of students within the competence based approach, the models of academic problem based research projects taken up as a means to develop flexible foreign language reading skills. The authors reveal selection principles and corpus didactic design of text materials in the form of a macrotext, hypertext, and video course.

  2. FRCA: A Fuzzy Relevance-Based Cluster Head Selection Algorithm for Wireless Mobile Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taegwon Jeong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Clustering is an important mechanism that efficiently provides information for mobile nodes and improves the processing capacity of routing, bandwidth allocation, and resource management and sharing. Clustering algorithms can be based on such criteria as the battery power of nodes, mobility, network size, distance, speed and direction. Above all, in order to achieve good clustering performance, overhead should be minimized, allowing mobile nodes to join and leave without perturbing the membership of the cluster while preserving current cluster structure as much as possible. This paper proposes a Fuzzy Relevance-based Cluster head selection Algorithm (FRCA to solve problems found in existing wireless mobile ad hoc sensor networks, such as the node distribution found in dynamic properties due to mobility and flat structures and disturbance of the cluster formation. The proposed mechanism uses fuzzy relevance to select the cluster head for clustering in wireless mobile ad hoc sensor networks. In the simulation implemented on the NS-2 simulator, the proposed FRCA is compared with algorithms such as the Cluster-based Routing Protocol (CBRP, the Weighted-based Adaptive Clustering Algorithm (WACA, and the Scenario-based Clustering Algorithm for Mobile ad hoc networks (SCAM. The simulation results showed that the proposed FRCA achieves better performance than that of the other existing mechanisms.

  3. FRCA: a fuzzy relevance-based cluster head selection algorithm for wireless mobile ad-hoc sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chongdeuk; Jeong, Taegwon

    2011-01-01

    Clustering is an important mechanism that efficiently provides information for mobile nodes and improves the processing capacity of routing, bandwidth allocation, and resource management and sharing. Clustering algorithms can be based on such criteria as the battery power of nodes, mobility, network size, distance, speed and direction. Above all, in order to achieve good clustering performance, overhead should be minimized, allowing mobile nodes to join and leave without perturbing the membership of the cluster while preserving current cluster structure as much as possible. This paper proposes a Fuzzy Relevance-based Cluster head selection Algorithm (FRCA) to solve problems found in existing wireless mobile ad hoc sensor networks, such as the node distribution found in dynamic properties due to mobility and flat structures and disturbance of the cluster formation. The proposed mechanism uses fuzzy relevance to select the cluster head for clustering in wireless mobile ad hoc sensor networks. In the simulation implemented on the NS-2 simulator, the proposed FRCA is compared with algorithms such as the Cluster-based Routing Protocol (CBRP), the Weighted-based Adaptive Clustering Algorithm (WACA), and the Scenario-based Clustering Algorithm for Mobile ad hoc networks (SCAM). The simulation results showed that the proposed FRCA achieves better performance than that of the other existing mechanisms.

  4. Set-up improvement in head and neck radiotherapy using a 3D off-line EPID-based correction protocol and a customised head and neck support.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, E.N.J.T. van; Vight, L.P. van der; Huizenga, H.; Kaanders, J.H.A.M.; Visser, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: First, to investigate the set-up improvement resulting from the introduction of a customised head and neck (HN) support system in combination with a technologist-driven off-line correction protocol in HN radiotherapy. Second, to define margins for planning target volume definition,

  5. Influence of Group on Individual Subject Maps in SPM Voxel Based Morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Michael

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Voxel based morphometry (VBM is a widely utilized neuroimaging technique for spatially normalizing brain structural MRI (sMRI onto a common template. The DARTEL technique of VBM takes into account the spatial intensity distribution of sMRIs to construct a study specific group template. The group template is then used to create final individual normalized tissue maps (FINTM for each subject in the group. In this study we investigate the effect of group on FINTM, i.e., we evaluate the variability of a constant subject’s FINTM when other subjects in the group are iteratively changed. We examine this variability under the following scenarios: (1 when the demographics and conditions for the iterative groups are similar, (2 when the average age of the iterative groups is increased and (3 when the number of subjects with a brain disorder (here we use subjects with autism is increased. Our results show that when subject demographics of the group remains similar the mean standard deviation (SD of FINTM gray matter (GM of the constant subject was around 0.01. As the average age of the group is increased, mean SD of GM increased to around 0.03 and at certain brain locations variability was as high as 0.23. A similar increase of variability was observed when the number of autism subjects in the group was increased where mean SD was around 0.02. Further, we find that autism versus control GM differences are in the range of -0.05 to +0.05 for more than 97% of the voxels and note that the magnitude of the differences are comparable to GM variability. Finally, we report that opting not to modulate during normalization or increasing the size of the smoothing kernel can decrease FINTM variability but at the loss of subject-specific features. Based on the findings of this study we outline precautions that should be considered by investigators to reduce the impact of group on FINTM and thereby to derive meaningful group differences when comparing two cohorts of

  6. Spherical subjective refraction with a novel 3D virtual reality based system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Jaume; Ondategui-Parra, Juan Carlos; Badiella, Llorenç; Otero, Carles; Vilaseca, Meritxell; Aldaba, Mikel

    To conduct a clinical validation of a virtual reality-based experimental system that is able to assess the spherical subjective refraction simplifying the methodology of ocular refraction. For the agreement assessment, spherical refraction measurements were obtained from 104 eyes of 52 subjects using three different methods: subjectively with the experimental prototype (Subj.E) and the classical subjective refraction (Subj.C); and objectively with the WAM-5500 autorefractor (WAM). To evaluate precision (intra- and inter-observer variability) of each refractive tool independently, 26 eyes were measured in four occasions. With regard to agreement, the mean difference (±SD) for the spherical equivalent (M) between the new experimental subjective method (Subj.E) and the classical subjective refraction (Subj.C) was -0.034D (±0.454D). The corresponding 95% Limits of Agreement (LoA) were (-0.856D, 0.924D). In relation to precision, intra-observer mean difference for the M component was 0.034±0.195D for the Subj.C, 0.015±0.177D for the WAM and 0.072±0.197D for the Subj.E. Inter-observer variability showed worse precision values, although still clinically valid (below 0.25D) in all instruments. The spherical equivalent obtained with the new experimental system was precise and in good agreement with the classical subjective routine. The algorithm implemented in this new system and its optical configuration has been shown to be a first valid step for spherical error correction in a semiautomated way. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Nonlinear dynamic modeling of a simple flexible rotor system subjected to time-variable base motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liqiang; Wang, Jianjun; Han, Qinkai; Chu, Fulei

    2017-09-01

    Rotor systems carried in transportation system or under seismic excitations are considered to have a moving base. To study the dynamic behavior of flexible rotor systems subjected to time-variable base motions, a general model is developed based on finite element method and Lagrange's equation. Two groups of Euler angles are defined to describe the rotation of the rotor with respect to the base and that of the base with respect to the ground. It is found that the base rotations would cause nonlinearities in the model. To verify the proposed model, a novel test rig which could simulate the base angular-movement is designed. Dynamic experiments on a flexible rotor-bearing system with base angular motions are carried out. Based upon these, numerical simulations are conducted to further study the dynamic response of the flexible rotor under harmonic angular base motions. The effects of base angular amplitude, rotating speed and base frequency on response behaviors are discussed by means of FFT, waterfall, frequency response curve and orbits of the rotor. The FFT and waterfall plots of the disk horizontal and vertical vibrations are marked with multiplications of the base frequency and sum and difference tones of the rotating frequency and the base frequency. Their amplitudes will increase remarkably when they meet the whirling frequencies of the rotor system.

  8. EEG-Based Subject- and Session-independent Drowsiness Detection: An Unsupervised Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Nikhil R.; Chuang, Chien-Yao; Ko, Li-Wei; Chao, Chih-Feng; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Liang, Sheng-Fu; Lin, Chin-Teng

    2008-12-01

    Monitoring and prediction of changes in the human cognitive states, such as alertness and drowsiness, using physiological signals are very important for driver's safety. Typically, physiological studies on real-time detection of drowsiness usually use the same model for all subjects. However, the relatively large individual variability in EEG dynamics relating to loss of alertness implies that for many subjects, group statistics may not be useful to accurately predict changes in cognitive states. Researchers have attempted to build subject-dependent models based on his/her pilot data to account for individual variability. Such approaches cannot account for the cross-session variability in EEG dynamics, which may cause problems due to various reasons including electrode displacements, environmental noises, and skin-electrode impedance. Hence, we propose an unsupervised subject- and session-independent approach for detection departure from alertness in this study. Experimental results showed that the EEG power in the alpha-band (as well as in the theta-band) is highly correlated with changes in the subject's cognitive state with respect to drowsiness as reflected through his driving performance. This approach being an unsupervised and session-independent one could be used to develop a useful system for noninvasive monitoring of the cognitive state of human operators in attention-critical settings.

  9. An informatics supported web-based data annotation and query tool to expedite translational research for head and neck malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridge-Hetrick Jennifer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Specialized Program of Research Excellence (SPORE in Head and Neck Cancer neoplasm virtual biorepository is a bioinformatics-supported system to incorporate data from various clinical, pathological, and molecular systems into a single architecture based on a set of common data elements (CDEs that provides semantic and syntactic interoperability of data sets. Results The various components of this annotation tool include the Development of Common Data Elements (CDEs that are derived from College of American Pathologists (CAP Checklist and North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACR standards. The Data Entry Tool is a portable and flexible Oracle-based data entry device, which is an easily mastered web-based tool. The Data Query Tool helps investigators and researchers to search de-identified information within the warehouse/resource through a "point and click" interface, thus enabling only the selected data elements to be essentially copied into a data mart using a multi dimensional model from the warehouse's relational structure. The SPORE Head and Neck Neoplasm Database contains multimodal datasets that are accessible to investigators via an easy to use query tool. The database currently holds 6553 cases and 10607 tumor accessions. Among these, there are 965 metastatic, 4227 primary, 1369 recurrent, and 483 new primary cases. The data disclosure is strictly regulated by user's authorization. Conclusion The SPORE Head and Neck Neoplasm Virtual Biorepository is a robust translational biomedical informatics tool that can facilitate basic science, clinical, and translational research. The Data Query Tool acts as a central source providing a mechanism for researchers to efficiently find clinically annotated datasets and biospecimens that are relevant to their research areas. The tool protects patient privacy by revealing only de-identified data in accordance with regulations and approvals of the IRB and

  10. An informatics supported web-based data annotation and query tool to expedite translational research for head and neck malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Waqas; Kang, Hyunseok P; Egloff, Ann Marie; Singh, Harpreet; Trent, Kerry; Ridge-Hetrick, Jennifer; Seethala, Raja R; Grandis, Jennifer; Parwani, Anil V

    2009-11-13

    The Specialized Program of Research Excellence (SPORE) in Head and Neck Cancer neoplasm virtual biorepository is a bioinformatics-supported system to incorporate data from various clinical, pathological, and molecular systems into a single architecture based on a set of common data elements (CDEs) that provides semantic and syntactic interoperability of data sets. The various components of this annotation tool include the Development of Common Data Elements (CDEs) that are derived from College of American Pathologists (CAP) Checklist and North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACR) standards. The Data Entry Tool is a portable and flexible Oracle-based data entry device, which is an easily mastered web-based tool. The Data Query Tool helps investigators and researchers to search de-identified information within the warehouse/resource through a "point and click" interface, thus enabling only the selected data elements to be essentially copied into a data mart using a multi dimensional model from the warehouse's relational structure.The SPORE Head and Neck Neoplasm Database contains multimodal datasets that are accessible to investigators via an easy to use query tool. The database currently holds 6553 cases and 10607 tumor accessions. Among these, there are 965 metastatic, 4227 primary, 1369 recurrent, and 483 new primary cases. The data disclosure is strictly regulated by user's authorization. The SPORE Head and Neck Neoplasm Virtual Biorepository is a robust translational biomedical informatics tool that can facilitate basic science, clinical, and translational research. The Data Query Tool acts as a central source providing a mechanism for researchers to efficiently find clinically annotated datasets and biospecimens that are relevant to their research areas. The tool protects patient privacy by revealing only de-identified data in accordance with regulations and approvals of the IRB and scientific review committee.

  11. TU-C-17A-09: Multi-Case Knowledge-Based IMRT Treatment Planning in Head and Neck Cancer: Are Six Heads Better Than One?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzetic, S; Lutzky, C; Das, S; Lo, J [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: HNC IMRT treatment planning is a challenging process that relies heavily on the planner’s experience. Previously, we used the single, best match from a library of manually planned cases to semi-automatically generate IMRT plans for a new patient. The current multi-case Knowledge Based Radiation Therapy (MC-KBRT) study utilized different matching cases for each of six individual organs-at-risk (OARs), then combined those six cases to create the new treatment plan. Methods: From a database of 103 patient plans created by experienced planners, MC-KBRT plans were created for 40 (17 unilateral and 23 bilateral) HNC “query” patients. For each case, 2D beam’s-eye-view images were used to find similar geometric “match” patients separately for each of 6 OARs. Dose distributions for each OAR from the 6 matching cases were combined and then warped to suit the query case’s geometry. The dose-volume constraints were used to create the new query treatment plan without the need for human decision-making throughout the IMRT optimization. The optimized MC-KBRT plans were compared against the clinically approved plans and Version 1 (original KBRT) using the dose metrics: mean, median, and maximum (brainstem and cord+5mm) doses. Results: Compared to Version 1, MC-KBRT had no significant reduction of the dose to any of the OARs in either unilateral/bilateral cases. Compared to the manually-planned unilateral cases, there was significant reduction of the oral cavity mean/median dose (>2Gy) at the expense of the contralateral parotid. Compared to the manually-planned bilateral cases, reduction of dose was significant in the ipsilateral parotid, larynx, and oral cavity (>3Gy mean/median) while maintaining PTV coverage. Conclusion: MC-KBRT planning in head and neck cancer generates IMRT plans with equivalent dose sparing to manually created plans. MC-KBRT using multiple case matches does not show significant dose reduction compared to using a single match case with

  12. [Assessment of Cachexia in Head and Neck Cancer Patients Based on a Modified Glasgow Prognostic Score].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzuka, Takashi; Suzuki, Masahiro; Saijoh, Satoshi; Ikeda, Masakazu; Imaizumi, Mitsumasa; Nomoto, Yukio; Matsui, Takamichi; Tada, Yasuhiro; Omori, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    We retrospectively analyzed 54 patients who died of head and neck squamous cell caricinoma regarding the process and duration of cachexia using the modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS). The patients were classified as having cachexia when the serum albumin level was less than 3.5 mg/dL and the C-reactive protein (CRP) level was more than 0.5 mg/dL. The number of patients with cachexia was eight (8%) at the first visit and 50 (93%) at the time of death. In the 50 patients, the median and average time of having cachexia was 59 and 95 days, respectively. Thirty-two of the 50 patients (64%) died within three months after the presence of cachexia was confirmed. In this study, the time of having cachexia was so short, then the policy of care should be converted from aggressive into supportive in patients classified as having cachexia. mGPS would be an accurate assessment tool for cachexia and ascertain the end stage of head and neck cancer patients.

  13. Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ATV) Safety Balance Disorders Knowing Your Child's Medical History First Aid: Falls First Aid: Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Getting Help: Know the Numbers Concussions Stay ...

  14. H∞ Robust Current Control for DFIG Based Wind Turbine subject to Grid Voltage Distortions

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yun; Wu, Qiuwei; Gong, Wenming; Gryning, Mikkel Peter Sidoroff

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an H∞ robust current controller for doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind turbines (WTs) subject to grid voltage distortions. The controller is to mitigate the impact of the grid voltage distortions on rotor currents with DFIG parameter perturbation. The grid voltage distortions considered include asymmetric voltage dips and grid background harmonics. An uncertain DFIG model is developed with uncertain factors originating from distorted stator voltage, and chang...

  15. Single-subject voxel-based relaxometry for clinical assessment of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosior, Robert K; Lauzon, M Louis; Frayne, Richard; Federico, Paolo

    2009-09-01

    T2 relaxometry, quantitative assessment of T2 relaxation time in magnetic resonance (MR) data, typically uses manually drawn regions of interest (ROIs). This approach is limited by its subjectivity and its restricted scope of investigation. A recently developed approach called voxel-based relaxometry (VBR) provides an unbiased statistical analysis of the whole brain. Our objective was to assess the clinical utility of single-subject VBR for patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Forty-five patients with TLE confirmed by history, EEG, and structural MRI and 25 control subjects were scanned at 3T using a modified Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill MR sequence. ROIs were drawn for each patient and control subject, and measurements were made on unregistered T2 maps. VBR was performed on a single-subject basis at a significance level of alpha=0.05. Patients were grouped according to seizure focus (left mesial, right mesial, other), and whether structural MR imaging was normal or abnormal. Up to 85% of patients in the temporal lobe groups demonstrated T2 abnormalities. VBR detected abnormalities either in equal numbers or in more patients (up to 23% more) than ROI analysis for each group. The number of detected abnormalities per patient was higher using VBR (3.38 versus 2.04, p<0.05). VBR also identified abnormalities that were missed by ROI analysis. The rate of VBR detection of abnormalities was higher for patients than controls (76% versus 36%). VBR can be performed on single subjects with TLE and it detects considerably more abnormalities than ROI analysis. VBR may be a clinically useful tool for the detection of T2 abnormalities at the seizure focus and sites remote from it.

  16. Neural-net based coordinated stabilizing control for the exciter and governor loops of low head hydropower plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djukanovic, M.; Novicevic, M.; Dobrijevic, D.; Babic, B. [Electrical Engineering Inst. Nikola Tesla, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Sobajic, D.J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Pao, Y.H. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)]|[AI WARE, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This paper presents a design technique of a new adaptive optimal controller of the low head hydropower plant using artificial neural networks (ANN). The adaptive controller is to operate in real time to improve the generating unit transients through the exciter input, the guide vane position and the runner blade position. The new design procedure is based on self-organization and the predictive estimation capabilities of neural-nets implemented through the cluster-wise segmented associative memory scheme. The developed neural-net based controller (NNC) whose control signals are adjusted using the on-line measurements, can offer better damping effects for generator oscillations over a wide range of operating conditions than conventional controllers. Digital simulations of hydropower plant equipped with low head Kaplan turbine are performed and the comparisons of conventional excitation-governor control, state-space optimal control and neural-net based control are presented. Results obtained on the non-linear mathematical model demonstrate that the effects of the NNC closely agree with those obtained using the state-space multivariable discrete-time optimal controllers.

  17. Classification of heart rate signals of healthy and pathological subjects using threshold based symbolic entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Wajid; Rafique, M; Ahmad, I; Arif, M; Habib, Nazneen; Nadeem, M S A

    2014-09-01

    The dynamical fluctuations of biological signals provide a unique window to construe the underlying mechanism of the biological systems in health and disease. Recent research evidences suggest that a wide class of diseases appear to degrade the biological complexity and adaptive capacity of the system. Heart rate signals are one of the most important biological signals that have widely been investigated during the last two and half decades. Recent studies suggested that heart rate signals fluctuate in a complex manner. Various entropy based complexity analysis measures have been developed for quantifying the valuable information that may be helpful for clinical monitoring and for early intervention. This study is focused on determining HRV dynamics to distinguish healthy subjects from patients with certain cardiac problems using symbolic time series analysis technique. For that purpose, we have employed recently developed threshold based symbolic entropy to cardiac inter-beat interval time series of healthy, congestive heart failure and atrial fibrillation subjects. Normalized Corrected Shannon Entropy (NCSE) was used to quantify the dynamics of heart rate signals by continuously varying threshold values. A rule based classifier was implemented for classification of different groups by selecting threshold values for the optimal separation. The findings indicated that there is reduction in the complexity of pathological subjects as compared to healthy ones at wide range of threshold values. The results also demonstrated that complexity decreased with disease severity.

  18. Determinants of hyperhomocysteinemia in healthy and hypertensive subjects: A population-based study and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Liyuan; Liu, Yanfen; Wang, Changyi; Tang, Linlin; Feng, Xiaoqi; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Wen, Qi; Duan, Donghui; Lu, Nanjia; Xu, Guodong; Wang, Kaiyue; Zhang, Lu; Gu, Kaibo; Chen, Sihan; Ma, Jianping; Zhang, Tao; You, Dingyun; Duan, Shiwei

    2017-10-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is known to increase the risk of many diseases. Factors influencing HHcy in healthy and hypertensive subjects remain under-researched. A large population-based study was conducted in 60 communities from Shenzhen, China. Responses to standardized questions on lifestyle factors and blood samples were collected from all participants after a 12-h overnight fast. Multiple linear and multivariate logistic regressions were used to explore risk factors for HHcy. Results were then compared to those from a systematic review of English-language articles listed in Pubmed, EBSCOhost, Web of Science, Embase and Cochrane libraries that investigated HHcy risk factors in healthy and hypertensive subjects. A total of 1586 healthy (Male/Female = 642/944) and 5935 hypertensive subjects (Male/Female = 2928/3007) participated in our population-based study. In logistic regression analyses, age, BMI and creatinine (Cr) were risk factors, while being female, fruit intake and physical activity were protective factors for HHcy in healthy subjects. In hypertensive subjects, seven [age, smoking, salt intake, systolic blood pressure (SBP), uric acid, triglycerides (TG), and Cr] and four [female, fruit intake, total cholesterol (TC), and glucose] factors were associated with higher and lower HHcy respectively. The review of 71 studies revealed that potential risk factors for Hcy included nutritional, physiologic, lifestyle habits, ethnicity, genetics, interactions between gene-environment, gene-gene, gene-nutritional, environment-environment, nutritional-nutritional. Our study indicates the potential importance of increasing folic acid and vitamin B supplementation, daily fruit and vegetable intake, regular exercise and refraining from tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption as preventive strategies for Hcy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  19. EDITORIAL: Carbon-based nanoscience and nanotechnology: where are we, where are we heading? Carbon-based nanoscience and nanotechnology: where are we, where are we heading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukiassian, Patrick G.; Ramachandra Rao, M. S.

    2010-09-01

    main challenges for future understanding include i) material growth, ii) fundamental properties, and iii) developing advanced applications. The reviews in this Cluster Issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics cover carbon nanoparticles and nanotubes, graphene, nano-diamond and films. They address the most current aspects and issues related to their fundamental and outstanding properties, and describe various classes of high-tech applications based on these promising materials. Future prospects, difficulties and challenges are addressed. Important issues include growth, morphology, atomic and electronic structure, transport properties, superconductivity, doping, nanochemistry using hydrogen, chemical and bio-sensors, and bio-imaging, allowing readers to evaluate this very interesting topic and draw perspectives for the future.

  20. Fiberprint: A subject fingerprint based on sparse code pooling for white matter fiber analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kuldeep; Desrosiers, Christian; Siddiqi, Kaleem; Colliot, Olivier; Toews, Matthew

    2017-09-01

    White matter characterization studies use the information provided by diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) to draw cross-population inferences. However, the structure, function, and white matter geometry vary across individuals. Here, we propose a subject fingerprint, called Fiberprint, to quantify the individual uniqueness in white matter geometry using fiber trajectories. We learn a sparse coding representation for fiber trajectories by mapping them to a common space defined by a dictionary. A subject fingerprint is then generated by applying a pooling function for each bundle, thus providing a vector of bundle-wise features describing a particular subject's white matter geometry. These features encode unique properties of fiber trajectories, such as their density along prominent bundles. An analysis of data from 861 Human Connectome Project subjects reveals that a fingerprint based on approximately 3000 fiber trajectories can uniquely identify exemplars from the same individual. We also use fingerprints for twin/sibling identification, our observations consistent with the twin data studies of white matter integrity. Our results demonstrate that the proposed Fiberprint can effectively capture the variability in white matter fiber geometry across individuals, using a compact feature vector (dimension of 50), making this framework particularly attractive for handling large datasets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A subject-independent pattern-based Brain-Computer Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Markus Ray

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available While earlier Brain-Computer Interface (BCI studies have mostly focused on modulating specific brain regions or signals, new developments in pattern classification of brain states are enabling real-time decoding and modulation of an entire functional network. The present study proposes a new method for real-time pattern classification and neurofeedback of brain states from electroencephalographic (EEG signals. It involves the creation of a fused classification model based on the method of Common Spatial Patterns (CSPs from data of several healthy individuals. The subject-independent model is then used to classify EEG data in real-time and provide feedback to new individuals. In a series of offline experiments involving training and testing of the classifier with individual data from 27 healthy subjects, a mean classification accuracy of 75.30% was achieved, demonstrating that the classification system at hand can reliably decode two types of imagery used in our experiments, i.e. happy emotional imagery and motor imagery. In a subsequent experiment it is shown that the classifier can be used to provide neurofeedback to new subjects, and that these subjects learn to match their brain pattern to that of the fused classification model in a few days of neurofeedback training. This finding can have important implications for future studies on neurofeedback and its clinical applications on neuropsychiatric disorders.

  2. Stereotypical hand movements in 144 subjects with Rett syndrome from the population-based Australian database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Philippa; Downs, Jenny; Bebbington, Ami; Williams, Simon; Jacoby, Peter; Kaufmann, Walter E; Leonard, Helen

    2010-02-15

    Stereotypic hand movements are a feature of Rett Syndrome but few studies have observed their nature systematically. Video data in familiar settings were obtained on subjects (n = 144) identified from an Australian population-based database. Hand stereotypies were demonstrated by most subjects (94.4%), 15 categories were observed and midline wringing was seen in approximately 60% of subjects. There was a median of two stereotypies per subject but this number decreased with age. Clapping and mouthing of hands were more prevalent in girls younger than 8 years and wringing was more prevalent in women 19 years or older. Clapping was commoner in those with p.R306C and early truncating mutations, and much rarer in those with p.R106W, p.R270X, p.R168X, and p.R255X. Stereotypies tended to be less frequent in those with more severe mutations. Otherwise, there were no clear relationships between our categories of stereotypies and mutation. Approximately a quarter each had predominantly right and left handed stereotypies and for the remaining half, no clear laterality was seen. Results were similar for all cases and when restricted to those with a pathogenic mutation. Hand stereotypies changed with increasing age but limited relationships with MECP2 mutations were identified. (c) 2009 Movement Disorder Society.

  3. Tumor and Stromal-Based Contributions to Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markwell, Steven M.; Weed, Scott A., E-mail: scweed@hsc.wvu.edu [Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Program in Cancer Cell Biology, Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

    2015-02-27

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is typically diagnosed at advanced stages with evident loco-regional and/or distal metastases. The prevalence of metastatic lesions directly correlates with poor patient outcome, resulting in high patient mortality rates following metastatic development. The progression to metastatic disease requires changes not only in the carcinoma cells, but also in the surrounding stromal cells and tumor microenvironment. Within the microenvironment, acellular contributions from the surrounding extracellular matrix, along with contributions from various infiltrating immune cells, tumor associated fibroblasts, and endothelial cells facilitate the spread of tumor cells from the primary site to the rest of the body. Thus far, most attempts to limit metastatic spread through therapeutic intervention have failed to show patient benefit in clinic trails. The goal of this review is highlight the complexity of invasion-promoting interactions in the HNSCC tumor microenvironment, focusing on contributions from tumor and stromal cells in order to assist future therapeutic development and patient treatment.

  4. Heads of household programme in Argentina: a human rights-based policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colina, Jorge; Giordano, Osvaldo; Torres, Alejandra; Cárdenas, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    This study analyses the consultative councils (CC) of the Argentinian conditional cash transfer heads of household programme as an institutional innovation directed to put into practice some of the principles of the human rights' approach for eradicating poverty. Since the main responsibilities assigned to the CCs coincided with some of the main principles of the human rights' approach, the research is focused on how CCs responded in practice. Using a case study methodology we show that even when, in theory, the CCs incorporate some of the principles of the human rights' approach to the programme, they deviated from this purpose due to a persistent phenomenon in the social policy arena in developing countries: political clientelism. Policy recommendations are formulated in order to deal with clientelism in the framework of the human rights' approach.

  5. Epigenetic and genetic alterations-based molecular classification of head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhien; Xu, Qin; Chen, Wantao

    2012-04-01

    The long-term survival rates for patients diagnosed with advanced head and neck cancer (HNC) remain poor. Many perplexing factors, including etiology and comorbidity, lead to different molecular malfunctions of HNC cells and determine the prognosis of the disease. Traditional diagnostic methods are limited in that they fail to provide an effective classification diagnosis, such as a more precise prediction of prognosis and decisions for personalized treatment regimens. Recently, molecular biology techniques, especially epigenetic and genetic techniques, have been developed that have enabled us to gain a greater insight into the molecular pathways underlying the cancers. Translating the research into a format that will facilitate effective molecular classification, support personalized treatment and determine prognosis remains a challenge. In this review, the authors provide an overview of cancer epigenetic and genetic alterations, tissue banks, and several promising biomarkers or candidates that may ultimately prove to be beneficial in a clinical setting for patients with HNC.

  6. A population-based study of survival and discharge status for survivors after head injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Aase Worså; Teasdale, T W

    2004-01-01

    -Meier survival functions were calculated for these two categories. Hospital records for a random sample of 389 survivors in 1997 after cranial fracture, acute brain lesion or chronical subdural haematoma, which occurred in 1982, 1987 and 1992 in patients aged 15 years or more at injury, were reviewed. Survivors......OBJECTIVES: Creation of a basis for the planning of rehabilitation after head injury in Denmark. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with cranial fractures or traumatic cerebral lesions occurring in Denmark in 1979-93 were identified by computerized searches in the national hospital register. Kaplan...... were characterized by age, gender, place and severity of injury, as well as neurophysical, speech and mental deficits at discharge from hospital. RESULTS: Acute/subacute mortality of hospitalized patients was 27% for cerebral lesions and 4% after cranial fracture. As attrition by death outweighed...

  7. Perforator based rectus free tissue transfer for head and neck reconstruction: New reconstructive advantages from an old friend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Stephen Y; Spector, Matthew E; Chepeha, Douglas B

    2017-11-01

    To demonstrate three reconstructive advantages of the perforator based rectus free tissue transfer: long pedicle, customizable adipose tissue, and volume reconstruction without muscle atrophy within a contained space. Thirty patients with defects of the head and neck were reconstructed with the perforator based rectus free tissue transfer. Transplant success was 93%. Mean pedicle length was 13.4cm. Eleven patients (37%) had vessel-poor necks and the long pedicle provided by this transplant avoided the need for vein grafts in these patients. Adipose tissue was molded in 17 patients (57%). Twenty-five patients (83%) had defects within a contained space, such as the orbit, where it was critical to have a transplant that avoided muscle atrophy. The perforator based rectus free tissue transfer provides a long pedicle, moldable fat for flap customization, and is useful in reconstruction of defects within a contained space where volume loss due to muscle atrophy is prevented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Revision of Preventive Web-based Psychotherapies in Subjects at Risk of Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Sánchez-Gutiérrez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available For the last years, the impulse of new technologies has overcome the traditional pathways of face-to-face clinical intervention and web-based psychological methodologies for intervention have started to gain success. This study aims to review the state-of-art about the effectiveness studies on preventive web- based interventions accomplished in samples of subjects at high risk for depressive, anxiety, eating behavior, problematic substance use symptoms and promotion of psychological well-being. Results showed that web-based psychological interventions for the prevention of mental disorders seemed to be effective for at risk individuals. Online health promotion in the general population was also effective to avoid the onset of clinical psychological circumstances. Future research should focus on personalized online intervention and on the evaluation of web-based engagement.

  9. Neuro-fuzzy controller of low head hydropower plants using adaptive-network based fuzzy inference system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djukanovic, M.B. [Inst. Nikola Tesla, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Dept. of Power Systems; Calovic, M.S. [Univ. of Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Vesovic, B.V. [Inst. Mihajlo Pupin, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Dept. of Automatic Control; Sobajic, D.J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents an attempt of nonlinear, multivariable control of low-head hydropower plants, by using adaptive-network based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The new design technique enhances fuzzy controllers with self-learning capability for achieving prescribed control objectives in a near optimal manner. The controller has flexibility for accepting more sensory information, with the main goal to improve the generator unit transients, by adjusting the exciter input, the wicket gate and runner blade positions. The developed ANFIS controller whose control signals are adjusted by using incomplete on-line measurements, can offer better damping effects to generator oscillations over a wide range of operating conditions, than conventional controllers. Digital simulations of hydropower plant equipped with low-head Kaplan turbine are performed and the comparisons of conventional excitation-governor control, state-feedback optimal control and ANFIS based output feedback control are presented. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme and the robustness of the acquired neuro-fuzzy controller, the controller has been implemented on a complex high-order non-linear hydrogenerator model.

