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Sample records for subject headinggs gamma

  1. EEG gamma coherence and other correlates of subjective reports during ayahuasca experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, David E; Lawson, Robert; Luna, Luis Eduardo

    2005-06-01

    The current study examined QEEG power and coherence of ayahuasca experiences with two experienced participants in a Brazilian jungle setting. An exploratory case series design was adopted for naturalistic field research. EEGs recorded during visual imagery was compared to eyes-closed baselines. The most important findings were increases in global EEG coherence in the 36-44 Hz and 50-64 Hz frequency bands for both subjects. Widely distributed cortical hyper-coherence seems reasonable given the intense synesthesia during ayahuasca experiences. Other findings include increased modal EEG alpha frequency and global power decreases across the cortex in most frequency bands, which concur with the EEG of psychedelics literature. Exploratory analysis revealed the usefulness of analyzing single Hz bins over the standard wide-band analysis. The discovery-oriented naturalistic approach developed for this study resulted in potentially important findings. We believe that finding increases in global gamma coherence during peak psychedelic experiences might contribute to the discussion of binding theory. Also, in light of recent research with gamma coherence during advanced meditative conditions, our findings might further the comparison of shamanic psychedelic practices with meditation.

  2. Comparison of techniques for morphologic evaluation of glycerol-preserved human skim subjected to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringel, Fabiana de A. [Faculty of Humanities, Economic and Health Sciences of Araguaina ITPAC (FAHESA/ITPAC/TO) Araguaina, TO (Brazil); Isaac, Cesar [Faculty of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo (FMUSP/SP) Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Herson, Marisa R., E-mail: marisah@vifm.org [Tissue Bank of Victoria, Victoria (Australia); Freitas, Anderson Z. de; Martinho Junior, Antonio C.; Mathor, Monica B., E-mail: azanardi@ipen.br, E-mail: mathor@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Radiation Technology Centre; Oliveira, Sergio F. de [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo (ICB-USP/SP), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Extensive skin lesions expose the body to damaging agents, which makes spontaneous regeneration difficult and, in many cases, leads patient to death. In such cases, if there are no donating areas for auto graft, allografts can be used. In this type of graft, tissue is processed in tissue banks, where it can be subjected to radiosterilization. According to in vitro studies, gamma radiation, in doses higher than 25 kGy, causes breakdown of collagen I fibrils in the skin preserved in glycerol at 85% and this change influences fibroblast migration and deposition of new collagen. In order to assess if the alterations observed in vitro, would compromise in vivo use, transplants of human tissue, irradiated or not, were performed in Nude mice. After the surgery the skins of the mice was subjected to macroscopic analysis on the 3{sup rd}, 7{sup th}, 21{sup st} and 90{sup th} days; optical coherence tomography on the 90{sup th} day and histological assay on the 3{sup rd}, 7{sup th}, 21{sup st} days to compare the results of the repair process among the techniques, considering that the OCT allows in vivo and not destructive morphological analysis. According to the results obtained through OCT it was possible to observe a more organized repair process in the animals which received irradiated grafts (25 and 50 kGy) if compared to unirradiated grafts. It was not possible to observe such phenomena through macroscopic or histological evaluation. (author)

  3. Administration of interferon-gamma in healthy subjects does not modulate thyroid hormone metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Metz, J.; Romijn, J. A.; Endert, E.; Corssmit, E. P.; Sauerwein, H. P.

    2000-01-01

    Cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL-2), IL-6, and interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha), alter human thyroid hormone metabolism and may be involved in the pathogenesis the euthyroid sick syndrome. Experimental data suggest that interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) could be

  4. The cardiovascular and subjective effects of methamphetamine combined with gamma-vinyl-gamma-aminobutyric acid (GVG) in non-treatment seeking methamphetamine-dependent volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Garza, Richard; Zorick, Todd; Heinzerling, Keith G; Nusinowitz, Steve; London, Edythe D; Shoptaw, Steven; Moody, David E; Newton, Thomas F

    2009-11-01

    Gamma-vinyl-gamma-aminobutyric acid (GVG) elevates central nervous system gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels by irreversibly inhibiting GABA transaminase. An open-label clinical trial in humans suggested that GVG may reduce cocaine and methamphetamine use. To test safety and to obtain preliminary data on efficacy of GVG for treating methamphetamine dependence, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study of GVG interaction with the cardiovascular and subjective effects produced by methamphetamine. Non-treatment seeking methamphetamine-dependent volunteers received either GVG (N=8) or placebo (N=9) by random assignment. GVG treatment was initiated at 1 g/day and increased to 5 g/day. After reaching the target dose of 5 g/day, participants received methamphetamine (15+30 mg, IV), and cardiovascular and subjective effects were assessed. No serious adverse events were noted, and the total number of adverse events was similar between the treatment groups. Considering the full time course and peak effects independently, no significant differences were detected between the groups for systolic or diastolic blood pressures, or heart rate, following methamphetamine exposure. Some methamphetamine-induced cardiovascular changes approached significance (p<0.10) and may warrant attention in future trials. Methamphetamine-induced subjective effects ("any drug effect", "high", "crave methamphetamine") were statistically similar between GVG and placebo treatment groups. Pharmacokinetic data indicate that GVG treatment did not alter methamphetamine or amphetamine plasma levels, and there was no association between methamphetamine or amphetamine plasma levels and peak cardiovascular effects. Taken together, the data indicate that GVG treatment is generally well tolerated but not efficacious in attenuating the positive subjective effects of methamphetamine in the laboratory.

  5. Gene expression in Catla catla (Hamilton) subjected to acute and protracted doses of gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anbumani, S., E-mail: aquatox1982@gmail.com; Mohankumar, Mary N., E-mail: marynmk@gmail.com

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Gamma radiation induced up- and down- regulation of cell cycle genes. • Protracted dose-rate induced gene up-regulation to facilitate cell survival. • bcl-2 gene facilitates repair at protracted dose and cell death at acute exposures. • gadd45α, cdk1 and bcl-2 genes work in concert to promote ‘repair’ and ‘death’ circuitries in fish blood cells. - Abstract: Studies on transcriptional modulation after gamma radiation exposure in fish are limited. Cell cycle perturbations and expression of apoptotic genes were investigated in the fish, Catla catla after acute and protracted exposures to gamma radiation over a 90 day period. Significant changes in gene expression were observed between day 1 and 90 post-exposure. Gamma radiation induced a significant down-regulation of target genes gadd45α, cdk1 and bcl-2 from day 1 to day 3 after protracted exposure, whereas it persists till day 6 upon acute exposure. From day 12 onwards, Gadd45α, cdk1 and bcl-2 genes were up-regulated following protracted exposure, indicating DNA repair, cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. There exists a linear correlation between these genes (gadd45α – r = 0.85, p = 0.0073; cdk1 – r = 0.86, p = 0.0053; bcl-2 – r = 0.89, p = 0.0026) at protracted exposures. This is the first report on the dual role of bcl-2 gene in fish exposed to acute and protracted radiation and correlation among the aforementioned genes that work in concert to promote ‘repair’ and ‘death’ circuitries in fish blood cells.

  6. Expression of activated Fc gamma RII discriminates between multiple granulocyte-priming phenotypes in peripheral blood of allergic asthmatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanters, Deon; ten Hove, Willem; Luijk, Bart; van Aalst, Corneli; Schweizer, René C; Lammers, Jan-Willem J; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Raaijmakers, Jan A M; Bracke, Madelon; Koenderman, Leo

    2007-11-01

    Allergic asthma is associated with chronic airway and systemic immune responses. Systemic responses include priming of peripheral blood eosinophils, which is enhanced after allergen challenge. In a subpopulation of asthmatic subjects, neutrophils are associated with bronchial inflammation. We sought to monitor systemic granulocyte priming in allergic asthmatic subjects as a consequence of chronic and acute inflammatory signals initiated by allergen challenge. Blood was taken at baseline and 6 to 24 hours after allergen challenge in asthmatic subjects with and without late asthmatic responses. Systemic granulocyte priming was studied by using expression of cellular markers, such as alpha-chain of Mac-1 (alpha m)/CD11b, L-selectin/CD62L, and an activation epitope present on Fc gamma RII/CD32 recognized by monoclonal phage antibody A17. Eosinophils of asthmatic subjects have a primed phenotype identified by cell-surface markers. Neutrophils of these patients were subtly primed, which was only identified after activation with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. After allergen challenge, an acute increase in eosinophil priming characterized by enhanced expression of activated Fc gamma RII was found in patients experiencing a late asthmatic response and not in patients with a single early asthmatic response. In contrast, expression of alpha m/CD11b and L-selectin on granulocytes was not different between control and asthmatic subjects and was not affected by allergen challenge. Interestingly, expression of both adhesion molecules was positively correlated, and alpha m expression on eosinophils and neutrophils correlated positively with bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Different phases, phenotypes, or both of allergic asthma are associated with distinct priming profiles of inflammatory cells in peripheral blood. Insight in differences of systemic innate responses will lead to better definition of asthma subtypes and to better designs of new therapeutic options.

  7. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  8. Tesaglitazar, a dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha/gamma agonist, improves apolipoprotein levels in non-diabetic subjects with insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuster, H.; Fagerberg, B.; Edwards, S.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To determine the effects of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha/gamma agonist tesaglitazar on serum levels of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, apoB, and apoCIII in non-diabetic insulin-resistant subjects. Methods: This randomized, double-blind, multicentre, placebo...... associated with insulin resistance. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved Udgivelsesdato: 2008/3...

  9. Fresh cut cassava subjected to gamma radiationMandioca minimamente processada submetida a radiação gama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Gonçalves Lozano

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Fresh cut cassava is an alternative to prolong roots commercialization period, adding value to the raw material and assisting the consumer’s needs that seeks for products of easy preparation. The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality of fresh cut cassava subjected to gamma radiation. For processing cassava roots (IAC – 567-70 were used, after preparation were packed in expanded polystyrene (EPS trays, covered by low density polyethylene (LDPE plastic film, being subjected to gamma radiation in the doses 0 (control, 0.5; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0 KGy. Another treatment was also carried out in which roots were vacuum packed in nylon + polyethylene. Packed roots of all treatments were stored under refrigeration (5 ± 1 ºC and evaluations were made after 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. Evaluated analyses were: titrable acidity, pH, firmness, coloration, polyphenoloxidase activity, cooking time and roots hydration percentage. Evaluations just proceeded until the nine storage day, because after this period the roots already presented visually detectable physiologic and microbiological alterations. For titrable acidity, the vacuum packed roots had the lowest values, followed by the control packed in trays. For the other treatments, values of acidity increased and influenced the pH values. For the other appraised parameters there was no significant difference among treatments, but alterations were observed with the storage. The firmness decreased with the storage. Brightness values and yellow color component decreased with the storage and the b * (green color values increased. Polyphenoloxidase activity was maximum in the day of elaboration of the product and it decreased with the storage. Cooking time and roots hydration percentage decreased with the roots storage.A mandioca minimamente processada é uma alternativa para prolongar o período de comercialização das raízes, agregando de valor a matéria prima e atendendo as necessidades do consumidor que

  10. Recycling of chlorobutyl rubber compounds subjected of gamma radiation; Reciclagem de compostos de borracha clorobutilinica por meio de radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Cardoso, Elizabeth C.L.; Santos, Renato G. dos; Lugao, Ademar B., E-mail: srscagliusi@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In Brazil, as in the world, the correct destination of solid waste and its impacts on the environment are so worrying that have been treated as public policy of the State, leading to behavioral change on the part of business and society. Polymeric materials (plastics and rubbers) comprise a growing proportion of urban and industrial waste sent to landfills. Development of technologies for reducing polymeric residues that are acceptable from an environmental point of view, and which are effective in terms of cost, has proven a difficult challenge due to the inherent complexities of all reuse polymers. To establish more efficient processes for reuse / recycling of polymeric materials remains a challenge throughout the world. Due to ionizing radiation ability to alter the structure and properties of materials and the fact that it is applicable to all types of polymers, irradiation is promising and effective for the management of solid waste which can be used as raw materials or additives chemicals. Halogenated polymers have been used on a large scale in a broad variety of applications, such as tires, spare parts (tubes, tire liners, etc.) and various artifacts (covers, gaskets, etc.). Due to the low unsaturation of chlorobutyl rubber (about 3%), shows significant levels of degradation upon exposure to radiation. The main effect of gamma rays on butyl polymers is the formation of free radicals and the chain scission. This paper aims to introduce a rubber recovery technique chlorobutyl rubber the characterization of non-irradiated and irradiated samples based on the following properties: tensile strength and elongation at break, hardness, and rheological properties. The radiation doses used in the study were degradation range: 0 kGy, 25 kGy, 50 kGy, 100 kGy, 150 kGy and 200 kGy, in order to confirm the feasibility of recycling chlorobutyl rubber. It was observed that doses greater than 100 kGy, the material exhibits a high degree of degradation. Research on rubber

  11. Lol p I-induced IL-4 and IFN-gamma production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells of atopic and nonatopic subjects during and out of the pollen season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, R; Akoum, A; Hébert, J

    1993-04-01

    The reciprocal effects of IL-4 and IFN-gamma on IgE synthesis have been well established. It has also been shown that these two lymphokines are secreted by different subsets of CD4+ T cells (TH1 and TH2), and that TH2 helper T lymphocytes could be involved in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases. But little is known about the effects of an allergen on the profile of lymphokine synthesis by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of allergic and nonallergic subjects. We studied the production of IL-4 and IFN-gamma by PBMCs of atopic and nonatopic donors after in vitro stimulation by the group 1 allergen from Lolium perenne pollen (Lol p I), during and out of the grass pollen season. On natural exposure to pollen, Lol p I-induced IL-4 production was observed only with atopic donors (6 of 8), whereas the synthesis of IFN-gamma was observed for all nonatopic donors (7 of 7) and most allergic patients (5 of 7). At the time of the study, higher amounts of IFN-gamma were produced by PBMCs of nonatopic donors than by PBMCs of atopic patients. Out of the pollen season the production of IL-4 was not observed either by atopic (n = 11) or by nonatopic subjects (n = 5). On the other hand, IFN-gamma was produced by PBMCs of most subjects (atopic, 10 of 11; nonatopic, 5 of 5), but at the time of the study no difference was observed between the two groups. These results show that Lol p I induces different profiles of IL-4 and IFN-gamma production by PBMCs of atopic and nonatopic subjects. In atopic subjects this profile of lymphokine synthesis is influenced by the natural exposure to pollen, which is in keeping with the seasonal rise of IgE antibodies.

  12. Gamma gamma technology group

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This report briefly describes the results presented at this conference on work to develop the technology required to build the proposed gamma gamma option, also known as the photon linear collider (PLC) [1]. Before describing the work presented at this conference I would like to put it in context. At the International ...

  13. Gluten stimulation induces an in vitro expansion of peripheral blood T gamma delta cells from HLA-DQ2-positive subjects of families of patients with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lio, D; Bonanno, C T; D'Anna, C; De Luca, S; Gervasi, F; Cavataio, F; Iacono, F; Salerno, A

    1998-01-01

    The intestinal gluten sensitivity formally known as celiac disease (CD) is characterized by an evident involvement of local immune response and it is associated with the expression of HLA-DQ2 allele. The major role in the disease seems to be played by the T lymphocyte population bearing gamma delta T cell receptor (T gamma delta cells) which are increased both in peripheral blood and intestinal mucosae of celiac patients. In this paper data on the effects of in vitro gluten stimulation on lymphocytes expressing the T gamma delta phenotype are reported. Gluten seems to be able to induce the expansion of the T gamma delta cell population both in CD patients and their HLA-DQ2-positive asymptomatic relatives, in spite of the absence of clinical evidence of the disease. In addition, the evaluation of gluten-induced cytokine production shows that interleukin-4 could be implied in the early phases of pathogenesis of CD.

  14. Studies of the Gly482Ser polymorphism of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha) gene in Danish subjects with the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye, L; Rasmussen, S; Fenger, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha) is a novel transcriptional co-activator that holds an important role in lipid and glucose metabolism. PGC-1alpha is a candidate gene for the metabolic syndrome (MS) as well as type 2 diabetes. Recent studies sug...... and insulin secretion, 24-ambulatory blood pressure or left ventricular mass index. In conclusion, the Gly482Ser polymorphism of the PGC-1alpha gene is not associated with the metabolic syndrome, related quantitative traits or cardiac hypertrophy among Danish Caucasian subjects...

  15. Diffractive Photon Production in $\\gamma p$ and $\\gamma \\gamma$ Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Evanson, N G; Forshaw, J R

    1999-01-01

    We study the diffractive production of photons in gamma-p and gamma-gamma collisions. We specifically compute the rates for gamma*-p -> gamma-X and for gamma*-gamma* -> gamma-gamma, where X denotes the proton dissociation. We focus on the rates at large momentum transfers, -t >> Lambda^2, where we are most confident in the use of QCD perturbation theory. However, our calculations do allow us to study the -t -> 0 behaviour of the gamma*-gamma*-> gamma-gamma process in the region where the inco...

  16. Clinical and symptomatological study of pigs subjected to a lethal dose of integral gamma irradiation; Etude clinique et symptomatologique chez le porc soumis a une irradiation gamma totale a dose letale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaiman, M.; Guenet, J.-L.; Maas, J.; Nizza, P

    1966-05-01

    Results are reported from a clinical and haematological study on a Corsican species of pigs wholly exposed to an approximately lethal dose of {gamma} radiation. The aim of this work was to examine the changes in the irradiation syndrome of irradiation for pigs to make it thus possible to devise further experiments, in particular in the therapeutic field. The dose received was 285 rads (measured as the absorption in the vertical antero-posterior medial plane). Data are presented on cyto-haematological changes in the blood circulating immediately after irradiation, and followed up to death, and changes in the medullary cytology after irradiation. The clinical picture of lethal radiation injury in swine is described. (authors) [French] Les auteurs rapportent les resultats d'une etude clinique et hematologique chez des porcs de race corse irradies in toto a dose sensiblement letale. Le but de cette etude etait de connaitre l'evolution du syndrome aigu d'irradiation chez le porc et de permettre ainsi le developpement d'experimentations ulterieures, en particulier dans le domaine therapeutique. La dose delivree etait de 285 rad (en dose absorbee au niveau du plan median vertical anteroposterieur. L'etude a porte essentiellement: 1. Sur les modifications cyclo-hematologiques du sang circulant immediatement apres l'irradiation, pour les differentes lignees cellulaires; l'evolution de ces modifications a ete notee jusqu'a la mort; 2. Sur les modifications de la cytologie medullaire apres irradiation (evolution du myelogramme et essai d'evaluation de la cellularite de la moelle osseuse);: 3. Sur les signes cliniques, d'ailleurs tres discrets, observes chez les porcs apres irradiation. (auteurs)

  17. Proprioceptive evoked gamma oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, Sidse M; Hansen, Lars Kai; Parnas, Josef

    2007-01-01

    to evoke gamma oscillations. EEG was recorded using 64 channels in 14 healthy subjects. In each of three runs a stimulus of 100 g load increment in each hand was presented in 120 trials. Data were wavelet transformed and runs collapsed. Inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC) was computed as the best measure...

  18. Proprioceptive evoked gamma oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, S.M.; Hansen, Lars Kai; Parnas, J.

    2007-01-01

    A proprioceptive stimulus consisting of a weight change of a handheld load has recently been shown to elicit an evoked potential. Previously, somatosensory gamma oscillations have only been evoked by electrical stimuli. We conjectured that a natural proprioceptive stimulus also would be able...... to evoke gamma oscillations. EEG was recorded using 64 channels in 14 healthy subjects. In each of three runs a stimulus of 100 g load increment in each hand was presented in 120 trials. Data were wavelet transformed and runs collapsed. Inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC) was computed as the best measure...... contralateral to stimulus side and additionally an unexpected 20 Hz activity was observed slightly lateralized in the frontal central region. The gamma phase locking may be a manifestation of early somatosensory feature integration. The analyses suggest that the high frequency activity consists of two distinct...

  19. Gamma Knife

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tested on a regular basis to ensure the safety of patients and medical staff. top of page This page ... Brain Tumor Treatment Introduction to Cancer Therapy (Radiation Oncology) Cerebral ... to Gamma Knife Sponsored by Please ...

  20. Gamma Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    coupling two Gamma processes so that the marginal processes will have negative serial correlations. It is actually easier to implement this scheme...to analyze a long sequence of wind speeds. This sequence is very non-stationary, containing yearly cycles. The model actually used is v(n)G n , where P...1967). "Some Problems of Statistical Inference Relating to Double-Gamma Distribution," Trabajos de Estadistica , 18, 67-87. Hugus, D. K. (1982

  1. Implications of a nonvanishing $Z \\gamma \\gamma$ vertex on the $H\\to \\gamma \\gamma \\gamma$ decay

    OpenAIRE

    Cordero-Cid, A.; López-Osorio, M. A.; Martínez-Pascual, E.; Toscano, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    The $Z\\to \\gamma \\gamma$ and $H\\to \\gamma \\gamma \\gamma$ decays are strictly forbidden in the Standard Model, but they can be induced by theories that violate Lorentz symmetry or the CPT theorem. By assuming that a nonvanishing $Z\\gamma \\gamma$ vertex is induced in some context of new physics, and by analyzing the reaction $H\\to \\gamma Z^*\\to \\gamma \\gamma \\gamma$ in the $Z$ resonance, we obtain an estimation for the branching ratio of the $H\\to \\gamma \\gamma \\gamma$ decay. Specifically, it i...

  2. Gamma watermarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Muriel Y.; Wood, Lowell L.; Lougheed, Ronald W.; Moody, Kenton J.; Wang, Tzu-Fang

    2004-05-25

    A covert, gamma-ray "signature" is used as a "watermark" for property identification. This new watermarking technology is based on a unique steganographic or "hidden writing" digital signature, implemented in tiny quantities of gamma-ray-emitting radioisotopic material combinations, generally covertly emplaced on or within an object. This digital signature may be readily recovered at distant future times, by placing a sensitive, high energy-resolution gamma-ray detecting instrument reasonably precisely over the location of the watermark, which location may be known only to the object's owner; however, the signature is concealed from all ordinary detection means because its exceedingly low level of activity is obscured by the natural radiation background (including the gamma radiation naturally emanating from the object itself, from cosmic radiation and material surroundings, from human bodies, etc.). The "watermark" is used in object-tagging for establishing object identity, history or ownership. It thus may serve as an aid to law enforcement officials in identifying stolen property and prosecuting theft thereof. Highly effective, potentially very low cost identification-on demand of items of most all types is thus made possible.

  3. Gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Wijers, Ralph A M J; Woosley, Stan

    2012-01-01

    Cosmic gamma ray bursts (GRBs) have fascinated scientists and the public alike since their discovery in the late 1960s. Their story is told here by some of the scientists who participated in their discovery and, after many decades of false starts, solved the problem of their origin. Fourteen chapters by active researchers in the field present a detailed history of the discovery, a comprehensive theoretical description of GRB central engine and emission models, a discussion of GRB host galaxies and a guide to how GRBs can be used as cosmological tools. Observations are grouped into three sets from the satellites CGRO, BeppoSAX and Swift, and followed by a discussion of multi-wavelength observations. This is the first edited volume on GRB astrophysics that presents a fully comprehensive review of the subject. Utilizing the latest research, Gamma-ray Bursts is an essential desktop companion for graduate students and researchers in astrophysics.

  4. Stereotactic radiosurgery - Gamma Knife

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gamma Knife; Gamma Knife radiosurgery; Non-invasive neurosugery; Epilepsy - Gamma Knife ... problems ( arteriovenous malformation , arteriovenous fistula ) Some types of epilepsy Trigeminal neuralgia (severe nerve pain of the face) ...

  5. gamma-gamma Interactions from Real to Virtual Photons

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöstrand, Torbjörn

    2000-01-01

    A `complete' framework for gamma-gamma / gamma*-gamma / gamma*-gamma* interactions is presented. The emphasis is on providing a model for gamma-gamma physics at all photon virtualities, including the difficult transition region around the rho meson mass.

  6. Gamma ray generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Richard B; Reijonen, Jani

    2014-05-27

    An embodiment of a gamma ray generator includes a neutron generator and a moderator. The moderator is coupled to the neutron generator. The moderator includes a neutron capture material. In operation, the neutron generator produces neutrons and the neutron capture material captures at least some of the neutrons to produces gamma rays. An application of the gamma ray generator is as a source of gamma rays for calibration of gamma ray detectors.

  7. Serum concentrations of the interferon-gamma-inducible chemokine IP-10/CXCL10 are augmented in both newly diagnosed Type I diabetes mellitus patients and subjects at risk of developing the disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, F; Conget, I; Di Mauro, M

    2002-01-01

    Chemokines are chemotactic cytokines controlling the recruitment of leukocytes from the blood by regulating integrin adhesiveness. It has been shown that the migration of CD4+Th1 and CD4+Th2 cells is governed by specific chemokines. Increasing evidence suggests that the CD4+Th1 cheomoattractant c...... chemokine CXCL10, also termed Interferon (IFN)-gamma -inducible protein (IP)-10 is pathogenetically involved in several immunoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases....

  8. Gamma-ray bursts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gehrels, Neil; Mészáros, Péter

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bright flashes of gamma rays coming from the cosmos. They occur roughly once per day, typically last for tens of seconds, and are the most luminous events in the universe...

  9. Gamma-ray Astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Pohl, Martin

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes recents results in gamma-ray astronomy, most of which were derived with data from ground-based gamma-ray detectors. Many of the contributions presented at this conference involve multiwavelength studies which combine ground-based gamma-ray measurements with optical data or space-based X-ray and gamma-ray measurements. Besides measurements of the diffuse emission from the Galaxy, observations of blazars, gamma-ray bursts, and supernova remnants this paper also covers theo...

  10. Studies of the Gly482Ser polymorphism of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha) gene in Danish subjects with the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye, Louise; Rasmussen, Susanne; Fenger, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    was 35.8% in the MS group and 35.6% in the non-MS group (P = 0.74). There were no significant differences across the three groups of genotypes with respect to any of the examined variables, including BMI, waist, fasting serum lipids, plasma glucose, serum insulin, HOMA estimates of insulin resistance......The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha) is a novel transcriptional co-activator that holds an important role in lipid and glucose metabolism. PGC-1alpha is a candidate gene for the metabolic syndrome (MS) as well as type 2 diabetes. Recent studies...... suggested linkage between the chromosomal region of PGC-1alpha and fasting serum insulin levels, and associates a Gly482Ser polymorphism of the gene with type 2 diabetes and hypertension. In this study, we investigated whether the Gly482Ser variant is associated with the MS per se or other phenotypic traits...

  11. GammaWorkshops Proceedings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strålberg, Elisabeth; Klemola, Seppo; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    Due to a sparse interaction during the last years between practioners in gamma ray spectrometry in the Nordic countries, a NKS activity was started in 2009. This GammaSem was focused on seminars relevant to gamma spectrometry. A follow up seminar was held in 2010. As an outcome of these activities...... it was suggested that the 2011 meeting should be focused on practical issues, e.g. different corrections needed in gamma spectrometric measurements. This three day’s meeting, GammaWorkshops, was held in September at Risø-DTU. Experts on different topics relevant for gamma spectrometric measurements were invited...... to the GammaWorkshops. The topics included efficiency transfer, true coincidence summing corrections, self-attenuation corrections, measurement of natural radionuclides (natural decay series), combined measurement uncertainty calculations, and detection limits. These topics covered both lectures and practical...

  12. Human gamma oscillations during slow wave sleep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Valderrama

    Full Text Available Neocortical local field potentials have shown that gamma oscillations occur spontaneously during slow-wave sleep (SWS. At the macroscopic EEG level in the human brain, no evidences were reported so far. In this study, by using simultaneous scalp and intracranial EEG recordings in 20 epileptic subjects, we examined gamma oscillations in cerebral cortex during SWS. We report that gamma oscillations in low (30-50 Hz and high (60-120 Hz frequency bands recurrently emerged in all investigated regions and their amplitudes coincided with specific phases of the cortical slow wave. In most of the cases, multiple oscillatory bursts in different frequency bands from 30 to 120 Hz were correlated with positive peaks of scalp slow waves ("IN-phase" pattern, confirming previous animal findings. In addition, we report another gamma pattern that appears preferentially during the negative phase of the slow wave ("ANTI-phase" pattern. This new pattern presented dominant peaks in the high gamma range and was preferentially expressed in the temporal cortex. Finally, we found that the spatial coherence between cortical sites exhibiting gamma activities was local and fell off quickly when computed between distant sites. Overall, these results provide the first human evidences that gamma oscillations can be observed in macroscopic EEG recordings during sleep. They support the concept that these high-frequency activities might be associated with phasic increases of neural activity during slow oscillations. Such patterned activity in the sleeping brain could play a role in off-line processing of cortical networks.

  13. Subject Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user1

    ... Spectra Variability of BL Lacertae Object S5 0716+714 (Zhang Hao. Jing, Zhao Gang, Zhang Xiong, Bai Jing Ming, Tang Ling & Xu Yun Bing), 131. Part 3. Blazar Observations in High Energy Bands. Gamma-Ray and Multiwavelength Emission from Blazars (Meg Urry), 139. Quasi-Periodic Oscillations in the X-ray Light ...

  14. Gamma-ray triangles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibarra, Alejandro; Lopez-Gehler, Sergio; Molinaro, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new type of gamma-ray spectral feature, which we denominate gamma-ray triangle. This spectral feature arises in scenarios where dark matter self-annihilates via a chiral interaction into two Dirac fermions, which subsequently decay in flight into another fermion and a photon....... The resulting photon spectrum resembles a sharp triangle and can be readily searched for in the gamma-ray sky. Using data from the Fermi-LAT and H.E.S.S. instruments, we find no evidence for such a spectral feature and, therefore, set strong upper bounds on the corresponding annihilation cross section....... A concrete realization of a scenario yielding gamma-ray triangles consists of an asymmetric dark matter model where the dark matter particle carries lepton number. We show explicitly that this class of models can lead to intense gamma-ray spectral features, potentially at the reach of upcoming gamma...

  15. Gamma Splines and Wavelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu Olkkonen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we introduce a new family of splines termed as gamma splines for continuous signal approximation and multiresolution analysis. The gamma splines are born by -times convolution of the exponential by itself. We study the properties of the discrete gamma splines in signal interpolation and approximation. We prove that the gamma splines obey the two-scale equation based on the polyphase decomposition. to introduce the shift invariant gamma spline wavelet transform for tree structured subscale analysis of asymmetric signal waveforms and for systems with asymmetric impulse response. Especially we consider the applications in biomedical signal analysis (EEG, ECG, and EMG. Finally, we discuss the suitability of the gamma spline signal processing in embedded VLSI environment.

  16. Beta and Gamma Gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif; Gaffney, C. F.; Clark, P. A.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and/or theoretical estimates are presented concerning, (i) attenuation within the sample of beta and gamma radiation from the soil, (ii) the gamma dose within the sample due to its own radioactivity, and (iii) the soil gamma dose in the proximity of boundaries between regions...... of differing radioactivity. It is confirmed that removal of the outer 2 mm of sample is adequate to remove influence from soil beta dose and estimates are made of the error introduced by non-removal. Other evaluations include variation of the soil gamma dose near the ground surface and it appears...

  17. RPC gamma sensitivity simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Altieri, S; Bruno, G; Gianini, G; Merlo, M; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, C; Torre, P; Viola, L; Vitulo, P; Abbrescia, M; Colaleo, A; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Loddo, F; Maggi, M; Marangelli, B; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Pugliese, G; Ranieri, A; Romano, F; Salvemini, A

    2000-01-01

    A method to simulate resistive plate chambers (RPCs) gamma sensitivity has been developed using a Monte Carlo code. The sensitivity has been evaluated as a function of the gamma energy in the range 0.1-100 MeV and for different spectra. To evaluate the response of the detector in a Large Hadron Collider (LHC) background environment the gamma energy spectrum expected in the CMS muon barrel has been taken into account and the RPC gamma sensitivity evaluated as a function of the detector size. (3 refs).

  18. GammaSem Proceedings. A Nordic seminar for users of gamma spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straalberg, E. (ed.) (Institute for Energy Technolgy (Norway)); Berg, K. (National Institute of Radiation Protection (Denmark)); Dowdall, M. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway)) (and others)

    2010-11-15

    The project GammaSem was proposed to the NKS in 2008. The aim of the project was to arrange two seminars for users of gamma spectrometry, in 2009 and 2010. The seminars were meant to provide a forum for discussions and sharing of information on practical issues concerning gamma spectrometry and initiate a network of gamma spectrometry users in the Nordic countries. Such a Nordic network should strengthen the collaboration between laboratories and improve all participants' competence in practical gamma spectrometry. Both seminars' focus was practical challenges met by the users themselves, rather than theoretical matters. Scientists and users of gamma spectrometry from all five Nordic countries were invited to the seminar, as well as scientist from the Baltic countries. A total of 65 people signed up for GammaSem 2010; representing 30 different universities, commercial companies, research institutes and authorities. The working group concept as presented at last year's GammaSem, has not worked out as intended. The reason for this is probably because most of the laboratories that signed up to join the working groups, signed up because they wanted to learn more about the different subjects. In combination with the fact that no funding was made available for the working groups, it was difficult to establish goals on what to achieve. None of the working groups applied for funding from the NKS (or elsewhere) to establish separate projects. There is a big need for more cooperation and for training within the field of gamma spectrometry. This fact has been proved through these two seminars, both by the many different topics that have been discussed, but also by the huge interest for participating in the suggested series of workshop. The GammaSem seminars have thus provided a much welcomed starting point for a broader Nordic collaboration. (Author)

  19. Directional gamma detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVert, Francis E.; Cox, Samson A.

    1981-01-01

    An improved directional gamma radiation detector has a collector sandwiched etween two layers of insulation of varying thicknesses. The collector and insulation layers are contained within an evacuated casing, or emitter, which releases electrons upon exposure to gamma radiation. Delayed electrons and electrons entering the collector at oblique angles are attenuated as they pass through the insulation layers on route to the collector.

  20. Resolved photon and multi-component model for $\\gamma^*$p and $\\gamma^* \\gamma^*$ total cross section

    OpenAIRE

    Szczurek, A.; Pietrycki, T.

    2005-01-01

    We generalize our previous model for $\\gamma^* p$ scattering to $\\gamma \\gamma$ scattering. Performing a new simultaneous fit to $\\gamma^* p$ and $\\gamma \\gamma$ total cross section we find an optimal set of parameters to describe both processes. We propose new measures of factorization breaking for $\\gamma^* \\gamma^*$ collisions and present results for our new model.

  1. Optical gamma thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Glen Peter; Xia, Hua; Lee, Boon Kwee

    2013-08-06

    An optical gamma thermometer includes a metal mass having a temperature proportional to a gamma flux within a core of a nuclear reactor, and an optical fiber cable for measuring the temperature of the heated metal mass. The temperature of the heated mass may be measured by using one or more fiber grating structures and/or by using scattering techniques, such as Raman, Brillouin, and the like. The optical gamma thermometer may be used in conjunction with a conventional reactor heat balance to calibrate the local power range monitors over their useful in-service life. The optical gamma thermometer occupies much less space within the in-core instrument tube and costs much less than the conventional gamma thermometer.

  2. GammaWorkshops Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramebaeck, H. (ed.) (Swedish Defence Research Agency (Sweden)); Straalberg, E. (Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller (Norway)); Klemola, S. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, STUK (Finland)); Nielsen, Sven P. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Palsson, S.E. (Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority (Iceland))

    2012-01-15

    Due to a sparse interaction during the last years between practioners in gamma ray spectrometry in the Nordic countries, a NKS activity was started in 2009. This GammaSem was focused on seminars relevant to gamma spectrometry. A follow up seminar was held in 2010. As an outcome of these activities it was suggested that the 2011 meeting should be focused on practical issues, e.g. different corrections needed in gamma spectrometric measurements. This three day's meeting, GammaWorkshops, was held in September at Risoe-DTU. Experts on different topics relevant for gamma spectrometric measurements were invited to the GammaWorkshops. The topics included efficiency transfer, true coincidence summing corrections, self-attenuation corrections, measurement of natural radionuclides (natural decay series), combined measurement uncertainty calculations, and detection limits. These topics covered both lectures and practical sessions. The practical sessions included demonstrations of tools for e.g. corrections and calculations of the above meantioned topics. (Author)

  3. Basics of Gamma Ray Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinnett, Jacob [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Venkataraman, Ram [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-13

    The objective of this training is to explain the origin of x-rays and gamma rays, gamma ray interactions with matter, detectors and electronics used in gamma ray-spectrometry, and features of a gamma-ray spectrum for nuclear material that is safeguarded.

  4. Dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luan Shuang; Swanson, Nathan; Chen Zhe [Department of Computer Science, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Ma Lijun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States)], E-mail: sluan@cs.unm.edu, E-mail: nate@cs.unm.edu, E-mail: zchen@cs.unm.edu, E-mail: lijunma@radonc.ucsf.edu

    2009-03-21

    Gamma knife has been the treatment of choice for various brain tumors and functional disorders. Current gamma knife radiosurgery is planned in a 'ball-packing' approach and delivered in a 'step-and-shoot' manner, i.e. it aims to 'pack' the different sized spherical high-dose volumes (called 'shots') into a tumor volume. We have developed a dynamic scheme for gamma knife radiosurgery based on the concept of 'dose-painting' to take advantage of the new robotic patient positioning system on the latest Gamma Knife C(TM) and Perfexion(TM) units. In our scheme, the spherical high dose volume created by the gamma knife unit will be viewed as a 3D spherical 'paintbrush', and treatment planning reduces to finding the best route of this 'paintbrush' to 'paint' a 3D tumor volume. Under our dose-painting concept, gamma knife radiosurgery becomes dynamic, where the patient moves continuously under the robotic positioning system. We have implemented a fully automatic dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery treatment planning system, where the inverse planning problem is solved as a traveling salesman problem combined with constrained least-square optimizations. We have also carried out experimental studies of dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery and showed the following. (1) Dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery is ideally suited for fully automatic inverse planning, where high quality radiosurgery plans can be obtained in minutes of computation. (2) Dynamic radiosurgery plans are more conformal than step-and-shoot plans and can maintain a steep dose gradient (around 13% per mm) between the target tumor volume and the surrounding critical structures. (3) It is possible to prescribe multiple isodose lines with dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery, so that the treatment can cover the periphery of the target volume while escalating the dose for high tumor burden regions. (4) With dynamic gamma knife radiosurgery, one can

  5. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  6. Influence of the temperature in the measurement of the gamma automatic probe Gamma Tracer; Influencia de la temperatura en la medicion de la sonda gamma automatica Gamma Tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caveda R, C.A.; Dominguez L, O.; Alonso A, D. [CPHR, Calle 20 No. 4113 e/41 y 47, Playa, C.P. 11300, A.P. 6195, C.P. 10600 La Habana (Cuba); Montalvan E, A.; Fabelo B, O. [CIAC, Ave. Finlay Km 2 1/2, Rpto. Puerto Principe, Camaguey 70800 (Cuba)]. e-mail: caveda@cphr.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    In the following work an analysis of the existent relationship among the measurement of the absorbed dose rate in air due to the environmental gamma radiation and the temperature, magnitudes measured to intervals of 10 minutes by the gamma probe Gamma Tracer located in the post of occident of the National Net of Environmental Radiological Surveillance (RNVRA), in the Center of Protection and Hygiene of the Radiations (CPHR) is made. For it its were analyzed near 100,000 measurements corresponding to the period 2004-2005. For a better processing and interpretation of the data, these were analyzed with one frequency time zone and monthly using the Gamma Red software to which was necessary to add it some options. Finally it was submitted the probe to a heating process inside a stove. The results of the carried out experiments confirmed that the absorbed dose rate in air due to the environmental gamma radiation depends potentially of the probe temperature in the range of environmental temperature to which is subjected daily the same one. (Author)

  7. Characterizations of {\\Gamma}-AG^{**}-groupoids by their {\\Gamma}-ideals

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Madad; Ahmad, Naveed

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we have discusses {\\Gamma}-left, {\\Gamma}-right, {\\Gamma}-bi-, {\\Gamma}-quasi-, {\\Gamma}-interior and {\\Gamma}-ideals in {\\Gamma}-AG^{**}-groupoids and regular {\\Gamma}-AG^{**}-groupoids. Moreover we have proved that the set of {\\Gamma}-ideals in a regular {\\Gamma}-AG^{**}-groupoid form a semilattice structure. Also we have characterized a regular {\\Gamma}-AG^{**}-groupoid in terms of left ideals.

  8. Gamma ray camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Mendez, Victor

    1997-01-01

    A gamma ray camera for detecting rays emanating from a radiation source such as an isotope. The gamma ray camera includes a sensor array formed of a visible light crystal for converting incident gamma rays to a plurality of corresponding visible light photons, and a photosensor array responsive to the visible light photons in order to form an electronic image of the radiation therefrom. The photosensor array is adapted to record an integrated amount of charge proportional to the incident gamma rays closest to it, and includes a transparent metallic layer, photodiode consisting of a p-i-n structure formed on one side of the transparent metallic layer, and comprising an upper p-type layer, an intermediate layer and a lower n-type layer. In the preferred mode, the scintillator crystal is composed essentially of a cesium iodide (CsI) crystal preferably doped with a predetermined amount impurity, and the p-type upper intermediate layers and said n-type layer are essentially composed of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). The gamma ray camera further includes a collimator interposed between the radiation source and the sensor array, and a readout circuit formed on one side of the photosensor array.

  9. Gamma ray optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentschel, M.; Günther, M. M.; Habs, D.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2012-07-01

    Via refractive or diffractive scattering one can shape γ ray beams in terms of beam divergence, spot size and monochromaticity. These concepts might be particular important in combination with future highly brilliant gamma ray sources and might push the sensibility of planned experiments by several orders of magnitude. We will demonstrate the experimental feasibility of gamma ray monochromatization on a ppm level and the creation of a gamma ray beam with nanoradian divergence. The results are obtained using the inpile target position of the High Flux Reactor of the ILL Grenoble and the crystal spectrometer GAMS. Since the refractive index is believed to vanish to zero with 1/E2, the concept of refractive optics has never been considered for gamma rays. The combination of refractive optics with monochromator crystals is proposed to be a promising design. Using the crystal spectrometer GAMS, we have measured for the first time the refractive index at energies in the energy range of 180 - 2000 keV. The results indicate a deviation from simple 1/E2 extrapolation of X-ray results towards higher energies. A first interpretation of these new results will be presented. We will discuss the consequences of these results on the construction of refractive optics such as lenses or refracting prisms for gamma rays and their combination with single crystal monochromators.

  10. Gamma Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. T.

    2000-01-01

    The project has progressed successfully during this period of performance. The highlights of the Gamma Ray Astronomy teams efforts are: (1) Support daily BATSE data operations, including receipt, archival and dissemination of data, quick-look science analysis, rapid gamma-ray burst and transient monitoring and response efforts, instrument state-of-health monitoring, and instrument commanding and configuration; (2) On-going scientific analysis, including production and maintenance of gamma-ray burst, pulsed source and occultation source catalogs, gamma-ray burst spectroscopy, studies of the properties of pulsars and black holes, and long-term monitoring of hard x-ray sources; (3) Maintenance and continuous improvement of BATSE instrument response and calibration data bases; (4) Investigation of the use of solid state detectors for eventual application and instrument to perform all sky monitoring of X-Ray and Gamma sources with high sensitivity; and (5) Support of BATSE outreach activities, including seminars, colloquia and World Wide Web pages. The highlights of this efforts can be summarized in the publications and presentation list.

  11. Measurement of the gamma gamma* --> eta and gamma gamma* --> eta' transition form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    del Amo Sanchez et al, P.

    2011-02-07

    We study the reactions e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -} {eta}{sup (/)} in the single-tag mode and measure the {gamma}{gamma}* {yields} {eta}{sup (/)} transition form factors in the momentum transfer range from 4 to 40 GeV{sup 2}. The analysis is based on 469 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected at PEP-II with the BABAR detector at e{sup +}e{sup -} center-of-mass energies near 10.6 GeV.

  12. Gamma-ray bursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil; Mészáros, Péter

    2012-08-24

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bright flashes of gamma rays coming from the cosmos. They occur roughly once per day, typically last for tens of seconds, and are the most luminous events in the universe. More than three decades after their discovery, and after pioneering advances from space and ground experiments, they still remain mysterious. The launch of the Swift and Fermi satellites in 2004 and 2008 brought in a trove of qualitatively new data. In this Review, we survey the interplay between these recent observations and the theoretical models of the prompt GRB emission and the subsequent afterglow.

  13. Gamma measurements at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, Faye

    2016-01-01

    Recent measurements of the CKM angle g from charged and neutral B$\\rightarrow$ DK(*) decays, with a variety of D final states, are presented. The measurements are performed using proton-proton collision data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb$^{-1}$ collected at the LHCb experiment during Run I of the LHC. The results of a combination of LHCb g measurements are discussed. The combined value of $\\gamma$ is $(70.9^{+7.1}_{-8.5})^{\\circ}$ and is the most precise measurement of $\\gamma$ from a single experiment.

  14. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  15. CKM angle $\\gamma$ from LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Smith, Jackson

    2015-01-01

    Results of the latest $\\gamma$ combination from LHCb are presented, along with the six LHCb measurements used as inputs. In addition, the anticipated precision attainable for measuring $\\gamma$ after the LHCb Upgrade is outlined

  16. Interferon Gamma-1b Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon gamma-1b injection is used to reduce the frequency and severity of serious infections in people with chronic ... severe, malignant osteopetrosis (an inherited bone disease). Interferon gamma-1b is in a class of medications called ...

  17. Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamma-GT; GGTP; GGT; Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGTP, gamma-glutamyltransferase) - blood. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. St Louis, ...

  18. Gamma rays from Galactic Pulsars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calore, F.; di Mauro, M.; Donato, F.

    2015-01-01

    Gamma rays from young pulsars and milli-second pulsars are expected to contribute to the diuse gamma-ray emission measured by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) at high latitudes. We derive the contribution of the pulsars undetected counterpart by using information from radio to gamma rays and we

  19. Measurement of {\\eta} meson production in {\\gamma}{\\gamma} interactions and {\\Gamma}({\\eta}-->{\\gamma}{\\gamma}) with the KLOE detector

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Badoni, D; Balwierz-Pytko, I; Bencivenni, G; Bini, C; Bloise, C; Bossi, F; Branchini, P; Budano, A; Balkestaahl, L Caldeira; Capon, G; Ceradini, F; Ciambrone, P; Czerwinski, E; Dane, E; De Lucia, E; De Robertis, G; De Santis, A; Di Domenico, A; Di Donato, C; Di Salvo, R; Domenici, D; Erriquez, O; Fanizzi, G; Fantini, A; Felici, G; Fiore, S; Franzini, P; Gauzzi, P; Giardina, G; Giovannella, S; Gonnella, F; Graziani, E; Happacher, F; Heijkenskj, L; Hoistad, B; Iafolla, L; Jacewicz, M; Johansson, T; Kupsc, A; Lee-Franzini, J; Leverington, B; Loddo, F; Loffredo, S; Mandaglio, G; Martemianov, M; Martini, M; Mascolo, M; Messi, R; Miscetti, S; Morello, G; Moricciani, D; Moskal, P; Nguyen, F; Passeri, A; Patera, V; Longhi, I Prado; Ranieri, A; Redmer, C F; Santangelo, P; Sarra, I; Schioppa, M; Sciascia, B; Silarski, M; Taccini, C; Tortora, L; Venanzoni, G; Wislicki, W; Wolke, M; Zdebik, J

    2012-01-01

    We present a measurement of {\\eta} meson production in photon-photon interactions produced by electron-positron beams colliding with \\sqrt{s}=1 GeV. The measurement is done with the KLOE detector at the \\phi-factory DA{\\Phi}NE with an integrated luminosity of 0.24 fb^{-1}. The e^+e^- --> e^+e^-{\\eta} cross section is measured without detecting the outgoing electron and positron, selecting the decays {\\eta}-->{\\pi}^+{\\pi}^-{\\pi}^0 and {\\eta}-->{\\pi}^0{\\pi}^0{\\pi}^0. The most relevant background is due to e^+e^- --> {\\eta}{\\gamma} when the monochromatic photon escapes detection. The cross section for this process is measured as {\\sigma}(e^+e^- -->{\\eta}{\\gamma}) = (856 \\pm 8_{stat} \\pm 16_{syst}) pb. The combined result for the e^+e^- -->e^+e^-{\\eta} cross section is {\\sigma}(e^+e^- -->e^+e^-{\\eta}) = (32.72 \\pm 1.27_{stat} \\pm 0.70_{syst}) pb. From this we derive the partial width {\\Gamma}({\\eta}-->{\\gamma}{\\gamma}) = (520 \\pm 20_{stat} \\pm 13_{syst}) eV. This is in agreement with the world average and is the ...

  20. Characterizations of intra-regular gamma AG-groupoids by the properties of their gamma ideals

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Madad; Amjid, Venus; Faisal

    2010-01-01

    We have characterized an intra-regular {\\Gamma}-AG^{**}-groupoids by using the properties of {\\Gamma}-ideals (left, right, two-sided ), {\\Gamma}-interior, {\\Gamma}-quasi, {\\Gamma}-bi and {\\Gamma}-generalized bi and {\\Gamma}-(1,2)). We have prove that all the {\\Gamma}-ideals coincides in an intra-regular {\\Gamma}-AG^{**}-groupoids. It has been examined that all the {\\Gamma}-ideals of an intra-regular {\\Gamma}-AG^{**}-groupoids are {\\Gamma}-idempotent. In this paper we define all {\\Gamma}-ideal...

  1. Inactivation of RNA viruses by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonomiya, Takashi; Morimoto, Akinori; Iwatsuki, Kazuo; Tsutsumi, Takamasa (Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and fisheries, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan). Animal Quarantine Service); Ito, Hitoshi; Yamashiro, Tomio; Ishigaki, Isao

    1992-09-01

    Four kinds of RNA viruses, Bluetongue virus (BT), Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease virus (BVD[center dot]MD), Bovine Respiratory Syncytial virus (RS), Vesicular Stmatitis virus (VS), were subjected to various doses of gamma irradiation to determine the lethal doses. The D[sub 10] values, which are the dose necessary to decimally reduce infectivity, ranged from 1.5 to 3.4 kGy under frozen condition at dry-ice temperature, and they increased to 2.6 to 5.0 kGy under frozen condition at dry-ice temperature. Serum neutralzing antibody titer of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) was not adversely changed by the exposure to 36 kGy of gamma-rays under frozen condition. Analysis of electrophoresis patterns of the bovine serum also reveales that the serum proteins were not remarkably affected, even when exposed to 36 kGy of gamma radiation under frozen condition. The results suggested that gamma irradiation under frozen condition is an effective means for inactivating both DNA and RNA viruses without adversely affecting serum proteins and neutralizing antibody titer. (author).

  2. Precise measurement of {gamma}(K{yields}e {nu}({gamma}))/{gamma}(K{yields}{mu} {nu}({gamma})) and study of K{yields}e {nu} {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosino, F.; Massarotti, P.; Meola, S.; Napolitano, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell' Universita ' ' Federico II' ' , Napoli (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Antonelli, A.; Antonelli, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Bloise, C.; Bossi, F.; Capon, G.; Capussela, T.; Ciambrone, P.; De Lucia, E.; De Simone, P.; Dreucci, M.; Felici, G.; Gatti, C.; Giovannella, S.; Jacewicz, M.; Lanfranchi, G.; Miscetti, S.; Moulson, M.; Murtas, F.; Palutan, M.; Santangelo, P.; Sciascia, B.; Sibidanov, A.; Spadaro, T.; Venanzoni, G. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Archilli, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Beltrame, P.; Denig, A.; Mueller, S. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); Bini, C.; De Santis, A.; De Zorzi, G.; Di Domenico, A.; Fiore, S.; Franzini, P.; Gauzzi, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Bocchetta, S.; Ceradini, F.; Di Micco, B.; Nguyen, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' ' Roma Tre' ' , Rome (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome (Italy); Branchini, P.; Graziani, E.; Passeri, A.; Tortora, L. [INFN Sezione di Roma Tre, Rome (Italy); Capriotti, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita ' ' Roma Tre' ' , Rome (Italy); Di Donato, C. [INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Kulikov, V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lee-Franzini, J. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); State University of New York, Physics Department, Stony Brook (United States); Martini, M.; Patera, V.; Versaci, R. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Dipartimento di Energetica dell' Universita ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Rome (Italy); Valente, P. [INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    We present a precise measurement of the ratio R{sub K}={gamma}(K{yields}e{nu}({gamma}))/{gamma}(K{yields}{mu}{nu}({gamma})) and a study of the radiative process K{yields}e{nu}{gamma}, performed with the KLOE detector. The results are based on data collected at the Frascati e{sup +}e{sup -} collider DA {phi}NE for an integrated luminosity of 2.2 fb{sup -1}. We find R{sub K}=(2.493{+-}0.025{sub stat}{+-}0.019{sub syst}) x 10{sup -5}, in agreement with the Standard Model expectation. This result is used to improve constraints on parameters of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with lepton flavor violation. We also measured the differential decay rate d {gamma}(K{yields}e{nu}{gamma})/dE{sub {gamma}} for photon energies 10gamma}}<250 MeV. Results are compared with predictions from theory. (orig.)

  3. SAPPHiRE: a Small Gamma-Gamma Higgs Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Bogacz, S A; Lusito, L; Schulte, D; Takahashi, T; Velasco, M; Zanetti, M; Zimmermann, F

    2012-01-01

    A new particle with mass ~ 125 GeV that resembles the Higgs boson has recently been discovered by ATLAS and CMS. We propose a low-energy gamma-gamma collider as a cost- and time-efficient option for a Higgs factory capable of studying this particle in detail. In the past, this option has been suggested as a possible application of the CLIC two-beam accelerator technology (the CLIC Higgs Experiment, CLICHE) or as an option for the ILC. Here we propose a design based on a pair of \\sim 10 GeV recirculating Linacs (Small Accelerator for Photon-Photon Higgs production using Recirculating Electrons, SAPPHiRE) similar in design to those proposed for the LHeC. We present parameters for the e- beams and sketch a laser backscattering system capable of producing a gamma-gamma peak luminosity of 0.36 \\times 10^34/cm2/s with E_CM (gamma-gamma) \\sim 125 GeV. A gamma-gamma collider with such a luminosity could be used to measure accurately the mass, bbar, WW\\ast, and gamma-gamma decays of the Higgs boson. We also comment on...

  4. The DRAGO gamma camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, C; Gola, A; Peloso, R; Longoni, A; Lechner, P; Soltau, H; Strüder, L; Ottobrini, L; Martelli, C; Lui, R; Madaschi, L; Belloli, S

    2010-04-01

    In this work, we present the results of the experimental characterization of the DRAGO (DRift detector Array-based Gamma camera for Oncology), a detection system developed for high-spatial resolution gamma-ray imaging. This camera is based on a monolithic array of 77 silicon drift detectors (SDDs), with a total active area of 6.7 cm(2), coupled to a single 5-mm-thick CsI(Tl) scintillator crystal. The use of an array of SDDs provides a high quantum efficiency for the detection of the scintillation light together with a very low electronics noise. A very compact detection module based on the use of integrated readout circuits was developed. The performances achieved in gamma-ray imaging using this camera are reported here. When imaging a 0.2 mm collimated (57)Co source (122 keV) over different points of the active area, a spatial resolution ranging from 0.25 to 0.5 mm was measured. The depth-of-interaction capability of the detector, thanks to the use of a Maximum Likelihood reconstruction algorithm, was also investigated by imaging a collimated beam tilted to an angle of 45 degrees with respect to the scintillator surface. Finally, the imager was characterized with in vivo measurements on mice, in a real preclinical environment.