  10. Development of a surgical navigation system based on augmented reality using an optical see-through head-mounted display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojun; Xu, Lu; Wang, Yiping; Wang, Huixiang; Wang, Fang; Zeng, Xiangsen; Wang, Qiugen; Egger, Jan

    2015-06-01

    The surgical navigation system has experienced tremendous development over the past decades for minimizing the risks and improving the precision of the surgery. Nowadays, Augmented Reality (AR)-based surgical navigation is a promising technology for clinical applications. In the AR system, virtual and actual reality are mixed, offering real-time, high-quality visualization of an extensive variety of information to the users (Moussa et al., 2012) [1]. For example, virtual anatomical structures such as soft tissues, blood vessels and nerves can be integrated with the real-world scenario in real time. In this study, an AR-based surgical navigation system (AR-SNS) is developed using an optical see-through HMD (head-mounted display), aiming at improving the safety and reliability of the surgery. With the use of this system, including the calibration of instruments, registration, and the calibration of HMD, the 3D virtual critical anatomical structures in the head-mounted display are aligned with the actual structures of patient in real-world scenario during the intra-operative motion tracking process. The accuracy verification experiment demonstrated that the mean distance and angular errors were respectively 0.809±0.05mm and 1.038°±0.05°, which was sufficient to meet the clinical requirements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Calculating the Number of Cluster Heads Based on the Rate-Distortion Function in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxin Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to limited resources in wireless sensor nodes, energy efficiency is considered as one of the primary constraints in the design of the topology of wireless sensor networks (WSNs. Since data that are collected by wireless sensor nodes exhibit the characteristics of temporal association, data fusion has also become a very important means of reducing network traffic as well as eliminating data redundancy as far as data transmission is concerned. Another reason for data fusion is that, in many applications, only some of the data that are collected can meet the requirements of the sink node. In this paper, we propose a method to calculate the number of cluster heads or data aggregators during data fusion based on the rate-distortion function. In our discussion, we will first establish an energy consumption model and then describe a method for calculating the number of cluster heads from the point of view of reducing energy consumption. We will also show through theoretical analysis and experimentation that the network topology design based on the rate-distortion function is indeed more energy-efficient.

  12. Prevalence and Cognitive Bases of Subjective Memory Complaints in Older Adults: Evidence from a Community Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Fritsch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To estimate the prevalence of subjective memory complaints (SMCs in a sample of community-dwelling, older adults and to examine cognitive bases of these complaints. Participants. 499 community-dwelling adults, 65 and older. Measurements. A telephone survey consisting of cognitive tests and clinical and sociodemographic variables. SMCs were based on subjects' evaluations and subjects' perceptions of others' evaluations. Analysis. Logistic regression was used to model the risk for SMCs as a function of the cognitive, clinical, and sociodemographic variables. We tested for interactions of the cognitive variables with age, education, and gender. Results. 27.1% reported memory complaints. Among the younger age, better objective memory performance predicted lower risk for SMCs, while among the older age, better memory had no effect on risk. Among the better-educated people, better global cognitive functioning predicted lower risk for SMCs, while among the less-educated people, better global cognitive functioning had no effect on SMC risk. When predicting others' perceptions, better objective memory was associated with lower risk for SMCs. Conclusion. Objective memory performance and global cognitive functioning are associated with lower risk for SMCs, but these relationships are the strongest for the younger age and those with more education, respectively. Age and education may affect the ability to accurately appraise cognitive functioning.

  13. DCE: A Distributed Energy-Efficient Clustering Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network Based on Double-Phase Cluster-Head Election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ruisong; Yang, Wei; Wang, Yipeng; You, Kaiming

    2017-05-01

    Clustering is an effective technique used to reduce energy consumption and extend the lifetime of wireless sensor network (WSN). The characteristic of energy heterogeneity of WSNs should be considered when designing clustering protocols. We propose and evaluate a novel distributed energy-efficient clustering protocol called DCE for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks, based on a Double-phase Cluster-head Election scheme. In DCE, the procedure of cluster head election is divided into two phases. In the first phase, tentative cluster heads are elected with the probabilities which are decided by the relative levels of initial and residual energy. Then, in the second phase, the tentative cluster heads are replaced by their cluster members to form the final set of cluster heads if any member in their cluster has more residual energy. Employing two phases for cluster-head election ensures that the nodes with more energy have a higher chance to be cluster heads. Energy consumption is well-distributed in the proposed protocol, and the simulation results show that DCE achieves longer stability periods than other typical clustering protocols in heterogeneous scenarios.

  14. MATHEMATICS TOOLS DEVELOPMENT BASED ON WEB WITH MOODLE APPLICATIONS IN BASED STATISTICS SUBJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rina dwi s, febrian dewanto, bagus ardi s

    2016-02-01

    The results the influence of motivation and activity of learning achievement of 89.7% d and the average of  learning achievement experimental class achieve exhaustiveness 74.25 e Average learning achievement of  experimental class 74.25, better than average learning achievement for control class 64.57. Based on the research results obtained are valid learning tools and effective learning that show the development of learning tools goals achieved.

  15. Transforming an embodied conversational agent into an efficient talking head: from keyframe-based animation to multimodal concatenation synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, Guillaume; Olsen, Kirk N; Leung, Yvonne; Stevens, Catherine J

    2015-01-01

    Virtual humans have become part of our everyday life (movies, internet, and computer games). Even though they are becoming more and more realistic, their speech capabilities are, most of the time, limited and not coherent and/or not synchronous with the corresponding acoustic signal. We describe a method to convert a virtual human avatar (animated through key frames and interpolation) into a more naturalistic talking head. In fact, speech articulation cannot be accurately replicated using interpolation between key frames and talking heads with good speech capabilities are derived from real speech production data. Motion capture data are commonly used to provide accurate facial motion for visible speech articulators (jaw and lips) synchronous with acoustics. To access tongue trajectories (partially occluded speech articulator), electromagnetic articulography (EMA) is often used. We recorded a large database of phonetically-balanced English sentences with synchronous EMA, motion capture data, and acoustics. An articulatory model was computed on this database to recover missing data and to provide 'normalized' animation (i.e., articulatory) parameters. In addition, semi-automatic segmentation was performed on the acoustic stream. A dictionary of multimodal Australian English diphones was created. It is composed of the variation of the articulatory parameters between all the successive stable allophones. The avatar's facial key frames were converted into articulatory parameters steering its speech articulators (jaw, lips and tongue). The speech production database was used to drive the Embodied Conversational Agent (ECA) and to enhance its speech capabilities. A Text-To-Auditory Visual Speech synthesizer was created based on the MaryTTS software and on the diphone dictionary derived from the speech production database. We describe a method to transform an ECA with generic tongue model and animation by key frames into a talking head that displays naturalistic tongue

  16. Unification of Subject Description of Aggregated Records in National Repository of Grey Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Charvátová, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    The diploma thesis focuses on subject description unification methods in records aggregated from different sources in digital repositories, using the example of the National Repository of Grey Literature (NRGL). After presenting experiences with systems BASE and LASSO abroad, I describe the current situation in NRGL, where the automatic indexing is used to assign each record a unified subject heading from the Polythematic Structured Subject Heading System (PSSHS). The thesis then presents how...

  17. A Cluster-Randomized, Community-Based, Tribally Delivered Oral Health Promotion Trial in Navajo Head Start Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, P A; Quissell, D O; Henderson, W G; Bryant, L L; Gregorich, S E; George, C; Toledo, N; Cudeii, D; Smith, V; Johs, N; Cheng, J; Rasmussen, M; Cheng, N F; Santo, W; Batliner, T; Wilson, A; Brega, A; Roan, R; Lind, K; Tiwari, T; Shain, S; Schaffer, G; Harper, M; Manson, S M; Albino, J

    2016-10-01

    The authors tested the effectiveness of a community-based, tribally delivered oral health promotion (OHP) intervention (INT) at reducing caries increment in Navajo children attending Head Start. In a 3-y cluster-randomized trial, we developed an OHP INT with Navajo input that was delivered by trained Navajo lay health workers to children attending 52 Navajo Head Start classrooms (26 INT, 26 usual care [UC]). The INT was designed as a highly personalized set of oral health-focused interactions (5 for children and 4 for parents), along with 4 fluoride varnish applications delivered in Head Start during academic years of 2011 to 2012 and 2012 to 2013. The authors evaluated INT impact on decayed, missing, and filled tooth surfaces (dmfs) increment compared with UC. Other outcomes included caries prevalence and caregiver oral health-related knowledge and behaviors. Modified intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses were conducted. The authors enrolled 1,016 caregiver-child dyads. Baseline mean dmfs/caries prevalence equaled 19.9/86.5% for the INT group and 22.8/90.1% for the UC group, respectively. INT adherence was 53% (i.e., ≥3 child OHP events, ≥1 caregiver OHP events, and ≥3 fluoride varnish). After 3 y, dmfs increased in both groups (+12.9 INT vs. +10.8 UC; P = 0.216), as did caries prevalence (86.5% to 96.6% INT vs. 90.1% to 98.2% UC; P = 0.808) in a modified intention-to-treat analysis of 897 caregiver-child dyads receiving 1 y of INT. Caregiver oral health knowledge scores improved in both groups (75.1% to 81.2% INT vs. 73.6% to 79.5% UC; P = 0.369). Caregiver oral health behavior scores improved more rapidly in the INT group versus the UC group (P = 0.006). The dmfs increment was smaller among adherent INT children (+8.9) than among UC children (+10.8; P = 0.028) in a per-protocol analysis. In conclusion, the severity of dental disease in Navajo Head Start children is extreme and difficult to improve. The authors argue that successful approaches to

  18. Cost Optimal Reliability Based Inspection and Replacement Planning of Piping Subjected to CO2 Corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellevik, S. G.; Langen, I.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A methodology for cost optimal reliability based inspection and replacement planning of piping subjected to CO2 corrosion is described. Both initial (design phase) and in-service planning are dealt with. The methodology is based on the application of methods for structural reliability analysis...... within the framework of Bayesian decision theory. The planning problem is formulated as an optimization problem where the expected lifetime costs are minimized with a constraint on the minimum acceptable reliability level. The optimization parameters are the number of inspections in the expected lifetime......, consistent incorporation and handling of uncertainties, and consistent updating of inspection and replacement plans based on inspection results. The latter is achieved through application of Bayesian statistics for updating in combination with structural reliability methods....

  19. Engaging Parents in Early Head Start Home-Based Programs: How Do Home Visitors Do This?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanti, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Parental engagement is considered elemental to successful outcomes for parents and their children in early childhood home visiting programs. Engagement is that piece of parental involvement that refers to the working relationship between the parent and the home visitor. Multiple papers have called for research to pinpoint the ways in which home visitors work with parents to form these working relationships, and form partnerships to achieve positive outcomes. Analysis revealed that in individualizing their efforts to each family, home visitors follow semi-sequential steps in implementing engagement. This article presents a model of the process home visitors describe that resulted from analysis. Grounded theory techniques were used to analyze 29 interviews with Early Head Start (EHS) home visitors and 11 supervisors across four EHS programs in one region of the United States. The process of engagement as described emerges in three phases: (1) learning the parent's culture and style; (2) deepening the working partnership; and (3) balancing the ongoing work. Analysis further revealed specific strategies and goals that guide the work of home visitors in each of these three phases. This not only adds rich detail to the literature, but also provides a useful guide for programs and policy makers through identifying the areas where training and support will increase home visitor ability to engage parents.

  20. Mind wandering at the fingertips: automatic parsing of subjective states based on response time variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Mikaël; Sackur, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    Research from the last decade has successfully used two kinds of thought reports in order to assess whether the mind is wandering: random thought-probes and spontaneous reports. However, none of these two methods allows any assessment of the subjective state of the participant between two reports. In this paper, we present a step by step elaboration and testing of a continuous index, based on response time variability within Sustained Attention to Response Tasks (N = 106, for a total of 10 conditions). We first show that increased response time variability predicts mind wandering. We then compute a continuous index of response time variability throughout full experiments and show that the temporal position of a probe relative to the nearest local peak of the continuous index is predictive of mind wandering. This suggests that our index carries information about the subjective state of the subject even when he or she is not probed, and opens the way for on-line tracking of mind wandering. Finally we proceed a step further and infer the internal attentional states on the basis of the variability of response times. To this end we use the Hidden Markov Model framework, which allows us to estimate the durations of on-task and off-task episodes. PMID:24046753

  1. Development of Web Based Learning Material in Physics Subject for Kalor and Temperature Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatwa Aji Kurniawan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been done, the research which aims to develop a web-based teaching materials on the subjects of physics subject with subject mater of temperature and heat. This study using a modified model of the 4D development by eliminating the deployment phase. The validation of product development conducted by validator media experts and experts matter of physics, whereas small-scale trials conducted by physics teacher and 10 students. Validator review results stating that the quality of the product development were included in the category very well with the average percentage rating of 83.93%. The percentage value assigned by media expert by 75% in the good category and the percentage of the value provided by a matter expert 92.85% were in the very good category. Experiments by physics teacher to obtain result of equal to 94.44% were in the very good category and the average percentage of the test results by the students of 90.5% were in the very good category. The characteristics of the products developed include material composition using the curriculum in 2013, there was a recording facility and the results of evaluation of students' activities, there were feedback evaluation results were immediately known by the students and there were some links related to the material either youtube or other learning website.

  2. Effect of tone-based sound stimulation on balance performance of normal subjects: preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnacco, Guido; Klotzek, Adam S; Carrick, Frederick R; Wright, Cameron H G; Oggero, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Sound is known to affect the human brain, hence sound or music therapy is sometimes used to improve a subject's physicaland mental health. In this study, the effects sound stimulation has on balance were investigated by means of computerizeddynamic posturography tests performed with eyes closed on an unstable surface using a CAPS® system, exceeding theInternational Society for Posture and Gait Research (ISPGR) recommended metrological performance standards. Subjectswere tested without listening to any music (baseline), listening to “pure music”, and listening to the same music with differenttones embedded into it (one for each key). We found that different subjects react differently to different tones. Music alonedid not have a statistically significant effect on balance compared to the baseline, but the “best” tone significantly improvedbalance compared to the baseline or the “pure music” conditions. Furthermore, the “worst” tone reduced the balancecompared to “pure music”, but the reduction was not statistically significant relative to the baseline. The results thereforeindicate that, at least relative to balance performance, the tone-based sound stimulation we investigated is effective andinherently safe, but that tone selection depends on the individual subject.

  3. Nutrient-based dietary patterns and the risk of head and neck cancer: a pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edefonti, V; Hashibe, M; Ambrogi, F; Parpinel, M; Bravi, F; Talamini, R; Levi, F; Yu, G; Morgenstern, H; Kelsey, K; McClean, M; Schantz, S; Zhang, Z; Chuang, S; Boffetta, P; La Vecchia, C; Decarli, A

    2012-07-01

    The association between dietary patterns and head and neck cancer has rarely been addressed. We used individual-level pooled data from five case-control studies (2452 cases and 5013 controls) participating in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology consortium. A posteriori dietary patterns were identified through a principal component factor analysis carried out on 24 nutrients derived from study-specific food-frequency questionnaires. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression models on quintiles of factor scores. We identified three major dietary patterns named 'animal products and cereals', 'antioxidant vitamins and fiber', and 'fats'. The 'antioxidant vitamins and fiber' pattern was inversely related to oral and pharyngeal cancer (OR=0.57, 95% CI 0.43-0.76 for the highest versus the lowest score quintile). The 'animal products and cereals' pattern was positively associated with laryngeal cancer (OR=1.54, 95% CI 1.12-2.11), whereas the 'fats' pattern was inversely associated with oral and pharyngeal cancer (OR=0.78, 95% CI 0.63-0.97) and positively associated with laryngeal cancer (OR=1.69, 95% CI 1.22-2.34). These findings suggest that diets rich in animal products, cereals, and fats are positively related to laryngeal cancer, and those rich in fruit and vegetables inversely related to oral and pharyngeal cancer.

  4. H∞ Robust Current Control for DFIG Based Wind Turbine subject to Grid Voltage Distortions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yun; Wu, Qiuwei; Gong, Wenming

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an H∞ robust current controller for doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind turbines (WTs) subject to grid voltage distortions. The controller is to mitigate the impact of the grid voltage distortions on rotor currents with DFIG parameter perturbation. The grid voltage...... are designed to efficiently track the unbalanced current components and the 5th and 7th background harmonics. The robust stability (RS) and robust performance (RP) of the proposed controller are verified by the structured singular value µ. The performance of the H∞ robust current controller was demonstrated...

  5. Volume-averaged SAR in adult and child head models when using mobile phones: a computational study with detailed CAD-based models of commercial mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshvari, Jafar; Heikkilä, Teemu

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies comparing SAR difference in the head of children and adults used highly simplified generic models or half-wave dipole antennas. The objective of this study was to investigate the SAR difference in the head of children and adults using realistic EMF sources based on CAD models of commercial mobile phones. Four MRI-based head phantoms were used in the study. CAD models of Nokia 8310 and 6630 mobile phones were used as exposure sources. Commercially available FDTD software was used for the SAR calculations. SAR values were simulated at frequencies 900 MHz and 1747 MHz for Nokia 8310, and 900 MHz, 1747 MHz and 1950 MHz for Nokia 6630. The main finding of this study was that the SAR distribution/variation in the head models highly depends on the structure of the antenna and phone model, which suggests that the type of the exposure source is the main parameter in EMF exposure studies to be focused on. Although the previous findings regarding significant role of the anatomy of the head, phone position, frequency, local tissue inhomogeneity and tissue composition specifically in the exposed area on SAR difference were confirmed, the SAR values and SAR distributions caused by generic source models cannot be extrapolated to the real device exposures. The general conclusion is that from a volume averaged SAR point of view, no systematic differences between child and adult heads were found. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. A Wireless Swing Angle Measurement Scheme Using Attitude Heading Reference System Sensing Units Based on Microelectromechanical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingtuan Gao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Feasible real-time swing angle measurement is significant to improve the efficiency and safety of industrial crane systems. This paper presents a wireless microelectromechanical system (MEMS-based swing angle measurement system. The system consists of two attitude heading reference system (AHRS sensing units with a wireless communication function, which are mounted on the hook (or payload and the jib (or base of the crane, respectively. With a combination of a three-axis accelerometer, a three-axis gyroscope and a three-axis magnetometer, the standard extended Kalman filter (EKF is used to estimate the desired orientation of the payload and the base. Wireless ZigBee communication is employed to transmit the orientation of the payload to the sensing unit mounted on the base, which measures the orientation of the base. Because several physical parameters from the payload to the base can be acquired from the original crane control system, the swing angles of the payload can be calculated based on the two measured orientation parameters together with the known physical parameters. Experiments were performed to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed swing angle measurement system.

  7. Subject-independent emotion recognition based on physiological signals: a three-stage decision method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Hu, Bin; Wang, Yue; Moore, Philip; Dai, Yongqiang; Feng, Lei; Ding, Zhijie

    2017-12-20

    Collaboration between humans and computers has become pervasive and ubiquitous, however current computer systems are limited in that they fail to address the emotional component. An accurate understanding of human emotions is necessary for these computers to trigger proper feedback. Among multiple emotional channels, physiological signals are synchronous with emotional responses; therefore, analyzing physiological changes is a recognized way to estimate human emotions. In this paper, a three-stage decision method is proposed to recognize four emotions based on physiological signals in the multi-subject context. Emotion detection is achieved by using a stage-divided strategy in which each stage deals with a fine-grained goal. The decision method consists of three stages. During the training process, the initial stage transforms mixed training subjects to separate groups, thus eliminating the effect of individual differences. The second stage categorizes four emotions into two emotion pools in order to reduce recognition complexity. The third stage trains a classifier based on emotions in each emotion pool. During the testing process, a test case or test trial will be initially classified to a group followed by classification into an emotion pool in the second stage. An emotion will be assigned to the test trial in the final stage. In this paper we consider two different ways of allocating four emotions into two emotion pools. A comparative analysis is also carried out between the proposal and other methods. An average recognition accuracy of 77.57% was achieved on the recognition of four emotions with the best accuracy of 86.67% to recognize the positive and excited emotion. Using differing ways of allocating four emotions into two emotion pools, we found there is a difference in the effectiveness of a classifier on learning each emotion. When compared to other methods, the proposed method demonstrates a significant improvement in recognizing four emotions in the

  8. Alcohol drinking pattern and subjective health in a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranges, Saverio; Notaro, James; Freudenheim, Jo L; Calogero, Rachel M; Muti, Paola; Farinaro, Eduardo; Russell, Marcia; Nochajski, Thomas H; Trevisan, Maurizio

    2006-09-01

    Some patterns of alcohol consumption (e.g. binge drinking, drinking outside of meals) have been associated with detrimental effects on health outcomes. Subjective health provides a global assessment of health status and is a strong predictor of total mortality; however, little is known about its relationship with alcohol drinking pattern. The association between several drinking patterns (i.e. drinking intensity and frequency, frequency of intoxication, drinking outside of meals, and beverage type) and subjective health was examined in a random sample of 3586 women and men. A population-based cross-sectional study. Subjective health was assessed using the physical and mental health component summaries of the Short Form-36 health survey questionnaire. Alcohol consumption refers to the 30 days before the interview. Analysis of covariance compared gender-specific mean scores across alcohol drinking patterns. Overall, non-current drinkers reported poorer physical and mental health than life-time abstainers and current drinkers, while no consistent differences were found between life-time abstainers and current drinkers. In female current drinkers, daily drinking, beer and mixed beverage consumption were associated with better mental health. In male current drinkers, moderate alcohol consumption (2-2.9 drinks per day), wine and mixed beverage consumption were associated with better physical health. Intoxication and liquor consumption were associated with poorer mental health in women and poorer physical health in men. No consistent associations were found for drinking outside meals. Aspects of drinking pattern may affect subjective health differentially in women and men. Overall, intoxication and liquor drinking are associated with poorer self-perceived health status than regular, moderate consumption of other alcoholic beverages.

  9. Head Lice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1044-1047. Canyon, DV, Speare R, et al . “Spatial and kinetic factors for the transfer of head ... for children. Natural products can give parents false sense of safety If using a natural product or ...

  10. Monte Carlo based modeling of indocyanine green bolus tracking in the adult human head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Jonathan T.; Diop, Mamadou; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Lee, Ting-Yim; St. Lawrence, Keith

    2011-02-01

    The use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is increasingly being investigated in critical care settings to assess cerebral hemodynamics, because of its potential for guiding therapy during the recovery period following brain injury. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) can be quantified by NIRS using indocyanine green (ICG) as an intravascular tracer. However, extracting accurate measurements from complex tissue geometries, such as the human head, is challenging and has hindered the clinical applications. With the development of fast Monte Carlo simulations that can take into account a priori anatomical information (e.g. near-infrared light propagation in tissue from MRI or CT imaging data), it is now possible to investigate signal contamination arising from the extracerebral layers, which can confound NIRS-CBF measurements. Here, we present a theoretical model that combines Monte Carlo simulations of broadband time-resolved near-infrared measurements with indicator-dilution theory to model time-dependent changes in light propagation following ICG bolus injection. Broadband, time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy measurements were simulated for three source-detector positions. Individual simulations required 56 seconds for 5x108 photons, and a set of simulations consisting of baseline measurements at 40 wavelengths, and single-wavelength measurements at 160 time-points required on average 3.4 hours. To demonstrate the usefulness of our model, the propagation of errors associated with varying both the scalp blood flow and the scalp thickness was investigated. For each simulation the data were analyzed using four independent approaches-simple-subtraction blood flow index (ΔBFISS), time-resolved variance time-to-peak (ΔTTPTR), and absolute and relative CBF with depth-resolved NIRS (CBFDR and ΔCBFDR)-to assess cerebral hemodynamics.

  11. Head First Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    Wouldn't it be great if there were a statistics book that made histograms, probability distributions, and chi square analysis more enjoyable than going to the dentist? Head First Statistics brings this typically dry subject to life, teaching you everything you want and need to know about statistics through engaging, interactive, and thought-provoking material, full of puzzles, stories, quizzes, visual aids, and real-world examples. Whether you're a student, a professional, or just curious about statistical analysis, Head First's brain-friendly formula helps you get a firm grasp of statistics

  12. Effects of mindfulness based stress reduction therapy on subjective bother and neural connectivity in chronic tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Lauren T; Lenze, Eric J; Hardin, Frances Mei; Kallogjeri, Dorina; Nicklaus, Joyce; Wineland, Andre M; Fendell, Ginny; Peelle, Jonathan E; Piccirillo, Jay F

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the impact of a Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program in patients with chronic bothersome tinnitus on the (1) severity of symptoms of tinnitus and (2) functional connectivity in neural attention networks. Open-label interventional pilot study. Outpatient academic medical center. A total of 13 adult participants with a median age of 55 years, suffering from bothersome tinnitus. An 8-week MBSR program was conducted by a trained MBSR instructor. The primary outcome measure was the difference in patient-reported tinnitus symptoms using the Tinnitus Handicap Index (THI) and Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI) between pre-intervention, post-MBSR, and 4-week post-MBSR assessments. Secondary outcomes included change in measurements of depression, anxiety, mindfulness, and cognitive abilities. Functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed at pre- and post-MBSR intervention time points to serve as a neuroimaging biomarker of critical cortical networks. Scores on the THI and TFI showed statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement over the course of the study with a median ΔTHI of -16 and median ΔTFI of -14.8 between baseline and 4-week follow-up scores. Except for depression, there was no significant change in any of the secondary outcome measures. Analysis of the resting state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) data showed increased connectivity in the post-MBSR group in attention networks but not the default network. Participation in an MBSR program is associated with decreased severity in tinnitus symptoms and depression and connectivity changes in neural attention networks. MBSR is a promising treatment option for chronic bothersome tinnitus that is both noninvasive and inexpensive. © American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  13. Examining subjective and physiological responses to norm violation using text-based vignettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhuber, Eva G; Tsankova, Elena; Kappas, Arvid

    2016-01-13

    In this article, we describe a paradigm using text-based vignettes for the study of social and cultural norm violation. Towards this aim, a range of scenarios depicting instances of norm violations was generated and tested with respect to their ability in evoking subjective and physiological responses. In Experiment 1, participants evaluated 29 vignettes on how upsetting, excusable and realistic the described behaviour appeared to be. Based on those ratings we selected and extended three norm violation vignettes for Experiment 2 in which participants' physiological responses were obtained in addition to their subjective ratings. In both studies, the vignettes were successful in eliciting negative responses to norm violations and were significantly affected by the perceivers' level of ethnocultural empathy. The trait measure of cultural empathy further predicted facial electromyography (EMG) activity at muscle sites associated with disgust (M. Levator Labii), thereby suggesting a potential moral response to norm-violating scenarios. We discuss the methodological merits and implications of this vignettes paradigm for investigating perceived norm transgressions and make recommendations for future work. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  14. Muscle fatigue evaluation of astronaut upper limb based on sEMG and subjective assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Xiaoqi; Zhou, Qianxiang; Li, Yun

    2012-07-01

    All movements are driven by muscle contraction, and it is easy to cause muscle fatigue. Evaluation of muscle fatigue is a hot topic in the area of astronaut life support training and rehabilitation. If muscle gets into fatigue condition, it may reduce work efficiency and has an impact on psychological performance. Therefore it is necessary to develop an accurate and usable method on muscle fatigue evaluation of astronaut upper limb. In this study, we developed a method based on surface electromyography (sEMG) and subjective assessment (Borg scale) to evaluate local muscle fatigue. Fifteen healthy young male subjects participated in the experiment. They performed isometric muscle contractions of the upper limb. sEMG of the biceps brachii were recorded during the entire process of isotonic muscle contraction and Borg scales of muscle fatigue were collected in certain times. sEMG were divided into several parts, and then mean energy of each parts were calculated by the one-twelfth band octave method. Equations were derived based on the relationship between the mean energy of sEMG and Borg scale. The results showed that cubic curve could describe the degree of local muscle fatigue, and could be used to evaluate and monitor local muscle fatigue during the entire process.

  15. Topology optimization for elastic base under rectangular plate subjected to moving load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilavyan Samvel H.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Distribution optimization of elastic material under elastic isotropic rectangular thin plate subjected to concentrated moving load is investigated in the present paper. The aim of optimization is to damp its vibrations in finite (fixed time. Accepting Kirchhoff hypothesis with respect to the plate and Winkler hypothesis with respect to the base, the mathematical model of the problem is constructed as two-dimensional bilinear equation, i.e. linear in state and control function. The maximal quantity of the base material is taken as optimality criterion to be minimized. The Fourier distributional transform and the Bubnov-Galerkin procedures are used to reduce the problem to integral equality type constraints. The explicit solution in terms of two- dimensional Heaviside‘s function is obtained, describing piecewise-continuous distribution of the material. The determination of the switching points is reduced to a problem of nonlinear programming. Data from numerical analysis are presented.

  16. A six year head-to-head comparison of osteopathic and allopathic applicants to a university-based, allopathic general surgery residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlitzkus, Lisa L; Clark, Christopher J; Agle, Steven C; Schenarts, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    The number of osteopathic physicians is increasing as is the number applying to allopathic general surgery residency programs. A lack of knowledge of osteopathic schooling leads to a potential applicant bias in favor of allopathic applicants, but the 2 groups have not been compared head to head. Applications over a 6-year period to an allopathic general surgery residency program were reviewed. Demographics, examination scores, employment, education, and research experience were catalogued into a database. Allopathic applicants were compared with osteopathic applicants utilizing statistical analysis. A university teaching hospital. Allopathic and osteopathic applicants to an allopathic general surgery residency program. A total of 1290 applications were reviewed; 1155 allopathic and 135 osteopathic applications. Other than race, the 2 cohorts are similar in age, gender, and citizenship. The groups are not significantly different with regard to the number of letter of recommendations, volunteer activities, scholarly works, and advanced degrees. Graduates of both proceed directly to residency. A significantly higher percentage of allopathic graduates reported their United States medical licensing examination (USMLE) scores, yet when osteopaths released their USMLE transcript, they scored significantly higher on the USMLE Step 1 examination and required fewer attempts to pass. These differences do not apply to the USMLE Step 2 examination. No single screening tool exists for selecting a successful general surgery resident. We are seeing increased numbers of osteopathic applicants. Many criteria used to evaluate applicants do not apply to osteopathic applicants, but our comparison of common selection variables on the Electronic Residency Application Service (ERAS) application did not demonstrate an overall difference. While our analysis demonstrated a statistically higher USMLE Step 1 score by osteopathic applicants, they may only self-report favorable data. Copyright

  17. Holographic polarization-selective module based on a small dove prism coupler for magneto-optical pickup heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Chang-Won; Vu, Viet-Tien; Kim, Nam; An, Jun-Won; Suh, Dongwoo; Park, Yongwoo; Ryu, Hojun; Paek, Mun-Cheol; Pyo, Hyeon-Bong

    2005-07-10

    A new structure for polarization-selective elements, consisting of two holographic gratings and a Dove prism coupler, is proposed. The absence of a multistage waveguide and the benefits of compact size and lightweight volume are the outstanding features of the new structure. Based on the coupled-wave theory, the analysis and design of the structure are discussed in detail to calculate the required index modulation. Several parameters, such as the recording intensity, the exposure time, and the recording angles for the fabrication of the proposed element, are determined. Under these conditions, the element is fabricated in Dupont photopolymer HRF-150-38 material and with an operating wavelength of 532 nm. A simplified pickup head is constructed to evaluate the performance of the fabricated element.

  18. New camera-based microswitch technology to monitor small head and mouth responses of children with multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E; Bellini, Domenico; Oliva, Doretta; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Green, Vanessa A; Furniss, Fred

    2014-06-01

    Assessing a new camera-based microswitch technology, which did not require the use of color marks on the participants' face. Two children with extensive multiple disabilities participated. The responses selected for them consisted of small, lateral head movements and mouth closing or opening. The intervention was carried out according to a multiple probe design across responses. The technology involved a computer with a CPU using a 2-GHz clock, a USB video camera with a 16-mm lens, a USB cable connecting the camera and the computer, and a special software program written in ISO C++ language. The new technology was satisfactorily used with both children. Large increases in their responding were observed during the intervention periods (i.e. when the responses were followed by preferred stimulation). The new technology may be an important resource for persons with multiple disabilities and minimal motor behavior.