  5. Measurement of the $e^+ e^- \\to \\gamma\\gamma (\\gamma)$ cross section at the LEP energies

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Adzic, P; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andersson, P; Andreazza, A; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Bertini, D; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Bizouard, M A; Bloch, D; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borgland, A W; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bozovic, I; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Cerruti, C; Chabaud, V; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chen, M; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Collins, P; Colomer, M; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Cowell, J H; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; D'Almagne, B; Damgaard, G; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Diodato, A; Djannati, A; Dolbeau, J; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Duperrin, A; Durand, J D; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Fayot, J; Feindt, Michael; Fenyuk, A; Ferrari, P; Ferrer, A; Fichet, S; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Franek, B J; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gaspar, M; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Ghodbane, N; Gil, I; Glege, F; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gonçalves, P; González-Caballero, I; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Grahl, J; Graziani, E; Green, C; Grefrath, A; Gris, P; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Haider, S; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Heising, S; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Heuser, J M; Higón, E; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, C; Juillot, P; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Kluit, P M; Knoblauch, D; Kokkinias, P; Konoplyannikov, A K; Koratzinos, M; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Kronkvist, I J; Krstic, J; Krumshtein, Z; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Leinonen, L; Leisos, A; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Lethuillier, M; Libby, J; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; Lopes, J H; López, J M; López-Fernandez, R; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Mahon, J R; Maio, A; Malek, A; Malmgren, T G M; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; McPherson, G; Meroni, C; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Moreau, X; Morettini, P; Morton, G A; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mulet-Marquis, C; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Némécek, S; Neufeld, N; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Nikolenko, M; Normand, Ainsley; Nygren, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Orazi, G; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Pain, R; Paiva, R; Palacios, J; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rakoczy, D; Rames, J; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Røhne, O M; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Rosenberg, E I; Rosinsky, P; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sampsonidis, D; Sannino, M; Schneider, H; Schwemling, P; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Sheridan, A; Silvestre, R; Simard, L C; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sopczak, André; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stampfer, D; Stanescu, C; Stanic, S; Stapnes, Steinar; Stevenson, K; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tegenfeldt, F; Terranova, F; Thomas, J; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Todorova, S; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Vulpen, I B; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Weiser, C; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G R; Winter, M; Witek, M; Wlodek, T; Wolf, G; Yi, J; Yushchenko, O P; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    1998-01-01

    The total and the differential cross-sections for the reaction $e^+e^-\\rightarrow \\gamma\\gamma(\\gamma)$ have been measured with the DELPHI detector at LEP % with at centre-of-mass energies from 1 30 %, 136, 161, 172 and to 183 GeV for an integrated luminosity of 78.19.~pb$^{-1}$. %CR An agreement with the QED predictions was found and consequently The results agree with the QED prediction s. The lower limits (obtained including previously published results at the $\\Zzero$ energies) on the QED cutoff parameters are $\\Lambda_{+} > 253$~GeV and $\\Lambda_{-} > 225$~GeV and the lower bo und on the mass of an excited electron with an effective coupling constant $\\lambda_{\\gamma} = 1$ is 231~GeV/$c^2$. %Upper limits on the branching ratios for the decays ${\\rm Z}^0\\rightarrow %\\gam ma\\gamma$, ${\\rm Z}^0\\rightarrow \\pi^0\\gamma$, % ${\\rm Z}^0\\rightarrow \\eta\\gamma$ %and ${\\rm Z}^0\\rightarrow \\gamma\\gamma\\gamma$ have been determined to be 2.5 % $\\times$ $10^{-5}$, 2.5 $\\times$ $ 10^{-5}$, % 4.0 $\\times$ $10^{-5}$, %and...

  6. Effects of gamma-ray-induced free radicals on the metal content and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MTs are involved in metal homeostasis and heavy metal detoxification, and are efficient scavengers of free radicals. This article describes zinc release from human MT-1 and modification of its amino acid composition when subjected to free radicals generated during gamma ray radiolysis. The effect of gamma ray radiolysis ...

  7. Strain-specific renal toxicity of heterologous antilymphocyte [gamma]-globulin in mice7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, B.J.; Vries, M.J. de; Noord, M.J. van; Lubbe, F.H.

    1970-01-01

    Severe glomerulonephritis followed one to five weekly i.p. injections in TLFM mice of rabbit antimouse lymphocyte [gamma]-globulin (ALG). Glomerulonephritis did not occur in C57BL mice subjected to the same regimen. Administration of normal rabbit [gamma]-globulin (NRG) to RFM mice also caused renal

  8. Applied gamma-ray spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Dams, R; Crouthamel, Carl E

    1970-01-01

    Applied Gamma-Ray Spectrometry covers real life application of the gamma-ray and the devices used in their experimental studies. This book is organized into 9 chapters, and starts with discussions of the various decay processes, the possible interaction mechanisms of gamma radiation with matter, and the intrinsic and extrinsic variables, which affect the observed gamma-ray and X-ray spectra. The subsequent chapters deal with the properties and fabrication of scintillation detectors, semiconductor detectors, and proportional gas counters. These chapters present some of the most widely utilized

  9. Determination of the $e^+ e^- \\to \\gamma \\gamma (\\gamma)$ cross-section at LEP 2

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J; Adam, W; Adzic, P; Albrecht, T; Alderweireld, T; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anashkin, E; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Anjos, N; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Ballestrero, A; Bambade, P; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G J; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benekos, N C; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Berntzon, L; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Besson, N; Bloch, D; Blom, M; Bluj, M; Bonesini, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bracko, M; Brenner, R; Brodet, E; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buschmann, P; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Castro, N; Cavallo, F R; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Checchia, P; Chierici, R; Shlyapnikov, P; Chudoba, J; Chung, S U; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Costa, M J; Crennell, D J; Cuevas-Maestro, J; D'Hondt, J; Dalmau, J; Da Silva, T; Da Silva, W; Della Ricca, G; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Maria, N; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Simone, A; Doroba, K; Drees, J; Dris, M; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Espirito-Santo, M C; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, M; Fernández, J; Ferrer, A; Ferro, F; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Guy, J; Haag, C; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hamilton, K; Haug, S; Hauler, F; Hedberg, V; Hennecke, M; Herr, H; Hoffman, J; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Houlden, M A; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Johansson, P D; Jonsson, P; Joram, C; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Kernel, G; Kersevan, B P; Kerzel, U; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B T; Kjaer, N J; Kluit, P; Kokkinias, P; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krumshtein, Z; Kucharczyk, M; Lamsa, J; Leder, G; Ledroit, F; Leinonen, L; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lopes, J H; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J; Malek, A; Maltezos, S; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McNulty, R; Meroni, C; Migliore, E; Mitaroff, W A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Mönig, K; Monge, R; Montenegro, J; Moraes, D; Moreno, S; Morettini, P; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L; Murray, W; Muryn, B; Myatt, G; Myklebust, T; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Nawrocki, K; Nicolaidou, R; Nikolenko, M; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, R; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Oyanguren, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Palacios, J P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Peralta, L; Perepelitsa, V F; Perrotta, A; Petrolini, A; Piedra, J; Pieri, L; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Poireau, V; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Pozdnyakov, V; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Rames, J; Read, A; Rebecchi, P; Rehn, J; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rivero, M; Rodríguez, D; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Roudeau, P; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ryabtchikov, D; Sadovskii, A; Salmi, L; Salt, J; Sander, C; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schwickerath, U; Segar, A; Sekulin, R L; Siebel, M; Sissakian, A N; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O G; Sokolov, A; Sopczak, A; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Stanitzki, M; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Szumlak, T; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Taffard, A C; Tegenfeldt, F; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Tobin, M; Todorovova, S; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortosa, P; Travnicek, P; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyapkin, P; Tzamarias, S; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; van Dam, P; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Remortel, N; Van Vulpen, I; Vegni, G; Veloso, F; Venus, W A; Verdier, P; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Washbrook, A J; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G; Winter, M; Witek, M; Yushchenko, O P; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, P; Zavrtanik, D; Zhuravlov, V; Zimin, N I; Zintchenko, A; Zupan, M

    2004-01-01

    A test of the benchmark QED process e+e- -> gamma gamma (gamma) is reported, using the data collected with the DELPHI detector at LEP 2. The data analysed were recorded at centre-of-mass energies ranging from 161 GeV to 208 GeV and correspond to a total integrated luminosity of 656.4 pb^{-1}. The Born cross-section for the process e+e- -> gamma gamma (gamma) was determined, confirming the validity of QED at the highest energies ever attained in electron-positron collisions. Lower limits on the parameters of a number of possible deviations from QED, predicted within theoretical frameworks expressing physics beyond the Standard Model, were derived.

  10. Predictions for $B \\to K \\gamma \\gamma$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Hiller, G; Hiller, Gudrun

    2005-01-01

    We present a phenomenological study of the rare double radiative decay $B\\to K \\gamma\\gamma$ in the Standard Model (SM) and beyond. Using the operator product expansion (OPE) technique, we estimate the short-distance (SD) contribution to the decay amplitude in a region of the phase space which is around the point where all decay products have energy $\\sim m_b/3$ in the rest frame of the $B$-meson. At lowest order in 1/Q, where $Q$ is of order $m_b$, the $B\\to K \\gamma\\gamma$ matrix element is then expressed in terms of the usual $B\\to K$ form factors known from semileptonic rare decays. The integrated SD branching ratio in the SM in the OPE region turns out to be $\\Delta {\\cal{B}}(B \\to K \\gamma \\gamma)_{SM}^{OPE} \\simeq 1 \\times 10^{-9}$. We work out the di-photon invariant mass distribution with and without the resonant background through $B\\to K \\{\\eta_c,\\chi_{c0}\\}\\to K\\gamma \\gamma$. In the SM, the resonance contribution is dominant in the region of phase space where the OPE is valid. The present experim...

  11. Whisker growth on Sn thin film accelerated under gamma-ray induced electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killefer, Morgan; Borra, Vamsi; Al-Bayati, Ahmed; Georgiev, Daniel G.; Karpov, Victor G.; Ishmael Parsai, E.; Shvydka, Diana

    2017-10-01

    We report on the growth of tin metal whiskers significantly accelerated under non-destructive gamma-ray irradiation. Sn thin film, evaporated on glass substrate, was subjected to a total of 60 h of irradiation. The irradiated samples demonstrated enhanced whisker development, in both densities and lengths, resulting in an acceleration factor of  ∼50. We attribute the observed enhancement to gamma-ray induced electrostatic fields, affecting whisker kinetics. These fields are due to the substrate charging under gamma-rays. We propose that gamma-ray irradiation can be a much needed tool for accelerated testing of whisker propensity.

  12. Physics at a gamma gamma, e gamma and e-e- Option for a Linear Collider

    CERN Document Server

    de Roeck, A

    2003-01-01

    This report presents a review of the studies made in the working group on gamma gamma and e gamma physics" of the ECFA/DESY workshop on linear collider physics. It reports on several new physics studies, in particular s-channel Higgs production. A summary of R&D activities for the interaction region is presented. The merits of e-e- collisions are briefly recalled.

  13. Search for C-parity violation in J/psi -> gamma gamma and gamma phi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Ferroli, R. Baldini; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Braun, S.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Chu, Y. P.; Cibinetto, G.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; De Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, Y.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, Y.; Garzia, I.; Geng, C.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, T.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Han, S.; Han, Y. L.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, Z. Y.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, H. P.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kuehn, W.; Kupsc, A.; Lai, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leyhe, M.; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Q. J.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. H.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. L.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, R. Q.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lv, M.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Moeini, H.; Morales, C. Morales; Moriya, K.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Pu, Y. N.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Y.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ren, H. L.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Santoro, V.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrie, M.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Toth, D.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Werner, M.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Xue, Z.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, H. W.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zang, S. L.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, Li; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Using 1.06 x 10(8) psi(3686) events recorded in e(+)e(-) collisions at root s = 3.686 GeV with the BESIII at the BEPCII collider, we present searches for C-parity violation in J/psi -> gamma gamma and gamma phi decays via psi(3686) -> J/psi pi(+)pi(-). No significant signals are observed in either

  14. Propagation speed of gamma radiation in brass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, Jose T.P.D.; Silva, Paulo R.J.; Saitovich, Henrique

    2009-07-01

    The propagation speed (PS) of visible light -represented by a short frequency range in the large frame of electromagnetic radiations (ER) frequencies- in air was measured during the last century, using a great deal of different methods, with high precision results being achieved. Presently, a well accepted value, with very small uncertainty, is c= 299,792.458 Km/s) (c reporting to the Latin word celeritas: 'speed swiftness'). When propagating in denser material media (MM), such value is always lower when compared to the air value, with the propagating MM density playing an important role. Until present, such studies focusing propagation speeds, refractive indexes, dispersions were specially related to visible light, or to ER in wavelengths ranges dose to it, and with a transparent MM. A first incursion in this subject dealing with {gamma}-rays was performed using an electronic coincidence counting system, when the value of it's PS was measured in air, C{sub {gamma}}{sub (air)}298,300.15 Km/s; a method that went on with later electronic improvements. always in air. To perform such measurements the availability of a {gamma}-radiation source in which two {gamma}-rays are emitted simultaneously in opposite directions -as already used as well as applied in the present case- turns out to be essential to the feasibility of the experiment, as far as no reflection techniques could be used. Such a suitable source was the positron emitter {sup 22}Na placed in a thin wall metal container in which the positrons are stopped and annihilated when reacting with the medium electrons, in such way originating -as it is very well established from momentum/energy conservation laws - two gamma-rays, energy 511 KeV each, both emitted simultaneously in opposite directions. In all the previous experiments were used photomultiplier detectors coupled to NaI(Tl) crystal scintillators, which have a good energy resolution but a deficient time resolution for such purposes

  15. Gamma-hadron families and scaling violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaisser, T. K.; Stanev, T.; Wrotniak, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    For three different interaction models we have simulated gamma-hadron families, including the detector (Pamir emulsion chamber) response. Rates of gamma families, hadrons, and hadron-gamma ratios were compared with experiments.

  16. GGT (Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) Send Us Your Feedback Choose ... Content Related Images View Sources Also Known As Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidase GGTP Gamma-GT GTP Formal Name ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: mucolipidosis III gamma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Mucolipidosis III gamma Mucolipidosis III gamma Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Mucolipidosis III gamma is a slowly progressive disorder that affects many ...

  18. Development of hardened PVF: PMMA polyblend: effect of gamma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Specimens of poly(vinyl formal) (PVF) : poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) polyblends with different weight percentage ratios were subjected to gamma irradiation (1 to 50 Mrad) and electron irradiation (1 to 20 Mrad). The effect of irradiation on the strength of the blend specimens was studied by measuring the surface ...

  19. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Jens

    A new method - Noise Adjusted Singular Value Decomposition, NASVD - for processing gamma-ray spectra has been developed as part of a Ph.D. project. By using this technique one is able to decompose a large set of data - for example from airborne gamma-ray surveys - into a few spectral components...

  20. Dry eye-induced conjunctival epithelial squamous metaplasia is modulated by interferon-gamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paiva, Cintia S; Villarreal, Arturo L; Corrales, Rosa M; Rahman, Hassan T; Chang, Victor Y; Farley, William J; Stern, Michael E; Niederkorn, Jerry Y; Li, De-Quan; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2007-06-01

    To investigate the role of interferon (IFN)-gamma in the pathogenesis of conjunctival squamous metaplasia in dry eye. Experimental dry eye was created by subjecting C57BL/6 and IFN-gamma-knockout mice to desiccating environmental stress for 5 or 10 days. T-cell antigens and IFN-gamma were detected by immunohistochemistry. Goblet cells were counted in periodic acid Schiff (PAS)-stained sections. Expression of small, proline-rich protein (SPRR)-2 was evaluated by confocal microscopy. Tear IFN-gamma was measured by immunobead assay. Dry eye promoted migration of CD4+ T cells and IFN-gamma+ cells into goblet cell zones of the conjunctiva and increased the concentration of IFN-gamma in tears. This migration was accompanied by progressive goblet cell loss and an increase in SPRR-2 expression in the conjunctival epithelium. A significant inverse correlation was observed between the density of infiltrating CD4+ T cells and goblet cells. Dry eye had no effect on conjunctival goblet cell density in IFN-gamma-knockout mice; however, exogenous administration of IFN-gamma significantly decreased goblet cell density after 5 days. Conjunctival epithelial response to experimental dryness is related to the degree of CD4+ T-cell infiltration and the level of IFN-gamma production. These findings suggest that IFN-gamma plays a pivotal role in promoting conjunctival squamous metaplasia in dry eye, and they provide insight into the immune pathogenesis of keratoconjunctivitis sicca.

  1. Studies of the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 (PPAR-gamma2) gene in relation to insulin sensitivity among glucose tolerant caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, J; Andersen, G; Urhammer, S A

    2001-01-01

    We examined whether the Pro12-Ala polymorphism of the human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 (PPAR-gamma2) gene was related to altered insulin sensitivity among glucose-tolerant subjects or a lower accumulated incidence or prevalence of IGT and Type II (non-insulin-dependent) dia......We examined whether the Pro12-Ala polymorphism of the human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 (PPAR-gamma2) gene was related to altered insulin sensitivity among glucose-tolerant subjects or a lower accumulated incidence or prevalence of IGT and Type II (non...

  2. Dosimetry computer module of the gamma irradiator of ININ; Modulo informatico de dosimetria del irradiador gamma del ININ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledezma F, L. E.; Baldomero J, R. [ININ, Gerencia de Sistemas Informaticos, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Agis E, K. A., E-mail: luis.ledezma@inin.gob.mx [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Ingenieria, Cerro de Coatepec s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 50100 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    This work present the technical specifications for the upgrade of the dosimetry module of the computer system of the gamma irradiator of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) whose result allows the integration and consultation of information in industrial dosimetry subject under an outline client-server. (Author)

  3. Development of marijuana and tobacco detectors using potassium-40 gamma ray emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Fission Energy and Systems Safety Program; Lindquist, R.P. [Customs Service, Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Measurements were made at the Otay Mesa, Ca. border crossing between November 30 and December 4, 1992 to demonstrate proof of concept and the practicality of using potassium 40 (K40) gamma emissions to detect the presence of marijuana in vehicles. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) personnel, with the assistance of the EPA, set up three large volume gamma ray detectors with lead brick shielding and collimation under a stationary trailer and pickup truck. Measurements were performed for various positions and quantities of marijuana. Also, small quantities of marijuana, cigarettes, and other materials were subjected to gamma counting measurements under controlled geometry conditions to determine their K40 concentration. Larger quantities of heroin and cocaine were subjected to undefined geometry gamma counts for significant K40 gamma emissions.

  4. Interferon Gamma in Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kima, Peter E.; Soong, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a complex disease that is caused by parasites of the Leishmania genus. Leishmania are further classified into several complexes, each of which can engage in distinct interactions with mammalian hosts resulting in differing disease presentations. It is therefore not unexpected that host immune responses to Leishmania are variable. The induction of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and response to it in these infections has received considerable attention. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of some of the host responses during Leishmania infections that are regulated by IFN-γ. In addition, studies that explore the nature of parasite-derived molecular mediators that might affect the host response to IFN-γ are also discussed. PMID:23801993

  5. Search for H --> gamma gamma in association with one jet

    CERN Document Server

    Zmushko, V V

    2002-01-01

    The discovery potential of ATLAS detector for ${H \\to \\gamma \\gamma}$ is discussed for the case of the Higgs production in association with one jet. The detailed simulation of the signal and the backgrounds was carried out. For signal the different approaches are compared which led to a similar results after the choice of the proper cuts and normalization. The $pp \\to \\gamma \\gamma + jet + X$ background was generated with the exact matrix-elements. The parton-shower, hadronization and detector simulation influence on results was studied. It was found the result dependence with respect to the choice of the parton-showering scale $Q$ for the background. In any case, for \\mH = 115 $\\div$140~GeV the signal significance was evaluated about or above 5 for an integrated luminosity of 30 fb$^{-1}$.

  6. Towards an amplitude analysis of exclusive. gamma gamma. processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, M.R.

    1988-06-01

    The potential of two photon processes to shed light on the parton content of resonances, we maintain, can only be realized in practice by moving towards an Amplitude Analysis of experimental data. By using the process ..gamma gamma.. ..-->.. ..pi pi.. as an example, the way to do this is discussed. Presently claimed uncertainties in the ..gamma gamma.. width of even the well-known f/sub 2/ (1270) are shown to be over-optimistic and the fitted couplings of the overlapping scalar states in the 1 GeV region meaningless. Only the use of Amplitude Analysis techniques on the new higher statistics data from SLAC and DESY can resolve these uncertainties and lead to definite and significant results. 37 refs., 18 figs.

  7. $\\gamma\\gamma$ physics with the KLOE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Archilli, F.; Badoni, D.; Balwierz, I.; Bencivenni, G.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Bocci, V.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Budano, A.; Bulychjev, S.A.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Ceradini, F.; Ciambrone, P.; Czerwiński, E.; Dané, E.; De Lucia, E.; De Robertis, G.; De Santis, A.; De Zorzi, G.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Domenici, D.; Erriquez, O.; Fanizzi, G.; Felici, G.; Fiore, S.; Franzini, P.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Gonnella, F.; Graziani, E.; Happacher, F.; Höistad, B.; Iarocci, E.; Jacewicz, M.; Johansson, T.; Kulikov, V.; Kupsc, A.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Loddo, F.; Martemianov, M.; Martini, M.; Matsyuk, M.; Messi, R.; Miscetti, S.; Morello, G.; Moricciani, D.; Moskal, P.; Nguyen, F.; Passeri, A.; Patera, V.; Prado Longhi, I.; Ranieri, A.; Santangelo, P.; Sarra, I.; Schioppa, M.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Silarski, M.; Taccini, C.; Tortora, L.; Venanzoni, G.; Versaci, R.; Wiślicki, W.; Wolke, M.; Zdebik, J.

    2011-01-01

    The processes $e^+e^-\\to e^+e^-X$, with $X$ being either the $\\eta$ meson or $\\pi^0\\pi^0$, are studied at DA$\\Phi$NE, with $e^+e^-$ beams colliding at $\\sqrt{s}\\simeq1$ GeV, below the $\\phi$ resonance peak. The data sample is from an integrated luminosity of 240 pb$^{-1}$, collected by the KLOE experiment without tagging of the outgoing $e^+e^-$. Preliminary results are presented on the observation of the $\\gamma\\gamma\\to\\eta$ process, with both $\\eta\\to\\pi^+\\pi^-\\pi^0$ and $\\eta\\to\\pi^0\\pi^0\\pi^0$ channels, and the evidence for $\\gamma\\gamma\\to\\pi^0\\pi^0$ production at low $\\pi^0\\pi^0$ invariant mass.

  8. Digital gamma-gamma coincidence HPGe system for environmental analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Nikola; Roos, Per; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    2017-01-01

    The performance of a new gamma-gamma coincidence spectrometer system for environmental samples analysis at the Center for Nuclear Technologies of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) is reported. Nutech Coincidence Low Energy Germanium Sandwich (NUCLeGeS) system consists of two HPGe detectors...... in a surface laboratory with a digital acquisition system used to collect the data in time-stamped list mode with 10. ns time resolution. The spectrometer is used in both anticoincidence and coincidence modes....

  9. Diamond gamma dose rate monitor; Debitmetre gamma en diamant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambilla, A.; Chambaud, P.; Tromson, D.; Bergonzo, P.; Foulon, F.; Joffre, F. [CEA Saclay, Dept. d' Electronique et d' Instrumentation Nucleaire, LETI, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1999-07-01

    CVD (chemical vapor deposition) diamond detectors for X and gamma dose rate monitoring have been fabricated and tested in the 1 mGy/h to 1 kGy/h range. They show excellent performances in terms of sensitivity and linearity. Radiation hardness measurement under 60-Co gamma rays have demonstrated long term stability for integrated doses up to 500 kGy. (authors)

  10. EPR structure of the gamma irradiated alanine spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral P, A.; Jimenez D, H.; Urena N, F.; Galindo, S.; Bosch, P

    1992-03-15

    In this study is shown that the broadened five-line EPR pattern of the gamma irradiated alanine possibly decomposes into a more complex pattern when the recorded spectrum is subject to an operation of deconvolution. The EPR powder spectra of gamma irradiated DL- and L-alanine with and without binders are analysed. In all recorded spectra, each observed line is resolved into an asymmetrical triplet when a Gaussian distribution of 8.2 gauss width is removed, by deconvolution, from the observed spectrum. On the other hand, from a simple fitting analysis carried out on the original data, one encounters that some calculated relations between characteristic parameters, such as intensity ratios, deviate consistently from assumed height ratios. Both, from deconvolution and fitting results, a different structure is suggested for the observed broadened five-line EPR pattern of {gamma}-irradiated powder DL- and L-alanine. (Author)

  11. Decrease in gamma-band activity tracks sequence learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika eMadhavan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning novel sequences constitutes an important example of declarative memory formation. Performance in sequence learning tasks improves with repetition and involves forming temporal associations over scales of seconds to minutes. To further understand the neural circuits underlying declarative sequence learning over trials, we tracked changes in intracranial field potentials from 1142 electrodes in fourteen human subjects while they learned the temporal-order of multiple sequences over trials through repeated recall. We observed a decrease in power in the gamma frequency band (30-100Hz in the recall phase during the course of learning over trials, particularly in areas within the temporal lobe. Gamma power was directly correlated with the improvement in recall performance and was reset when learning new sequences. The decrease in gamma frequency band amplitudes over trials may reflect the need for plasticity early in the learning process combined with relatively reduced levels of plasticity required to maintain learned memory traces.

  12. Joining of Gamma Titanium Aluminides

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baeslack, William

    2002-01-01

    ... aluminides, are broadly applicable. Generally, the basic welding processes and techniques utilized in the fusion and solid -state friction welding of conventional titanium alloys can also be applied to the welding of gamma titanium aluminides...

  13. Gamma rays from cosmic radioactivities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Diehl, Roland; Hartmann, Dieter H; Prantzos, Nikos

    2007-01-01

    .... Cobalt lines from SN1987A and 44 Ti lines from the Cassiopeia A (Cas A) supernova remnant offer unique constraints on the properties of the innermost regions of core collapse supernovae. Diffuse gamma...

  14. About cosmic gamma ray lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Roland

    2017-06-01

    Gamma ray lines from cosmic sources convey the action of nuclear reactions in cosmic sites and their impacts on astrophysical objects. Gamma rays at characteristic energies result from nuclear transitions following radioactive decays or high-energy collisions with excitation of nuclei. The gamma-ray line from the annihilation of positrons at 511 keV falls into the same energy window, although of different origin. We present here the concepts of cosmic gamma ray spectrometry and the corresponding instruments and missions, followed by a discussion of recent results and the challenges and open issues for the future. Among the lessons learned are the diffuse radioactive afterglow of massive-star nucleosynthesis in 26Al and 60Fe gamma rays, which is now being exploited towards the cycle of matter driven by massive stars and their supernovae; large interstellar cavities and superbubbles have been recognised to be of key importance here. Also, constraints on the complex processes making stars explode as either thermonuclear or core-collapse supernovae are being illuminated by gamma-ray lines, in this case from shortlived radioactivities from 56Ni and 44Ti decays. In particular, the three-dimensionality and asphericities that have recently been recognised as important are enlightened in different ways through such gamma-ray line spectroscopy. Finally, the distribution of positron annihilation gamma ray emission with its puzzling bulge-dominated intensity disctribution is measured through spatially-resolved spectra, which indicate that annihilation conditions may differ in different parts of our Galaxy. But it is now understood that a variety of sources may feed positrons into the interstellar medium, and their characteristics largely get lost during slowing down and propagation of positrons before annihilation; a recent microquasar flare was caught as an opportunity to see positrons annihilate at a source.

  15. Directional detector of gamma rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Samson A.; Levert, Francis E.

    1979-01-01

    A directional detector of gamma rays comprises a strip of an electrical cuctor of high atomic number backed with a strip of a second electrical conductor of low atomic number. These elements are enclosed within an electrical conductor that establishes an electrical ground, maintains a vacuum enclosure and screens out low-energy gamma rays. The detector exhibits a directional sensitivity marked by an increased output in the favored direction by a factor of ten over the output in the unfavored direction.

  16. Notes on the gamma kernel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.

    The density function of the gamma distribution is used as shift kernel in Brownian semistationary processes modelling the timewise behaviour of the velocity in turbulent regimes. This report presents exact and asymptotic properties of the second order structure function under such a model......, and relates these to results of von Karmann and Horwath. But first it is shown that the gamma kernel is interpretable as a Green’s function....

  17. Beta- and gamma-range human lower limb corticomuscular coherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph T Gwin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Coherence between electroencephalography (EEG recorded on the scalp above the motor cortex and electromyography (EMG recorded on the skin of the limbs is thought to reflect corticospinal coupling between motor cortex and muscle motor units. Beta-range (13-30 Hz corticomuscular coherence has been extensively documented during static force output while gamma-range (31-45 Hz coherence has been linked to dynamic force output. However, the explanation for this beta-to-gamma coherence shift remains unclear. We recorded 264-channel EEG and 8-channel lower limb electromyography (EMG while 8 healthy subjects performed isometric and isotonic, knee and ankle exercises. Adaptive mixture independent component analysis (AMICA parsed EEG into models of underlying source signals. We computed magnitude squared coherence between electrocortical source signals and EMG. Significant coherence between contralateral motor cortex electrocortical signals and lower limb EMG was observed in the beta- and gamma-range for all exercise types. Gamma-range coherence was significantly greater for isotonic exercises than for isometric exercises. We conclude that active muscle movement modulates the speed of corticospinal oscillations. Specifically, isotonic contractions shift corticospinal oscillations towards the gamma-range while isometric contractions favor beta-range oscillations. Prior research has suggested that tasks requiring increased integration of visual and somatosensory information may shift corticomuscular coherence to the gamma-range. The isometric and isotonic tasks studied here likely required similar amounts of visual and somatosensory integration. This suggests that muscle dynamics, including the amount and type of proprioception, may play a role in the beta-to-gamma shift.

  18. Characterisation of a clothing material for gamma dosimetry in mixed neutron-gamma fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benabdesselam, M.; Iacconi, P.; Lapraz, D. [LPES-CRESA, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Nice (France); Serbat, A.; Dhermain, J. [DGA/CEB, Arcueil (France); Laugier, J. [DGA/CEB, Centre d`Etudes du Bouchet, Vert-le-Petit (France)

    1997-09-01

    When an irradiation accident occurs, it is very important for medical treatment to be able to reconstruct the cartography of the dose absorbed by the irradiated person. A cotton textile coated with an {alpha}-alumina dosimetric powder is suitable to clothe persons subjected to irradiation risks. With some precautions, the dose may be measured by thermoluminescence (TL). Responses of the aluminised cotton textile relative to the absorbed dose are shown for different ratios of D{sub {gamma}}/D{sub n} and relative to the photon energy. (author).

  19. Gamma-gamma prime-gamma double prime dual-superlattice superalloys

    OpenAIRE

    Mignanelli, Paul Michael; Jones, Nicholas Gwilym; Pickering, EJ; Messé, OMDM; Rae, Catherine Mary; Hardy, MC; Stone, Howard James

    2017-01-01

    Improving the efficiency of gas turbine engines requires the development of new materials capable of operating at higher temperatures and stresses. Here, we report on a new polycrystalline nickel-base superalloy that has exceptional strength and thermal stability. These properties have been achieved through a four-element composition that can form both gamma prime and gamma double prime precipitates in comparable volume fractions, creating an unusual dual-superlattice microstructure. Alloying...

  20. Formation of visual memories controlled by gamma power phase-locked to alpha oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyojin; Lee, Dong Soo; Kang, Eunjoo; Kang, Hyejin; Hahm, Jarang; Kim, June Sic; Chung, Chun Kee; Jiang, Haiteng; Gross, Joachim; Jensen, Ole

    2016-06-01

    Neuronal oscillations provide a window for understanding the brain dynamics that organize the flow of information from sensory to memory areas. While it has been suggested that gamma power reflects feedforward processing and alpha oscillations feedback control, it remains unknown how these oscillations dynamically interact. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) data was acquired from healthy subjects who were cued to either remember or not remember presented pictures. Our analysis revealed that in anticipation of a picture to be remembered, alpha power decreased while the cross-frequency coupling between gamma power and alpha phase increased. A measure of directionality between alpha phase and gamma power predicted individual ability to encode memory: stronger control of alpha phase over gamma power was associated with better memory. These findings demonstrate that encoding of visual information is reflected by a state determined by the interaction between alpha and gamma activity.

  1. The Gamma-ray Sky with Fermi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David

    2012-01-01

    Gamma rays reveal extreme, nonthermal conditions in the Universe. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been exploring the gamma-ray sky for more than four years, enabling a search for powerful transients like gamma-ray bursts, novae, solar flares, and flaring active galactic nuclei, as well as long-term studies including pulsars, binary systems, supernova remnants, and searches for predicted sources of gamma rays such as dark matter annihilation. Some results include a stringent limit on Lorentz invariance derived from a gamma-ray burst, unexpected gamma-ray variability from the Crab Nebula, a huge gamma-ray structure associated with the center of our galaxy, surprising behavior from some gamma-ray binary systems, and a possible constraint on some WIMP models for dark matter.

  2. IL-4 decreases Fc gamma R membrane expression and Fc gamma R-mediated cytotoxic activity of human monocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Velde, A. A.; Huijbens, R. J.; de Vries, J. E.; Figdor, C. G.

    1990-01-01

    Monocytes can express three classes of FcR for IgG: Fc gamma RI, Fc gamma RII, and Fc gamma RIII (CD64, CD32, and CD16, respectively) of which the Fc gamma RIII is expressed after prolonged culture. Fc gamma R expression is regulated by IFN-gamma. Because IFN-gamma and IL-4 have antagonistic effects

  3. Co-axial, high energy gamma generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijonen, Jani Petteri [Princeton, NJ; Gicquel, Frederic [Pennington, NJ

    2011-08-16

    A gamma ray generator includes an ion source in a first chamber. A second chamber is configured co-axially around the first chamber at a lower second pressure. Co-axially arranged plasma apertures separate the two chambers and provide for restricted passage of ions and gas from the first to the second chamber. The second chamber is formed by a puller electrode having at least one long channel aperture to draw ions from the first chamber when the puller electrode is subject to an appropriate applied potential. A plurality of electrodes rings in the third chamber in third pressure co-axially surround the puller electrode and have at least one channel corresponding to the at least one puller electrode aperture and plasma aperture. The electrode rings increase the energy of the ions to a selected energy in stages in passing between successive pairs of the electrodes by application of an accelerating voltage to the successive pairs of accelerator electrodes. A target disposed co-axially around the plurality of electrodes receives the beam of accelerated ions, producing gamma rays.

  4. Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Astrophysics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    During the last decades, various classes of radio-loud active galactic nuclei have been established as sources of high-energy radiation extending over a very broad range from soft gamma-rays (photon energies E~MeV) up to very-high-energy gamma-rays (E>100 GeV). These include blazars of different types, as well as young and evolved radio galaxies. The observed gamma-ray emission from such implies efficient particle acceleration processes taking place in highly magnetized and relativistic jets produced by supermassive black holes, processes that have yet to be identified and properly understood. In addition, nearby starforming and starburst galaxies, some of which host radio-quiet Seyfert-type nuclei, have been detected in the gamma-ray range as well. In their cases, the observed gamma-ray emission is due to non-thermal activity in the interstellar medium, possibly including also a contribution from accretion disks and nuclear outflows. Finally, the high-energy emission from clusters of galaxies remains elusive...

  5. Quality assurance for gamma knives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, E.D.; Banks, W.W.; Fischer, L.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This report describes and summarizes the results of a quality assurance (QA) study of the Gamma Knife, a nuclear medical device used for the gamma irradiation of intracranial lesions. Focus was on the physical aspects of QA and did not address issues that are essentially medical, such as patient selection or prescription of dose. A risk-based QA assessment approach was used. Sample programs for quality control and assurance are included. The use of the Gamma Knife was found to conform to existing standards and guidelines concerning radiation safety and quality control of external beam therapies (shielding, safety reviews, radiation surveys, interlock systems, exposure monitoring, good medical physics practices, etc.) and to be compliant with NRC teletherapy regulations. There are, however, current practices for the Gamma Knife not covered by existing, formalized regulations, standards, or guidelines. These practices have been adopted by Gamma Knife users and continue to be developed with further experience. Some of these have appeared in publications or presentations and are slowly finding their way into recommendations of professional organizations.

  6. High-resolution gamma imaging; Imagerie gamma haute resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmentier, M.; Pousse, A.; Tamba, N.; Chavanelle, J.; Bakkali, A.; Kastler, B. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Lab. Imagerie et Ingenierie pour la Sante, Faculte de Medecine, 25 - Besancon (France)

    2004-01-01

    Gamma imaging involves two-dimensional images of the volume distribution of a radioactive tracer previously injected into the organ under functional exploration. Our Besancon laboratory developed a gamma imager with a spatial resolution three or four times higher than a classic device, which is very useful for functional explorations on small animal, as recently demonstrated by work on myocyte apoptosis and necrosis scintigraphy in the rat. We expect progress in this promising medical imaging technology to be driven by developments in scintillating crystals and position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes, and by medical demand in applications such as early detection of breast cancer. (authors)

  7. Design and Performance of the GAMMA-400 Gamma-Ray Telescope for Dark Matter Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galper, A. M.; Adriani, O.; Aptekar, R. L.; Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Boezio, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Boyarchuk, K. A.; Fradkin, M. I.; Gusakov, Yu V.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope is designed to measure the fluxes of gamma-rays and cosmic-ray electrons (+) positrons, which can be produced by annihilation or decay of the dark matter particles, as well as to survey the celestial sphere in order to study point and extended sources of gamma-rays, measure energy spectra of Galactic and extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray emission, gamma-ray bursts, and gamma-ray emission from the Sun. GAMMA-400 covers the energy range from 100 MeV to 3000 GeV. Its angular resolution is approximately 0.01deg (E(sub gamma) greater than 100 GeV), the energy resolution approximately 1% (E(sub gamma) greater than 10 GeV), and the proton rejection factor approximately 10(exp 6). GAMMA-400 will be installed on the Russian space platform Navigator. The beginning of observations is planned for 2018.

  8. Coincidence gamma-ray spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Nikola; Roos, Per; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    2017-01-01

    events are recorded in a list mode file with their timestamp and energy, enabling coincidence identification and spectrum manipulation in post-processing. When coincidence gamma-spectrometry is used for cascade emitting nuclides, coincident signals can be extracted thus significantly reducing......Gamma-ray spectrometry with high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors is often the technique of choice in an environmental radioactivity laboratory. When measuring environmental samples associated activities are usually low so an important parameter that describes the performance of the spectrometer...... for a nuclide of interest is the minimum detectable activity (MDA). There are many ways for lowering the MDAs in gamma spectrometry. Recently, developments of fast and compact digital acquisition systems have led to growing number of multiple HPGe detector spectrometers. In these applications all detected...

  9. Gamma radiometric survey of Jamaica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalor, G.C.; Robotham, H. (West Indies Univ., Mona (Jamaica)); Miller, J.M.; Simpson, P.R. (British Geological Survey, Keyworth (UK))

    The results of a total gamma radiometric survey of Jamaica, carried out with car-borne instrumentation, are presented and the data compared with the contents of potassium, thorium and uranium in rocks and in surface (soil, stream-sediment, pan concentrate and water) samples obtained at six sites selected to be representative of the principal rock types and surface environments of Jamaica. The work formed part of an orientation study for a regional geochemical survey of the CARICOM countries of the Caribbean. The initial results indicate that enhanced gamma activity is correlated with enrichment in uranium and thorium, but not potassium, in terra rossa soils and/or bauxite deposits in limestone. Elsewhere, gamma levels are increased on the Above Rocks Cretaceous basement Inlier, where they correlate generally with the presence of volcanogenic sediments and a granodiorite intrusion. The lowest radioactivity was recorded in the vicinity of ultrabasic rocks in the Blue Mountains Inlier. (author).

  10. Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase and alkaline phosphatase in rheumatoid arthritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Spooner, R J; Smith, D. H.; Bedford, D.; Beck, P. R.

    1982-01-01

    Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) were assayed in 98 consecutive patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Twenty-three patients had increased GGT activities and 45 an increased AP activity. Twelve patients showed an increase in both enzyme activities and AP isoenzyme studies were performed on seven of this group. In three subjects an increase in the bone isoenzyme was observed and in three others the increase in activity was attributed to the liver isoenzyme. The ...

  11. Precise measurements of the $K_{S}\\to\\gamma\\gamma$ and $K_{L}\\to\\gamma\\gamma$ decay rates

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, A; Marras, D; Batley, J Richard; Dosanjh, R S; Gershon, T J; Kalmus, George Ernest; Lazzeroni, C; Munday, D J; Olaiya, E; Parker, M A; White, T O; Wotton, S A; Arcidiacono, R; Barr, Giles David; Bocquet, G

    2002-01-01

    The K_S -> gammagamma decay rate has been measured with the NA48 detector using a high intensity short neutral beam from the CERN SPS. The measured branching ratio BR(K_S) -> gammagamma = (2.78 +- 0.06_{stat} +- 0.04_{syst}) x 10^{-6}, obtained from 7461 +- 172 K_S -> gammagamma events, is significantly higher than the O(p^4) prediction of Chiral Perturbation Theory. Using a K-L beam the ratio Gamma(K_L-gammagamma / Gamma(K_L -> pi^0pi^0pi^0 = (2.81 +- 0.01_{stat} +- 0.02_{syst}) x 10^{-3} ha...

  12. Gamma source for active interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lou, Tak Pui; Barletta, William A.

    2012-10-02

    A cylindrical gamma generator includes a coaxial RF-driven plasma ion source and target. A hydrogen plasma is produced by RF excitation in a cylindrical plasma ion generator using an RF antenna. A cylindrical gamma generating target is coaxial with the ion generator, separated by plasma and extraction electrodes which has many openings. The plasma generator emanates ions radially over 360.degree. and the cylindrical target is thus irradiated by ions over its entire circumference. The plasma generator and target may be as long as desired.

  13. Gamma source for active interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo [Hercules, CA; Lou, Tak Pui [Berkeley, CA; Barletta, William A [Oakland, CA

    2009-09-29

    A cylindrical gamma generator includes a coaxial RF-driven plasma ion source and target. A hydrogen plasma is produced by RF excitation in a cylindrical plasma ion generator using an RF antenna. A cylindrical gamma generating target is coaxial with the ion generator, separated by plasma and extraction electrodes which has many openings. The plasma generator emanates ions radially over 360.degree. and the cylindrical target is thus irradiated by ions over its entire circumference. The plasma generator and target may be as long as desired.

  14. Thermal neutron capture cross section for Fe-56(n,gamma)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Firestone, R. B.; Belgya, T.; Krtička, M.; Bečvář, F.; Szentmiklosi, L.; Tomandl, Ivo

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 014328. ISSN 2469-9985 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-07117S; GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : neutron cross section * gamma gamma-coincidence data Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.820, year: 2016

  15. QCD and $\\gamma\\,\\gamma$ studies at FCC-ee

    CERN Document Server

    Skands, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The Future Circular Collider (FCC) is a post-LHC project aiming at searches for physics beyond the SM in a new 80--100~km tunnel at CERN. Running in its first phase as a very-high-luminosity electron-positron collider (FCC-ee), it will provide unique possibilities for indirect searches of new phenomena through high-precision tests of the SM. In addition, by collecting tens of ab$^{-1}$ integrated luminosity in the range of center-of-mass energies $\\sqrt{s}$~=90--350~GeV, the FCC-ee also offers unique physics opportunities for precise measurements of QCD phenomena and of photon-photon collisions through, literally, billions of hadronic final states as well as unprecedented large fluxes of quasireal $\\gamma$'s radiated from the $\\rm e^+e^-$ beams. We succinctly summarize the FCC-ee perspectives for high-precision extractions of the QCD coupling, for detailed analyses of parton radiation and fragmentation, and for SM and BSM studies through $\\gamma\\gamma$ collisions.

  16. A {beta} - {gamma} coincidence; Metodo de coincidencias {beta} - {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agullo, F.

    1960-07-01

    A {beta} - {gamma} coincidence method for absolute counting is given. The fundamental principles are revised and the experimental part is detailed. The results from {sup 1}98 Au irradiated in the JEN 1 Swimming pool reactor are given. The maximal accuracy is 1 per cent. (Author) 11 refs.

  17. QCD and $\\gamma\\,\\gamma$ studies at FCC-ee

    CERN Document Server

    Skands, Peter

    2016-10-20

    The Future Circular Collider (FCC) is a post-LHC project aiming at searches for physics beyond the SM in a new 80--100~km tunnel at CERN. Running in its first phase as a very-high-luminosity electron-positron collider (FCC-ee), it will provide unique possibilities for indirect searches of new phenomena through high-precision tests of the SM. In addition, by collecting tens of ab$^{-1}$ integrated luminosity in the range of center-of-mass energies $\\sqrt{s}$~=90--350~GeV, the FCC-ee also offers unique physics opportunities for precise measurements of QCD phenomena and of photon-photon collisions through, literally, billions of hadronic final states as well as unprecedented large fluxes of quasireal $\\gamma$'s radiated from the $\\rm e^+e^-$ beams. We succinctly summarize the FCC-ee perspectives for high-precision extractions of the QCD coupling, for detailed analyses of parton radiation and fragmentation, and for SM and BSM studies through $\\gamma\\gamma$ collisions.

  18. ATLAS Searches for VH, HH, VV, V+$\\gamma$/$\\gamma\\gamma$ Resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of a Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider motivates searches for physics beyond the Standard Model in channels involving coupling to the Higgs boson. A search for massive resonances decaying into couples of bosons is described. The considered final states are: $HH$, $VH$, $VV$, $V\\gamma$ and $\\gamma\\gamma$ with $V$ indicating either the $W$ or the $Z$ boson. Final states with different number of leptons or photons and where, in many cases, at least one Higgs decays into a b-quark pair are studied using different jet reconstruction techniques which allow to optimize the signal acceptance for low or Higgs boson transverse momentum. The most recent diboson resonance searches using LHC Run 2 data are described.

  19. Search for Anomalous $ZZ\\gamma$ and $Z\\gamma\\gamma$ couplings in the process $e^{+}e^{-} \\to Z\\gamma$ at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M.; Adriani, O.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alviggi, M.G.; Ambrosi, G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, Valery P.; Angelescu, T.; Anselmo, F.; Arefev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Bajo, A.; Baksay, L.; Balandras, A.; Baldew, S.V.; Banerjee, S.; Banerjee, Sw.; Barczyk, A.; Barillere, R.; Barone, L.; Bartalini, P.; Basile, M.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Bellucci, L.; Berbeco, R.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Bhattacharya, S.; Biasini, M.; Biland, A.; Blaising, J.J.; Blyth, S.C.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bohm, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Borgia, B.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Braccini, S.; Branson, J.G.; Brigljevic, V.; Brochu, F.; Buffini, A.; Buijs, A.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Campanelli, Mario; Capell, M.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A.M.; Casaus, J.; Castellini, G.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Cesaroni, F.; Chamizo, M.; Chang, Y.H.; Chaturvedi, U.K.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chiefari, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Civinini, C.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Coignet, G.; Colino, N.; Costantini, S.; Cotorobai, F.; de la Cruz, B.; Csilling, A.; Cucciarelli, S.; Dai, T.S.; van Dalen, J.A.; D'Alessandro, R.; de Asmundis, R.; Deglon, P.; Degre, A.; Deiters, K.; della Volpe, D.; Delmeire, E.; Denes, P.; DeNotaristefani, F.; De Salvo, A.; Diemoz, M.; Dierckxsens, M.; van Dierendonck, D.; Di Lodovico, F.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Dominguez, A.; Doria, A.; Dova, M.T.; Duchesneau, D.; Dufournaud, D.; Duinker, P.; Duran, I.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F.J.; Erne, F.C.; Extermann, P.; Fabre, M.; Faccini, R.; Falagan, M.A.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Ferguson, T.; Ferroni, F.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J.H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P.H.; Fisk, I.; Forconi, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S.N.; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M.; Gau, S.S.; Gentile, S.; Gheordanescu, N.; Giagu, S.; Gong, Z.F.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grimm, O.; Gruenewald, M.W.; Guida, M.; van Gulik, R.; Gupta, V.K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L.J.; Haas, D.; Hasan, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Herve, Alain; Hidas, P.; Hirschfelder, J.; Hofer, H.; Holzner, G.; Hoorani, H.; Hou, S.R.; Hu, Y.; Iashvili, I.; Jin, B.N.; Jones, Lawrence W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Khan, R.A.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M.N.; Kim, D.; Kim, J.K.; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D.; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; Konig, A.C.; Kopp, A.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraber, M.; Kraemer, R.W.; Krenz, W.; Kruger, A.; Kunin, A.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Laktineh, I.; Landi, G.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Lee, H.J.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leiste, R.; Leonardi, Emanuele; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Likhoded, S.; Lin, C.H.; Lin, W.T.; Linde, F.L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z.A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, Y.S.; Lubelsmeyer, K.; Luci, C.; Luckey, David; Lugnier, L.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W.G.; Maity, M.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Mana, C.; Mangeol, D.; Mans, J.; Marchesini, P.; Marian, G.; Martin, J.P.; Marzano, F.; Mazumdar, K.; McNeil, R.R.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W.J.; von der Mey, M.; Mihul, A.; Milcent, H.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Mohanty, G.B.; Molnar, P.; Moulik, T.; Muanza, G.S.; Muijs, A.J.M.; Musicar, B.; Musy, M.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Niessen, T.; Nisati, A.; Kluge, Hannelies; Organtini, G.; Oulianov, A.; Palomares, C.; Pandoulas, D.; Paoletti, S.; Paolucci, P.; Paramatti, R.; Park, H.K.; Park, I.H.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Pedace, M.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petersen, B.; Piccolo, D.; Pierella, F.; Pieri, M.; Piroue, P.A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Postema, H.; Pothier, J.; Prokofev, D.O.; Prokofev, D.; Quartieri, J.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rahaman, M.A.; Raics, P.; Raja, N.; Ramelli, R.; Rancoita, P.G.; Raspereza, A.; Raven, G.; Razis, P.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; Riemann, S.; Riles, Keith; Robohm, A.; Rodin, J.; Roe, B.P.; Romero, L.; Rosca, A.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rubio, J.A.; Ruggiero, G.; Ruschmeier, D.; Rykaczewski, H.; Saremi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Sanders, M.P.; Sarakinos, M.E.; Schafer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmidt-Kaerst, S.; Schmitz, D.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D.J.; Schwering, G.; Sciacca, C.; Sciarrino, D.; Seganti, A.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Smith, B.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D.P.; Stone, A.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L.Z.; Suter, H.; Swain, J.D.; Szillasi, Z.; Sztaricskai, T.; Tang, X.W.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Tellili, B.; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tonwar, S.C.; Toth, J.; Tully, C.; Tung, K.L.; Uchida, Y.; Ulbricht, J.; Valente, E.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vicinanza, D.; Viertel, G.; Villa, S.; Vivargent, M.; Vlachos, S.; Vodopianov, I.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobev, I.; Vorobov, A.A.; Vorvolakos, A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wallraff, W.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Z.M.; Weber, A.; Weber, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wilkens, H.; Wu, S.X.; Wynhoff, S.; Xia, L.; Xu, Z.Z.; Yamamoto, J.; Yang, B.Z.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, H.J.; Yang, M.; Ye, J.B.; Yeh, S.C.; Zalite, A.; Zalite, Yu.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, R.Y.; Zichichi, A.; Zilizi, G.; Zoller, M.

    2000-01-01

    We search for anomalous trilinear gauge couplings in the ${\\rm ZZ}\\gamma$ and ${\\rm Z}\\gamma\\gamma$ vertices using data collected with the L3 detectorat LEP at a centre--of--mass energy $\\sqrt{s}=189$ GeV. No evidence is found and limits on these couplings and on new physics scales are derived from the analysis of the process ${\\rm e}^{+}{\\rm e}^{-} \\rightarrow {\\rm Z} \\gamma$.

  20. Portable compton gamma-ray detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA; Oldaker, Mark E [Pleasanton, CA

    2008-03-04

    A Compton scattered gamma-ray detector system. The system comprises a gamma-ray spectrometer and an annular array of individual scintillators. The scintillators are positioned so that they are arrayed around the gamma-ray spectrometer. The annular array of individual scintillators includes a first scintillator. A radiation shield is positioned around the first scintillator. A multi-channel analyzer is operatively connected to the gamma-ray spectrometer and the annular array of individual scintillators.

  1. Short duration gamma ray bursts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. After a short review of gamma ray bursts (GRBs), we discuss the physical implications of strong statistical correlations seen among some of the parameters of short duration bursts (90 < 2 s). Finally, we conclude with a brief sketch of a new unified model for long and short GRBs.

  2. Short duration gamma ray bursts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gamma ray bursts (GRBs) are transient extragalactic events appearing randomly in the sky as localized flashes of electromagnetic radiation, consisting predominantly of photons with energy in the range of ~0.1–1 MeV. These sporadic bursts, occurring at the rate of ~600 per year, are isotropically distributed in the sky, ...

  3. Practical gamma-ray spectrometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilmore, G.R

    2008-01-01

    ... of Photons 1.7.1 Annihilation radiation 1.7.2 Bremsstrahlung 1.7.3 Prompt gammas 1.7.4 X-rays 1.8 The Mathematics of Decay and Growth of Radioactivity 1.8.1 The decay equation 1.8.2 Growth of activity in reac...

  4. Gamma and Related Functions Generalized for Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollerton, R. L.

    2008-01-01

    Given a sequence g[subscript k] greater than 0, the "g-factorial" product [big product][superscript k] [subscript i=1] g[subscript i] is extended from integer k to real x by generalizing properties of the gamma function [Gamma](x). The Euler-Mascheroni constant [gamma] and the beta and zeta functions are also generalized. Specific examples include…

  5. Attrition resistant gamma-alumina catalyst support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Alan H.; Oukaci, Rachid; Goodwin, James G.

    2006-03-14

    A .gamma.-alumina catalyst support having improved attrition resistance produced by a method comprising the steps of treating a particulate .gamma.-alumina material with an acidic aqueous solution comprising water and nitric acid and then, prior to adding any catalytic material thereto, calcining the treated .gamma.-alumina.

  6. Gamma-Ray Interactions for Reachback Analysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, Steven Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-02

    This presentation is a part of the DHS LSS spectroscopy training course and presents an overview of the following concepts: identification and measurement of gamma rays; use of gamma counts and energies in research. Understanding the basic physics of how gamma rays interact with matter can clarify how certain features in a spectrum were produced.

  7. Evaluation of liver marker enzymes in diabetic subjects in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The activity levels of the liver marker enzymes; Aspartate and Alanine amino transferases (AST and ALT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) and Gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects within the ages of 25 to 86 were assayed. This study was for two weeks. The results indicated that the plasma ...

  8. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  9. Quality control of gamma camera systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolster, Alison (ed.)

    2003-07-01

    This report has been prepared by the Radionuclide Special Interest Group of the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine. It replaces the Institute of Physical Sciences in Medicine Report 66. Since the publication of that report, there have been important advances, particularly with regard to wholebody imaging, single photon emission computed tomography, gamma camera positron emission tomography and gamma camera computer/software development. To reflect this, Chapters 1, 2 and 3 remain relatively unchanged from the previous version, while Chapters 4, 5, 6 and 7 have been added to cover the four topics mentioned above. These chapters include detailed quality control test procedures for each type of imaging. Recommendations on the frequency at which various performance parameters should be assessed are summarised in Chapter 8, and Chapter 9 deals briefly with the subject of specifying equipment. Requirement for Quality Control. There is often some confusion about the distinction between the terms 'quality assurance' and 'quality control'. Quality assurance (QA) is usually taken to refer to all aspects of a procedure which contribute to the quality of the results obtained. In nuclear medicine, this would include staff training, testing of radiopharmaceuticals, assessment of equipment performance and reporting of clinical studies. Quality control (QC) refers to the specification, assessment, optimisation and maintenance of a particular aspect, such as the performance of the imaging equipment. The specification of equipment for tendering purposes may include aspects of performance which are difficult for the purchaser to confirm. Acceptance testing may require access to specialised equipment and may be performed by the supplier's engineers. It is essential that the purchaser, or an appropriately experienced person acting on behalf of the purchaser, should be closely involved in the acceptance testing. However, for routine QC, it is

  10. Neutron/gamma coupled library generation and gamma transport calculation with KARMA 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, S. G. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee Univ., 446-701 Deogyeong-daero, GiHeung-gu, Yongin, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, K. S.; Cho, J. Y.; Lee, K. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., 305-353 Duckjin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    KAERI has developed a lattice transport calculation code KARMA and its multi-group cross section library generation system. Recently, the multi-group cross section library generation system has included a gamma cross section generation capability and KARMA also has been improved to include a gamma transport calculation module. This paper addresses the multi-group gamma cross section generation capability for the KARMA 1.2 code and the preliminary test results of the KARMA 1.2 gamma transport calculations. The gamma transport calculation with KARMA 1.2 gives the gamma flux, gamma smeared power, and gamma energy deposition distributions. The results of the KARMA gamma calculations were compared with those of HELIOS and they showed that KARMA 1.2 gives reasonable gamma transport calculation results. (authors)

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on antinutritional factors in broad bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kaisey, Mahdi T.; Alwan, Abdul-Kader H.; Mohammad, Manal H.; Saeed, Amjed H.

    2003-06-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the level of antinutritional factors (trypsin inhibitor (TI), phytic acid and oligosaccharides) of broad bean was investigated. The seeds were subjected to gamma irradiation at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy, respectively using cobalt-60 gamma radiation with a dose rate 2.37 kGy/h. TI activity was reduced by 4.5%, 6.7%, 8.5% and 9.2% at 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy, respectively. Meanwhile, irradiation at 10.2, 12.3, 15.4 and 18.2 kGy reduced the phytic acid content. The flatulence causing oligosaccharides were decreased as the radiation dose increased. The chemical composition (protein, oil, ash and total carbohydrates) of the tested seeds was determined. Gamma radiation seems to be a good procedure to improve the quality of broad bean from the nutritional point of view.

  12. Low and high gamma oscillations in rat ventral striatum have distinct relationships to behavior, reward, and spiking activity on a learned spatial decision task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthijs A A Van Der Meer

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Local field potential (LFP oscillations in the brain reflect organization thought to be important for perception, attention, movement, and memory. In the basal ganglia, including dorsal striatum, dysfunctional LFP states are associated with Parkinson’s disease, while in healthy subjects, dorsal striatal LFPs have been linked to decision-making processes. However, LFPs in ventral striatum have been less studied. We report that in rats running a spatial decision task, prominent gamma-50 (45-55 Hz and gamma-80 (70-85 Hz oscillations in ventral striatum had distinct relationships to behavior, task events, and spiking activity. Gamma-50 power increased sharply following reward delivery and before movement initiation, while in contrast, gamma-80 power ramped up gradually to reward locations. Gamma-50 power was low and contained little structure during early learning, but rapidly developed a stable pattern, while gamma-80 power was initially high before returning to a stable level within a similar timeframe. Putative fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs showed phase, firing rate, and coherence relationships with gamma-50 and gamma-80, indicating that the observed LFP patterns are locally relevant. Furthermore, in a number of FSIs such relationships were specific to gamma-50 or gamma-80, suggesting that partially distinct FSI populations mediate the effects of gamma-50 and gamma-80.

  13. Branching Fraction Measurements of B+ -> rho+ gamma, B0 -> rho0 gamma, and B0 -> omega gamma

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Abrams, G S; Adye, T; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Albert, J; Aleksan, R; Allen, M T; Allison, J; Altenburg, D D; Andreotti, M; Angelini, C; Anulli, F; Arnaud, N; Asgeirsson, D J; Aston, D; Azzolini, V; Baak, M A; Back, J J; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Band, H R; Banerjee, Sw; Bard, D J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Barrett, M; Bartoldus, R; Batignani, G; Battaglia, M; Bauer, J M; Bechtle, P; Beck, T W; Behera, P K; Bellini, F; Ben-Haim, E; Benelli, G; Berger, N; Bernard, D; Berryhill, J W; Bettarini, S; Bettoni, D; Bevan, A J; Bhuyan, B; Bianchi, F; Biasini, M; Biesiada, J; Blanc, F; Blaylock, G; Blinov, V E; Bloom, P C; Blount, N L; Bomben, M; Bondioli, M; Bonneaud, G R; Bosisio, L; Boutigny, D; Boyd, J T; Bozzi, C; Brandt, T; Brau, J E; Briand, H; Brown, D N; Bruinsma, M; Brunet, S; Buchanan, C; Bugg, W; Bukin, A D; Bula, R; Burchat, P R; Burke, J P; Button-Shafer, J; Buzzo, A; Bóna, M; Cahn, R N; Calabrese, R; Calcaterra, A; Calderini, G; Campagnari, C; Carpinelli, M; Cartaro, C; Castelli, G; Cavallo, N; Cavoto, G; Cenci, R; Chai, X; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Chao, M; Charles, M J; Chauveau, J; Chavez, C A; Chen, A; Chen, C; Chen, E; Chen, J C; Chen, S; Chen, X; Chen, X R; Cheng, C H; Chia, Y M; Cibinetto, G; Clark, P J; Claus, R; Cochran, J; Coleman, J P; Contri, R; Convery, M R; Corwin, L A; Cossutti, F; Cottingham, W N; Covarelli, R; Cowan, G; Cowan, R; Crawley, H B; Cremaldi, L; Cunha, A; Curry, S; Côté, D; D'Orazio, A; Dahmes, B; Dallapiccola, C; Dasu, S; Dauncey, P D; David, P; Davier, M; Davis, C L; De Nardo, Gallieno; De Sangro, R; Del Amo-Sánchez, P; Del Buono, L; Del Re, D; Della Ricca, G; Denig, A G; Di Lodovico, F; Di Marco, E; Dingfelder, J C; Dong, L; Dorfan, J; Druzhinin, V P; Dubitzky, R S; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Dvoretskii, A; Ebert, M; Eckhart, E A; Eckmann, R; Edgar, C L; Edwards, A J; Eigen, G; Eisner, A M; Elmer, P; Emery, S; Ernst, J A; Escalier, M; Eschenburg, V; Eschrich, I; Eyges, V; Fabozzi, F; Faccini, R; Fang, F; Feltresi, E; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Field, R C; Finocchiaro, G; Flacco, C J; Flack, R L; Flächer, H U; Flood, K T; Ford, W T; Forster, I J; Forti, F; Foulkes, S D; Franek, B; Frey, R; Fritsch, M; Fry, J R; Fulsom, B G; Gabathuler, E; Gaidot, A; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Gamet, R; Gan, K K; Ganzhur, S F; Gary, J W; Gaspero, M; Gatto, C; Gaz, A; George, K A; Giorgi, M A; Gladney, L; Glanzman, T; Godang, R; Golubev, V B; Gowdy, S J; Gradl, W; Graham, M T; Graugès-Pous, E; Grenier, P; Gritsan, A V; Grosdidier, G; Groysman, Y; Haire, M; Halyo, V; Hamano, K; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Hamon, O; Harrison, P F; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hartfiel, B L; Hast, C; Hauke, A; Hawkes, C M; Hearty, C; Held, T; Hertzbach, S S; Heusch, C A; Hill, E J; Hirschauer, J F; Hitlin, D G; Hollar, J J; Hong, T M; Honscheid, K; Hopkins, D A; Hrynóva, T; Hufnagel, D; Hulsbergen, W D; Hutchcroft, D E; Höcker, A; Igonkina, O; Innes, W R; Izen, J M; Jackson, P D; Jackson, P S; Jacobsen, R G; Jain, V; Jasper, H; Jawahery, A; Jessop, C P; Kadyk, J A; Kagan, H; Karyotakis, Yu; Kass, R; Kelsey, M H; Kerth, L T; Khan, A; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kirkby, D; Klose, V; Knecht, N S; Koch, H; Koeneke, K; Kolb, J A; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kovalskyi, D; Kowalewski, R V; Kozanecki, W; Kreisel, A; Krishnamurthy, M; Kroeger, R; Kroseberg, J; Kukartsev, G; Kutter, P E; Kyberd, P; La Vaissière, C de; Lacker, H M; Lae, C K; Lafferty, G D; Lanceri, L; Lang, M I; Lange, D J; Lankford, A J; Latham, T E; Latour, E; Lau, Y P; Lazzaro, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lees, J P; Legendre, M; Leith, D W G S; Lepeltier, V; Leruste, P; Lewandowski, B; Li Gioi, L; Li, S; Li, X; Lista, L; Liu, F; Liu, H; Lo Vetere, M; LoSecco, J M; Lockman, W S; Lombardo, V; Long, O; Lopes-Pegna, D; Lopez-March, N; Lou, X C; Lu, M; Luitz, S; Lund, P; Luppi, E; Lusiani, A; Lutz, A M; Lynch, G; Lynch, H L; Lü, C; Lüth, V; MacFarlane, D B; Macri, M M; Mader, W F; Majewski, S A; Malcles, J; Mallik, U; Mancinelli, G; Mandelkern, M A; Marchiori, G; Margoni, M; Marks, J; Marsiske, H; Martin, E C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Mattison, T S; Mazur, M A; Mazzoni, M A; McKenna, J A; McMahon, T R; Mclachlin, S E; Meadows, B T; Mellado, B; Menges, W; Merkel, J; Messner, R; Meyer, N T; Meyer, W T; Mir, L M; Mishra, K; Mohanty, G B; Monge, M R; Monorchio, D; Moore, T B; Morandin, M; Morganti, M; Morganti, S; Morii, M; Morris, J P; Muheim, F; Müller, D R; Nagel, M; Narsky, I; Nash, J A; Nauenberg, U; Neal, H; Negrini, M; Neri, N; Nicholson, H; Nikolich, M B; Nogowski, R; Nugent, I M; O'Grady, C P; Ocariz, J; Ofte, I; Olaiya, E O; Olivas, A; Olsen, J; Onuchin, A P; Orimoto, T J; Oyanguren, A; Ozcan, V E; Paar, H P; Pacetti, S; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Pan, B; Pan, Y; Panduro-Vazquez, W; Paoloni, E; Paolucci, P; Pappagallo, M; Park, W; Passaggio, S; Patel, P M; Patrignani, C; Patteri, P; Payne, D J; Pelizaeus, M; Pelliccioni, M; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Peruzzi, I M; Peters, K; Petersen, B A; Petrella, A; Petzold, A; Piatenko, T; Piccolo, D; Piccolo, M; Piemontese, L; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Playfer, S; Poireau, V; Polci, F; Pompili, A; Porter, F C; Posocco, M; Potter, C T; Prell, S; Prencipe, E; Prepost, R; Pripstein, M; Prudent, X; Pruvot, S; Pulliam, T; Purohit, M V; Qi, N D; Rahatlou, S; Rahimi, A M; Rahmat, R; Rama, M; Ratcliff, B N; Raven, G; Regensburger, J J; Ricciardi, S; Richman, J D; Ritchie, J L; Rizzo, G; Roberts, D A; Robertson, A I; Robertson, S H; Robutti, E; Rodier, S; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Roney, J M; Rong, G; Roodman, A; Rosenberg, E I; Rotondo, M; Roudeau, P; Rubin, A E; Röthel, W; Sacco, R; Saeed, M A; Saleem, M; Salnikov, A A; Salvati, E; Salvatore, F; Sanders, D A; Santroni, A; Saremi, S; Schalk, T; Schenk, S; Schilling, C J; Schindler, R H; Schofield, K C; Schott, G; Schröder, T; Schröder, H; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schumm, B A; Schune, M H; Schwiening, J; Schwierz, R; Schwitters, R F; Sciacca, C; Sciolla, G; Seiden, A; Sekula, S J; Serednyakov, S I; Serrano, J; Sharma, V; Shen, B C; Sherwood, D J; Simard, M; Simi, G; Simonetto, F; Sinev, N B; Skovpen, Yu I; Smith, A J S; Smith, J G; Snoek, H L; Snyder, A; Sobie, R J; Soffer, A; Sokoloff, M D; Solodov, E P; Spaan, B; Spanier, S M; Spitznagel, M; Steinke, M; Stelzer, J; Stocchi, A; Stoker, D P; Stroili, R; Strom, D; Strube, J; Stugu, B; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Summers, D J; Sundermann, J E; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Tackmann, K; Taras, P; Taylor, F; Telnov, A V; Teodorescu, L; Ter-Antonian, R; Thiebaux, C; Thompson, J M; Tisserand, V; Todyshev, K Yu; Toki, W H; Torrence, E; Tosi, S; Touramanis, C; Ulmer, K A; Uwer, U; Van Bakel, N; Vasseur, G; Vavra, J; Verderi, M; Viaud, F B; Vitale, L; Voci, C; Voena, C; Volk, A; Wacker, K; Wagner, A P; Wagner, S R; Waldi, R; Walker, D; Walsh, J J; Wang, P; Wang, W F; Wappler, F R; Watson, A T; Weaver, M; Wenzel, W A; West, T J; Wilden, L; Williams, D C; Wilson, F F; Wilson, J R; Wilson, M G; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Winstrom, L O; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wong, Q K; Wormser, G; Wren, A C; Wright, D H; Wright, D M; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Wulsin, H W; Xie, Y; Yamamoto, R K; Yarritu, A K; Ye, S; Yi, J I; Yi, K; Yi, M; Young, C C; Yu, Z; Yéche, C; Zain, S B; Zallo, A; Zeng, Q; Zghiche, A; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, H W; Zhu, Y S; Ziegler, V; Zito, M; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; al, et

    2006-01-01

    We present a study of the decays B+ -> rho+ gamma, B0 -> rho0 gamma, and B0 -> omega gamma. The analysis is based on data containing 347 million BBbar events recorded with the BaBar detector at the PEP-II asymmetric B factory. We measure the branching fractions BR(B+ -> rho+ gamma) = (1.10 +0.37/-0.33 +/- 0.09) x 10-6 and BR(B0 -> rho0 gamma) = (0.79 +0.22/-0.20 +/- 0.06) x 10-6, and set a 90% C.L. upper limit BR(B0 -> omega gamma) rho/omega gamma) = (1.25 +0.25/-0.24 +/- 0.09) x 10-6, from which we determine |Vtd/Vts| = 0.200 +0.021/-0.020 +/- 0.015, where the first uncertainty is experimental and the second is theoretical.

  14. Measurement of the gamma gamma* -> pi0 transition form factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.

    2009-06-02

    We study the reaction e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -}{pi}{sup 0} in the single tag mode and measure the differential cross section d{sigma}/dQ{sup 2} and the {gamma}{gamma}* {yields} {pi}{sup 0} transition form factor in the mometum transfer range from 4 to 40 GeV{sup 2}. At Q{sup 2} > 10 GeV{sup 2} the measured form factor exceeds the asymptotic limit predicted by perturbative QCD. The analysis is based on 442 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected at PEP-II with the BABAR detector at e{sup +}e{sup -} center-of-mass energies near 10.6 GeV.

  15. Obtaining {sigma}{yields}{gamma}{gamma} Width from Nucleon Polarizabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prades, Joaquim [CAFPE and Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, Campus de Fuente Nueva, E-18002 Granada (Spain); Bernabeu, Jose [Departament de Fisica Teorica, IFIC, Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Apt. de Correus 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    We propose a new method that fixes the coupling to two photons of the recently found lightest QCD resonance, the {sigma}. This coupling provides crucial information for discriminating the yet unknown nature of this special state. Our method uses available data on the nucleon polarizabilities together with analyticity and unitarity. Taking into account all the uncertainties, our result is {gamma}{sub pole}=1.2{+-}0.4keV.

  16. Urban gamma spectrometry. Report 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aage, H.K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Kuukankorpi, S.; Moring, M.; Smolander, P.; Toivonen, H. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland))

    2009-06-15

    Urban gamma spectrometry has been given only minor attention with the focus being on rural gamma spectrometry. However, in recent years the Nordic emergency management authorities have turned focus towards border control and lost or stolen sources. Gamma spectra measured in urban areas are characterized by a wide variety of spectrum shapes and very fast changes in environmental background. In 2004 a Danish CGS (Carborne Gamma Spectrometry) survey took place in Copenhagen. It was found that gamma spectrometry in urban areas is far more complicated to interpret than had previously been thought and a new method 'Fitting with Spectral Components', FSC, based on NASVD, was tested with some success. In Finland, a database 'LINSSI' has been developed for spectral data management. In CGS search mode a 'peak hypothesis test' is applied to the measured spectra. This system was tested during the Helsinki 2005 Athletics World Championship and it provides fast and reliable automated alarms for intermediate and high level signals. In Sweden mobile detector systems are used for border controls and problems are encountered when making measurement in harbour, container areas. The methods for handling data and for interpretation of urban gamma spectrometry measurements were compared and tested on the same data sets from Copenhagen and Helsinki. Software tools were developed for converting data between the Finnish LINSSI database and the binary file formats used in Denmark and Sweden. The Processing methods used at DTU and STUK have different goals. The ASSS and FSC methods are designed to optimize the overall detection capability of the system, while sacrificing speed, usability and to a certain level robustness. These methods cannot always be used for real time analysis. The Peak Significance method is designed to give robust alarms in real time, while sacrificing some of the detection capability. Thus these methods are not interchangeable, but rather

  17. Laser source for the gamma-gamma collider

    CERN Document Server

    Early, J T

    2001-01-01

    The production of high energy gammas from collisions between the NLC high energy electrons and low energy photons places difficult requirements on the laser low energy photon source. The electrons are produced in macro-pulses at 120 Hz. Each macro-pulse consists of around 100 subpulses separated by 2.8 nanoseconds. To interact efficiently with the electrons the laser subpulses must have approximately a 2 picosecond pulse duration. The laser macro-pulse energy must be 100 joules per beam at 120 Hz, or a total laser average power of 24 kW. The Mercury laser consists of a Yb:S-FAP laser instead of the usual Nd-glass as it has better thermal conductivity for cooling, longer storage lifetime for efficient pumping, and a high quantum efficiency to minimise waste heat. The laser will operate at 10 Hz with 100 J pulses. Twelve such laser would have to be multiplexed to achieve the gamma - gamma laser requirements. (2 refs).

  18. gamma. -Lithium aluinate fiber. gamma. Lithium aluinate sen prime i

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, A.; Takeuchi, Y.; Saiki, K. (Okayama (Japan))

    1992-02-12

    Lithium aluminate attracts attention as an electrolyte support of a molten carbonate fuel cell which has high stability against the electrolyte. The invention concerns {gamma}-lithium aluminate fibers stable at high temperature. The inventors have published a method of the preparation of long fibers of {beta}-lithium aluminate previously. Aluminum hydroxide or aluminum or their mixture. or a mixture of these and alumina is added with LiOH and NaOH to afford the raw material, which is heated at a temperature of 100-650{degree}C for 15 min.- 50 hrs. and gives long fibers of {beta}-lithium aluminate. The long fibers of beta -lithium aluminate obtained by the above or other methods is re-heated at a temperature of 650-950{degree}C for 5-20 hrs. and transformed to long fibers of {gamma}-lithium aluminate with retention of the shapes of 5-30{mu}m long and 0.5-3 {mu}m in diameter. These fibers of {gamma}-lithium aluminate are superior in the mechanical strength as an electrolyte support of a molten carbonate fuel cell. 1 figs.

  19. Status of the GAMMA-400 Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galper, A. M.; Adriani, O.; Aptekar, R. L.; Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Boezio, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Boyarchuk, K. A.; Gusakov, Yu. V.; Farber, M. O.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The preliminary design of the new space gamma-ray telescope GAMMA-400 for the energy range 100 MeV-3 TeV is presented. The angular resolution of the instrument, 1-2 deg at E(gamma) approximately 100 MeV and approximately 0.01 at E(gamma) greater than 100 GeV, its energy resolution is approximately 1% at E(gamma) greater than 100 GeV, and the proton rejection factor is approximately 10(exp 6) are optimized to address a broad range of science topics, such as search for signatures of dark matter, studies of Galactic and extragalactic gamma-ray sources, Galactic and extragalactic diffuse emission, gamma-ray bursts, as well as high-precision measurements of spectra of cosmic-ray electrons, positrons, and nuclei.

  20. Sound identification in human auditory cortex: Differential contribution of local field potentials and high gamma power as revealed by direct intracranial recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourski, Kirill V; Steinschneider, Mitchell; Rhone, Ariane E; Oya, Hiroyuki; Kawasaki, Hiroto; Howard, Matthew A; McMurray, Bob

    2015-09-01

    High gamma power has become the principal means of assessing auditory cortical activation in human intracranial studies, albeit at the expense of low frequency local field potentials (LFPs). It is unclear whether limiting analyses to high gamma impedes ability of clarifying auditory cortical organization. We compared the two measures obtained from posterolateral superior temporal gyrus (PLST) and evaluated their relative utility in sound categorization. Subjects were neurosurgical patients undergoing invasive monitoring for medically refractory epilepsy. Stimuli (consonant-vowel syllables varying in voicing and place of articulation and control tones) elicited robust evoked potentials and high gamma activity on PLST. LFPs had greater across-subject variability, yet yielded higher classification accuracy, relative to high gamma power. Classification was enhanced by including temporal detail of LFPs and combining LFP and high gamma. We conclude that future studies should consider utilizing both LFP and high gamma when investigating the functional organization of human auditory cortex. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Test of QED in e sup + e sup - yields. gamma. gamma. at LEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeva, B.; Adriani, O.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Akbari, H.; Alcaraz, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alverson, G.; Alviggi, M.G.; An, Q.; Anderhub, H.; Anderson, A.L.; Andreev, V.P.; Angelov, T.; Antonov, L.; Antreasyan, D.; Arce, P.; Arefiev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Baba, P.V.K.S.; Bagnaia, P.; Bakken, J.A.; Baksay, L.; Ball, R.C.; Banerjee, S.; Bao, J.; Barone, L.; Bay, A.; Becker, U.; Behrens, J.; Beingessner, S.; Bencze, G.L.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B.L.; Biland, A.; Bizzarri, R.; Blaising, J.J.; Bloemeke, P.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bocciolini, M.; Boehlen, W.; Boehm, A.; Boehringer, T.; Borgia, B.; Borilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Boutigny, D.; Branson, J.G.; Brock, I.C.; Bryant, F.; Buisson, C.; Bujak, A.; Burger, J.D.; Burq, J.P.; Busenitz, J.; Cai, X.D.; Camps, C.; Capell, M.; Carbonara, F.; Carmianti, F.; Cartacci, A.M.; Cerrada, M.; Cesaroni, F.; Chang, Y.H.; Chaturvedi, U.K.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, C.; Chen, G.M.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chen, M.; Chen, M.L; L3 Collaboration

    1990-11-01

    We have measured the cross-section of the reaction e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}{gamma}{gamma} at center of mass energies around the Z{sup 0} mass. The results are in good agreement with QED predictions. For the QED cutoff parameters the limit of {Lambda}{sub +}>103 GeV and {Lambda}{sub -}>118 GeV are found. For the decays Z{sup 0}{yields}{gamma}{gamma}, Z{sup 0}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}, Z{sup 0}{yields}{eta}{gamma} and Z{sup 0}{yields}{gamma}{gamma}{gamma} we find upper limits of 2.9x10{sup -4}, 2.9x10{sup -4}, 4.1x10{sup -4} and 1.2x10{sup -4}, respectively. All limits are at 95% CL. (orig.).

  2. Precise measurements of the $K_{S}\\to\\gamma\\gamma$ and $K_{L}\\to\\gamma\\gamma$ decay rates

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, A; Batley, J Richard; Dosanjh, R S; Gershon, T J; Kalmus, George Ernest; Lazzeroni, C; Munday, D J; Olaiya, E; Parker, M A; White, T O; Wotton, S A; Arcidiacono, R; Barr, Giles David; Bocquet, G; Ceccucci, Augusto; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Cundy, Donald C; Doble, Niels T; Falaleev, V P; Gatignon, L; Gonidec, A; Gorini, B; Grafström, P; Kubischta, Werner; Lacourt, A; Mikulec, I; Norton, Alan Robert; Panzer-Steindel, B; Tatishvili, G T; Wahl, H; Cheshkov, C; Khristov, P Z; Kekelidze, V D; Madigozhin, D T; Molokanova, N A; Potrebenikov, Yu K; Zinchenko, A I; Martin, V; Rubin, P; Sacco, R; Walker, A; Contalbrigo, M; Dalpiaz, Pietro; Duclos, J; Frabetti, P L; Gianoli, A; Martini, M; Petrucci, F; Savrié, M; Bizzeti, A; Calvetti, M; Collazuol, G; Graziani, G; Iacopini, E; Lenti, M; Martelli, F; Veltri, M; Eppard, M; Hirstius, A; Holtz, K; Kleinknecht, K; Koch, U; Köpke, L; Lopes da Silva, P; De Silva, A; Marouelli, P; Mestvirishvili, I; Pellmann, I A; Peters, A; Schmidt, S A; Schönharting, V; Schué, Yu; Wanke, R; Winhart, A; Wittgen, M; Chollet, J C; Fayard, Louis; Iconomidou-Fayard, L; Unal, G; Wingerter-Seez, I; Anzivino, Giuseppina; Cenci, P; Imbergamo, E; Lubrano, P; Mestvirishvili, A; Nappi, A; Pepé, M; Piccini, M; Casali, R; Cerri, C; Cirilli, M; Costantini, F; Fantechi, R; Fiorini, Luca; Giudici, Sergio; Mannelli, I; Pierazzini, G M; Sozzi, M; Chèze, J B; De Beer, M; Debu, P; Derue, F; Formica, A; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Gouge, G; Marel, Gérard; Mazzucato, E; Peyaud, B; Turlay, René; Vallage, B; Holder, M; Maier, A; Ziolkowski, M; Biino, C; Cartiglia, N; Marchetto, F; Menichetti, E; Pastrone, N; Nassalski, J P; Rondio, Ewa; Szleper, M; Wislicki, W; Wronka, S; Dibon, Heinz; Jeitler, Manfred; Markytan, Manfred; Neuhofer, Günther; Pernicka, Manfred; Taurok, Anton; Widhalm, L

    2003-01-01

    The K_S -> gammagamma decay rate has been measured with the NA48 detector using a high intensity short neutral beam from the CERN SPS. The measured branching ratio BR(K_S) -> gammagamma = (2.78 +- 0.06_{stat} +- 0.04_{syst}) x 10^{-6}, obtained from 7461 +- 172 K_S -> gammagamma events, is significantly higher than the O(p^4) prediction of Chiral Perturbation Theory. Using a K-L beam the ratio Gamma(K_L-gammagamma / Gamma(K_L -> pi^0pi^0pi^0 = (2.81 +- 0.01_{stat} +- 0.02_{syst}) x 10^{-3} has been measured.

  3. Gamma radiolysis of chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbon, R.E.; Mincher, B.J.; Meikrantz, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    This program is the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) component of a joint collarborative effort with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The purpose of this effort is to demonstrate a viable process for breaking down hazardous halogenated organic wastes to simpler, non-hazardous waste using high energy ionizing radiation. The INEL effort focuses on the use of spent reactor fuel gamma radiation sources to decompose complex wastes such as PCBs. At LLNL, halogenated solvents such as carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene are being studied using accelerator radiation sources. The INEL irradiation experiments concentrated on a single PCB congener so that a limited set of decomposition reactions could be studied. The congener 2,2{prime}, 3,3{prime},4,5{prime},6,6{prime} - octachlorobiphenyl was examined following exposure to various gamma doses at the Advanced Test Reactor (AIR) spent fuel pool. The decomposition rates and products in several solvents are discussed. 3 refs.

  4. Gamma radiolysis of chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbon, R.E.; Mincher, B.J.; Meikrantz, D.H.

    1992-08-01

    This program is the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) component of a joint collarborative effort with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The purpose of this effort is to demonstrate a viable process for breaking down hazardous halogenated organic wastes to simpler, non-hazardous waste using high energy ionizing radiation. The INEL effort focuses on the use of spent reactor fuel gamma radiation sources to decompose complex wastes such as PCBs. At LLNL, halogenated solvents such as carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene are being studied using accelerator radiation sources. The INEL irradiation experiments concentrated on a single PCB congener so that a limited set of decomposition reactions could be studied. The congener 2,2{prime}, 3,3{prime},4,5{prime},6,6{prime} - octachlorobiphenyl was examined following exposure to various gamma doses at the Advanced Test Reactor (AIR) spent fuel pool. The decomposition rates and products in several solvents are discussed. 3 refs.

  5. On the Capacity of FSO Links over Gamma-Gamma Atmospheric Turbulence Channels Using OOK Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio García-Zambrana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new upper bound on the capacity of power- and bandwidth-constrained optical wireless links over gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence channels with intensity modulation and direct detection is derived when on-off keying (OOK formats are used. In this free-space optical (FSO scenario, unlike previous capacity bounds derived from the classic capacity of the well-known additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN channel with uniform input distribution, a new closed-form upper bound on the capacity is found by bounding the mutual information subject to an average optical power constraint and not only to an average electrical power constraint, showing the fact that the input distribution that maximizes the mutual information varies with the turbulence strength and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR. Additionally, it is shown that an increase of the peak-to-average optical power ratio (PAOPR provides higher capacity values. Simulation results for the mutual information are further demonstrated to confirm the analytical results under several turbulence conditions.

  6. Gamma-Ray Line Astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Diehl, Roland

    2004-01-01

    Gamma-ray lines from radioactive isotopes, ejected into interstellar space by cosmic nucleosynthesis events, are observed with new space telescopes. The Compton Observatory had provided a sky survey for the isotopes 56Co, 22Na, 44Ti, and 26Al, detecting supernova radioactivity and the diffuse glow of long-lived radioactivity from massive stars in the Galaxy. High-resolution spectroscopy is now being exploited with Ge detectors: Since 2002, with ESA's INTEGRAL satellite and the RHESSI solar im...

  7. Response of avocado genotypes to improvement through {sup 60}Co gamma radiation; Respuesta de diversos genotipos de aguacate al mejoramiento por radiacion gamma de {sup 60}Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, E. De la; Rubi A, M.; Garcia A, J.M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    Ten avocado genotypes were subjected to gamma radiation from 0 to 45 Gy in 1993. Vegetative and reproductive data were analysed in a factorial design. Genotypes differed significative on height and fruit number. Radiation affected significative fruit number but not tree height. ''Hass'' showed strongest interaction between genotype and doses, for fruit number. (Author)

  8. Development of gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid system for simultaneous imaging of I-131 radionuclide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Suzuki, Mayumi; Kato, Katsuhiko [Radiological and Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Watabe, Tadashi; Ikeda, Hayato; Kanai, Yasukazu [Department of Molecular Imaging in Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Ogata, Yoshimune [Radiological and Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Hatazawa, Jun [Department of Molecular Imaging in Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)

    2016-09-11

    Although iodine 131 (I-131) is used for radionuclide therapy, high resolution images are difficult to obtain with conventional gamma cameras because of the high energy of I-131 gamma photons (364 keV). Cerenkov-light imaging is a possible method for beta emitting radionuclides, and I-131 (606 MeV maximum beta energy) is a candidate to obtain high resolution images. We developed a high energy gamma camera system for I-131 radionuclide and combined it with a Cerenkov-light imaging system to form a gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system to compare the simultaneously measured images of these two modalities. The high energy gamma imaging detector used 0.85-mm×0.85-mm×10-mm thick GAGG scintillator pixels arranged in a 44×44 matrix with a 0.1-mm thick reflector and optical coupled to a Hamamatsu 2 in. square position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT: H12700 MOD). The gamma imaging detector was encased in a 2 cm thick tungsten shield, and a pinhole collimator was mounted on its top to form a gamma camera system. The Cerenkov-light imaging system was made of a high sensitivity cooled CCD camera. The Cerenkov-light imaging system was combined with the gamma camera using optical mirrors to image the same area of the subject. With this configuration, we simultaneously imaged the gamma photons and the Cerenkov-light from I-131 in the subjects. The spatial resolution and sensitivity of the gamma camera system for I-131 were respectively ~3 mm FWHM and ~10 cps/MBq for the high sensitivity collimator at 10 cm from the collimator surface. The spatial resolution of the Cerenkov-light imaging system was 0.64 mm FWHM at 10 cm from the system surface. Thyroid phantom and rat images were successfully obtained with the developed gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system, allowing direct comparison of these two modalities. Our developed gamma-photon/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system will be useful to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of these two

  9. Transfer operators for $\\Gamma_{0}$

    CERN Document Server

    Hilgert, J; Movasati, H

    2003-01-01

    In this article we report on a surprising relation between the transfer operators for the congruence subgroups $\\Gamma_{0}(n)$ and the Hecke operators on the space of period functions for the modular group $\\PSL (2,\\mathbb{Z})$. For this we study special eigenfunctions of the transfer operators with eigenvalues $\\mp 1$, which are also solutions of the Lewis equations for the groups $\\Gamma_{0}(n)$ and which are determined by eigenfunctions of the transfer operator for the modular group $\\PSL (2,\\mathbb{Z})$. In the language of the Atkin-Lehner theory of old and new forms one should hence call them old eigenfunctions or old solutions of Lewis equation. It turns out that the sum of the components of these old solutions for the group $\\Gamma_{0}(n)$ determine for any $n$ a solution of the Lewis equation for the modular group and hence also an eigenfunction of the transfer operator for this group. Our construction gives in this way linear operators in the space of period functions for the group $\\PSL (2,\\mathbb{Z...

  10. Designing Equipment for Use in Gamma Radiation Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandergriff, K.U.

    1990-01-01

    High levels of gamma radiation are known to cause degradation in a variety of materials and components. When designing systems to operate in a high radiation environment, special precautions and procedures should be followed. This report (1) outlines steps that should be followed in designing equipment and (2) explains the general effects of radiation on various engineering materials and components. Much information exists in the literature on radiation effects upon materials. However, very little information is available to give the designer a step-by-step process for designing systems that will be subject to high levels of gamma radiation, such as those found in a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility. In this report, many radiation effect references are relied upon to aid in the design of components and systems.

  11. Polarized Emission from Gamma-Ray Burst Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiho Kobayashi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available I review how polarization signals have been discussed in the research field of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs. I mainly discuss two subjects in which polarimetry enables us to study the nature of relativistic jets. (1 Jet breaks: Gamma-ray bursts are produced in ultra-relativistic jets. Due to the relativistic beaming effect, the emission can be modeled in a spherical model at early times. However, as the jet gradually slows down, we begin to see the edge of the jet together with polarized signals at some point. (2 Optical flash: later time afterglow is known to be insensitive to the properties of the original ejecta from the GRB central engine. However, a short-lived, reverse shock emission would enable us to study the nature of of GRB jets. I also briefly discuss the recent detection of optical circular polarization in GRB afterglow.

  12. [Cytotoxicity of PVC tubes sterilized in ethylene oxide after gamma radiation exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Rafael Queiroz; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa; Ikeda, Tamiko Ichikawa; Gonçalves, Cláudia Regina; Cruz, Aurea Silveira

    2013-04-01

    Do materials sterilized using gamma rays become toxic when re-sterilized in ethylene oxide? This question guided the objective of this study, which was to investigate the potential cytotoxic effect of PVC sterilized by gamma radiation and re-sterilized with EO by the agar diffusion method in cell cultures. Nine PVC tubes were subjected to gamma radiation sterilization and were re-sterilized in EO. The tubes were divided into a total of 81 units of analysis that were tested so as to represent the internal and external surfaces and mass of each tube. It was concluded that the PVC materials sterilized in gamma radiation and re-sterilized in EO are not cytotoxic.

  13. Search for the decay $K_{S} \\to \\pi^{0} \\gamma\\gamma$

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, A; Batley, J Richard; Bevan, A; Dosanjh, R S; Gershon, T J; Kalmus, George Ernest; Munday, D J; Olaiya, E; Parker, M A; White, T; Wotton, S A; Barr, G; Bocquet, G; Ceccucci, Augusto; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Cundy, Donald C; Doble, Niels T; Falaleev, V P; Gatignon, L; Gonidec, A; Gorini, B; Govi, G; Grafström, P; Kubischta, Werner; Lacourt, A; Lenti, M; Norton, A; Palestini, S; Panzer-Steindel, B; Tatishvili, G T; Taureg, Hans; Velasco, M; Wahl, H; Cheshkov, C; Khristov, P Z; Kekelidze, V D; Madigozhin, D T; Molokanova, N A; Potrebenikov, Yu K; Tkatchev, A; Zinchenko, A I; Knowles, I; Lazzeroni, C; Martin, V; Sacco, R; Walker, A; Contalbrigo, M; Dalpiaz, Pietro; Duclos, J; Frabetti, P L; Gianoli, A; Martini, M; Masetti, L; Petrucci, F; Savrié, M; Bizzeti, A; Calvetti, M; Collazuol, G; Graziani, G; Iacopini, E; Becker, H G; Eppard, M; Fox, H; Holtz, K; Kalter, A; Kleinknecht, K; Koch, U; Köpke, L; Lopes da Silva, P; Marouelli, P; Pellmann, I A; Peters, A; Renk, B; Schmidt, S A; Schönharting, V; Schué, Yu; Wanke, R; Winhart, A; Wittgen, M; Chollet, J C; Fayard, Louis; Iconomidou-Fayard, L; Ocariz, J; Unal, G; Wingerter-Seez, I; Anzivino, Giuseppina; Cenci, P; Imbergamo, E; Lubrano, P; Mestvirishvili, A; Nappi, A; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Piccini, M; Carosi, R; Casali, R; Cerri, C; Cirilli, M; Costantini, F; Fantechi, R; Giudici, Sergio; Mannelli, I; Pierazzini, G M; Sozzi, M; Chèze, J B; Cogan, J; De Beer, M; Debu, P; Formica, A; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Mazzucato, E; Peyaud, B; Turlay, René; Vallage, B; Holder, M; Maier, A; Ziolkowski, M; Arcidiacono, R; Biino, C; Cartiglia, N; Guida, R; Marchetto, R; Menichetti, E; Pastrone, N; Nassalski, J P; Rondio, Ewa; Szleper, M; Wislicki, W; Wronka, S; Dibon, Heinz; Fischer, G; Jeitler, Manfred; Markytan, Manfred; Mikulec, I; Neuhofer, Günther; Pernicka, Manfred; Taurok, Anton; Widhalm, L

    2003-01-01

    A search for the decay K/sub S/ to pi /sup 0/ gamma gamma has been made using the NA48 detector at the CERN SPS. Using data collected in 1999 during a 40-hour run with a high-intensity K/sub S/ beam, an upper limit for the branching ratio BR(K/sub S/ to pi /sup 0/ gamma gamma , z to >or= 0.2) < 3.3 * 10/sup -7/ has been obtained at 90% confidence level, where z = m/sub gamma gamma //sup 2//m(K/sub 0/) /sup 2/. (8 refs).

  14. The close-range gamma-graphy control - {gamma}-prox; Le controle par gammagraphie de proximite - {gamma}-prox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blettner, A. [Institut de Soudure, 93 - Villepinte (France)

    2011-01-15

    This work deals with the {gamma}-prox: a modular device for proximity gamma-graphy. The dose rates obtained between the standard collimator and the {gamma}-prox are compared. A study, among the tools developed by the Welding Institute Industry, to estimate the occupational dosimetry is presented in order to determine the dose limits for a welding control of 255 mm diameter and 5 mm thickness, as well as the calculation of the signalling distances. (O.M.)

  15. Thermoluminescence of sulfated zircon exposed to gamma radiation; Termoluminiscencia de circonia sulfatada expuesta a radiacion gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio, E.; Castano, V.M. [Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, UNAM, A.P. 1-1010, 76000 Queretaro (Mexico); Mendoza A, E.; Gonzalez, P.R. [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In this work, the thermoluminescent (Tl) signal induced by gamma radiation in zirconia and sulfated zirconia samples embedded in Ptfe pellets is reported and discussed. In this case, samples were obtained through sol-gel method using zirconium n-propoxide and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as precursors, and later were subjected to thermal treatment at 600 C to obtain, the tetragonal phase accordingly to X-ray diffraction analysis. Experimental results show that the thermoluminescent glow peak depends on both, the crystalline structure and sulfate concentration. Two maximum peaks were observed located at 147 C and 274 C arising from the electronic transitions. Tl response as a function of the absorbed dose shows a linear increase for a wide of range exposure as well as good stability in time. The high sensitivity, dose linearity and signal stability of this material open the potential possibility to be used for the dosimetry applications. (Author)

  16. Gamma Ray Burst and Soft Gamma Repeaters. Spinning, Precessing Gamma Jets

    OpenAIRE

    Fargion, Daniele

    1999-01-01

    Gamma Ray Bursts as recent GRB990123 and GRB990510 are observed to occur in cosmic volumes with a corresponding output reaching, for isotropic explosions, energies as large as two solar masses annihilation. These energies are underestimated because of the neglected role of comparable ejected neutrinos bursts. These extreme power cannot be explained with any standard spherically symmetric Fireball model. A too heavy black hole or Star would be unable to coexist with the shortest millisecond ti...

  17. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  18. Search for Hadronic Decays of a Light Higgs Boson in the Radiative Decay Gamma -> gamma A(0)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lees, J.P.; Raven, H.G.; Snoek, H.; BaBar, Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    We search for hadronic decays of a light Higgs boson (A(0)) produced in radiative decays of an Gamma(2S) or Gamma(3S) meson, Gamma -> gamma A(0). The data have been recorded by the BABAR experiment at the Gamma(3S) and Gamma(2S) center-of-mass energies and include (121.3 +/- 1.2) x 10(6) Gamma(3S)

  19. Gravitational microlensing of gamma-ray blazars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F. Torres, Diego; E. Romero, Gustavo; F. Eiroa, Ernesto

    2003-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the effects of gravitational microlensing on compact and distant $\\gamma$-ray blazars. These objects have $\\gamma$-ray emitting regions which are small enough as to be affected by microlensing effects produced by stars lying in intermediate galaxies. We analyze...... the temporal evolution of the gamma-ray magnification for sources moving in a caustic pattern field, where the combined effects of thousands of stars are taken into account using a numerical technique. We propose that some of the unidentified $\\gamma$-ray sources (particularly some of those lying at high...... galactic latitude whose gamma-ray statistical properties are very similar to detected $\\gamma$-ray blazars) are indeed the result of gravitational lensing magnification of background undetected Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs)....

  20. Gamma-Ray Astronomy Technology Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, N.; Cannizzo, J. K.

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades gamma-ray observations have become a valuable tool for studying the universe. Progress made in diverse 8re1lS such as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), nucleosynthesis, and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) has complimented and enriched our astrophysical understanding in many ways. We present an overview of current and future planned space y-ray missions and discussion technology needs for- the next generation of space gamma-ray instruments.

  1. Understanding Doppler Broadening of Gamma Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawool-Sullivan, Mohini [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sullivan, John P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-07-03

    Doppler-broadened gamma ray peaks are observed routinely in the collection and analysis of gamma-ray spectra. If not recognized and understood, the appearance of Doppler broadening can complicate the interpretation of a spectrum and the correct identification of the gamma ray-emitting material. We have conducted a study using a simulation code to demonstrate how Doppler broadening arises and provide a real-world example in which Doppler broadening is found. This report describes that study and its results.

  2. Synthesis of different chiral amino gamma-butyrolactones and amino gamma-butenolides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concellón, José M; Riego, Estela; Bernad, Pablo L

    2002-04-18

    Different transformations of chiral epoxy esters 1 afford two different amino gamma-butyrolactones 2 and 6, and amino gamma-butenolides 8, by different nucleophilic opening-closing processes. [reaction: see text

  3. gamma-Glutamyl dipeptides in Petiveria alliacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubec, Roman; Musah, Rabi A

    2005-10-01

    Three gamma-glutamyl dipeptides have been isolated from Petiveria alliacea L. roots. These dipeptides include (S(C2)R(C7))-gamma-glutamyl-S-benzylcysteine together with two diastereomeric sulfoxides, namely (S(C2)R(C7)R(S))- and (S(C2)R(C7)R(S))-gamma-glutamyl-S-benzylcysteine S-oxides (gamma-glutamyl-petiveriins A and B, respectively). Their structures and absolute configurations have been determined by NMR, MALDI-HRMS, IR and CD spectroscopy, and confirmed by comparison with authentic compounds obtained by synthesis.

  4. Observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    1999-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are now generally believed to originate from cosmological distances and represent the largest known explosions in the Universe. These lectures will describe the temporal and spectral characteristic of gamma-ray bursts, their intensity and sky distribution, and other observed characteristics in the gamma-ray region, primarily from data obtained with the BATSE experiment on the Compton Observatory. A summary of recent discoveries and observations in other wavelength regions will also be presented, along with their implications for models of the burst emission mechanism. Various possibilities and models for the energy source(s) of gamma-ray bursts will be described.

  5. Study of double-tagged $\\gamma\\gamma$ events at LEP2

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J.; Adam, W.; Adzic, P.; Albrecht, T.; Alderweireld, T.; Alemany-Fernandez, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Allport, P.P.; Amaldi, U.; Amapane, N.; Amato, S.; Anashkin, E.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Anjos, N.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W.D.; Arnoud, Y.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Augustin, J.E.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Ballestrero, A.; Bambade, P.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, D.; Barker, G.; Baroncelli, A.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K.H.; Begalli, M.; Behrmann, A.; Ben-Haim, E.; Benekos, N.; Benvenuti, A.; Berat, C.; Berggren, M.; Berntzon, L.; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Besson, N.; Bloch, D.; Blom, M.; Bluj, M.; Bonesini, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P.S.L.; Borisov, G.; Botner, O.; Bouquet, B.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Boyko, I.; Bracko, M.; Brenner, R.; Brodet, E.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J.M.; Bugge, L.; Buschmann, P.; Calvi, M.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cavallo, F.; Chapkin, M.; Charpentier, P.; Checchia, P.; Chierici, R.; Shlyapnikov, P.; Chudoba, J.; Chung, S.U.; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, R.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Costa, M.J.; Crawley, B.; Crennell, D.; Cuevas, J.; D'Hondt, J.; Dalmau, J.; da Silva, T.; Da Silva, W.; Della Ricca, G.; De Angelis, A.; De Boer, W.; De Clercq, C.; De Lotto, B.; DeMaria, N.; De Min, A.; De Paula, L.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Simone, A.; Doroba, K.; Drees, J.; Dris, M.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Espirito Santo, M.C.; Fanourakis, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J.; Ferrer, A.; Ferro, F.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Gavillet, P.; Gazis, Evangelos; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Graziani, E.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Guy, J.; Haag, C.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hamilton, K.; Haug, S.; Hauler, F.; Hedberg, V.; Hennecke, M.; Herr, H.; Hoffman, J.; Holmgren, S.O.; Holt, P.J.; Houlden, M.A.; Hultqvist, K.; Jackson, John Neil; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jeans, D.; Johansson, Erik Karl; Johansson, P.D.; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Jungermann, L.; Kapusta, F.; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.; Kernel, G.; Kersevan, B.P.; Kerzel, U.; Kiiskinen, A.; King, B.T.; Kjaer, N.J.; Kluit, P.; Kokkinias, P.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kuznetsov, O.; Krumshtein, Z.; Kucharczyk, M.; Lamsa, J.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, Fabienne; Leinonen, L.; Leitner, R.; Lemonne, J.; Lepeltier, V.; Lesiak, T.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lopes, J.H.; Lopez, J.M.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Malek, A.; Maltezos, S.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; McNulty, R.; Meroni, C.; Meyer, W.T.; Migliore, E.; Mitaroff, W.; Mjornmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Monig, Klaus; Monge, R.; Montenegro, J.; Moraes, D.; Moreno, S.; Morettini, P.; Muller, U.; Munich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mundim, L.; Murray, W.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.; Nawrocki, K.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nikolenko, M.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Olshevsky, A.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Palacios, J.P.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, T.D.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Peralta, L.; Perepelitsa, V.; Perrotta, A.; Petrolini, A.; Piedra, J.; Pieri, L.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Poireau, V.; Pol, M.E.; Polok, G.; Poropat, P.; Pozdnyakov, V.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Rames, J.; Ramler, L.; Read, A.; Rebecchi, P.; Rehn, J.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rivero, M.; Rodriguez, D.; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Rosenberg, E.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ryabchikov, D.; Sadovsky, A.; Salmi, L.; Salt, J.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schwickerath, U.; Segar, A.; Sekulin, R.; Siebel, M.; Sisakian, A.; Smadja, G.; Smirnova, O.; Sokolov, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassov, T.; Stanitzki, M.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Szumlak, T.; Tabarelli, T.; Taffard, A.C.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Timmermans, Jan; Tkachev, L.; Tobin, M.; Todorova, S.; Tome, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortosa, P.; Travnicek, P.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, C.; Turluer, M.L.; Tyapkin, P.; Tzamarias, S.; Uvarov, V.; Valenti, G.; Van Dam, Piet; Van Eldik, J.; Van Lysebetten, A.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Vulpen, I.; Vegni, G.; Veloso, F.; Venus, W.; Verdier, P.; Vertogradova, Yu.L.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Washbrook, A.J.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Winter, M.; Witek, M.; Yushchenko, O.; Zalewska, A.; Zalewski, P.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zimine, N.I.; Zinchenko, A.; Zupan, M.

    2006-01-01

    Double-tagged interactions of photons with virtualities Q^2 between 10GeV^2 and 200GeV^2 are studied with the data collected by DELPHI at LEP2 from 1998 to 2000, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 550pb^-1. The gamma*gamma* -> mu+mu- data agree with QED predictions. The cross-section of the reaction gamma*gamma* -> hadrons is measured and compared to the LO and NLO BFKL calculations.

  6. Search for the decay $K_{s} \\to \\pi^{0}\\gamma\\gamma$

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, A; Batley, J Richard; Bevan, A; Dosanjh, R S; Gershon, T J; Kalmus, George Ernest; Munday, D J; Olaiya, E; Parker, M A; White, T; Wotton, S A; Barr, Giles David; Bocquet, G; Ceccucci, Augusto; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Cundy, Donald C; Doble, Niels T; Falaleev, V P; Gatignon, L; Gonidec, A; Gorini, B; Govi, G; Grafström, P; Kubischta, Werner; Lacourt, A; Lenti, M; Norton, Alan Robert; Palestini, S; Panzer-Steindel, B; Tatishvili, G T; Taureg, Hans; Velasco, M; Wahl, H; Cheshkov, C; Khristov, P Z; Kekelidze, V D; Madigozhin, D T; Molokanova, N A; Potrebenikov, Yu K; Tkachev, A L; Zinchenko, A I; Knowles, I; Lazzeroni, C; Martin, V; Sacco, R; Walker, A; Contalbrigo, M; Dalpiaz, Pietro; Duclos, J; Frabetti, P L; Gianoli, A; Martini, M; Masetti, L; Petrucci, F; Savrié, M; Bizzeti, A; Calvetti, M; Collazuol, G; Graziani, G; Iacopini, E; Becker, H G; Eppard, M; Fox, H; Holtz, K; Kalter, A; Kleinknecht, K; Koch, U; Köpke, L; Lopes da Silva, P; Marouelli, P; Pellmann, I A; Peters, A; Renk, B; Schmidt, S A; Schönharting, V; Schué, Yu; Wanke, R; Winhart, A; Wittgen, M; Chollet, J C; Fayard, Louis; Iconomidou-Fayard, L; Ocariz, J; Unal, G; Wingerter-Seez, I; Anzivino, Giuseppina; Cenci, P; Imbergamo, E; Lubrano, P; Mestvirishvili, A; Nappi, A; Pepé, M; Piccini, M; Carosi, R; Casali, R; Cerri, C; Cirilli, M; Costantini, F; Fantechi, R; Giudici, Sergio; Mannelli, I; Pierazzini, G M; Sozzi, M; Chèze, J B; Cogan, J; De Beer, M; Debu, P; Formica, A; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Mazzucato, E; Peyaud, B; Turlay, René; Vallage, B; Holder, M; Maier, A; Ziolkowski, M; Arcidiacono, R; Biino, C; Cartiglia, N; Guida, R; Marchetto, F; Menichetti, E; Pastrone, N; Nassalski, J P; Rondio, Ewa; Szleper, M; Wislicki, W; Wronka, S; Dibon, Heinz; Fischer, G; Jeitler, Manfred; Markytan, Manfred; Mikulec, I; Neuhofer, Günther; Pernicka, Manfred; Taurok, Anton; Widhalm, L

    2003-01-01

    A search for the decay $K_S\\to\\pi^0\\gamma\\gamma$ has been made using the NA48 detector at the CERN SPS. Using data collected in 1999 during a 40-hour run with a high-intensity $K_S$ beam, an upper limit for the branching ratio $BR(K_S\\to\\pi^0\\gamma\\gamma, z\\ge 0.2)<3.3\\times\

  7. First observation of the $K_{S}\\to \\pi^{0}\\gamma\\gamma$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, A; Batley, J Richard; Dosanjh, R S; Gershon, T J; Kalmus, George Ernest; Lazzeroni, C; Munday, D J; Olaiya, E; Parker, M A; White, T O; Wotton, S A; Arcidiacono, R; Barr, G; Bocquet, G; Ceccucci, Augusto; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Cundy, Donald C; Doble, Niels T; Falaleev, V; Gatignon, L; Gonidec, A; Gorini, B; Grafström, P; Kubischta, Werner; Lacourt, A; Norton, A; Panzer-Steindel, B; Tatishvili, G T; Wahl, H; Cheshkov, C; Khristov, P Z; Kekelidze, V D; Madigozhin, D T; Molokanova, N A; Potrebenikov, Yu K; Zinchenko, A I; Martin, V; Rubin, P; Sacco, R; Walker, A; Contalbrigo, M; Dalpiaz, Pietro; Duclos, J; Frabetti, P L; Gianoli, A; Martini, M; Petrucci, F; Savrié, M; Bizzeti, A; Calvetti, M; Collazuol, G; Graziani, G; Iacopini, E; Lenti, M; Martelli, F; Veltri, M; Eppard, M; Hirstius, A; Holtz, K; Kleinknecht, K; Koch, U; Köpke, L; Lopes da Silva, P; Marouelli, P; Mestvirishvili, I; Pellmann, I A; Peters, A; Schmidt, S A; Schönharting, V; Schué, Yu; Wanke, R; Winhart, A; Wittgen, M; Chollet, J C; Fayard, Louis; Iconomidou-Fayard, L; Unal, G; Wingerter-Seez, I; Anzivino, Giuseppina; Cenci, P; Imbergamo, E; Lubrano, P; Mestvirishvili, A; Nappi, A; Pepé, M; Piccini, M; Casali, R; Cerri, C; Cirilli, M; Costantini, F; Fantechi, R; Fiorini, Luca; Giudici, Sergio; Mannelli, I; Pierazzini, G M; Sozzi, M; Chèze, J B; De Beer, M; Debu, P; Derue, F; Formica, A; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Gouge, G; Marel, Gérard; Mazzucato, E; Peyaud, B; Turlay, René; Vallage, B; Holder, M; Maier, A; Ziolkowski, M; Biino, C; Cartiglia, N; Marchetto, F; Menichetti, E; Pastrone, N; Nassalski, J P; Rondio, Ewa; Szleper, M; Wislicki, W; Wronka, S; Dibon, Heinz; Jeitler, Manfred; Markytan, Manfred; Mikulec, I; Neuhofer, Günther; Pernicka, Manfred; Taurok, Anton; Widhalm, L

    2004-01-01

    Using the NA48 detector at the CERN SPS, 31K_S -> \\pi^0\\gamma\\gamma candidates with an estimated background of 13.7 +- 3.2 events have been observed. This first observation leads to a branching ratio of BR(K_S -> \\pi^0\\gamma\\gamma) = (4.9 +- 1.6_stat +- 0.9_syst) X 10^-8 in agreement with Chiral Perturbation theory predictions.