  19. Understanding non-enzymatic aminophospholipid glycation and its inhibition. Polar head features affect the kinetics of Schiff base formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldés, Catalina; Vilanova, Bartolomé; Adrover, Miquel; Muñoz, Francisco; Donoso, Josefa

    2011-08-01

    Non-enzymatic aminophospholipid glycation is an especially important process because it alters the stability of lipid bilayers and interferes with cell function and integrity as a result. However, the kinetic mechanism behind this process has scarcely been studied. As in protein glycation, the process has been suggested to involve the formation of a Schiff base as the initial, rate-determining step. In this work, we conducted a comparative kinetic study of Schiff base formation under physiological conditions in three low-molecular weight analogues of polar heads in the naturally occurring aminophospholipids O-phosphorylethanolamine (PEA), O-phospho-DL-serine (PSer) and 2-aminoethylphenethylphosphate (APP) with various glycating carbonyl compounds (glucose, arabinose and acetol) and the lipid glycation inhibitor pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP). Based on the results, the presence of a phosphate group and a carboxyl group in α position respect to the amino group decrease the formation constant for the Schiff base relative to amino acids. On the other hand, esterifying the phosphate group with a non-polar substituent in APP increases the stability of its Schiff base. The observed kinetic formation constants of aminophosphates with carbonyl groups were smaller than those for PLP. Our results constitute an important contribution to understanding the competitive inhibition effect of PLP on aminophospholipid glycation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Subjective and objective evaluation of sense of space for vehicle occupants based on anthropometric data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiamtoe, Pitarn; Steinhardt, Florian; Köhler, Uwe; Bengler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    At present, the number of the vehicle requirements has been continuously increasing. These requirements can be related to the customer as well as the technical requirements. Among these, the "feeling of space" of the occupants inside the vehicles can be regarded as one of the most important factors. In this respect, the driver and passengers should be able to experience positive feeling of space inside the vehicle. There are numerous factors that can influence the sense of space inside the vehicle. These include geometry (vehicle dimensions), light exposure, ambient lights, colors, material selection and material surface. Depending on the selection, the sense of space can be dramatically influenced by these factors. In general, human feeling is subjective and cannot be measured by any instrument. The measure can nevertheless be carried out by utilizing the method of subjective evaluation. Throughout the experiments, the method of evaluation is developed and the factors which can influence the interior feeling are analyzed. In this process, psychological perception, architectural aspects and anthropometry are considered and knowledge from the other domains is transferred in the form of a multidisciplinary approach. The experiments with an aim to evaluate the overall sense of space in the vehicle are carried out based on the physical mock up of BMW 1 series (E87). The space perception with different interior dimensions and anthropometric data of test persons are also analyzed. The use of Computer Aided Technology was shown by CATIA V5, PCMAN and RAMSIS. The results show a good correlation between the subjective evaluation and the geometric values.

  1. Legalised Leadership: Law-Based Educational Reform in England and Its Effect on Head Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibton, Dan

    2004-01-01

    "Legalised Leadership" explores the links between educational law and law-based reform that have a profound influence on the work and professional life of school headteachers. The book offers lawmakers and policymakers in England some pathways for strengthening the role of leadership in English law-based reform and empowering…

  2. Game-Based Evacuation Drill Using Augmented Reality and Head-Mounted Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Junya; Mitsuhara, Hiroyuki; Shishibori, Masami

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Evacuation drills should be more realistic and interactive. Focusing on situational and audio-visual realities and scenario-based interactivity, the authors have developed a game-based evacuation drill (GBED) system that presents augmented reality (AR) materials on tablet computers. The paper's current research purpose is to improve…

  3. Principal components analysis of an evaluation of the hemiplegic subject based on the Bobath approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corriveau, H; Arsenault, A B; Dutil, E; Lepage, Y

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation based on the Bobath approach to treatment has previously been developed and partially validated. The purpose of the present study was to verify the content validity of this evaluation with the use of a statistical approach known as principal components analysis. Thirty-eight hemiplegic subjects participated in the study. Analysis of the scores on each of six parameters (sensorium, active movements, muscle tone, reflex activity, postural reactions, and pain) was evaluated on three occasions across a 2-month period. Each time this produced three factors that contained 70% of the variation in the data set. The first component mainly reflected variations in mobility, the second mainly variations in muscle tone, and the third mainly variations in sensorium and pain. The results of such exploratory analysis highlight the fact that some of the parameters are not only important but also interrelated. These results seem to partially support the conceptual framework substantiating the Bobath approach to treatment.

  4. Psychometric Assessment of Stereoscopic Head-Mounted Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-29

    environments applicable to both research and training . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Stereo vision, stereoacuity, stereoacuity test, stereoacuity assessment, Head...research and training . INTRODUCTION In 2015, the U.S. Air Force (USAF) School of Aerospace Medicine Operational Based Vision Assessment (OBVA...may be set for primarily aesthetic or computational performance reasons, without regard to specific stereo cues, which may affect the achievable

  5. Thymol-based submicron emulsions exhibit antifungal activity against Fusarium graminearum and inhibit Fusarium head blight in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, T A; Li, J; Saenger, M; Scofield, S R

    2016-10-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a very destructive fungal pathogen that leads to Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat, a disease which costs growers millions of dollars annually both in crop losses and in remediation efforts. Current countermeasures include the deployment of wheat varieties with some resistance to FHB in conjunction with timed fungicide treatments. In this article, we introduce a fungicide based on thymol, a naturally occurring plant phenolic derived from essential oils. To overcome the hydrophobicity of thymol, the thymol active was incorporated into a low-surfactant submicron emulsion with and without a carrier oil. The minimum fungicidal concentration of F. graminearum was found to be both 0·02% for thymol emulsions with and without an oil component. Time-to-kill experiments showed that thymol emulsions were able to inactivate F. graminearum in as little as 10 s at concentrations above 0·06%. Spraying the thymol emulsions (~0·1% range) on the wheat variety Bobwhite demonstrated significant reductions in FHB infection rate (number of infected spikelets). However, with 0·5% thymol, the wheat heads exhibited premature senescence. Transmission and scanning electron micrographs suggest that the mechanism of antifungal action is membrane mediated, as conidia exposed to thymol showed complete organelle disorganization and evidence of lipid emulsification. The collective experimental data suggest that thymol emulsions may be an effective naturally derived alternative to the current thymol treatments, and chemical fungicides in ameliorating FHB. This is the first thymol-derived nanoemulsion particles resuspended into water and not DMSO, exhibiting the same antibacterial/antifungal activity as previously described thymol and thyme oil treatments. This drastically reduces the environmental footprint thymol will leave if utilized as a fungicide treatment on field crops. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Polarization and dynamical properties of VCSELs-based photonic neuron subject to optical pulse injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Shuiying; Wen, Aijun; Zhang, Hao; Li, Jiafu; Guo, Xingxing; Shang, Lei; Lin, Lin

    2016-11-01

    The polarization-resolved nonlinear dynamics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) subject to orthogonally polarized optical pulse injection are investigated numerically based on the spin flip model. By extensive numerical bifurcation analysis, the responses dynamics of photonic neuron based on VCSELs under the arrival of external stimuli of orthogonally polarized optical pulse injection are mainly discussed. It is found that, several neuron-like dynamics, such as phasic spiking of a single abrupt large amplitude pulse followed with or without subthreshold oscillation, and tonic spiking with multiple periodic pulses, are successfully reproduced in the numerical model of VCSELs. Besides, the effects of stimuli strength, pump current, frequency detuning, as well as the linewidth enhancement factor on the neuron-like response dynamics are examined carefully. The operating parameters ranges corresponding to different neuron-like dynamics are further identified. Thus, the numerical model and simulation results are very useful and interesting for the ultrafast brain-inspired neuromorphic photonics systems based on VCSELs.

  7. Validation of a Quantitative Single-Subject Based Evaluation for Rehabilitation-Induced Improvement Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolla, Marta; Molteni, Franco; Ward, Nick S; Guanziroli, Eleonora; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2015-11-01

    The foreseen outcome of a rehabilitation treatment is a stable improvement on the functional outcomes, which can be longitudinally assessed through multiple measures to help clinicians in functional evaluation. In this study, we propose an automatic comprehensive method of combining multiple measures in order to assess a functional improvement. As test-bed, a functional electrical stimulation based treatment for foot drop correction performed with chronic post-stroke participants is presented. Patients were assessed on five relevant outcome measures before, after intervention, and at a follow-up time-point. A novel algorithm based on variables minimum detectable change is proposed and implemented in a custom-made software, combining the outcome measures to obtain a unique parameter: capacity score. The difference between capacity scores at different timing is three holded to obtain improvement evaluation. Ten clinicians evaluated patients on the Improvement Clinical Global Impression scale. Eleven patients underwent the treatment, and five resulted to achieve a stable functional improvement, as assessed by the proposed algorithm. A statistically significant agreement between intra-clinicians and algorithm-clinicians evaluations was demonstrated. The proposed method evaluates functional improvement on a single-subject yes/no base by merging different measures (e.g., kinematic, muscular) and it is validated against clinical evaluation.

  8. Secondary Data Analyses of Subjective Outcome Evaluation Data Based on Nine Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes in Hong Kong by analyzing 1,327 school-based program reports submitted by program implementers. In each report, program implementers were invited to write down five conclusions based on an integration of the subjective outcome evaluation data collected from the program participants and program implementers. Secondary data analyses were carried out by aggregating nine databases, with 14,390 meaningful units extracted from 6,618 conclusions. Results showed that most of the conclusions were positive in nature. The findings generally showed that the workers perceived the program and program implementers to be positive, and they also pointed out that the program could promote holistic development of the program participants in societal, familial, interpersonal, and personal aspects. However, difficulties encountered during program implementation (2.15% and recommendations for improvement were also reported (16.26%. In conjunction with the evaluation findings based on other strategies, the present study suggests that the Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. is beneficial to the holistic development of the program participants.

  9. Voxel-based analysis unveils regional dose differences associated with radiation-induced morbidity in head and neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Serena; Palma, Giuseppe; D'Avino, Vittoria; Gerardi, Marianna; Marvaso, Giulia; Ciardo, Delia; Pacelli, Roberto; Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara A; Alterio, Daniela; Cella, Laura

    2017-08-03

    The risk of radiation-induced toxicity in patients treated for head and neck (HN) cancer with radiation therapy (RT) is traditionally estimated by condensing the 3D dose distribution into a monodimensional cumulative dose-volume histogram which disregards information on dose localization. We hypothesized that a voxel-based approach would identify correlations between radiation-induced morbidity and local dose release, thus providing a new insight into spatial signature of radiation sensitivity in composite regions like the HN district. This methodology was applied to a cohort of HN cancer patients treated with RT at risk of radiation-induced acute dysphagia (RIAD). We implemented an inter-patient elastic image registration framework that proved robust enough to match even the most elusive HN structures and to provide accurate dose warping. A voxel-based statistical analysis was then performed to test regional dosimetric differences between patients with and without RIAD. We identified a significantly higher dose delivered to RIAD patients in two voxel clusters in correspondence of the cricopharyngeus muscle and cervical esophagus. Our study goes beyond the well-established organ-based philosophy exploring the relationship between radiation-induced morbidity and local dose differences in the HN region. This approach is generally applicable to different HN toxicity endpoints and is not specific to RIAD.

  10. Empirical Study on Designing of Gaze Tracking Camera Based on the Information of User’s Head Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Weiyuan; Jung, Dongwook; Yoon, Hyo Sik; Lee, Dong Eun; Naqvi, Rizwan Ali; Lee, Kwan Woo; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-01-01

    Gaze tracking is the technology that identifies a region in space that a user is looking at. Most previous non-wearable gaze tracking systems use a near-infrared (NIR) light camera with an NIR illuminator. Based on the kind of camera lens used, the viewing angle and depth-of-field (DOF) of a gaze tracking camera can be different, which affects the performance of the gaze tracking system. Nevertheless, to our best knowledge, most previous researches implemented gaze tracking cameras without ground truth information for determining the optimal viewing angle and DOF of the camera lens. Eye-tracker manufacturers might also use ground truth information, but they do not provide this in public. Therefore, researchers and developers of gaze tracking systems cannot refer to such information for implementing gaze tracking system. We address this problem providing an empirical study in which we design an optimal gaze tracking camera based on experimental measurements of the amount and velocity of user’s head movements. Based on our results and analyses, researchers and developers might be able to more easily implement an optimal gaze tracking system. Experimental results show that our gaze tracking system shows high performance in terms of accuracy, user convenience and interest. PMID:27589768

  11. Empirical Study on Designing of Gaze Tracking Camera Based on the Information of User’s Head Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyuan Pan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Gaze tracking is the technology that identifies a region in space that a user is looking at. Most previous non-wearable gaze tracking systems use a near-infrared (NIR light camera with an NIR illuminator. Based on the kind of camera lens used, the viewing angle and depth-of-field (DOF of a gaze tracking camera can be different, which affects the performance of the gaze tracking system. Nevertheless, to our best knowledge, most previous researches implemented gaze tracking cameras without ground truth information for determining the optimal viewing angle and DOF of the camera lens. Eye-tracker manufacturers might also use ground truth information, but they do not provide this in public. Therefore, researchers and developers of gaze tracking systems cannot refer to such information for implementing gaze tracking system. We address this problem providing an empirical study in which we design an optimal gaze tracking camera based on experimental measurements of the amount and velocity of user’s head movements. Based on our results and analyses, researchers and developers might be able to more easily implement an optimal gaze tracking system. Experimental results show that our gaze tracking system shows high performance in terms of accuracy, user convenience and interest.

  12. Feasibility of a pedometer-based walking program for survivors of breast and head and neck cancer undergoing radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaheri, Pantea Amin; Nekolaichuk, Cheryl; Haennel, Robert; Parliament, Matthew B; McNeely, Margaret L

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of a pedometer-based walking program for people with breast cancer and head and neck cancer (HNC) undergoing radiation therapy treatment. Participants were given a pedometer and prescribed a home-based walking program that included an individualized weekly step-count goal during the 3- to 5-week course of radiation therapy. Feasibility was determined by calculating recruitment rate, completion rate, and rate of adherence. Secondary outcomes included 6-minute walk test (6MWT) distance, step count, physical activity level, and psychological outcomes of depression, happiness, self-esteem, and sleep quality. A total of 21 participants were recruited. All participants completed the study; adherence to prescribed step counts was 91% at follow-up. Analysis found a significant improvement in happiness, as measured by the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (mean difference 0.3, p=0.003), and a borderline significant improvement in 6MWT distance (mean difference 35 m, p=0.008). This pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of a pedometer-based walking program for survivors of breast cancer and HNC undergoing radiation therapy.

  13. Population of 224 realistic human subject-based computational breast phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, David W. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Wells, Jered R., E-mail: jered.wells@duke.edu [Clinical Imaging Physics Group and Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Sturgeon, Gregory M. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Samei, Ehsan [Department of Radiology and Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Departments of Physics, Electrical and Computer Engineering, and Biomedical Engineering, and Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Dobbins, James T. [Department of Radiology and Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Departments of Physics and Biomedical Engineering and Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Segars, W. Paul [Department of Radiology and Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Lo, Joseph Y. [Department of Radiology and Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Departments of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Biomedical Engineering and Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: To create a database of highly realistic and anatomically variable 3D virtual breast phantoms based on dedicated breast computed tomography (bCT) data. Methods: A tissue classification and segmentation algorithm was used to create realistic and detailed 3D computational breast phantoms based on 230 + dedicated bCT datasets from normal human subjects. The breast volume was identified using a coarse three-class fuzzy C-means segmentation algorithm which accounted for and removed motion blur at the breast periphery. Noise in the bCT data was reduced through application of a postreconstruction 3D bilateral filter. A 3D adipose nonuniformity (bias field) correction was then applied followed by glandular segmentation using a 3D bias-corrected fuzzy C-means algorithm. Multiple tissue classes were defined including skin, adipose, and several fractional glandular densities. Following segmentation, a skin mask was produced which preserved the interdigitated skin, adipose, and glandular boundaries of the skin interior. Finally, surface modeling was used to produce digital phantoms with methods complementary to the XCAT suite of digital human phantoms. Results: After rejecting some datasets due to artifacts, 224 virtual breast phantoms were created which emulate the complex breast parenchyma of actual human subjects. The volume breast density (with skin) ranged from 5.5% to 66.3% with a mean value of 25.3% ± 13.2%. Breast volumes ranged from 25.0 to 2099.6 ml with a mean value of 716.3 ± 386.5 ml. Three breast phantoms were selected for imaging with digital compression (using finite element modeling) and simple ray-tracing, and the results show promise in their potential to produce realistic simulated mammograms. Conclusions: This work provides a new population of 224 breast phantoms based on in vivo bCT data for imaging research. Compared to previous studies based on only a few prototype cases, this dataset provides a rich source of new cases spanning a wide range

  14. Population of 224 realistic human subject-based computational breast phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, David W; Wells, Jered R; Sturgeon, Gregory M; Samei, Ehsan; Dobbins, James T; Segars, W Paul; Lo, Joseph Y

    2016-01-01

    To create a database of highly realistic and anatomically variable 3D virtual breast phantoms based on dedicated breast computed tomography (bCT) data. A tissue classification and segmentation algorithm was used to create realistic and detailed 3D computational breast phantoms based on 230 + dedicated bCT datasets from normal human subjects. The breast volume was identified using a coarse three-class fuzzy C-means segmentation algorithm which accounted for and removed motion blur at the breast periphery. Noise in the bCT data was reduced through application of a postreconstruction 3D bilateral filter. A 3D adipose nonuniformity (bias field) correction was then applied followed by glandular segmentation using a 3D bias-corrected fuzzy C-means algorithm. Multiple tissue classes were defined including skin, adipose, and several fractional glandular densities. Following segmentation, a skin mask was produced which preserved the interdigitated skin, adipose, and glandular boundaries of the skin interior. Finally, surface modeling was used to produce digital phantoms with methods complementary to the XCAT suite of digital human phantoms. After rejecting some datasets due to artifacts, 224 virtual breast phantoms were created which emulate the complex breast parenchyma of actual human subjects. The volume breast density (with skin) ranged from 5.5% to 66.3% with a mean value of 25.3% ± 13.2%. Breast volumes ranged from 25.0 to 2099.6 ml with a mean value of 716.3 ± 386.5 ml. Three breast phantoms were selected for imaging with digital compression (using finite element modeling) and simple ray-tracing, and the results show promise in their potential to produce realistic simulated mammograms. This work provides a new population of 224 breast phantoms based on in vivo bCT data for imaging research. Compared to previous studies based on only a few prototype cases, this dataset provides a rich source of new cases spanning a wide range of breast types, volumes, densities, and

  15. Abusive head trauma: differentiation between impact and non-impact cases based on neuroimaging findings and skeletal surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn, T.; Robben, S. G. F.; Karst, W. A.; Moesker, F. M.; van Aalderen, W. M.; Laméris, J. S.; van Rijn, R. R.

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether imaging findings can be used to differentiate between impact and non-impact head trauma in a group of fatal and non-fatal abusive head trauma (AHT) victims. We included all AHT cases in the Netherlands in the period 2005-2012 for which a forensic report was written for a court

  16. Heading in the right direction: thermodynamics-based network analysis and pathway engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataman, Meric; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily

    2015-12-01

    Thermodynamics-based network analysis through the introduction of thermodynamic constraints in metabolic models allows a deeper analysis of metabolism and guides pathway engineering. The number and the areas of applications of thermodynamics-based network analysis methods have been increasing in the last ten years. We review recent applications of these methods and we identify the areas that such analysis can contribute significantly, and the needs for future developments. We find that organisms with multiple compartments and extremophiles present challenges for modeling and thermodynamics-based flux analysis. The evolution of current and new methods must also address the issues of the multiple alternatives in flux directionalities and the uncertainties and partial information from analytical methods. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Correcting Experience-Based Judgments: The Perseverance of Subjective Experience in the Face of the Correction of Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussinson, Ravit; Koriat, Asher

    2008-01-01

    Many of our cognitive and metacognitive judgments are based on sheer subjective experience. Subjective experience, however, may be contaminated by irrelevant factors, resulting in biased judgments. Under certain conditions people exert a metacognitive correction process to remedy such biased judgments. In this study we examine the proposition that…

  18. From toe to head: use of robust regression methods in stature estimation based on foot remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablos, Adrián; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; García-Pérez, Alfonso; Martínez, Ignacio; Lorenzo, Carlos; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2013-03-10

    Stature estimation is a standard procedure in the fields of forensic and biological anthropology, bio-archaeology and paleoanthropology, in order to gain biological insights into the individuals/populations studied. The most accurate stature estimation method is based on anatomical reconstruction (i.e., the Fully method), followed by type I regression equations (e.g., ordinary least squares - OLS) based on long bones, preferably from the lower limb. In some cases, due to the fragmentary nature of the osseous material recovered, stature estimates have to rely on other elements, such as foot remains. In this study, we explore stature estimation based on different foot bones: the talus, calcaneus, and metatarsals 1-4 in Afro- and Euroamericans of both sexes. The approach undertaken in this study is novel for two reasons. First, individual estimates for each bone are provided, and tarsals and metatarsals are combined in order to obtain more accurate estimates. Second, robust statistical methods based on type I regression equations are used, namely least trimmed squares (LTS). Our results show that the best individual bones for estimating stature are the first and second metatarsal and both the talus and the calcaneus. The combination of a tarsal and a metatarsal bone slightly improves the accuracy of the stature estimate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Multiatlas approach with local registration goodness weighting for MRI-based electron density mapping of head and neck anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farjam, Reza; Tyagi, Neelam; Veeraraghavan, Harini; Apte, Aditya; Zakian, Kristen; Hunt, Margie A; Deasy, Joseph O

    2017-07-01

    The growing use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a substitute for computed tomography-based treatment planning requires the development of effective algorithms to generate electron density maps for treatment planning and patient setup verification. The purpose of this work was to develop a method to synthesize computerized tomography (CT) for MR-only radiotherapy of head and neck cancer patients. The algorithm is based on registration of multiple patient datasets containing both MRI and CT images (a "multiatlas" algorithm). Twelve matched pairs of good quality CT and MRI scans (those without apparent motion and blurring artifacts) were selected from a pool of head and neck cancer patients to form the atlas. All atlas MRI scans were preprocessed to reduce scanner- and patient-induced intensity inhomogeneities and to standardize their intensity histograms. Atlas CT and MRIs were coregistered using a novel bone-to-air replacement technique applied to the CT scans that improves the similarity between CTs and MRIs and facilitates the registration process. For each new patient, all atlas MRIs are deformed initially onto the new patients' MRI. We introduce a generalized registration error (GRE) metric that automatically measures the goodness of local registration between MRI pairs. The final synthetic CT value at each point is a nonlinear GRE-weighted average of the atlas CTs. For evaluation, the leave-one-out technique was used for synthetic CT generation and the mean absolute error (MAE) between the original and synthetic CT was computed over the entire CT image. The impact of our proposed CT-MR registration scheme on the accuracy of the final synthetic CT was also studied. The original treatment plans were also recomputed on the new synthetic CTs and dose-volume histogram metrics were compared. In addition, the two-dimensional (2D) gamma analysis at 1%/1 mm and 2%/2 mm dose difference/distance to agreement was also performed to study the dose distribution at

  20. Prevalence of head injury and medically diagnosed concussion in junior-level community-based Australian Rules Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecimovich, Mark D; King, Doug

    2017-03-01

    For junior-level Australian Rules Football there is a paucity of head injury and concussion surveillance data; thus, the primary aim was to document head injury and concussion incidence in participants aged 9-17 years with a secondary aim to identify the mechanism-of-injury. A prospective cohort study in which a designated representative for each of the 41 teams recorded on a weekly basis the number of head injuries suspected of being a concussion, diagnosed concussions and the mechanism-of-injury during competition games over the course of a 12-game season. For analysis three groups were formed - number of Player-Seasons, Athlete-Exposures, head injury and concussion incidence per 1000 Athlete-Exposures - and were calculated. Narrative data was categorised. There was 13 reported head injuries resulting in seven concussions in the sample population (n = 976). The incidence rates for head injury and concussion were 1.1 (95% confidence interval: 0.5-1.7) and 0.59 (95% confidence interval: 0.2-1.0) per 1000 Athlete-Exposures. There were four head injuries resulting in two concussions in the 12-13-year-old group and nine head injuries and five concussions in the 14-17-year-old group. Two categories emerged for mechanism-of-injury: player-to-surface and player-to-player, with 9 of the 13 head injuries resulting from player-to-player contact. The incidence rates were similar in the two older groups and lower in comparison with American football and rugby. The data collected have advanced our knowledge of head injury incidence and established baseline data which to compare in future years and may assist in development of preventative measures. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  1. Limitations of subjective cognitive load measures in simulation-based procedural training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naismith, Laura M; Cheung, Jeffrey J H; Ringsted, Charlotte; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo B

    2015-08-01

    The effective implementation of cognitive load theory (CLT) to optimise the instructional design of simulation-based training requires sensitive and reliable measures of cognitive load. This mixed-methods study assessed relationships between commonly used measures of total cognitive load and the extent to which these measures reflected participants' experiences of cognitive load in simulation-based procedural skills training. Two groups of medical residents (n = 38) completed three questionnaires after participating in simulation-based procedural skills training sessions: the Paas Cognitive Load Scale; the NASA Task Load Index (TLX), and a cognitive load component (CLC) questionnaire we developed to assess total cognitive load as the sum of intrinsic load (how complex the task is), extraneous load (how the task is presented) and germane load (how the learner processes the task for learning). We calculated Pearson's correlation coefficients to assess agreement among these instruments. Group interviews explored residents' perceptions about how the simulation sessions contributed to their total cognitive load. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and subjected to qualitative content analysis. Total cognitive load scores differed significantly according to the instrument used to assess them. In particular, there was poor agreement between the Paas Scale and the TLX. Quantitative and qualitative findings supported intrinsic cognitive load as synonymous with mental effort (Paas Scale), mental demand (TLX) and task difficulty and complexity (CLC questionnaire). Additional qualitative themes relating to extraneous and germane cognitive loads were not reflected in any of the questionnaires. The Paas Scale, TLX and CLC questionnaire appear to be interchangeable as measures of intrinsic cognitive load, but not of total cognitive load. A more complete understanding of the sources of extraneous and germane cognitive loads in simulation-based training contexts is

  2. QTL Analysis of Head Splitting Resistance in Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata Using SSR and InDel Makers Based on Whole-Genome Re-Sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbin Su

    Full Text Available Head splitting resistance (HSR in cabbage is an important trait closely related to both quality and yield of head. However, the genetic control of this trait remains unclear. In this study, a doubled haploid (DH population derived from an intra-cross between head splitting-susceptible inbred cabbage line 79-156 and resistant line 96-100 was obtained and used to analyze inheritance and detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs for HSR using a mixed major gene/polygene inheritance analysis and QTL mapping. HSR can be attributed to additive-epistatic effects of three major gene pairs combined with those of polygenes. Negative and significant correlations were also detected between head Hsr and head vertical diameter (Hvd, head transverse diameter (Htd and head weight (Hw. Using the DH population, a genetic map was constructed with simple sequence repeat (SSR and insertion-deletion (InDel markers, with a total length of 1065.9 cM and average interval length of 4.4 cM between adjacent markers. Nine QTLs for HSR were located on chromosomes C3, C4, C7, and C9 based on 2 years of phenotypic data using both multiple-QTL mapping and inclusive composite interval mapping. The identified QTLs collectively explained 39.4 to 59.1% of phenotypic variation. Three major QTLs (Hsr 3.2, 4.2, 9.2 showing a relatively larger effect were robustly detected in different years or with different mapping methods. The HSR trait was shown to have complex genetic mechanisms. Results from QTL mapping and classical genetic analysis were consistent. The QTLs obtained in this study should be useful for molecular marker-assisted selection in cabbage breeding and provide a foundation for further research on HSR genetic regulation.

  3. An Investigation of Primary School Teachers’ PCK towards Science Subjects Using an Inquiry-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menşure ALKIŞ KÜÇÜKAYDIN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK of four experienced primary school teachers was investigated within the “Let’s Solve the Riddle of Our Body Unit”. The PCK investigation adopted a learning approach based on inquiry, content representation and pedagogical and professional-experience repertoires (PaP-eRs, and interview forms were used as data collection tools. During the course of the research, the findings obtained from observations made during a total of 18 course hours formed the basic data source of the study. According to the results of the study, in which descriptive and content analysis were used concurrently, primary school teachers lack subject matter knowledge, do not interrogate the pre-knowledge of students and some misconceptions exist regarding about blood moves and exercise with pulse. Additionally, some deficiencies were detected in the curriculum, i.e., it offers non-inquisitional knowledge. Furthermore, teachers employee assessment methods with traditional teaching methods and techniques. In the context of an inquiry-based learning approach, teachers appeared to believe that classroom activities were adversely affected by the physical conditions (class size, lack of laboratory etc., students’ cognitive levels and parent profiles. The result of this study revealed that PCK components affect one another. The PCK findings pertaining to primary school teachers as it concerns the unit are briefly discussed and some suggestions about the development of PCK are submitted.

  4. Charging power optimization for nonlinear vibration energy harvesting systems subjected to arbitrary, persistent base excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Quanqi; Harne, Ryan L.

    2018-01-01

    The vibrations of mechanical systems and structures are often a combination of periodic and random motions. Emerging interest to exploit nonlinearities in vibration energy harvesting systems for charging microelectronics may be challenged by such reality due to the potential to transition between favorable and unfavorable dynamic regimes for DC power delivery. Therefore, a need exists to devise an optimization method whereby charging power from nonlinear energy harvesters remains maximized when excitation conditions are neither purely harmonic nor purely random, which have been the attention of past research. This study meets the need by building from an analytical approach that characterizes the dynamic response of nonlinear energy harvesting platforms subjected to combined harmonic and stochastic base accelerations. Here, analytical expressions are formulated and validated to optimize charging power while the influences of the relative proportions of excitation types are concurrently assessed. It is found that about a 2 times deviation in optimal resistive loads can reduce the charging power by 20% when the system is more prominently driven by harmonic base accelerations, whereas a greater proportion of stochastic excitation results in a 11% reduction in power for the same resistance deviation. In addition, the results reveal that when the frequency of a predominantly harmonic excitation deviates by 50% from optimal conditions the charging power reduces by 70%, whereas the same frequency deviation for a more stochastically dominated excitation reduce total DC power by only 20%. These results underscore the need for maximizing direct current power delivery for nonlinear energy harvesting systems in practical operating environments.

  5. A corpus-based lexical analysis of subject-specific university textbooks for English majors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konul Hajiyeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is a corpus-based lexical analysis of subject-specific university textbooks which purports to explore lexical text coverage and frequency distribution of words from the Academic Word List and the British National Corpus frequency-based word families. For this study a 508,802-word corpus was created, the findings of which reflect that the Academic Word List word families constitute only a small coverage (6.5% of the words in the entire corpus, whereas the first two thousand high-frequency word families give the coverage of 88.92%. In terms of the text coverage, the results reveal that if 98% coverage of a text is needed for unassisted comprehension, then a vocabulary size of 9000 word families is required. The results also substantiate the claims that the Academic Word List is not as general an academic vocabulary as it was initially intended to be and, more importantly, supports the assumption that students need a more restricted core academic vocabulary. It is therefore argued that 127 academic word families which are relatively frequent in the overall university textbook corpus can be used as a part of the university word list for second-year English majors who have to read and comprehend university textbooks.

  6. Life events, salivary cortisol, and cognitive performance in nondemented subjects: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouanes, Sami; Castelao, Enrique; Gebreab, Sirak; von Gunten, Armin; Preisig, Martin; Popp, Julius

    2017-03-01

    Older people are particularly exposed to stressful events, known to activate the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis resulting in increased cortisol levels. High cortisol has been associated with deleterious effects on cognition. We hypothesized that stressful life events could increase cortisol secretion leading to cognitive impairment. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using data from Colaus/PsyColaus, a longitudinal population-based study among Lausanne residents. Salivary cortisol samples were obtained from 796 nondemented subjects aged at least 65. A neuropsychological battery was used to assess cognitive performance and determine the Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes (CDRSOB). Lifetime life events and their subjective impact were assessed using a validated questionnaire. The total impact of life events was associated neither with cortisol area under the curve (AUC) nor with CDRSOB nor with any cognitive domain performance. The CDRSOB was associated with the cortisol AUC, controlling for age, sex, body mass index, education and depressive symptoms (p = 0.003; B = 0.686 [0.240; 1.333]; r = 0.114). This association between CDRSOB and the cortisol AUC remained significant after controlling for life events total impact (p = 0.040; B = 0.591 [0.027; 1.155]; r = 0.106). These findings do not support the hypothesis that stressful life events increase cortisol secretion leading to cognitive impairment. The association of higher cortisol levels with poorer cognition might be not a mere reflection of stressful events but rather explained by other factors, yet to be elucidated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. «Bases of social regulation and public relations» subject: MGSU teaching experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreev Igor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The report presents the author’s teaching experience in Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU in 2014 – 2017 of a new subject aimed to consolidate the information which is usually «dispersed» between courses of public relations, management, philosophy, sociology, etc. In particular, the author expresses his point of view concerning the most optimal structural organization of a training material for this discipline, considers the most successful, in his opinion, methodical practices, marks some features of the discipline understanding by students and their achieved results in study. Considering the training material provided in the first part of this discipline – «Bases of social regulation», – the author suggests to make the central, «recurrent» problem of the section the question of social planning in urban policy and especially – the social aspects in development and implementation of the smart city concept. In the second part of the discipline – «Public relations» – the author considers reasonable to pay special attention (apart from the general-theoretical communication problems reviewing to practical questions of establishment of trust relationships between town-planners and social groups similar to different components of a creative class. The author comes to a conclusion that the teaching methods of this subject in construction higher education institutions should create for students an integral view of the democratically understanding processes for social planning in town-planning, inseparably connected with different forms and methods of social communication.

  8. Evaluation of Sustainable Development Indicators With Fuzzy TOPSIS Based on Subjective and Objective Weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nang Idayu Nik Zahari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Sustainable development aims at improving and maintaining the well-being of people and the ecology. However, this paper focuses only on the ecological aspects. The selection of the proper ecological protection determinant plays a very important role in improving the environment of Malaysia. This paper will propose a method from Wang and Lee (2009, and Yong (2006 which applies a fuzzy TOPSIS method -- based on subjective and objective weights – to make the required selection. Four alternatives will be tested which are: prevent pollution (A1, conservation (A2, well-manage (A3, and public awareness (A4. Along with these, four criteria need to be considered: water quality factor (C1, land integrity factor (C2, air quality factor (C3, and biodiversity factor (C4. Finally, a numerical example of ecological protection determinant selection is used to illustrate the proposed method. ABSTRAK: Pembangunan lestari bermatlamat memperbaiki dan mengekalkan kesejahteraan rakyat serta ekologi. Walau bagaimanapun, kertas kajian ini hanya memberi tumpuan kepada aspek-aspek ekologi. Pemilihan penentu perlindungan serta keselamatan bagi aspek ekologi memainkan peranan yang amat penting dalam meningkatkan kualiti alam sekitar di Malaysia. Kertas kajian ini telah menggunakan kaedah Wang dan Lee (2009 dan Yong (2006 yang mengaplikasikan kaedah TOPSIS kabur berdasarkan pemberat subjektif dan objektif. Terdapat empat alternatif yang akan diuji iaitu: pencegahan pencemaran (A1, pemuliharaan (A2, pengurusan yang baik (A3, kesedaran orang awam (A4. Selain itu, terdapat empat kriteria yang perlu dipertimbangkan: faktor kualiti air (C1, faktor kualiti tanah (C2, faktor kualiti udara (C3, faktor kepelbagaian biologi (C4. Kesimpulannya, contoh pengiraan untuk memperoleh penentu pemilihan perlindungan ekologi telah digunakan bagi menunjukkan kaedah yang dicadangkan.KEYWORDS: sustainable development; ecological factors; subjective and objective weight; fuzzy TOPSIS

  9. Effect of prothioconazole-based fungicides on Fusarium head blight, grain yield and deoxynivalenol accumulation in wheat under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam HAIDUKOWSKI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of triazole-based treatments on Fusarium head blight (FHB, grain yields and the accumulation of deoxynivalenol (DON in harvested wheat kernels was evaluated by means of twenty multi-site field experiments performed during five consecutive growing seasons (from 2004‒2005 to 2008‒2009 in Italy. Fungicide treatments were carried out on different cultivars of common wheat (cv. Serio, Blasco, Genio and Savio and durum wheat (cv. Orobel, Saragolla, San Carlo, Levante, Duilio, Karur and Derrik after artificial inoculation with a mixture of toxigenic Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum strains. The application of fungicides containing prothioconazole (Proline® or Prosaro® at the beginning of anthesis (BBCH 61 resulted in a consistent reduction of FHB disease severity (by between 39 and 93% and DON levels in wheat kernels (by between 40 and 91% and increased wheat yields (from 0.4 to 5.6 t ha-1, average 2.2 t ha-1, as compared to the untreated/inoculated control. Fungicides containing tebuconazole (Folicur® SE and cyproconazole plus prochloraz (Tiptor® Xcell showed a reduced effectiveness compared with prothioconazole-based treatments. All fungicide treatments were more effective in reducing DON and increasing grain yields of common wheat than durum wheat. Results showed that the application of fungicides containing prothioconazole at the beginning of anthesis provided a strong reduction of FHB disease, allowing both an increase in grain yields and a considerable reduction of DON content in wheat kernels.

  10. CT-based delineation of organs at risk in the head and neck region.DAHANCA, EORTC, GORTEC, HKNPCSG, NCIC CTG, NCRI, NRG Oncology and TROG consensus guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouwer, Charlotte L; Steenbakkers, Roel J H M; Bourhis, Jean

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The objective of this project was to define consensus guidelines for delineating organs at risk (OARs) for head and neck radiotherapy for routine daily practice and for research purposes. METHODS: Consensus guidelines were formulated based on in-depth discussions of a panel of European, ...

  11. Simulation-based otolaryngology - head and neck surgery boot camp: 'how I do it'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, C J; Chin, C A; Roth, K; Rotenberg, B W; Fung, K

    2016-03-01

    In otolaryngology, surgical emergencies can occur at any time. An annual surgical training camp (or 'boot camp') offers junior residents from across North America the opportunity to learn and practice these skills in a safe environment. The goals of this study were to describe the set-up and execution of a simulation-based otolaryngology boot camp and to determine participants' confidence in performing routine and emergency on-call procedures in stressful situations before and after the boot camp. There were three main components of the boot camp: task trainers, simulations and an interactive panel discussion. Surveys were given to participants before and after the boot camp, and their confidence in performing the different tasks was assessed via multiple t-tests. Participants comprised 22 residents from 12 different universities; 10 of these completed both boot camp surveys. Of the nine tasks, the residents reported a significant improvement in confidence levels for six, including surgical airway and orbital haematoma management. An otolaryngology boot camp gives residents the chance to learn and practice emergency skills before encountering the emergencies in everyday practice. Their confidence in multiple skillsets was significantly improved after the boot camp. Given the shift towards competency-based learning in medical training, this study has implications for all surgical and procedural specialties.

  12. Head injury in Germany: A population-based prospective study on epidemiology, causes, treatment and outcome of all degrees of head-injury severity in two distinct areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickels, Eckhard; von Wild, Klaus; Wenzlaff, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the ratio of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) to moderate and severe TBI, about the time that elapses until primary care is given, about the number of patients requiring immediate surgery and about the early outcome and the costs. In a prospective study two regions taken as model examples were investigated: the City of Hanover with its surrounding catchment area and Münster with its regions. From 1 March 2000 until 28 February 2001 all patients were recruited who were admitted to a hospital emergency department due to a TBI; 6783 patients (58.4% male, 41.6% female; 29.7% children < 16 years) were included; 5220 (73%) received in-hospital treatment; and 258 were given early rehabilitation. The incidence of TBI is 332 per 100 000 head of population. The GCS (Glasgow Coma Scale) or other forms of neurological examinations were performed in only 56% of all cases. According to the GCS status, 90.2% are classified as mild, 3.9% as moderate and 5.2% as severe. Intubation is given only to 76.1% of patients with severe TBI. Lethality was 1%. The predominant cause of TBI is falls, with 52.5% of all cases, while 26.3% were due to road accidents. The time elapsing between the accident event and initial examination at the hospital is less than 1 hour in 63% of all cases. X-rays were taken in 82% of all cases of TBI, with 19.3% of the patients receiving a CT scan; 58.7% of all TBI patients have additional injuries of the facial skull, 8.8% of the vertebral column, 7.2% of the thorax, 2.6% of the abdomen, 3.4% of the pelvis and 19.6% of one or more extremities. One year after the accident, 50% of all patients still required treatment even after mild TBI. It is necessary to follow the TBI guidelines, e.g. regarding intubation and neurological examination. The indication for cranial x-rays and CT should be reconsidered.

  13. A comparative study of the origin, structure, and indexing language of the Persian and English keywords of articles indexed in the IranMedex database and their compliance with the Persian medical thesaurus and Medical Subject Headings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsaei-Mohammadi, Parastoo; Ghasemi, Ali Hossein; Hassanzadeh-Beheshtabad, Raziyeh

    2017-01-01

    In the present era, thesauri as tools in indexing play an effective role in integrating retrieval preventing fragmentation as well as a multiplicity of terminologies and also in providing information content of documents. This study aimed to investigate the keywords of articles indexed in IranMedex in terms of origin, structure and indexing situation and their Compliance with the Persian Medical Thesaurus and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). This study is an applied research, and a survey has been conducted. Statistical population includes 32,850 Persian articles which are indexed in the IranMedex during the years 1385-1391. 379 cases were selected as sample of the study. Data collection was done using a checklist. In analyzing the findings, the SPSS Software were used. Although there was no significant difference in terms of indexing origin between the proportion of different types of the Persian and English keywords of articles indexed in the IranMedex, the compliance rates of the Persian and English keywords with the Persian medical thesaurus and MeSH were different in different years. In the meantime, the structure of keywords is leaning more towards phrase structure, and a single word structure and the majority of keywords are selected from the titles and abstracts. The authors' familiarity with the thesauri and controlled tools causes homogeneity in assigning keywords and also provides more precise, faster, and easier retrieval of the keywords. It's suggested that a mixture of natural and control languages to be used in this database in order to reach more comprehensive results.

  14. Heads up and camera down: a vision-based tracking modality for mobile mixed reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiVerdi, Stephen; Höllerer, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    Anywhere Augmentation pursues the goal of lowering the initial investment of time and money necessary to participate in mixed reality work, bridging the gap between researchers in the field and regular computer users. Our paper contributes to this goal by introducing the GroundCam, a cheap tracking modality with no significant setup necessary. By itself, the GroundCam provides high frequency, high resolution relative position information similar to an inertial navigation system, but with significantly less drift. We present the design and implementation of the GroundCam, analyze the impact of several design and run-time factors on tracking accuracy, and consider the implications of extending our GroundCam to different hardware configurations. Motivated by the performance analysis, we developed a hybrid tracker that couples the GroundCam with a wide area tracking modality via a complementary Kalman filter, resulting in a powerful base for indoor and outdoor mobile mixed reality work. To conclude, the performance of the hybrid tracker and its utility within mixed reality applications is discussed.

  15. P300 after head injury : Pseudodelay caused by reduced P3A amplitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elting, JW; van der Naalt, J; van Weerden, TW; De Keyser, J; Maurits, NM

    2005-01-01

    Objective: We compared conventional P300 analysis with source analysis in normal subjects and head-injury patients. Based on earlier findings of improved P300 component identification and reduced P3B latency variability with source analysis in normal subjects, our aim was to investigate whether

  16. Single-subject designs as a tool for evidence-based clinical practice: Are they unrecognised and undervalued?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdices, Michael; Tate, Robyn L

    2009-12-01

    One could be forgiven for thinking that the only road to evidence-based clinical practice is the application of results from randomised controlled trials (or systematic reviews of such). By contrast, single-subject designs in the context of evidence-based clinical practice are believed by many to be strange bedfellows. In this paper, we argue that single-subject designs play an important role in evidence-based clinical practice. We survey the contents of Neuropsychological Rehabilitation in relation to single-subject designs and tackle the main criticisms that have been levelled against them. We offer practical guidance for rating the methodological quality of single-subject designs and applying statistical techniques to measure treatment efficacy. These guides are equally applicable to research studies and everyday clinical practice with individual patients.

  17. EEG-based recognition of video-induced emotions: selecting subject-independent feature set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortelainen, Jukka; Seppänen, Tapio

    2013-01-01

    Emotions are fundamental for everyday life affecting our communication, learning, perception, and decision making. Including emotions into the human-computer interaction (HCI) could be seen as a significant step forward offering a great potential for developing advanced future technologies. While the electrical activity of the brain is affected by emotions, offers electroencephalogram (EEG) an interesting channel to improve the HCI. In this paper, the selection of subject-independent feature set for EEG-based emotion recognition is studied. We investigate the effect of different feature sets in classifying person's arousal and valence while watching videos with emotional content. The classification performance is optimized by applying a sequential forward floating search algorithm for feature selection. The best classification rate (65.1% for arousal and 63.0% for valence) is obtained with a feature set containing power spectral features from the frequency band of 1-32 Hz. The proposed approach substantially improves the classification rate reported in the literature. In future, further analysis of the video-induced EEG changes including the topographical differences in the spectral features is needed.

  18. Acid-base balance in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) subjected to acid stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, F.B.

    1976-01-01

    The respiratory properties of rainbow-trout blood were investigated in acid-stressed fish. In the first group acid was introduced into the bloodstream and in the second the carbon dioxide content of the ambient water was increased. Initially the introduction of the acid to the blood caused a decrease in blood pH and bicarbonate, and increases in oxygen uptake and ventilation volume. After 2 to 3 h these values had returned to the control levels. Trout subjected to high ambient CO/sub 2/ (about 10 mmHg) showed a decrease in blood pH while PCO/sub 2/ and bicarbonate increased. After 8 h the trout began to show signs of compensation to the acidosis. In each experiment the blood PO/sub 2/ was little changed but blood O/sub 2/ content was decreased and tended not to resume the control value even after several hours. The results are discussed in terms of the various acid-base mechanisms thought to be available to the fish. These include branchial ion exchanges and the possible buffering roles of the extracellular and intracellular fluids.

  19. Dynamic Reliability Evaluation of Road Vehicle Subjected to Turbulent Crosswinds Based on Monte Carlo Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a vehicle moves on roads, a complex vibration system of the running vehicle is formed under the collective excitations of random crosswinds and road surface roughness, together with the artificial handing by the drivers. Several numerical models in deterministic way to assess the safety of running road vehicles under crosswinds were proposed. Actually, the natural wind is a random process in time domain due to turbulence, and the surface roughness of a road is also a random process but in spatial domain. The nature of a running vehicle therefore is an extension of dynamic reliability excited by random processes. This study tries to explore the dynamic reliability of a road vehicle subjected to turbulent crosswinds. Based on a nonlinear vibration system, the dynamic responses of a road vehicle are simulated to obtain the dynamic reliability. Monte Carlo Simulation with Latin Hypercube Sampling is then applied on the possible random variables including the vehicle weight, road friction coefficient, and driver parameter to look at their effects. Finally, a distribution model of the dynamic reliability and a corresponding index for the wind-induced vehicle accident considering these random processes and variables is proposed and employed to evaluate the safety of the running vehicle.

  20. Structural Response of Polyethylene Foam-Based Sandwich Panels Subjected to Edgewise Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Lamberti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the mechanical behavior of low density polyethylene foam core sandwich panels subjected to edgewise compression. In order to monitor panel response to buckling, strains generated in the facesheets and overall out-of-plane deformations are measured with strain gages and projection moiré, respectively. A finite element (FE model simulating the experimental test is developed. Numerical results are compared with moiré measurements. After having been validated against experimental evidence, the FE model is parameterized, and a trade study is carried out to investigate to what extent the structural response of the panel depends on the sandwich wall construction and facesheet/core interface defects. The projection moiré set-up utilized in this research is able to capture the sudden and very localized buckling phenomena occurring under edgewise compression of foam-based sandwich panels. Results of parametric FE analyses indicate that, if the total thickness of the sandwich wall is fixed, including thicker facesheets in the laminate yields a larger deflection of the panel that becomes more sensitive to buckling. Furthermore, the mechanical response of the foam sandwich panel is found to be rather insensitive to the level of waviness of core-facesheet interfaces.

  1. Estimation of Circadian Body Temperature Rhythm Based on Heart Rate in Healthy, Ambulatory Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Soo Young; Joo, Kwang Min; Kim, Han Byul; Jang, Seungjin; Kim, Beomoh; Hong, Seungbum; Kim, Sungwan; Park, Kwang Suk

    2017-03-01

    Core body temperature is a reliable marker for circadian rhythm. As characteristics of the circadian body temperature rhythm change during diverse health problems, such as sleep disorder and depression, body temperature monitoring is often used in clinical diagnosis and treatment. However, the use of current thermometers in circadian rhythm monitoring is impractical in daily life. As heart rate is a physiological signal relevant to thermoregulation, we investigated the feasibility of heart rate monitoring in estimating circadian body temperature rhythm. Various heart rate parameters and core body temperature were simultaneously acquired in 21 healthy, ambulatory subjects during their routine life. The performance of regression analysis and the extended Kalman filter on daily body temperature and circadian indicator (mesor, amplitude, and acrophase) estimation were evaluated. For daily body temperature estimation, mean R-R interval (RRI), mean heart rate (MHR), or normalized MHR provided a mean root mean square error of approximately 0.40 °C in both techniques. The mesor estimation regression analysis showed better performance than the extended Kalman filter. However, the extended Kalman filter, combined with RRI or MHR, provided better accuracy in terms of amplitude and acrophase estimation. We suggest that this noninvasive and convenient method for estimating the circadian body temperature rhythm could reduce discomfort during body temperature monitoring in daily life. This, in turn, could facilitate more clinical studies based on circadian body temperature rhythm.

  2. Thermoluminescent properties of Dy doped calcium borate based glass for dose measurement subjected to photon irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajuddin H. A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the thermoluminescent (TL dosimetric properties of calcium borate glass with various dopant concentration of dysprosium (Dy. Calcium borate glass is a new potential material to be used in radiation measurement with absorption coefficient that is close to human bone. A series of glasses based on chemical equation xCaO-(100-x B2O3 system, x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 (0< x <100 % weight have been prepared by melt quenching method. The X-ray diffraction analysis of glass samples were carried out and the result showed a broad peak, which confirmed the amorphous nature of the glass. The 70B2O3-30CaO glass sample was found as the most stable among other glass samples studied. Present work focuses on 70B2O3-30CaO glass of (0.01-0.4 mol% Dy-doped in order to investigate the thermoluminescence (TL properties, in particular, dose-response and fading. The glass samples were irradiated to dose range of 0.5-4.0 Gy subjected to 6MV photon irradiations of LINAC Primus MLC 3339. TL response of 0.3 mol% Dy-doped 70B2O3-30CaO glass was found to produce highest response, with good linear dose- response relationship.

  3. Neural constraints on eye motion in human eye-head saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misslisch, H; Tweed, D; Vilis, T

    1998-02-01

    We examined two ways in which the neural control system for eye-head saccades constrains the motion of the eye in the head. The first constraint involves Listing's law, which holds ocular torsion at zero during head-fixed saccades. During eye-head saccades, does this law govern the eye's motion in space or in the head? Our subjects, instructed to saccade between space-fixed targets with the head held still in different positions, systematically violated Listing's law of the eye in space in a way that approximately, but not perfectly, preserved Listing's law of the eye in head. This finding implies that the brain does not compute desired eye position based on the desired gaze direction alone but also considers head position. The second constraint we studied was saturation, the process where desired-eye-position commands in the brain are "clipped" to keep them within an effective oculomotor range (EOMR), which is smaller than the mechanical range of eye motion. We studied the adaptability of the EOMR by asking subjects to make head-only saccades. As predicted by current eye-head models, subjects failed to hold their eyes still in their orbits. Unexpectedly, though, the range of eye-in-head motion in the horizontal-vertical plane was on average 31% smaller in area than during normal eye-head saccades, suggesting that the EOMR had been reduced by effort of will. Larger reductions were possible with altered visual input: when subjects donned pinhole glasses, the EOMR immediately shrank by 80%. But even with its reduced EOMR, the eye still moved into the "blind" region beyond the pinhole aperture during eye-head saccades. Then, as the head movement brought the saccade target toward the pinhole, the eyes reversed their motion, anticipating or roughly matching the target's motion even though it was still outside the pinhole and therefore invisible. This finding shows that the backward rotation of the eye is timed by internal computations, not by vision. When subjects wore

  4. Development of realistic physical breast phantoms matched to virtual breast phantoms based on human subject data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiarashi, Nooshin; Nolte, Adam C; Sturgeon, Gregory M; Segars, William P; Ghate, Sujata V; Nolte, Loren W; Samei, Ehsan; Lo, Joseph Y

    2015-07-01

    Physical phantoms are essential for the development, optimization, and evaluation of x-ray breast imaging systems. Recognizing the major effect of anatomy on image quality and clinical performance, such phantoms should ideally reflect the three-dimensional structure of the human breast. Currently, there is no commercially available three-dimensional physical breast phantom that is anthropomorphic. The authors present the development of a new suite of physical breast phantoms based on human data. The phantoms were designed to match the extended cardiac-torso virtual breast phantoms that were based on dedicated breast computed tomography images of human subjects. The phantoms were fabricated by high-resolution multimaterial additive manufacturing (3D printing) technology. The glandular equivalency of the photopolymer materials was measured relative to breast tissue-equivalent plastic materials. Based on the current state-of-the-art in the technology and available materials, two variations were fabricated. The first was a dual-material phantom, the Doublet. Fibroglandular tissue and skin were represented by the most radiographically dense material available; adipose tissue was represented by the least radiographically dense material. The second variation, the Singlet, was fabricated with a single material to represent fibroglandular tissue and skin. It was subsequently filled with adipose-equivalent materials including oil, beeswax, and permanent urethane-based polymer. Simulated microcalcification clusters were further included in the phantoms via crushed eggshells. The phantoms were imaged and characterized visually and quantitatively. The mammographic projections and tomosynthesis reconstructed images of the fabricated phantoms yielded realistic breast background. The mammograms of the phantoms demonstrated close correlation with simulated mammographic projection images of the corresponding virtual phantoms. Furthermore, power-law descriptions of the phantom images

  5. Development of realistic physical breast phantoms matched to virtual breast phantoms based on human subject data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiarashi, Nooshin [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Nolte, Adam C. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Sturgeon, Gregory M.; Ghate, Sujata V. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Segars, William P. [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 and Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Nolte, Loren W. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Samei, Ehsan [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); and others

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Physical phantoms are essential for the development, optimization, and evaluation of x-ray breast imaging systems. Recognizing the major effect of anatomy on image quality and clinical performance, such phantoms should ideally reflect the three-dimensional structure of the human breast. Currently, there is no commercially available three-dimensional physical breast phantom that is anthropomorphic. The authors present the development of a new suite of physical breast phantoms based on human data. Methods: The phantoms were designed to match the extended cardiac-torso virtual breast phantoms that were based on dedicated breast computed tomography images of human subjects. The phantoms were fabricated by high-resolution multimaterial additive manufacturing (3D printing) technology. The glandular equivalency of the photopolymer materials was measured relative to breast tissue-equivalent plastic materials. Based on the current state-of-the-art in the technology and available materials, two variations were fabricated. The first was a dual-material phantom, the Doublet. Fibroglandular tissue and skin were represented by the most radiographically dense material available; adipose tissue was represented by the least radiographically dense material. The second variation, the Singlet, was fabricated with a single material to represent fibroglandular tissue and skin. It was subsequently filled with adipose-equivalent materials including oil, beeswax, and permanent urethane-based polymer. Simulated microcalcification clusters were further included in the phantoms via crushed eggshells. The phantoms were imaged and characterized visually and quantitatively. Results: The mammographic projections and tomosynthesis reconstructed images of the fabricated phantoms yielded realistic breast background. The mammograms of the phantoms demonstrated close correlation with simulated mammographic projection images of the corresponding virtual phantoms. Furthermore, power

  6. A Space Weather Information Service Based Upon Remote and In-Situ Measurements of Coronal Mass Ejections Heading for Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Ritter, Birgit; Miles, Oscar; Rußwurm, Michael; Scully, Stephen; Roldán, Andrés; Hartkorn, Oliver; Jüstel, Peter; Réville, Victor; Lupu, Sorina; Ruffenach, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    The Earth's magnetosphere is formed as a consequence of interaction between the planet's magnetic field and the solar wind, a continuous plasma stream from the Sun. A number of different solar wind phenomena have been studied over the past forty years with the intention of understanding and forecasting solar behavior. One of these phenomena in particular, Earth-bound interplanetary coronal mass ejections (CMEs), can significantly disturb the Earth's magnetosphere for a short time and cause geomagnetic storms. This publication presents a mission concept consisting of six spacecraft that are equally spaced in a heliocentric orbit at 0.72 AU. These spacecraft will monitor the plasma properties, the magnetic field's orientation and magnitude, and the 3D-propagation trajectory of CMEs heading for Earth. The primary objective of this mission is to increase space weather (SW) forecasting time by means of a near real-time information service, that is based upon in-situ and remote measurements of the aforementioned CM...

  7. Combining ultrasmall gadolinium-based nanoparticles with photon irradiation overcomes radioresistance of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miladi, Imen; Aloy, Marie-Thérèse; Armandy, Emma; Mowat, Pierre; Kryza, David; Magné, Nicolas; Tillement, Olivier; Lux, François; Billotey, Claire; Janier, Marc; Rodriguez-Lafrasse, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Gadolinium based nanoparticles (GBNs, diameter 2.9±0.2nm), have promising biodistribution properties for theranostic use in-vivo. We aimed at demonstrating the radiosensitizing effect of these GBNs in experimental radioresistant human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SQ20B, FaDu and Cal33 cell lines). Combining 0.6mM GBNs with 250kV photon irradiation significantly decreased SQ20B cell survival, associated with an increase in non-reparable DNA double-strand breaks, the shortening of G2/M phase blockage, and the inhibition of cell proliferation, each contributing to the commitment of late apoptosis. Similarly, radiation resistance was overcome for SQ20B stem-like cells, as well as for FaDu and Cal33 cell lines. Using a SQ20B tumor-bearing mouse model, combination of GBNs with 10Gy irradiation significantly delayed tumor growth with an increase in late apoptosis and a decrease in cell proliferation. These results suggest that GBNs could be envisioned as adjuvant to radiotherapy for HNSCC tumors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Tolerance of triazole-based fungicides by biocontrol agents used to control Fusarium head blight in wheat in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzini, J M; Torres, A M; Chulze, S N

    2018-02-25

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum species complex is a devastating disease that causes extensive yield and quality losses to wheat around the world. Fungicide application and breeding for resistance are among the most important tools to counteract FHB. Biological control is an additional tool that can be used as part of an integrated management of FHB. Bacillus velezensis RC 218, Brevibacillus sp. RC 263 and Streptomyces sp. RC 87B were selected by their potential to control FHB and deoxynivalenol production. The aim of this work was to test the tolerance of these biocontrol agents to triazole-based fungicides such as Prothioconazole, tebuconazole and metconazole. Bacterial growth was evaluated in Petri dishes using the spread plating technique containing the different fungicides. Bacillus velezensis RC 218 and Streptomyces sp. RC 87B showed better tolerance to fungicides than Brevibacillus sp. RC 263. Complete growth inhibition was observed at concentrations of 20 μg ml -1 for metconazole, 40 μg ml -1 for tebuconazole and 80 μg ml -1 for prothioconazole. The results obtained indicate the possibility of using these biocontrol agents in combination with fungicides as part of an integrated management to control FHB of wheat. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. An in silico comparison between margin-based and probabilistic target-planning approaches in head and neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanarosa, Davide; van der Laan, Hans Paul; Witte, Marnix; Shakirin, Georgy; Roelofs, Erik; Langendijk, Johannes A; Lambin, Philippe; van Herk, Marcel

    2013-12-01

    To apply target probabilistic planning (TPP) approach to intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans for head and neck cancer (HNC) patients. Twenty plans of HNC patients were re-planned replacing the simultaneous integrated boost IMRT optimization objectives for minimum dose on the boost target and the elective volumes with research probabilistic objectives: the latter allow for explicit handling of systematic and random geometric uncertainties, enabling confidence level based probabilistic treatment planning. Monte-Carlo evaluations of geometrical errors were performed, with endpoints D98%, D2% and Dmean, calculated at a confidence level of 90%. The dose distribution was expanded outside the patient to prevent large bilateral elective treatment volumes ending up in air for probabilistic shifts. TPP resulted in more regular isodoses and in reduced dose, on average, to organs at risk (OAR), up to more than 6Gy, while maintaining target coverage and keeping the maximum dose to limiting structures within requirements. In particular, when the surrounding OARs overlap with the planning target volume (PTV) but not with the clinical target volume (CTV), better results were achieved. The TPP approach was evaluated in HNC patients, and proven to be an efficient tool for managing uncertainties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. High-Throughput Automatic Training System for Odor-Based Learned Behaviors in Head-Fixed Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Han

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding neuronal mechanisms of learned behaviors requires efficient behavioral assays. We designed a high-throughput automatic training system (HATS for olfactory behaviors in head-fixed mice. The hardware and software were constructed to enable automatic training with minimal human intervention. The integrated system was composed of customized 3D-printing supporting components, an odor-delivery unit with fast response, Arduino based hardware-controlling and data-acquisition unit. Furthermore, the customized software was designed to enable automatic training in all training phases, including lick-teaching, shaping and learning. Using HATS, we trained mice to perform delayed non-match to sample (DNMS, delayed paired association (DPA, Go/No-go (GNG, and GNG reversal tasks. These tasks probed cognitive functions including sensory discrimination, working memory, decision making and cognitive flexibility. Mice reached stable levels of performance within several days in the tasks. HATS enabled an experimenter to train eight mice simultaneously, therefore greatly enhanced the experimental efficiency. Combined with causal perturbation and activity recording techniques, HATS can greatly facilitate our understanding of the neural-circuitry mechanisms underlying learned behaviors.

  11. Classroom-based Interventions and Teachers' Perceived Job Stressors and Confidence: Evidence from a Randomized Trial in Head Start Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Fuhua; Raver, C Cybele; Li-Grining, Christine

    2011-09-01

    Preschool teachers' job stressors have received increasing attention but have been understudied in the literature. We investigated the impacts of a classroom-based intervention, the Chicago School Readiness Project (CSRP), on teachers' perceived job stressors and confidence, as indexed by their perceptions of job control, job resources, job demands, and confidence in behavior management. Using a clustered randomized controlled trial (RCT) design, the CSRP provided multifaceted services to the treatment group, including teacher training and mental health consultation, which were accompanied by stress-reduction services and workshops. Overall, 90 teachers in 35 classrooms at 18 Head Start sites participated in the study. After adjusting for teacher and classroom factors and site fixed effects, we found that the CSRP had significant effects on the improvement of teachers' perceived job control and work-related resources. We also found that the CSRP decreased teachers' confidence in behavior management and had no statistically significant effects on job demands. Overall, we did not find significant moderation effects of teacher race/ethnicity, education, teaching experience, or teacher type. The implications for research and policy are discussed.

  12. Fully automated treatment planning for head and neck radiotherapy using a voxel-based dose prediction and dose mimicking method

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Chris; Welch, Mattea; McNiven, Andrea; Jaffray, David A.; Purdie, Thomas G.

    2017-08-01

    Recent works in automated radiotherapy treatment planning have used machine learning based on historical treatment plans to infer the spatial dose distribution for a novel patient directly from the planning image. We present a probabilistic, atlas-based approach which predicts the dose for novel patients using a set of automatically selected most similar patients (atlases). The output is a spatial dose objective, which specifies the desired dose-per-voxel, and therefore replaces the need to specify and tune dose-volume objectives. Voxel-based dose mimicking optimization then converts the predicted dose distribution to a complete treatment plan with dose calculation using a collapsed cone convolution dose engine. In this study, we investigated automated planning for right-sided oropharaynx head and neck patients treated with IMRT and VMAT. We compare four versions of our dose prediction pipeline using a database of 54 training and 12 independent testing patients by evaluating 14 clinical dose evaluation criteria. Our preliminary results are promising and demonstrate that automated methods can generate comparable dose distributions to clinical. Overall, automated plans achieved an average of 0.6% higher dose for target coverage evaluation criteria, and 2.4% lower dose at the organs at risk criteria levels evaluated compared with clinical. There was no statistically significant difference detected in high-dose conformity between automated and clinical plans as measured by the conformation number. Automated plans achieved nine more unique criteria than clinical across the 12 patients tested and automated plans scored a significantly higher dose at the evaluation limit for two high-risk target coverage criteria and a significantly lower dose in one critical organ maximum dose. The novel dose prediction method with dose mimicking can generate complete treatment plans in 12-13 min without user interaction. It is a promising approach for fully automated treatment

  13. Using Single-Subject Research to Establish the Evidence Base of Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankersley, Melody; Harjusola-Webb, Sanna; Landrum, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Research in the field of special education often incorporates single-subject designs to investigate the effectiveness of educational practices for students with disabilities. As such, it is important that educators and educational professionals understand the characteristics of single-subject research methodologies and how those characteristics…

  14. Morphometric connectivity analysis to distinguish normal, mild cognitive impaired, and Alzheimer subjects based on brain MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erleben, Lene Lillemark; Sørensen, Lauge; Mysling, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates a novel way of looking at the regions in the brain and their relationship as possible markers to classify normal control (NC), mild cognitive impaired (MCI), and Alzheimer Disease (AD) subjects. MRI scans from a subset of 101 subjects from the ADNI study at baseline was used...