  8. Different origins of gamma rhythm and high-gamma activity in macaque visual cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supratim Ray

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available During cognitive tasks electrical activity in the brain shows changes in power in specific frequency ranges, such as the alpha (8-12 Hz or gamma (30-80 Hz bands, as well as in a broad range above ∼80 Hz, called the high-gamma band. The role or significance of this broadband high-gamma activity is unclear. One hypothesis states that high-gamma oscillations serve just like gamma oscillations, operating at a higher frequency and consequently at a faster timescale. Another hypothesis states that high-gamma power is related to spiking activity. Because gamma power and spiking activity tend to co-vary during most stimulus manipulations (such as contrast modulations or cognitive tasks (such as attentional modulation, it is difficult to dissociate these two hypotheses. We studied the relationship between high-gamma power, gamma rhythm, and spiking activity in the primary visual cortex (V1 of awake monkeys while varying the stimulus size, which increased the gamma power but decreased the firing rate, permitting a dissociation. We found that gamma power became anti-correlated with the high-gamma power, suggesting that the two phenomena are distinct and have different origins. On the other hand, high-gamma power remained tightly correlated with spiking activity under a wide range of stimulus manipulations. We studied this relationship using a signal processing technique called Matching Pursuit and found that action potentials are associated with sharp transients in the LFP with broadband power, which is visible at frequencies as low as ∼50 Hz. These results distinguish broadband high-gamma activity from gamma rhythms as an easily obtained and reliable electrophysiological index of neuronal firing near the microelectrode. Further, they highlight the importance of making a careful dissociation between gamma rhythms and spike-related transients that could be incorrectly decomposed as rhythms using traditional signal processing methods.

  9. Gamma-Gamma Angular Correlation Measurements With GRIFFIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Andrew; The Griffin Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The assignment of spins and parities to excited nuclear states plays an important role in determining nuclear structure. There is a directional asymmetry in the emitted radiation from a γ- γ cascade that depends on the sequence of spin values for the nuclear states, the multipolarities, and the mixing ratios of the emitted γ-rays. These γ-ray angular correlations are used for the assignment of spins and parities to the nuclear states, and thus provide a powerful means to elucidate the structure of nuclei away from stability. The first in-beam test of gamma-gamma angular correlation measurements with the GRIFFIN spectrometer at TRIUMF-ISAC were performed with a radioactive beam of 66Ga. In the daughter nucleus 66Zn, mixing ratios were measured for various cascades, and are in excellent agreement with literature. The sensitivity to a pronounced 0+-2+-0+ angular correlation was also measured. The ability to assign spins for a 0+-2+-0+ cascade is important for the case of 62Ga superallowed Fermi β-decay where a recent measurement was made to clarify two conflicting measurements for the spin assignment of the 2.34 MeV excited state in the daughter. Work supported by the Canada Foundation for Innovation, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and the National Research Council of Canada.

  10. Comparative study between laser and conventional techniques for class V cavity preparation in gamma-irradiated teeth (in vitro study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmy, Amr H M; Harhash, Tarek A; Ghali, Rami M S; El Maghraby, Eman M F; El Rouby, Dalia H

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare laser with conventional techniques in class V cavity preparation in gamma-irradiated teeth. Forty extracted human teeth with no carious lesions were used for this study and were divided into two main groups: Group I (n = 20) was not subjected to gamma radiation (control) and Group II (n=20) was subjected to gamma radiation of 60 Gray. Standard class V preparation was performed in buccal and lingual sides of each tooth in both groups. Buccal surfaces were prepared by the Er,Cr:YSGG laser (Waterlase iPlus) 2780 nm, using the gold handpiece with MZ10 Tip in non-contact and the "H" mode, following parameters of cavity preparation - power 6 W, frequency 50 Hz, 90% water and 70% air, then shifting to surface treatment laser parameters - power 4.5 W, frequency 50 Hz, 80% water and 50% air. Lingual surfaces were prepared by the conventional high-speed turbine using round diamond bur. Teeth were then sectioned mesio-distally, resulting in 80 specimens: 40 of which were buccal laser-treated (20 control and 20 gamma-irradiated specimens) and 40 were lingual conventional high-speed bur specimens (20 control and 20 gamma-irradiated specimens). Microleakage analysis revealed higher scores in both gamma groups compared with control groups. Chi-square test revealed no significant difference between both control groups and gamma groups (p=1, 0.819, respectively). A significant difference was revealed between all 4 groups (p=0.00018). Both laser and conventional high-speed turbine bur show good bond strength in control (non-gamma) group, while microleakage is evident in gamma group, indicating that gamma radiation had a dramatic negative effect on the bond strength in both laser and bur-treated teeth.

  11. Comparative study between laser and conventional techniques for class V cavity preparation in gamma-irradiated teeth (in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr H. M. Rasmy

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare laser with conventional techniques in class V cavity preparation in gamma-irradiated teeth. Methods: Forty extracted human teeth with no carious lesions were used for this study and were divided into two main groups: Group I (n = 20 was not subjected to gamma radiation (control and Group II (n=20 was subjected to gamma radiation of 60 Gray. Standard class V preparation was performed in buccal and lingual sides of each tooth in both groups. Buccal surfaces were prepared by the Er,Cr:YSGG laser (Waterlase iPlus 2780 nm, using the gold handpiece with MZ10 Tip in non-contact and the “H” mode, following parameters of cavity preparation – power 6 W, frequency 50 Hz, 90% water and 70% air, then shifting to surface treatment laser parameters – power 4.5 W, frequency 50 Hz, 80% water and 50% air. Lingual surfaces were prepared by the conventional high-speed turbine using round diamond bur. Teeth were then sectioned mesio-distally, resulting in 80 specimens: 40 of which were buccal laser-treated (20 control and 20 gamma-irradiated specimens and 40 were lingual conventional high-speed bur specimens (20 control and 20 gamma-irradiated specimens. Results: Microleakage analysis revealed higher scores in both gamma groups compared with control groups. Chi-square test revealed no significant difference between both control groups and gamma groups (p=1, 0.819, respectively. A significant difference was revealed between all 4 groups (p=0.00018. Conclusion: Both laser and conventional high-speed turbine bur show good bond strength in control (non-gamma group, while microleakage is evident in gamma group, indicating that gamma radiation had a dramatic negative effect on the bond strength in both laser and bur-treated teeth.

  12. The Most Remote Gamma-Ray Burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    future gamma-ray burst, soon after the detection and while it is still sufficiently bright. It would for instance be possible to observe a gamma-ray burst like GRB 000131 with the UVES spectrograph at VLT KUEYEN at the moment of maximum brightness (that may have been about magnitude 16). An example of chemical studies of clouds at intermediate distance by means of a more nearby quasar is shown in ESO PR Photo 09h/00. Attempts are therefore now made to shorten considerably the various steps needed to perform such observations. This concerns especially the time needed to identify the counterpart of a gamma-ray burst and - to a lesser extent - the necessary reaction time at the VLT to point UVES towards the object (in theory, a matter of minutes only). The launch of the HETE-2 (High Energy Transient Explorer 2) gamma-ray burst satellite on October 9, 2000, is a major step in this direction. Under optimal conditions, a relative accurate sky position of a gamma-ray burst may henceforth reach the astronomy community within only 10-20 seconds of the first detection by this satellite. More information The research described in this press release is the subject of a scientific article by the team, entitled "VLT Identification of the optical afterglow of the gamma-ray burst GRB 000131 at z = 4.50" ; it will appear in a special VLT-issue (Letters to the Editor) of the European journal Astronomy & Astrophysics (December 1, 2000). The results are being presented today (October 18) at the joint CNR/ESO meeting on "Gamma-Ray Burst in the Afterglow Era" in Rome, Italy. Note also the related article in the ESO Messenger (No. 100, p. 32, June 2000). Notes [1]: The team consists of Michael Andersen (University of Oulu, Finland), Holger Pedersen, Jens Hjorth, Brian Lindgren Jensen, Lisbeth Fogh Olsen, Lise Christensen (University of Copenhagen, Denmark), Leslie Hunt (Centro per l'Astronomia Infrarossa e lo Studio del Mezzo, Florence, Italy), Javier Gorosabel (Danish Space Research Institute

  13. S-wave \\gamma\\gamma\\to \\pi\\pi and f_0(980)\\to \\pi\\pi

    OpenAIRE

    Oller, J. A.; Roca, L.; Schat, C.

    2008-01-01

    We report on a dispersion relation for the \\gamma\\gamma\\to (\\pi\\pi)_I S-wave in isospin I emphasizing the low energy region. The f_0(980) signal that emerges in \\gamma\\gamma\\to \\pi\\pi is also discussed. Our results could be used to distinguish between different \\pi\\pi isoscalar S-wave parameterizations. We also calculate the width of the \\sigma resonance to \\gamma\\gamma and obtain the value \\Gamma(\\sigma\\to\\gamma\\gamma)=(1.68\\pm 0.15) KeV. Finally, we elaborate on the size of the f_0(980) cou...

  14. Implications of Gamma-Ray Transparency Constraints in Blazars: Minimum Distances and Gamma-Ray Collimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Peter A.; Kafatos, Menas

    1995-01-01

    We develop a general expression for the gamma - gamma absorption coefficient, alpha(sub gamma(gamma)) for gamma-rays propagating in an arbitrary direction at an arbitrary point in space above an X-ray-emitting accretion disk. The X-ray intensity is assumed to vary as a power law in energy and radius between the outer disk radius, R(sub 0), and the inner radius, R(sub ms) which is the radius of marginal stability for a Schwarzschild black hole. We use our result for alpha(sub gamma(gamma)) to calculate the gamma - gamma optical depth, tau(sub gamma(gamma)) for gamma - rays created at height z and propagating at angle Phi relative to the disk axis, and we show that for Phi = 0 and z greater than or approx equal to R(sub 0), tau(sub gamma(gamma)) proportional to Epsilon(sup alpha)z(sup -2(alpha) - 3), where alpha is the X-ray spectral index and Epsilon is the gamma - ray energy. As an application, we use our formalism to compute the minimum distance between the central black hole and the site of production of the gamma-rays detected by EGRET during the 1991 June flare of 3C 279. In order to obtain an upper limit, we assume that all of the X-rays observed contemporaneously by Ginga were emitted by the disk. Our results suggest that the observed gamma - rays may have originated within less than or approx equal to 45 GM/sq c from a black hole of mass greater than or approx equal to 10(exp 9) solar mass, perhaps in active plasma located above the central funnel of the accretion disk. This raises the possibility of establishing a direct connection between the production of the observed gamma - rays and the accretion of material onto the black hole. We also consider the variation of the optical depth as a function of the angle of propagation Phi. Our results indicate that the "focusing" of the gamma - rays along the disk axis due to pair production is strong enough to explain the observed degree of alignment in blazar sources. If the gamma - rays are produced isotropically

  15. Functional source separation applied to induced visual gamma activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbati, Giulia; Porcaro, Camillo; Hadjipapas, Avgis; Adjamian, Peyman; Pizzella, Vittorio; Romani, Gian Luca; Seri, Stefano; Tecchio, Franca; Barnes, Gareth R

    2008-02-01

    Objective of this work was to explore the performance of a recently introduced source extraction method, FSS (Functional Source Separation), in recovering induced oscillatory change responses from extra-cephalic magnetoencephalographic (MEG) signals. Unlike algorithms used to solve the inverse problem, FSS does not make any assumption about the underlying biophysical source model; instead, it makes use of task-related features (functional constraints) to estimate source/s of interest. FSS was compared with blind source separation (BSS) approaches such as Principal and Independent Component Analysis, PCA and ICA, which are not subject to any explicit forward solution or functional constraint, but require source uncorrelatedness (PCA), or independence (ICA). A visual MEG experiment with signals recorded from six subjects viewing a set of static horizontal black/white square-wave grating patterns at different spatial frequencies was analyzed. The beamforming technique Synthetic Aperture Magnetometry (SAM) was applied to localize task-related sources; obtained spatial filters were used to automatically select BSS and FSS components in the spatial area of interest. Source spectral properties were investigated by using Morlet-wavelet time-frequency representations and significant task-induced changes were evaluated by means of a resampling technique; the resulting spectral behaviours in the gamma frequency band of interest (20-70 Hz), as well as the spatial frequency-dependent gamma reactivity, were quantified and compared among methods. Among the tested approaches, only FSS was able to estimate the expected sustained gamma activity enhancement in primary visual cortex, throughout the whole duration of the stimulus presentation for all subjects, and to obtain sources comparable to invasively recorded data.

  16. PPARGC1A DNA methylation in subcutaneous adipose tissue in low birth weight subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillberg, Linn; Jacobsen, Stine; Rönn, Tina

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Increased DNA methylation of the metabolic regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PPARGC1A) has been reported in skeletal muscle from type 2 diabetes (T2D) subjects and from low birth weight (LBW) subjects with an increased risk of T2D. High...

  17. Electron-gamma directional correlations; Correlations directionnelles electron-gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerholm, T.R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1966-10-01

    The theory of the angular correlation between conversion electrons and gamma rays is briefly outlined. The experimental methods used for the study of the electron-gamma correlation are described. The effects of the formation of a hole and the hyperfine structure magnetic coupling dependent on time are then considered. The experimental results showed that the attenuations found for different metallic media plainly conform to a simple quadrupolar interaction mechanism. For a source surrounded by an insulator, however, the results show that a rapidly disappearing coupling occurs as a supplement to the quadrupolar interaction mechanism. This coupling attenuates the angular correlation by about 75% of the non-perturbed value. It was concluded that for an intermediate half life of the level of the order of the nanosecond, the attenuations produced by the secondary effects of the hole formation can not be completely neglected. The metallic media considered were Ag, Au, Al, and Ga. In the study of E2 conversion processes, the radical matrix elements governing the E2 conversion process in the 412-KeV transition of {sup 198}Hg were determined. The results exclude the presence of dynamic contributions within the limits of experimental error. The values b{sub 2} (E2) and {alpha}-k (E2) obtained indirectly from the experimentally determined b{sub 4} particle parameter are in complete agreement with the theoretical values obtained by applying the corrections due to the shielding effect and to the finite dimension of the nucleus and excluding the dynamic contributions. The value for the internal conversion coefficient was also in good agreement. Experimental results from the intensity ratios between the peak and the continuum, however, seem to show significant deviations with respect to other experimental and theoretical values. There is good agreement between experimental and theoretical results on the internal conversion of {sup 203}Tl, {sup 201}Tl, and {sup 181}Ta. The theory

  18. Gamma oscillations distinguish mere exposure from other likability effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongthong, Nutchakan; Minami, Tetsuto; Nakauchi, Shigeki

    2014-02-01

    Repeated exposure to neutral stimuli enhances liking for those, which is called mere exposure effect (MEE) (Zajonc, 1968). Its behavioral effects have been extensively investigated. However, the mechanism by which it is generated remains unclear. To elucidate the neural mechanism of the MEE, we recorded electroencephalograms while subjects indicated their preferences for face stimuli with and without MEE induction. According to behavioral data, participants were divided into two groups, one with, and one without MEE tendency. In participants with an MEE tendency, gamma activity (40-60 [Hz]) in the parieto-occipital area was significantly weaker for exposed faces than unexposed ones, indicating a repetition-suppression effect. Gamma activity from sites exhibiting peak repetition-suppression effects was significantly weaker in theoretically genuine MEE trials than non-MEE trials, indicating that emotion processing might influence the MEE. These results suggest that existing theories regarding mechanisms underlying the MEE, namely, fluency misattribution and apprehensiveness reduction might not be mutually exclusive. Moreover, gamma activity might be a potential indicator to distinguish the MEE from other likability effects, at least in the case of human face stimuli. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of gamma column scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Bum; Jung, Sung Hee; Jun, Jong Kyu; Kim, Jin Sup

    2004-11-01

    Distillation column is important unit in petro-chemical industries, and its on-line diagnose is important. To get density profile measured by the radiation transmitted through column is well method for on-line diagnose to find out missing tray or flooding. In many cases the distance from radiation detector to detection circuit is up to 100m long. Conventional radiation detection method that is to transmit analog signal by co axial cable directly to detection circuit couldn't give good result because of its long cable. In this case the system is sensitive to electric noise because of long cable and interface between the radiation circuit and the controller for mechanical system. The radiation detection system introduced here is using digital modulated signal and loop coil to transmit signal instead of slip ring and analog signal. In detail detection part of automatic gamma scanner consists of high voltage circuit, PHA circuit FSK modem and battery. This method isolates power system and gives good solution for automatic gamma scanning by isolating the controlling circuit of mechanical system from radiation detecting circuit which is sensitive to noise.

  20. Food irradiation: Gamma processing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunstadt, P. [MDS Nordion International, 447 March Road. Kanata, Ontario, K2K148 (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The number of products being radiation processed is constantly increasing and today include such diverse items as medical disposable, fruits and vegetables, bulk spices, meats, sea foods and waste effluents. Not only do the products differ but also many products, even those within the same groupings, require different minimum and maximum radiation doses. These variations create many different requirements in the irradiator design. The design of Cobalt-60 radiation processing facilities is well established for a number of commercial applications. Installations in over 40 countries, with some in operation since the early 1960s, are testimony to the fact that irradiator design, manufacture, installation and operation is a well established technology. However, in order to design gamma irradiators for the preservation of foods one must recognize those parameters typical to the food irradiation process as well as those systems and methods already well established in the food industry. This paper discusses the basic design concepts for gamma food irradiators. They are most efficient when designed to handle a limited product density range at an established dose. Safety of Cobalt-60 transport, safe facility operation principles and the effect of various processing parameters on economics, will also be discussed. (Author)

  1. Determinants of gamma-glutamyltransferase: positive interaction with alcohol and body mass index, negative association with coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poikolainen, K; Vartiainen, E

    1997-12-15

    gamma-Glutamyltransferase is widely used as a marker of alcohol intake although its performance is poor. This might be related to other conditions influencing gamma-glutamyltransferase activity. The authors studied determinants of gamma-glutamyltransferase activity in a random sample (n = 6,010) drawn from the general population aged 25-64 years in Finland in 1992. In regression analysis, coffee intake and drinking boiled coffee were significantly (p or = 50 U/liter) was significantly decreased, compared with lifelong abstainers, at the alcohol intake level of or = 300 g/week (OR = 2.81, 95% CI 1.35-5.85) among nonobese subjects (body mass index or = 40 g/week (OR = 2.02, 95% CI 1.11-3.68). The proportion of elevated gamma-glutamyltransferase values was significantly decreased at the coffee intake levels of both four to six cups a day (OR = 0.44, 95% CI 0.31-0.62) and seven or more cups a day (OR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.24-0.53). In addition, drinkers of boiled coffee had elevated gamma-glutamyltransferase values more often than drinkers of filtered or instant coffee (OR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.42-0.84). No effects of alcoholic beverage preference were observed. Elevated gamma-glutamyltransferase activities appear to be related to heavy alcohol intake among the nonobese and to very light intake among obese subjects. Coffee appears to decrease gamma-glutamyltransferase activity.

  2. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium in black pepper and red pepper by gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Won-Jae; Sung, Hye-Jung; Kim, Sung-Youn; Kim, Kwang-Pyo; Ryu, Sangryeol; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2014-02-17

    This study evaluated the efficacy of gamma irradiation to inactivate foodborne pathogens in black pepper (Piper nigrum) and red pepper (dried Capsicum annuum). Black pepper and red pepper inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium were subjected to gamma irradiation in the range of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 5 kGy, and color change was evaluated after treatment. Pathogen populations decreased with increasing treatment doses. A gamma irradiation dose of 5 kGy decreased E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium populations >4.4 to >5.2 log CFU/g in black pepper without causing color change. Similarly, 5 kGy of gamma irradiation yielded reduction of 3.8 to >5.2 log CFU/g for E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium in red pepper. During gamma irradiation treatment, L*, a* and b* values of red pepper were not significantly changed except for 297 μm to 420 μm size red pepper treated with 5 kGy of gamma irradiation. Based on the D-value of pathogens in black pepper and red pepper, S. Typhimurium showed more resistant to gamma irradiation than did E. coli O157:H7. These results show that gamma irradiation has potential as a non-thermal process for inactivating foodborne pathogens in spices with minimal color changes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. EEG theta and gamma responses to semantic violations in online sentence processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hald, L.A.; Bastiaansen, M.C.M.; Hagoort, P.

    2006-01-01

    We explore the nature of the oscillatory dynamics in the EEG of subjects reading sentences that contain a semantic violation. More specifically, we examine whether increases in theta (approximate to 3-7 Hz) and gamma (around 40 Hz) band power occur in response to sentences that were either

  4. Synthesis and supramolecular properties of regioisomers of mononaphthylallyl derivatives of .gamma.-cyclodextrin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bláhová, M.; Filippov, Sergey K.; Kováčik, L.; Horský, Jiří; Hybelbauerová, S.; Syrová, Z.; Křížek, T.; Jindřich, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, 27 November (2017), s. 2509-2520 ISSN 1860-5397 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-07164S; GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14009 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : gamma- cyclodextrin * naphthylallyl derivatives * regioselective alkylation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 2.337, year: 2016

  5. The influence of interleukin-1beta on gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity in rat hippocampus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaiser, M.; Mareš, Vladislav; Šťastný, František; Bubeníková-Valešová, V.; Lisá, Věra; Suchomel, P.; Balcar, V. J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 4 (2006), s. 461-465 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NF7626 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : interleukin-1beta * gamma- glutamyltranspeptidase * hippocampus Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.093, year: 2006

  6. Nuclear data production, calculation and measurement: a global overview of the gamma heating issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gueton O.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The gamma heating evaluation in different materials found in current and future generations of nuclear reactor (EPRTM, GENIV, MTR-JHR, is becoming an important issue especially for the design of many devices (control rod, heavy reflector, in-core & out-core experiments…. This paper deals with the works started since 2009 in the Reactor Studies Department of CEA Cadarache in ordre to answer to several problematic which have been identified as well for nuclear data production and calculation as for experimental measurement methods. The selected subjects are: Development of a Monte Carlo code (FIFRELIN to simulate the prompt fission gamma emission which represents the major part of the gamma heating production inside the core Production and qualification of new evaluations of nuclear data especially for radiative capture and inelastic neutron scattering which are the main sources of gamma heating out-core Development and qualification of a recommended method for the total gamma heating calculation using the Monte Carlo simulation code TRIPOLI-4 Development, test and qualification of new devices dedicated to the in-core gamma heating measurement as well in MTR-JHR as in zero power facilities (EOLE-MINERVE of CEA, Cadarache to increase the experimental measurement accuracy.

  7. Worry, generalized anxiety disorder, and emotion: evidence from the EEG gamma band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oathes, Desmond J; Ray, William J; Yamasaki, Alissa S; Borkovec, Thomas D; Castonguay, Louis G; Newman, Michelle G; Nitschke, Jack

    2008-10-01

    The present study examined EEG gamma (35-70 Hz) spectral power distributions during worry inductions in participants suffering from generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and in control participants without a history of psychiatric illness. As hypothesized, the EEG gamma band was useful for differentiating worry from baseline and relaxation. During worry induction, GAD patients showed higher levels of gamma activity than control participants in posterior electrode sites that have been previously associated with negative emotion. Gamma fluctuations in these electrode sites were correlated with subjective emotional experience ratings lending additional support to interpretations of negative affect. Following 14 weeks of psychotherapy, the GAD group reported less negative affect with worry inductions and the corresponding gamma sites that previously differentiated the clinical from control groups changed for the GAD patients in the direction of control participants. These findings suggest converging evidence that patients suffering from GAD experience more negative emotion during worry and that the EEG gamma band is useful for monitoring fluctuations in pathological worry expected to follow successful treatment.

  8. Nuclear data production, calculation and measurement: a global overview of the gamma heating issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombier, A.-C.; Amharrak, H.; Fourmentel, D.; Ravaux, S.; Régnier, D.; Gueton, O.; Hudelot, J.-P.; Lemaire, M.

    2013-03-01

    The gamma heating evaluation in different materials found in current and future generations of nuclear reactor (EPRTM, GENIV, MTR-JHR), is becoming an important issue especially for the design of many devices (control rod, heavy reflector, in-core & out-core experiments…). This paper deals with the works started since 2009 in the Reactor Studies Department of CEA Cadarache in ordre to answer to several problematic which have been identified as well for nuclear data production and calculation as for experimental measurement methods. The selected subjects are: bid.1"> Development of a Monte Carlo code (FIFRELIN) to simulate the prompt fission gamma emission which represents the major part of the gamma heating production inside the core bid.2"> Production and qualification of new evaluations of nuclear data especially for radiative capture and inelastic neutron scattering which are the main sources of gamma heating out-core bid.3"> Development and qualification of a recommended method for the total gamma heating calculation using the Monte Carlo simulation code TRIPOLI-4 bid.4"> Development, test and qualification of new devices dedicated to the in-core gamma heating measurement as well in MTR-JHR as in zero power facilities (EOLE-MINERVE) of CEA, Cadarache to increase the experimental measurement accuracy.

  9. Photon structure functions and azimuthal correlations of lepton pairs in tagged $\\gamma\\gamma$ collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Ahlen, S P; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Baksay, L; Ball, R C; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Banicz, K; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Barone, L; Bartalini, P; Baschirotto, A; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Bhattacharya, S; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Bilei, G M; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böck, R K; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Boutigny, D; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brigljevic, V; Brock, I C; Buffini, A; Buijs, A; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Busenitz, J K; Cai, X D; Campanelli, M; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada-Canales, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chekanov, S V; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Chiefari, G; Chien, C Y; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colijn, A P; Colino, N; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; de la Cruz, B; Csilling, Akos; Dai, T S; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; Diemoz, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Di Lodovico, F; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Drago, E; Duchesneau, D; Duinker, P; Durán, I; Easo, S; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Ernenwein, J P; Extermann, Pierre; Fabre, M; Faccini, R; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Ferguson, T; Ferroni, F; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Fredj, L; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gerald, J; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Goldfarb, S; Goldstein, J; Gong, Z F; Gougas, Andreas; Gratta, Giorgio; Grünewald, M W; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hartmann, B; Hasan, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hidas, P; Hirschfelder, J; Van Hoek, W C; Hofer, H; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Hu, G; Iashvili, I; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kasser, A; Khan, R A; Kamrad, D; Kapustinsky, J S; Karyotakis, Yu; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, D H; Kim, J K; Kim, S C; Kinnison, W W; Kirkby, A; Kirkby, D; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopp, A; Korolko, I; Koutsenko, V F; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Kunin, A; Lacentre, P E; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Landi, G; Lapoint, C; Lassila-Perini, K M; Laurikainen, P; Lavorato, A; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Lee, H J; Leggett, C; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Leonardi, E; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lu, W; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Maity, M; Majumder, G; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangeol, D J J; Marchesini, P A; Marian, G; Marin, A; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Massaro, G G G; Mazumdar, K; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Mi, Y; Migani, D; Mihul, A; Van Mil, A J W; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Molnár, P; Monteleoni, B; Moore, R; Moulik, T; Mount, R; Muheim, F; Muijs, A J M; Nahn, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Niessen, T; Nippe, A; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Oh, Yu D; Organtini, G; Ostonen, R; Palit, S; Palomares, C; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Park, H K; Park, I H; Pascale, G; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Peach, D; Pei, Y J; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Petrak, S; Pevsner, A; Piccolo, D; Pieri, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Pothier, J; Produit, N; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Raja, N; Rancoita, P G; Rattaggi, M; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Van Rhee, T; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Rind, O; Robohm, A; Rodin, J; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rosselet, P; Roth, S; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Ruschmeier, D; Rykaczewski, H; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Sanders, M P; Sarakinos, M E; Sauvage, G; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schneegans, M; Scholz, N; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwenke, J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Sciarrino, D; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shukla, J; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Soulimov, V; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stone, H; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Susinno, G F; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Uchida, Y; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Viertel, Gert M; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vorvolakos, A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, J C; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, A; Wu, S X; Wynhoff, S; Xu, J; Xu, Z Z; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Ye, J B; Yeh, S C; You, J M; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zemp, P; Zeng, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhou, B; Zhou, Y; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zichichi, A; Ziegler, F; Zilizi, G

    1998-01-01

    Measurements of the QED structure of the photon based on the reaction ee to ee gamma /sup (*)/(P/sup 2/) gamma *(Q/sup 2/) to ee mu mu are discussed. This review is an update of the discussion of the results on the QED structure of the photon and covers the published measurements of the photon structure functions F/sub 2//sup gamma /, F/sub A//sup gamma / and F/sub B//sup gamma / and of the differential cross-section d sigma /dx for the exchange of two virtual photons. (10 refs).

  10. Gamma rays from hidden millisecond pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavani, Marco

    1992-01-01

    The properties were studied of a new class of gamma ray sources consisting of millisecond pulsars totally or partially surrounded by evaporating material from irradiated companion stars. Hidden millisecond pulsars offer a unique possibility to study gamma ray, optical and radio emission from vaporizing binaries. The relevance of this class of binaries for GRO observations and interpretation of COS-B data is emphasized.

  11. Gamma rays from 'hidden' millisecond pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavani, M.

    1993-01-01

    The properties were studied of a new class of gamma ray sources consisting of millisecond pulsars totally or partially surrounded by evaporating material from irradiated companion stars. Hidden millisecond pulsars offer a unique possibility to study gamma ray, optical and radio emission from vaporizing binaries. The relevance of this class of binaries for GRO observations and interpretation of COS-B data is emphasized.

  12. Exclusive photoproduction of gamma mesons at HERA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.; Musgrave, B.; Nicholass, D.; Repond, J.; Yoshida, R.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Antonioli, P.; Bari, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, G.; Cindolo, F.; Corradi, M.; Iacobucci, G.; Margotti, A.; Nania, R.; Polini, A.; Antonelli, S.; Basile, M.; Bindi, M.; Cifarelli, L.; Contin, A.; De Pasquale, S.; Sartorelli, G.; Zichichi, A.; Bartsch, D.; Brock, I.; Hartmann, H.; Hilger, E.; Jakob, H. -P.; Juengst, M.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A. E.; Samson, U.; Schoenberg, V.; Shehzadi, R.; Wlasenko, M.; Brook, N. H.; Heath, G. P.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Singh, I.; Capua, M.; Fazio, S.; Mastroberardino, A.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Tassi, E.; Kim, J. Y.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Idris, F. Mohamad; Kamaluddin, B.; Abdullah, W. A. T. Wan; Ning, Y.; Ren, Z.; Sciulli, F.; Chwastowski, J.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Galas, A.; Olkiewicz, K.; Pawlik, B.; Stopa, P.; Zawiejski, L.; Adamczyk, L.; Bold, T.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Kisielewska, D.; Lukasik, J.; Przybycien, M.; Suszycki, L.; Kotanski, A.; Slominski, W.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Blohm, C.; Borras, K.; Ciesielski, R.; Coppola, N.; Geiser, A.; Goettlicher, R.; Grebenyuk, J.; Gregor, I.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Huettmann, A.; Januschek, F.; Kahle, B.; Katkov, I. I.; Klein, U.; Koetz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Lisovyi, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loehr, B.; Mankel, R.; Melzer-Pellmann, I. -A.; Miglioranzi, S.; Montanari, A.; Namsoo, T.; Notz, D.; Parenti, A.; Roloff, P.; Rubinsky, I.; Schneekloth, U.; Spiridonov, A.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Theedt, T.; Tomaszewska, J.; Wolf, G.; Wrona, K.; Yaguees-Molina, A. G.; Youngman, C.; Zeuner, W.; Drugakov, V.; Lohmann, W.; Schlenstedt, S.; Barbagli, G.; Gallo, E.; Pelfer, P. G.; Bamberger, A.; Dobur, D.; Karstens, F.; Vlasov, N. N.; Bussey, P. J.; Doyle, A. T.; Forrest, M.; Saxon, D. H.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Gialas, I.; Papageorgiu, K.; Holm, U.; Klanner, R.; Lohrmann, E.; Perrey, H.; Schleper, R.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Sztuk, J.; Stadie, H.; Turcato, M.; Foudas, C.; Fry, C.; Long, K. R.; Tapper, A. D.; Matsumoto, T.; Nagano, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Boos, E. G.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Aushev, V.; Bachynska, O.; Borodin, M.; Kadenko, I.; Kuprash, O.; Libov, V.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Makarenko, I.; Sorokin, Iu.; Verbytskyi, A.; Volynets, O.; Zolko, M.; Son, D.; de Favereau, J.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Barreiro, F.; Glasman, C.; Jimenez, M.; del Peso, J.; Ron, E.; Terron, J.; Uribe-Estrada, C.; Corriveau, F.; Schwartz, J.; Tsurugai, T.; Antonov, A.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Gladkov, D.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Stifutkin, A.; Suchkov, S.; Dementiev, R. K.; Ermolov, P. F.; Gladilin, L. K.; Golubkov, Yu. A.; Khein, L. A.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Levchenko, B. B.; Lukina, O. Yu.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Zotkin, D. S.; Abt, I.; Caldwell, A.; Kollar, D.; Reisert, B.; Schmidke, W. B.; Grigorescu, G.; Keramidas, A.; Kooijman, R.; Pellegrino, A.; Tiecke, H.; Vazquez, M.; Bruemmer, N.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Lee, A.; Ling, T. Y.; Allfrey, P. D.; Bell, M. A.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Ferrando, J.; Foster, B.; Gwenlan, C.; Horton, K.; Oliver, K.; Robertson, A.; Walczak, R.; Bertolin, A.; Dal Corso, F.; Dusini, S.; Longhin, A.; Stanco, L.; Brugnera, R.; Carlin, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Limentani, S.; Oh, B. Y.; Raval, A.; Whitmore, J. J.; Iga, Y.; D'Agostini, G.; Marini, G.; Nigro, A.; Cole, J. E.; Hart, J. C.; Abramowicz, H.; Ingbir, R.; Kananov, S.; Stern, A.; Kuze, M.; Maeda, J.; Hori, R.; Kagawa, S.; Okazaki, N.; Tawara, T.; Hamatsu, R.; Kaji, H.; Kitamura, S.; Ota, O.; Ri, Y. D.; Costa, M.; Ferrero, M. I.; Monaco, V.; Sacchi, R.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Arneodo, M.; Ruspa, M.; Fourletov, S.; Stewart, T. P.; Boutle, S. K.; Butterworth, J. M.; Jones, T. W.; Loizides, J. H.; Wing, M.; Brzozowska, B.; Ciborowski, J.; Grzelak, G.; Kulinski, P.; Luzniak, P.; Malka, J.; Nowak, R. J.; Pawlak, J. M.; Perlanski, W.; Zarnecki, A. F.; Adamus, M.; Plucinski, P.; Tymieniecka, T.; Eisenberg, Y.; Hochman, D.; Karshon, U.; Brownson, E.; Reeder, D. D.; Savin, A. A.; Smith, W. H.; Wolfe, H.; Bhadra, S.; Catterall, C. D.; Hartner, G.; Menary, S.; Noor, U.; Standage, J.; Whyte, J.

    2009-01-01

    The exclusive photoproduction reaction gamma p -> gamma p has been studied with the ZEUS experiment in ep collisions at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 468 pb(-1). The measurement covers the kinematic range 60

  13. The topological filtration of gamma-structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, T. J.; Reidys, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    topological genus less than or equal to gamma, where composition means concatenation and nesting of such blocks. Our main results are the derivation of a new bivariate generating function for gamma-structures via symbolic methods, the singularity analysis of the solutions and a central limit theorem...

  14. Molecular characterization of induced mutagenesis through gamma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic variability in Jatropha curcas was induced by different doses (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 kR) of gamma-rays. Gamma radiation induced earliness in flowering and the plants set flowers earlier than that of control, which took longer duration of 327 days for flowering. The improved reproductive and yield ...

  15. Airborne Gamma-Ray Survey RISØ 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Helle Karina

    The aim of the described survey was to monitor the gamma radiation originating from the waste disposal deposits and the now closed reactor.......The aim of the described survey was to monitor the gamma radiation originating from the waste disposal deposits and the now closed reactor....

  16. Which multivariate gamma distributions are infinitely divisible?

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardoff, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    We define a multivariate gamma distribution on [math] by its Laplace transform [math] , [math] where ¶ [math] ¶ Under [math] , we establish necessary and sufficient conditions on the coefficients of [math] such that the above function is the Laplace transform of some probability distribution, for all [math] thus characterizing all infinitely divisible multivariate gamma distributions on [math

  17. Handbook on Mobile Gamma-ray Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Helle Karina; Korsbech, Uffe C C

    2003-01-01

    Basic physics and mathematics for Airborne and Car-borne Gamma-ray Spectrometry supplemented with practical examples and methods for advanced data processing......Basic physics and mathematics for Airborne and Car-borne Gamma-ray Spectrometry supplemented with practical examples and methods for advanced data processing...

  18. Multiple Scatters in Single Site Gamma Backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, J. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-09-16

    nEXO aims to reduce its gamma backgrounds by taking advantage of the fact that a large number of gammas that would otherwise be backgrounds will undergo multiple compton scattering in the TPC and produce spatially distinct signals. These multi-sited (MS) events can be excluded from the 0νββ search.

  19. High temperature spectral gamma well logging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normann, R.A.; Henfling, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    A high temperature spectral gamma tool has been designed and built for use in small-diameter geothermal exploration wells. Several engineering judgments are discussed regarding operating parameters, well model selection, and signal processing. An actual well log at elevated temperatures is given with spectral gamma reading showing repeatability.

  20. Study of gamma-ray strength functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, D.G.; Gardner, M.A.; Dietrich, F.S.

    1980-08-07

    The use of gamma-ray strength function systematics to calculate neutron capture cross sections and capture gamma-ray spectra is discussed. The ratio of the average capture width, GAMMA/sub ..gamma../-bar, to the average level spacing, D/sub obs/, both at the neutron separation energy, can be derived from such systematics with much less uncertainty than from separate systematics for values of GAMMA/sub ..gamma../-bar and D/sub obs/. In particular, the E1 gamma-ray strength function is defined in terms of the giant dipole resonance (GDR). The GDR line shape is modeled with the usual Lorentzian function and also with a new energy-dependent, Breit-Wigner (EDBW) function. This latter form is further parameterized in terms of two overlapping resonances, even for nuclei where photonuclear measurements do not resolve two peaks. In the mass ranges studied, such modeling is successful for all nuclei away from the N = 50 closed neutron shell. Near the N = 50 shell, a one-peak EDBW appears to be more appropriate. Examples of calculated neutron capture excitation functions and capture gamma-ray spectra using the EDBW form are given for target nuclei in the mass-90 region and also in the Ta-Au mass region. 20 figures.

  1. Prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, J. [Fribourg Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique

    1996-11-01

    The paper deals with a brief description of the principles of prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA), with the detection of gamma-rays, the PGAA project at SINQ and with the expected performances. 8 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs.

  2. Enhancing utilization of cowpeas through gamma irradiation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several techniques including the use of gamma irradiation are available to Food Scientists in this respect. Gamma irradiation has the potential to modify the functional properties of cowpeas mainly through its effects on inherent protein and starch components. The effects of γ-irradiation on the functional properties of cowpea ...

  3. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions, and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must...

  4. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2014-01-01

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must ...

  5. Subjective meaning: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen-Huitink, Janneke; van Wijbergen-Huitink, Janneke; Meier, Cécile

    This introductory chapter traces some of the considerations on the basis of which relativistic approaches to subjective meaning became en vogue. In doing so, the chapter provides an overview of the relevant linguistic and philosophical issues when developing a treatment of subjectivity. In addition,

  6. Subjective safety in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The term ‘subjective safety in traffic’ refers to people feeling unsafe in traffic or, more generally, to anxiety regarding being unsafe in traffic for oneself and/or others. Subjective safety in traffic can lead to road users limiting their mobility and social activities, which is one of the

  7. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  8. HIGGS PHYSICS WITH A GAMMA GAMMA COLLIDER BASED ON CLIC 1*.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ASNER,D.; BURKHARDT,H.; DE ROECK,A.; ELLIS,J.; GRONBERG,J.; HEINEMEYER,S.; SCHMITT,M.; SCHULTE,D.; VELASCO,M.; ZIMMERMAN,F.

    2001-11-01

    We present the machine parameters and physics capabilities of the CLIC Higgs Experiment (CLICHE), a low-energy {gamma}{gamma} collider based on CLIC 1, the demonstration project for the higher-energy two-beam accelerator CLIC. CLICHE is conceived as a factory capable of producing around 20,000 light Higgs bosons per year. We discuss the requirements for the CLIC 1 beams and a laser backscattering system capable of producing a {gamma}{gamma} total (peak) luminosity of 2.0 (0.36) x 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} with E{sub CM}({gamma}{gamma}) 115 GeV. We show how CLICHE could be used to measure accurately the mass, {bar b}b, WW and {gamma}{gamma} decays of a light Higgs boson. We illustrate how these measurements may distinguish between the Standard Model Higgs boson and those in supersymmetric and more general two-Higgs-doublet models, complementing the measurements to be made with other accelerators. We also comment on other prospects in {gamma}{gamma} and e{sup -}{gamma} physics with CLICHE.

  9. The absorption of gamma, gamma-families and hadrons in the atmosphere - EC data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaulov, S.B., E-mail: shaul@sci.lebedev.r [P.N.Lebedev physical Institute, FIAN, Leninsky prospect 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Cherdyntceva, K.V. [P.N.Lebedev physical Institute, FIAN, Leninsky prospect 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Janceitova, J.K. [Tien-Shan Highmountain Station, Mitina 3, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2009-12-15

    The energy spectra SIGMAE{sub g}amma, E{sub g}amma for gamma-families and hadrons at the level of the Pamir (600 g/cm{sup 2}) and Tien-Shan (685 g/cm{sup 2}) mountains are compared. The ratio of event intensities permits to observe the absorption lengths for different types of events in X-ray emulsion chambers: single gamma-quanta, hadrons, gamma-families and super-families with halo. These values of lambda{sub att} are much more than those determined from zenith angle distributions. Data from other EC experiments are used to decrease the errors in lambda{sub att}. The absorption curves in the atmosphere were obtained for gamma-families and gamma-quanta by means of data compiled for different EC experiments at balloon, aeroplane and mountain heights. The absorption curves cannot be described as a simple exponential dependence in both cases.

  10. Neutron monitoring systems including gamma thermometers and methods of calibrating nuclear instruments using gamma thermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Stephan Craig; Meyers, Craig Glenn; Petzen, John Alexander; Foard, Adam Muhling

    2012-08-07

    A method of calibrating a nuclear instrument using a gamma thermometer may include: measuring, in the instrument, local neutron flux; generating, from the instrument, a first signal proportional to the neutron flux; measuring, in the gamma thermometer, local gamma flux; generating, from the gamma thermometer, a second signal proportional to the gamma flux; compensating the second signal; and calibrating a gain of the instrument based on the compensated second signal. Compensating the second signal may include: calculating selected yield fractions for specific groups of delayed gamma sources; calculating time constants for the specific groups; calculating a third signal that corresponds to delayed local gamma flux based on the selected yield fractions and time constants; and calculating the compensated second signal by subtracting the third signal from the second signal. The specific groups may have decay time constants greater than 5.times.10.sup.-1 seconds and less than 5.times.10.sup.5 seconds.

  11. Thermal neutron capture gamma-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuli, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    The energy and intensity of gamma rays as seen in thermal neutron capture are presented. Only those (n,..cap alpha..), E = thermal, reactions for which the residual nucleus mass number is greater than or equal to 45 are included. These correspond to evaluations published in Nuclear Data Sheets. The publication source data are contained in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF). The data presented here do not involve any additional evaluation. Appendix I lists all the residual nuclides for which the data are included here. Appendix II gives a cumulated index to A-chain evaluations including the year of publication. The capture gamma ray data are given in two tables - the Table 1 is the list of all gamma rays seen in (n,..gamma..) reaction given in the order of increasing energy; the Table II lists the gamma rays according to the nuclide.

  12. GEANT simulation of the $\\gamma$ nuclear gauge

    CERN Document Server

    Ouardi, A; Benchekroun, D; Hoummada, A

    2003-01-01

    The gamma nuclear gauging technique used for monitoring the sediment load suspended in water, is based on the detection of gamma rays emitted by a radioactive source. The GEANT321 Monte Carlo simulation tool, originally developed at CERN for high energy physics experiments, is used for the evaluation and calibration of gamma nuclear gauges. A set of parameters, principally the source energy, the source-detector separation, the lead block thickness and the energy threshold below which the sediments elemental composition affects the measurement or the energy corresponding to the Compton and photoelectric windows separation, are discussed and evaluated in the case of the gamma scattering gauge. For the gamma transmission gauge, the GEANT321 code has been used to define the optimal source detector distance interval, particularly for the Moroccan sediment samplers, and to check the influence of the radionuclide existing in the suspension, on the gauge response accuracy. Experimental calibration was also carried ou...

  13. Measurement of the differential cross sections of e sup + e sup - ->. gamma. gamma. and e sup + e sup - ->. gamma. gamma. gamma. at radical s=55, 56, 56. 5 and 57 GeV and search for unstable photino pair production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, K. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Physics); Amako, K.; Arai, Y.; Fukawa, M.; Fukushima, Y.; Ishihara, N.; Haidt, D.; Kanzaki, J.; Kondo, T.; Matsui, T.; Odaka, S.; Ogawa, K.; Ohama, T.; Sakamoto, H.; Shirai, J.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Takasaki, F.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uehara, S.; Unno, Y.; Watase, Y.; Yamada, Y. (National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)); Asano, Y.; Koseki, T.; Mori, S.; Sakano, M.; Takada, Y.; Yonezawa, Y. (Tsukuba Univ., Sakura, Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Applied Physics); Chiba, M.; Fukui, T.; Hirose, T.; Narita, Y.; Oyama, T.; Utsumi, M.; Minami, M.; Saito, H.; Wakai, M.; Watanabe, T.; Yamagata, T. (Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics); Chiba, Y.; Endo, I.; Hayashibara, I.; Ohsugi, T.; Taketani, A.; Tanaka, R.; Terunuma, N. (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics); Daigo, M. (Wakayama Medical Coll. (Japan)); Emura, T. (Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Haba, J.; Kamit; VENUS Collaboration

    1989-12-01

    Differential cross sections for e{sup +}e{sup -}->{gamma}{gamma} have been measured at center-of-mass energies of 55, 56, 56.5 and 57 GeV. The results are in good agreement with those predicted by QED. Possible deviations from QED are studied in terms of contact interactions, and the limits on compositeness scales are obtained. Using events with a gamma pair in the final state, a search is made for the pair production of unstable photons, e+e{sup -}->{gamma}tilde{gamma}tilde. No candidate events were found and a new limit on the photino mass is obtained. (orig.).

  14. Unifying Subjectivity and Objectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Chandrasekaran

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of modern science to the progress of civilization is immeasurable. Even its tendency toward exclusive concentration on the objective world has had salutary effects of great value. Modern science has wiped away much that was merely superstitious or speculative. Its rejection of unfounded opinions and prejudices has helped the thinking mind question conventional beliefs, shed preferences and prejudices, and challenge established authority. But modern systems thinking inherited from natural science is the suppression of the subjective dimension of reality. Many complex systems are an attempt to define and represent all subjective experience in physical terms. The modern man has a bias towards objectivity. The powerful influence of sense impressions on his mind and thinking makes him ignore the subjective experience and consider only objective facts as a valid, legitimate and representation of reality. Observing objective factors that are physical is easier than observing subjective factors that are subtle. The mechanistic view of reality has led to the rejection of the role of the individual in social development as insignificant. The individuals determine the development of society. Their social power has its roots both in subjective factors and objective factors. Economy, politics, society, and culture are inseparable dimensions of a single integrated reality. Subject and object constitute an integrated whole. The mind sees them as separate and independent. Or it views one as completely subordinate to the other. Unbiased approach to the study of all human experiences may prove that subject and object are interdependent dimensions or elements of reality.

  15. The implications of the final L3 measurement of $\\sigma_{tot}(\\gamma\\gamma\\to b\\bar{b}$

    CERN Document Server

    Chyla, Jiri

    2006-01-01

    The excess of data on the total cross section of $\\bar{b}b$ production in $\\gamma\\gamma$ collisions over QCD predictions, observed by L3, OPAL and DELPHI Collaborations at LEP2, has so far defied explanation. The recent final analysis of L3 data has brought important new information concerning the dependence of the observed excess on the $\\gamma\\gamma$ collisions energy $W_{\\gamma\\gamma}$. The implications of this dependence are discussed.

  16. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  17. Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Rolston

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acromegaly is debilitating disease occasionally refractory to surgical and medical treatment. Stereotactic radiosurgery, and in particular Gamma Knife surgery (GKS, has proven to be an effective noninvasive adjunct to traditional treatments, leading to disease remission in a substantial proportion of patients. Such remission holds the promise of eliminating the need for expensive medications, along with side effects, as well as sparing patients the damaging sequelae of uncontrolled acromegaly. Numerous studies of radiosurgical treatments for acromegaly have been carried out. These illustrate an overall remission rate over 40%. Morbidity from radiosurgery is infrequent but can include cranial nerve palsies and hypopituitarism. Overall, stereotactic radiosurgery is a promising therapy for patients with acromegaly and deserves further study to refine its role in the treatment of affected patients.

  18. Study of rice. gamma. -irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lien, J.J.; Chau, R.S.; Chen, S.C.; Chu, S.L.; Fu, Y.K.; Fang, C.K.; Fu, Y.H.

    1981-03-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to investigate whether the /sup 60/Co gamma-irradiated milled rice packed in economic and practical sealed bags could be preserved in common granaries in Taiwan for more than one year rather than slightly over one month without quality deterioration. As a result of this experiment we found that during the preservation of over a period of 18 months, the contents, such as moisture, ash, protein and fiber, of Tainan-5 Bon-Lai (Japonica Type) rice irradiated with 20 and 40 krad doses were quite stable, whereas reducing sugar showed slight fluctuations but did not vary significantly either. The fat, vitamin B/sub 1/ and niacin contents were found being reduced, while the increase in fatty acid content was an inevitable phenomenon along with the proceeding of the preservation.

  19. A new measurement of the rare decay eta -> pi^0 gamma gamma with the Crystal Ball/TAPS detectors at the Mainz Microtron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nefkens, B M; Prakhov, S; Aguar-Bartolom��, P; Annand, J R; Arends, H J; Bantawa, K; Beck, R; Bekrenev, V; Bergh��user, H; Braghieri, A; Briscoe, W J; Brudvik, J; Cherepnya, S; Codling, R F; Collicott, C; Costanza, S; Danilkin, I V; Denig, A; Demissie, B; Dieterle, M; Downie, E J; Drexler, P; Fil' kov, L V; Fix, A; Garni, S; Glazier, D I; Gregor, R; Hamilton, D; Heid, E; Hornidge, D; Howdle, D; Jahn, O; Jude, T C; Kashevarov, V L; K��ser, A; Keshelashvili, I; Kondratiev, R; Korolija, M; Kotulla, M; Koulbardis, A; Kruglov, S; Krusche, B; Lisin, V; Livingston, K; MacGregor, I J; Maghrbi, Y; Mancel, J; Manley, D M; McNicoll, E F; Mekterovic, D; Metag, V; Mushkarenkov, A; Nikolaev, A; Novotny, R; Oberle, M; Ortega, H; Ostrick, M; Ott, P; Otte, P B; Oussena, B; Pedroni, P; Polonski, A; Robinson, J; Rosner, G; Rostomyan, T; Schumann, S; Sikora, M H; Starostin, A; Strakovsky, I I; Strub, T; Suarez, I M; Supek, I; Tarbert, C M; Thiel, M; Thomas, A; Unverzagt, M; Watts, D P; Werthmueller, D; Witthauer, L

    2014-08-01

    A new measurement of the rare, doubly radiative decay eta->pi^0 gamma gamma was conducted with the Crystal Ball and TAPS multiphoton spectrometers together with the photon tagging facility at the Mainz Microtron MAMI. New data on the dependence of the partial decay width, Gamma(eta->pi^0 gamma gamma), on the two-photon invariant mass squared, m^2(gamma gamma), as well as a new, more precise value for the decay width, Gamma(eta->pi^0 gamma gamma) = (0.33+/-0.03_tot) eV, are based on analysis of 1.2 x 10^3 eta->pi^0 gamma gamma decays from a total of 6 x 10^7 eta mesons produced in the gamma p -> eta p reaction. The present results for dGamma(eta->pi^0 gamma gamma)/dm^2(gamma gamma) are in good agreement with previous measurements and recent theoretical calculations for this dependence.

  20. Functional connectivity between brain areas estimated by analysis of gamma waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheiri, Farshad; Bragin, Anatol; Engel, Jerome

    2013-04-15

    The goal of this study is to investigate functional connectivity between different brain regions by analyzing the temporal relationship of the maxima of gamma waves recorded in multiple brain areas. Local field potentials were recorded from motor cortex, hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and piriform cortex of rats. Gamma activity was filtered and separated into two bands; high (65-90Hz) and low (30-55Hz) gamma. Maxima for gamma activity waves were detected and functional connectivity between different brain regions was determined using Shannon entropy for perievent histograms for each pair channels. Significant Shannon entropy values were reported as connectivity factors. We defined a connectivity matrix based the connectivity factors between different regions. We found that maxima of low and high frequency gamma occur in strong temporal relationship between some brain areas, indicating the existence of functional connections between these areas. The spatial pattern of functional connections between brain areas was different for slow wave sleep and waking states. However for each behavioral state in the same animal the pattern of functional connections was stable over time within 30min of continuous analysis and over a 5 day period. With the same electrode montage the pattern of functional connectivity varied from one subject to another. Analysis of the temporal relationship of maxima of gamma waves between various brain areas could be a useful tool for investigation of functional connections between these brain areas. This approach could be applied for analysis of functional alterations occurring in these connections during different behavioral tasks and during processes related to learning and memory. The specificity in the connectivity pattern from one subject to another can be explained by the existence of unique functional networks for each subject. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Data Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article considers whether it is fortunate that data protection rules, as a starting point, apply to all physical persons as data subjects, or whether it would be better to differentiate between kinds of persons on grounds of their ability to act as a data subject. In order to protect all...... persons, it is argued that a principle of care should be part of data protection law....

  2. Comparison of gamma-gamma Phase Coarsening Responses of Three Powder Metal Disk Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabb, T. P.; Gayda, J.; Johnson, D. F.; MacKay, R. A.; Rogers, R. B.; Sudbrack, C. K.; Garg, A.; Locci, I. E.; Semiatin, S. L.; Kang, E.

    2016-01-01

    The phase microstructures of several powder metal (PM) disk superalloys were quantitatively evaluated. Contents, chemistries, and lattice parameters of gamma and gamma strengthening phase were determined for conventionally heat treated Alloy 10, LSHR, and ME3 superalloys, after electrolytic phase extractions. Several of long term heat treatments were then performed, to allow quantification of the precipitation, content, and size distribution of gamma at a long time interval to approximate equilibrium conditions. Additional coarsening heat treatments were performed at multiple temperatures and shorter time intervals, to allow quantification of the precipitation, contents and size distributions of gamma at conditions diverging from equilibrium. Modest differences in gamma and gamma lattice parameters and their mismatch were observed among the alloys, which varied with heat treatment. Yet, gamma coarsening rates were very similar for all three alloys in the heat treatment conditions examined. Alloy 10 had higher gamma dissolution and formation temperatures than LSHR and ME3, but a lower lattice mismatch, which was slightly positive for all three alloys at room temperature. The gamma precipitates of Alloy 10 appeared to remain coherent at higher temperatures than for LSHR and ME3. Higher coarsening rates were observed for gamma precipitates residing along grain boundaries than for those within grains in all three alloys, during slow-moderate quenching from supersolvus solution heat treatments, and during aging at temperatures of 843 C and higher.