  15. Evaluation of a smartphone-based assessment system in subjects with chronic ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ya-Lan; Tsai, Yi-Ju; Lin, Chueh-Ho; Hou, You-Ruei; Sung, Wen-Hsu

    2017-02-01

    Ankle sprain is the most common sports-related injury, and approximately 80% of patients studied suffered recurrent sprains. These repeated ankle injuries could cause chronic ankle instability, a decrease in sports performance, and a decrease in postural control ability. At the present time, smartphones have become very popular and powerful devices, and smartphone applications (apps) that have been shown to have good validity have been designed to measure human body motion. However, the app focusing on ankle function assessment and rehabilitation is still not widely used and has very limited functions. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of smartphone-based systems in the assessment of postural control ability for patients with chronic ankle instability. Fifteen physically active adults (6 male, 9 female; aged = 23.4 ± 5.28 years; height = 167.13 ± 7.3 cm; weight = 62.06 ± 10.82 kg; BMI = 22.08 ± 2.57 kg/ m2) were recruited, and these participants had at least one leg that was evaluated as scoring lower than 27 points according to the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool (CAIT). The smartphone used in the study was ASUS Zenfone 2, and an app developed using MIT App Inventor was used to record built-in accelerometer data during the assessment process. Subjects were asked to perform single leg stance for 20 s in eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions with each leg. The smartphone was fixed in an upright position on the middle of the shin, using an exercise armband, with the screen facing forward. The average of recorded acceleration data was used to represent the postural control performance, and higher values indicated more instability. Data were analyzed with a paired t-test with SPSS 17.0, and the statistical significance was set as alpha smartphone software can be used to discriminate between the different performances of the healthier leg and injured leg, and also between eyes-open and eyes

  16. Development of a frameless stereotactic radiosurgery system based on real-time 6D position monitoring and adaptive head motion compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma, Rodney D.; Wen, Zhifei; Sadinski, Meredith; Farrey, Karl; Yenice, Kamil M.

    2010-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery delivers radiation with great spatial accuracy. To achieve sub-millimeter accuracy for intracranial SRS, a head ring is rigidly fixated to the skull to create a fixed reference. For some patients, the invasiveness of the ring can be highly uncomfortable and not well tolerated. In addition, placing and removing the ring requires special expertise from a neurosurgeon, and patient setup time for SRS can often be long. To reduce the invasiveness, hardware limitations and setup time, we are developing a system for performing accurate head positioning without the use of a head ring. The proposed method uses real-time 6D optical position feedback for turning on and off the treatment beam (gating) and guiding a motor-controlled 3D head motion compensation stage. The setup consists of a central control computer, an optical patient motion tracking system and a 3D motion compensation stage attached to the front of the LINAC couch. A styrofoam head cast was custom-built for patient support and was mounted on the compensation stage. The motion feedback of the markers was processed by the control computer, and the resulting motion of the target was calculated using a rigid body model. If the target deviated beyond a preset position of 0.2 mm, an automatic position correction was performed with stepper motors to adjust the head position via the couch mount motion platform. In the event the target deviated more than 1 mm, a safety relay switch was activated and the treatment beam was turned off. The feasibility of the concept was tested using five healthy volunteers. Head motion data were acquired with and without the use of motion compensation over treatment times of 15 min. On average, test subjects exceeded the 0.5 mm tolerance 86% of the time and the 1.0 mm tolerance 45% of the time without motion correction. With correction, this percentage was reduced to 5% and 2% for the 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm tolerances, respectively.

  17. Development of a frameless stereotactic radiosurgery system based on real-time 6D position monitoring and adaptive head motion compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, Rodney D; Wen Zhifei; Sadinski, Meredith; Farrey, Karl; Yenice, Kamil M [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)], E-mail: rwiersma@uchicago.edu

    2010-01-21

    Stereotactic radiosurgery delivers radiation with great spatial accuracy. To achieve sub-millimeter accuracy for intracranial SRS, a head ring is rigidly fixated to the skull to create a fixed reference. For some patients, the invasiveness of the ring can be highly uncomfortable and not well tolerated. In addition, placing and removing the ring requires special expertise from a neurosurgeon, and patient setup time for SRS can often be long. To reduce the invasiveness, hardware limitations and setup time, we are developing a system for performing accurate head positioning without the use of a head ring. The proposed method uses real-time 6D optical position feedback for turning on and off the treatment beam (gating) and guiding a motor-controlled 3D head motion compensation stage. The setup consists of a central control computer, an optical patient motion tracking system and a 3D motion compensation stage attached to the front of the LINAC couch. A styrofoam head cast was custom-built for patient support and was mounted on the compensation stage. The motion feedback of the markers was processed by the control computer, and the resulting motion of the target was calculated using a rigid body model. If the target deviated beyond a preset position of 0.2 mm, an automatic position correction was performed with stepper motors to adjust the head position via the couch mount motion platform. In the event the target deviated more than 1 mm, a safety relay switch was activated and the treatment beam was turned off. The feasibility of the concept was tested using five healthy volunteers. Head motion data were acquired with and without the use of motion compensation over treatment times of 15 min. On average, test subjects exceeded the 0.5 mm tolerance 86% of the time and the 1.0 mm tolerance 45% of the time without motion correction. With correction, this percentage was reduced to 5% and 2% for the 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm tolerances, respectively.

  18. A MATLAB-based eye tracking control system using non-invasive helmet head restraint in the macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luna, Paolo; Mohamed Mustafar, Mohamed Faiz Bin; Rainer, Gregor

    2014-09-30

    Tracking eye position is vital for behavioral and neurophysiological investigations in systems and cognitive neuroscience. Infrared camera systems which are now available can be used for eye tracking without the need to surgically implant magnetic search coils. These systems are generally employed using rigid head fixation in monkeys, which maintains the eye in a constant position and facilitates eye tracking. We investigate the use of non-rigid head fixation using a helmet that constrains only general head orientation and allows some freedom of movement. We present a MATLAB software solution to gather and process eye position data, present visual stimuli, interact with various devices, provide experimenter feedback and store data for offline analysis. Our software solution achieves excellent timing performance due to the use of data streaming, instead of the traditionally employed data storage mode for processing analog eye position data. We present behavioral data from two monkeys, demonstrating that adequate performance levels can be achieved on a simple fixation paradigm and show how performance depends on parameters such as fixation window size. Our findings suggest that non-rigid head restraint can be employed for behavioral training and testing on a variety of gaze-dependent visual paradigms, reducing the need for rigid head restraint systems for some applications. While developed for macaque monkey, our system of course can work equally well for applications in human eye tracking where head constraint is undesirable. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Photogrammetry-Based Head Digitization for Rapid and Accurate Localization of EEG Electrodes and MEG Fiducial Markers Using a Single Digital SLR Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausner, Tommy; Dalal, Sarang S; Crespo-García, Maité

    2017-01-01

    The performance of EEG source reconstruction has benefited from the increasing use of advanced head modeling techniques that take advantage of MRI together with the precise positions of the recording electrodes. The prevailing technique for registering EEG electrode coordinates involves electromagnetic digitization. However, the procedure adds several minutes to experiment preparation and typical digitizers may not be accurate enough for optimal source reconstruction performance (Dalal et al., 2014). Here, we present a rapid, accurate, and cost-effective alternative method to register EEG electrode positions, using a single digital SLR camera, photogrammetry software, and computer vision techniques implemented in our open-source toolbox, janus3D. Our approach uses photogrammetry to construct 3D models from multiple photographs of the participant's head wearing the EEG electrode cap. Electrodes are detected automatically or semi-automatically using a template. The rigid facial features from these photo-based models are then surface-matched to MRI-based head reconstructions to facilitate coregistration to MRI space. This method yields a final electrode coregistration error of 0.8 mm, while a standard technique using an electromagnetic digitizer yielded an error of 6.1 mm. The technique furthermore reduces preparation time, and could be extended to a multi-camera array, which would make the procedure virtually instantaneous. In addition to EEG, the technique could likewise capture the position of the fiducial markers used in magnetoencephalography systems to register head position.

  20. Dental consultation in patients planned for/undergoing/post radiation therapy for head and neck cancers: A questionnaire-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apeksha Mainali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mouth and pharyngeal cancers account for approximately 6% of cancers worldwide. Radiotherapy is one of the means of treatment of head and neck cancer. Consultation with a dental team experienced in caring for patients undergoing treatment for head and neck cancer will improve the quality of life of such patients. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the attitude of oncologists toward dental consultation to patients planning for/prior to/undergoing/post radiation therapy for head and neck cancers and to evaluate the number of radiation oncologists who encounter oral complaints and consider worth referring to a dentist. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire-based study was carried out following mailing of covering letter and self-administered questionnaire comprising 11 items, to 25 radiation oncology centers selected in India based on convenient sampling. Results: Out of the 25 centers, we received response from 20 centers with 60 completely filled questionnaires. Five centers did not respond for further correspondences. Conclusion: The study indicated a need for awareness and education among radiation oncologists regarding dental consultation in patients planned/undergoing /post radiation therapy for head and neck cancer.

  1. Dental consultation in patients planned for/undergoing/post radiation therapy for head and neck cancers: a questionnaire-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainali, Apeksha; Sumanth, K N; Ongole, Ravikiran; Denny, Ceena

    2011-01-01

    Mouth and pharyngeal cancers account for approximately 6% of cancers worldwide. Radiotherapy is one of the means of treatment of head and neck cancer. Consultation with a dental team experienced in caring for patients undergoing treatment for head and neck cancer will improve the quality of life of such patients. To evaluate the attitude of oncologists toward dental consultation to patients planning for/prior to/undergoing/post radiation therapy for head and neck cancers and to evaluate the number of radiation oncologists who encounter oral complaints and consider worth referring to a dentist. A questionnaire-based study was carried out following mailing of covering letter and self-administered questionnaire comprising 11 items, to 25 radiation oncology centers selected in India based on convenient sampling. Out of the 25 centers, we received response from 20 centers with 60 completely filled questionnaires. Five centers did not respond for further correspondences. The study indicated a need for awareness and education among radiation oncologists regarding dental consultation in patients planned/undergoing /post radiation therapy for head and neck cancer.

  2. Anti-drift and auto-alignment mechanism for an astigmatic atomic force microscope system based on a digital versatile disk optical head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, E-T; Illers, H; Wang, W-M; Hwang, I-S; Jusko, L; Danzebrink, H-U

    2012-01-01

    In this work, an anti-drift and auto-alignment mechanism is applied to an astigmatic detection system (ADS)-based atomic force microscope (AFM) for drift compensation and cantilever alignment. The optical path of the ADS adopts a commercial digital versatile disc (DVD) optical head using the astigmatic focus error signal. The ADS-based astigmatic AFM is lightweight, compact size, low priced, and easy to use. Furthermore, the optical head is capable of measuring sub-atomic displacements of high-frequency AFM probes with a sub-micron laser spot (~570 nm, FWHM) and a high-working bandwidth (80 MHz). Nevertheless, conventional DVD optical heads suffer from signal drift problems. In a previous setup, signal drifts of even thousands of nanometers had been measured. With the anti-drift and auto-alignment mechanism, the signal drift is compensated by actuating a voice coil motor of the DVD optical head. A nearly zero signal drift was achieved. Additional benefits of this mechanism are automatic cantilever alignment and simplified design.

  3. Clinical introduction of a linac head-mounted 2D detector array based quality assurance system in head and neck IMRT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korevaar, Erik W.; Wauben, David J. L.; van der Hulst, Peter C.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; van t Veld, Aart

    Background and purpose: IMRT QA is commonly performed in a phantom geometry but the clinical interpretation of the results in a 2D phantom plane is difficult. The main objective of our work is to move from film measurement based QA to 3D dose reconstruction in a patient CT scan. In principle, this

  4. Prevalence of renal artery stenosis in subjects with moderate hypertension. A population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik B; Borglykke, Anders; Jørgensen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aim. To examine the prevalence of significant renal artery stenosis (RAS) in subjects with moderate to severe hypertension. Materials and methods. Subjects aged 50-66 years with blood pressure >160/100 mmHg or receiving antihypertensive treatment were selected from the population study...... to balloon angioplasty. Two patients had reduced size and function of the affected kidney. Among the non-invasively treated patients, one showed stenosis progression at the 2-year follow-up examination. Conclusion. In subjects aged 50-66 years with hypertension grade II-III, RAS is rare among men...

  5. Browser Based Platform in Maintaining Clinical Activities - Use of The iPads in Head and Neck Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W. Y.; Moore, J.; Quon, H.; Evans, K.; Sharabi, A.; Herman, J.; Hacker-Prietz, A.; McNutt, T.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: Incompatibility between documentation and clinical workflow causes physician resistance in organized data collection, which in turn complicates the use of data in patient care improvement. To resolve the gap, we developed an iPad compatible in situ browser-based platform that integrates clinical activity with data collection and analysis presentation. The ability to perform in-clinic activities and monitor decision making using the iPad was evaluated. Methods: A browser-based platform that can exchange and present analysed data from the MOSAIQ database was developed in situ, the iPads were distributed in head and neck clinics to present the browser for clinical activities, data collection and assessment monitoring. Performance of the iPads for in-clinic activities was observed. Results: All in-clinic documentation activities can be performed without workstation computers. Accessing patient record and previous assessments was significantly faster without having to open the MOSAIQ application. Patient assessments can be completed with the physician facing the patient. Graphical presentation of toxicity progression and patient radiation plans to the patient can be performed in single interface without patient leaving the seating area. Updates in patient treatment status and medical history were presented in real time without having to move paper charts around. Conclusions: The iPad can be used in clinical activities independent of computer workstations. Improvements in clinical workflow can be critical in reducing physician resistance in data maintenance. Using the iPad in providing real-time quality monitoring is intuitive to both providers and patients.

  6. Identification of potential crucial genes associated with steroid-induced necrosis of femoral head based on gene expression profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhe; Lin, Yongsheng

    2017-09-05

    The aim of this study was to explore potential crucial genes associated with the steroid-induced necrosis of femoral head (SINFH) and to provide valid biological information for further investigation of SINFH. Gene expression profile of GSE26316, generated from 3 SINFH rat samples and 3 normal rat samples were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using LIMMA package. After functional enrichment analyses of DEGs, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and sub-PPI network analyses were conducted based on the STRING database and cytoscape. In total, 59 up-regulated DEGs and 156 downregulated DEGs were identified. The up-regulated DEGs were mainly involved in functions about immunity (e.g. Fcer1A and Il7R), and the downregulated DEGs were mainly enriched in muscle system process (e.g. Tnni2, Mylpf and Myl1). The PPI network of DEGs consisted of 123 nodes and 300 interactions. Tnni2, Mylpf, and Myl1 were the top 3 outstanding genes based on both subgraph centrality and degree centrality evaluation. These three genes interacted with each other in the network. Furthermore, the significant network module was composed of 22 downregulated genes (e.g. Tnni2, Mylpf and Myl1). These genes were mainly enriched in functions like muscle system process. The DEGs related to the regulation of immune system process (e.g. Fcer1A and Il7R), and DEGs correlated with muscle system process (e.g. Tnni2, Mylpf and Myl1) may be closely associated with the progress of SINFH, which is still needed to be confirmed by experiments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. SU-E-T-206: Improving Radiotherapy Toxicity Based On Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Daniel D; Wernicke, A Gabriella; Nori, Dattatreyudu; Chao, KSC; Parashar, Bhupesh; Chang, Jenghwa [Weill Cornell Medical College, NY, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): The aim of this study is to build the estimator of toxicity using artificial neural network (ANN) for head and neck cancer patients Materials/Methods: An ANN can combine variables into a predictive model during training and considered all possible correlations of variables. We constructed an ANN based on the data from 73 patients with advanced H and N cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy at our institution. For the toxicity estimator we defined input data including age, sex, site, stage, pathology, status of chemo, technique of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), length of treatment, dose of EBRT, status of post operation, length of follow-up, the status of local recurrences and distant metastasis. These data were digitized based on the significance and fed to the ANN as input nodes. We used 20 hidden nodes (for the 13 input nodes) to take care of the correlations of input nodes. For training ANN, we divided data into three subsets such as training set, validation set and test set. Finally, we built the estimator for the toxicity from ANN output. Results: We used 13 input variables including the status of local recurrences and distant metastasis and 20 hidden nodes for correlations. 59 patients for training set, 7 patients for validation set and 7 patients for test set and fed the inputs to Matlab neural network fitting tool. We trained the data within 15% of errors of outcome. In the end we have the toxicity estimation with 74% of accuracy. Conclusion: We proved in principle that ANN can be a very useful tool for predicting the RT outcomes for high risk H and N patients. Currently we are improving the results using cross validation.

  8. The Effect of Internet-Based Education on Student Success in Teaching of 8th Grade Triangles Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Deniz; Kesan, Cenk; Izgiol, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    In the study, it was researched the effect of internet-based application on student success. Internet-based application was used at the teaching of triangles subject which is included in 8th grade units of triangles and algebra. The study was carried out over the internet with a computer software program: Vitamin Program. The study was carried out…

  9. MRI-based elastic-mapping method for inter-subject comparison of brain FDG-PET images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.; Huang, S.C.; Lin, K.P.; Small, G.; Phelps, M.E. [UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Inter-subject anatomic differences prohibits direct image-wise statistical evaluation of brain FDG-PET images of Alzheimer`s disease (AD) patients. In this study, we propose a MRI-based elastic-mapping method which enables image-wise evaluation. The method involves intra-subject MR-PET registration, 3-D elastic mapping of two set of MR images, and elastically transforming the co-registered PET images. The MR-PET registration used simulated PET images, which were based on segmentation of MR images. In the 3-D elastic mapping stage, first a global linear scaling was applied to compensate for brain size difference, then a deformation field was obtained by minimizing the regional sum of squared difference between the two sets of MR images. Two groups (AD patient and normal control), each with three subjects, were included in the current study. After processing, images from all subjects have similar shapes. Averaging the images across all subjects (either within the individual group or for both groups) give images indistinguishable from original single subject FDG images (i.e. without much spatial resolution loss), except with lower image noise level. The method is expected to allow statistical image-wise analysis to be performed across different subjects.

  10. Head first Ajax

    CERN Document Server

    Riordan, Rebecca M

    2008-01-01

    Ajax is no longer an experimental approach to website development, but the key to building browser-based applications that form the cornerstone of Web 2.0. Head First Ajax gives you an up-to-date perspective that lets you see exactly what you can do -- and has been done -- with Ajax. With it, you get a highly practical, in-depth, and mature view of what is now a mature development approach. Using the unique and highly effective visual format that has turned Head First titles into runaway bestsellers, this book offers a big picture overview to introduce Ajax, and then explores the use of ind

  11. Lubricating the swordfish head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videler, John J.; Haydar, Deniz; Snoek, Roelant; Hoving, Henk-Jan T.; Szabo, Ben G.

    The swordfish is reputedly the fastest swimmer on Earth. The concave head and iconic sword are unique characteristics, but how they contribute to its speed is still unknown. Recent computed tomography scans revealed a poorly mineralised area near the base of the rostrum. Here we report, using

  12. Is HEADS in our heads?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Kirsten A; Hertz, Pernille Grarup; Blix, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Outpatient clinic visits are a window of opportunity to address health risk behaviors and promote a healthier lifestyle among young people. The HEADS (Home, Education, Eating, Activities, Drugs [i.e. substance use including tobacco, alcohol, and illegal drugs], Sexuality [including...... contraception], Safety, Self-harm) interview is a feasible way of exploring health risk behaviors and resilience. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate how often HEADS topics were addressed according to young patients and staff in pediatric and adult outpatient clinics. METHODS: We conducted...... care professionals participated. We found only small reported differences between staff and young patients regarding whether home, education, and activity were addressed. However, staff reported twice the rate of addressing smoking, alcohol, illegal drugs, sexuality, and contraception compared to young...

  13. Water- versus land-based exercise in elderly subjects: effects on physical performance and body composition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bergamin, Marco; Ermolao, Andrea; Tolomio, Silvia; Berton, Linda; Sergi, Giuseppe; Zaccaria, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 24-week exercise protocol carried out in geothermal spring water to improve overall physical function and muscle mass in a group of healthy elderly subjects...

  14. An Investigation of Primary School Teachers' PCK towards Science Subjects Using an Inquiry-Based Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Menşure Alkiş Küçükaydin; Şafak Uluçinar Sağir

    2016-01-01

    .... According to the results of the study, in which descriptive and content analysis were used concurrently, primary school teachers lack subject matter knowledge, do not interrogate the pre-knowledge...

  15. Efficacy of herbal shampoo base on native plant against head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, Pediculidae: Phthiraptera) in vitro and in vivo in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soonwera, Mayura

    2014-09-01

    Head lice infestation (or pediculosis) is an important public health problem in Thailand, especially in children between the ages 5 and 11 years. Head lice resistance is increasing, chemical pediculicides have lost their efficacy, and, therefore, alternative pediculicides such as herbal shampoos have been proposed to treat head lice infestation. Thus, the present study investigated the efficacy of three herbal shampoos based on native plants in Thailand (Acorus calamus Linn., Phyllanthus emblica Linn., and Zanthoxylum limonella Alston) against head lice and compared them with carbaryl shampoo (Hafif shampoo, 0.6% w/v carbaryl), malathion shampoo (A-Lice shampoo, 1.0% w/v malathion), and commercial shampoos (Babi Mild Natural' N Mild and Johnson's baby shampoo) in order to assess their in vitro and in vivo efficacy. For in vitro study, doses of 0.12 and 0.25 ml/cm(2) of each herbal shampoo were applied to filter paper, then 10 head lice were place on the filter paper. The mortalities of head lice were recorded at 5, 15, 30, and 60 min. The results revealed that all herbal shampoo were more effective on pediculicidal activity than chemical and commercial shampoos with 100% mortality at 15 min; LT₅₀ values ranged from 0.25 to 1.90 min. Meanwhile, chemical shampoos caused 20-80% mortality, and LT₅₀ values ranged from 6.50 to 85.43 min. On the other side, commercial shampoos showed 4.0% mortality. The most effective pediculicide was Z. limonella shampoo, followed by A. calamus shampoo, P. emblica shampoo, carbaryl shampoo, malathion shampoo, and commercial shampoo, respectively. In vivo results showed that all herbal shampoos were also more effective for head lice treatment than chemical and commercial shampoos with 94.67-97.68% of cure rate after the first treatment; the second treatment, 7 days later, revealed that the cure rate was 100%. Meanwhile, chemical shampoo showed 71.67-93.0% of cure rate and, unfortunately, commercial shampoos were nontoxic to

  16. A hospital-based observational study of type 2 diabetic subjects from Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mayur; Patel, Ina M; Patel, Yash M; Rathi, Suresh K

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this observational study was to describe the profile of subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus from Gujarat, India. The study was performed with newly-diagnosed 622 type 2 diabetic subjects who attended the Department of Diabetology, All India Institute of Diabetes and Research and Yash Diabetes Specialties Centre (Swasthya), Ahmedabad, during August 2006-January 2009. The subjects completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire included variables, such as sociodemographic factors, presenting symptoms, risk profile (hypertension, obesity, dyslipidaemia, and glycaemic status), family history of diabetes, physical activity, and behavioural profile. Blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), glycosylated haemoglobin levels, and fasting lipid profile were measured. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were carried out using the SPSS software (version 11.5). In total; 622 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) cases with mean age of 47.7 +/- 10.9 years were studied. Of the 622 subjects, 384 (62%) were male. The majority (68%) of the T2DM subjects were obese, and 67% had a positive family history of diabetes. Renal dysfunctions and vision impairment were, respectively, found in 10% (n=62) and 9% (n=57) of the 622 T2DM subjects. The mean HbAlc level was 9.02 +/- 1.67%, and good glycaemic control (HbAlc level or =25 kg/m2) was significantly associated with hypertension among the T2DM subjects (p family history of diabetes, dyslipidaemia, uncontrolled glycaemic status, sedentary lifestyles, and hypertension were prevalent among the T2DM subjects. The characterization of this risk profile will contribute to designing more effective and specific strategies for screening and controlling T2DM in Gujarat, India.

  17. Sensory supplementation through tongue electrotactile stimulation to preserve head stabilization in space in the absence of vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuillerme, Nicolas; Cuisinier, Rémy

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of a head position-based, tongue-placed biofeedback system in providing sensory supplementation to preserve head stability in space in the absence of visual information. Nine healthy young men with normal vision and no history of previous motor problems, neck injury, vertigo, neurologic disease, or vestibular impairment voluntarily participated in the experiment. They were asked to stand, their feet placed in a semitandem position, as immobile as possible in two conditions of No Vision and Vision and two conditions of No Biofeedback and Biofeedback. In the Biofeedback condition, subjects executed the postural task using a biofeedback system whose principle consisted of supplying them with additional information about their head orientation/motion with respect to gravitational vertical through electrotactile stimulation of the tongue. A system for the analysis of movement was used to record the head displacements. Without the provision of the biofeedback (No Biofeedback condition), the No Vision condition yielded increased head displacements along the mediolateral axis compared with the Vision condition. Conversely, when biofeedback was available (Biofeedback condition), no significant difference between the No Vision and Vision conditions was observed. These results suggest that healthy young subjects were able to efficiently use head position-based, tongue-placed biofeedback to suppress the head instability induced by the suppression of vision. Hence the present findings demonstrate the effectiveness of a head position-based, tongue-placed biofeedback in providing sensory supplementation to preserve head stability in space in conditions of absent visual information.

  18. Atlas and feature based 3D pathway visualization enhancement for skull base pre-operative fast planning from head CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghdasi, Nava; Li, Yangming; Berens, Angelique; Moe, Kris S.; Bly, Randall A.; Hannaford, Blake

    2015-03-01

    Minimally invasive neuroendoscopic surgery provides an alternative to open craniotomy for many skull base lesions. These techniques provides a great benefit to the patient through shorter ICU stays, decreased post-operative pain and quicker return to baseline function. However, density of critical neurovascular structures at the skull base makes planning for these procedures highly complex. Furthermore, additional surgical portals are often used to improve visualization and instrument access, which adds to the complexity of pre-operative planning. Surgical approach planning is currently limited and typically involves review of 2D axial, coronal, and sagittal CT and MRI images. In addition, skull base surgeons manually change the visualization effect to review all possible approaches to the target lesion and achieve an optimal surgical plan. This cumbersome process relies heavily on surgeon experience and it does not allow for 3D visualization. In this paper, we describe a rapid pre-operative planning system for skull base surgery using the following two novel concepts: importance-based highlight and mobile portal. With this innovation, critical areas in the 3D CT model are highlighted based on segmentation results. Mobile portals allow surgeons to review multiple potential entry portals in real-time with improved visualization of critical structures located inside the pathway. To achieve this we used the following methods: (1) novel bone-only atlases were manually generated, (2) orbits and the center of the skull serve as features to quickly pre-align the patient's scan with the atlas, (3) deformable registration technique was used for fine alignment, (4) surgical importance was assigned to each voxel according to a surgical dictionary, and (5) pre-defined transfer function was applied to the processed data to highlight important structures. The proposed idea was fully implemented as independent planning software and additional data are used for verification and

  19. SU-E-J-68: Adaptive Radiotherapy of Head and Neck Cancer: Re-Planning Based On Prior Dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, N; Padgett, K [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States); Evans, J; Sleeman, W; Song, S [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Fatyga, M [Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Adaptive Radiotherapy (ART) with frequent CT imaging has been used to improve dosimetric accuracy by accounting for anatomical variations, such as primary tumor shrinkage and/or body weight loss, in Head and Neck (H&N) patients. In most ART strategies, the difference between the planned and the delivered dose is estimated by generating new plans on repeated CT scans using dose-volume constraints used with the initial planning CT without considering already delivered dose. The aim of this study was to assess the dosimetric gains achieved by re-planning based on prior dose by comparing them to re-planning not based-on prior dose for H&N patients. Methods: Ten locally-advanced H&N cancer patients were selected for this study. For each patient, six weekly CT imaging were acquired during the course of radiotherapy. PTVs, parotids, cord, brainstem, and esophagus were contoured on both planning and six weekly CT images. ART with weekly re-plans were done by two strategies: 1) Generating a new optimized IMRT plan without including prior dose from previous fractions (NoPriorDose) and 2) Generating a new optimized IMRT plan based on the prior dose given from previous fractions (PriorDose). Deformable image registration was used to accumulate the dose distributions between planning and six weekly CT scans. The differences in accumulated doses for both strategies were evaluated using the DVH constraints for all structures. Results: On average, the differences in accumulated doses for PTV1, PTV2 and PTV3 for NoPriorDose and PriorDose strategies were <2%. The differences in Dmean to the cord and brainstem were within 3%. The esophagus Dmean was reduced by 2% using PriorDose. PriorDose strategy, however, reduced the left parotid D50 and Dmean by 15% and 14% respectively. Conclusion: This study demonstrated significant parotid sparing, potentially reducing xerostomia, by using ART with IMRT optimization based on prior dose for weekly re-planning of H&N cancer patients.