  3. Composição, digestibilidade protéica e desaminação em cultivares brasileiras de soja submetidas à radiação gama Composition, protein digestibility and deamidation in Brazilian soy cultivars subjected to gamma radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís Carolina Franqueira de Toledo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A soja é reconhecidamente um alimento rico em proteínas e lipídios e sua inclusão na alimentação humana no Brasil tem se tornado cada vez maior. Devido à importância comercial e nutricional da soja, possíveis alterações promovidas por métodos de conservação aplicados a ela devem ser estudadas. O presente trabalho visa avaliar a composição química, a digestibilidade in vitro de proteínas e a porcentagem de desaminação de grãos de cinco diferentes cultivares de soja (BRS 212, BRS 213, BRS 214, BRS 231 e E48 submetidas à irradiação (doses de 2, 4 e 8 kGy. Dentro da composição química foram encontrados valores para cinza que variaram de 4,90 a 6,08%, para proteína de 21,23 a 36,99%, para lipídeos de 19,22 a 24,84%, para fibras solúveis de 1,37 a 4,03% e para fibras insolúveis de 15,97 a 18,87%. A porcentagem de desaminação nas diferentes amostras variou de 17,34 a 57,79% e a digestibilidade in vitro de 84,45 a 89,11%. O tratamento de irradiação nas doses utilizadas não promoveu alterações na composição centesimal e na digestibilidade, mas promoveu aumento na porcentagem de desaminação das amostras conforme aumento das doses.Soy is known to be rich in proteins and lipids and its inclusion in the diet of Brazil's population is increasing. Due to the commercial and nutritional importance of soy, possible alterations resulting from the methods of conservation to which they are subjected must be studied. The present work evaluated the chemical composition, the in vitro digestibility of proteins and the percentage of deamidation of grains of five different soy cultivars (BRS 212, BRS 213, BRS 214, 231 BRS and E48 subjected to irradiation (doses of 2, 4 and 8 kGy. The chemical composition showed ashes varying from 4.90 to 6.08%, proteins from 21.23 to 36.99%, lipids from 19.22 to 24.84%, soluble fibers from 1.37 to 4.03%, and insoluble fibers from 15.97 to 18.87%. The percentage of deamidation in the various

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation on ethylene propylene diene terpolymer rubber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Zeid, M. M.; Rabie, S. T.; Nada, A. A.; Khalil, A. M.; Hilal, R. H.

    2008-01-01

    Composites of ethylene propylene dine terpolymer rubber (EPDM), high density polyethylene (HDPE) and ground tire rubber powder (GTR) at different ratios were subjected to gamma irradiation at various doses up to 250 kGy. The physical, mechanical and thermal properties were investigated as a function of irradiation dose and blend composition. Gamma irradiation led to a significant improvement in the properties for all blend compositions. The results indicate that the improvement in properties is inversely proportional to the substituted ratio of GTR, attributed to the development of an interfacial adhesion between GTR and blend components. The results were confirmed by examining the fracture surfaces by scanning electron microscopy.

  5. Chemokine expression in GKO mice (lacking interferon-gamma) with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glabinski, A R; Krakowski, M; Han, Y

    1999-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) considered to be an animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS). The detailed mechanism that specifies accumulation of inflammatory cells within the CNS in these conditions remains a subject...... in the CNS of mice with an intact IFN-gamma gene and EAE, was strikingly absent. In vitro experiments confirmed that IFNgamma selectively stimulates astrocytes for IP-10 expression. These results indicate that IP-10 is dependent upon IFN-gamma for its upregulation during this model disease, and document...

  6. Strength of gamma rhythm depends on normalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supratim Ray

    Full Text Available Neuronal assemblies often exhibit stimulus-induced rhythmic activity in the gamma range (30-80 Hz, whose magnitude depends on the attentional load. This has led to the suggestion that gamma rhythms form dynamic communication channels across cortical areas processing the features of behaviorally relevant stimuli. Recently, attention has been linked to a normalization mechanism, in which the response of a neuron is suppressed (normalized by the overall activity of a large pool of neighboring neurons. In this model, attention increases the excitatory drive received by the neuron, which in turn also increases the strength of normalization, thereby changing the balance of excitation and inhibition. Recent studies have shown that gamma power also depends on such excitatory-inhibitory interactions. Could modulation in gamma power during an attention task be a reflection of the changes in the underlying excitation-inhibition interactions? By manipulating the normalization strength independent of attentional load in macaque monkeys, we show that gamma power increases with increasing normalization, even when the attentional load is fixed. Further, manipulations of attention that increase normalization increase gamma power, even when they decrease the firing rate. Thus, gamma rhythms could be a reflection of changes in the relative strengths of excitation and normalization rather than playing a functional role in communication or control.

  7. Emotion classification based on gamma-band EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mu; Lu, Bao-Liang

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we use EEG signals to classify two emotions-happiness and sadness. These emotions are evoked by showing subjects pictures of smile and cry facial expressions. We propose a frequency band searching method to choose an optimal band into which the recorded EEG signal is filtered. We use common spatial patterns (CSP) and linear-SVM to classify these two emotions. To investigate the time resolution of classification, we explore two kinds of trials with lengths of 3s and 1s. Classification accuracies of 93.5% +/- 6.7% and 93.0%+/-6.2% are achieved on 10 subjects for 3s-trials and 1s-trials, respectively. Our experimental results indicate that the gamma band (roughly 30-100 Hz) is suitable for EEG-based emotion classification.

  8. Constraining CKM $\\gamma$ angle at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Vallier, Alexis Roger Louis

    2015-01-01

    The current combination of all available tree-level measurements of the CKM angle gamma at LHCb is reported. It includes results obtained from time independent analyses of B+ -> DK+ and of B0 -> DK∗0 decays; and from a time-dependent analysis of Bs0 -> DsK decays. The results represent the world's best single-experiment determination of gamma. The first observation of the Bs->Ds*K decay and the first observation and amplitude analysis of B- -> D+K-pi- are also reported. In addition to these tree measurements, the estimation of gamma from charmless B meson decay, sensitive to loops contribution, is presented.

  9. Gamma rays from star-forming regions

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo E. Romero

    2008-01-01

    Star-forming regions have been tentatively associated with gamma-ray sources since the early days of the COS B satellite. After the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, the statistical evidence for such an association has became overwhelming. Recent results from Cherenkov telescopes indicate that some high-energy sources are produced in regions of active star formation like Cygnus OB2 and Westerlund 2. In this paper I will briefly review what kind of stellar objects can produce gamma-ray emission i...

  10. The propagation of gamma quanta in matter

    CERN Document Server

    Lejpunskij, Ovsej Ilich; Sakharov, Vsevolod Nikolaevich

    1965-01-01

    The Propagation of Gamma Quanta in Matter deals with various problems of the propagation and absorption of gamma quanta in matter, particularly the occurrence of multiple scattering of radiation. The ultimate objective is to determine the material, size, and configuration that will ensure the safe absorption of nuclear radiation. Shield design problems are given, the solution of which is achieved using numerical data presented in graphs and tables. This volume is comprised of three chapters and begins with an overview of the interaction of gamma radiation with matter and multiple scattering of

  11. Mathematical efficiency calibration in gamma spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminski, S; Wilhelm, C

    2003-01-01

    Mathematical efficiency calibration with the LabSOCS software was introduced for two detectors in the measurement laboratory of the Central Safety Department of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. In the present contribution, conventional efficiency calibration of gamma spectroscopy systems and mathematical efficiency calibration with LabSOCS are compared with respect to their performance, uncertainties, expenses, and results. It is reported about the experience gained, and the advantages and disadvantages of both methods of efficiency calibration are listed. The results allow the conclusion to be drawn that mathematical efficiency calibration is a real alternative to conventional efficiency calibration of gamma spectroscopy systems as obtained by measurements of mixed gamma ray standard sources.

  12. Measurement of \\Gamma(\\eta -> \\pi^+\\pi^-\\gamma)/\\Gamma(\\eta -> \\pi^+\\pi^-\\pi^0) with the KLOE Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Babusci, D.; Balwierz-Pytko, I.; Bencivenni, G.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Bocci, V.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Budano, A.; Caldeira Balkest, L.; Capon, G.; Ceradini, F.; Ciambrone, P.; Czerwinski, E.; Dane, E.; De Lucia, E.; De Robertis, G.; De Santis, A.; De Simone, P.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Micco, B.; Di Salvo, R.; Domenici, D.; Erriquez, O.; Fanizzi, G.; Fantini, A.; Felici, G.; Fiore, S.; Franzini, P.; Gauzzi, P.; Giardina, G.; Giovannella, S.; Gonnella, F.; Graziani, E.; Happacher, F.; Hoistad, B.; Iafolla, L.; Jacewicz, M.; Johansson, T.; Kupsc, A.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Leverington, B.; Loddo, F.; Loffredo, S.; Mandaglio, G.; Martemianov, M.; Martini, M.; Mascolo, M.; Messi, R.; Miscetti, S.; Morello, G.; Moricciani, D.; Moskal, P.; Nguyen, F.; Passeri, A.; Patera, V.; Prado Longhi, I.; Ranieri, A.; Redmer, C.F.; Santangelo, P.; Sarra, I.; Schioppa, M.; Sciascia, B.; Silarski, M.; Taccini, C.; Tortora, L.; Venanzoni, G.; Versaci, R.; Wislicki, W.; Wolke, M.; Xu, G.; Zdebik, J.

    2013-01-08

    The ratio R_{\\eta}=\\Gamma(\\eta -> \\pi^+\\pi^-\\gamma)/\\Gamma(\\eta -> \\pi^+\\pi^-\\pi^0) has been measured by analyzing 22 million \\phi \\to \\eta \\gamma decays collected by the KLOE experiment at DA\\PhiNE, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 558 pb^{-1}. The \\eta \\to \\pi^+\\pi^-\\gamma proceeds both via the \\rho resonant contribution, and possibly a non-resonant direct term, connected to the box anomaly. Our result, R_{\\eta}= 0.1856\\pm 0.0005_{stat} \\pm 0.0028_{syst}, points out a sizable contribution of the direct term to the total width. The di-pion invariant mass for the \\eta -> \\pi^+\\pi^-\\gamma decay could be described in a model-independent approach in terms of a single free parameter, \\alpha. The determined value of the parameter \\alpha is \\alpha = (1.32 \\pm 0.08_{stat} +0.10/-0.09_{syst}\\pm 0.02_{theo}) GeV^{-2}

  13. Subject (of documents)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    such as concepts, aboutness, topic, isness and ofness are also briefly presented. The conclusion is that the most fruitful way of defining “subject” (of a document) is the documents informative or epistemological potentials, that is, the documents potentials of informing users and advance the development......This article presents and discuss the concept “subject” or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document......-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts...

  14. Constitutive spectral EEG peaks in the gamma range: suppressed by sleep, reduced by mental activity and resistant to sensory stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Samuel Grummett

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In a systematic study of gamma activity in neuro-psychiatric disease, we unexpectedly observed distinctive, apparently persistent, electroencephalogram (EEG spectral peaks in the gamma range (25-100 Hz. Our objective, therefore, was to examine the incidence, distribution and some of the characteristics of these peaks.Methods: High sample-rate, 128-channel, EEG was recorded in 603 volunteers (510 with neuropsychiatric disorders, 93 controls, whilst performing cognitive tasks, and converted to power spectra. Peaks of spectral power, including in the gamma range, were determined algorithmically for all electrodes. To determine if peaks were stable, 24-hour ambulatory recordings were obtained from 16 subjects with peaks. In 10 subjects, steady-state responses to stimuli at peak frequency were compared with off-peak-frequency stimulation to determine if peaks were a feature of underlying network resonances and peaks were evaluated with easy and hard versions of oddball tasks to determine if peaks might be influenced by mental effort.Results: 57 % of subjects exhibited peaks > 2 dB above trough power at or above 25 Hz. Larger peaks (> 5 dB were present in 13 % of subjects. Peaks were distributed widely over the scalp, more frequent centrally. Peaks were present through the day and were suppressed by slow-wave-sleep. Steady-state responses were the same with on- or off-peak sensory stimulation. In contrast, mental effort resulted in reductions in power and frequency of gamma peaks, although the suppression did not correlate with level of effort.Conclusions: Gamma EEG can be expressed constitutively as concentrations of power in narrow or wide frequency bands that play an, as yet, unknown role in cognitive activity.Significance: These findings expand the described range of rhythmic EEG phenomena. In particular, in addition to evoked, induced and sustained gamma band activity, gamma activity can be present constitutively in spectral peaks.

  15. Science of the subjective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, R G; Dunne, B J

    2007-01-01

    Over the greater portion of its long scholarly history, the particular form of human observation, reasoning, and technical deployment we properly term "science" has relied at least as much on subjective experience and inspiration as it has on objective experiments and theories. Only over the past few centuries has subjectivity been progressively excluded from the practice of science, leaving an essentially secular analytical paradigm. Quite recently, however, a compounding constellation of newly inexplicable physical evidence, coupled with a growing scholarly interest in the nature and capability of human consciousness, are beginning to suggest that this sterilization of science may have been excessive and could ultimately limit its epistemological reach and cultural relevance. In particular, an array of demonstrable consciousness-related anomalous physical phenomena, a persistent pattern of biological and medical anomalies, systematic studies of mind/brain relationships and the mechanics of human creativity, and a burgeoning catalogue of human factors effects within contemporary information processing technologies, all display empirical correlations with subjective aspects that greatly complicate, and in many cases preclude, their comprehension on strictly objective grounds. However, any disciplined re-admission of subjective elements into rigorous scientific methodology will hinge on the precision with which they can be defined, measured, and represented, and on the resilience of established scientific techniques to their inclusion. For example, any neo-subjective science, while retaining the logical rigor, empirical/theoretical dialogue, and cultural purpose of its rigidly objective predecessor, would have the following requirements: acknowledgment of a proactive role for human consciousness; more explicit and profound use of interdisciplinary metaphors; more generous interpretations of measurability, replicability, and resonance; a reduction of ontological

  16. The Subjectivity of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    What is a 'we' – a collective – and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity – and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas...... practices. Through this dialogue, it develops an original trans-disciplinary critical theory and practice of collective subjectivity for which the ongoing construction and overcoming of common sense, or ideology, is central. It also points to ways of relating discourse with agency, and fertilizing insights...... from interactionism and ideology theories in a cultural-historical framework....

  17. Gamma-ray Spectra of Starburst Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Roberto Jose; Paglione, Timothy

    2018-01-01

    Starburst galaxies offer a unique window into the nature of star formation, its driving forces, and the energetic interactions within the galaxy. Their supernovae enrich the surrounding environment with cosmic rays that interact with the interstellar medium and galactic magnetic fields producing gamma-rays and non-thermal radio emission. We generated gamma-ray spectra for the 7 brightest starburst galaxies using 8.6 years of Pass 8 Large Area Telescope (LAT) data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. In addition to new detections, we will report on the results of simultaneously modeling the gamma-ray and radio spectra. These results confirm prior studies favoring high magnetic field strengths in the starburst regions.

  18. The $e^+ e^- \\to Z\\gamma\\gamma \\to q\\overline{q}\\gamma\\gamma$ Reaction at LEP and Constraints on Anomalous Quartic Gauge Boson Couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J A; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Ewers, A; Extermann, Pierre; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hakobyan, R S; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Käfer, D; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Latt, J; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Likhoded, S A; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangeol, D J J; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Niessen, T; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Palomares, C; Pandoulas, D; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofiev, D O; Prokofev, D; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rosenbleck, C; Roux, B; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Sanders, M P; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S V; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R P; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Wienemann, P; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M

    2002-01-01

    The cross section of the process e^+ e^- -> Z \\gamma\\gamma -> qq~ \\gamma \\gamma is measured with 215 pb^-1 of data collected with the L3 detector during the final LEP run at centre-of-mass energies around 205 GeV and 207 GeV. No deviation from the Standard Model expectation is observed. The full data sample of 713 pb^-1, collected above the Z resonance, is used to constrain the coefficients of anomalous quartic gauge boson couplings to: -0.02 GeV^-2 < a_0/\\Lambda^2 < 0.03 GeV^-2 and -0.07 GeV^-2 < a_c/\\Lambda^2 < 0.05 GeV^-2, at 95% confidence level.

  19. Scintimammography (Breast Specific Gamma Imaging-BSGI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is scintimammography? Scintimammography, also known as nuclear medicine breast imaging, is an examination that may be used to ... as Breast Specific Gamma Imaging (BSGI) or Molecular Breast Imaging (MBI). Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  20. Gamma-Ray Astrophysics NSSTC Fermi GBM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) is not a pointed or imaging instrument. To determine fluxes for known sources, we measure the change in the count rate...

  1. Strength of gamma rhythm depends on normalization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ray, Supratim; Ni, Amy M; Maunsell, John H R

    2013-01-01

    ...), whose magnitude depends on the attentional load. This has led to the suggestion that gamma rhythms form dynamic communication channels across cortical areas processing the features of behaviorally relevant stimuli...

  2. POPULATION SYNTHESIS AND GAMMA RAY BURST PROGENITORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. L. FREYER

    2000-12-11

    Population synthesis studies of binaries are always limited by a myriad of uncertainties from the poorly understood effects of binary mass transfer and common envelope evolution to the many uncertainties that still remain in stellar evolution. But the importance of these uncertainties depends both upon the objects being studied and the questions asked about these objects. Here I review the most critical uncertainties in the population synthesis of gamma-ray burst progenitors. With a better understanding of these uncertainties, binary population synthesis can become a powerful tool in understanding, and constraining, gamma-ray burst models. In turn, as gamma-ray bursts become more important as cosmological probes, binary population synthesis of gamma-ray burst progenitors becomes an important tool in cosmology.

  3. Study of $\\gamma\\gamma$ Background in $e^{+}e^{-} \\to W^{+}W^{-}\

    CERN Document Server

    Battaglia, Marco; Battaglia, Marco; Schulte, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    The effect of the overlap of gamma gamma -> hadrons to H nu nu events has been studied for the case of the Tesla e+e- linear collider at 350 GeV. It was found that, due to the significant bunch length and the track extrapolation accuracy provided by the Vertex Tracker, the gamma gamma background to physics events can be substantially reduced, with moderate loss in reconstruction efficiency, by a combination of kinematical and vertex topology observables. The remaining background, being confined to very forward hadron production, does not significantly interfere with the event reconstruction.

  4. A method to describe inelastic gamma field distribution in neutron gamma density logging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Quanying; Liu, Juntao; Wang, Xinguang; Wu, He; Jia, Wenbao; Ti, Yongzhou; Qiu, Fei; Zhang, Xiaoyang

    2017-11-01

    Pulsed neutron gamma density logging (NGD) is of great significance for radioprotection and density measurement in LWD, however, the current methods have difficulty in quantitative calculation and single factor analysis for the inelastic gamma field distribution. In order to clarify the NGD mechanism, a new method is developed to describe the inelastic gamma field distribution. Based on the fast-neutron scattering and gamma attenuation, the inelastic gamma field distribution is characterized by the inelastic scattering cross section, fast-neutron scattering free path, formation density and other parameters. And the contribution of formation parameters on the field distribution is quantitatively analyzed. The results shows the contribution of density attenuation is opposite to that of inelastic scattering cross section and fast-neutron scattering free path. And as the detector-spacing increases, the density attenuation gradually plays a dominant role in the gamma field distribution, which means large detector-spacing is more favorable for the density measurement. Besides, the relationship of density sensitivity and detector spacing was studied according to this gamma field distribution, therefore, the spacing of near and far gamma ray detector is determined. The research provides theoretical guidance for the tool parameter design and density determination of pulsed neutron gamma density logging technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Search for the rare decay $D^0\\to\\gamma\\gamma$ at Belle

    CERN Document Server

    Nisar, N K; Trabelsi, K; Aziz, T; Abdesselam, A; Adachi, I; Aihara, H; Asner, D M; Aulchenko, V; Aushev, T; Ayad, R; Babu, V; Badhrees, I; Bahinipati, S; Barberio, E; Behera, P; Bhardwaj, V; Biswal, J; Bobrov, A; Bozek, A; Bračko, M; Breibeck, F; Browder, T E; Červenkov, D; Chekelian, V; Chen, A; Cheon, B G; Chistov, R; Cho, K; Chobanova, V; Choi, Y; Cinabro, D; Dalseno, J; Dash, N; Doležal, Z; Drásal, Z; Drutskoy, A; Dutta, D; Eidelman, S; Farhat, H; Fast, J E; Fulsom, B G; Gaur, V; Garmash, A; Gillard, R; Goh, Y M; Goldenzweig, P; Greenwald, D; Grzymkowska, O; Haba, J; Hara, T; Hayasaka, K; Hayashii, H; He, X H; Hou, W -S; Inami, K; Ishikawa, A; Iwasaki, Y; Jacobs, W W; Jaegle, I; Jeon, H B; Joffe, D; Joo, K K; Julius, T; Kang, K H; Kato, E; Kawasaki, T; Kiesling, C; Kim, D Y; Kim, H J; Kim, K T; Kim, M J; Kim, S H; Kinoshita, K; Kodyš, P; Korpar, S; Križan, P; Krokovny, P; Kuhr, T; Kumar, R; Kumita, T; Kuzmin, A; Kwon, Y -J; Lee, I S; Lange, J S; Li, H; Li, L; Gioi, L Li; Libby, J; Liventsev, D; Lukin, P; Masuda, M; Matvienko, D; Miyabayashi, K; Miyata, H; Mizuk, R; Mohanty, S; Moll, A; Moon, H K; Mori, T; Mussa, R; Nakano, E; Nakao, M; Nanut, T; Natkaniec, Z; Nayak, M; Niiyama, M; Nishida, S; Ogawa, S; Okuno, S; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Pal, B; Park, C W; Park, H; Paul, S; Pedlar, T K; Pesántez, L; Pestotnik, R; Petrič, M; Piilonen, L E; Prasanth, K; Pulvermacher, C; Rauch, J; Ribežl, E; Ritter, M; Rostomyan, A; Ryu, S; Sahoo, H; Sandilya, S; Sanuki, T; Sato, Y; Savinov, V; Schlüter, T; Schneider, O; Schnell, G; Schwanda, C; Schwartz, A J; Seino, Y; Senyo, K; Seon, O; Seong, I S; Shebalin, V; Shibata, T -A; Shiu, J -G; Shwartz, B; Simon, F; Singh, J B; Sohn, Y -S; Solovieva, E; Stanič, S; Starič, M; Stypula, J; Sumihama, M; Sumiyoshi, T; Tamponi, U; Teramoto, Y; Uchida, M; Uglov, T; Uno, S; Urquijo, P; Van Hulse, C; Vanhoefer, P; Varner, G; Varvell, K E; Vinokurova, A; Vossen, A; Wagner, M N; Wang, C H; Wang, M -Z; Wang, X L; Watanabe, M; Watanabe, Y; Williams, K M; Won, E; Yelton, J; Yuan, C Z; Yusa, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhilich, V; Zhulanov, V; Zupanc, A

    2015-01-01

    We search for the rare radiative decay $D^0\\to\\gamma\\gamma$ using a data sample with an integrated luminosity of $832{\\rm fb^{-1}}$ recorded by the Belle detector at the KEKB $e^+e^-$ asymmetric-energy collider. We find no statistically significant signal and set an upper limit on the branching fraction of ${\\cal B}(D^0\\to\\gamma\\gamma)<8.5\\times10^{-7}$ at $90\\%$ confidence level. This is the most restrictive limit on the decay channel to date.

  6. Research program to study the gamma radiation effects in Spanish bentonites; Programa de investigacion para estudiar los efectos de la radiacion gamma en bentonitas calcicas espanolas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dies, J.; Tarrasa, F. [Universidad Politecnica de Catalunya (Spain); Cuevas de las, C.; Miralles, L.; Pueyo, J. J. [Universidad de Barcelona (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The engineering barrier of a radioactive waste underground disposal facility, placed in a granitic host rock, will consist of a backfill of compacted bentonite blocks. At first, this material will be subjected to a gamma radiation field, from the waste canister, and heat from the spent fuel inside the canister. Moreover, any groundwater that reaches the repository will saturate the bentonite. For these reasons the performance of the engineered barrier must be carefully assessed in laboratory experiments. (Author)

  7. Gamma radiation induced resistivity changes in Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tundwal, Ambika; Kumar, V.; Datta, A.

    2017-03-01

    Monte Carlo Code JA-IPU is used for estimation of Frenkel pairs and their effect on change of resistivity of Iron on irradiation by gamma spectrum of Co60. The Code includes three cascade processes of incident gamma, produced electrons and recoiled atoms and simulation of the lattice structure of the target material. Change in experimentally measured resistivity of Iron is found to vary with number of Frenkel pairs as (x - 1) ln N d .

  8. Inequalities for q-gamma function ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sourav

    2017-10-01

    In this work inequalities for the ratios of q-gamma function are obtained which generalize the results obtained independently by Artin, Wendel, Gautschi and Jameson. Using these inequalities bounds for Gaussian binomial coefficients and q-Wallis ratio are derived and Bohr-Mollerup theorem is also proved as applications. The recent methods developed for gamma functions are used in order to obtain main results.

  9. Applications of gamma-ray lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balko, B.; Cohen, L.; Hartmann, F. X.

    1985-11-01

    As a result of the IST/IDA Gamma-Ray Laser Workshop held in May 1985, a general picture of the gamma-ray laser has emerged. The characteristics of the radiation from this source are contrasted with those from other coherent sources; these include energy, bandwidth, intensity, and coherence length. Potential nonmilitary applications are listed; and two classes of military applications are suggested. Those characteristics which drive a specific application are spelled out.

  10. Supernovae and gamma-ray bursts connection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle, Massimo Della [INAF-Napoli, Capodimonte Observatory, Salita Moiariello, 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics Network, Piazzale della Repubblica 10, I-65122, Pescara (Italy)

    2015-12-17

    I’ll review the status of the Supernova/Gamma-Ray Burst connection. Several pieces of evidence suggest that long duration Gamma-ray Bursts are associated with bright SNe-Ic. However recent works suggest that GRBs might be produced in tight binary systems composed of a massive carbon-oxygen cores and a neutron star companion. Current estimates of the SN and GRB rates yield a ratio GRB/SNe-Ibc in the range ∼ 0.4% − 3%.

  11. Polarization measurements of proton capture gamma rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suffert, M.; Endt, P.M.; Hoogenboom, A.M.

    1959-01-01

    The linear polarization has been measured of eight different gamma rays of widely differing energies (Eγ = 0.8 - 8.0 MeV) emitted at resonances in the 24Mg(p, γ)25Al, 30Si(p, γ)31P, and 32S(p, γ)33Cl reactions. The gamma rays emitted at 90° to the proton beam were Compton scattered in a 2″ NaI

  12. Gamma-ray constraints on supernova nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leising, Mark D.

    1994-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectroscopy holds great promise for probing nucleosynthesis in individual supernova explosions via short-lived radioactivity, and for measuring current global Galactic supernova nucleosynthesis with longer-lived radioactivity. It was somewhat surprising that the former case was realized first for a Type II supernova, when both Co-56 and Co-57 were detected in SN 1987A. These provide unprecedented constraints on models of Type II explosions and nucleosynthesis. Live Al-26 in the Galaxy might come from Type II supernovae, and if it is eventually shown to be so, can constrain massive star evolution, supernova nucleosynthesis, and the Galactic Type II supernova rate. Type Ia supernovae, thought to be thermonuclear explosions, have not yet been detected in gamma-rays. This is somewhat surprising given current models and recent Co-56 detection attempts. Ultimately, gamma-ray measurements can confirm their thermonuclear nature, probe the nuclear burning conditions, and help evaluate their contributions to Galactic nucleosynthesis. Type Ib/c supernovae are poorly understood. Whether they are core collapse or thermonuclear events might be ultimately settled by gamma-ray observations. Depending on details of the nuclear processing, any of these supernova types might contribute to a detectable diffuse glow of Fe-60 gamma-ray lines. Previous attempts at detection have come very close to expected emission levels. Remnants of any type of age less that a few centuries might be detectable as individual spots of Ti-44 gamma-ray line emission. It is in fact quite surprising that previous surveys have not discovered such spots, and the constraints on the combination of nucleosynthesis yields and supernova rates are very interesting. All of these interesting limits and possibilities mean that the next mission, International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL), if it has sufficient sensitivity, is very likely to lead to the realization of much of the great potential

  13. Inter- and intra-individual covariations of hemodynamic and oscillatory gamma responses in the human cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tino Zaehle

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The time course of local field potentials displaying typical discharge frequencies in the gamma frequency range highly correlates with the BOLD signal in response to rotating checkerboard stimuli in animals. In humans, oscillatory gamma-band responses (GBRs show strong inter-individual variations in frequency and amplitude but considerable intra-individual reliability indicating that individual gamma activity reflects a personal trait. While the functional role of these GBRs is still debated, investigations combining EEG–fMRI measurements provide a tool to obtain further insights into the underlying functional architecture of the human brain and will shed light onto the understanding of the dynamic relation between the BOLD signal and the properties of the electrical activity recorded on the scalp. We investigated the relation between the hemodynamic response and evoked gamma-band response (eGBR to visual stimulation. We tested the hypothesis that the amplitude of human eGBRs and BOLD responses covary intra-individually as a function of stimulation as well as inter-individually as a function of gamma-trait. 17 participants performed visual discrimination tasks during separate EEG and fMRI recordings. Results revealed that visual stimuli that evoked high GBRs also elicited strong BOLD responses in the human V1/V2 complex. Furthermore, inter-individual variations of BOLD responses to visual stimuli in the bilateral primary (Area 17 and secondary (Area V5/MT visual cortex and the right hippocampal formation were correlated with the individual gamma-trait of the subjects. The present study further supports the notion that neural oscillations in the gamma frequency range are involved in the cascade of neural processes that underlie the hemodynamic responses measured with fMRI.

  14. Gamma-scintigraphy; La gammascintigraphie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desgrez, H.A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-06-15

    Gamma-scintigraphy is a medical technique making it possible to fix the image of certain organs after the concentration in these of emitting radioactive products. It is already widely used in the case of the thyroid gland with iodine-132 by applying the isotope iodine 131. The study of the liver and gall bladder is carried out using colloidal gold 198 and Bengal pink marked with iodine 131. Serum albumin marked with iodine 131 makes it possible to study rachidian blockages. Other applications can already be foreseen in this direction. (author) [French] La gammascintigraphie est une technique medicale permettant de faire l'image de certains organes apres concentration dans ceux-ci de produits radioactifs emetteurs. Son utilisation deja repandue en ce qui concerne la thyroidine et l'iode-131 est possible avec l'iode-132 pour cette meme glande. Avec l'or colloidal 198 et le rose bengale marque a l'iode-131, on pratique des etudes du foie et de la vesicule biliaire. La serumalbumine marquee a l'iode-131 permet d'etudier les blocages rachidiens. D'autres possibilites sont des maintenant envisageables dans cette direction. (auteur)

  15. On Gamma-Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Ruffini, Remo; Bianco, Carlo Luciano; Caito, Letizia; Chardonnet, Pascal; Cherubini, Christian; Dainotti, Maria Giovanna; Fraschetti, Federico; Geralico, Andrea; Guida, Roberto; Patricelli, Barbara; Rotondo, Michael; Hernandez, Jorge Armando Rueda; Vereshchagin, Gregory; Xue, She-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    (Shortened) We show by example how the uncoding of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) offers unprecedented possibilities to foster new knowledge in fundamental physics and in astrophysics. After recalling some of the classic work on vacuum polarization in uniform electric fields by Klein, Sauter, Heisenberg, Euler and Schwinger, we summarize some of the efforts to observe these effects in heavy ions and high energy ion collisions. We then turn to the theory of vacuum polarization around a Kerr-Newman black hole, leading to the extraction of the blackholic energy, to the concept of dyadosphere and dyadotorus, and to the creation of an electron-positron-photon plasma. We then present a new theoretical approach encompassing the physics of neutron stars and heavy nuclei. It is shown that configurations of nuclear matter in bulk with global charge neutrality can exist on macroscopic scales and with electric fields close to the critical value near their surfaces. These configurations may represent an initial condition for the...

  16. Irradiation gamma on chitosan films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Luana Miranda Lopes de; Souza, Adriana Regia Marques de; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: lumilopes@hotmail.com, E-mail: drilavras@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Universidade Federal do Tocantins (UFT), Palmas,TO (Brazil). Departmento de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos; Universidade Federal de Goias (UFGO), Goiania (Brazil). Departmento de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos; Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Films are preformed structures, independent, that are used to wrap food after processing, increasing their shelf life and enhancing its bright and attractive appearance. They are prepared from biological materials as an alternative to the plastic synthetic containers to improve the quality of the environment. Chitosan is a biodegradable polymer composed of β-(1-4) linked D-glucosamine (deacetylated unit) and N-acetyl-D- glucosamine (acetylated unit). It is produced commercially by deacetylation of chitin, which is a structural component of the exoskeleton of crustaceans. She is able to form films and edible and/or biodegradable coatings. With the objective to evaluate the effect of different doses of gamma radiation (0, 5, 10 and 15 kGy) and chitosan concentrations (1 and 2%) in film properties, it was evaluated its optical, mechanical and morphological properties. The films were produced by casting. Irradiation did not affect the thickness of the films, but influenced its colors, increasing the tone of the film for a stronger yellowish color. This fact can be attributed to the increased concentration of C = O bonds of chitosan due to the breakdown of the chain reaction and the Maillard reaction. Irradiated films showed smoother surface and less rough, due to the degradation of the chitosan molecule and poor mechanical properties, not showing good flexibility and stretching. (author)

  17. Paying Hypertension Research Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarett, David; Karlawish, Jason; Asch, David A

    2002-01-01

    CONTEXT Cash payments are often used to compensate subjects who participate in research. However, ethicists have argued that these payments might constitute an undue inducement. OBJECTIVES To determine whether potential subjects agree with theoretical arguments that a payment could be an undue inducement. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS Survey of 350 prospective jurors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Belief that a $500 payment for research participation would impair their own, and others' ability to think carefully about the risks and benefits of a clinical trial. RESULTS Two hundred sixty-one jurors (74.6%) believed that a $500 payment would impair subjects' ability to think carefully about the risks and benefits of research. Ninety-six of 120 (80%) expressed this concern about subjects with a low income ($50,000). In contrast, only 69 (19.7%) of jurors believed that a $500 payment would influence them. Jurors who believed that this payment would influence them reported lower incomes and less education. CONCLUSION Members of the general public share ethical concerns about the influence of payments for research, although they believe that these concerns are more applicable to others than to themselves.

  18. Subjects, Models, Languages, Transformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Bézivin, J.; Heckel, R.

    2005-01-01

    Discussions about model-driven approaches tend to be hampered by terminological confusion. This is at least partially caused by a lack of formal precision in defining the basic concepts, including that of "model" and "thing being modelled" - which we call subject in this paper. We propose a minimal

  19. Subjective Duration and Psychophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, Hannes

    1975-01-01

    Three models are proposed to describe the strategy applied by a subject when he is confronted with two successive time intervals and is required to deal with some relation between them, for example, by telling which was the longer by adjusting the second to match the first. (Author)

  20. Barron's SAT subject test

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, MA, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Includes one diagnostic test and three complete tests, all questions answered and explained, self-assessment guides, and subject reviews. Also features test strategies, QR codes to short instructional videos, and a detailed appendix with equations, physical constants, and a basic math review.

  1. Chromosomal rearrangements caused by gamma-irradiation in winter wheat cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Nazarenko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article we report the results of our investigation into several cytogenetic parameters of variability in mutation induction of modern winter wheat varieties and some connections between the means of cytogenetic indices and different doses of gamma-rays. Analysis of chromosomal aberrations following the action of any kind of mutagen by the anaphases method is one of the most widely investigated and most precise methods which can be used to determine the fact of mutagenic action on plants and identify the nature of the mutagen. We combined in our investigation the sensitivity of genotype to mutagen using cytological analysis of mutagen treated wheat populations with the corresponding different varieties by breeding methods to reveal its connections and differences, specific sensitivity to mutagens action on the cell level. Dry seeds of 8 varieties of winter wheat were subjected to 100, 150, 200, 250 Gy gamma irradiation, which are trivial for winter wheat mutation breeding. We investigated rates and spectra of chromosomal aberrations in the cells of winter wheat primary roots tips. The coefficients of correlations amid the rate of chromosomal aberrations and the dose of gamma-rays were on the level 0.8–0.9. The fragments/bridges ratio is a clear and sufficient index for determining the nature of the mutagen agent. We distinguished the following types of chromosomal rearrangements: chromatid and chromosome bridges, single and double fragments, micronuclei, and delayed chromosomes. The ratio of chromosomal aberrations changes with the change in mutagen; note that bridge-types are characteristic of irradiation. Radiomutants are more resistant to gamma rays. This is apparent in the lower rate of chromosomal aberrations. Varieties obtained by chemical mutagenesis (varieties Sonechko, Kalinova are more sensitive to gamma-irradiation than others. We propose these varieties as objects for a mutation breeding programme and radiation of mutants

  2. Impact of head modeling and sensor types in localizing human gamma-band oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mideksa, K G; Hoogenboom, N; Hellriegel, H; Krause, H; Schnitzler, A; Deuschl, G; Raethjen, J; Heute, U; Muthuraman, M

    2014-01-01

    An effective mechanism in neuronal communication is oscillatory neuronal synchronization. The neuronal gamma-band (30-100 Hz) synchronization is associated with attention which is induced by a certain visual stimuli. Numerous studies have shown that the gamma-band activity is observed in the visual cortex. However, impact of different head modeling techniques and sensor types to localize gamma-band activity have not yet been reported. To do this, the brain activity was recorded using 306 magnetoencephalography (MEG) sensors, consisting of 102 magnetometers and 102 pairs of planar gradiometers (one measuring the derivative of the magnetic field along the latitude and the other along the longitude), and the data were analyzed with respect to time, frequency, and location of the strongest response. The spherical head models with a single-shell and overlapping spheres (local sphere) have been used as a forward model for calculating the external magnetic fields generated from the gamma-band activity. For each sensor type, the subject-specific frequency range of the gamma-band activity was obtained from the spectral analysis. The identified frequency range of interest with the highest gamma-band activity is then localized using a spatial-filtering technique known as dynamic imaging of coherent sources (DICS). The source analysis for all the subjects revealed that the gradiometer sensors which measure the derivative along the longitude, showed sources close to the visual cortex (cuneus) as compared to the other gradiometer sensors which measure the derivative along the latitude. However, using the magnetometer sensors, it was not possible to localize the sources in the region of interest. When comparing the two head models, the local-sphere model helps in localizing the source more focally as compared to the single-shell head model.

  3. Gamma Putty dosimetric studies in electron beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aime M Gloi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, lead has been used for field shaping in megavoltage electron beams in radiation therapy. In this study, we analyze the dosimetric parameters of a nontoxic, high atomic number (Z = 83, bismuth-loaded material called Gamma Putty that is malleable and can be easily molded to any desired shape. First, we placed an ionization chamber at different depths in a solid water phantom under a Gamma Putty shield of thickness (t = 0, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 mm, respectively and measured the ionizing radiation on the central axis (CAX for electron beam ranging in energies from 6 to 20 MeV. Next, we investigated the relationship between the relative ionization (RI measured at a fixed depth for several Gamma Putty shield at different cutout diameters ranging from 2 to 5 cm for various beam energies and derived an exponential fitting equation for clinical purposes. The dose profiles along the CAX show that bremsstrahlung dominates for Gamma Putty thickness >15 mm. For high-energy beams (12-20 MeV and all Gamma Putty thicknesses up to 25 mm, RI below 5% could not be achieved due to the strong bremsstrahlung component. However, Gamma Putty is a very suitable material for reducing the transmission factor below 5% and protecting underlying normal tissues for low-energy electron beams (6-9 MeV.

  4. Light Higgs Boson Signal at LHC in the Reactions $pp \\to \\gamma\\gamma$+Jet and $pp \\to \\gamma\\gamma+lepton$

    CERN Document Server

    Dubinin, Mikhail; Savrin, Viktor

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the SM Higgs discovery potential of the LHC in the channels pp -> H+jet -> gamma+gamma+jet and pp -> H+W/H+t+tbar -> gamma+gamma+lepton when the jet or lepton is observed at sufficiently high Pt and a small rapidity to be reliably identified. We calculate all the signal subprocesses and the irreducible background with realistic kinematical cuts. The reducible QCD background is also estimated. We conclude that the channel gamma+gamma+jet can give about 120-200 signal events for Higgs mass MH=100-140 GeV at the integrated luminosity of 30 inverse fb. This signal rate should be compared with only 330-600 events for the irreducible background per two-photon invariant mass interval of 2 GeV. We estimate the QCD reducible background at the level of 20% of the irreducible one. Thus, one may hope that the Higgs boson can be discovered already after 1-1.5 years003084132 595 L. D. Bouvet, V. Chorowicz, D. Contardo, R. Haroutunian, L. Mirabito, G. Smadja, IPN Lyon, France

  5. Molecular recognition of nitrated fatty acids by PPAR[gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Jifeng; Schopfer, Francisco J.; Martynowski, Dariusz; Garcia-Barrio, Minerva T.; Kovach, Amanda; Suino-Powell, Kelly; Baker, Paul R.S.; Freeman, Bruce A.; Chen, Y. Eugene; Xu, H. Eric (Pitt); (Michigan); (Van Andel); (Morehouse-MED)

    2010-03-08

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) regulates metabolic homeostasis and adipocyte differentiation, and it is activated by oxidized and nitrated fatty acids. Here we report the crystal structure of the PPAR{gamma} ligand binding domain bound to nitrated linoleic acid, a potent endogenous ligand of PPAR{gamma}. Structural and functional studies of receptor-ligand interactions reveal the molecular basis of PPAR{gamma} discrimination of various naturally occurring fatty acid derivatives.

  6. Synergistic effect of mixed neutron and gamma irradiation in bipolar operational amplifier OP07

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Liu, E-mail: liuyan@nint.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Irradiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O.Box 69-10, Xi’an 710024 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Wei, Chen; Shanchao, Yang; Xiaoming, Jin [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Irradiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O.Box 69-10, Xi’an 710024 (China); Chaohui, He [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2016-09-21

    This paper presents the synergistic effects in bipolar operational amplifier OP07. The radiation effects are studied by neutron beam, gamma ray, and mixed neutron/gamma ray environments. The characterateristics of the synergistic effects are studied through comparison of different experiment results. The results show that the bipolar operational amplifier OP07 exhibited significant synergistic effects in the mixed neutron and gamma irradiation. The bipolar transistor is identified as the most radiation sensitive unit of the operational amplifier. In this paper, a series of simulations are performed on bipolar transistors in different radiation environments. In the theoretical simulation, the geometric model and calculations based on the Medici toolkit are built to study the radiation effects in bipolar components. The effect of mixed neutron and gamma irradiation is simulated based on the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of radiation effects in bipolar transistors. The simulated results agree well with the experimental data. The results of the experiments and simulation indicate that the radiation effects in the bipolar devices subjected to mixed neutron and gamma environments is not a simple combination of total ionizing dose (TID) effects and displacement damage. The data suggests that the TID effect could enhance the displacement damage. The synergistic effect should not be neglected in complex radiation environments.

  7. Search for Charmonium States Decaying to J/psi gamma gamma Using Initial-State Radiation Events

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Bóna, M; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Graugès-Pous, E; Palano, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Gill, M S; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo-Sánchez, P; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Hart, A J; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schröder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Cottingham, W N; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Sherwood, D J; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, Y K; Best, D S; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M A; Mommsen, R K; Röthel, W; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dvoretskii, A; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Thiebaux, C; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro-Vazquez, W; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flächer, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Yi, J I; Chen, C; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Lae, C K; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Stängle, H; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; Mclachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, Gallieno; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Ter-Antonian, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J E; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; La Vaissière, C de; Hamon, O; Hartfiel, B L; John, M J J; Leruste, P; Malcles, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Gladney, L; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lü, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Safai-Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, Witold; Legendre, M; Vasseur, G; Yéche, C; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hrynóva, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Lüth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Müller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Vavra, J; Van Bakel, N; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martínez-Vidal, F; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R V; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Mellado, B; Mihályi, A; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H; al, et

    2006-01-01

    We study the processes e+e- -> (J/psi gamma gamma) gamma and e+e- -> (J/psi pi- pi+) gamma where the hard photon radiated from an initial e+e- collision with center-of-mass (CM) energy near 10.58 GeV is detected. In the final state J/psi gamma gamma we consider J/psi pi0, J/psi eta, chi_{c1} gamma, and chi_{c2} gamma candidates. The invariant mass of the hadronic final state defines the effective e+e- CM energy in each event, so these data can be compared with direct e+e- measurements. We report 90% CL upper limits for the integrated cross section times branching fractions of the J/psi gamma gamma channels in the Y(4260) mass region.

  8. [Subjective cognition in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, S; Aubin, G; Stip, E

    2017-02-01

    Given the extent, magnitude and functional significance of the neurocognitive deficits of schizophrenia, growing attention has been paid recently to patients' self-awareness of their own deficits. Thus far, the literature has shown either that patients fail to recognize their cognitive deficits or that the association between subjective and objective cognition is weak in schizophrenia. The reasons for this lack of consistency remain unexplained but may have to do, among others, with the influence of potential confounding clinical variables and the choice of the scale used to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits. In the current study, we sought to examine the relationships between subjective and objective cognitive performance in schizophrenia, while controlling for the influence of sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Eighty-two patients with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (DSM-IV criteria) were recruited. Patients' subjective cognitive complaints were evaluated with the Subjective Scale to Investigate Cognition in Schizophrenia (SSTICS), the most frequently used scale to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Neurocognition was evaluated with working memory, planning and visual learning tasks taken from Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery. The Stroop Color-Word test was also administered. Psychiatric symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. The relationships between subjective and objective cognition were evaluated with multivariate hierarchic linear regression analyses, taking into consideration potential confounders such as sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Finally, a factor analysis of the SSTICS was performed. For the SSTICS total score, the regression analysis produced a model including two predictors, namely visual learning and Stoop interference performance, explaining a moderate portion of the variance

  9. Supernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livio, Mario; Panagia, Nino; Sahu, Kailash

    2001-07-01

    Participants; Preface; Gamma-ray burst-supernova relation B. Paczynski; Observations of gamma-ray bursts G. Fishman; Fireballs T. Piran; Gamma-ray mechanisms M. Rees; Prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts R. Kehoe, C. Akerlof, R. Balsano, S. Barthelmy, J. Bloch, P. Butterworth, D. Casperson, T. Cline, S. Fletcher, F. Frontera, G. Gisler, J. Heise, J. Hills, K. Hurley, B. Lee, S. Marshall, T. McKay, A. Pawl, L. Piro, B. Priedhorsky, J. Szymanski and J. Wren; X-ray afterglows of gamma-ray bursts L. Piro; The first year of optical-IR observations of SN1998bw I. Danziger, T. Augusteijn, J. Brewer, E. Cappellaro, V. Doublier, T. Galama, J. Gonzalez, O. Hainaut, B. Leibundgut, C. Lidman, P. Mazzali, K. Nomoto, F. Patat, J. Spyromilio, M. Turatto, J. Van Paradijs, P. Vreeswijk and J. Walsh; X-ray emission of Supernova 1998bw in the error box of GRB980425 E. Pian; Direct analysis of spectra of type Ic supernovae D. Branch; The interaction of supernovae and gamma-ray bursts with their surroundings R. Chevalier; Magnetars, soft gamma-ray repeaters and gamma-ray bursts A. Harding; Super-luminous supernova remnants Y. -H. Chu, C. -H. Chen and S. -P. Lai; The properties of hypernovae: SNe Ic 1998bw, 1997ef, and SN IIn 1997cy K. Nomoto, P. Mazzali, T. Nakamura, K. Iwanmoto, K. Maeda, T. Suzuki, M. Turatto, I. Danziger and F. Patat; Collapsars, Gamma-Ray Bursts, and Supernovae S. Woosley, A. MacFadyen and A. Heger; Pre-supernova evolution of massive stars N. Panagia and G. Bono; Radio supernovae and GRB 980425 K. Weiler, N. Panagia, R. Sramek, S. Van Dyk, M. Montes and C. Lacey; Models for Ia supernovae and evolutionary effects P. Hoflich and I. Dominguez; Deflagration to detonation A. Khokhlov; Universality in SN Iae and the Phillips relation D. Arnett; Abundances from supernovae F. -K. Thielemann, F. Brachwitz, C. Freiburghaus, S. Rosswog, K. Iwamoto, T. Nakamura, K. Nomoto, H. Umeda, K. Langanke, G. Martinez-Pinedo, D. Dean, W. Hix and M. Strayer; Sne, GRBs, and the

  10. Measurement of $\\Gamma(\\eta \\to \\pi^+\\pi^-\\gamma)/\\Gamma(\\eta \\to \\pi^+\\pi^-\\pi^0)$ with KLOE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosino, F.; Antonelli, M.; Archilli, F.; Balwierz, I.; Bencivenni, G.; Bini, C.; Bloise, C.; Bocchetta, S.; Bossi, F.; Branchini, P.; Capon, G.; Capussela, T.; Ceradini, F.; Ciambrone, P.; Czerwiński, E.; De Lucia, E.; De Santis, A.; De Simone, P.; De Zorzi, G.; Denig, A.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Micco, B.; Dreucci, M.; Felici, G.; Fiore, S.; Franzini, P.; Gatti, C.; Gauzzi, P.; Giovannella, S.; Graziani, E.; Jacewicz, M.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Martemianov, M.; Martini, M.; Massarotti, P.; Meola, S.; Miscetti, S.; Morello, G.; Moulson, M.; Müller, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nguyen, F.; Palutan, M.; Passeri, A.; Patera, V.; Prado Longhi, I.; Santangelo, P.; Sciascia, B.; Silarski, M.; Spadaro, T.; Taccini, C.; Tortora, L.; Venanzoni, G.; Versaci, R.; Xu, G.; Zdebik, J.; Babusci, D.; Badoni, D.; Bocci, V.; Budano, A.; Bulychjev, S.A.; Campana, P.; Dané, E.; De Robertis, G.; Domenici, D.; Erriquez, O.; Fanizzi, G.; Gonnella, F.; Happacher, F.; Höistad, B.; Iarocci, E.; Johansson, T.; Kulikov, V.; Kupsc, A.; Loddo, F.; Matsyuk, M.; Messi, R.; Moricciani, D.; Moskal, P.; Ranieri, A.; Sarra, I.; Schioppa, M.; Sciubba, A.; Wiślicki, W.; Wolke, M.

    2011-01-01

    We report the measurement of the ratio $\\Gamma(\\eta \\to \\pi^+\\pi^-\\gamma)/\\Gamma(\\eta \\to \\pi^+\\pi^-\\pi^0)$ analyzing a large sample of $\\phi \\to \\eta \\gamma$ decays recorded with the KLOE experiment at the DA$\\Phi$NE $e^+ e^-$ collider, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 558 pb$^{-1}$. The $\\eta \\to \\pi^+\\pi^-\\gamma$ process is supposed to proceed both via a resonant contribution, mediated by the $\\rho$ meson, and a non resonant direct term, connected to the box anomaly. The presence of the direct term affects the partial width value. Our result $R_{\\eta}=\\Gamma(\\eta \\to \\pi^+ \\pi^- \\gamma)/\\Gamma(\\eta \\to \\pi^+ \\pi^- \\pi^0)= 0.1838\\pm 0.0005_{stat} \\pm 0.0030_{syst}$ is in agreement with a recent CLEO measurement, which differs by more 3 $\\sigma$ from the average of previous results.

  11. Interaction, transference, and subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Fieldwork is one of the important methods in educational, social, and organisational research. In fieldwork, the researcher takes residence for a shorter or longer period amongst the subjects and settings to be studied. The aim of this is to study the culture of people: how people seem to make...... sense of their lives and which moral, professional, and ethical values seem to guide their behaviour and attitudes. In fieldwork, the researcher has to balance participation and observation in her attempts at representation. Consequently, the researcher’s academic and life-historical subjectivity...... are important filters for fieldwork. In general, fieldwork can be understood as processes where field reports and field analysis are determined by how the researcher interacts with and experiences the field, the events and informants in it, and how she subsequently develops an ethnography. However, fieldwork...

  12. Writing and the 'Subject'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Charlotte

    /reading subject) manifests itself in the material mark on the page. The study shows how this indexical reference to a ‘subject’ is manipulated and used as a mask through which a writer/painter can perform a certain ‘subject’. Through analyses of the various levels on which the ‘subject’ is represented...... in the early as well as the contemporary avant-garde, it becomes clear that the ‘subject’ is an unstable category that can be exposed to manipulation and play. Handwriting is performing as a signature (as an index), but is at the same time similar to the signature of a subject (an icon) and a verbal construct...

  13. Optical and rheological study of gamma irradiated rare-earth nanoparticle based ferrofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Nibedita [Nanoscience and Soft Matter Laboratory, Department of Physics, Tezpur University, PO Napaam, Tezpur 784 028, Assam (India); Mohanta, Dambarudhar, E-mail: best@tezu.ernet.in [Nanoscience and Soft Matter Laboratory, Department of Physics, Tezpur University, PO Napaam, Tezpur 784 028, Assam (India); Department of Physics, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, MA 02138 (United States); Saha, Abhijit [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Centre, III/LB-8 Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 098 (India)

    2012-12-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticle based ferrofluids have been produced with ethanol as carrier medium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PL emission show improvement in defect related emission with {gamma}-irradiation dose. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ferrofluids show shear thinning behavior with bi-exponential decay characteristics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fast and slow components are found to increase with irradiation dose. - Abstract: The present work reports on the optical and rheological properties of unexposed and gamma irradiated rare-earth (RE) oxide nanoparticle-based ferrofluids (FF). The ferrofluids were prepared by dispersing surfactant coated gadolinium oxide (Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles in ethanol medium and later on subjected to energetic gamma irradiation (1.25 MeV) at select doses. As predicted from transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies, the synthesized nanoparticles are of {approx}7 nm size which crystallize into cubic crystal structure. The photoluminescence response reveals creation of defect states on nanoparticle surfaces when FFs are subjected to gamma irradiation. Whereas, rheology measurements showed unusual shear thinning behavior of the ferrofluids. The flow behavior of all the samples can be correlated to the bi-exponential decay curve fitting which reveals that decay phenomenon is governed by two independent mechanism: fast and slow events. The variation of the decay parameter with irradiation dose is attributed to the creation of point defects and weakening of inter nanoparticle bonding.

  14. Study of the hadronic $\\gamma\\gamma$ interactions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Alderweireld, T; Verdier, P

    2000-01-01

    A comparison between real data and Monte Carlo is presented, based on a data sample corresponding to the 84.3 pb-1 recorded by the DELPHI detector in 1999, at centre-of-mass energy of 200 GeV. Two hadronic gamma gamma generators have been used for this present analysis, TWOGAM 2.04 and PYTHIA 6.143.

  15. Localization of Gamma-Ray Bursts Using the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connaughton, V.; Briggs, M.S.; Goldstein, A.; Meegan, C.A.; Paciesas, W.S.; Preece, R.D.; Wilson-Hodge, C.A.; Gibby, M.H.; Greiner, J.; Gruber, D.; Jenke, P.; Kippen, R.M.; Pelassa, V.; Xiong, S.; Yu, H-F.; Bhat, P.N.; Burgess, J.M.; Byrne, D.; Fitzpatrick, G.; Foley, S.; Giles, M.M.; Guiriec, S.; van der Horst, A.J.; von Kienlin, A.; McBreen, S.; McGlynn, S.; Tierney, D.; Zhang, B..B.