  20. Dental artifacts in the head and neck region: implications for Dixon-based attenuation correction in PET/MR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladefoged, Claes N; Hansen, Adam E; Keller, Sune H; Fischer, Barbara M [Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen East (Denmark); Rasmussen, Jacob H [Department of Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen East (Denmark); Law, Ian; Kjær, Andreas; Højgaard, Liselotte [Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen East (Denmark); Lauze, Francois [Department of Computer Science, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, 2100 Copenhagen East (Denmark); Beyer, Thomas [Centre for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20/4L, Vienna, A-1090 (Austria); Andersen, Flemming L [Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen East (Denmark)

    2015-03-11

    In the absence of CT or traditional transmission sources in combined clinical positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) systems, MR images are used for MR-based attenuation correction (MR-AC). The susceptibility effects due to metal implants challenge MR-AC in the neck region of patients with dental implants. The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency and magnitude of subsequent PET image distortions following MR-AC. A total of 148 PET/MR patients with clear visual signal voids on the attenuation map in the dental region were included in this study. Patients were injected with [{sup 18}F]-FDG, [{sup 11}C]-PiB, [{sup 18}F]-FET, or [{sup 64}Cu]-DOTATATE. The PET/MR data were acquired over a single-bed position of 25.8 cm covering the head and neck. MR-AC was based on either standard MR-AC{sub DIXON} or MR-AC{sub INPAINTED} where the susceptibility-induced signal voids were substituted with soft tissue information. Our inpainting algorithm delineates the outer contour of signal voids breaching the anatomical volume using the non-attenuation-corrected PET image and classifies the inner air regions based on an aligned template of likely dental artifact areas. The reconstructed PET images were evaluated visually and quantitatively using regions of interests in reference regions. The volume of the artifacts and the computed relative differences in mean and max standardized uptake value (SUV) between the two PET images are reported. The MR-based volume of the susceptibility-induced signal voids on the MR-AC attenuation maps was between 1.6 and 520.8 mL. The corresponding/resulting bias of the reconstructed tracer distribution was localized mainly in the area of the signal void. The mean and maximum SUVs averaged across all patients increased after inpainting by 52% (± 11%) and 28% (± 11%), respectively, in the corrected region. SUV underestimation decreased with the distance to the signal void and correlated with the volume of the susceptibility

  1. Dental artifacts in the head and neck region: implications for Dixon-based attenuation correction in PET/MR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladefoged, Claes N; Hansen, Adam E; Keller, Sune H; Fischer, Barbara M; Rasmussen, Jacob H; Law, Ian; Kjær, Andreas; Højgaard, Liselotte; Lauze, Francois; Beyer, Thomas; Andersen, Flemming L

    2015-12-01

    In the absence of CT or traditional transmission sources in combined clinical positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) systems, MR images are used for MR-based attenuation correction (MR-AC). The susceptibility effects due to metal implants challenge MR-AC in the neck region of patients with dental implants. The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency and magnitude of subsequent PET image distortions following MR-AC. A total of 148 PET/MR patients with clear visual signal voids on the attenuation map in the dental region were included in this study. Patients were injected with [(18)F]-FDG, [(11)C]-PiB, [(18)F]-FET, or [(64)Cu]-DOTATATE. The PET/MR data were acquired over a single-bed position of 25.8 cm covering the head and neck. MR-AC was based on either standard MR-ACDIXON or MR-ACINPAINTED where the susceptibility-induced signal voids were substituted with soft tissue information. Our inpainting algorithm delineates the outer contour of signal voids breaching the anatomical volume using the non-attenuation-corrected PET image and classifies the inner air regions based on an aligned template of likely dental artifact areas. The reconstructed PET images were evaluated visually and quantitatively using regions of interests in reference regions. The volume of the artifacts and the computed relative differences in mean and max standardized uptake value (SUV) between the two PET images are reported. The MR-based volume of the susceptibility-induced signal voids on the MR-AC attenuation maps was between 1.6 and 520.8 mL. The corresponding/resulting bias of the reconstructed tracer distribution was localized mainly in the area of the signal void. The mean and maximum SUVs averaged across all patients increased after inpainting by 52% (± 11%) and 28% (± 11%), respectively, in the corrected region. SUV underestimation decreased with the distance to the signal void and correlated with the volume of the susceptibility artifact on the MR

  2. A dictionary learning approach for human sperm heads classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Fariba; Monadjemi, S Amirhassan; Alirezaie, Javad; Naghsh-Nilchi, Ahmad Reza

    2017-12-01

    To diagnose infertility in men, semen analysis is conducted in which sperm morphology is one of the factors that are evaluated. Since manual assessment of sperm morphology is time-consuming and subjective, automatic classification methods are being developed. Automatic classification of sperm heads is a complicated task due to the intra-class differences and inter-class similarities of class objects. In this research, a Dictionary Learning (DL) technique is utilized to construct a dictionary of sperm head shapes. This dictionary is used to classify the sperm heads into four different classes. Square patches are extracted from the sperm head images. Columnized patches from each class of sperm are used to learn class-specific dictionaries. The patches from a test image are reconstructed using each class-specific dictionary and the overall reconstruction error for each class is used to select the best matching class. Average accuracy, precision, recall, and F-score are used to evaluate the classification method. The method is evaluated using two publicly available datasets of human sperm head shapes. The proposed DL based method achieved an average accuracy of 92.2% on the HuSHeM dataset, and an average recall of 62% on the SCIAN-MorphoSpermGS dataset. The results show a significant improvement compared to a previously published shape-feature-based method. We have achieved high-performance results. In addition, our proposed approach offers a more balanced classifier in which all four classes are recognized with high precision and recall. In this paper, we use a Dictionary Learning approach in classifying human sperm heads. It is shown that the Dictionary Learning method is far more effective in classifying human sperm heads than classifiers using shape-based features. Also, a dataset of human sperm head shapes is introduced to facilitate future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular markers predict outcome in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck after concomitant cisplatin-based chemoradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Guido B; Wildeman, Maarten; Rasch, Coen R N; Armstrong, Nicola; Schuuring, Ed; Begg, Adrian C; Looijenga, Leendert H J; Scheper, Rik; van der Wal, Jacqueline E; Menkema, Lorian; van Diest, Paul J; Balm, Alfons J M; van Velthuysen, Marie-Louise F; van den Brekel, Michiel W M

    2009-06-01

    Not all patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (HNSCC) benefit from concurrent cisplatin-based chemoradiation, but reliable predictive markers for outcome after chemoradiation are scarce. We have investigated potential prognostic biomarkers for outcome in a large group of patients. Ninety-one tumor biopsies taken from consecutive HNSCC patients were evaluated for protein expression on a tissue microarray. Using immunohistochemistry, 18 biomarkers, involved in various cellular pathways were investigated. Univariable and multivariable proportional hazard analyses were performed to investigate associations between each individual marker and outcome. In addition, the global test was used to test all variables simultaneously and selected combinations of markers for an overall association with local control. Univariable analysis showed statistically significant increased relative risks of RB, P16 and MRP2 for local control and MDR1 and HIF-1alpha for overall survival. MRP2, MDR1 and P16 levels were positively associated with outcome whereas RB and HIF-1alpha had a negative relationship. Using Goeman's global testing no combination of markers was identified that was associated with local control. Grouping the markers according to their function revealed an association between a combination of 3 markers (P16, P21 and P27) and outcome (p = 0.05) was found. In the multivariable analysis, MRP2 and RB remained significant independent predictive markers for local control. This study describes the prognostic value of biomarkers for the outcome in patients uniformly treated with concurrent chemoradiation. MRP2 and RB were found to be associated with outcome in patients treated with concurrent chemoradiation.

  4. Prospective navigator-echo-based real-time triggering of fetal head movement for the reduction of artifacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonel, H. [University Hospital Berne-Inselspital, Freiburgstrasse, Institute of Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology, Bern (Switzerland); Frei, K.A.; Raio, L.; Meyer-Wittkopf, M. [University of Berne, Women' s' Hospital, Bern (Switzerland); Remonda, L.; Wiest, R. [University of Berne, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology (DIN), Inselspital, Bern (Switzerland)

    2008-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the neuroimaging quality and accuracy of prospective real-time navigator-echo acquisition correction versus untriggered intrauterine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. Twenty women in whom fetal motion artifacts compromised the neuroimaging quality of fetal MRI taken during the 28.7 {+-} 4 week of pregnancy below diagnostic levels were additionally investigated using a navigator-triggered half-Fourier acquired single-shot turbo-spin echo (HASTE) sequence. Imaging quality was evaluated by two blinded readers applying a rating scale from 1 (not diagnostic) to 5 (excellent). Diagnostic criteria included depiction of the germinal matrix, grey and white matter, CSF, brain stem and cerebellum. Signal-difference-to-noise ratios (SDNRs) in the white matter and germinal zone were quantitatively evaluated. Imaging quality improved in 18/20 patients using the navigator echo technique (2.4 {+-} 0.58 vs. 3.65 {+-} 0.73 SD, p < 0.01 for all evaluation criteria). In 2/20 patients fetal movement severely impaired image quality in conventional and navigated HASTE. Navigator-echo imaging revealed additional structural brain abnormalities and confirmed diagnosis in 8/20 patients. The accuracy improved from 50% to 90%. Average SDNR increased from 0.7 {+-} 7.27 to 19.83 {+-} 15.71 (p < 0.01). Navigator-echo-based real-time triggering of fetal head movement is a reliable technique that can deliver diagnostic fetal MR image quality despite vigorous fetal movement. (orig.)

  5. Clinical Validation of Atlas-Based Auto-Segmentation of Multiple Target Volumes and Normal Tissue (Swallowing/Mastication) Structures in the Head and Neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teguh, David N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Levendag, Peter C., E-mail: p.levendag@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Voet, Peter W.J.; Al-Mamgani, Abrahim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Han Xiao; Wolf, Theresa K.; Hibbard, Lyndon S. [Elekta-CMS Software, Maryland Heights, MO 63043 (United States); Nowak, Peter; Akhiat, Hafid; Dirkx, Maarten L.P.; Heijmen, Ben J.M.; Hoogeman, Mischa S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To validate and clinically evaluate autocontouring using atlas-based autosegmentation (ABAS) of computed tomography images. Methods and Materials: The data from 10 head-and-neck patients were selected as input for ABAS, and neck levels I-V and 20 organs at risk were manually contoured according to published guidelines. The total contouring times were recorded. Two different ABAS strategies, multiple and single subject, were evaluated, and the similarity of the autocontours with the atlas contours was assessed using Dice coefficients and the mean distances, using the leave-one-out method. For 12 clinically treated patients, 5 experienced observers edited the autosegmented contours. The editing times were recorded. The Dice coefficients and mean distances were calculated among the clinically used contours, autocontours, and edited autocontours. Finally, an expert panel scored all autocontours and the edited autocontours regarding their adequacy relative to the published atlas. Results: The time to autosegment all the structures using ABAS was 7 min/patient. No significant differences were observed in the autosegmentation accuracy for stage N0 and N+ patients. The multisubject atlas performed best, with a Dice coefficient and mean distance of 0.74 and 2 mm, 0.67 and 3 mm, 0.71 and 2 mm, 0.50 and 2 mm, and 0.78 and 2 mm for the salivary glands, neck levels, chewing muscles, swallowing muscles, and spinal cord-brainstem, respectively. The mean Dice coefficient and mean distance of the autocontours vs. the clinical contours was 0.8 and 2.4 mm for the neck levels and salivary glands, respectively. For the autocontours vs. the edited autocontours, the mean Dice coefficient and mean distance was 0.9 and 1.6 mm, respectively. The expert panel scored 100% of the autocontours as a 'minor deviation, editable' or better. The expert panel scored 88% of the edited contours as good compared with 83% of the clinical contours. The total editing time was 66 min

  6. The case for evidence-based rulemaking in human subjects research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Benjamin

    2010-06-01

    Here I inquire into the status of the rules promulgated in the canonical pronouncements on human subjects research, such as the Declaration of Helsinki and the Belmont Report. The question is whether they are ethical rules or rules of policy. An ethical rule is supposed to accurately reflect the ethical fact (the fact that the action the rule prescribes is ethically obligatory), whereas rules of policy are implemented to achieve a goal. We should be skeptical, I argue, that the actions prescribed by the rules are ethically obligatory, and consequently we should focus our attention on how to craft the rules so as to promote the legitimate goals of human subjects research. Unfortunately, this cannot be done without evidence about the likely effects of various candidate policies-evidence we currently lack. Therefore, we should take the rules as mere starting points, subject to revision as the evidence comes in.

  7. Evidence-Based Treatment Options in Recurrent and/or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanassios Argiris

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The major development of the past decade in the first-line treatment of recurrent and/or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (R/M SCCHN was the introduction of cetuximab in combination with platinum plus 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy (CT, followed by maintenance cetuximab (the “EXTREME” regimen. This regimen is supported by a phase 3 randomized trial and subsequent observational studies, and it confers well-documented survival benefits, with median survival ranging between approximately 10 and 14 months, overall response rates between 36 and 44%, and disease control rates of over 80%. Furthermore, as indicated by patient-reported outcome measures, the addition of cetuximab to platinum-based CT leads to a significant reduction in pain and problems with social eating and speech. Conversely, until very recently, there has been a lack of evidence-based second-line treatment options, and the therapies that have been available have shown low response rates and poor survival outcomes. Presently, a promising new treatment option in R/M SCCHN has emerged: immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs, which have demonstrated favorable results in second-line clinical trials. Nivolumab and pembrolizumab are the first two ICIs that were approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. We note that the trials that showed benefit with ICIs included not only patients who previously received ≥1 platinum-based regimens for R/M SCCHN but also patients who experienced recurrence within 6 months after combined modality therapy with a platinum agent for locally advanced disease. In this review, we outline the available clinical and observational evidence for the EXTREME regimen and the initial results from clinical trials for ICIs in patients with R/M SCCHN. We propose that these treatment options can be integrated into a new continuum of care paradigm, with first-line EXTREME regimen followed by second-line ICIs. A number of ongoing clinical trials

  8. Evidence-Based Treatment Options in Recurrent and/or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argiris, Athanassios; Harrington, Kevin J; Tahara, Makoto; Schulten, Jeltje; Chomette, Pauline; Ferreira Castro, Ana; Licitra, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The major development of the past decade in the first-line treatment of recurrent and/or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (R/M SCCHN) was the introduction of cetuximab in combination with platinum plus 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy (CT), followed by maintenance cetuximab (the "EXTREME" regimen). This regimen is supported by a phase 3 randomized trial and subsequent observational studies, and it confers well-documented survival benefits, with median survival ranging between approximately 10 and 14 months, overall response rates between 36 and 44%, and disease control rates of over 80%. Furthermore, as indicated by patient-reported outcome measures, the addition of cetuximab to platinum-based CT leads to a significant reduction in pain and problems with social eating and speech. Conversely, until very recently, there has been a lack of evidence-based second-line treatment options, and the therapies that have been available have shown low response rates and poor survival outcomes. Presently, a promising new treatment option in R/M SCCHN has emerged: immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), which have demonstrated favorable results in second-line clinical trials. Nivolumab and pembrolizumab are the first two ICIs that were approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. We note that the trials that showed benefit with ICIs included not only patients who previously received ≥1 platinum-based regimens for R/M SCCHN but also patients who experienced recurrence within 6 months after combined modality therapy with a platinum agent for locally advanced disease. In this review, we outline the available clinical and observational evidence for the EXTREME regimen and the initial results from clinical trials for ICIs in patients with R/M SCCHN. We propose that these treatment options can be integrated into a new continuum of care paradigm, with first-line EXTREME regimen followed by second-line ICIs. A number of ongoing clinical trials are comparing

  9. Should digoxin be proscribed in elderly subjects in sinus rhythm free from heart failure? A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiglia, E; Tikhonoff, V; Pizziol, A; Onesto, C; Ginocchio, G; Mazza, A; Pessina, A C

    1998-09-01

    Increased mortality in digoxin-treated subjects has been demonstrated in patients with recent myocardial infarction. Those with congestive heart failure (CHF) due to causes other than myocardial infarction seem to be free from this effect. No information is currently available concerning mortality in elderly people who are frequently prescribed digitalis even in the absence of CHF. The aim of this study was to investigate whether subjects improperly receiving digoxin were worse off than those not receiving this drug. This analysis is a part of CASTEL, a population-based prospective study that has enrolled a cohort of 2,254 subjects aged > or = 65 years. CHF was diagnosed in 187 subjects and atrial fibrillation (AF) in 90. The remaining 1,977 were free from CHF and in sinus rhythm, but 447 were treated with digitalis. Cumulative mortality and morbid events by digitalis treatment were calculated in all these categories. Among subjects free from CHF and AF (improper use), all-cause and cardiovascular mortality was significantly higher among those taking digitalis than in those who did not. Non-fatal events including CHF were also more apparent in the former than in the latter. Cox analysis confirmed digitalis as a predictor of mortality in these subjects. No effect of digitalis on survival was found in patients with CHF or AF (proper use). In elderly subjects without atrial fibrillation or CHF, the use of digitalis worsens morbidity and mortality.

  10. Multi-subject/daily-life activity EMG-based control of mechanical hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorilla Angelo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Forearm surface electromyography (EMG has been in use since the Sixties to feed-forward control active hand prostheses in a more and more refined way. Recent research shows that it can be used to control even a dexterous polyarticulate hand prosthesis such as Touch Bionics's i-LIMB, as well as a multifingered, multi-degree-of-freedom mechanical hand such as the DLR II. In this paper we extend previous work and investigate the robustness of such fine control possibilities, in two ways: firstly, we conduct an analysis on data obtained from 10 healthy subjects, trying to assess the general applicability of the technique; secondly, we compare the baseline controlled condition (arm relaxed and still on a table with a "Daily-Life Activity" (DLA condition in which subjects walk, raise their hands and arms, sit down and stand up, etc., as an experimental proxy of what a patient is supposed to do in real life. We also propose a cross-subject model analysis, i.e., training a model on a subject and testing it on another one. The use of pre-trained models could be useful in shortening the time required by the subject/patient to become proficient in using the hand. Results A standard machine learning technique was able to achieve a real-time grip posture classification rate of about 97% in the baseline condition and 95% in the DLA condition; and an average correlation to the target of about 0.93 (0.90 while reconstructing the required force. Cross-subject analysis is encouraging although not definitive in its present state. Conclusion Performance figures obtained here are in the same order of magnitude of those obtained in previous work about healthy subjects in controlled conditions and/or amputees, which lets us claim that this technique can be used by reasonably any subject, and in DLA situations. Use of previously trained models is not fully assessed here, but more recent work indicates it is a promising way ahead.

  11. A global map of science based on the ISI subject categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Rafols, I

    2009-01-01

    The decomposition of scientific literature into disciplinary and subdisciplinary structures is one of the core goals of scientometrics. How can we achieve a good decomposition? The ISI subject categories classify journals included in the Science Citation Index (SCI). The aggregated journal-journal

  12. Deformation response of gellan gum based bone scaffold subjected to uniaxial quasi-static loading

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kytýř, Daniel; Krčmářová, Nela; Šleichrt, Jan; Fíla, Tomáš; Koudelka_ml., Petr; Gantar, A.; Novak, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 1 (2017), s. 14-21 ISSN 1210-2709 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) ATCZ38 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : gellan gum scaffold * reinforcement * uni-axial loading Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials https://ojs.cvut.cz/ojs/index.php/ap/article/view/3885

  13. Analyzing the Efficiency of Argumentation Based Practices on 9th Grade Functions Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercan, Emel; Isleyen, Tevfik

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of teaching 9th grade Functions subject through argumentation on students' science process skills, attitudes towards Maths, willingness for argumentation and conceptual comprehension. The study was designed as a quasi-experimental model with pretest-posttest control group. It was carried out…

  14. The impact of comorbidity on outcome in 12 623 Danish head and neck cancer patients: a population based study from the DAHANCA database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøje, Charlotte Rotbøl; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Grønborg, Therese Koops

    2013-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is primarily caused by smoking and alcohol. Besides having a carcinogenic effect, smoking also leads to other diseases and thus contributes to a high prevalence of comorbidities among HNSCC patients. Furthermore, the world population is becoming older...... resulting in more elderly patients with HNSCC. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and impact of comorbidity in a retrospective nationwide population-based study of all Danish HNSCC patients diagnosed from 1992 to 2008....

  15. Thyroid Disease and Surgery in CHEER: The Nation’s Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Practice Based Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Kourosh; Chapurin, Nikita; Schulz, Kris; Shin, Jennifer J.; Pynnonen, Melissa A.; Witsell, David L.; Langman, Alan; Nguyen-Huynh, Anh; Ryan, Sheila E.; Vambutas, Andrea; Wolfley, Anne; Roberts, Rhonda; Lee, Walter T.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives 1) Describe thyroid-related diagnoses and procedures in CHEER across academic and community sites. 2) Compare management of malignant thyroid disease across these sites, and 3) Provide practice based data related to flexible laryngoscopy vocal fold assessment before and after thyroid surgery based on AAO-HNSF Clinical Practice Guidelines. Study Design Review of retrospective data collection (RDC) database of the CHEER network using ICD-9 and CPT codes related to thyroid conditions. Setting Multisite practice based network. Subjects and Methods There were 3,807 thyroid patients (1,392 malignant; 2,415 benign) with 10,160 unique visits identified from 1 year of patient data in the RDC. Analysis was performed for identified cohort of patients using demographics, site characteristics and diagnostic and procedural distribution. Results Mean number of patients with thyroid disease per site was 238 (range 23–715). In community practices, 19% of patients with thyroid disease had cancer versus 45% in the academic setting (pOtolaryngology-H&N Surgery’s practice-based research network. PMID:27371622

  16. Principal component analysis-based anatomical motion models for use in adaptive radiation therapy of head and neck cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetvertkov, Mikhail A.

    Purpose: To develop standard and regularized principal component analysis (PCA) models of anatomical changes from daily cone beam CTs (CBCTs) of head and neck (H&N) patients, assess their potential use in adaptive radiation therapy (ART), and to extract quantitative information for treatment response assessment. Methods: Planning CT (pCT) images of H&N patients were artificially deformed to create "digital phantom" images, which modeled systematic anatomical changes during Radiation Therapy (RT). Artificial deformations closely mirrored patients' actual deformations, and were interpolated to generate 35 synthetic CBCTs, representing evolving anatomy over 35 fractions. Deformation vector fields (DVFs) were acquired between pCT and synthetic CBCTs (i.e., digital phantoms), and between pCT and clinical CBCTs. Patient-specific standard PCA (SPCA) and regularized PCA (RPCA) models were built from these synthetic and clinical DVF sets. Eigenvectors, or eigenDVFs (EDVFs), having the largest eigenvalues were hypothesized to capture the major anatomical deformations during treatment. Modeled anatomies were used to assess the dose deviations with respect to the planned dose distribution. Results: PCA models achieve variable results, depending on the size and location of anatomical change. Random changes prevent or degrade SPCA's ability to detect underlying systematic change. RPCA is able to detect smaller systematic changes against the background of random fraction-to-fraction changes, and is therefore more successful than SPCA at capturing systematic changes early in treatment. SPCA models were less successful at modeling systematic changes in clinical patient images, which contain a wider range of random motion than synthetic CBCTs, while the regularized approach was able to extract major modes of motion. For dose assessment it has been shown that the modeled dose distribution was different from the planned dose for the parotid glands due to their shrinkage and shift into

  17. Job Satisfaction of NAIA Head Coaches at Small Faith-Based Colleges: The Teacher-Coach Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiemsma, Craig L.

    2010-01-01

    The head coaches at smaller colleges usually have other job responsibilities that include teaching, along with the responsibilities of coaching, recruiting, scheduling, and other coaching-related jobs. There is often a dual role involved for these coaches who try to juggle two different jobs that sometimes require different skill sets and involve…

  18. Strategies to reduce long-term postchemoradiation dysphagia in patients with head and neck cancer: an evidence-based review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paleri, V.; Roe, J.W.; Strojan, P.; Corry, J.; Gregoire, V.; Hamoir, M.; Eisbruch, A.; Mendenhall, W.M.; Silver, C.E.; Rinaldo, A.; Takes, R.P.; Ferlito, A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Swallowing dysfunction following chemoradiation for head and neck cancer is a major cause of morbidity and reduced quality of life. This review discusses 3 strategies that may improve posttreatment swallowing function. METHODS: The literature was assessed by a multiauthor team that

  19. Phase I trial of 18F-Fludeoxyglucose based radiation dose painting with concomitant cisplatin in head and neck cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jacob H; Håkansson, Katrin; Vogelius, Ivan Richter

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The CONTRAST (CONventional vs.Tumor Recurrence Adapted Specification of Target dose) phase I trial tested the safety of FDG PET guided dose redistribution in patients receiving accelerated chemo-radiotherapy for locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). METHODS AND ...

  20. An in silico comparison between margin-based and probabilistic target-planning approaches in head and neck cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontanarosa, Davide; van der Laan, Hans Paul; Witte, Marnix; Shakirin, Georgy; Roelofs, Erik; Langendijk, Johannes; Larnbin, Philippe; van Herk, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: To apply target probabilistic planning (TPP) approach to intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans for head and neck cancer (HNC) patients. Material and methods: Twenty plans of HNC patients were re-planned replacing the simultaneous integrated boost IMRT optimization

  1. An in silico comparison between margin-based and probabilistic target-planning approaches in head and neck cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontanarosa, Davide; van der Laan, Hans Paul; Witte, Marnix; Shakirin, Georgy; Roelofs, Erik; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Lambin, Philippe; van Herk, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    To apply target probabilistic planning (TPP) approach to intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans for head and neck cancer (HNC) patients. Twenty plans of HNC patients were re-planned replacing the simultaneous integrated boost IMRT optimization objectives for minimum dose on the boost target

  2. Writing otorhinolaryngology head & neck surgery operative reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laccourreye, O; Rubin, F; Villeneuve, A; Bonfils, P

    2017-09-01

    Only about ten articles devoted to operative reports have been published in the medical literature, but this document is essential, both medically and legally, to ensure optimal management of operated patients. In this technical note, based on published studies on this subject, the authors describe the key features of operating reports after otorhinolaryngology head & neck surgery and emphasize the need to write this document during the minutes after the end of the operation, the importance of standardization and its teaching role during surgical training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Single-subject-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Xiong; Nichols, Sharon; Baker, Dewleen G; Robb, Ashley; Angeles, Annemarie; Yurgil, Kate A; Drake, Angela; Levy, Michael; Song, Tao; McLay, Robert; Theilmann, Rebecca J; Diwakar, Mithun; Risbrough, Victoria B; Ji, Zhengwei; Huang, Charles W; Chang, Douglas G; Harrington, Deborah L; Muzzatti, Laura; Canive, Jose M; Christopher Edgar, J; Chen, Yu-Han; Lee, Roland R

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of sustained impairment in military and civilian populations. However, mild TBI (mTBI) can be difficult to detect using conventional MRI or CT. Injured brain tissues in mTBI patients generate abnormal slow-waves (1-4 Hz) that can be measured and localized by resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG). In this study, we develop a voxel-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mTBI on a single-subject basis. A normative database of resting-state MEG source magnitude images (1-4 Hz) from 79 healthy control subjects was established for all brain voxels. The high-resolution MEG source magnitude images were obtained by our recent Fast-VESTAL method. In 84 mTBI patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms (36 from blasts, and 48 from non-blast causes), our method detected abnormalities at the positive detection rates of 84.5%, 86.1%, and 83.3% for the combined (blast-induced plus with non-blast causes), blast, and non-blast mTBI groups, respectively. We found that prefrontal, posterior parietal, inferior temporal, hippocampus, and cerebella areas were particularly vulnerable to head trauma. The result also showed that MEG slow-wave generation in prefrontal areas positively correlated with personality change, trouble concentrating, affective lability, and depression symptoms. Discussion is provided regarding the neuronal mechanisms of MEG slow-wave generation due to deafferentation caused by axonal injury and/or blockages/limitations of cholinergic transmission in TBI. This study provides an effective way for using MEG slow-wave source imaging to localize affected areas and supports MEG as a tool for assisting the diagnosis of mTBI.

  4. Single-subject-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Xiong Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a leading cause of sustained impairment in military and civilian populations. However, mild TBI (mTBI can be difficult to detect using conventional MRI or CT. Injured brain tissues in mTBI patients generate abnormal slow-waves (1–4 Hz that can be measured and localized by resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG. In this study, we develop a voxel-based whole-brain MEG slow-wave imaging approach for detecting abnormality in patients with mTBI on a single-subject basis. A normative database of resting-state MEG source magnitude images (1–4 Hz from 79 healthy control subjects was established for all brain voxels. The high-resolution MEG source magnitude images were obtained by our recent Fast-VESTAL method. In 84 mTBI patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms (36 from blasts, and 48 from non-blast causes, our method detected abnormalities at the positive detection rates of 84.5%, 86.1%, and 83.3% for the combined (blast-induced plus with non-blast causes, blast, and non-blast mTBI groups, respectively. We found that prefrontal, posterior parietal, inferior temporal, hippocampus, and cerebella areas were particularly vulnerable to head trauma. The result also showed that MEG slow-wave generation in prefrontal areas positively correlated with personality change, trouble concentrating, affective lability, and depression symptoms. Discussion is provided regarding the neuronal mechanisms of MEG slow-wave generation due to deafferentation caused by axonal injury and/or blockages/limitations of cholinergic transmission in TBI. This study provides an effective way for using MEG slow-wave source imaging to localize affected areas and supports MEG as a tool for assisting the diagnosis of mTBI.

  5. Optimal Volume for Concert Halls Based on Ando’s Subjective Preference and Barron Revised Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Cerdá

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Ando-Beranek’s model, a linear version of Ando’s subjective preference theory, obtained by the authors in a recent work, was combined with Barron revised theory. An optimal volume region for each reverberation time was obtained for classical music in symphony orchestra concert halls. The obtained relation was tested with good agreement with the top rated halls reported by Beranek and other halls with reported anomalies.

  6. Life trajectory of mastectomized women based on the collective subject discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Marta Batista da; Júnior, João Mário Pessoa; Miranda,Francisco Arnoldo Nunes de

    2016-01-01

    Objective: to examine the life trajectory of women with mastectomy members of a self-help group. Method: descriptive and exploratory study, with a qualitative approach, using the approach of the oral history of life as a methodological benchmark, meeting the operational phases. The participants were 20 women with mastectomy, whose narratives, considered discursive manifestations were submitted to the analysis of the collective subject discourse. Results: three thematic axes were elaborated, s...

  7. Analysis of the Precautionary Saving Motive Based on a Subjective Measure : (SAVE 2005-2007)

    OpenAIRE

    Ziegelmeyer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The importance of the precautionary saving motive for households’ saving behaviour is unquestioned in the literature of the last two decades. However, the magnitude of precautionary savings and its influencing factors could not be satisfactorily determined. A subjective measure of the desired amount of precautionary savings in the German SAVE study 2005-2007 allows for the evaluation of these questions on a new basis without relying on a specific definition of wealth. This study supports the ...

  8. Investigating the Neural Bases for Intra-Subject Cognitive Efficiency Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neena K. Rao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Several fMRI studies have examined brain regions mediating inter-subject variability in cognitive efficiency, but none have examined regions mediating intra-subject variability in efficiency. Thus, the present study was designed to identify brain regions involved in intra-subject variability in cognitive efficiency via participant-level correlations between trial-level reaction time (RT and trial-level fMRI BOLD percent signal change on a processing speed task. On each trial, participants indicated whether a digit-symbol probe-pair was present or absent in an array of nine digit-symbol probe-pairs while fMRI data were collected. Deconvolution analyses, using RT time-series models (derived from the proportional scaling of an event-related hemodynamic response function model by trial-level RT, were used to evaluate relationships between trial-level RTs and BOLD percent signal change. Although task-related patterns of activation and deactivation were observed in regions including bilateral occipital, bilateral parietal, portions of the medial wall such as the precuneus, default mode network regions including anterior cingulate, posterior cingulate, bilateral temporal, right cerebellum, and right cuneus, RT-BOLD correlations were observed in a more circumscribed set of regions. Positive RT-related patterns, or RT-BOLD correlations where fast RTs were associated with lower BOLD percent signal change, were observed in regions including bilateral occipital, bilateral parietal, and the precuneus. RT-BOLD correlations were not observed in the default mode network indicating a smaller set of regions associated with intra-subject variability in cognitive efficiency. The results are discussed in terms of a distributed area of regions that mediate variability in the cognitive efficiency that might underlie processing speed differences between individuals.

  9. Subjective sleep characteristics associated with anxiety and depression in older adults: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Olivier; Lorrain, Dominique; Belleville, Geneviève; Grenier, Sébastien; Préville, Michel

    2014-12-01

    Sleep complaints are often associated with anxiety and depression, but the specific complaints related to each syndrome are poorly characterized, especially in older adults. The objective was to identify subjective sleep characteristics specific to anxiety and depression in this population. A random sample of 2393 individuals aged 65 years or older was used. Anxiety and depression were categorized using DSM-V criteria for phobias, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, unspecified anxiety disorder, major depressive episode, and depressive episode with insufficient symptoms. Subjective sleep characteristics were measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Logistic regression models predicting anxiety or depression were used to determine the independent sleep characteristics associated with each syndrome adjusting for age, sex, education level, cognitive functioning, anxiolytic/sedative/hypnotic use, antidepressants use, subjective health, chronic diseases, cardiovascular conditions, and anxiety or depression (as appropriate). Nearly all Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index subscales were significantly associated with anxiety, but these subscales shared variance and only sleep duration in hours, sleep disturbance score, and daytime functioning score were independently related to anxiety. Within these significant subscales, the main specific sleep complaints associated with anxiety were daytime sleepiness and sleep disturbances related to coughing/snoring, feeling cold, and bad dreams. The use of sleeping medication was the only specific sleep characteristic associated with depression. These results suggest that in older adults, symptoms of short sleep duration, daytime sleepiness and sleep disturbances are independently related to anxiety while the use of sleep medication is independently associated to depression. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Source-based subjective responses to sleep disturbance from transportation noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, O; Murphy, E

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence to suggest that the use of subjective responses to questions concerning night-time environmental noise exposure is a robust method of assessing sleep disturbance from road traffic noise. However, there have only been a few studies exploring this issue in a real world context beyond controlled laboratory settings. This paper presents results from such a study. It utilises 208 household questionnaire surveys to assess subjective responses to levels of night-time sleep disturbance and annoyance from four different residential sites. Each residential site is characterised by a dominant noise source - road, light rail, and aircraft - and these sites are compared to a control site that is relatively free from transportation noise. The results demonstrate the inadequacy of continuous equivalent noise level measures as indicators of night-time disturbance. Furthermore, they suggest that the use of these measures alone is likely to result in inaccurate appraisals of night-time sleep disturbance from transportation noise. Ultimately, the research implies that measurement data should be used in conjunction with subjective response data to accurately gauge the level of night-time disturbance from transportation noise. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Alzheimer Disease and Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia: Automatic Classification Based on Cortical Atrophy for Single-Subject Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Christiane; Pijnenburg, Yolande A L; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Versteeg, Adriaan; Tijms, Betty; de Munck, Jan C; Hafkemeijer, Anne; Rombouts, Serge A R B; van der Grond, Jeroen; van Swieten, John; Dopper, Elise; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik; Vrenken, Hugo; Wink, Alle Meije

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of an image-based classifier to distinguish between Alzheimer disease (AD) and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) in individual patients by using gray matter (GM) density maps computed from standard T1-weighted structural images obtained with multiple imagers and with independent training and prediction data. Materials and Methods The local institutional review board approved the study. Eighty-four patients with AD, 51 patients with bvFTD, and 94 control subjects were divided into independent training (n = 115) and prediction (n = 114) sets with identical diagnosis and imager type distributions. Training of a support vector machine (SVM) classifier used diagnostic status and GM density maps and produced voxelwise discrimination maps. Discriminant function analysis was used to estimate suitability of the extracted weights for single-subject classification in the prediction set. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and area under the ROC curve (AUC) were calculated for image-based classifiers and neuropsychological z scores. Results Training accuracy of the SVM was 85% for patients with AD versus control subjects, 72% for patients with bvFTD versus control subjects, and 79% for patients with AD versus patients with bvFTD (P ≤ .029). Single-subject diagnosis in the prediction set when using the discrimination maps yielded accuracies of 88% for patients with AD versus control subjects, 85% for patients with bvFTD versus control subjects, and 82% for patients with AD versus patients with bvFTD, with a good to excellent AUC (range, 0.81-0.95; P ≤ .001). Machine learning-based categorization of AD versus bvFTD based on GM density maps outperforms classification based on neuropsychological test results. Conclusion The SVM can be used in single-subject discrimination and can help the clinician arrive at a diagnosis. The SVM can be used to distinguish disease-specific GM patterns in patients with AD

  12. Return of the talking heads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinecke Hansen, Kenneth; Bro, Peter; Andersson, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    . In order to analyze the latest development entering the third wave, we propose a theoretically based dramaturgical model for the television news item. The analysis concludes that, with the current ‘return’ of the talking heads format, the pre-produced and pre-packaged bulletin program about past events......The present article suggests that the brief history of Western television news dramaturgy can be expounded as three major waves: from the early days of the talking heads in the studio, over the narrativization of the field report to a (re-)current studio- and field-based talking heads format...