    2015-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) has detected over 1400 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) since it began science operations in 2008 July. We use a subset of over 300 GRBs localized by instruments such as Swift, the Fermi Large Area Telescope, INTEGRAL, and MAXI, or through triangulations from the

  16. Gamma-Ray Lenses for Astrophysics-and the Gamma-Ray Imager Mission GRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wunderer, C. B.; Ballmoos, P. V.; Barriere, N.

    2009-01-01

    Observations of the gamma-ray sky reveal the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe. While at lower wavebands the observed emission is generally dominated by thermal processes, the gamma-ray sky provides us with a view on the non-thermal Universe. Here particles are acc...

  17. Phenomenological study of the double radiative decay $B ->K\\gamma\\gamma$

    CERN Document Server

    Hiller, G; Safir, Salim A

    2006-01-01

    Using the operator product expansion (OPE) technique, we study the rare double radiative decay $B\\to K \\gamma\\gamma$ in the Standard Model (SM) and beyond. We estimate the short-distance (SD) contribution to the decay amplitude in a region of the phase space which is around the point where all decay products have energy $\\sim m_b/3$ in the rest frame of the $B$-meson. At lowest order in $1/m_b$, the $B\\to K \\gamma\\gamma$ matrix element is then expressed in terms of the usual $B\\to K$ form factors known from semileptonic rare decays. The integrated SD branching ratio in the SM in the OPE region turns out to be $\\Delta {\\cal{B}}(B \\to K \\gamma \\gamma)_{SM}^{OPE} \\simeq 1 \\times 10^{-9}$. We work out the di-photon invariant mass distribution with and without the resonant background through $B\\to K \\{\\eta_c,\\chi_{c0}\\}\\to K\\gamma \\gamma$. In the SM, the resonance contribution is dominant in the region of phase space where the OPE is valid. On the other hand, the present experimental upper limit on $B_s \\to \\tau^+...

  18. ESR investigations of gamma irradiated medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turker, N Selcan; Özer, A Yekta; Çolak, Şeyda; Kutlu, Burak; Nohutçu, Rahime

    2017-12-01

    Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) and guided bone regeneration (GBR) biomaterials have been employed in recent years for periodontal procedures. In the present study, widely used dental GTR/GBR biomaterials (grafts: G1, G2, G3 and membranes: M1, M2, M3, M4) were exposed to gamma irradiation at an absorbed dose range of 0-50kGy and the radiolytic intermediates that have been created in the samples upon irradiation were characterized in detail by Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. We aimed to standardize the measurement conditions for practical applications of gamma radiation sterilization of GTR/GBR biomaterials. We investigated the characteristic features of free radicals in gamma irradiated GTR/GBR biomaterials and examined the stability of the induced radicals at room temperature and accelerated stability conditions with ESR spectroscopy including dose-response curves, microwave power studies, dosimetric features of the biomaterials, variations of the peak heights with temperature, and long term stabilities of the radical species. Long-term stability studies have shown that G1 is quite stable even in accelerated storage conditions. The signal intensities of graft-type GTR/GBR biomaterials stored in normal and stability conditions have decreased very rapidly even only a few days after gamma irradiation sterilization. Thus, those samples indicating relatively low stability features can be very good candidates for the radiosterilization process. The beta-tricalcium phosphate and PLGA containing G1 and M1 respectively have found to be the most gamma stable bone substitute biomaterials and be safely sterilized by gamma radiation. ESR spectroscopy is an appropriate technique in giving important detailed spectroscopic findings in the gamma radiation sterilization studies of GTR/GBR biomaterials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Gamma-Ray Imager GRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderer, Cornelia B.; GRI Collaboration

    2008-03-01

    Observations of the gamma-ray sky reveal the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe. While at lower wavebands the observed emission is generally dominated by thermal processes, the gamma-ray sky provides us with a view on the non-thermal Universe. Here particles are accelerated to extreme relativistic energies by mechanisms which are still poorly understood, and nuclear reactions are synthesizing the basic constituents of our world. Cosmic accelerators and cosmic explosions are major science themes that are addressed in the gamma-ray regime. ESA's INTEGRAL observatory currently provides the astronomical community with a unique tool to investigate the sky up to MeV energies and hundreds of sources, new classes of objects, extraordinary views of antimatter annihilation in our Galaxy, and fingerprints of recent nucleosynthesis processes have been discovered. NASA's GLAST mission will similarly take the next step in surveying the high-energy ( GeV) sky, and NuSTAR will pioneer focusing observations at hard X-ray energies (to 80 keV). There will be clearly a growing need to perform deeper, more focused investigations of gamma-ray sources in the 100-keV to MeV regime. Recent technological advances in the domain of gamma-ray focusing using Laue diffraction and multilayer-coated mirror techniques have paved the way towards a gamma-ray mission, providing major improvements compared to past missions regarding sensitivity and angular resolution. Such a future Gamma-Ray Imager will allow the study of particle acceleration processes and explosion physics in unprecedented detail, providing essential clues on the innermost nature of the most violent and most energetic processes in the Universe.

  20. Neutron and Gamma-ray Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasilnikov, Anatoly V.; Sasao, Mamiko; Kaschuck, Yuri A.; Kiptily, Vasily G.; Nishitani, Takeo; Popovichev, Sergey V.; Bertalot, Luciano

    2008-03-01

    Due to high neutron and gamma-ray yields and large size plasmas many future fusion reactor plasma parameters such as fusion power, fusion power density, ion temperature, fuel mixture, fast ion energy and spatial distributions can be well measured by various fusion product diagnostics. Neutron diagnostics provide information on fusion reaction rate, which indicates how close is the plasma to the ultimate goal of nuclear fusion and fusion power distribution in the plasma core, which is crucial for optimization of plasma breakeven and burn. Depending on the plasma conditions neutron and gamma-ray diagnostics can provide important information, namely about dynamics of fast ion energy and spatial distributions during neutral beam injection, ion cyclotron heating and generated by fast ions MHD instabilities. The influence of the fast particle population on the 2-D neutron source profile was clearly demonstrated in JET experiments. 2-D neutron and gamma-ray source measurements could be important for driven plasma heating profile optimization in fusion reactors. To meat the measurement requirements in ITER the planned set of neutron and gamma ray diagnostics includes radial and vertical neutron and gamma cameras, neutron flux monitors, neutron activation systems and neutron spectrometers. The necessity of using massive radiation shielding strongly influences the diagnostic designs in fusion reactor, determines angular fields of view of neutron and gamma-ray cameras and spectrometers and gives rise to unavoidable difficulties in the absolute calibration. The development, testing in existing tokomaks and a possible engineering integration of neuron and gamma-ray diagnostic systems into ITER are presented.

  1. New insights from cosmic gamma rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Diehl

    2016-04-01

    The measurement of gamma rays from cosmic sources at ~MeV energies is one of the key tools for nuclear astrophysics, in its study of nuclear reactions and their impacts on objects and phenomena throughout the universe. Gamma rays trace nuclear processes most directly, as they originate from nuclear transitions following radioactive decays or high-energy collisions with excitation of nuclei. Additionally, the unique gamma-ray signature from the annihilation of positrons falls into this astronomical window and is discussed here: Cosmic positrons are often produced from β-decays, thus also of nuclear physics origins. The nuclear reactions leading to radioactive isotopes occur inside stars and stellar explosions, which therefore constitute the main objects of such studies. In recent years, both thermonuclear and core-collapse supernova radioactivities have been measured though 56Ni, 56Co, and 44Ti lines, and a beginning has thus been made to complement conventional supernova observations with such measurements of the prime energy sources of supernova light created in their deep interiors. The diffuse radioactive afterglow of massive-star nucleosynthesis in gamma rays is now being exploited towards astrophysical studies on how massive stars feed back their energy and ejecta into interstellar gas, as part of the cosmic cycle of matter through generations of stars enriching the interstellar gas and stars with metals. Large interstellar cavities and superbubbles have been recognised to be the dominating structures where new massive-star ejecta are injected, from 26Al gamma-ray spectroscopy. Also, constraints on the complex interiors of stars derive from the ratio of 60Fe/26Al gamma rays. Finally, the puzzling bulge-dominated intensity distribution of positron annihilation gamma rays is measured in greater detail, but still not understood; a recent microquasar flare provided evidence that such objects may be prime sources for positrons in interstellar space, rather than

  2. Low Dose Gamma Irradiation Potentiates Secondary Exposure to Gamma Rays or Protons in Thyroid Tissue Analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Lora M

    2006-05-25

    We have utilized our unique bioreactor model to produce three-dimensional thyroid tissue analogs that we believe better represent the effects of radiation in vivo than two-dimensional cultures. Our thyroid model has been characterized at multiple levels, including: cell-cell exchanges (bystander), signal transduction, functional changes and modulation of gene expression. We have significant preliminary data on structural, functional, signal transduction and gene expression responses from acute exposures at high doses (50-1000 rads) of gamma, protons and iron (Green et al., 2001a; 2001b; 2002a; 2002b; 2005). More recently, we used our DOE funding (ending Feb 06) to characterize the pattern of radiation modulated gene expression in rat thyroid tissue analogs using low-dose/low-dose rate radiation, plus/minus acute challenge exposures. Findings from these studies show that the low-dose/low-dose rate “priming” exposures to radiation invoked changes in gene expression profiles that varied with dose and time. The thyrocytes transitioned to a “primed” state, so that when the tissue analogs were challenged with an acute exposure to radiation they had a muted response (or an increased resistance) to cytopathological changes relative to “un-primed” cells. We measured dramatic differences in the primed tissue analogs, showing that our original hypothesis was correct: that low dose gamma irradiation will potentiate the repair/adaptation response to a secondary exposure. Implications from these findings are that risk assessments based on classical in vitro tissue culture assays will overestimate risk, and that low dose rate priming results in a reduced response in gene expression to a secondary challenge exposure, which implies that a priming dose provides enhanced protection to thyroid cells grown as tissue analogs. If we can determine that the effects of radiation on our tissue analogs more closely resemble the effects of radiation in vivo, then we can better

  3. Measurement of K{sup {+-}}{yields}{pi}{sup {+-}}{gamma}{gamma} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Morales, Cristina

    2009-07-21

    The goal of this thesis was an experimental test of an effective theory of strong interactions at low energy, called Chiral Perturbation Theory (ChPT). Weak decays of kaon mesons provide such a test. In particular, K{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup {+-}}{gamma}{gamma} decays are interesting because there is no tree-level O(p{sup 2}) contribution in ChPT, and the leading contributions start at O(p{sup 4}). At this order, these decays include one undetermined coupling constant, c. Both the branching ratio and the spectrum shape of K{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup {+-}}{gamma}{gamma} decays are sensitive to this parameter. O(p{sup 6}) contributions to K{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup {+-}}{gamma}{gamma} ChPT predict a 30-40% increase in the branching ratio. From the measurement of the branching ratio and spectrum shape of K{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup {+-}}{gamma}{gamma} decays, it is possible to determine a model dependent value of c and also to examine whether the O(p{sup 6}) corrections are necessary and enough to explain the rate. About 40% of the data collected in the year 2003 by the NA48/2 experiment have been analyzed and 908 K{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup {+-}}{gamma}{gamma} candidates with about 8% background contamination have been selected in the region with z=m{sup 2}{sub {gamma}}{sub {gamma}}/m{sub K}{sup 2}{>=}0.2. Using 5,750,121 selected K{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup 0} decays as normalization channel, a model independent differential branching ratio of K{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup {+-}}{gamma}{gamma} has been measured to be: BR(K{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup {+-}}{gamma}{gamma}, z{>=}0.2)=(1.018{+-}0.038{sub stat}{+-}0.039{sub syst}{+-}0.004{sub ext}).10{sup -6}. From the fit to the O(p{sup 6}) ChPT prediction of the measured branching ratio and the shape of the z-spectrum, a value of c=1.54{+-}0.15{sub stat}{+-}0.18{sub syst} has been extracted. Using the measured c value and the O(p{sup 6}) ChPT prediction, the branching ratio for z=m{sup 2}{sub

  4. Subject Sensitive Invariantism: In Memoriam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Subject sensitive invariantism is the view that whether a subject knows depends on what is at stake for that subject: the truth-value of a knowledge-attribution is sensitive to the subject's practical interests. I argue that subject sensitive invariantism cannot accept a very plausible principle for

  5. Chemical investigation of gamma-irradiated saffron (Crocus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareena, A V; Variyar, P S; Gholap, A S; Bongirwar, D R

    2001-02-01

    Changes in aroma and coloring properties of saffron (Crocus sativus) after gamma-irradiation at doses of 2.5 and 5 kGy (necessary for microbial decontamination) were investigated. The volatile essential oil constituents responsible for aroma of the spice were isolated by steam distillation and then subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). No significant qualitative changes were observed in these constituents upon irradiation, although a trained sensory panel could detect slight quality deterioration at a dose of 5 kGy. Carotene glucosides that impart color to the spice were isolated by solvent extraction and then subjected to thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Fractionation of the above pigments into aglycon and glucosides was achieved by using ethyl acetate and n-butanol, respectively. Analysis of these fractions by HPLC revealed a decrease in glucosides and an increase in aglycon content in irradiated samples. The possibility of degradation of pigments during gamma irradiation is discussed.

  6. Gamma radiation treatment activates glucomoringin synthesis in Moringa oleifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsifhiwa Ramabulana

    Full Text Available Abstract Plants are a very rich source of pharmacologically relevant metabolites. However, the relative concentrations of these compounds are subject to the genetic make-up, the physiological state of the plant as well as environmental effects. Recently, metabolic perturbations through the use of abiotic stressors have proven to be a valuable strategy for increasing the levels of these compounds. Oxidative stress-associated stressors, including ionizing radiation, have also been reported to induce metabolites with various biological activities in plants. Hence, the aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of gamma radiation on the induction of purported anti-cancerous metabolites, glucomoringin and its derivatives, in Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae. Here, an UHPLC-qTOF-MS-based targeted metabolic fingerprinting approach was used to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation treatment on the afore-mentioned health-beneficial secondary metabolites of M. oleifera. Following radiation, an increase in glucomoringin and three acylated derivatives was noted. As such, these molecules can be regarded as components of the inducible defense mechanism of M. oleifera as opposed to being constitutive components as it has previously been assumed. This might be an indication of a possible, yet unexplored role of moringin against the effects of oxidative stress in M. oleifera plants. The results also suggest that plants undergoing photo-oxidative stress could accumulate higher amounts of glucomoringin and related molecules.

  7. Reduced gamma-aminobutyric acid concentration is associated with physical disability in progressive multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanky, Bhavana S.; Muhlert, Nils; Tur, Carmen; Edden, Richard A. E.; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A. M.; Miller, David H.; Thompson, Alan J.; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegeneration is thought to be the major cause of ongoing, irreversible disability in progressive stages of multiple sclerosis. Gamma-aminobutyric acid is the principle inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. The aims of this study were to investigate if gamma-aminobutyric acid levels (i) are abnormal in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis compared with healthy controls; and (ii) correlate with physical and cognitive performance in this patient population. Thirty patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and 17 healthy control subjects underwent single-voxel MEGA-PRESS (MEscher-GArwood Point RESolved Spectroscopy) magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 T, to quantify gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in the prefrontal cortex, right hippocampus and left sensorimotor cortex. All subjects were assessed clinically and underwent a cognitive assessment. Multiple linear regression models were used to compare differences in gamma-aminobutyric acid concentrations between patients and controls adjusting for age, gender and tissue fractions within each spectroscopic voxel. Regression was used to examine the relationships between the cognitive function and physical disability scores specific for these regions with gamma-aminobuytric acid levels, adjusting for age, gender, and total N-acetyl-aspartate and glutamine-glutamate complex levels. When compared with controls, patients performed significantly worse on all motor and sensory tests, and were cognitively impaired in processing speed and verbal memory. Patients had significantly lower gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in the hippocampus (adjusted difference = −0.403 mM, 95% confidence intervals −0.792, −0.014, P = 0.043) and sensorimotor cortex (adjusted difference = −0.385 mM, 95% confidence intervals −0.667, −0.104, P = 0.009) compared with controls. In patients, reduced motor function in the right upper and lower limb was associated with lower gamma-aminobutyric acid

  8. Enhanced magneto-optic activity of magnetite-based ferrofluids subjected to gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Manasi; Das, Rupali; Mohanta, Dambarudhar; Baruah, Kishor Kumar; Saha, Abhijit

    2012-03-01

    We report here the effect of γ-irradiation on the particle size and size distribution dependent spectroscopic and magneto-optic properties of ferrofluids, synthesized by a co-precipitation method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) study exhibits magnetite (Fe3O4) phase of the particles while electron microscopic and dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies have predicted particle growth upon γ-irradiation. Further, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy studies ensured that no dissociation has occurred due to irradiation effect. As a consequence of magneto-optic behavior reflected in the Faraday rotation (FR) measurement, the Verdet constant increased from a value of 0.64×10-2 for the pristine sample to 5.6×10-2 deg/Gauss-cm for the sample irradiated with the highest dose (2.635 kGy). The substantial enhancement in the FR is assigned to the improvement in associated chaining effect owing to adequate particle growth where an increased stoichiometry variation of Fe2+/Fe3+ is assured.

  9. Inverse compton scattering gamma ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, S.; Frigola, P.; Murokh, A.; Ruelas, M.; Jovanovic, I.; Rosenzweig, J. B.; Travish, G.

    2009-09-01

    Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) (e.g. U-235, Pu-239) can be detected by active interrogation with gamma rays (>6 MeV) through photofission. For long-range detection (˜1 km), an intense beam of gamma rays (˜10 14 per second) is required in order to produce measurable number of neutrons. The production of such fluxes of gamma rays, and in the pulse formats useful for detection, presents many technical challenges, and requires novel approaches to the accelerator and laser technology. RadiaBeam is currently designing a gamma ray source based on Inverse Compton Scattering (ICS) from a high-energy electron beam. To achieve this, improvements in photoinjector, linac, final focus, and laser system are planned. These enhanced sub-systems build on parallel work being performed at RadiaBeam, UCLA, and elsewhere. A high-repetition rate photoinjector, a high-gradient S-band linac, and a laser pulse recirculator will be used. The proposed system will be a transportable source of high-flux, high-energy quasi-monochromatic gamma rays for active interrogation of special nuclear materials.

  10. Stellar Photon Archaeology with Gamma-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, Floyd W.

    2009-01-01

    Ongoing deep surveys of galaxy luminosity distribution functions, spectral energy distributions and backwards evolution models of star formation rates can be used to calculate the past history of intergalactic photon densities and, from them, the present and past optical depth of the Universe to gamma-rays from pair production interactions with these photons. The energy-redshift dependence of the optical depth of the Universe to gamma-rays has become known as the Fazio-Stecker relation (Fazio & Stecker 1970). Stecker, Malkan & Scully have calculated the densities of intergalactic background light (IBL) photons of energies from 0.03 eV to the Lyman limit at 13.6 eV and for 0$ < z < $6, using deep survey galaxy observations from Spitzer, Hubble and GALEX and have consequently predicted spectral absorption features for extragalactic gamma-ray sources. This procedure can also be reversed. Determining the cutoff energies of gamma-ray sources with known redshifts using the recently launched Fermi gamma-ray space telescope may enable a more precise determination of the IBL photon densities in the past, i.e., the "archaeo-IBL.", and therefore allow a better measure of the past history of the total star formation rate, including that from galaxies too faint to be observed.

  11. GRI: The Gamma-Ray Imager mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knödlseder, Jürgen; GRI Consortium

    With the INTEGRAL observatory ESA has provided a unique tool to the astronomical community revealing hundreds of sources, new classes of objects, extraordinary views of antimatter annihilation in our Galaxy, and fingerprints of recent nucleosynthesis processes. While INTEGRAL provides the global overview over the soft gamma-ray sky, there is a growing need to perform deeper, more focused investigations of gamma-ray sources. In soft X-rays a comparable step was taken going from the Einstein and the EXOSAT satellites to the Chandra and XMM/Newton observatories. Technological advances in the past years in the domain of gamma-ray focusing using Laue diffraction have paved the way towards a new gamma-ray mission, providing major improvements regarding sensitivity and angular resolution. Such a future Gamma-Ray Imager will allow studies of particle acceleration processes and explosion physics in unprecedented detail, providing essential clues on the innermost nature of the most violent and most energetic processes in the Universe.

  12. GAMPIX: A new generation of gamma camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmar, M.; Agelou, M.; Carrel, F.; Schoepff, V.

    2011-10-01

    Gamma imaging is a technique of great interest in several fields such as homeland security or decommissioning/dismantling of nuclear facilities in order to localize hot spots of radioactivity. In the nineties, previous works led by CEA LIST resulted in the development of a first generation of gamma camera called CARTOGAM, now commercialized by AREVA CANBERRA. Even if its performances can be adapted to many applications, its weight of 15 kg can be an issue. For several years, CEA LIST has been developing a new generation of gamma camera, called GAMPIX. This system is mainly based on the Medipix2 chip, hybridized to a 1 mm thick CdTe substrate. A coded mask replaces the pinhole collimator in order to increase the sensitivity of the gamma camera. Hence, we obtained a very compact device (global weight less than 1 kg without any shielding), which is easy to handle and to use. In this article, we present the main characteristics of GAMPIX and we expose the first experimental results illustrating the performances of this new generation of gamma camera.

  13. Gamma Radiation Effects on Peanut Skin Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Costa de Camargo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to refined-bleached-deodorized (RBD soybean oil. The oxidative stability of the oil samples was determined using the Oil Stability Index method and compared to a control and synthetic antioxidants (100 mg/kg BHT and 200 mg/kg TBHQ. Gamma radiation changed total phenolic content, total condensed tannins, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity. All extracts, gamma irradiated or not, presented increasing induction period (h, measured by the Oil Stability Index method, when compared with the control. Antioxidant activity of the peanut skins was higher than BHT. The present study confirmed that gamma radiation did not affect the peanut skin extracts’ antioxidative properties when added to soybean oil.

  14. Gamma Radiation Effects on Peanut Skin Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Camargo, Adriano Costa; de Souza Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira; Regitano-D’Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2012-01-01

    Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to refined-bleached-deodorized (RBD) soybean oil. The oxidative stability of the oil samples was determined using the Oil Stability Index method and compared to a control and synthetic antioxidants (100 mg/kg BHT and 200 mg/kg TBHQ). Gamma radiation changed total phenolic content, total condensed tannins, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity. All extracts, gamma irradiated or not, presented increasing induction period (h), measured by the Oil Stability Index method, when compared with the control. Antioxidant activity of the peanut skins was higher than BHT. The present study confirmed that gamma radiation did not affect the peanut skin extracts’ antioxidative properties when added to soybean oil. PMID:22489142

  15. High spins in gamma-soft nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leander, G.A.; Frauendorf, S.; May, F.R.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclei which are soft with respect to the ..gamma.. shape degree of freedom are expected to have many different structures coexisting in the near-yrast regime. In particular, the lowest rotational quasi-particle in a high-j shell exerts a strong polarizing effect on ..gamma... The ..gamma.. to which it drives is found to vary smoothly over a 180/sup 0/ range as the position of the Fermi level varies. This simple rule is seen to have a direct connection with the energy staggering of alternate spin states in rotational bands. A diagram is presented which provides a general theoretical reference for experimental tests of the relation between ..gamma.., spin staggering, configuration, and nucleon number. In a quasicontinuum spectrum, the coexistence of different structures are expected to make several unrelated features appear within any one slice of sum energy and multiplicity. However, it is also seen that the in-band moment of inertia may be similar for many bands of different ..gamma...

  16. Fermi Results on Gamma-Ray Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzano, Massimiliano; Guillemot, Lucas

    By detecting pulsed gamma-ray emission from more than 130 young and recycled pulsars since it began operating in 2008, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi satellite has revolutionized our view of the gamma-ray pulsar population. In addition to detecting and characterizing the gamma-ray emission from many more pulsars, the LAT has discovered a large number of new gamma-ray sources whose properties suggest that they harbor unknown gamma-ray pulsars. Radio observations in support of the Fermi mission have provided a vital contribution to the success of LAT pulsar studies. For instance, radio detections or non-detections of LAT-discovered pulsars constrain the ratio of radio-loud to radio-quiet pulsars, and radio searches in LAT unassociated sources have uncovered several tens of new millisecond pulsars. In this presentation I will summarize some of the main results and implications from pulsar observations with the Fermi LAT and supporting multi-wavelength observations, in particular in the radio domain.

  17. Urban gamma spectrometry. Report 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aage, H.K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Kuukankorpi, S.; Moring, M.; Smolander, P.; Toivonen, H. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland))

    2009-06-15

    This report contains the present status and results for the NKS UGS-project per 1 June 2006 for NKS partners DTU, Denmark, and STUK, Finland. The Danish and Finnish CGS (Carborne Gamma Spectrometry) systems are not of similar types. The Danish CGS system(s) only make use of one NaI(Tl) detector whereas the Finnish CGS system consists of several detectors, NaI(Tl) and HPGe both and as an additional feature the Finnish detectors have position dependent different fields of view. Furthermore, the Finnish system is equipped with an air sampling system. In terms of operation, the Danish detector is located on the rooftop where as the Finnish detectors are located inside the vehicle. The Finnish and the Danish team use different methods for data processing. STUK uses a hypothesis test method to get robust real time alarms (within 10 seconds) when significant peaks from a previously defined set of nuclides are detected. An alarm for a significantly elevated total pulse rate is sent if none of the predefined nuclides is identified. All data are stored to the LINSSI database, which facilitates easy data retrieval for post processing. DEMA/DTU bases their calculations on full spectrum fitting using NASVD and the Danish software NucSpec. Source signals are found from spectrum fitting residuals or from stripping of energy windows - either by the standard 4-windows method or by a measurement based method where stripping factors for any window of interest can be derived from the measurements themselves. A thorough description of the two systems and data processing methods (including mathematics) are described in this report. For the Danish methods of data processing some comparisons have been made, but no final conclusion has been reached yet. Raw urban data has been investigated along with urban data sets to which source signals have been added and searched for. For the Finnish method calibration plots of the minimum detection limits for two different detector types have been

  18. Cosmological Gamma-Ray Bursters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamblyn, P.; Melia, F.

    1993-05-01

    The distribution of gamma-ray burst sources detected with BATSE is iso\\-tro\\-pic yet non-uniform. There is a deficit of weak events which is commonly expressed by a \\vvm less than the 0.5 expected for a uniform Eu\\-clid\\-ean distribution. It has been argued (e.g., Mao and Paczynski 1992) that this may be a signature of a Cosmological expansion in a FRW universe with a uniform, co-moving distribution of sources. However, a comparison of the \\vvm and burst detection rates of several experiments presents an apparent paradox: e.g., Konus detected the bursts more frequently than SMM, implying a better sensitivity and larger sampling volume, yet its measured \\vvm was ~ 0.45 compared to SMM's value of ~ 0.40, suggesting instead a lesser deviation from Eu\\-clid\\-ean space. We point out that this apparent conflict stems from the assumption that all bursts have a standard spectrum with a single power law. But realistic spectra often exhibit broken power laws, with a break energy 100;keV ~ lessepsilon_b ~ less 3 MeV. \\ Thus, the flux measured by a particular instrument depends on both the redshift of the source and the energy window of the detector. In other words, for a given energy window, the flux of a more distant burst will be further decreased below the value expected from the Cosmological model due to the red-shifting of epsilon_b across the window. We show that the inclusion of an intrinsic epsilon_b ( ~ 500 keV) and a consideration of the different detector energy responses and sensitivities can self-consistently account for the rates and \\vvm of the Konus, PVO, SMM, and BATSE datasets. Because of the dependence of the observed characteristics on the energy window, a subset of the BATSE catalog, based solely on the burst fluence in the higher energy (i.e., 4{th}) channel, provides an additional ``data'' point in the \\vvm versus rate plane. In particular, Konus's higher rate for a larger value of \\vvm is due to its better sensitivity, but smaller and

  19. INTEGRAL & RXTE View of Gamma-ray Binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jian; Torres, Diego F.; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Jianmin

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-ray binaries are X-ray binaries with gamma-ray emissions. Their multi-wavelength emissions range from radio, optical, X-ray and to very high energy (TeV). X-ray emissions are crucial to understand the nature of gamma-ray binaries. INTEGRAL and RXTE have covered and monitored most of the gamma-ray binaries in hard and soft X-rays. Here we report the results of several gamma-ray binaries and possible gamma-ray binaries from INTEGRAL and RXTE.

  20. Measurement of the CP Violation Parameter $\\eta+ - \\gamma$

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, John N. [Rutgers U., Piscataway

    1996-01-01

    This dissertation describes the measurement of the CP violation parameter $\\eta + - \\gamma$ in a neutral kaon experiment, E773, at Fermilab. The parameter $\\eta + - \\gamma$ characterizes CP violation in ·the decay $K_L \\to \\pi^+ \\pi^- \\gamma$. Kaon decays into $\\pi^+\\pi^-$- collected simultaneously were used for normalization. The result is $\\mid\\eta+-\\gamma\\mid$ = (2.359 ± 0.062 .. stat ± 0.040.sys) X $10^{-3}$ with a phase $\\phi + - \\gamma$ = ( 43.8 ± 3.5,stat ± 1.9 sys )$^{\\circ}$. The prediction that $\\eta + - \\gamma$ should be very close to $\\eta + -$ is supported by this result.

  1. Technology Needs for Gamma Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Gamma ray astronomy is currently in an exciting period of multiple missions and a wealth of data. Results from INTEGRAL, Fermi, AGILE, Suzaku and Swift are making large contributions to our knowledge of high energy processes in the universe. The advances are due to new detector and imaging technologies. The steps to date have been from scintillators to solid state detectors for sensors and from light buckets to coded aperture masks and pair telescopes for imagers. A key direction for the future is toward focusing telescopes pushing into the hard X-ray regime and Compton telescopes and pair telescopes with fine spatial resolution for medium and high energy gamma rays. These technologies will provide finer imaging of gamma-ray sources. Importantly, they will also enable large steps forward in sensitivity by reducing background.

  2. Form factors of the transitions {gamma}{sup *}{pi}{sup 0} {r_arrow} {gamma} and {gamma}{sup *}{eta}{r_arrow}{gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afanasev, A. [Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    The author discusses possibilities to study {gamma}*{pi}{sup 0} and {gamma}*{eta} {r_arrow} {gamma} transition form factors at CEBAF energies. The author shows that for 4 GeV electron beam, these form factors can be measured at CEBAF for the 4-momentum transfers Q{sup 2} {le} 2.5 (GeV/c){sup 2} using virtual Compton scattering on the proton and nuclear target in the kinematic regime of low momentum transfers to the target. These measurements can be extended to Q{sup 2} {le} 4.0 (GeV/c){sup 2} using the electron beam with the energy 6 GeV.

  3. Delayed gamma technique for fissile material assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozin, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tobin, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vujie, Jasmina [UC BERKELEY; Hunt, Alan [IDAHO ACCELERATOR CENTER

    2010-01-01

    Research sponsored by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative are investigating several non-destructive assay techniques for the quantification of fissile plutonium mass in spent nuclear fuel assemblies. AppHcation of the delayed gamma signatures is investigated in this context. The objective of the research is to assess whether the delayed gamma assay instrument can provide sufficient sensitivity, isotope specificity and accuracy as required in nuclear material safeguards. This effort includes theoretical and experimental components for the optimal combination of interrogation parameters. A new modeling algorithm offering a high level of detail was developed specifically for this purpose and was validated in series of benchmark experiments. Preliminary modeling of the delayed gamma response from spent fuel assemblies was accomplished offering a future direction for the design process.

  4. Some properties of generalized gamma distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Khodabin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the generalized gamma (GG distribution that is a flexible distribution in statistical literature, and has exponential, gamma, and Weibull as subfamilies, and lognormal as a limiting distribution is introduced. The power and logarithmic moments of this family is defined. A new moment estimation method of parameters of GG family using it's characterization is presented, this method is compared with MLE method in gamma subfamily for small and large sample size. Here we study GG entropy representation and its estimation. In addition Kullback-Leibler discrimination , Akaike and Bayesian information criterion is discussed. In brief, this paper consist of presentation of general review of important properties in GG family.

  5. Effects of gamma radiation in tomato seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiendl, Toni A.; Wiendl, Fritz W.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Franco, Jose G.; Althur, Valter, E-mail: tawiendl@hotmail.com, E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Paula B., E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Tomato dry seeds of the hybrid 'Gladiador' F1 were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from Co-60 source at 0,509 kGy tax rate in order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination and plant growth. Eight treatments radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0; 12,5; 15,0; 20,0 Gy. Seed germination as well as green fruits number, harvested fruit number, fruit weight and total production were assessed to identify occurrence of stimulation. Tomato seeds and plants were handled as for usual tomato production in Brazil. Low doses of gamma radiation treatment in the seeds stimulate germination and substantially increase fruit number and total production up to 86% at 10 Gy dose. There are evidences that the use of low doses of gamma radiation can stimulate germination and plant production thus, showing hormetic effects. (author)

  6. (n,{gamma}) Experiments on tin isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baramsai, B.; Mitchell, G. E.; Walker, C. L.; Rusev, G. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; O' Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Becvar, F.; Krticka, M.; Kroll, J. [Charles University of Prague, V Holesovickach 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Agvaanluvsan, U.; Dashdorj, D.; Erdenehuluun, B.; Tsend-Ayush, T. [MonAme Scientific Research Center, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia)

    2013-04-19

    Neutron capture experiments on highly enriched {sup 117,119}Sn isotopes were performed with the DANCE detector array located at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The DANCE detector provides detailed information about the multi-step {gamma}-ray cascade following neutron capture. Analysis of the experimental data provides important information to improve understanding of the neutron capture reaction, including a test of the statistical model, the assignment of spins and parities of neutron resonances, and information concerning the Photon Strength Function (PSF) and Level Density (LD) below the neutron separation energy. Preliminary results for the (n,{gamma}) reaction on {sup 117,119}Sn are presented. Resonance spins of the odd-A tin isotopes were almost completely unknown. Resonance spins and parities have been assigned via analysis of the multi-step {gamma}-ray spectra and directional correlations.

  7. GABA[subscript A] Receptor Downregulation in Brains of Subjects with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, S. Hossein; Reutiman, Teri J.; Folsom, Timothy D.; Thuras, Paul D.

    2009-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA[subscript A]) receptors are ligand-gated ion channels responsible for mediation of fast inhibitory action of GABA in the brain. Preliminary reports have demonstrated altered expression of GABA receptors in the brains of subjects with autism suggesting GABA/glutamate system dysregulation. We investigated the…

  8. Modification of ethylene-norbornene copolymer by Gamma irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kačarević-Popović Zorica M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of modifying polyethylene and many other polymers with high energy radiation has led to many useful applications. Due to their new combination of properties and the shortage of experimental data, the radiolysis of a new class of materials, cyclo-olefin copolymers (COC, polymerised from norbornene and ethylene using metallocene catalysts, is of great interest to the study of radiation chemistry and the physics of polymeric systems. Ethylenenorbornene copolymer, pristine and containing an antioxidant were subjected to gamma irradiation in the presence of air and in water. The irradiated copolymer was studied using IR and UV-vis spectrophotometric analysis. The radiation-induced changes in the molecular structure were correlated to changes in the glass transition temperature measured by the DSC method.

  9. Gamma irradiation of melt processed biomedical PDLLA/HAP nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadbin, Susan; Kheirkhah, Yahya

    2014-04-01

    Poly(D-L lactide) PDLLA/hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanocomposites at various compositions were prepared by melt-compounding process and then subjected to gamma irradiation at a dose of 30 kGy. The morphology of the nanocomposites, characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), displayed HAP nanoparticles at various sizes ranging from 10 to 100 nm distributed almost evenly within the polymer matrix. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis of the irradiated nanocomposites showed an increase in the degree of crystallinity along with a melting peak split. The double melting peak suggested formation of different crystalline structures in the radiation exposed nanocomposites. Also the cold crystallization peak shifted to lower temperatures and became much sharper upon irradiation, indicating higher crystallization rate. The irradiated nanocomposites showed lower tensile strength and elongation at break, suggesting occurrence of some chain scission reactions in the PLA.

  10. Gamma-ray computed tomography to characterize soil surface sealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Luiz F; de Macedo, Jose R; de Souza, Manoel D; Bacchi, Osny O S; Reichardt, Klaus

    2002-09-01

    The application of sewage sludge as a fertilizer on soils may cause compacted surface layers (surface sealing), which can promote changes on soil physical properties. The objective of this work was to study the use of gamma-ray computed tomography, as a diagnostic tool for the evaluation of this sealing process through the measurement of soil bulk density distribution of the soil surface layer of samples subjected to sewage sludge application. Tomographic images were taken with a first generation tomograph with a resolution of 1 mm. The image analysis opened the possibility to obtain soil bulk density profiles and average soil bulk densities of the surface layer and to detect the presence of soil surface sealing. The sealing crust thickness was estimated to be in the range of 2-4 mm.

  11. On a class of incomplete gamma functions with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhry, M Aslam

    2001-01-01

    The subject of special functions is rich and expanding continuously with the emergence of new problems encountered in engineering and applied science applications. The development of computational techniques and the rapid growth in computing power have increased the importance of the special functions and their formulae for analytic representations. However, problems remain, particularly in heat conduction, astrophysics, and probability theory, whose solutions seem to defy even the most general classes of special functions.On a Class of Incomplete Gamma Functions with Applications introduces a class of special functions, developed by the authors, useful in the analytic study of several heat conduction problems. It presents some basic properties of these functions, including their recurrence relations, special cases, asymptotic representations, and integral transform relationships. The authors explore applications of these generalized functions to problems in transient heat conduction, special cases of laser s...

  12. A novel fully integrated handheld gamma camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massari, R.; Ucci, A.; Campisi, C. [Biostructure and Bioimaging Institute (IBB), National Research Council of Italy (CNR), Rome (Italy); Scopinaro, F. [University of Rome “La Sapienza”, S. Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy); Soluri, A., E-mail: alessandro.soluri@ibb.cnr.it [Biostructure and Bioimaging Institute (IBB), National Research Council of Italy (CNR), Rome (Italy)

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we present an innovative, fully integrated handheld gamma camera, namely designed to gather in the same device the gamma ray detector with the display and the embedded computing system. The low power consumption allows the prototype to be battery operated. To be useful in radioguided surgery, an intraoperative gamma camera must be very easy to handle since it must be moved to find a suitable view. Consequently, we have developed the first prototype of a fully integrated, compact and lightweight gamma camera for radiopharmaceuticals fast imaging. The device can operate without cables across the sterile field, so it may be easily used in the operating theater for radioguided surgery. The prototype proposed consists of a Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) array coupled with a proprietary scintillation structure based on CsI(Tl) crystals. To read the SiPM output signals, we have developed a very low power readout electronics and a dedicated analog to digital conversion system. One of the most critical aspects we faced designing the prototype was the low power consumption, which is mandatory to develop a battery operated device. We have applied this detection device in the lymphoscintigraphy technique (sentinel lymph node mapping) comparing the results obtained with those of a commercial gamma camera (Philips SKYLight). The results obtained confirm a rapid response of the device and an adequate spatial resolution for the use in the scintigraphic imaging. This work confirms the feasibility of a small gamma camera with an integrated display. This device is designed for radioguided surgery and small organ imaging, but it could be easily combined into surgical navigation systems.

  13. The observation of gamma ray bursts and terrestrial gamma-ray flashes with AGILE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Monte, E.; Barbiellini, G.; Fuschino, F.; Giuliani, A.; Longo, F.; Marisaldi, M.; Mereghetti, S.; Moretti, E.; Trifoglio, M.; Vianello, G.; Costa, E.; Donnarumma, I.; Evangelista, Y.; Feroci, M.; Gallil, M.; Lapshov, I.; Lazzarotto, F.; Lipari, P.; Pacciani, L.; Rapisarda, M.; Soffitta, P.; Tavani, M.; Vercellone, S.; Cutini, S.; Boffelli, F.; Bulgarelli, A.; Caraveo, P.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Chen, A.; Di Cocco, G.; Gianotti, F.; Labanti, C.; Morselli, A.; Pellizzoni, A.; Perotti, F.; Piano, G.; Picozza, P.; Pilia, M.; Prest, M.; Pucella, G.; Rappoldi, A.; Sabatini, S.; Striani, E.; Trois, A.; Vallazza, E.; Vittorini, V.; Antonelli, L. A.; Pittori, C.; Preger, B.; Santolamazza, P.; Verrecchia, F.; Giommi, P.; Salotti, L.

    2011-02-01

    Since its early phases of operation, the AGILE mission is successfully observing Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) in the hard X-ray band with the SuperAGILE imager and in the MeV range with the Mini-Calorimeter. Up to now, three firm GRB detections were obtained above 25 MeV and some bursts were detected with lower statistical confidence in the same energy band. When a GRB is localized, either by SuperAGILE or Swift/BAT or INTEGRAL/IBIS or Fermi/GBM or IPN, inside the field of view of the Gamma Ray Imager of AGILE, a detection is searched for in the gamma ray band or an upper limit is provided. A promising result of AGILE is the detection of very short gamma ray transients, a few ms in duration and possibly identified with Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes. In this paper we show the current status of the observation of Gamma Ray Bursts and Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes with AGILE.

  14. An innovative silicon photomultiplier digitizing camera for gamma-ray astronomy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heller, M.; Schioppa, E.jr.; Porcelli, A.; Pujadas, I.T.; Zietara, K.; della Volpe, D.; Montaruli, T.; Cadoux, F.; Favre, Y.; Aguilar, J.A.; Christov, A.; Prandini, E.; Rajda, P.; Rameez, M.; Bilnik, W.; Blocki, J.; Bogacz, L.; Borkowski, J.; Bulik, T.; Frankowski, A.; Grudzinska, M.; Idzkowski, B.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Kasperek, J.; Lalik, K.; Lyard, E.; Mach, E.; Mandát, Dušan; Marszalek, A.; Medina Miranda, L. D.; Michałowski, J.; Moderski, R.; Neronov, A.; Niemiec, J.; Ostrowski, M.; Pasko, P.; Pech, Miroslav; Schovánek, Petr; Seweryn, K.; Sliusar, V.; Skowron, K.; Stawarz, L.; Stodulska, M.; Stodulski, M.; Walter, R.; Wiecek, M.; Zagdanski, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-31, č. článku 47. ISSN 1434-6044 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LE13012; GA MŠk LG14019 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : silicon photomultiplier * digitizing camera * gamma-ray astronomy Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 5.331, year: 2016

  15. Effects of gamma irradiations on reactive pulsed laser deposited vanadium dioxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madiba, I. G.; Émond, N.; Chaker, M.; Thema, F. T.; Tadadjeu, S. I.; Muller, U.; Zolliker, P.; Braun, A.; Kotsedi, L.; Maaza, M.

    2017-07-01

    Vanadium oxide films are considered suitable coatings for various applications such as thermal protective coating of small spacecrafts because of their thermochromic properties. While in outer space, such coating will be exposed to cosmic radiations which include γ-rays. To study the effect of these γ-rays on the coating properties, we have deposited vanadium dioxide (VO2) films on silicon substrates and subjected them to extensive γ-irradiations with typical doses encountered in space missions. The prevalent crystallographic phase after irradiation remains the monoclinic VO2 phase but the films preferential orientation shifts to lower angles due to the presence of disordered regions caused by radiations. Raman spectroscopy measurements also evidences that the VO2 structure is slightly affected by gamma irradiation. Indeed, increasing the gamma rays dose locally alters the crystalline and electronic structures of the films by modifying the V-V inter-dimer distance, which in turns favours the presence of the VO2 metallic phase. From the XPS measurements of V2p and O1s core level spectra, an oxidation of vanadium from V4+ towards V5+ is revealed. The data also reveal a hydroxylation upon irradiation which is corroborated by the vanishing of a low oxidation state peak near the Fermi energy in the valence band. Our observations suggest that gamma radiations induce the formation of Frenkel pairs. Moreover, THz transmission measurements show that the long range structure of VO2 remains intact after irradiation whilst the electrical measurements evidence that the coating resistivity decreases with gamma irradiation and that their transition temperature is slightly reduced for high gamma ray doses. Even though gamma rays are only one of the sources of radiations that are encountered in space environment, these results are very promising with regards to the potential of integration of such VO2 films as a protective coating for spacecrafts.

  16. New Precise Measurements of the $\\Xi^{0} \\to \\Lambda \\gamma$ and $\\Xi^{0} \\to \\Sigma^{0}\\gamma$ Decay Asymmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Batley, J R; Lazzeroni, C; Munday, D J; Patel, M; Slater, M W; Wotton, S A; Arcidiacono, R; Bocquet, G; Ceccucci, A; Cundy, D; Doble, N; Falaleev, V; Gatignon, L; Gonidec, A; Grafstrom, P; Kubischta, W; Mikulec, I; Norton, A; Panzer-Steindel, B; Rubin, P; Wahl, H; Goudzovski, E; Hristov, P; Kekelidze, V; Litov, L; Madigozhin, D; Molokanova, N; Potrebenikov, Yu; Stoynev, S; Zinchenko, A; Monnier, E; Swallow, E; Winston, R; Sacco, R; Walker, A; Baldini, W; Gianoli, A; Dalpiaz, P; Frabetti, P L; Martini, M; Petrucci, F; Savrie, M; Scarpa, M; Calvetti, M; Collazuol, G; Iacopini, E; Ruggiero, G; Bizzeti, A; Lenti, M; Veltri, M; Behler, M; Eppard, K; Eppard, M; Hirstius, A; Kleinknecht, K; Koch, U; Marouelli, P; Masetti, L; Moosbrugger, U; Morales-Morales, C; Peters, A; Wanke, R; Winhart, A; Dabrowski, A; Fonseca Martin, T; Velasco, M; Cenci, P; Lubrano, P; Pepe, M; Anzivino, G; Imbergamo, E; Lamanna, G; Michetti, A; Nappi, A; Petrucci, M C; Piccini, M; Valdata, M; Cerri, C; Fantechi, R; Costantini, F; Fiorini, L; Giudici, S; Pierazzini, G; Sozzi, M; Mannelli, I; Cheshkov, C; Cheze, J B; De Beer, M; Debu, P; Gouge, G; Marel, G; Mazzucato, E; Peyaud, B; Vallage, B; Holder, M; Maier, A; Ziolkowski, M; Biino, C; Cartiglia, N; Marchetto, F; Pastrone, N; Clemencic, M; Goy Lopez, S; Menichetti, E; Wislicki, W; Dibon, H; Jeitler, M; Markytan, M; Neuhofer, G; Widhalm, L

    2010-01-01

    The decay asymmetries of the weak radiative Hyperon decays $\\Xi^{0}\\to \\Lambda \\gamma$ and $\\Xi^{0} \\to \\Sigma^{0}\\gamma$ have been measured with high precision using data of the NA48/1 experiment at CERN. From about 52000 $\\Xi^{0}\\to \\Lambda \\gamma$ and 15000 $\\Xi^{0} \\to \\Sigma^{0}\\gamma$ decays, we obtain for the decay asymmetries $\\alpha_{\\Xi^{0}\\to \\Lambda\\gamma}$ = -0.704 +- 0.019$_{stat}$ +- 0.064$_{syst}$ and $\\alpha_{\\Xi^{0}\\to \\Sigma^{0}\\gamma}$ = -0.729 +- 0.030$_{stat}$ +- 0.076$_{syst}$, respectively. These results are in good agreement with previous experiments, but more precise.

  17. Perturbative versus nonperturbative effects at medium energies in the {gamma}{gamma}{yields}{pi} + {pi}{sup -} reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczurek, A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, PL-31-342, Krakow (Poland); University of Rzeszow, PL-35-959, Rzeszow (Poland); Speth, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425, Juelich (Germany)

    2003-11-01

    The interplay of pQCD, pion exchange and FSI effects is studied for the {gamma}{gamma}{yields}{pi} + {pi}{sup -} reaction in the region of 2 GeV < W{sub {gamma}}{sub {gamma}} < 6 GeV. We find strong interference effects between pQCD and soft-pion-exchange amplitudes up to W{sub {gamma}}{sub {gamma}} {proportional_to}4 GeV. We discuss to which extend the conventional hadronic FSI effects cloud the pQCD effects. We study multipole soft- and hard-scattering effects as well as the coupling between final-state hadronic channels. (orig.)

  18. Histamine affects interleukin-4, interleukin-5, and interferon-gamma production by human T cell clones from the airways and blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krouwels, F. H.; Hol, B. E.; Lutter, R.; Bruinier, B.; Bast, A.; Jansen, H. M.; Out, T. A.

    1998-01-01

    High levels of histamine can be found in the airways of asthma patients. This study describes the effects of histamine on anti-CD3-induced production of IL-4, IL-5, and IFN-gamma by T cell clones from subjects with allergic asthma and healthy subjects. T cell clones were obtained from

  19. Tolerance of edible flowers to gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Amanda C.R.; Araujo, Michel M.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Almeida, Mariana C.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H., E-mail: ackoike@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    People have been eating flowers and using them in culinary creations for hundreds of years. Edible flowers are increasingly being used in meals as an ingredient in salads or garnish, entrees, drinks and desserts. The irradiation process is an alternative method that can be used in disinfestation of food and flowers, using doses that do not damage the product. The sensitivity of flowers to irradiation varies from species to species. In the present research was irradiated with doses up to 1 kGy some edible flowers to examine their physical tolerance to gamma-rays. Furthermore, high doses gamma irradiation causes petal withering, browning process and injury in edible flowers. (author)

  20. Gamma-ray albedo of the moon

    OpenAIRE

    Moskalenko, Igor V.; Porter, Troy A.

    2007-01-01

    We use the GEANT4 Monte Carlo framework to calculate the gamma-ray albedo of the Moon due to interactions of cosmic ray (CR) nuclei with moon rock. Our calculation of the albedo spectrum agrees with the EGRET data. We show that the spectrum of gamma rays from the Moon is very steep with an effective cutoff around 4 GeV (600 MeV for the inner part of the Moon disc). Apart from other astrophysical sources, the albedo spectrum of the Moon is well understood, including its absolute normalisation;...

  1. VHE Gamma-ray Supernova Remnants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, Stefan; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-01-22

    Increasing observational evidence gathered especially in X-rays and {gamma}-rays during the course of the last few years support the notion that Supernova remnants (SNRs) are Galactic particle accelerators up to energies close to the ''knee'' in the energy spectrum of Cosmic rays. This review summarizes the current status of {gamma}-ray observations of SNRs. Shell-type as well as plerionic type SNRs are addressed and prospect for observations of these two source classes with the upcoming GLAST satellite in the energy regime above 100 MeV are given.

  2. Nuclear forensics using gamma-ray spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Norman, Eric B

    2016-01-01

    Much of George Dracoulis's research career was devoted to utilizing gamma-ray spectroscopy in fundamental studies in nuclear physics. This same technology is useful in a wide range of applications in the area of nuclear forensics. Over the past several years, our research group has made use of both high- and low- resolution gamma ray spectrometers to: identify the first sample of plutonium large enough to be weighed; determine the yield of the Trinity nuclear explosion; measure fission fragment yields as a function of target nucleus and neutron energy; and observe fallout in the U. S. from the Fukushima nuclear reactor accident.

  3. A Gamma Model for Mixture STR Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Susanne; Bøttcher, Susanne Gammelgaard; Morling, Niels

    This project investigates the behavior of the PCR Amplification Kit. A number of known DNA-profiles are mixed two by two in "known" proportions and analyzed. Gamma distribution models are fitted to the resulting data to learn to what extent actual mixing proportions can be rediscovered in the amp......This project investigates the behavior of the PCR Amplification Kit. A number of known DNA-profiles are mixed two by two in "known" proportions and analyzed. Gamma distribution models are fitted to the resulting data to learn to what extent actual mixing proportions can be rediscovered...

  4. Yet Another Way to Measure gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiller, Gudrun

    2001-05-22

    We show that the CKM phase 2{beta}+P{gamma} can be extracted from measurement of the time dependent rates in the decays {bar B}{sup 0} {yields} D{sup (*){+-}} M{sup {-+}}, where M = a{sub 0}, {pi}(1300), b{sub 1}, a{sub 2}, {pi}{sub 2}, {rho}{sub 3}. These channels have a large asymmetry between decays of {bar B}{sup 0} and B{sup 0} into the same final state. Even though the branching ratios are small, their sensitivity to {gamma} can be competitive with decays into D{sup (*)} and ({pi}, {rho}, a{sub 1}).

  5. HMX Polymorphs: Gamma to Beta Phase Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Pramod; Sarkar, C.; Tewari, R.; Sharma, T. D.

    2011-07-01

    The process of conversion of a gamma (γ) polymorph of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) to a beta (β) polymorph is a challenging one. In order to obtain beta HMX from gamma HMX, a novel and economical method, using hot water, has been developed. The characterization of beta HMX using thermo-gravimetric and differential thermal analysis, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and impact sensitivity has been carried out toward its use for various military applications including advanced propellant formulation.

  6. Precise absolute gamma-ray wavelength measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, E. G.; Dewey, M. S.; Greene, G. L.; Deslattes, R. D.; Börner, H.

    1991-10-01

    Gamma-ray wavelengths measured with the joint NIST/ILL GAMS4 facility at the High Flux Reactor, Grenoble, France, are discussed. This primary goal of these measurements is gamma-ray wavelengths which are consistent with the optical wavelength scale and the Rydberg constant with an uncertainty no larger than 0.1 ppm for energies up to 5 MeV. The current status of the Bragg angle and crystal lattice spacing measurements on reference energy values, the neutron mass, and the determination of fundamental constants is reviewed. Measurement of structure factors at high energies is also considered.

  7. Nuclear Forensics using Gamma-ray Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman E. B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Much of George Dracoulis’s research career was devoted to utilising gamma-ray spectroscopy in fundamental studies in nuclear physics. This same technology is useful in a wide range of applications in the area of nuclear forensics. Over the last several years, our research group has made use of both high- and low-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers to: identify the first sample of plutonium large enough to be weighed; determine the yield of the Trinity nuclear explosion; measure fission fragment yields as a function of target nucleus and neutron energy; and observe fallout in the U. S. from the Fukushima nuclear reactor accident.

  8. Gamma ray spectroscopy monitoring method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, William R; Policke, Timothy A

    2017-05-16

    The present invention relates generally to the field of gamma ray spectroscopy monitoring and a system for accomplishing same to monitor one or more aspects of various isotope production processes. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a monitoring system, and method of utilizing same, for monitoring one or more aspects of an isotope production process where the monitoring system comprises: (A) at least one sample cell; (B) at least one measuring port; (C) at least one adjustable collimator device; (D) at least one shutter; and (E) at least one high resolution gamma ray spectrometer.

  9. Radioactivities and gamma-rays from supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woosley, S. E.

    1991-01-01

    An account is given of the implications of several calculations relevant to the estimation of gamma-ray signals from various explosive astronomical phenomena. After discussing efforts to constrain the amounts of Ni-57 and Ti-44 produced in SN 1987A, attention is given to the production of Al-27 in massive stars and SNs. A 'delayed detonation' model of type Ia SNs is proposed, and the gamma-ray signal which may be expected when a bare white dwarf collapses directly into a neutron star is discussed.

  10. Gamma-sky.net: Portal to the gamma-ray sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voruganti, Arjun; Deil, Christoph; Donath, Axel; King, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    http://gamma-sky.net is a novel interactive website designed for exploring the gamma-ray sky. The Map View portion of the site is powered by the Aladin Lite sky atlas, providing a scalable survey image tesselated onto a three-dimensional sphere. The map allows for interactive pan and zoom navigation as well as search queries by sky position or object name. The default image overlay shows the gamma-ray sky observed by the Fermi-LAT gamma-ray space telescope. Other survey images (e.g. Planck microwave images in low/high frequency bands, ROSAT X-ray image) are available for comparison with the gamma-ray data. Sources from major gamma-ray source catalogs of interest (Fermi-LAT 2FHL, 3FGL and a TeV source catalog) are overlaid over the sky map as markers. Clicking on a given source shows basic information in a popup, and detailed pages for every source are available via the Catalog View component of the website, including information such as source classification, spectrum and light-curve plots, and literature references. We intend for gamma-sky.net to be applicable for both professional astronomers as well as the general public. The website started in early June 2016 and is being developed as an open-source, open data project on GitHub (https://github.com/gammapy/gamma-sky). We plan to extend it to display more gamma-ray and multi-wavelength data. Feedback and contributions are very welcome!