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the head (particularly the brain) in routine clinical practice. top of page What are some common ... acutely injured; however, this decision is based on clinical judgment. This is because traction devices and many ...

  14. A Space weather information service based upon remote and in-situ measurements of coronal mass ejections heading for Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritter Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Earth’s magnetosphere is formed as a consequence of interaction between the planet’s magnetic field and the solar wind, a continuous plasma stream from the Sun. A number of different solar wind phenomena have been studied over the past 40 years with the intention of understanding and forecasting solar behavior. One of these phenomena in particular, Earth-bound interplanetary coronal mass ejections (CMEs, can significantly disturb the Earth’s magnetosphere for a short time and cause geomagnetic storms. This publication presents a mission concept consisting of six spacecraft that are equally spaced in a heliocentric orbit at 0.72 AU. These spacecraft will monitor the plasma properties, the magnetic field’s orientation and magnitude, and the 3D-propagation trajectory of CMEs heading for Earth. The primary objective of this mission is to increase space weather forecasting time by means of a near real-time information service, that is based upon in-situ and remote measurements of the aforementioned CME properties. The obtained data can additionally be used for updating scientific models. This update is the mission’s secondary objective. In-situ measurements are performed using a Solar Wind Analyzer instrumentation package and fluxgate magnetometers, while for remote measurements coronagraphs are employed. The proposed instruments originate from other space missions with the intention to reduce mission costs and to streamline the mission design process. Communication with the six identical spacecraft is realized via a deep space network consisting of six ground stations. They provide an information service that is in uninterrupted contact with the spacecraft, allowing for continuous space weather monitoring. A dedicated data processing center will handle all the data, and then forward the processed data to the SSA Space Weather Coordination Center which will, in turn, inform the general public through a space weather forecast. The data

  15. Effect of Pseudocereal-Based Breakfast Meals on the First and Second Meal Glucose Tolerance in Healthy and Diabetic Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreef G.N. Gabrial

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many studies have indicated that the incidence of serious diabetic complications may be reduced through strict glycemic control. A low glycemic index diet is one tool to improve insulin resistance and improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. AIM: The objective was to study the effect of pseudocereals-based breakfasts (quinoa and buckwheat on glucose variations at first meal (breakfast and second meal (standardised lunch in healthy and diabetic subjects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Twelve healthy subjects and 12 patients with Type 2 DM (not- insulin dependent were recruited in the study. Subjects were provided with quinoa and buckwheat breakfast meals. A standardised lunch was provided 4 h after breakfast. Postprandial blood glucose response after breakfast and the second meal effect was measured in healthy and diabetic subjects. Incremental area under the curve (IAUC values for glucose was measured in response to the breakfast and lunch. The glycemic index of the 2 pseudocereals-based test breakfasts was determined. A white wheat bread (WWB was served as a reference breakfast meal. RESULTS: In post-breakfast analyses, healthy subjects showed that buckwheat meal had significantly lower IAUC values for blood glucose compared to WWB reference meal (P < 0.001 while quinoa meal showed no significance. In diabetic subjects, buckwheat and quinoa meals had significantly lower IAUC values for blood glucose compared to WWB reference meal (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05 respectively. Blood glucose concentrations started to decline gradually for the quinoa and buckwheat but not for WWB in all healthy and diabetic subjects and returned to near-fasting baseline levels by 210 min. Post-lunch analyses indicated higher IAUC for the two breakfast types in healthy and diabetic subjects. In addition, the quinoa and buckwheat breakfast meals were followed by a significantly flatter blood glucose response to the second meal for the period between 270

  16. Individualized directional microphone optimization in hearing aids based on reconstructing the 3D geometry of the head and ear from 2D images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Stine

    The goal of this thesis is to improve intelligibility for hearing-aid users by individualizing the directional microphone in a hearing aid. The general idea is a three step pipeline for easy acquisition of individually optimized directional filters. The first step is to estimate an individual 3D...... aid. We verify the directional filters optimized from simulated HRTFs based on a listener-specific head model against two set of optimal filters. The first set of optimal filters is calculated from HRTFs measured on a 3D printed version of the head model. The second set of optimal filters...... to 3:6 dB between an average filter and an optimal filter. This suggests that hearing-aid users with ITE hearing aids could benefit more from having individualized directional filters than what was shown for a BTE hearing aid. This thesis is a step towards individualizing the directional microphone...

  17. SU-F-T-519: Is Geometry Based Setup Sufficient for All of the Head and Neck Treatment Cases?: A Feasibility Study Towards the Dose Based Setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S; Chen, S; Zhang, B; Xu, H; Prado, K; D’Souza, W; Yi, B [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: This study compares the geometric-based setup (GBS) which is currently used in the clinic to a novel concept of dose-based setup (DBS) of head and neck (H&N) patients using cone beam CT (CBCT) of the day; and evaluates the clinical advantages. Methods: Ten H&N patients who underwent re-simulation and re-plan due to noticeable anatomic changes during the course of the treatments were retrospectively reviewed on dosimetric changes in the assumption of no plan modification was performed. RayStation planning system (RaySearch Laboratories AB, Sweden) was used to match (ROI fusion module) between prescribed isodoseline (IDL) in the CBCT imported along with ROIs from re-planned CT and the IDL of original plan (Dose-based setup: DBS). Then, the CBCT plan based on daily setup using the GBS (previously used for a patient) and the DBS CBCT plan recalculated in RayStation compared against the original CT-sim plan. Results: Most of patients’ tumor coverage and OAR doses got generally worsen when the CBCT plans were compared with original CT-sim plan with GBS. However, when DBS intervened, the OAR dose and tumor coverage was better than the GBS. For example, one of patients’ daily average doses of right parotid and oral cavity increased to 26% and 36%, respectively from the original plan to the GBS planning. However, it only increased by 13% and 24%, respectively with DBS. GTV D95 coverage also decreased by 16% with GBS, but only 2% decreased with DBS. Conclusion: DBS method is superior to GBS to prevent any abrupt dose changes to OARs as well as PTV/CTV or GTV at least for some H&N cases. Since it is not known when the DBS is beneficial to the GBS, a system which enables the on-line DBS may be helpful for better treatment of H&N.

  18. A Comparison of Different Teaching Designs of "Acids and Bases" Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ültay, Neslihan; Çalik, Muammer

    2016-01-01

    Inability to link the acid-base concepts with daily life phenomena (as contexts) highlights the need for further research on the context-based acid-base chemistry. In this vein, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different teaching designs (REACT strategy, 5Es learning model and traditional (existing) instruction) relevant with…

  19. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Based upon Heart Rate at Aerobic Threshold in Obese Elderly Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Pietro Emerenziani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In obese diabetic subjects, a correct life style, including diet and physical activity, is part of a correct intervention protocol. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic training intervention, based on heart rate at aerobic gas exchange threshold (AerTge, on clinical and physiological parameters in obese elderly subjects with type 2 diabetes (OT2DM. Thirty OT2DM subjects were randomly assigned to an intervention (IG or control group (CG. The IG performed a supervised aerobic exercise training based on heart rate at AerTge whereas CG maintained their usual lifestyle. Anthropometric measures, blood analysis, peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak, metabolic equivalent (METpeak, work rate (WRpeak, and WRAerTge were assessed at baseline and after intervention. After training, patients enrolled in the IG had significantly higher (P<0.001 V˙O2peak, METpeak, WRpeak, and WRAerTge and significantly lower (P<0.005 weight, BMI, %FM, and waist circumference than before intervention. Both IG and CG subjects had lower glycated haemoglobin levels after intervention period. No significant differences were found for all the other parameters between pre- and posttraining and between groups. Aerobic exercise prescription based upon HR at AerTge could be a valuable physical intervention tool to improve the fitness level and metabolic equilibrium in OT2DM patients.

  20. Subjective evaluation of H.265/HEVC based dynamic adaptive video streaming over HTTP (HEVC-DASH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irondi, Iheanyi; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2015-02-01

    The Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH) standard is becoming increasingly popular for real-time adaptive HTTP streaming of internet video in response to unstable network conditions. Integration of DASH streaming techniques with the new H.265/HEVC video coding standard is a promising area of research. The performance of HEVC-DASH systems has been previously evaluated by a few researchers using objective metrics, however subjective evaluation would provide a better measure of the user's Quality of Experience (QoE) and overall performance of the system. This paper presents a subjective evaluation of an HEVC-DASH system implemented in a hardware testbed. Previous studies in this area have focused on using the current H.264/AVC (Advanced Video Coding) or H.264/SVC (Scalable Video Coding) codecs and moreover, there has been no established standard test procedure for the subjective evaluation of DASH adaptive streaming. In this paper, we define a test plan for HEVC-DASH with a carefully justified data set employing longer video sequences that would be sufficient to demonstrate the bitrate switching operations in response to various network condition patterns. We evaluate the end user's real-time QoE online by investigating the perceived impact of delay, different packet loss rates, fluctuating bandwidth, and the perceived quality of using different DASH video stream segment sizes on a video streaming session using different video sequences. The Mean Opinion Score (MOS) results give an insight into the performance of the system and expectation of the users. The results from this study show the impact of different network impairments and different video segments on users' QoE and further analysis and study may help in optimizing system performance.

  1. Hematologic toxicity associated with interferon-based hepatitis C therapy in HIV type 1-coinfected subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behler, Caroline M; Vittinghoff, Eric; Lin, Feng; Chung, Raymond T; Peters, Marion G; Robbins, Gregory K; Volberding, Paul A

    2007-05-15

    This study investigates whether dose modifications for adverse hematologic effects or the use of hematopoietic growth factors influenced the outcome of therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in patients who were coinfected with HCV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and who were participants in a randomized, controlled trial. Subjects were randomized to receive ribavirin plus interferon-alfa-2a (IFN-alfa-2a) or pegylated IFN-alfa-2a for a total of 48 weeks. Doses were modified for a number of adverse effects (including hematologic toxicity), and hematopoietic growth factors were administered at the discretion of the physician. Associations of dose modifications or initiation of hematopoietic growth factor support with treatment outcomes were determined by standard statistical methods. One hundred thirty-three subjects were included in this study. Subjects treated with pegylated IFN-alfa-2a were more likely to have had dose modifications (dose reduction or discontinuation) than were those treated with IFN-alfa-2a. By multivariate analysis, treatment with pegylated IFN-alfa-2a is associated with higher sustained virologic and/or histologic response. Dose modifications for nonhematologic toxicity are independently associated with lower sustained virologic and/or histologic responses. Although hematologic toxicity was not directly associated with clinical outcome in this analysis, use of hematopoietic growth factors was associated with an increased sustained virologic and/or histologic response. Dose modifications for anti-HCV therapy may adversely affect the outcome of treatment of HCV in individuals who are coinfected with HIV. The use of hematopoietic growth factor support may be associated with an improved clinical response to therapy.

  2. LMI-Based Fuzzy Optimal Variance Control of Airfoil Model Subject to Input Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swei, Sean S.M.; Ayoubi, Mohammad A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a study of fuzzy optimal variance control problem for dynamical systems subject to actuator amplitude and rate constraints. Using Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy modeling and dynamic Parallel Distributed Compensation technique, the stability and the constraints can be cast as a multi-objective optimization problem in the form of Linear Matrix Inequalities. By utilizing the formulations and solutions for the input and output variance constraint problems, we develop a fuzzy full-state feedback controller. The stability and performance of the proposed controller is demonstrated through its application to the airfoil flutter suppression.

  3. A GPU based high-resolution multilevel biomechanical head and neck model for validating deformable image registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neylon, J., E-mail: jneylon@mednet.ucla.edu; Qi, X.; Sheng, K.; Low, D. A.; Kupelian, P.; Santhanam, A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, 200 Medical Plaza, #B265, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Staton, R.; Pukala, J.; Manon, R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Orlando, 1440 South Orange Avenue, Orlando, Florida 32808 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: Validating the usage of deformable image registration (DIR) for daily patient positioning is critical for adaptive radiotherapy (RT) applications pertaining to head and neck (HN) radiotherapy. The authors present a methodology for generating biomechanically realistic ground-truth data for validating DIR algorithms for HN anatomy by (a) developing a high-resolution deformable biomechanical HN model from a planning CT, (b) simulating deformations for a range of interfraction posture changes and physiological regression, and (c) generating subsequent CT images representing the deformed anatomy. Methods: The biomechanical model was developed using HN kVCT datasets and the corresponding structure contours. The voxels inside a given 3D contour boundary were clustered using a graphics processing unit (GPU) based algorithm that accounted for inconsistencies and gaps in the boundary to form a volumetric structure. While the bony anatomy was modeled as rigid body, the muscle and soft tissue structures were modeled as mass–spring-damper models with elastic material properties that corresponded to the underlying contoured anatomies. Within a given muscle structure, the voxels were classified using a uniform grid and a normalized mass was assigned to each voxel based on its Hounsfield number. The soft tissue deformation for a given skeletal actuation was performed using an implicit Euler integration with each iteration split into two substeps: one for the muscle structures and the other for the remaining soft tissues. Posture changes were simulated by articulating the skeletal structure and enabling the soft structures to deform accordingly. Physiological changes representing tumor regression were simulated by reducing the target volume and enabling the surrounding soft structures to deform accordingly. Finally, the authors also discuss a new approach to generate kVCT images representing the deformed anatomy that accounts for gaps and antialiasing artifacts that may

  4. A GPU based high-resolution multilevel biomechanical head and neck model for validating deformable image registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neylon, J; Qi, X; Sheng, K; Staton, R; Pukala, J; Manon, R; Low, D A; Kupelian, P; Santhanam, A

    2015-01-01

    Validating the usage of deformable image registration (dir) for daily patient positioning is critical for adaptive radiotherapy (RT) applications pertaining to head and neck (HN) radiotherapy. The authors present a methodology for generating biomechanically realistic ground-truth data for validating dir algorithms for HN anatomy by (a) developing a high-resolution deformable biomechanical HN model from a planning CT, (b) simulating deformations for a range of interfraction posture changes and physiological regression, and (c) generating subsequent CT images representing the deformed anatomy. The biomechanical model was developed using HN kVCT datasets and the corresponding structure contours. The voxels inside a given 3D contour boundary were clustered using a graphics processing unit (GPU) based algorithm that accounted for inconsistencies and gaps in the boundary to form a volumetric structure. While the bony anatomy was modeled as rigid body, the muscle and soft tissue structures were modeled as mass-spring-damper models with elastic material properties that corresponded to the underlying contoured anatomies. Within a given muscle structure, the voxels were classified using a uniform grid and a normalized mass was assigned to each voxel based on its Hounsfield number. The soft tissue deformation for a given skeletal actuation was performed using an implicit Euler integration with each iteration split into two substeps: one for the muscle structures and the other for the remaining soft tissues. Posture changes were simulated by articulating the skeletal structure and enabling the soft structures to deform accordingly. Physiological changes representing tumor regression were simulated by reducing the target volume and enabling the surrounding soft structures to deform accordingly. Finally, the authors also discuss a new approach to generate kVCT images representing the deformed anatomy that accounts for gaps and antialiasing artifacts that may be caused by the

  5. Accelerometer based analysis of gait initiation failure in advanced juvenile parkinsonism: a single subject study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Mitsuaki; Mashimo, Hideaki

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] This study used an accelerometer placed close to the center of gravity to quantitatively investigate whether unexpected gait initiation aggravates start hesitation (freezing of gait in gait initiation). [Subject and Methods] The subject was a 53-year-old female who had been suffering from juvenile parkinsonism since she was aged 21 years. An alternating-treatment design was used to compare acceleration characteristics under two gait initiation conditions, which were 1) deliberate gait initiation and 2) gait initiation on a sudden "go" verbal command (sudden gait initiation), in the "on" state of the medication cycle. [Results] In six out of eight sessions, a combination of reduced peak positive anterior accelerations and large power percentage in the high frequency band was consistently observed in the sudden gait initiation compared with deliberate gait initiation. In the other two sessions, although a large acceleration just after the "go" signal was observed, subsequent acceleration signals were blocked by sudden gait initiation. [Conclusion] The results suggest that, even in the "on" state, start hesitation is apparent without increased reliance on frontal cortical attentional mechanisms to compensate for impaired automaticity. In advanced juvenile parkinsonism, sudden gait initiation may be an effective paradigm as a provoking test for start hesitation.

  6. [Encountering the subject in the health field: a human care theory based on lived experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonarx, Nicolas; Desgroseilliers, Valérie

    2013-09-01

    Dominated by a bio-mechanistic paradigm, Western health systems are suffering from numerous problems. One such problem is the lack of consideration for lived experiences and the complexity and depth of meaning that characterize them. We accordingly emphasize in this text the importance of talking a deep look at the experiences of the cared-for Subject and changing the viewpoint on his or her problems. We defend this viewpoint with the help of a few ideas borrowed from Georges Canguilhem. We then refer to a socio-phenomenological approach inspired by the work of Alfred Schütz which allows us to better grasp people's lived experiences. We thus rehabilitate the Subject by proposing a human care theory that focuses on its' relationship(s) with the body, others, time and space, as well as on self-referent identity labels that give meaning to one's existence. This study is a theoretical reflection on human care that considers professional collaboration and interdisciplinarity, and that does not ignore the concrete practices of stakeholders and professionals.

  7. Theoretical, methodological and methodical bases of structural policy of territorial subjects of the russian federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Sergeevna Antonyuk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the maintenance of the various points of view on a category «the structural policy» is revealed. The sight of authors of the article is reflected: the structural policy is understood as a subsystem of a social and economic policy of the state, called to carry out function managing by development of branches of the economy together with private business, distributions of financial resources between sectors, control over use of the given money resources with a view of, actual for a certain historical stage, by use of administrative, standard and financial tools of regulation. The methodological basis of a structural policy is defined, functions with that end in view reveal, the target system, subjects and objects, and also are specified principles and classification of tools of a structural policy. By sight authors, regional branch shifts which promote progressivechanges of branch structure of a region in directions of formation V and VI technological ways, increase of a diversification of manufacture by stimulation of innovative changes should become a target reference point of a structural policy. The most sensitiveto tactical both technological fluctuations and vulnerablein the economic plan are monospecialized regions. In this connection, the technique of carrying out of a structural policy in monospecialized subjects of the Russian Federation taking into account shifts in branches of their industrial specializations is offered.

  8. GIS-Based Integration of Subjective and Objective Weighting Methods for Regional Landslides Susceptibility Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhua Zhou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of landslide susceptibility maps is of great importance due to rapid urbanization. The purpose of this study is to present a method to integrate the subjective weight with objective weight for regional landslide susceptibility mapping on the geographical information system (GIS platform. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP, which is subjective, was employed to weight predictive factors’ contribution to landslide occurrence. The frequency ratio (FR method, which is objective, was used to derive subclasses’ frequency ratio with respect to landslides that indicate the relative importance of a subclass within each predictive factor. A case study was carried out at Tsushima Island, Japan, using a historical inventory of 534 landslides and seven predictive factors: elevation, slope, aspect, terrain roughness index (TRI, lithology, land cover and mean annual precipitation (MAP. The landslide susceptibility index (LSI was calculated using the weighted linear combination of factors’ weights and subclasses’ weights. The study area was classified into five susceptibility zones according to the LSI. In addition, the produced susceptibility map was compared with maps generated using the conventional FR and AHP method and validated using the relative landslide index (RLI. The validation result showed that the proposed method performed better than the conventional application of the FR method and AHP method. The obtained landslide susceptibility maps could serve as a scientific basis for urban planning and landslide hazard management.

  9. Fibroblastic and myofibroblastic tumors of the head and neck: Comprehensive imaging-based review with pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hourani, Roula, E-mail: rh64@aub.edu.lb [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut (Lebanon); Taslakian, Bedros, E-mail: bt05@aub.edu.lb [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut (Lebanon); Shabb, Nina S., E-mail: ns04@aub.edu.lb [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut (Lebanon); Nassar, Lara, E-mail: ln07@aub.edu.lb [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut (Lebanon); Hourani, Mukbil H., E-mail: mh17@aub.edu.lb [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut (Lebanon); Moukarbel, Roger, E-mail: rm17@aub.edu.lb [Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut (Lebanon); Sabri, Alain, E-mail: as71@aub.edu.lb [Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut (Lebanon); Rizk, Toni, E-mail: tonirisk@hotmail.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Hôtel-Dieu de France, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Almost all fibroblastic tumors are evaluated with non-invasive imaging. • Radiologists should be familiar with the imaging appearance of fibroblastic tumors. • Most appropriate initial examination when fibromatosis coli suspected is ultrasound. • Most common location of ossifying fibromas is the tooth-bearing regions. - Abstract: Fibroblastic and myofibroblastic tumors of the head and neck are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by the proliferation of fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, or both. These tumors may be further subclassified on the basis of their behavior as benign, intermediate with malignant potential, or malignant. There are different types of fibroblastic and myofibroblastic tumors that can involve the head and neck including desmoid-type fibromatosis, solitary fibrous tumor, myofibroma/myofibromatosis, nodular fasciitis, nasopharyngeal angiofibroma, fibrosarcoma, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, fibromatosis coli, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, ossifying fibroma, fibrous histiocytoma, nodular fasciitis, fibromyxoma, hyaline fibromatosis and fibrous hamartoma. Although the imaging characteristics of fibroblastic and myofibroblastic tumors of the head and neck are nonspecific, imaging plays a pivotal role in the noninvasive diagnosis and characterization of these tumors, providing information about the constitution of tumors, their extension and invasion of adjacent structures. Correlation with the clinical history may help limit the differential diagnosis and radiologists should be familiar with the imaging appearance of these tumors to reach an accurate diagnosis.

  10. Effects of team-based learning on perceived teamwork and academic performance in a health assessment subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyung-Ran; Kim, Chun-Ja; Park, Jee-Won; Park, Eunyoung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of team-based learning (a well-recognized learning and teaching strategy), applied in a health assessment subject, on nursing students' perceived teamwork (team-efficacy and team skills) and academic performance (individual and team readiness assurance tests, and examination scores). A prospective, one-group, pre- and post-test design enrolled a convenience sample of 74 second-year nursing students at a university in Suwon, Korea. Team-based learning was applied in a 2-credit health assessment subject over a 16-week semester. All students received written material one week before each class for readiness preparation. After administering individual- and team-readiness assurance tests consecutively, the subject instructor gave immediate feedback and delivered a mini-lecture to the students. Finally, students carried out skill based application exercises. The findings showed significant improvements in the mean scores of students' perceived teamwork after the introduction of team-based learning. In addition, team-efficacy was associated with team-adaptability skills and team-interpersonal skills. Regarding academic performance, team readiness assurance tests were significantly higher than individual readiness assurance tests over time. Individual readiness assurance tests were significantly related with examination scores, while team readiness assurance tests were correlated with team-efficacy and team-interpersonal skills. The application of team-based learning in a health assessment subject can enhance students' perceived teamwork and academic performance. This finding suggests that team-based learning may be an effective learning and teaching strategy for improving team-work of nursing students, who need to collaborate and effectively communicate with health care providers to improve patients' health.

  11. Combined influence of media use on subjective health in elementary school children in Japan: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Harunobu; Ohara, Kumiko; Kouda, Katsuyasu; Fujita, Yuki; Mase, Tomoki; Miyawaki, Chiemi; Okita, Yoshimitsu; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2012-06-13

    In recent years in Japan, electronic games, home computers, and the internet have assumed an important place in people's lives, even for elementary school children. Subjective health complaints have also become a problem among children. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between media use and health status in elementary school children in Japan. A cross-sectional school-based population survey was conducted in 2009 with a sample of fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children (age range: 10-12 years old) in elementary schools in Japan (n = 3,464). Self-reported health, lifestyle habits, and time spent using media were assessed. The use of games, television, and personal computers was significantly associated with lifestyle (p media used for more than 1 hour was, the higher the odds ratio of the association of media use with unhealthy lifestyle and subjective health complaints was. The plural use of these media had stronger associations with unhealthy lifestyle and subjective health complaints. Game, television, and personal-computer use were mutually associated, and the plural use of these media had stronger associations with unhealthy lifestyle and subjective health complaints. Excessive use of media might be a risk for unhealthy lifestyle and subjective health complaints.

  12. The impact factor-based quality assessment of biomedical research institutes in Iran: effect of impact factor normalization by subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei-Ghaleh, Nasrollah; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2007-04-01

    The journal impact factor is increasingly employed to evaluate the quality of scientific research. This is in contrary to its critical limitations, e.g., its marked variation across scientific disciplines. This study was conducted to describe, in both quantitative and qualitative terms, the contribution of Iranian universities and research institutes to biomedical publications in 2004 and to examine the possible effect of impact factor normalization by subject on their rankings. The Iranian biomedical articles were recruited from Thomson Science Citation Index Expanded and PubMed databases according to Thomson Scientific subject categorization of journals. Three subject-normalized impact factors were employed: rank-normalized impact factor, journal to field impact score, and standardized impact factor. Tehran and Shiraz Universities of Medical Sciences and University of Tehran were the top three institutes regarding the sum of impact factor in 2004. On the basis of the mean crude impact factor, Sharif University of Technology, University of Shiraz, and Baqiyatollah University were ranked as the first to third. However, the subject normalization of impact factor made some considerable changes in impact factor-based rankings of research institutes. The Iranian scientific community and science development policy makers are recommended to employ subject-normalized impact factor, rather than crude impact factor, in quality assessment of biomedical research held in various academic and research institutes.

  13. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT scanning of the head is typically ...

  14. Promoting Adaptive Coping Skills and Subjective Well-Being through Credit-Based Leisure Education Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Cindy L.; Evans, Kate E.; Anderson, Denise M.

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study addresses the need for campus-based programming that allows students to practice adaptive coping skills and increase well-being. Eight focus groups and seven individual interviews were conducted with students participating in credit-based leisure education courses to understand self-reported health-related motivations and…

  15. Statistical Reform: Evidence-Based Practice, Meta-Analyses, and Single Subject Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenson, William R.; Clark, Elaine; Kircher, John C.; Kristjansson, Sean D.

    2007-01-01

    Evidence-based practice approaches to interventions has come of age and promises to provide a new standard of excellence for school psychologists. This article describes several definitions of evidence-based practice and the problems associated with traditional statistical analyses that rely on rejection of the null hypothesis for the…

  16. Constructing the Ideal Muslim Sexual Subject: Problematics of School-Based Sex Education in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaie, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    School-based sex education is an underdeveloped and challenging issue to address in Iran. This paper provides insights into the main challenges in developing and implementing school-based sex education in Iran. Through an investigation of one Iranian boys' school that, in contrast to the majority of Iranian educational institutions, has an…

  17. Objective and Subjective Evaluation of Computer-based Tutorial Teaching in Veterinary Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Describes the results of the use of computer-based tutorials to teach the pathology of the cardiovascular system in a veterinary school in the United Kingdom. Concludes that the combined worksheet and computer based learning format is suitable for teaching veterinary pathology. (LRW)

  18. Analysis of stresses on buried pipeline subjected to landslide based on numerical simulation and regression analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Bing; Jing, Hongyuan; Liu, Jianping; Wu, Zhangzhong [PetroChina Pipeline RandD Center, Langfang, Hebei (China); Hao, Jianbin [School of Petroleum Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China)

    2010-07-01

    Landslides have a serious impact on the integrity of oil and gas pipelines in the tough terrain of Western China. This paper introduces a solving method of axial stress, which uses numerical simulation and regression analysis for the pipelines subjected to landslides. Numerical simulation is performed to analyze the change regularity of pipe stresses for the five vulnerability assessment indexes, which are: the distance between pipeline and landslide tail; the thickness of landslide; the inclination angle of landslide; the pipeline length passing through landslide; and the buried depth of pipeline. A pipeline passing through a certain landslide in southwest China was selected as an example to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of this method. This method has practical applicability, but it would need large numbers of examples to better verify its reliability and should be modified accordingly. Also, it only considers the case where the direction of the pipeline is perpendicular to the primary slip direction of the landslide.

  19. Determination of optimal number of beams in direct machine parameter optimization-based intensity modulated radiotherapy for head and neck cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Vaitheeswaran; Maria Das, K J

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to introduce an algorithm called "sensitivity-based beam number selection (SBBNS)" for fully automated and case-specific determination of an optimal number of equispaced beams in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). We tested the algorithm in five head and neck cases of varying complexity. We used direct machine parameter optimization method coupled with Auto Plan feature available in Pinnacle TPS (Version 9.10.0) for optimization. The Pearson correlation test shows a correlation of 0.88 between predicted and actual optimal number of beams, which indicates that SBBNS method is capable of predicting optimal number of beams for head and neck cases with reasonable accuracy. The major advantage of the algorithm is that it intrinsically takes into account various case- and machine-specific factors for the determination of optimal number. The study demonstrates that the algorithm can be effectively applied to IMRT scenarios to determine case specific and optimal number of beams for head and neck cases.

  20. Identification of Patient Benefit From Proton Therapy for Advanced Head and Neck Cancer Patients Based on Individual and Subgroup Normal Tissue Complication Probability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakobi, Annika, E-mail: Annika.Jakobi@OncoRay.de [OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Bandurska-Luque, Anna [OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Stützer, Kristin; Haase, Robert; Löck, Steffen [OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Wack, Linda-Jacqueline [Section for Biomedical Physics, University Hospital for Radiation Oncology, Eberhard Karls Universät Tübingen (Germany); Mönnich, David [Section for Biomedical Physics, University Hospital for Radiation Oncology, Eberhard Karls Universät Tübingen (Germany); German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Consortium, Tübingen (Germany); Thorwarth, Daniela [Section for Biomedical Physics, University Hospital for Radiation Oncology, Eberhard Karls Universät Tübingen (Germany); and others

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine, by treatment plan comparison along with normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) modeling, whether a subpopulation of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) could be identified that would gain substantial benefit from proton therapy in terms of NTCP. Methods and Materials: For 45 HNSCC patients, intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) was compared to intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT). Physical dose distributions were evaluated as well as the resulting NTCP values, using modern models for acute mucositis, xerostomia, aspiration, dysphagia, laryngeal edema, and trismus. Patient subgroups were defined based on primary tumor location. Results: Generally, IMPT reduced the NTCP values while keeping similar target coverage for all patients. Subgroup analyses revealed a higher individual reduction of swallowing-related side effects by IMPT for patients with tumors in the upper head and neck area, whereas the risk reduction of acute mucositis was more pronounced in patients with tumors in the larynx region. More patients with tumors in the upper head and neck area had a reduction in NTCP of more than 10%. Conclusions: Subgrouping can help to identify patients who may benefit more than others from the use of IMPT and, thus, can be a useful tool for a preselection of patients in the clinic where there are limited PT resources. Because the individual benefit differs within a subgroup, the relative merits should additionally be evaluated by individual treatment plan comparisons.