  11. Praxis, subjectivity and sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Gómez-Muller

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A primordial aspect of the Sartrian critique of alienation concerns understanding the analytic ideology as the domination of materiality over the symbolic, in other words as the reification of the human, and therefore as anticulture. In the context of contemporary nihilism, the decoding of the mechanisms which consign praxis to the practico-inert requires a critique of the relations between the social sciences and philosophy, which in its turn implies a new theory of the relation between what Sartre calls the "notion" (the area of subjectivity and the "concept" (objectivity, From this perspective, the deconstruction of the established frontiers between the social sciences and philosophy, and between the conceptual and the narrative, is corelative to a redefinition of the relation between theory and practice.

  12. EXILL - a high-efficiency, high-resolution setup for gamma-spectroscopy at an intense cold neutron beam facility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jentschel, M.; Blanc, A.; de France, G.; Koster, U.; Leoni, S.; Mutti, P.; Simpson, G. S.; Krtička, M.; Tomandl, Ivo; Valenta, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 11 (2017), č. článku P11003. ISSN 1748-0221 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : instrumentation for neutron sources * gamma detectors * spectrometers Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016

  13. Detection of and optical transient following the 13 March 2000 short/hard gamma-ray burst

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Castro Cerón, J. M.; Gorosabel, J.; Páta, P.; Soldán, Jan; Hudec, René; Jelínek, Martin; Topinka, Martin; Bernas, M.; Mateo Sanguino, T. J.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Berná, J. A.; Henden, A.; Vrba, F.; Canzian, B.; Harris, H.; Delfosse, X.; de Pontieu, B.; Polcar, J.; Sánchez-Fernández, C.; de la Morena, B. A.; Más-Hesse, J. M.; Torres Riera, J.; Barthelmy, S. D.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 393, č. 3 (2002), s. L55-L59 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/99/0145 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : gamma rays * optical transients Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.781, year: 2002

  14. CORONAS-F observation of gamma-ray emission from the solar flare on 2003 October 29

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kurt, V. G.; Yushkov, B. Y.; Galkin, V. I.; Kudela, Karel; Kashapova, L. K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 56, OCT (2017), s. 102-112 ISSN 1384-1076 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_003/0000481 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : sun * flares - sun * X-rays * gamma rays - sun * magnetic fields - acceleration of particles Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.938, year: 2016

  15. ASSOCIATION OF GAMMA-GLUTAMYL TRANSFERASE WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalakshmi Masilamani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Metabolic Syndrome (MeS is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Elevation of liver enzymes particularly alterations in Gamma-Glutamyl transferase (GGT levels are observed in metabolic syndrome in response to oxidative stress. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this case-sectional study, 100 cases of metabolic syndrome and 100 apparently normal healthy subjects in the age group between 25-65 years were included. Anthropometric measurements such as height, weight, waist/hip ratio and BMI were measured for both the study groups and serum levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, ALT, AST and Gamma-Glutamyl transferase (GGT were measured using enzymatic methods. Patients with hypothyroidism, malignant disease, severe renal insufficiency, cirrhosis, active liver disease and alcohol consumption were excluded. RESULTS Among the various biochemical parameters, fasting blood glucose, serum triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL showed statistically significant elevation among the MeS subjects when compared to healthy controls with p value <0.05. The mean values of GGT and Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT levels were statistically significantly higher in MeS group. The mean values of liver enzymes in MeS group, GGT, AST and ALT respectively were 74.77±15.36, 27.3±10.25 and 37.6±6.5. CONCLUSION Patients with MeS have more significantly elevated levels of GGT showing a significant association of GGT with metabolic syndrome. Moreover, GGT may play a role in early diagnosis of metabolic syndrome and risk for cardiovascular disease.

  16. On Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini, R.; Bernardini, M. G.; Bianco, C. L.; Caito, L.; Chardonnet, P.; Cherubini, C.; Dainotti, M. G.; Fraschetti, F.; Geralico, A.; Guida, R.; Patricelli, B.; Rotondo, M.; Rueda Hernandez, J. A.; Vereshchagin, G.; Xue, S.-S.

    2008-09-01

    We show by example how the uncoding of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) offers unprecedented possibilities to foster new knowledge in fundamental physics and in astrophysics. After recalling some of the classic work on vacuum polarization in uniform electric fields by Klein, Sauter, Heisenberg, Euler and Schwinger, we summarize some of the efforts to observe these effects in heavy ions and high energy ion collisions. We then turn to the theory of vacuum polarization around a Kerr-Newman black hole, leading to the extraction of the blackholic energy, to the concept of dyadosphere and dyadotorus, and to the creation of an electron-positron-photon plasma. We then present a new theoretical approach encompassing the physics of neutron stars and heavy nuclei. It is shown that configurations of nuclear matter in bulk with global charge neutrality can exist on macroscopic scales and with electric fields close to the critical value near their surfaces. These configurations may represent an initial condition for the process of gravitational collapse, leading to the creation of an electron-positron-photon plasma: the basic self-accelerating system explaining both the energetics and the high energy Lorentz factor observed in GRBs. We then turn to recall the two basic interpretational paradigms of our GRB model: 1) the Relative Space-Time Transformation (RSTT) paradigm and 2) the Interpretation of the Burst Structure (IBS) paradigm. These paradigms lead to a "canonical" GRB light curve formed from two different components: a Proper-GRB (P-GRB) and an extended afterglow comprising a raising part, a peak, and a decaying tail. When the P-GRB is energetically predominant we have a "genuine" short GRB, while when the afterglow is energetically predominant we have a so-called long GRB or a "fake" short GRB. We compare and contrast the description of the relativistic expansion of the electron-positron plasma within our approach and within the other ones in the current literature. We then turn

  17. Gamma interferon augments Fc gamma receptor-mediated dengue virus infection of human monocytic cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Kontny, U; Kurane, I; Ennis, F A

    1988-01-01

    It has been reported that anti-dengue antibodies at subneutralizing concentrations augment dengue virus infection of monocytic cells. This is due to the increased uptake of dengue virus in the form of virus-antibody complexes by cells via Fc gamma receptors. We analyzed the effects of recombinant human gamma interferon (rIFN-gamma) on dengue virus infection of human monocytic cells. U937 cells, a human monocytic cell line, were infected with dengue virus in the form of virus-antibody complexe...

  18. Localization of the gamma-radiation sources using the gamma-visor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov Kirill E.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The search of the main gamma-radiation sources at the site of the temporary storage of solid radioactive wastes was carried out. The relative absorbed dose rates were measured for some of the gamma-sources before and after the rehabilitation procedures. The effectiveness of the rehabilitation procedures in the years 2006-2007 was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. The decrease of radiation background at the site of the temporary storage of the solid radioactive wastes after the rehabilitation procedures allowed localizing the new gamma-source.

  19. Gamma emission in precompound reactions: 1, Statistical model and collective gamma decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoering, A. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany) Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Inst. for Nuclear Theory); Weidenmueller, H.A. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany))

    1992-01-01

    We extend the theory of particle-induced precompound reactions by including gamma decay. We use the Brink-Axel hypothesis and consider the gamma emission of giant dipole resonances built on the ground state and on the excited states of the composite system. The latter are modeled as multiparticle multi-hole excitations. In this way, we combine the statistical ansatz and the chaining hypothesis typical for precompound reaction theories, with the collective aspects of gamma decay. Formulas for average S-matrix and average cross section are derived in this framework.

  20. Gamma emission in precompound reactions: 1, Statistical model and collective gamma decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoering, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)]|[Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Inst. for Nuclear Theory; Weidenmueller, H.A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    1992-09-01

    We extend the theory of particle-induced precompound reactions by including gamma decay. We use the Brink-Axel hypothesis and consider the gamma emission of giant dipole resonances built on the ground state and on the excited states of the composite system. The latter are modeled as multiparticle multi-hole excitations. In this way, we combine the statistical ansatz and the chaining hypothesis typical for precompound reaction theories, with the collective aspects of gamma decay. Formulas for average S-matrix and average cross section are derived in this framework.

  1. Gamma Glutamyl Transpeptidase, Smokeless Tobacco, Chronic Periodontitis: Exploring the Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koregol, Arati C; Kalburgi, Nagaraj B; Wagh, Apoorva U Kamat; Warad, Shivraj

    2017-03-01

    Oxidative Stress (OS) is implicated in the pathogenesis of many systemic and oral diseases such as periodontal disease. Smokeless tobacco extract produces apoptosis and causes an imbalance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidants, such as Gamma Glutamyl Transpeptidase (GGT). Epidemiological research implied serum GGT within its normal range to be an early sensitive enzyme related to OS. To assess how GGT fares as a biomarker in periodontitis subjects with or without the usage of smokeless tobacco and correlate it with clinical parameters. Ninety subjects were divided into three groups of healthy, chronic periodontitis, and smokeless tobacco users with chronic periodontitis from the dental outpatient department of P.M. Nadagouda Memorial Dental College and Hospital. Serum samples of patients were collected after obtaining consent and analyzed for GGT. Statistical Analysis was performed using ANOVA, and Pearson's correlation coefficient. GGT levels were found to be significantly higher in chronic periodontitis patients compared to smokeless tobacco users with chronic periodontitis and healthy subjects. Conclusion: GGT may be used as a quick, easy and precise marker for measuring OS in patients with chronic periodontitis and smokeless tobacco users.

  2. Gamma-glutamyltransferase and risk of stroke: the EUROSTROKE project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Bots (Michiel); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); J.T. Salonen; P.C. Elwood; Y. Nikitin; A. Freire de Concalves; D. Inzitari; J. Sivenius; A. Trichopoulou; J. Tuomilehto; P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption has been implicated in the aetiology of stroke. As data on alcohol consumption obtained by questionnaire are susceptible to misclassification, this study evaluated the association between gamma-glutamyltransferase (gamma-GT), as a marker

  3. LHCb: Measurement of Gamma from $B \\rightarrow DK$ Decays

    CERN Multimedia

    Hussain, N

    2013-01-01

    The angle $\\gamma$ of the CKM Unitarity Triangle is the only one that can be measured directly at tree level. Direct measurements of $\\gamma$ constrain the triangle and any deviations from unity may be an indication of new physics. This poster presents three analyses that look at a variety of $B \\rightarrow DK$ decays, whose information is then combined to perform a $\\gamma$ measurement. The best fit value of $\\gamma$ is ${71.1^{+16.1}_{-15.2}} ^\\circ$.

  4. Springer Measurements of the pp $\\to W\\gamma\\gamma$ and pp $\\to Z\\gamma\\gamma$ cross sections and limits on anomalous quartic gauge couplings at $ \\sqrt{s}=8 $ TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Sirunyan, A.M.; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Krammer, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rad, Navid; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Strauss, Josef; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Dvornikov, Oleg; Makarenko, Vladimir; Mossolov, Vladimir; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Zykunov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Alderweireldt, Sara; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Lauwers, Jasper; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Lowette, Steven; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Skovpen, Kirill; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Brun, Hugues; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Luetic, Jelena; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Vannerom, David; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Cornelis, Tom; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Gul, Muhammad; Khvastunov, Illia; Poyraz, Deniz; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Schöfbeck, Robert; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Verbeke, Willem; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; De Visscher, Simon; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Francois, Brieuc; Giammanco, Andrea; Jafari, Abideh; Komm, Matthias; Krintiras, Georgios; Lemaitre, Vincent; Magitteri, Alessio; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wertz, Sébastien; Beliy, Nikita; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Shopova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Gao, Xuyang; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Tongguang; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Liu, Zhenan; Romeo, Francesco; Ruan, Manqi; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Yazgan, Efe; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhao, Jingzhou; Ban, Yong; Chen, Geng; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; González Hernández, Carlos Felipe; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Sculac, Toni; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Mesic, Benjamin; Susa, Tatjana; Ather, Mohsan Waseem; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; El-khateeb, Esraa; Elgammal, Sherif; Mohamed, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Perrini, Lucia; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Jarvinen, Terhi; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Ghosh, Saranya; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Kucher, Inna; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Davignon, Olivier; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Lisniak, Stanislav; Lobanov, Artur; Miné, Philippe; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Stahl Leiton, Andre Govinda; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Zghiche, Amina; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Finco, Linda; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Grenier, Gérald; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Popov, Andrey; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Khvedelidze, Arsen; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Feld, Lutz; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Preuten, Marius; Schomakers, Christian; Schulz, Johannes; Verlage, Tobias; Albert, Andreas; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hamer, Matthias; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Flügge, Günter; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Müller, Thomas; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Arndt, Till; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Beernaert, Kelly; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bin Anuar, Afiq Aizuddin; Borras, Kerstin; Campbell, Alan; Connor, Patrick; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Eren, Engin; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gunnellini, Paolo; Harb, Ali; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Keaveney, James; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Lelek, Aleksandra; Lenz, Teresa; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Ntomari, Eleni; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Spannagel, Simon; Stefaniuk, Nazar; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Dreyer, Torben; Garutti, Erika; Gonzalez, Daniel; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Kurz, Simon; Lapsien, Tobias; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Niedziela, Marek; Nowatschin, Dominik; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Sonneveld, Jory; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Stöver, Marc; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baur, Sebastian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Butz, Erik; Caspart, René; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Freund, Benedikt; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Kassel, Florian; Katkov, Igor; Kudella, Simon; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Schröder, Matthias; Shvetsov, Ivan; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Triantis, Frixos A; Filipovic, Nicolas; Pasztor, Gabriella; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Makovec, Alajos; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Choudhury, Somnath; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Bahinipati, Seema; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Nayak, Aruna; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Kumari, Priyanka; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Keshri, Sumit; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutt, Suneel; Dutta, Suchandra; Ghosh, Shamik; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Nandan, Saswati; Purohit, Arnab; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Thakur, Shalini; Behera, Prafulla Kumar; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Dugad, Shashikant; Kole, Gouranga; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Jain, Sandhya; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Sarkar, Tanmay; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; 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Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Pigazzini, Simone; Ragazzi, Stefano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; De Nardo, Guglielmo; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Fienga, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Michelotto, Michele; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Rossin, Roberto; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Ventura, Sandro; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Braghieri, Alessandro; Fallavollita, Francesco; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Ressegotti, Martina; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Leonardi, Roberto; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Mariani, Valentina; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fedi, Giacomo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Cipriani, Marco; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Marzocchi, Badder; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bartosik, Nazar; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cenna, Francesca; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Monteno, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Shchelina, Ksenia; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Traczyk, Piotr; Belforte, Stefano; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Zanetti, Anna; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Jeongeun; Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Seh Wook; Oh, Young Do; Sekmen, Sezen; Son, Dong-Chul; Yang, Yu Chul; Lee, Ari; Kim, Hyunchul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Tae Jeong; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Ha, Seungkyu; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Youngkwon; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Almond, John; Kim, Junho; Lee, Haneol; Oh, Sung Bin; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Seo, Seon-hee; Yang, Unki; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Yu, Geum Bong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Hwang, Chanwook; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Mejia Guisao, Jhovanny; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Carpinteyro, Severiano; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Uribe Estrada, Cecilia; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Saddique, Asif; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Pyskir, Andrzej; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Calpas, Betty; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Voytishin, Nikolay; Zarubin, Anatoli; Chtchipounov, Leonid; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Sulimov, Valentin; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Toms, Maria; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Aushev, Tagir; Bylinkin, Alexander; Chadeeva, Marina; Rusinov, Vladimir; Tarkovskii, Evgenii; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Terkulov, Adel; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Blinov, Vladimir; Skovpen, Yuri; Shtol, Dmitry; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Elumakhov, Dmitry; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Dordevic, Milos; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Barrio Luna, Mar; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Erice, Carlos; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; González Fernández, Juan Rodrigo; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Sanchez Cruz, Sergio; Suárez Andrés, Ignacio; Vischia, Pietro; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Curras, Esteban; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Botta, Cristina; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cepeda, Maria; Cerminara, Gianluca; Chen, Yi; Cimmino, Anna; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Roeck, Albert; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Everaerts, Pieter; Fartoukh, Stephane; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Gulhan, Doga; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kieseler, Jan; Kirschenmann, Henning; Knünz, Valentin; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kortelainen, Matti J; Krammer, Manfred; Lange, Clemens; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Meijers, Frans; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuel; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Selvaggi, Michele; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Tosi, Mia; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veckalns, Viesturs; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Verweij, Marta; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zagoździńska, Agnieszka; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Rohe, Tilman; Wiederkehr, Stephan Albert; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meinhard, Maren Tabea; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, Gaël; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Schönenberger, Myriam; Starodumov, Andrei; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Caminada, Lea; Canelli, Maria Florencia; De Cosa, Annapaola; Donato, Silvio; Galloni, Camilla; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Rauco, Giorgia; Robmann, Peter; Salerno, Daniel; Seitz, Claudia; Yang, Yong; Zucchetta, Alberto; Candelise, Vieri; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Fiori, Francesco; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Paganis, Efstathios; Psallidas, Andreas; Tsai, Jui-fa; Asavapibhop, Burin; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Boran, Fatma; Damarseckin, Serdal; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kara, Ozgun; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Kiminsu, Ugur; Oglakci, Mehmet; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Tali, Bayram; Turkcapar, Semra; Zorbakir, Ibrahim Soner; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Bilin, Bugra; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Yetkin, Taylan; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Sen, Sercan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Burns, Douglas; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; De Wit, Adinda; Della Negra, Michel; Di Maria, Riccardo; Dunne, Patrick; Elwood, Adam; Futyan, David; Haddad, Yacine; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; James, Thomas; Lane, Rebecca; Laner, Christian; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Penning, Bjoern; Pesaresi, Mark; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Scott, Edward; Seez, Christopher; Summers, Sioni; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wright, Jack; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Bartek, Rachel; Dominguez, Aaron; Buccilli, Andrew; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; West, Christopher; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Gastler, Daniel; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Benelli, Gabriele; Cutts, David; Garabedian, Alex; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Hogan, Julie Managan; Jesus, Orduna; Kwok, Ka Hei Martin; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Spencer, Eric; Syarif, Rizki; Breedon, Richard; Burns, Dustin; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Flores, Chad; Funk, Garrett; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mclean, Christine; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Shalhout, Shalhout; Shi, Mengyao; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tos, Kyle; Tripathi, Mani; Bachtis, Michail; Bravo, Cameron; Cousins, Robert; Dasgupta, Abhigyan; Florent, Alice; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Mccoll, Nickolas; Saltzberg, David; Schnaible, Christian; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Bouvier, Elvire; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Ghiasi Shirazi, Seyyed Mohammad Amin; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Si, Weinan; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; Derdzinski, Mark; Gerosa, Raffaele; Holzner, André; Klein, Daniel; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Welke, Charles; Wood, John; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Amin, Nick; Bhandari, Rohan; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Heller, Ryan; Incandela, Joe; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Ovcharova, Ana; Qu, Huilin; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Bendavid, Joshua; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Lawhorn, Jay Mathew; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Weinberg, Marc; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Mulholland, Troy; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Mcdermott, Kevin; Mirman, Nathan; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Tan, Shao Min; Tao, Zhengcheng; Thom, Julia; Tucker, Jordan; Wittich, Peter; Zientek, Margaret; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Apollinari, Giorgio; Apresyan, Artur; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Cremonesi, Matteo; Duarte, Javier; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Lammel, Stephan; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Magini, Nicolo; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Ristori, Luciano; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Stoynev, Stoyan; Strait, James; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Wang, Michael; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Wu, Yujun; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Low, Jia Fu; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Rank, Douglas; Shchutska, Lesya; Sperka, David; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bein, Samuel; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Kolberg, Ted; Perry, Thomas; Prosper, Harrison; Santra, Arka; Yohay, Rachel; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Cavanaugh, Richard; Chen, Xuan; Evdokimov, Olga; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hangal, Dhanush Anil; Hofman, David Jonathan; Jung, Kurt; Kamin, Jason; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Trauger, Hallie; Varelas, Nikos; Wang, Hui; Wu, Zhenbin; Zhang, Jingyu; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Blumenfeld, Barry; Cocoros, Alice; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Roskes, Jeffrey; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; You, Can; Al-bataineh, Ayman; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Boren, Samuel; Bowen, James; Castle, James; Forthomme, Laurent; Khalil, Sadia; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Majumder, Devdatta; Mcbrayer, William; Murray, Michael; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tapia Takaki, Daniel; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunkle, Joshua; Mignerey, Alice; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Abercrombie, Daniel; Allen, Brandon; Apyan, Aram; Azzolini, Virginia; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bi, Ran; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Demiragli, Zeynep; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hsu, Dylan; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Maier, Benedikt; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Tatar, Kaya; Velicanu, Dragos; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Benvenuti, Alberto; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Evans, Andrew; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Claes, Daniel R; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Kravchenko, Ilya; Malta Rodrigues, Alan; Monroy, Jose; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Stieger, Benjamin; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Nguyen, Duong; Parker, Ashley; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Charaf, Otman; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Rupprecht, Nathaniel; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Alimena, Juliette; Antonelli, Louis; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Francis, Brian; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Ji, Weifeng; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Cooperstein, Stephane; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Lange, David; Luo, Jingyu; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mei, Kelvin; Ojalvo, Isabel; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Stickland, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Tully, Christopher; Malik, Sudhir; Barker, Anthony; Barnes, Virgil E; Folgueras, Santiago; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Andreas Werner; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Sun, Jian; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Duh, Yi-ting; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Lo, Kin Ho; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Agapitos, Antonis; Chou, John Paul; Gershtein, Yuri; Gómez Espinosa, Tirso Alejandro; Halkiadakis, Eva; Heindl, Maximilian; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Kyriacou, Savvas; Lath, Amitabh; Montalvo, Roy; Nash, Kevin; Osherson, Marc; Saka, Halil; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Delannoy, Andrés G; Foerster, Mark; Heideman, Joseph; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Thapa, Krishna; Bouhali, Othmane; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Juska, Evaldas; Kamon, Teruki; Mueller, Ryan; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Perniè, Luca; Rathjens, Denis; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; De Guio, Federico; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Gurpinar, Emine; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Peltola, Timo; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Wang, Zhixing; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Barria, Patrizia; Cox, Bradley; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Sturdy, Jared; Zaleski, Shawn; Belknap, Donald; Buchanan, James; Caillol, Cécile; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Hussain, Usama; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel

    2017-10-11

    Measurements are presented of $ \\mathrm{ W \\gamma\\gamma } $ and $ \\mathrm{ Z \\gamma\\gamma } $ production in proton-proton collisions. Fiducial cross sections are reported based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.4 fb$^{-1}$ collected with the CMS detector at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV. Signal is identified through the $\\mathrm{ W } \\to \\ell\

  5. Simultaneous optical/gamma-ray observations of GRBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, J.; Wenzel, W.; Hudec, R.; Moskalenko, E. I.; Metlov, V.; Chernych, N. S.; Getman, V. S.; Ziener, Rainer; Birkle, K.; Bade, N.

    1994-01-01

    Details on the project to search for serendipitous time correlated optical photographic observations of Gamma Ray Bursters (GRB's) are presented. The ongoing photographic observations at nine observatories are used to look for plates which were exposed simultaneously with a gamma ray burst detected by the gamma ray instrument team (BATSE) and contain the burst position. The results for the first two years of the gamma ray instrument team operation are presented.

  6. Measurements of the $\\mathrm{ pp \\to W \\gamma\\gamma }$ and $\\mathrm{ pp \\to Z \\gamma\\gamma }$ cross sections and limits on anomalous quartic gauge couplings at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 8 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirunyan, Albert M; et al.

    2017-04-02

    Measurements are presented of $ \\mathrm{ W \\gamma\\gamma } $ and $ \\mathrm{ Z \\gamma\\gamma } $ production in proton-proton collisions. Fiducial cross sections are reported based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.4 fb$^{-1}$ collected with the CMS detector at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV. Signal is identified through the $\\mathrm{ W } \\to \\ell\

  7. Class switch recombination in selective IgA-deficient subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone Hummelshøj; Ryder, L P; Nielsen, L K

    2006-01-01

    control donors, all Caucasians. Stimulation of B cells from IgA-deficient donors with the cytokines transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, interferon (IFN)-gamma or interleukin (IL)-10 in the presence of anti-CD40 antibodies showed reduced expression of both activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID...... IL-4 to TGF-beta alone or in combination with IL-10, the immunoglobulin production in B cells from IgA-deficient donors was comparable with those of normal controls. These data show that in healthy subjects in vitro IgA production can be up-regulated by addition of IL-10 to CD40-stimulated B cells...

  8. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY DURING STORAGE OF APPLES SUBJECTED TO IRRADIATION

    OpenAIRE

    Fante, Camila Argenta; Elias, Heloísa Helena de Siqueira; Henrique, Paôla de Castro; Boas, Ana Carolina Vilas; Lima, Luiz Carlos de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, the number of studies about fruit conservation as well as the benefits of consumption of foods rich in antioxidant compounds was increased. This study aimed to quantify antioxidant compounds and their activity and to evaluate the physical and chemical changes during the post-harvest storage of Eva's apple cultivars that were subjected to gamma irradiation at doses of 0; 0.5; 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. The antioxidant activity was measured by the 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the β-...

  9. International Energy: Subject Thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raridon, M.H. (ed.)

    1990-01-01

    The International Energy Subject Thesaurus contains the standard vocabulary to indexing terms (descriptors) developed and structured to build and maintain energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and (2) the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) staff representing the more than ninety countries and organizations recording and indexing information for the international nuclear information community. ETDE member countries are also members of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). Nuclear information indexed and recorded for INIS by these ETDE member countries is also included in the ETDE Energy Data Base, and indexing terminology is therefore cooperatively standardized for use in both information systems. This structured vocabulary reflects the scope of international energy research, development, and technological programs and encompasses terminology derived not only from the basic sciences but also from the areas of energy resources, conservation, safety, environmental impact, and regulation.

  10. Naming the Ethological Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Etienne S

    2016-03-01

    Argument In recent decades, through the work of Jane Goodall and other ethologists, the practice of giving personal names to nonhuman animals who are the subjects of scientific research has become associated with claims about animal personhood and scientific objectivity. While critics argue that such naming practices predispose the researcher toward anthropomorphism, supporters suggest that it sensitizes the researcher to individual differences and social relations. Both critics and supporters agree that naming tends to be associated with the recognition of individual animal rights. The history of the naming of research animals since the late nineteenth century shows, however, that the practice has served a variety of purposes, most of which have raised few ethical or epistemological concerns. Names have been used to identify research animals who play dual roles as pets, workers, or patients, to enhance their market value, and to facilitate their identification in the field. The multifaceted history of naming suggests both that the use of personal names by Goodall and others is less of a radical break with previous practices than it might first appear to be and that the use of personal names to recognize the individuality, sentience, or rights of nonhuman animals faces inherent limits and contradictions.

  11. A Subjective Rational Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, G. P.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of constructing a choice model of an agent with endogenous purposes of evolution is under debate. It is demonstrated that its solution requires the development of well-known methods of decision-making while taking into account the relation of action mode motivation to an agent’s ambition to implement subjectively understood interests and the environment state. The latter is submitted for consideration as a purposeful state situation model that exists only in the mind of an agent. It is the situation that is a basis for getting an insight into the agent’s ideas on the possible selected action mode results. The agent’s ambition to build his confidence in the feasibility of the action mode and the possibility of achieving the desired state requires him to use the procedures of forming an idea model based on the measured values of environment state. This leads to the gaming approach for the choice problem and its solution can be obtained on a set of trade-off alternatives.

  12. Laboratory instruction and subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Barolli

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific aspects which determined the way some groups of students conducted their work in a university laboratory, made us understand the articulation of these groups´s dynamics, from elements that were beyond the reach of cognition. In more specific terms the conduction and the maintenance of the groups student´s dynamics were explicited based on a intergame between the non conscious strategies, shared anonymously, and the efforts of the individuals in working based on their most objective task. The results and issues we have reached so far, using a reference the work developed by W.R.Bion, with therapeutical groups, gave us the possibility for understanding the dynamics of the student´s experimental work through a new approach that approximates the fields of cognition and subjectivity. This approximation led us to a deeper reflection about the issues which may be involved in the teaching process, particularly in situations which the teacher deals with the class, organised in groups.

  13. The Gamma Factory proposal for CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold

    2015-01-01

    This year, 2015, marks the centenary of the publication of Einsteins Theory of General Relativity and it has been named the International Year of Light and light-based technologies by the UN General Assembly. It is thus timely to discuss the possibility of broadening the present CERN research program by including a new component based on a novel concept of the light source which could pave a way towards a multipurpose Gamma Factory. The proposed light source could be realized at CERN by using the infrastructure of the existing accelerators. It could push the intensity limits of the presently operating light-sources by at least 7 orders of magnitude, reaching the flux of the order of 10^17 photons/s, in the particularly interesting gamma-ray energy domain of 1 < Ephoton < 400 MeV. This domain is out of reach for the FEL-based light sources. The energy-tuned, quasi-monochromatic gamma beams, together with the gamma-beam-driven, high intensity secondary beams of polarized positrons, polarized muons, neutro...

  14. Improving bambara groundnut productivity using gamma irradiation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent times efforts are being made to improve the productivity of bambara groundnut. Studies were initiated (i) to characterise and evaluate landraces and to select superior ones for irradiation, (ii) to induce genetic variation through gamma irradiation and (iii) to use biotechnological approaches to shorten the generation ...

  15. Synthesis of graphene using gamma radiations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ing vibrations between 1450 and 1600 cm−1 in the Fourier transform infrared spectrum and significant decrease in photoluminescence peak intensity at 470 and 567 nm wavelengths represent the reduction of GO to graphene by gamma irradiation. The decrease in stacking height from 7.71 nm in GO to 3.52 nm in rGO as ...

  16. A theory of gamma-ray bursts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, G.E.; Lee, C.-H.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Lee, H.K.; Israelian, G.; Bethe, H.A.

    2000-01-01

    Recent observations and theoretical considerations have linked gamma-ray bursts with ultra-bright type Ibc supernovae (`hypernovae'). We here work out a specific scenario for this connection. Based on earlier work, we argue that especially the longest bursts must be powered by the Blandford-Znajek

  17. Hadronic b decays and $\\gamma$ at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067638

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is ideally suited to the study of decays involving b quarks to fully hadronic final states. In these proceedings I summarise the status of the LHCb $\\gamma$ combination and present several recent analyses involving beauty baryon and meson decays.

  18. Gamma radiation sterilization of Bactrocera invadens (Diptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African invader fly, Bactrocera invadens, an invasive pest in Africa since 2003, causes damage and poses a threat to the mango and horticultural industry. Its control is therefore needed. Sterilization of males using gamma radiation doses (25, 50 and 75 Gy) as a means of population control was investigated. Irradiation ...

  19. Black Hole Accretion in Gamma Ray Bursts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Janiuk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We study the structure and evolution of the hyperaccreting disks and outflows in the gamma ray bursts central engines. The torus around a stellar mass black hole is composed of free nucleons, Helium, electron-positron pairs, and is cooled by neutrino emission. Accretion of matter powers the relativistic jets, responsible for the gamma ray prompt emission. The significant number density of neutrons in the disk and outflowing material will cause subsequent formation of heavier nuclei. We study the process of nucleosynthesis and its possible observational consequences. We also apply our scenario to the recent observation of the gravitational wave signal, detected on 14 September 2015 by the two Advanced LIGO detectors, and related to an inspiral and merger of a binary black hole system. A gamma ray burst that could possibly be related with the GW150914 event was observed by the Fermi satellite. It had a duration of about 1 s and appeared about 0.4 s after the gravitational-wave signal. We propose that a collapsing massive star and a black hole in a close binary could lead to the event. The gamma ray burst was powered by a weak neutrino flux produced in the star remnant’s matter. Low spin and kick velocity of the merged black hole are reproduced in our simulations. Coincident gravitational-wave emission originates from the merger of the collapsed core and the companion black hole.

  20. Evaluation of gamma irradiation effect and Pseudomonas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antagonistic effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens and influence of gamma irradiation on the development of Penicillium expansum, the causal agent of postharvest disease on apple fruit was studied. P. fluorescens was originally isolated from rhizosphere of the apple trees. Suspension of P. fluorescens and P. expansum ...

  1. Structural investigation on gamma-irradiated polyacrylamide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultraviolet (UV)–visible spectroscopictechniques are used to investigate the microstructural changes in polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogels on gamma irradiation. SANS measurements have revealed the presence of inhomogeneities in nanometre scale and reduction of their size ...

  2. Determining the CP-violating phase. gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksan, R. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Physique des Particules Elementaires); Dunietz, I. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.); Kayser, B. (National Science Foundation, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Physics)

    1992-06-01

    The weak phase {gamma} is conventionally probed by the B{sub s}{yields}{rho}{sup 0} K{sub S} mode. The predicted rate is tiny. Even if a B{sub s}{yields}{rho}{sup 0}K{sub S} rate difference could be established, it would not be clear that sin 2{gamma} had been measured, because amplitudes with other weak phases may contribute significantly. Non-CP eigenstates, such as B{sub s}{yields}D{sub s}{sup {+-}}K{sup -+}, have a two-fold advantage over B{sub s}{yields}{rho}{sup 0}K{sub S}. Their rates are orders of magnitude above that for B{sub s}{yields}{rho}{sup 0}K{sub S}, and they probe the CP-violating phase {gamma}, without any contamination from other weak phases. Detailed time-dependent studies of non-CP eigenstates remove possible final-state phases and extract the weak phase {gamma}. (orig.).

  3. LHCb: Measurement of $A_{\\Gamma}$

    CERN Multimedia

    Smith, M

    2013-01-01

    The measurement of the time dependent CP violating observable $A_{\\Gamma}$ is presented. The result using $1fb^{-1}$ of data from pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$TeV collected in 2011 is the most accurate to date. No CP violation is observed.

  4. Typed generic traversals in $S_gamma^'$

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Lämmel (Ralf)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractA typed model of strategic rewriting is developed. An innovation is that generic traversals are covered. To this end, we define a rewriting calculus $S'_{gamma$. The calculus offers a few strategy combinators for generic traversals. There is, for example, a combinator to apply a strategy

  5. Gamma-ray Emission from Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Pak-Hin T.; Hui, Chung Y.; Kong, Albert K. H.

    2016-03-01

    Over the last few years, the data obtained using the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has provided new insights on high-energy processes in globular clusters, particularly those involving compact objects such as MilliSecond Pulsars (MSPs). Gamma-ray emission in the 100 MeV to 10 GeV range has been detected from more than a dozen globular clusters in our galaxy, including 47 Tucanae and Terzan 5. Based on a sample of known gammaray globular clusters, the empirical relations between gamma-ray luminosity and properties of globular clusters such as their stellar encounter rate, metallicity, and possible optical and infrared photon energy densities, have been derived. The measured gamma-ray spectra are generally described by a power law with a cut-off at a few gigaelectronvolts. Together with the detection of pulsed γ-rays from two MSPs in two different globular clusters, such spectral signature lends support to the hypothesis that γ-rays from globular clusters represent collective curvature emission from magnetospheres of MSPs in the clusters. Alternative models, involving Inverse-Compton (IC) emission of relativistic electrons that are accelerated close to MSPs or pulsar wind nebula shocks, have also been suggested. Observations at >100 GeV by using Fermi/LAT and atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes such as H.E.S.S.-II, MAGIC-II, VERITAS, and CTA will help to settle some questions unanswered by current data.

  6. Gamma Radiation Studies on Optical Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, J

    2004-02-05

    Results for the effects of gamma s on materials for a new laser-driven accelerator are presented. Various optical and laser materials are compared. While Si and fused c-SiO{sub 2} appear ideal for sub-bandgap laser wavelengths, other interesting candidates include certain fluorides and compound semiconductors.

  7. [Analog gamma camera digitalization computer system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, G M; Quintana, J C; Jer, J; Astudillo, S; Arenas, L; Araya, H

    2004-01-01

    Digitalization of analogue gamma cameras systems, using special acquisition boards in microcomputers and appropriate software for acquisition and processing of nuclear medicine images is described in detail. Microcomputer integrated systems interconnected by means of a Local Area Network (LAN) and connected to several gamma cameras have been implemented using specialized acquisition boards. The PIP software (Portable Image Processing) was installed on each microcomputer to acquire and preprocess the nuclear medicine images. A specialized image processing software has been designed and developed for these purposes. This software allows processing of each nuclear medicine exam, in a semiautomatic procedure, and recording of the results on radiological films. . A stable, flexible and inexpensive system which makes it possible to digitize, visualize, process, and print nuclear medicine images obtained from analogue gamma cameras was implemented in the Nuclear Medicine Division. Such a system yields higher quality images than those obtained with analogue cameras while keeping operating costs considerably lower (filming: 24.6%, fixing 48.2% and developing 26%.) Analogue gamma camera systems can be digitalized economically. This system makes it possible to obtain optimal clinical quality nuclear medicine images, to increase the acquisition and processing efficiency, and to reduce the steps involved in each exam.

  8. Gamma-ray Emission from Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pak-Hin T. Tam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, the data obtained using the Large Area Telescope (LAT aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has provided new insights on high-energy processes in globular clusters, particularly those involving compact objects such as MilliSecond Pulsars (MSPs. Gamma-ray emission in the 100 MeV to 10 GeV range has been detected from more than a dozen globular clusters in our galaxy, including 47 Tucanae and Terzan 5. Based on a sample of known gammaray globular clusters, the empirical relations between gamma-ray luminosity and properties of globular clusters such as their stellar encounter rate, metallicity, and possible optical and infrared photon energy densities, have been derived. The measured gamma-ray spectra are generally described by a power law with a cut-off at a few gigaelectronvolts. Together with the detection of pulsed γ-rays from two MSPs in two different globular clusters, such spectral signature lends support to the hypothesis that γ-rays from globular clusters represent collective curvature emission from magnetospheres of MSPs in the clusters. Alternative models, involving Inverse-Compton (IC emission of relativistic electrons that are accelerated close to MSPs or pulsar wind nebula shocks, have also been suggested. Observations at >100 GeV by using Fermi/LAT and atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes such as H.E.S.S.-II, MAGIC-II, VERITAS, and CTA will help to settle some questions unanswered by current data.

  9. Gamma-ray bursts as cosmological probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergani, S. D.

    2013-11-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are short, intense burstsof gamma-rays which during seconds to minutes outshine all other sources of gamma-ray emission in the sky.Following the prompt gamma-ray emission, an `afterglow' of emission from the X-ray range to radio wavelengthspersists up to months after the initial burst. The association of the class of long GRBs with the explosion of broad-line type Ic SNe GRBs allow galaxies to be selected independently oftheir emission properties (independently of dust obscuration and, uniquely, independently of their brightnesses atany wavelength) and they also permit the study of the gas in the interstellar medium (ISM) systematically and at anyredshift by the absorption lines present in the afterglow spectra. Moreover, the fading nature of GRBs and theprecise localization of the afterglow allow a detailed investigation of the emission properties of the GRB hostgalaxy once the afterglow has vanished. GRBs therefore constitute a unique tool to understand the link between theproperties of the ISM in the galaxy and the star formation activity, and this at any redshift. This is a unique wayto reveal the physical processes that trigger galaxy formation. The SVOM space mission project is designed to improve the use GRBs as cosmological probes.

  10. Effects of gamma radiation in annatto seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Camilo F. de Oliveira, E-mail: camilo.urucum@hotmail.com [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA/EMEPA), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Arthur, Valter; Arthur, Paula B., E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C., E-mail: marcia.harder@fatec.sp.gov.br [Centro Paula Souza, Curso Superior de Tecnologia em Bicombustiveis (FATEC), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Filho, Jose C.; Neto, Miguel B., E-mail: jorgecazefilho@yahoo.com.br [Empresa Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuaria da Paraiba (EMEPA), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The annatto bixin has emerged as a major source of natural dyes used in the world notably by the substitution of synthetics harmful to human health and ecologic tendency in obtaining industrial products free of additives with applications in industries textiles; cosmetics; pharmaceutical and food mainly. The aim of this research was to obtain increased of germination rate and dormancy breaking on annatto seeds by gamma radiation. Annatto dry seeds were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from source of Cobalt-60, type Gammecell-220, at 0.456 kGy/hour dose rate. In order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination rate and dormancy breaking in the seeds. Five treatments with gamma radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 100; 125; 150 and 175 Gy. After irradiation the annatto seeds were planted as for usual seed production. According to the results obtained in this experiment we can conclude that the low doses of gamma radiation utilized on the annatto seeds did not presented significantly effect on the germination of plants. But the best dose to increase the germination of seeds was 150 Gy. (author)

  11. HYPERNUCLEAR STRUCTURE FROM GAMMA-RAY SPECTROSCOPY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MILLENER,D.J.

    2003-10-14

    The energies of p-shell hypernuclear {gamma} rays obtained from recent experiments using the Hyperball at BNL and KEK are used to constrain the YN interaction which enters into shell-model calculations which include both {Lambda} and {Sigma} configurations.

  12. Polymerase Gamma Disease through the Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saneto, Russell P.; Naviaux, Robert K.

    2010-01-01

    The most common group of mitochondrial disease is due to mutations within the mitochondrial DNA polymerase, polymerase gamma 1 ("POLG"). This gene product is responsible for replication and repair of the small mitochondrial DNA genome. The structure-function relationship of this gene product produces a wide variety of diseases that at times, seems…

  13. Effects of Shielding on Gamma Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-13

    The interaction of gamma rays with matter results in an effect we call attenuation (i.e. ‘shielding’). Attenuation can dramatically alter the appearance of a spectrum. Attenuating materials may actually create features in a spectrum via x-ray fluorescence

  14. Radio Afterglows of Gamma Ray Bursts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lekshmi Resmi

    2017-09-12

    Sep 12, 2017 ... Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) were serendipitously discovered in late 1960s by the Vela military satel- lites. In the following years, dedicated scanning instru- ments on-board high energy missions like BeppoSAX1,. CGRO2, HETE3, Swift4 and Fermi5 have increased the number of GRB detections to several ...

  15. Characterization of gamma irradiated plasticized carboxymethyl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polymer blends based on carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and gum arabic (GA) were prepared by solution casting method. Glycerol was added to the polymer blend solution as a plasticizer with different ratios (2.5, 5, 10 and 20%). Then, the plasticized blends were exposed to gamma irradiation at different doses (5, 10 and ...

  16. Gamma radiation sterilization of Bactrocera invadens (Diptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    logaugwu

    2012-06-26

    Jun 26, 2012 ... Benedict and Robinson (2003) pointed out that sterilization by irradiation is presently the most practical way to sterilize insects. Reproductive sterility is induced by exposing the insects to X-rays, electron beams, or most commonly gamma rays from a Cobalt-60 or Caesium-137 source (LaChance, 1975; ...

  17. Synthesis of graphene using gamma radiations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Considering the advantages of radiolytic synthesis such as the absence of toxic chemical as a reducing agent, uniform distribution of reducing agent and high purity of product, the synthesis of graphene (rGO) from graphene oxide (GO) by the gamma irradiation technique using a relatively low dose rate of 0.24 kGy h−1 has ...

  18. Oxidation subscale of gamma-titanium aluminide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beye, R.; Verwerft, Marc; de Hosson, J.T.M.; Gronsky, R.

    1996-01-01

    The subscale formed during high temperature rapid oxidation of gamma-titanium aluminum is revealed by transmission electron microscopy and microanalysis to consist of two phases: one hexagonal with unit cell dimensions a = 0.58 nm, c = 0.47 nm (+/- 0.005 nm), and a composition close to Ti6Al3O4; the

  19. Toward standardising gamma camera quality control procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhorayef, M. A.; Alnaaimi, M. A.; Alduaij, M. A.; Mohamed, M. O.; Ibahim, S. Y.; Alkandari, F. A.; Bradley, D. A.

    2015-11-01

    Attaining high standards of efficiency and reliability in the practice of nuclear medicine requires appropriate quality control (QC) programs. For instance, the regular evaluation and comparison of extrinsic and intrinsic flood-field uniformity enables the quick correction of many gamma camera problems. Whereas QC tests for uniformity are usually performed by exposing the gamma camera crystal to a uniform flux of gamma radiation from a source of known activity, such protocols can vary significantly. Thus, there is a need for optimization and standardization, in part to allow direct comparison between gamma cameras from different vendors. In the present study, intrinsic uniformity was examined as a function of source distance, source activity, source volume and number of counts. The extrinsic uniformity and spatial resolution were also examined. Proper standard QC procedures need to be implemented because of the continual development of nuclear medicine imaging technology and the rapid expansion and increasing complexity of hybrid imaging system data. The present work seeks to promote a set of standard testing procedures to contribute to the delivery of safe and effective nuclear medicine services.

  20. Neuronal Network Mechanisms of Gamma Oscillations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viriyopase, A.

    2017-01-01

    Neuronal oscillations at various frequency bands play an important role in neuronal information processing. In this thesis, we mathematically and computationally investigated the properties of the gamma band (30-80 Hz) with different networks: a simplified network with two neurons, a large network

  1. Gamma and Exponential Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Time series data encountered in practice depict properties that deviate from those of gaussian processes. The gamma and exponentially distributed processes which are used as basic models for positive time series fall in the class of non-gaussian processes. In this paper, we develop new and simpler representations of the ...

  2. Gamma-Ray Telescope and Uncertainty Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivalingaswamy, T.; Kagali, B. A.

    2012-01-01

    Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle is one of the important basic principles of quantum mechanics. In most of the books on quantum mechanics, this uncertainty principle is generally illustrated with the help of a gamma ray microscope, wherein neither the image formation criterion nor the lens properties are taken into account. Thus a better…

  3. Cross Sections for (gamma)-ray Production in the 191Ir (n,xn(gamma)) Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fotiades, N; Nelson, R O; Devlin, M; Chadwick, M B; Talou, P; Becker, J A; Garrett, P E; Younes, W

    2005-01-11

    Discrete {gamma}-ray spectra have been measured for nuclei populated in {sup 191}Ir(n{sub 4}xn{gamma}) with x{<=}11, as a function of incident neutron energy using neutrons from the 'white' neutron source at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center's WNR facility. The energy of the neutrons was determined using the time-of-flight technique. The data were taken using the GEANIE spectrometer. The cross sections for emission of 202 {gamma} rays of {sup 181-191}Ir were determined for neutron energies 0.2 MeV < E{sub n} < 300 MeV. Comparison with model calculations, using the GNASH reaction model, and with GEANIE results from the similar {sup 193}Ir(n{sub 4}xn{gamma}) reactions is made.

  4. Gamma Ray Signatures of Neutrons From a Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, G. S.; Smith, D. M.; Martinez-McKinney, G. F.; Kamogawa, M.; Cummer, S. A.; Dwyer, J. R.; Wang, D.; Stock, M.; Kawasaki, Z.

    2017-10-01

    Following a lightning strike to a wind turbine in Japan, we have observed a large burst of neutrons lasting 100 ms with a ground fluence of 1,000 n cm-2, thousands of times greater than the peak neutron flux associated with the largest ground level solar particle event ever observed. This is the first detection of an unequivocal signature of neutrons from a terrestrial gamma ray flash, consisting of a 2.223 MeV gamma-ray spectral line from a neutron-capture on hydrogen reaction occurring in our detector, and is shown to be consistent with the production of 1012-1013 photoneutrons from a downward terrestrial gamma ray flash (TGF) at 1.0 km, with a gamma ray brightness typical of upward TGFs observed by satellites.

  5. Synthesis of alkylfurans from. gamma. -oxoaldehydes. gamma. -oxoaldehyde wo genryotosuru alkylfuran rui no gosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukasa, H. (Toyotama Perfumery, Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-06-20

    2-Alkyl 3-or 4-methy1 furans and 2-alkylfurans, which are compounds naturally produced, were synthesized from {gamma}-oxoaldehydes or {gamma}-oxoaldehyde acetals. 3-Methyl-4-oxoaldehydes were synthesized in 48 to 60% yields from aliphatic aldehyde and crotonaldehyde through a radical addition reaction. Treatment of {gamma}-oxoaldehydes with pyrophosphoric acid in benzene under reflux with the azeotropic removal of water gave alkylfurans in 3 to 42% yields. Alkylfurans were also obtained in 35 to 78% yields through the dropwise addition of {gamma}-oxoaldehyde acetal under reduced pressure. Futhermore, menthofurans, which are a minor but important olfactive ingredient of peppermint oil, were obtained in a 64% yield from 9,10-epoxy-3,3-ethylenedioxy-p-menthane. 15 refs., 2 tabs.

  6. On the maximum and minimum of two modified Gamma-Gamma variates with applications

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Quwaiee, Hessa

    2014-04-01

    In this work, we derive the statistical characteristics of the maximum and the minimum of two modified1 Gamma-Gamma variates in closed-form in terms of Meijer\\'s G-function and the extended generalized bivariate Meijer\\'s G-function. Then, we rely on these new results to present the performance analysis of (i) a dual-branch free-space optical selection combining diversity undergoing independent but not necessarily identically distributed Gamma-Gamma fading under the impact of pointing errors and of (ii) a dual-hop free-space optical relay transmission system. Computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations verify our new analytical results.

  7. Synthesis of Gamma-Alumina from Kankara Kaolin as Potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Engr Solomn Gajere

    in the diffractogram of the synthesized and commercial gamma-alumina from the XRD analysis. The. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) image showed the platy hexagonal shape of the gamma-alumina. Keywords: Gamma-alumina, zeolite, ... an amorphous matrix forming 60 μm particles. (Scherzer, 1993). Zeolites are ...

  8. Atypical Laterality of Resting Gamma Oscillations in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Christina R.; Villalobos, Michele E.; Schultz, Robert T.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin; Kohls, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal brain oscillatory activity has been found in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and proposed as a potential biomarker. While several studies have investigated gamma oscillations in ASD, none have examined resting gamma power across multiple brain regions. This study investigated resting gamma power using EEG in 15 boys with ASD and 18 age…

  9. The GAMMA ® nursing measure: Its development and testing for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the second study, the utility of the GAMMA was studied by training and testing the application of the GAMMA within a group of registered nurses (n = 5) working in three retirement villages. After four months, focus group interviews were conducted with the registered nurses in order to explore the GAMMA's nursing utility.

  10. Balloon-borne gamma-ray telescope with nuclear emulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Satoru; Group, for the Emulsion Gamma-ray Telescope

    2010-01-01

    By detecting the beginning of electron pairs with nuclear emulsion, precise gamma-ray direction and gamma-ray polarization can be detected. With recent advancement in emulsion scanning system, emulsion analyzing capability is becoming powerful. Now we are developing the balloon-borne gamma-ray telescope with nuclear emulsion. Overview and status of our telescope is described.

  11. Synthesis of Gamma-Alumina from Kankara Kaolin as Potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... as obtained from the XRF analysis. Good comparison was also observed in the diffractogram of the synthesized and commercial gamma-alumina from the XRD analysis. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) image showed the platy hexagonal shape of the gamma-alumina. Keywords: Gamma-alumina, zeolite, kaolin ...

  12. Search for the Decay B0 -> D*0 gamma

    OpenAIRE

    CLEO Collaboration

    1999-01-01

    We report results of a search for the rare radiative decay B0 -> D*0 gamma. Using 9.7 million BB meson pairs collected with the CLEO detector at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, we limit Br(B0->D*0 gamma) s gamma mechanism in the Standard Model.

  13. Gamma-phase shifting in awake monkey visual cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinck, M.; Lima, B.; Womelsdorf, T.; Oostenveld, R.; Singer, W.; Neuenschwander, S.; Fries, P.

    2010-01-01

    Gamma-band synchronization is abundant in nervous systems. Typically, the strength or precision of gamma-band synchronization is studied. However, the precise phase with which individual neurons are synchronized to the gamma-band rhythm might have interesting consequences for their impact on further

  14. Human T cell receptor gamma delta + T cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spits, H.

    1991-01-01

    TCR gamma delta + T cells represent a minority of CD3+ T cells in many species including man. The molecular structure of the TCR gamma and delta loci in man is well understood. The gamma and delta loci contain V, D, J and C gene segments. These segments do not rearrange randomly but in a

  15. 21 CFR 892.1100 - Scintillation (gamma) camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scintillation (gamma) camera. 892.1100 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1100 Scintillation (gamma) camera. (a) Identification. A scintillation (gamma) camera is a device intended to image the distribution of radionuclides in...