  1. Single-subject independent component analysis-based intensity normalization in non-quantitative multi-modal structural MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazoglou, Sebastian; Würfel, Jens; Paul, Friedemann; Brandt, Alexander U; Scheel, Michael

    2017-04-22

    Non-quantitative MRI is prone to intersubject intensity variation rendering signal intensity level based analyses limited. Here, we propose a method that fuses non-quantitative routine T1-weighted (T1w), T2w, and T2w fluid-saturated inversion recovery sequences using independent component analysis and validate it on age and sex matched healthy controls. The proposed method leads to consistent and independent components with a significantly reduced coefficient-of-variation across subjects, suggesting potential to serve as automatic intensity normalization and thus to enhance the power of intensity based statistical analyses. To exemplify this, we show that voxelwise statistical testing on single-subject independent components reveals in particular a widespread sex difference in white matter, which was previously shown using, for example, diffusion tensor imaging but unobservable in the native MRI contrasts. In conclusion, our study shows that single-subject independent component analysis can be applied to routine sequences, thereby enhancing comparability in-between subjects. Unlike quantitative MRI, which requires specific sequences during acquisition, our method is applicable to existing MRI data. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Obese subjects involvement in a population-based survey: the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) to avoid stigmatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pétré, Benoit; Donneau, Anne-Françoise; Crutze, Céline; Husson, Eddy; Scheen, André; Guillaume, Michèle

    2015-05-01

    Epidemiological and health promotion studies in obese subjects are hampered by the difficulty of obtaining a representative sample from the community. The enrollment process can be at high risk of stigmatization. The purpose of this study is to describe an original information and communication technologies (ICT) strategy to get around these ethical and methodological difficulties. A multimedia campaign of communication was organized on the topic of overweight and quality of life (QoL). A specific website was developed to collect via a questionnaire QoL data as well as information related to patient's needs and health perception from participants. To promote the website, multiple information supports were largely diffused. Primary care professionals were solicited to enhance the enrollment. The campaign started with a press conference covered by the main television channels. The ICT-based approach allowed the participation of 4,155 subjects homogeneously distributed with respect to body mass index, age, gender and socioeconomic level. A high percentage of subjects fully completed the web-based questionnaire. The press conference allowed reaching a quarter of the total sample within 5 days. Overweight remains a major public health problem. This survey showed that a holistic approach supported by ICT is a promising way to recruit obese subjects without stigmatizing the disorder.

  3. Physical activity, heart rate variability-based stress and recovery, and subjective stress during a 9-month study period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föhr, T; Tolvanen, A; Myllymäki, T; Järvelä-Reijonen, E; Peuhkuri, K; Rantala, S; Kolehmainen, M; Korpela, R; Lappalainen, R; Ermes, M; Puttonen, S; Rusko, H; Kujala, U M

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity (PA) and objective heart rate variability (HRV)-based stress and recovery with subjective stress in a longitudinal setting. Working-age participants (n = 221; 185 women, 36 men) were overweight (body mass index, 25.3-40.1 kg/m(2) ) and psychologically distressed (≥3/12 points on the General Health Questionnaire). Objective stress and recovery were based on HRV recordings over 1-3 work days. Subjective stress was assessed with the Perceived Stress Scale and PA level with a questionnaire. Data were collected at three time points: baseline, 10 weeks post intervention, and at the 36-week follow-up. We adopted a latent growth model to investigate the initial level and change in PA, objective stress and recovery, and subjective stress at the three measurement time points. The results showed that initial levels of PA (P stress (P = 0.001) and recovery (P stress. The results persisted after adjustment for intervention group. The present results suggest that high PA and objectively assessed low stress and good recovery have positive effects on changes in subjective stress in the long-term. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. An electrocorticographic BCI using code-based VEP for control in video applications: a single-subject study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapeller, Christoph; Kamada, Kyousuke; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Prueckl, Robert; Scharinger, Josef; Guger, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    A brain-computer-interface (BCI) allows the user to control a device or software with brain activity. Many BCIs rely on visual stimuli with constant stimulation cycles that elicit steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP) in the electroencephalogram (EEG). This EEG response can be generated with a LED or a computer screen flashing at a constant frequency, and similar EEG activity can be elicited with pseudo-random stimulation sequences on a screen (code-based BCI). Using electrocorticography (ECoG) instead of EEG promises higher spatial and temporal resolution and leads to more dominant evoked potentials due to visual stimulation. This work is focused on BCIs based on visual evoked potentials (VEP) and its capability as a continuous control interface for augmentation of video applications. One 35 year old female subject with implanted subdural grids participated in the study. The task was to select one out of four visual targets, while each was flickering with a code sequence. After a calibration run including 200 code sequences, a linear classifier was used during an evaluation run to identify the selected visual target based on the generated code-based VEPs over 20 trials. Multiple ECoG buffer lengths were tested and the subject reached a mean online classification accuracy of 99.21% for a window length of 3.15 s. Finally, the subject performed an unsupervised free run in combination with visual feedback of the current selection. Additionally, an algorithm was implemented that allowed to suppress false positive selections and this allowed the subject to start and stop the BCI at any time. The code-based BCI system attained very high online accuracy, which makes this approach very promising for control applications where a continuous control signal is needed.

  5. A feasibility study of NIR fluorescent image-guided surgery in head and neck cancer based on the assessment of optimum surgical time as revealed through dynamic imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoyama J

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Junkichi Yokoyama,* Mitsuhisa Fujimaki,* Shinichi Ohba, Takashi Anzai, Ryota Yoshii, Shin Ito, Masataka Kojima, Katsuhisa IkedaDepartment of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan *These authors contributed equally to this study Background: In order to minimize surgical stress and preserve organs, endoscopic or robotic surgery is often performed when conducting head and neck surgery. However, it is impossible to physically touch tumors or to observe diffusely invaded deep organs through the procedure of endoscopic or robotic surgery. In order to visualize and safely resect tumors even in these cases, we propose using an indocyanine green (ICG fluorescence method for navigation surgery in head and neck cancer. Objective: To determine the optimum surgical time for tumor resection after the administration of ICG based on the investigation of dynamic ICG fluorescence imaging. Methods: Nine patients underwent dynamic ICG fluorescence imaging for 360 minutes, assessing tumor visibility at 10, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 360 minutes. All cases were scored according to near-infrared (NIR fluorescence imaging visibility scored from 0 to 5. Results: Dynamic NIR fluorescence imaging under the HyperEye Medical System indicated that the greatest contrast in fluorescent images between tumor and normal tissue could be observed from 30 minutes to 1 hour after the administration of ICG. The optimum surgical time was determined to be between 30 minutes to 2 hours after ICG injection. These findings are particularly useful for detection and safe resection of tumors invading the parapharyngeal space. Conclusion: ICG fluorescence imaging is effective for the detection of head and neck cancer. Preliminary findings suggest that the optimum timing for surgery is from 30 minutes to 2 hours after the ICG injection. Keywords: indocyanine green (ICG, navigation surgery, robotic surgery, endoscopic surgery, minimally invasive

  6. Repeated head CT in the neurosurgical intensive care unit: feasibility of sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction-based ultra-low-dose CT for surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcuera-Solano, I; Doshi, A H; Noor, A; Tanenbaum, L N

    2014-07-01

    Patients in the neurosurgical intensive care unit undergo multiple head CT scans, resulting in high cumulative radiation exposures. Our aim was to assess the acceptability of a dedicated, special-purpose sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction-based ultra-low-dose CT protocol for neurosurgical intensive care unit surveillance head CT examinations, comparing image quality with studies performed with our standard-of-care sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction low-dose CT and legacy filtered back-projection standard-dose CT protocols. A retrospective analysis was performed of 54 head CT examinations: ultra-low-dose CT (n = 22), low-dose CT (n = 12), and standard-dose CT (n = 20) in 22 patients in the neurosurgical intensive care unit. Standard-dose CT was reconstructed by using filtered back-projection on a Somatom Sensation 64 scanner. Ultra-low-dose CT and ultra-low-dose CT examinations were performed on a Siemens AS+128 scanner with commercially available sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction. Qualitative and quantitative parameters, including image quality and dose, were evaluated. Sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction ultra-low-dose CT represented a 68% lower dose index volume compared with filtered back-projection standard-dose CT techniques in the same patients while maintaining similar quality and SNR levels. Sinogram-affirmed iterative reconstruction low-dose CT offered higher image quality than filtered back-projection standard-dose CT (P CT, ultra-low-dose CT had significantly lower SNR (P = .001) but demonstrated clinically satisfactory measures of image quality. In this cohort of patients in the neurosurgical intensive care unit, dedicated ultra-low-dose CT for surveillance head CT imaging led to a significant dose reduction while maintaining adequate image quality. © 2014 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  7. Head circumference in Iranian infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeili

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Head circumference (HC measurement is one of the important parameter for diagnosis of neurological, developmental disorders and dysmorphic syndromes. Recognition of different disorders requires an understanding of normal variation for HC size, in particular, in infancy period with most rapid growth of the brain. Because of international and interracial standard chart differences about anthropometric indices, some differences from local to local, generation to generation and changes in ethnic mix of population and socioeconomic factors, periodic revolution of HC size is suggested. The aims of our study were presenting local HC standard for an Iranian infant population and comparison with the American national center of health statistics (NCHS charts accepted by WHO. Methods: 1003 subjects aged from birth to 24 months apparently healthy normal children enrolled randomly in this cross sectional study. HC size were measured and recorded. Tables and graphs were depicted by Excel Microsoft Office 2007. We use two tailed t-student test for statistical analysis. Results: The mean of HC size in boys was larger than girls. The curves were followed a similar pattern to NCHS based on a visual comparison. Overall our subjects in both sexes at birth time had smaller HC size than NCHS. In other ages our children had larger HC size than those of NCHS. Conclusion: Because of international and interracial difference of HC size. We recommend in each area of the world, local anthropometric indices are constructed and used clinically. In addition more extensive and longitudinally design comprehensive studies is suggested.

  8. Amplitudes of head movements during putative eye-only saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oommen, Brian S; Stahl, John S

    2005-12-14

    The mechanisms allowing humans and other primates to dissociate head and eye movements during saccades are poorly understood. A more precise knowledge of head movement behavior during apparent eye-only saccades may provide insight into those mechanisms. We studied the distributions of head amplitude in normal humans. In half of the subjects, these distributions indicated the presence of a population of minor ("residual") head movements during eye-only saccades, distinct from the continuum of head movements generated during frank eye-head saccades. Like full-sized head movements, the residual movements grew in proportion to target eccentricity, indicating their drive is derived from the premotor command for the saccade. Furthermore, their amplitudes related most strongly to the head amplitudes obtained when subjects produced full-sized head movements and were reduced when subjects were instructed to perform exclusively eye-only saccades. Both observations suggest that the drive for residual head movements originates downstream of the point in which the head movement command diverges from the generalized gaze shift command. The results are consistent with a model of head control in which a neural gate prevents the common gaze shift command from reaching the head premotor circuitry whenever an eye-only saccade is desired. However, the gate is either imperfect or the multiple pathways that relay gaze shift signals to the head motor circuitry allow for the gate to be circumvented. The results underscore the need for physiological studies to probe neuronal activity related to neck activation during eye-only saccades.

  9. Multivariable normal tissue complication probability model-based treatment plan optimization for grade 2-4 dysphagia and tube feeding dependence in head and neck radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkels, Roel G J; Wopken, Kim; Visser, Ruurd; Korevaar, Erik W; van der Schaaf, Arjen; Bijl, Hendrik P; Langendijk, Johannes A

    2016-12-01

    Radiotherapy of the head and neck is challenged by the relatively large number of organs-at-risk close to the tumor. Biologically-oriented objective functions (OF) could optimally distribute the dose among the organs-at-risk. We aimed to explore OFs based on multivariable normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models for grade 2-4 dysphagia (DYS) and tube feeding dependence (TFD). One hundred head and neck cancer patients were studied. Additional to the clinical plan, two more plans (an OFDYS and OFTFD-plan) were optimized per patient. The NTCP models included up to four dose-volume parameters and other non-dosimetric factors. A fully automatic plan optimization framework was used to optimize the OFNTCP-based plans. All OFNTCP-based plans were reviewed and classified as clinically acceptable. On average, the Δdose and ΔNTCP were small comparing the OFDYS-plan, OFTFD-plan, and clinical plan. For 5% of patients NTCPTFD reduced >5% using OFTFD-based planning compared to the OFDYS-plans. Plan optimization using NTCPDYS- and NTCPTFD-based objective functions resulted in clinically acceptable plans. For patients with considerable risk factors of TFD, the OFTFD steered the optimizer to dose distributions which directly led to slightly lower predicted NTCPTFD values as compared to the other studied plans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Pseudocereal-Based Breakfast Meals on the First and Second Meal Glucose Tolerance in Healthy and Diabetic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrial, Shreef G N; Shakib, Marie-Christine R; Gabrial, Gamal N

    2016-12-15

    Many studies have indicated that the incidence of serious diabetic complications may be reduced through strict glycemic control. A low glycemic index diet is one tool to improve insulin resistance and improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The objective was to study the effect of pseudocereals-based breakfasts (quinoa and buckwheat) on glucose variations at first meal (breakfast) and second meal (standardised lunch) in healthy and diabetic subjects. Twelve healthy subjects and 12 patients with Type 2 DM (not- insulin dependent) were recruited in the study. Subjects were provided with quinoa and buckwheat breakfast meals. A standardised lunch was provided 4 h after breakfast. Postprandial blood glucose response after breakfast and the second meal effect was measured in healthy and diabetic subjects. Incremental area under the curve (IAUC) values for glucose was measured in response to the breakfast and lunch. The glycemic index of the 2 pseudocereals-based test breakfasts was determined. A white wheat bread (WWB) was served as a reference breakfast meal. In post-breakfast analyses, healthy subjects showed that buckwheat meal had significantly lower IAUC values for blood glucose compared to WWB reference meal (P concentrations started to decline gradually for the quinoa and buckwheat but not for WWB in all healthy and diabetic subjects and returned to near-fasting baseline levels by 210 min. Post-lunch analyses indicated higher IAUC for the two breakfast types in healthy and diabetic subjects. In addition, the quinoa and buckwheat breakfast meals were followed by a significantly flatter blood glucose response to the second meal for the period between 270 and 330 min. At the end of the second meal period, values were below or near-fasting baseline levels in the breakfast period. The blood glucose concentration after consuming quinoa meal showed a high peak at 30 min similar to that of WWB reference meal. This peak resulted in a high glycemic

  11. RADIATION PERFORMANCE OF GAN AND INAS/GAAS QUANTUM DOT BASED DEVICES SUBJECTED TO NEUTRON RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiyauddin Ahmad Fauzi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In addition to their useful optoelectronics functions, gallium nitride (GaN and quantum dots (QDs based structures are also known for their radiation hardness properties. With demands on such semiconductor material structures, it is important to investigate the differences in reliability and radiation hardness properties of these two devices. For this purpose, three sets of GaN light-emitting diode (LED and InAs/GaAs dot-in-a well (DWELL samples were irradiated with thermal neutron of fluence ranging from 3×1013 to 6×1014 neutron/cm2 in PUSPATI TRIGA research reactor. The radiation performances for each device were evaluated based on the current-voltage (I-V and capacitance-voltage (C-V electrical characterisation method. Results suggested that the GaN based sample is less susceptible to electrical changes due to the thermal neutron radiation effects compared to the QD based sample.

  12. Head Impact Laboratory (HIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The HIL uses testing devices to evaluate vehicle interior energy attenuating (EA) technologies for mitigating head injuries resulting from head impacts during mine/...

  13. Controls on valley spacing in landscapes subject to rapid base-level fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Luke; Pelletier, John D.

    2015-01-01

    What controls the architecture of drainage networks is a fundamental question in geomorphology. Recent work has elucidated the mechanisms of drainage network development in steadily uplifting landscapes, but the controls on drainage-network morphology in transient landscapes are relatively unknown. In this paper we exploit natural experiments in drainage network development in incised Plio-Quaternary alluvial fan surfaces in order to understand and quantify drainage network development in highly transient landscapes, i.e. initially unincised low-relief surfaces that experience a pulse of rapid base-level drop followed by relative base-level stasis. Parallel drainage networks formed on incised alluvial-fan surfaces tend to have a drainage spacing that is approximately proportional to the magnitude of the base-level drop. Numerical experiments suggest that this observed relationship between the magnitude of base-level drop and mean drainage spacing is the result of feedbacks among the depth of valley incision, mass wasting and nonlinear increases in the rate of colluvial sediment transport with slope gradient on steep valley side slopes that lead to increasingly wide valleys in cases of larger base-level drop. We identify a threshold magnitude of base-level drop above which side slopes lengthen sufficiently to promote increases in contributing area and fluvial incision rates that lead to branching and encourage drainage networks to transition from systems of first-order valleys to systems of higher-order, branching valleys. The headward growth of these branching tributaries prevents the development of adjacent, ephemeral drainages and promotes a higher mean valley spacing relative to cases in which tributaries do not form. Model results offer additional insights into the response of initially unincised landscapes to rapid base-level drop and provide a preliminary basis for understanding how varying amounts of base-level change influence valley network morphology.

  14. Demographic Profile and Pathological Patterns of Head Injury in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Sabri Hoxha; Bardhyl Çipi; Flamur Hoxha; Brunela Kullolli; Brela Xhaferaj; Alkerta Ibranji; Ervin Çerçiz Mingomataj

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Head injury (HI) is a serious morbid state caused by structural changes of the scalp, skull, and/or its contents, due to mechanical forces. Generally, the most frequent cause of HI is road traffic accident (RTA), followed by homicidal and falling injuries. The aim of present study is to assess epidemiology data, causes and patterns responsible for HI among Albanian subjects. Methodology: All HI cases (1000) are collected by the Forensic Institute of Albania, based on medical and...

  15. Stability Evaluation of Volcanic Slope Subjected to Rainfall and Freeze-Thaw Action Based on Field Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Kawamura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall-induced failures of natural and artificial slopes such as cut slopes, which are subjected to freezing and thawing, have been frequently reported in Hokkaido, Japan. In particular, many failures occur intensively from spring to summer seasons. Despite numerous field studies, explanation of their mechanical behavior based on in situ data has not yet been completely achieved due to the difficulty in grasping failure conditions. This study aims at clarifying the aspects of in-situ volcanic slopes subjected to rainfall and freeze-thaw action. The changes in soil moisture, pore pressure, deformations, and temperatures in the slope were investigated using soil moisture meters, tensiometers, thermocouple sensors, clinometers, settlement gauges, an anemovane, a snow gauge, and a rainfall gauge. The data generated from these measures indicated deformation in the slope examined mainly proceeded during the drainage process according to changes in soil moisture. Based on this data, a prediction method for failures is discussed in detail.

  16. DEVELOPING OF ELECTRONIC TEACHING MATERIAL BASED ON MOBILE LEARNING IN THE WAVE SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Rif’ati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the advanced and modern era, technological sophistication led to learning which initially runs, in which teachers and students meet each other and communicate in the classroom, can be implemented through of information technology. Along with the development of information, where books and teachers who initially as a primary source of learning, are now beginning to experience growth from the internet. Mobile learning defined as mobile devices that are used in the learning process. The wave course is one of subject that must be taken by students of physics education in the third semester. This course emphasizes the concepts of wave were reviewed mathematically and the phenomenon that occurs in everyday life. Mobile learning developed in this study in the form of electronic teaching materials on subjects of waves. The aim of this study was to develop electronic teaching material in the form of mobile learning. The sample of this study is 80 students in the third semester students who are taking waves courses. The results show that mobile learning that has been developed has score 3.8 and included valid criteria. Pada era yang serba maju dan modern, kecanggihan teknologi menyebabkan pembelajaran yang awalnya berjalan satu arah, dimana guru dan siswa saling bertemu dan berkomunikasi di dalam kelas, dapat dilaksanakan melalui bantuan teknologi.informasi. Seiring dengan perkembangan informasi, buku dan guru yang awalnya sebagai sumber belajar utama, saat ini sudah mulai mengalami perkembangan dimana sumber belajar yang berasal dari internet sudah mulai sering dimanfaatkan dalam proses pembelajaran. Mobile larning didefinisikan sebagai perangkat mobile yang dipergunakan dalam proses belajar mengajar. Mata kuliah gelombang sendiri merupakan salah satu mata kuliah yang wajib ditempuh oleh mahasiswa program studi pendidikan fisika semester 3. Mata kuliah ini menekankan pada konsep gelombang yang ditinjau secara matematis dan fenomenanya yang terjadi

  17. The Subject and the Setting: Re-Imagining Opportunities for Primary Teachers' Subject Knowledge Development on School-Based Teacher Education Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Rupert

    2017-01-01

    The landscape of teacher education is undergoing significant change in many countries and this is often associated with a move towards greater school involvement in the preparation of teachers. One aspect of teaching expertise that is particularly challenging for primary student-teachers is the development of subject knowledge across a wide range…

  18. Robustness Evaluation of Elastoplastic Base-Isolated High-Rise Buildings Subjected to Critical Double Impulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Fujita

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A new method of robustness evaluation is proposed for an elastoplastic base-isolated high-rise building considering simultaneous uncertainties of structural parameters. Since it is difficult to evaluate the robustness of elastoplastic structures due to heavy computational load on the time-history response analysis including elastoplastic response, a double impulse input is used to provide a closed-form solution of the critical response of a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF elastic–perfectly plastic structure under a near-field ground motion. Introducing an equivalent elastoplastic SDOF model of a base-isolated high-rise building, the worst combination of uncertain structural parameters, i.e., the stiffness and yield deformation at the base-isolation story and the stiffness of the superstructure, can be derived which leads to the upper bound of the critical elastoplastic response. It is shown that, by using the derived upper bound of the critical response, the robustness function, a measure of the robustness, of elastoplastic structures can be evaluated efficiently. In numerical examples, the robustness of a 30-story base-isolated high-rise building is compared with those of other models with different yield deformations at the base-isolation story to find a preferable design with larger robustness.

  19. Mortality in diabetic subjects: an eleven-year follow-up of a community-based population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, D P; Gatling, W; Houston, A C; Mullee, M A; Julious, S A; Hill, R D

    1994-12-01

    In 1979, all the known diabetic subjects (849) were identified from a community (population 81851), of whom 717 (85%) were reviewed by a single observer. Using the NHS Central Register, follow-up was completed for 98% of subjects. After 11 years, 306 (42.7%) diabetic subjects had died, of whom 65 were insulin treated and 241 were non-insulin treated. Circulatory disease accounted for 168 (54.9%) deaths, of which 124 (73.8%) were due to ischaemic heart disease. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for all causes of death, based on data from England and Wales, was significantly raised for both insulin-treated and non-insulin-treated patients (1.75, 95% CI 1.35 to 2.24 and 1.32, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.50, respectively). SMRs for all cause mortality were significantly greater for diabetic subjects in the 45-64 (SMR, 1.97, 95% CI 1.34 to 2.80), 65-74 (SMR 1.59, 95% CI 1.27 to 1.97 and 75 years and over (SMR 1.26, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.45) age ranges. Using a proportional hazards model, after adjusting for age and gender, systolic blood pressure and vibration threshold were significant predictors of all cause mortality in insulin-treated subjects. For non-insulin-treated subjects, blood glucose, systolic blood pressure, glycated haemoglobin, retinopathy, proteinuria, coronary artery disease, and stroke were significant baseline predictors of mortality. No association was found for serum cholesterol, body mass index, diastolic pressure or cigarette smoking in either treatment group.

  20. An evaluation of the hemiplegic subject based on the Bobath approach. Part III. A validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, A B; Dutil, E; Lambert, J; Corriveau, H; Guarna, F; Drouin, G

    1988-01-01

    Sixty-two hemiplegic subjects were treated with the Bobath approach for a period of three months. During this time they were evaluated on three occasions. The testing battery consisted of a Bobath evaluation, the Brunnstrom scale, the Fugl-Meyer test, the Upper Extremity Functional Test (UEFT) and the Present Pain Intensity (PPI) of the McGill pain questionnaire. A Friedman analysis of variance showed that, except for pain, all the protocols used disclosed significant progress (p less than 0.001) over time in terms of motor recovery. Except for pain, the results of the Bobath evaluation were significantly correlated (Spearman's Rho, p less than 0.001) with the results of the other testing procedures. It is concluded that the new Bobath evaluation proposed in a previous paper is as sensitive in depicting progress in motor recovery over time as are the other testing procedures used. Furthermore, this new evaluation seems to be measuring similar properties to the other tests. However, pain (PPI) appears not to be an important dependent variable.

  1. Model-based minimization algorithm of a supercritical helium loop consumption subject to operational constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonne, F.; Bonnay, P.; Girard, A.; Hoa, C.; Lacroix, B.; Le Coz, Q.; Nicollet, S.; Poncet, J.-M.; Zani, L.

    2017-12-01

    Supercritical helium loops at 4.2 K are the baseline cooling strategy of tokamaks superconducting magnets (JT-60SA, ITER, DEMO, etc.). This loops work with cryogenic circulators that force a supercritical helium flow through the superconducting magnets in order that the temperature stay below the working range all along their length. This paper shows that a supercritical helium loop associated with a saturated liquid helium bath can satisfy temperature constraints in different ways (playing on bath temperature and on the supercritical flow), but that only one is optimal from an energy point of view (every Watt consumed at 4.2 K consumes at least 220 W of electrical power). To find the optimal operational conditions, an algorithm capable of minimizing an objective function (energy consumption at 5 bar, 5 K) subject to constraints has been written. This algorithm works with a supercritical loop model realized with the Simcryogenics [2] library. This article describes the model used and the results of constrained optimization. It will be possible to see that the changes in operating point on the temperature of the magnet (e.g. in case of a change in the plasma configuration) involves large changes on the cryodistribution optimal operating point. Recommendations will be made to ensure that the energetic consumption is kept as low as possible despite the changing operating point. This work is partially supported by EUROfusion Consortium through the Euratom Research and Training Program 20142018 under Grant 633053.

  2. Model-based respiratory mechanics to titrate PEEP and monitor disease state for experimental ARDS subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drunen, Erwin J; Chiew, Yeong Shiong; Chase, J Geoffrey; Lambermont, Bernard; Janssen, Nathalie; Desaive, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Modelling the respiratory mechanics of mechanically ventilated (MV) patients can provide useful information to guide MV therapy. Two model-based methods were evaluated based on data from three experimental acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) induced piglets and validated against values available from ventilators. A single compartment lung model with integral-based parameter identification was found to be effective in capturing fundamental respiratory mechanics during inspiration. The trends matched clinical expectation and provided better resolution than clinically derived linear model metrics. An expiration time constant model also captured the same trend in respiratory elastance. However, the assumption of constant resistance and a slightly higher fitting error results in less insight than the single compartment model. Further research is required to confirm its application in titrating to optimal MV settings.

  3. Individualized Gaussian process-based prediction and detection of local and global gray matter abnormalities in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, G; Ridgway, G R; Dahnke, R; Gaser, C

    2014-08-15

    Structural imaging based on MRI is an integral component of the clinical assessment of patients with potential dementia. We here propose an individualized Gaussian process-based inference scheme for clinical decision support in healthy and pathological aging elderly subjects using MRI. The approach aims at quantitative and transparent support for clinicians who aim to detect structural abnormalities in patients at risk of Alzheimer's disease or other types of dementia. Firstly, we introduce a generative model incorporating our knowledge about normative decline of local and global gray matter volume across the brain in elderly. By supposing smooth structural trajectories the models account for the general course of age-related structural decline as well as late-life accelerated loss. Considering healthy subjects' demography and global brain parameters as informative about normal brain aging variability affords individualized predictions in single cases. Using Gaussian process models as a normative reference, we predict new subjects' brain scans and quantify the local gray matter abnormalities in terms of Normative Probability Maps (NPM) and global z-scores. By integrating the observed expectation error and the predictive uncertainty, the local maps and global scores exploit the advantages of Bayesian inference for clinical decisions and provide a valuable extension of diagnostic information about pathological aging. We validate the approach in simulated data and real MRI data. We train the GP framework using 1238 healthy subjects with ages 18-94 years, and predict in 415 independent test subjects diagnosed as healthy controls, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Numerical simulations of gun-launched kinetic energy projectiles subjected to asymmetric projectile base pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabern, D.A.

    1991-12-31

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations were performed to determine the effect of an asymmetric base pressure on kinetic energy projectiles during launch. A matrix of simulations was performed in two separate launch environments. One launch environment represented a severe lateral load environment, while the other represented a nonsevere lateral load environment based on the gun tube straightness. The orientation of the asymmetric pressure field, its duration, the projectile`s initial position, and the tube straightness were altered to determine the effects of each parameter. The pressure asymmetry translates down the launch tube to exit parameters and is washed out by tube profile. Results from the matrix of simulations are presented.

  5. Numerical simulations of gun-launched kinetic energy projectiles subjected to asymmetric projectile base pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabern, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations were performed to determine the effect of an asymmetric base pressure on kinetic energy projectiles during launch. A matrix of simulations was performed in two separate launch environments. One launch environment represented a severe lateral load environment, while the other represented a nonsevere lateral load environment based on the gun tube straightness. The orientation of the asymmetric pressure field, its duration, the projectile's initial position, and the tube straightness were altered to determine the effects of each parameter. The pressure asymmetry translates down the launch tube to exit parameters and is washed out by tube profile. Results from the matrix of simulations are presented.

  6. Soya oil-based shampoo superior to 0.5% permethrin lotion for head louse infestation [Corrigendum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgess IF

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Burgess IF, Kay K, Burgess NA, Brunton ER. Med Devices (Auckl. 2011;4:35-42 In March 2011 we published a report of a clinical study investigating the efficacy of a shampoo for the treatment of head louse infestation.1 The report states that the shampoo used contained, as an active component, 1% soya oil. However, it has now come to light that this product may have a considerably different formulation, and possibly contained no soya oil at all. Read the original article

  7. Re-irradiation with cetuximab or cisplatin-based chemotherapy for recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornoff, Nicolas; Weiss, Christian; Roedel, Franz [J. W. Goethe University, Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Frankfurt a. M. (Germany); Wagenblast, Jens [J. W. Goethe University, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Frankfurt a. M. (Germany); Ghanaati, Shahram [J. W. Goethe University, Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Frankfurt a. M. (Germany); Atefeh, Nateghian; Roedel, Claus; Balermpas, Panagiotis [J. W. Goethe University, Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Frankfurt a. M. (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Consortium (DKTK) partner site: Frankfurt, Frankfurt a. M. (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Locoregional recurrence remains the main pattern of failure after primary combined modality treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). We compared the efficacy and toxicity of either cisplatin or cetuximab in combination with re-irradiation (ReRT) for recurrent unresectable SCCHN. Various clinicopathological factors were investigated to establish a prognostic score. Between 2007 and 2014, 66 patients with recurrent SCCHN originating in a previously irradiated area received cetuximab (n = 33) or cisplatin-based chemotherapy (n = 33) concomitant with ReRT. Toxicity was evaluated weekly and at every follow-up visit. Physical examination, endoscopy, CT or MRI scans were used to evaluate response and disease control. With a mean follow-up of 18.3 months, the 1-year overall survival (OS) rates for Re-RT with cetuximab and cisplatin-based chemotherapy were 44.4 and 45.5 % (p = 0.352), respectively. At 1 year, local control rates (LCR) were 46.4 and 54.2 % (p = 0.625), freedom from metastases (FFM) rates 73.6 and 81 % (p = 0.842), respectively. Haematological toxicity ≥ grade 3 occurred more often in the cisplatin group (p < 0.001), pain ≥ grade 3 was increased in the cetuximab group (p = 0.034). A physiological haemoglobin level and a longer interval between primary RT and ReRT, proved to be significant prognostic factors for OS (multivariate: p = 0.003, p = 0.002, respectively). Site of the recurrence and gross target volume (GTV) did not show a significant impact on OS in multivariate analysis (p = 0.160, p = 0.167, respectively). A prognostic-score (1-4 points) based on these four variables identified significantly different subgroups: 1-year OS for 0/1/2/3/4 prognostic points: 10, 38, 76, 80 and 100 %, respectively (p < 0.001). Both cetuximab- and cisplatin-based ReRT of SCCHN recurrences are feasible and effective treatment options with comparable results in terms of tumour control and survival. Acute adverse events may differ slightly

  8. Functional Data Analysis of Spaceflight-Induced Changes in Coordination and Phase in Head Pitch Acceleration During Treadmill Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher; Peters, Brian; Feiveson, Alan; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Astronauts returning from spaceflight experience neurovestibular disturbances during head movements and attempt to mitigate them by limiting head motion. Analyses to date of the head movements made during walking have concentrated on amplitude and varia