  16. Effects of gamma irradiations on reactive pulsed laser deposited vanadium dioxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madiba, I.G., E-mail: madibagiven@gmail.com [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences/Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa (UNISA), Muckleneuk Ridge, P O Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories Materials Science and Technology, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Émond, N.; Chaker, M. [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique (INRS),1650 Blvd. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X1S2 (Canada); Thema, F.T. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences/Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa (UNISA), Muckleneuk Ridge, P O Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Tadadjeu, S.I. [iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Department of Electrical, Electronics and Computer Engineering, French South African Institute of Technology/Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Bellville campus, PO Box 1906, Bellville, 7530 (South Africa); Muller, U.; Zolliker, P. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories Materials Science and Technology, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Braun, A. [ETH Zurich, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, CH-8057, Zurich (Switzerland); Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories Materials Science and Technology, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Kotsedi, L. [iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); and others

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • Synthesis of VO{sub 2} thin films by Reactive pulsed laser deposition has been achieved. • Properties VO{sub 2} remain mainly unaffected when subjected to gamma ray doses similar to those encountered during space missions. • The long range crystal structure of VO{sub 2} remains intact upon irradiation on different doses up to 100 kGy. • XPS reveals a shift from V{sup 4+} to V{sup 5+} oxidation state upon irradiation, due to the frenkel pair formation on the surface. • Irradiated films show the characteristic SMT of VO{sub 2}, although the electrical and optical properties are slightly affected. - Abstract: Vanadium oxide films are considered suitable coatings for various applications such as thermal protective coating of small spacecrafts because of their thermochromic properties. While in outer space, such coating will be exposed to cosmic radiations which include γ-rays. To study the effect of these γ-rays on the coating properties, we have deposited vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) films on silicon substrates and subjected them to extensive γ-irradiations with typical doses encountered in space missions. The prevalent crystallographic phase after irradiation remains the monoclinic VO{sub 2} phase but the films preferential orientation shifts to lower angles due to the presence of disordered regions caused by radiations. Raman spectroscopy measurements also evidences that the VO{sub 2} structure is slightly affected by gamma irradiation. Indeed, increasing the gamma rays dose locally alters the crystalline and electronic structures of the films by modifying the V–V inter-dimer distance, which in turns favours the presence of the VO{sub 2} metallic phase. From the XPS measurements of V2p and O1s core level spectra, an oxidation of vanadium from V{sup 4+} towards V{sup 5+} is revealed. The data also reveal a hydroxylation upon irradiation which is corroborated by the vanishing of a low oxidation state peak near the Fermi energy in the

  17. Diagnosing ICF gamma-ray physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Hans W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kim, Y H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Evoy, A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Young, C S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mack, J M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hoffman, N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilson, D C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Langenbrunner, J R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Evans, S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sedillo, T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batha, S H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dauffy, L [LLNL; Stoeffl, W [LLNL; Malone, R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kaufman, M I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cox, B C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tunnel, T W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Miller, E K [NSTEC/SB; Ali, Z A [NSREC/LIVERMORE; Horsfield, C J [AWE; Rubery, M [AWE

    2010-01-01

    Gamma rays produced in an ICF environment open up a host of physics opportunities we are just beginning to explore. A branch of the DT fusion reaction, with a branching ratio on the order of 2e-5 {gamma}/n, produces 16.7 MeV {gamma}-rays. These {gamma}-rays provide a direct measure of fusion reaction rate (unlike x-rays) without being compromised by Doppler spreading (unlike neutrons). Reaction-rate history measurements, such as nuclear bang time and burn width, are fundamental quantities that will be used to optimize ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Gas Cherenkov Detectors (GCD) that convert fusion {gamma}-rays to UV/visible Cherenkov photons for collection by fast optical recording systems established their usefulness in illuminating ICF physics in several experimental campaigns at OMEGA. Demonstrated absolute timing calibrations allow bang time measurements with accuracy better than 30 ps. System impulse response better than 95 ps fwhm have been made possible by the combination of low temporal dispersion GCDs, ultra-fast microchannel-plate photomultiplier tubes (PMT), and high-bandwidth Mach Zehnder fiber optic data links and digitizers, resulting in burn width measurement accuracy better than 10ps. Inherent variable energy-thresholding capability allows use of GCDs as {gamma}-ray spectrometers to explore other interesting nuclear processes. Recent measurements of the 4.44 MeV {sup 12}C(n,n{prime}) {gamma}-rays produced as 14.1 MeV DT fusion neutrons pass through plastic capsules is paving the way for a new CH ablator areal density measurement. Insertion of various neutron target materials near target chamber center (TCC) producing secondary, neutron-induced {gamma}y-rays are being used to study other nuclear interactions and as in-situ sources to calibrate detector response and DT branching ratio. NIF Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostics, based on the GCD concept, are now being developed based on optimization of sensitivity, bandwidth

  18. Late consequences of ARS survivors of different {gamma}{beta}- and {gamma}{eta}-radiation injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadejina, N.M.; Galstian, I.A.; Savitsky, A.A.; Rtischeva, J.N.; Uvacheva, I.V. [State Research Center, Institute of Biophysics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kashirina, O.G. [Clinical Hospital, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2000-05-01

    Purpose: to study of health in the late consequences period the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) survivors of different radiation accidents took place in former USSR since 1953. Method: clinical observation, clinical database. Results: radiation cataract were revealed at the survivors who have undergone relatively uniform {gamma}{beta}-radiation exposure in a doze not less 2.0 Gy. At non-uniform {gamma}{eta}-radiation exposure the cataract development was observed at smaller dozes for bone marrow. The local radiation injures of skin were observed at relatively uniform {gamma}{beta}- and at non-uniform {gamma}{eta}-radiation exposure. The main factors for working disability are the presence of relapsing late radiation ulcers in the late period of local {gamma}{beta}-injures 2-4 degrees and the presence of amputation stumps at {gamma}{eta}-radiation exposure. For oncologic diseases developed in the period of late consequences of ARS the dose dependence is not revealed. Transient different changes of blood parameters are not dose dependent. The repeated (relatively stable) changes, as a rule, are connected to presence of heavy accompanying diseases (chronic hepatitis, myelodysplastic syndrome, family neutropenia). We observed development of chronic myeloleukemia at the ARS survivor. Hospital morbidity of these groups of ARS survivors demonstrates absence of the radiation influence to development of somatic pathology in the period of the late consequences. Conclusion: health of the ARS survivors in the late consequences period is determined by presence of consequences of local radiation injures of skin, radiation cataract and different concurrent somatic diseases. The type of irradiation ({gamma}{beta}- and {gamma}{eta}-) in many respects determines the speed of occurrence, expression and some clinical features of the late consequences of local radiation injures. (author)

  19. The gamma gamma --> pi + pi - S wave in the CELLO experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloshin, A. E.; Persikov, V. M.

    1993-10-01

    We analyze the CELLO angular distributions $\\gamma\\gamma\\rightarrow\\pi^+\\pi^-$ with the unitary model \\cite{KS-86} for helicity 2 amplitude. In contrast to previous analysis \\cite{CELLO} we do not see any QED damping. The obtained S--wave does not contradict to low--energy theorem and demonstrates more clealy the resonance--like behaviour near 1.3 Gev.

  20. Preliminary measurement of Gamma(Ke2)/Gamma(Km2) at KLOE

    CERN Document Server

    Antonelli, A; Archilli, F; Bacci, C; Beltrame, P; Bencivenni, G; Bertolucci, S; Bini, C; Bloise, C; Bocchetta, S; Bocci, V; Bossi, F; Branchini, P; Caloi, R; Campana, P; Capon, G; Capussela, T; Ceradini, F; Chi, S; Chiefari, G; Ciambrone, P; De Lucia, E; De Santis, A; De Simone, P; De Zorzi, G; Denig, A; Di Domenico, A; Di Donato, C; Di Falco, S; Di Micco, B; Doria, A; Dreucci, M; Felici, G; Ferrari, A; Ferrer, M L; Finocchiaro, G; Fiore, S; Forti, C; Franzini, P; Gatti, C; Gauzzi, P; Giovannella, S; Gorini, E; Graziani, E; Incagli, M; Kluge, W; Kulikov, V; Lacava, F; Lanfranchi, G; Lee-Franzini, J; Leone, D; Martini, M; Massarotti, P; Mei, W; Meola, S; Miscetti, S; Moulson, M; Müller, S; Murtas, F; Napolitano, M; Nguyen, F; Palutan, M; Pasqualucci, E; Passeri, A; Patera, V; Perfetto, F; Primavera, M; Santangelo, P; Saracino, G; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Scuri, F; Sfiligoi, I; Sibidanov, A; Spadaro, T; Testa, M; Tortora, L; Valente, P; Valeriani, B; Venanzoni, G; Versaci, R; Xu, G

    2007-01-01

    A preliminary measurement of RK = Gamma(Ke2)/Gamma(Km2) at the KLOE experiment is discussed. The result, RK = (2.55+-0.05+-0.05)x 10^-5, is based on 1.7 fb^-1 of luminosity integrated on the phi-meson peak at the Frascati e^+e^- collider DAFNE, corresponding to ~8000 observed Ke2 events. Perspectives on the methods planned to improve both the statistical and the systematic errors are briefly outlined.

  1. Scintillation {gamma} spectrography. Physical principles. Apparatus. Operation; Spectrographie {gamma} a scintillations. Principes physiques. Appareillage. Utilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julliot, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The scintillation detector forms the main part of the instrument used, the electronic unit presenting the results produced. After a brief description of the process of {gamma} photon absorption in the material, the particular case of NaI (T1), the scintillator used, is examined. The intensity of the scintillation caused by {gamma} ray absorption and the characteristics of the photomultiplier play a determining part in the energy resolution of the instrument. For the {gamma} recording spectrograph, we show to what extent the technique for using the electronic unit can modify the results. A detailed description is given of the activity measurement of a {gamma}-emitting radioelement by the spectrographic method. (author) [French] Dans l'appareillage utilise, le detecteur a scintillations constitue la piece maitresse, l'ensemble electronique presente les resultats issus du detecteur. Apres avoir brievement decrit le processus d'absorption des photons {gamma} dans la matiere, nous examinons le cas particulier du NaI(T1), le scintillateur utilise. L'intensite de la scintillation provoque par l'absorption des rayons {gamma} et les caracteristiques du photomultiplicateur jouent un role determinant dans la resolution en energie de l'appareil. Pour le spectrographe {gamma} enregistreur, nous indiquons dans quelle mesure la technique d'utilisation de l'ensemble electronique peut modifier les resultats. La-mesure de l'activite d'un radioelement emetteur {gamma} par spectrographie fait l'objet d'une description detaillee. (auteur)

  2. Impact-picture predictions for the $\\gamma\\gamma$ total cross section at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Bourrely, C.; Wu, Tai Tsun; Wu, Tai Tsun

    2000-01-01

    We show that the rising total cross section $\\sigma(\\gamma\\gamma \\to hadrons)$ recently observed by the L3 and OPAL detectors at LEP is fully consistent with the impact-picture predictions. These results confirm once more the success of a theoretical approach, which has already anticipated, more than twenty years ago, the universal increase of hadron-hadron total cross sections, at very high energy.

  3. Search for psi-> gamma eta(c)(eta) -> gamma pi(+)pi(-)pi(0)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haddadi, Z.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Tiemens, M.

    2017-01-01

    Using a sample of 448.1 x 10(6) psi(3686) events collected with the BESIII detector, a search for the isospin violating decay eta(c) -> pi(+) pi(-) pi(0) via psi(3686) -> gamma eta(c) is presented. No signal is observed, and the upper limit on B(psi(3686) -> gamma eta(c)) x B(eta(c) -> pi(+) pi(-)

  4. Study of {sup 60}Co as gamma source in backscatter gamma densitometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gholipour Peyvandi, R.; Taheri, A.; Rahmanzadeh Tootkaleh, S.; Askari Lehdarboni, M. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Islami Rad, S.Z. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Univ. of Qom (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Physic

    2015-07-15

    In this work the performance of backscatter gamma densitometer is studied using {sup 60}Co as gamma source. The ability of the densitometer to determine the liquid's interfaces in multi-phase flows was assessed. The aim mainly was to investigate the possibility of using {sup 60}Co in this system. Furthermore, a comparison between {sup 60}Co and was done. The obtained results indicate that {sup 60}Co can be advantageous in this regard.

  5. Gamma radiation effects on peanut skin antioxidants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, Adriano Costa de [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin; Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira de Souza; Regitano-d' Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia, E-mail: sgcbraza@usp.b, E-mail: tvieira@esalq.usp.b, E-mail: mabra@esalq.usp.b, E-mail: macdomin@esalq.usp.b [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao

    2011-07-01

    Peanut skin, which is removed in the peanut blanching process, is rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The viability of using natural sources of antioxidants to replace synthetic antioxidants was assessed. The aims of this study were to measure bioactive compounds in peanut skins and evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on their antioxidant activity. Peanut skin samples were treated with 0.0, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 kGy gamma rays at a dose rate of 7.5 kGy/h using a {sup 60}Co source. Total phenolics, condensed tannins, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Extracts obtained from the peanut skins were added to refined-bleached deodorized (RBD) soybean oil that was free from synthetic antioxidants. The oxidative stability of the oil samples was determined using the Rancimat method and compared to a control and synthetic antioxidants (100 mg/kg BHT and 200 mg/kg TBHQ). Gamma radiation changed total phenolic content, total condensed tannins, total flavonoid content, and the antioxidant activity. Ethanolic extracts, gamma irradiated or not, presented increasing induction period (h), measured by the Rancimat method, when compared with the control. Antioxidant activity of the peanut skins was higher than BHT but lower than THBQ. The present study confirmed that gamma radiation did not affect the peanut skin extracts' antioxidative level when added to soybean oil. The induction period of the control soybean oil was 5.7 h, while soybean oil with added ethanolic peanut skin extract had an induction period of 7.2 h, on average. (author)

  6. Gamma-irradiation effect on material properties behaviour of semiconductor package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Wan Yusmawati Wan; Jalar, Azman; Othman, Norinsan Kamil; Rahman, Irman Abdul

    2013-05-01

    Current trends in digitization led to the application of an electronic package in many fields which are exposed to radioactive environment. Quad-Flat No-Lead (QFN) package technology is among the latest form of semiconductor package development in submicron size scale. A QFN package is designed by combining multimaterial and multitechnology. The ability to predict and eventually to prevent mechanical failures of microelectronics has becoming increasingly important in the development of semiconductor technology. Therefore, the relationship between the microstructure property behaviour of QFN semiconductor package and gamma irradiation has been investigated. The inhouse fabricated QFN was exposed to gamma radiation from a Cobalt-60 source with different doses varies from 0.5 Gy, and 50.0 kGy. Following, the packages were then subjected to Scanning Acoustic Microscope (CSAM) and X-ray Imaging System (3D X-ray) in order to identify internal discontinuity due to irradiation. In this investigation, the three point bending technique was used to obtain the flexural strength of the package. Irradiation packages have shown a decrease in their flexural strength with the increasing of gamma dose. In-depth analysis exhibited that the increment of exposure dose also influenced the occurrence of delamination between silicon die and copper leadframe. The cracks were also observed on the surface of the silicon die. The gamma irradiation is believed to play an important role towards the microstructure property behaviour of SDQFN package.

  7. Application of gamma irradiation in ginseng for both photodegradation of pesticide pentachloronitrobenzene and microbial decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Hsiao-Wei [Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, National Chung Hsing University, 250, Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Ming-Fa [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Road, Chungli 320, Taiwan (China); Wang, Ya-Ting; Chung, Hsiao-Ping [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Po-Chow; Lin, I-Hsin [Committee on Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Health, Executive Yuan, Taipei 104, Taiwan (China); Chou, Fong-In, E-mail: fichou@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2010-04-15

    This study investigates the feasibility of using gamma irradiation for photodegradation of a common residual fungicide, pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB), in ginseng, and for microbial decontamination. American ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, was subjected to gamma irradiation. PCNB residues were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection and mass spectrometry. Eighty percent of PCNB (100 ppm) in a methanol aqueous solution was degraded by 5 kGy irradiation, and the primary degradation product was pentachloroaniline. Furthermore, contaminated PCNB (3.7 ppm) in ginseng were reduced to 0.2 ppm after 20 kGy irradiation. The IC{sub 50} for treatment of Sclerotium rolfsii with 20 kGy irradiated PCNB was about 2.7 times higher than that for treatment with unirradiated PCNB. The survival rate of mouse fibroblast L929 cells treated with 20 kGy irradiated PCNB was about 12.9% higher than that of L929 cells treated with unirradiated PCNB. Additionally, after 20 kGy irradiation, less than 5% reduction of contents of ginsenoside Rb1 and Re were observed, and amounts of ginsenosides Rc, Rd, and Rg1 were not reduced significantly. The minimal gamma dose for microbial decontamination was 10 kGy. Therefore, gamma irradiation can be used for both PCNB photodegradation and microbial decontamination of ginseng without obvious loses of ginsenoside contents.

  8. Adjuvant interferon gamma in patients with drug – resistant pulmonary tuberculosis: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carbonell Dalia

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB is increasing in the world and drug-resistant (DR disease beckons new treatments. Methods To evaluate the action of interferon (IFN gamma as immunoadjuvant to chemotherapy on pulmonary DR-TB patients, a pilot, open label clinical trial was carried out in the Cuban reference ward for the management of this disease. The eight subjects existing in the country at the moment received, as in-patients, 1 × 106 IU of recombinant human IFN gamma intramuscularly, daily for one month and then three times per week up to 6 months as adjuvant to the indicated chemotherapy, according to their antibiograms and WHO guidelines. Sputum samples collection for direct smear observation and culture as well as routine clinical and thorax radiography assessments were done monthly. Results Sputum smears and cultures became negative for acid-fast-bacilli before three months of treatment in all patients. Lesion size was reduced at the end of 6 months treatment; the lesions disappeared in one case. Clinical improvement was also evident; body mass index increased in general. Interferon gamma was well tolerated. Few adverse events were registered, mostly mild; fever and arthralgias prevailed. Conclusions These data suggest that IFN gamma is useful and well tolerated as adjunctive therapy in patients with DR-TB. Further controlled clinical trials are encouraged.

  9. Gamma activity coupled to alpha phase as a mechanism for top-down controlled gating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Bonnefond

    Full Text Available Coupling between neural oscillations in different frequency bands has been proposed to coordinate neural processing. In particular, gamma power coupled to alpha phase is proposed to reflect gating of information in the visual system but the existence of such a mechanism remains untested. Here, we recorded ongoing brain activity using magnetoencephalography in subjects who performed a modified Sternberg working memory task in which distractors were presented in the retention interval. During the anticipatory pre-distractor period, we show that the phase of alpha oscillations was coupled with the power of high (80-120Hz gamma band activity, i.e. gamma power consistently was lower at the trough than at the peak of the alpha cycle (9-12Hz. We further show that high alpha power was associated with weaker gamma power at the trough of the alpha cycle. This result is in line with alpha activity in sensory region implementing a mechanism of pulsed inhibition silencing neuronal firing every ~100 ms.

  10. Enhanced mass transfer during solid-liquid extraction of gamma-irradiated red beetroot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, Chetan A. [Department of Food Engineering, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore 570 020 (India); Chethana, S. [Department of Food Engineering, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore 570 020 (India); Rastogi, N.K. [Department of Food Engineering, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore 570 020 (India)]. E-mail: nkrastogi@cftri.com; Raghavarao, K.S.M.S. [Department of Food Engineering, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore 570 020 (India)

    2006-01-15

    The exposure to gamma-irradiation pretreatment increases cell wall permeabilization, resulting in loss of turgor pressure, which led to the increase of extractability of betanin from red beetroot. The degree of extraction of betanin was investigated using gamma irradiation as a pretreatment prior to the solid-liquid extraction process and compared with control beetroot samples. The beetroot subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 kGy) and control was dipped in an acetic acid medium (1% v/v) to extract the betanin. The diffusion coefficients for betanin as well as ionic component were estimated considering Fickian diffusion. The results indicated an increase in the diffusion coefficient of betanin (0.302x10{sup -9}-0.463x10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/s) and ionic component (0.248x10{sup -9}-0.453x10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/s) as the dose rate increased (from 2.5 to 10.0 kGy). The degradation constant was found to increase (0.050-0.079 min{sup -1}) with an increase gamma-irradiation doses (2.5-10.0 kGy), indicating lower stability of the betanin as compared to control sample at 65 deg. C.

  11. Increased Gamma Brainwave Amplitude Compared to Control in Three Different Meditation Traditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Braboszcz

    Full Text Available Despite decades of research, effects of different types of meditation on electroencephalographic (EEG activity are still being defined. We compared practitioners of three different meditation traditions (Vipassana, Himalayan Yoga and Isha Shoonya with a control group during a meditative and instructed mind-wandering (IMW block. All meditators showed higher parieto-occipital 60-110 Hz gamma amplitude than control subjects as a trait effect observed during meditation and when considering meditation and IMW periods together. Moreover, this gamma power was positively correlated with participants meditation experience. Independent component analysis was used to show that gamma activity did not originate in eye or muscle artifacts. In addition, we observed higher 7-11 Hz alpha activity in the Vipassana group compared to all the other groups during both meditation and instructed mind wandering and lower 10-11 Hz activity in the Himalayan yoga group during meditation only. We showed that meditation practice is correlated to changes in the EEG gamma frequency range that are common to a variety of meditation practices.

  12. Influence of gamma radiation on secondary metabolism in lichens Cladonia substellata and Cladonia verticillaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Helena P.B.; Melo, Patryk; Primo, Dario; Vicalvi, Maria Claudia V. [Federal University of Pernambuco (CTG/DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Graduate Program in Energy Technologies and Nuclear; Maciel, Leonardo N.Q. [First Space Seed, Recife, PE (Brazil); Pereira, Eugenia, E-mail: Eugenia.pereira@cnpq.pq.com.b [Federal University of Pernambuco (CFCH/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. of Geographic Sciences; Silva, Nicacio [Federal University of Pernambuco (CCB/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. of Biochemistry; Colaco, Waldeciro, E-mail: wcolaco@ufpe.com.b [Federal University of Pernambuco (CTG/DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. Nuclear Energy

    2011-07-01

    Lichens are organisms formed from a symbiotic relationship between a fungus and an alga. These when submitted to different doses and types of radiation are encouraged to produce their substances in quantities different from those that would produce without the intervention of radiation. The objective of this research was to determine the influence of gamma rays on the production of usnic acid from Cladonia substellata and on the production of fumarprocetraric acid from Cladonia verticillaris. Lichens samples were submitted to gamma irradiation Co-60 source, receiving different doses (0, 5, 10, 50 and 100 Gy) of gamma irradiator. After six months samples were collected and submitted to the extraction of its phenols. The extracts were subjected to thin-layer chromatography, and read from Biochrom Libra S22 spectrophotometer. The qualitative assessment of the chemical composition of lichens stalks irradiated or not, revealed by thin layer chromatography production of usnic acid and fumarprocetraric throughout the experiment. Regarding the quantification of fumarprocetraric acid was observed a production significantly higher in extracts obtained from irradiated lichens, the largest production obtained by the dose of 50 Gy. As for the production of usnic acid, the highlight was the dose of 10 Gy. Thus we can conclude that the lichens Cladonia verticillaris and Cladonia substellata when submitted to gamma radiation in the laboratory, produce fumarprocetraric acid and usnic acid , respectively, but the radiation dose influences the metabolism and its subsequent biosynthesis. (author)

  13. GammaSem Proceedings - A Nordic seminar for users of gamma spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, P. (ed.) (Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) (Norway)); Klemola, S. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) (Finland)); Nielsen, Sven P. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy. Roskilde (Denmark)); Palsson, S.E. (Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority (IS)); Israelson, C. (National Institute of Radiation Protection (Denmark))

    2010-03-15

    The project GammaSem was proposed to provide a forum for discussions and sharing of information on practical issues concerning gamma spectrometry and to establish a network of users of gamma spectrometry in the Nordic countries, thereby strengthening the collaboration and improving all participants' competence in practical gamma spectrometry. The seminars' focus was practical challenges met by the users themselves, rather than theoretical matters. Scientists and users of gamma spectrometry from all five Nordic countries were invited to the seminar, as well as scientist from the Baltic countries. A total of 75 people participated; representing 34 different universities, commercial companies, research institutes and also all Nordic authorities. During the seminar several key issues for follow-up were identified and working groups for addressing the identified problems were established. The working groups were: 1) Uncertainties and detections of limits 2) True summing coincidence 3) Monte Carlo simulations and efficiency transfer 4) Absorption (density corrections and geometries) 5) Mobile gamma spectrometry systems 6) Nuclear forensics (on special samples and special parts of the spectra). The identified topics will form the basis for the agenda of the next seminar in 2010. There, the different working groups will be invited to present their ideas/solutions to the relevant problems. (author)

  14. The electronic mechanism of the gamma/gamma' interface strength of Ir-based alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, K; Tse, J S

    2002-01-01

    The electronic structures of the gamma/gamma' interface for two-phase Ir-based alloys (Ir/Ir sub 3 Ta and Ir/Ir sub 3 Ti) have been investigated by performing first-principles quantum mechanics DMol3 (a type of density functional theory for molecules) calculations. The Mayer bond order (MBO) is used to represent the shear and cohesion strengths of the interface by a local sum of the horizontal and vertical MBOs. By comparison with those for single-crystal Ir, the results show that both the cohesive and shear strengths of the gamma/gamma' interface for the Ir/Ir sub 3 Ta alloy increase. The cohesive strength of the interface for the Ir/Ir sub 3 Ti alloy increases, whereas the shear strength of the interface for Ir/Ir sub 3 Ti decreases. The electron charge density, the Hirshfeld charge, and orbital charge transfers are also calculated and analysed. An electronic mechanism for the gamma/gamma' interface strength of Ir-based alloys is then suggested.

  15. Towards a definition of SUBJECT in binding domains and subject ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards a definition of SUBJECT in binding domains and subject-oriented anaphors 27 and it holds little explanatory value. At best, EPP ensures that the highest argument will move to subject position. The final property I will discuss here is the fact that, in some languages (e.g. Icelandic and. Dutch), there is a subset of ...

  16. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 1

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1EPA, 1Agrotourism, 148AHP, 148balance scorecard, 63batik tulis Rolla Junior, 23Broiler, 90business model canvas, 137business performance,32capital structure, 81cashew industry,158CHAID,106CLI,42coal transportation service,63company’s characteristics, 81competitive advantage, 12competitive strategy, 127consumer satisfaction, 51CSI, 42customer loyalty, 42customer satisfaction,42decision of visitors, 72development strategy, 23development,158entrepreneurship, 32Feasibility studies, 90FEM, 81gap analysis, 1Indonesia Stock Exchange, 177Indosat, 137investor,177Kawah Putih, 72kedai sop durian lodaya (KSDL,51klassen typology, 96leading sector, 96less cash society, 137liquidity ratio, 165location quotient, 96logistic regression, 115market, 177marketing development strategy, 148Marketing mix, 72mobile payment, 137modern and Traditional cage, 90multiple regression analyse,165multiple regression, 177net working capital, 165organic tofu product, 115Padang, 106paired comparison, 63partnership, 1, 32Pecking Order Theory, 81PLS, 81Portfolio, 96power, 32product quality, 51profitability ratio, 165Prol Tape Primadona, 127purchase decision, 115purchase intention, 51purchasing interest,115QSPM, 23, 127refilled drinking water, 106seed,1segmentation, 106SEM, 42, 51service quality, 51SMEs, 96specialty coffee, 12stock,177strategic diagnosis,137strategy, 158Sukorambi Botanic Garden, 148SWOT, 23, 127, 148, 158SWOT-AHP, 12tourists,72UD. Primadona, 127value chain, 12VRIO,12 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1Adiningsih, Kartika Puspitasari,42Aknesia, Vharessa,12Amalia, Firda Rachma,90Andati, Trias, 177Anggraeni, Lukytawati,23Asriani,158Daryanto, Arief,12, 90Djamaludin, MD., 42Djohar, Setiadi,96Fachrodji, Achmad,72Fahmi, Idqan,1, 63, 127Fasyni, Awisal,106Hubeis, Musa,148Iskandar, Dodi,51Juanda, Bambang, 165Kirbrandoko, 12, 106, 115Lumbantoruan, Dewi Margareth,96Maulana, TB Nur Ahmad,81Muksin, 148Mukti Soleh, Cecep,63Najib, Mukhamad,106Noor, Tajudin,81

  17. Measurement of B Decays to phi K gamma

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Abrams, G S; Adye, T; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Albert, J; Aleksan, R; Allen, M T; Allison, J; Altenburg, D D; Andreotti, M; Angelini, C; Anulli, F; Arnaud, N; Asgeirsson, D J; Aston, D; Azzolini, V; Baak, M A; Back, J J; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Band, H R; Banerjee, Sw; Bard, D J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Barrett, M; Bartoldus, R; Batignani, G; Battaglia, M; Bauer, J M; Bechtle, P; Beck, T W; Behera, P K; Bellini, F; Benayoun, M; Benelli, G; Berger, N; Bernard, D; Berryhill, J W; Best, D S; Bettarini, S; Bettoni, D; Bevan, A J; Bhimji, W; Bhuyan, B; Bianchi, F; Biasini, M; Biesiada, J; Blanc, F; Blaylock, G; Blinov, V E; Bloom, P C; Blount, N L; Bomben, M; Bondioli, M; Bonneaud, G R; Bosisio, L; Boutigny, D; Bowerman, D A; Boyd, J T; Bozzi, C; Brandenburg, G; Brandt, T; Brau, J E; Briand, H; Brown, C M; Brown, D N; Bruinsma, M; Brunet, S; Bucci, F; Buchanan, C; Bugg, W; Bukin, A D; Bula, R; Burchat, P R; Burke, J P; Button-Shafer, J; Buzzo, A; Bóna, M; Cahn, R N; Calabrese, R; Calcaterra, A; Calderini, G; Campagnari, C; Carpinelli, M; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; Cavoto, G; Cenci, R; Chai, X; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Chao, M; Charles, E; Charles, M J; Chauveau, J; Chavez, C A; Chen, A; Chen, C; Chen, E; Chen, J C; Chen, S; Chen, X; Chen, X R; Cheng, B; Cheng, C H; Chia, Y M; Cibinetto, G; Clark, P J; Clarke, C K; Claus, R; Cochran, J; Coleman, J P; Contri, R; Convery, M R; Corwin, L A; Cossutti, F; Cottingham, W N; Couderc, F; Covarelli, R; Cowan, G; Cowan, R; Crawley, H B; Cremaldi, L; Cunha, A; Curry, S; Côté, D; D'Orazio, A; Dahmes, B; Dallapiccola, C; Danielson, N; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Dauncey, P D; David, P; Davier, M; Davis, C L; De Nardo, Gallieno; De Sangro, R; Del Amo-Sánchez, P; Del Buono, L; Del Re, D; Della Ricca, G; Denig, A G; Di Lodovico, F; Di Marco, E; Dingfelder, J C; Dittongo, S; Dong, L; Dorfan, J; Druzhinin, V P; Dubitzky, R S; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Dvoretskii, A; Ebert, M; Eckhart, E A; Eckmann, R; Edgar, C L; Edwards, A J; Egede, U; Eigen, G; Eisner, A M; Elmer, P; Emery, S; Ernst, J A; Eschenburg, V; Eschrich, I; Eyges, V; Fabozzi, F; Faccini, R; Fang, F; Feltresi, E; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Field, R C; Finocchiaro, G; Flacco, C J; Flack, R L; Flächer, H U; Flood, K T; Ford, K E; Ford, W T; Forster, I J; Forti, F; Fortin, D; Foulkes, S D; Franek, B; Frey, R; Fritsch, M; Fry, J R; Fulsom, B G; Gabathuler, E; Gaidot, A; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Gamet, R; Gan, K K; Ganzhur, S F; Gary, J W; Gaspero, M; Gatto, C; Gaz, A; George, K A; Gill, M S; Giorgi, M A; Gladney, L; Glanzman, T; Godang, R; Golubev, V B; Gowdy, S J; Gradl, W; Graham, M T; Graugès-Pous, E; Grenier, P; Gritsan, A V; Grosdidier, G; Groysman, Y; Hadavand, H K; Haire, M; Halyo, V; Hamano, K; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Hamon, O; Harrison, P F; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hartfiel, B L; Hast, C; Hauke, A; Hawkes, C M; Hearty, C; Held, T; Hertzbach, S S; Heusch, C A; Hill, E J; Hirschauer, J F; Hitlin, D G; Hollar, J J; Hong, T M; Honscheid, K; Hopkins, D A; Hrynóva, T; Hufnagel, D; Hulsbergen, W D; Hutchcroft, D E; Höcker, A; Igonkina, O; Innes, W R; Izen, J M; Jackson, P D; Jackson, P S; Jacobsen, R G; Jain, V; Jasper, H; Jawahery, A; Jessop, C P; Judd, D; Kadyk, J A; Kagan, H; Karyotakis, Yu; Kass, R; Kelsey, M H; Kerth, L T; Khan, A; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kirkby, D; Klose, V; Knecht, N S; Koch, H; Kolb, J A; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kovalskyi, D; Kowalewski, R V; Kozanecki, W; Kreisel, A; Krishnamurthy, M; Kroeger, R; Kroseberg, J; Kukartsev, G; Kutter, P E; Kyberd, P; La Vaissière, C de; Lacker, H M; Lae, C K; Lafferty, G D; Lanceri, L; Lange, D J; Lankford, A J; Latham, T E; Latour, E; Lau, Y P; Lazzaro, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lee, C L; Lees, J P; Legendre, M; Leith, D W G S; Lepeltier, V; Leruste, P; Lewandowski, B; Li Gioi, L; Li, S; Li, X; Lista, L; Liu, H; Lo Vetere, M; LoSecco, J M; Lockman, W S; Lombardo, V; Long, O; Lopes-Pegna, D; Lopez-March, N; Lou, X C; Lu, M; Luitz, S; Lund, P; Luppi, E; Lusiani, A; Lutz, A M; Lynch, G; Lynch, H L; Lü, C; Lüth, V; MacFarlane, D B; Macri, M M; Mader, W F; Majewski, S A; Malcles, J; Mallik, U; Mancinelli, G; Mandelkern, M A; Marchiori, G; Margoni, M; Marks, J; Marsiske, H; Martínez-Vidal, F; Mattison, T S; Mazur, M A; Mazzoni, M A; McKenna, J A; McMahon, T R; Mclachlin, S E; Meadows, B T; Mellado, B; Menges, W; Merkel, J; Messner, R; Meyer, N T; Meyer, W T; Mihályi, A; Mir, L M; Mishra, K; Mohanty, G B; Monge, M R; Monorchio, D; Moore, T B; Morandin, M; Morganti, M; Morganti, S; Morii, M; Muheim, F; Müller, D R; Nagel, M; Naisbit, M T; Narsky, I; Nash, J A; Nauenberg, U; Neal, H; Negrini, M; Neri, N; Nesom, G; Nicholson, H; Nikolich, M B; Nogowski, R; Nugent, I M; O'Grady, C P; Ocariz, J; Ofte, I; Olaiya, E O; Olivas, A; Olsen, J; Onuchin, A P; Orimoto, T J; Oyanguren, A; Ozcan, V E; Paar, H P; Pacetti, S; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Pan, B; Pan, Y; Panduro-Vazquez, W; Paoloni, E; Paolucci, P; Pappagallo, M; Park, W; Passaggio, S; Patel, P M; Patrignani, C; Patteri, P; Payne, D J; Pelizaeus, M; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Peruzzi, I M; Peters, K; Petersen, B A; Petrella, A; Petzold, A; Piatenko, T; Piccolo, D; Piccolo, M; Piemontese, L; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Playfer, S; Poireau, V; Polci, F; Pompili, A; Porter, F C; Posocco, M; Potter, C T; Prell, S; Prencipe, E; Prepost, R; Pripstein, M; Pruvot, S; Pulliam, T; Purohit, M V; Qi, N D; Rahatlou, S; Rahimi, A M; Rahmat, R; Rama, M; Ratcliff, B N; Raven, G; Regensburger, J J; Ricciardi, S; Richman, J D; Ritchie, J L; Rizzo, G; Roberts, D A; Robertson, A I; Robertson, S H; Robutti, E; Rodier, S; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Roney, J M; Rong, G; Roodman, A; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rotondo, M; Roudeau, P; Rubin, A E; Ruddick, W O; Röthel, W; Sacco, R; Saeed, M A; Safai-Tehrani, F; Saleem, M; Salnikov, A A; Salvatore, F; Sanders, D A; Santroni, A; Saremi, S; Satpathy, A; Schalk, T; Schenk, S; Schilling, C J; Schindler, R H; Schofield, K C; Schott, G; Schröder, T; Schröder, H; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schumm, B A; Schune, M H; Schwiening, J; Schwierz, R; Schwitters, R F; Sciacca, C; Sciolla, G; Seiden, A; Sekula, S J; Serednyakov, S I; Serrano, J; Sharma, V; Shen, B C; Sherwood, D J; Simard, M; Simi, G; Simonetto, F; Sinev, N B; Skovpen, Yu I; Smith, A J S; Smith, J G; Snoek, H L; Snyder, A; Sobie, R J; Soffer, A; Sokoloff, M D; Solodov, E P; Spaan, B; Spanier, S M; Spitznagel, M; Spradlin, P; Steinke, M; Stelzer, J; Stocchi, A; Stoker, D P; Stroili, R; Strom, D; Strube, J; Stugu, B; Stängle, H; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Summers, D J; Sundermann, J E; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Taras, P; Taylor, F; Telnov, A V; Teodorescu, L; Ter-Antonian, R; Therin, G; Thiebaux, C; Thompson, J M; Tisserand, V; Todyshev, K Yu; Toki, W H; Torrence, E; Tosi, S; Touramanis, C; Tuggle, J; Ulmer, K A; Uwer, U; Van Bakel, N; Vasseur, G; Vavra, J; Verderi, M; Viaud, F B; Vitale, L; Voci, C; Voena, C; Volk, A; Wagner, A P; Wagner, S R; Wagoner, D E; Waldi, R; Walker, D; Walsh, J J; Wang, K; Wang, P; Wang, W F; Wappler, F R; Watson, A T; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wenzel, W A; Wilden, L; Williams, D C; Williams, J C; Wilson, F F; Wilson, J R; Wilson, M G; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wong, Q K; Wormser, G; Wren, A C; Wright, D H; Wright, D M; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Wulsin, H W; Xie, Y; Yamamoto, R K; Yarritu, A K; Ye, S; Yi, J I; Yi, K; Young, C C; Yu, Z; Yéche, C; Zain, S B; Zallo, A; Zeng, Q; Zghiche, A; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, H W; Zhu, Y S; Ziegler, V; Zito, M; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; al, et

    2007-01-01

    We search for the decays B- -> phi K- gamma and B0bar -> phi K0bar gamma in a data sample of 228 million BBbar pairs collected at the Upsilon(4S) resonance with the BaBar detector. We measure the branching fraction B(B- -> phi K- gamma) = (3.5 +/- 0.6 +/- 0.4) x 10^-6 and set an upper limit B(B0bar -> phi K0bar gamma) phi K- gamma, A_CP = (-26 +/- 14 +/- 5)%. The uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively.

  18. Study of Triple-Gauge-Boson Couplings ZZZ, ZZ$\\gamma$ and Z$\\gamma\\gamma$ at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J; Adam, W; Adzic, P; Albrecht, T; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anashkin, E; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Anjos, N; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, P; Ballestrero, A; Bambade, P; Barbier, R; Bardin, D; Barker, G J; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, M; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benekos, N; Benvenuti, A; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Besson, N; Bloch, D; Blom, M; Bluj, M; Bonesini, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bracko, M; Brenner, R; Brodet, E; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Buschbeck, B; Buschmann, P; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Castro, N; Cavallo, F; Chapkin, M; Charpentier, P; Checchia, P; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chudoba, J; Chung9, S U; Cieslik19, K; Collins9, P; Contri, R; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Costa, M J; Crennell, D J; Cuevas-Maestro, J; D'Hondt, J; Da Silva, T; Da Silva, W; Della Ricca, G; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Maria, N; De Min, A; De Paula, L; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Simone, A; Doroba, K; Drees, J; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Espirito-Santo, M C; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, M; Fernández, J; Ferrer, A; Ferro, F; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Guy, J; Haag, C; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hamilton, K; Haug, S; Hauler, F; Hedberg, V; Hennecke, M; Herr, H; Hoffman, J; Holmgren, S O; Holt9, P J; Houlden, M A; Jackson, J N; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Jonsson, P; Joram, C; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E; Kernel, G; Kersevan, B P; Kerzel, U; King, B T; Kjaer, N J; Kluit, P; Kokkinias, P; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krumshtein, Z; Kucharczyk, M; Lamsa, J; Leder, G; Ledroit, F; Leinonen, L; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lopes, J H; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J; Malek, A; Maltezos, S; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McNulty, R; Meroni, C; Migliore, E; Mitaroff, W A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Mönig, K; Monge, R; Montenegro, J; Moraes, D; Moreno, S; Morettini, P; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L; Murray, W; Muryn, B; Myatt, G; Myklebust, T; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, F; Nawrocki, K; Nicolaidou, R; Nikolenko, M; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, R; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Oyanguren, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Palacios, J P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Peralta, L; Perepelitsa, V; Perrotta, A; Petrolini, A; Piedra, J; Pieri, L; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Poireau, V; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Pozdnyakov, V; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, A; Rames, J; Read, A; Rebecchi, P; Rehn, J; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rivero, M; Rodríguez, D; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Roudeau, P; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ryabtchikov, D; Sadovskii, A; Salmi, L; Salt, J; Sander, C; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schwickerath, U; Sekulin, R; Siebel, M; Sisakian, A; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O; Sokolov, A; Sopczak, A; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Stanitzki, M; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Szumlak, T; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tegenfeldt, F; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Tobin, M; Todorovova, S; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortosa, P; Travnicek, P; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyapkin, P; Tzamarias, S; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; van Dam, P; Van Eldik, J; Van Remortel, N; Van Vulpen, I; Vegni, G; Veloso, F; Venus, W; Verdier, P; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Washbrook, A J; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J; Wilkinson, G; Winter, M; Witek, M; Yushchenko, O; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, P; Zavrtanik, D; Zhuravlov, V; Zimin, N I; Zintchenko, A; Zupan, M

    2007-01-01

    Neutral triple-gauge-boson couplings ZZZ, ZZgam and Zgamgam have been studied with the DELPHI detector using data at energies between 183 and 208 GeV. Limits are derived on these couplings from an analysis of the reactions e+e- -> Zgam, using data from the final states gamma f fbar, with f = q or neutrino, from e+e- -> ZZ, using data from the four-fermion final states q qbar q qbar, q qbar mu+ mu-, q qbar e+ e-, q qbar nu nubar, mu+ mu- nu nubar and e+ e- nu nubar, and from e+e- -> Zgam*, in which the final state gamma is off mass-shell, using data from the four-fermion final states q qbar e+ e- and q qbar mu+ mu-. No evidence for the presence of such couplings is observed, in agreement with the predictions of the Standard Model.

  19. Measurements of $Z\\gamma$ and $Z\\gamma\\gamma$ production in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=$ 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; Aben, Rosemarie; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agricola, Johannes; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Armitage, Lewis James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barranco Navarro, Laura; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans~Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bedognetti, Matteo; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Andrew Stuart; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Belyaev, Nikita; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez, Jose; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Berlendis, Simon; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertram, Iain Alexander; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bielski, Rafal; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Bjergaard, David Martin; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanco, Jacobo Ezequiel; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Blunier, Sylvain; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Boerner, Daniela; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortoletto, Daniela; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Bossio Sola, Jonathan David; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Boutle, Sarah Kate; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Broughton, James; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Brunt, Benjamin; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryant, Patrick; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burghgrave, Blake; Burka, Klaudia; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Calvet, Thomas Philippe; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Camincher, Clement; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Carbone, Ryne Michael; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Ina; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Casper, David William; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavallaro, Emanuele; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerda Alberich, Leonor; Cerio, Benjamin; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Stephen Kam-wah; Chan, Yat Long; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Che, Siinn; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Shion; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Huajie; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chomont, Arthur Rene; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirotto, Francesco; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Michael; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crawley, Samuel Joseph; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cúth, Jakub; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dann, Nicholas Stuart; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Denysiuk, Denys; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Dette, Karola; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Clemente, William Kennedy; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Du, Yanyan; Duarte-Campderros, Jorge; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dutta, Baishali; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellajosyula, Venugopal; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Ennis, Joseph Stanford; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Federica; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farina, Christian; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fawcett, William James; Fayard, Louis; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Forcolin, Giulio Tiziano; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Foster, Andrew Geoffrey; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; Fressard-Batraneanu, Silvia; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Louis Guillaume; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gascon Bravo, Alberto; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Geng, Cong; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghneimat, Mazuza; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giannetti, Paola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gignac, Matthew; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuli, Francesco; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gongadze, Alexi; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goudet, Christophe Raymond; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Grafström, Per; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Grevtsov, Kirill; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Sabrina; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guan, Wen; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Shaun; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Hadef, Asma; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Jochen Jens; Heinrich, Lukas; Heinz, Christian; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohlfeld, Marc; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Hong, Tae Min; Hooberman, Benjamin Henry; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huo, Peng; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ito, Fumiaki; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jain, Vivek; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanneau, Fabien; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Hai; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Sarah; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Köhler, Markus Konrad; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kanjir, Luka; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Kentaro, Kawade; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewska, Anna Bozena; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuechler, Jan Thomas; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurova, Anastasia; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lammers, Sabine; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Lazzaroni, Massimo; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; Le Quilleuc, Eloi; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Lerner, Giuseppe; Leroy, Claude; Lesage, Arthur; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Qi; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanlin; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loew, Kevin Michael; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Longo, Luigi; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lopez Solis, Alvaro; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Lyubushkin, Vladimir; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Ma, Yanhui; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Maneira, José; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Manzoni, Stefano; Mapelli, Livio; Marceca, Gino; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Fadden, Neil Christopher; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McClymont, Laurie; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monden, Ryutaro; Mondragon, Matthew Craig; Mönig, Klaus; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Muškinja, Miha; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naryshkin, Iouri; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Norjoharuddeen, Nurfikri; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Rourke, Abigail Alexandra; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; 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Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shaikh, Nabila Wahab; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyedruhollah; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; 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Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Suchek, Stanislav; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tapia Araya, Sebastian; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Aaron; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; 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Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yakabe, Ryota; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zongchang; Yao, Weiming; Yap, Yee Chinn; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yuen, Stephanie P; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zakharchuk, Nataliia; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zeng, Jian Cong; Zeng, Qi; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Guangyi; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2016-06-02

    The production of $Z$ bosons with one or two isolated high-energy photons is studied using $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV. The analyses use a data sample with an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb$^{-1}$ collected by the ATLAS detector during the 2012 LHC data taking. The $Z\\gamma$ and $Z\\gamma\\gamma$ production cross sections are measured with leptonic ($e^{+}e^{-}$, $\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$, $\

  20. Gamma ray lines from a universal extra dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertone, Gianfranco; Jackson, C. B.; Shaughnessy, Gabe; Tait, Tim M.P.; Vallinotto, Alberto

    2012-03-01

    Indirect Dark Matter searches are based on the observation of secondary particles produced by the annihilation or decay of Dark Matter. Among them, gamma-rays are perhaps the most promising messengers, as they do not suffer deflection or absorption on Galactic scales, so their observation would directly reveal the position and the energy spectrum of the emitting source. Here, we study the detailed gamma-ray energy spectrum of Kaluza--Klein Dark Matter in a theory with 5 Universal Extra Dimensions. We focus in particular on the two body annihilation of Dark Matter particles into a photon and another particle, which produces monochromatic photons, resulting in a line in the energy spectrum of gamma rays. Previous calculations in the context of the five dimensional UED model have computed the line signal from annihilations into \\gamma \\gamma, but we extend these results to include \\gamma Z and \\gamma H final states. We find that these spectral lines are subdominant compared to the predicted \\gamma \\gamma signal, but they would be important as follow-up signals in the event of the observation of the \\gamma \\gamma line, in order to distinguish the 5d UED model from other theoretical scenarios.

  1. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 2

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2access credit, 93acquisition, 177AHP, 61, 82, 165arena simulation,43BMC, 69Bojonegoro, 69brand choice, 208brand image, 208brand positioning, 208bullwhip effect, 43burger buns, 1business synergy and financial reports, 177capital structure, 130cluster, 151coal reserves, 130coffee plantation, 93competitiveness, 82consumer behaviour, 33consumer complaint behavior, 101cooking spices, 1crackers, 1cross sectional analytical, 139crosstab, 101CSI, 12direct selling, 122discriminant analysis, 33economic value added, 130, 187employee motivation, 112employee performance, 112employees, 139EOQ, 23farmer decisions, 93farmer group, 52financial performance evaluation, 187financial performance, 52, 177financial ratio, 187financial report, 187fiva food, 23food crops, 151horticulture, 151imports, 151improved capital structure, 177IPA, 12leading sector, 151life insurance, 165LotteMart, 43main product, 61marketing mix, 33, 165matrix SWOT, 69MPE, 61multiple linear regression, 122muslim clothing, 197Ogun, 139Pangasius fillet, 82Pati, 93pearson correlation, 101perceived value, 208performance suppy chain, 23PLS, 208POQ, 23portfolio analyzing, 1product, 101PT SKP, 122pulp and papers, 187purchase decision, 165purchase intention, 33remuneration, 112re-purchasing decisions, 197sales performance, 122sawmill, 52SCOR, 23sekolah peternakan rakyat, 69SEM, 112SERVQUAL, 12Sido Makmur farmer groups, 93SI-PUHH Online, 12small and medium industries (IKM, 61socio-demographic, 139sport drink, 208stress, 139supply chain, 43SWOT, 82the mix marketing, 197Tobin’s Q, 130trade partnership, 52uleg chili sauce, 1 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2Achsani, Noer Azam, 177Andati, Trias, 52, 177Andihka, Galih, 208Arkeman, Yandra, 43Baga, Lukman M, 69Cahyanugroho, Aldi, 112Daryanto, Arief, 12David, Ajibade, 139Djoni, 122Fahmi, Idqan, 1Fattah, Muhammad Unggul Abdul, 61Hakim, Dedi Budiman, 187Harianto, 93Hartoyo, 101Homisah, 1Hubeis, Musa, 112Hutagaol, M. Parulian, 93Jaya, Stevana

  2. Derivative based sensitivity analysis of gamma index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Biplab; Pradhan, Anirudh; Ganesh, T

    2015-01-01

    Originally developed as a tool for patient-specific quality assurance in advanced treatment delivery methods to compare between measured and calculated dose distributions, the gamma index (γ) concept was later extended to compare between any two dose distributions. It takes into effect both the dose difference (DD) and distance-to-agreement (DTA) measurements in the comparison. Its strength lies in its capability to give a quantitative value for the analysis, unlike other methods. For every point on the reference curve, if there is at least one point in the evaluated curve that satisfies the pass criteria (e.g., δDD = 1%, δDTA = 1 mm), the point is included in the quantitative score as "pass." Gamma analysis does not account for the gradient of the evaluated curve - it looks at only the minimum gamma value, and if it is derivative-based method for the identification of dose gradient. A mathematically derived reference profile (RP) representing the penumbral region of 6 MV 10 cm × 10 cm field was generated from an error function. A general test profile (GTP) was created from this RP by introducing 1 mm distance error and 1% dose error at each point. This was considered as the first of the two evaluated curves. By its nature, this curve is a smooth curve and would satisfy the pass criteria for all points in it. The second evaluated profile was generated as a sawtooth test profile (STTP) which again would satisfy the pass criteria for every point on the RP. However, being a sawtooth curve, it is not a smooth one and would be obviously poor when compared with the smooth profile. Considering the smooth GTP as an acceptable profile when it passed the gamma pass criteria (1% DD and 1 mm DTA) against the RP, the first and second order derivatives of the DDs (δD', δD") between these two curves were derived and used as the boundary values for evaluating the STTP against the RP. Even though the STTP passed the simple gamma pass criteria, it was found failing at many

  3. Highlights of GeV Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Because high-energy gamma rays are primarily produced by high-energy particle interactions, the gamma-ray survey of the sky by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope offers a view of sites of cosmic ray production and interactions. Gamma-ray bursts, pulsars, pulsar wind nebulae, binary sources, and Active Galactic Nuclei are all phenomena that reveal particle acceleration through their gamma-ray emission. Diffuse Galactic gamma radiation, Solar System gamma-ray sources, and energetic radiation from supernova remnants are likely tracers of high-energy particle interactions with matter and photon fields. This paper will present a broad overview of the constantly changing sky seen with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi spacecraft.

  4. PPAR gamma and the global map of adipogenesis and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefterova, M. I.; Haakonsson, A. K.; Lazar, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) is a member of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily of ligand-dependent transcription factors (TFs) and function as a master regulator of adipocyte differentiation and metabolism. We review recent breakthroughs in the understanding...... of PPAR gamma gene regulation and function in the chromatin context. It is now clear that multiple TFs team up to induce PPAR gamma during adipogenesis, and that other TFs cooperate with PPAR gamma to ensure adipocyte-specific genomic binding and function. We discuss how this differs in other PPAR gamma......-expressing cells such as macrophages and how these genome-wide mechanisms are preserved across species despite modest conservation of specific binding sites. These emerging considerations inform our understanding of PPAR gamma function as well as of adipocyte development and physiology....

  5. Gamma factors of an ambulatory source; Factores gamma de una fuente ambulatoria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcos P, A.; Vega C, H.R.; Manzanares A, E.; Salas L, M.A.; Hernandez D, V.M. [Unidades Academicas de Estudios Nucleares e Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, C. Cipres 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Barquero, R. [Hospital Universitario del Rio Hortega, E-47010 Valladolid (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    Some of the procedures for diagnostic or treatment used in the medicine use radioactive materials as the I{sup 131}. By means of Monte Carlo methods were calculated the doses in the internal organs of a woman, with three months of pregnancy, due to the radioiodine captured by her thyroid, as well as to 1 meter of the gland. A three-dimensional mathematical model of the body of a woman was used and by means of Monte Carlo, the radioiodine photons were transported isotropically from the thyroid toward the whole body and was calculated the absorbed dose by their internal organs, also the Kerma in air (K) was determined and the environmental equivalent dose (H{sup *}(10)) at 1 m of the gland. Two activity factors at dose were determined, Gamma Factors that it allows to estimate the dose that the patient produces to people to its around. Of the gamma radiation that emits the I{sup 131} in the thyroid was found that the thymus receives the biggest dose while the uterus is the organ that smaller dose receives. The determined gamma factors were: {gamma}{sub KAire} = 56 {mu}Gy-m{sup 2}-h{sup -1}-GBq{sup -1}, and {gamma}{sub H}{sup *}{sub (10)} = 73 {mu}Sv-m{sup 2}-h{sup -1}-GBq{sup -1}. The distribution of the absorbed dose by the internal organs is attributed to the relative distance among the thyroid and the other organs, to the inter-organs shielding, its size and to its elementary composition. The {gamma}{sub KAire} and {gamma}{sub H}{sup *}{sub (10)} factors allow to estimate the exposure that the patient produces on the personnel to its around. With this, the nuclear medicus, the medical physicist or the one responsible of the radiological safety in the hospital can give more precise indications on the behavior of people around the patient. (Author)

  6. A subfertile patient diagnosed with testicular carcinoma in situ by immunocytological staining for AP-2gamma in semen samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoei-Hansen, C E; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Carlsen, E

    2005-01-01

    . CIS diagnosis is presently only possible by a surgical biopsy of the testis. Immunocytological staining for transcription factor activator protein (AP-2gamma), previously identified as a marker for neoplastic germ cells, was performed in centrifuged samples of ejaculates obtained from 104 andrological...... patients, including patients with testicular cancer and subfertility. Cells positive for AP-2gamma were found only in semen samples from patients diagnosed a priori with testicular neoplasms and, surprisingly, in a 23 year old control subject with oligozoospermia and no symptoms of a germ cell tumour......, simple method based on immunocytological staining of a semen sample for AP-2gamma, a novel marker for CIS. The value of this method for diagnostic use in the clinic requires further careful validation in a large series of patients and controls, but the preliminary results are promising....

  7. The relationship between gamma frequency and running speed differs for slow and fast gamma rhythms in freely behaving rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chenguang; Bieri, Kevin Wood; Trettel, Sean Gregory; Colgin, Laura Lee

    2015-01-01

    In hippocampal area CA1 of rats, the frequency of gamma activity has been shown to increase with running speed (Ahmed and Mehta, 2012). This finding suggests that different gamma frequencies simply allow for different timings of transitions across cell assemblies at varying running speeds, rather than serving unique functions. However, accumulating evidence supports the conclusion that slow (~25–55 Hz) and fast (~60–100 Hz) gamma are distinct network states with different functions. If slow and fast gamma constitute distinct network states, then it is possible that slow and fast gamma frequencies are differentially affected by running speed. In this study, we tested this hypothesis and found that slow and fast gamma frequencies change differently as a function of running speed in hippocampal areas CA1 and CA3, and in the superficial layers of the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC). Fast gamma frequencies increased with increasing running speed in all three areas. Slow gamma frequencies changed significantly less across different speeds. Furthermore, at high running speeds, CA3 firing rates were low, and MEC firing rates were high, suggesting that CA1 transitions from CA3 inputs to MEC inputs as running speed increases. These results support the hypothesis that slow and fast gamma reflect functionally distinct states in the hippocampal network, with fast gamma driven by MEC at high running speeds and slow gamma driven by CA3 at low running speeds. PMID:25601003

  8. Factorization in B to V gamma Decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becher, T

    2005-03-28

    The factorization properties of the radiative decays B {yields} V{gamma} are analyzed at leading order in 1/mb using the soft-collinear effective theory. It is shown that the decay amplitudes can be expressed in terms of a B {yields} V form factor evaluated at q{sup 2} = 0, light-cone distribution amplitudes of the B and V mesons, and calculable hard-scattering kernels. The renormalization-group equations in the effective theory are solved to resume perturbative logarithms of the different scales in the decay process. Phenomenological implications for the B {yields} K*{gamma} branching ratio, isospin asymmetry, and CP asymmetries are discussed, with particular emphasis on possible effects from physics beyond the Standard Model.

  9. Precision measurements of the CKM angle gamma

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The level of CP-violation permitted within the Standard Model cannot account for the matter dominated universe in which we live. Within the Standard Model the CKM matrix, which describes the quark couplings, is expected to be unitary. By making precise measurements of the CKM matrix parameters new physics models can be constrained, or with sufficient precision the effects of physics beyond the standard model might become apparent. The CKM angle gamma is the least well known angle of the unitarity triangle. It is the only angle easily accessible at tree-level, and furthermore has almost no theoretical uncertainties. Therefore it provides an invaluable Standard Model benchmark against which other new physics sensitive tests of the CP-violation can be made. I will discuss recent measurements of gamma using the the Run 1 LHCb dataset, which improve our knowledge of this key parameter.

  10. Welding of gamma titanium aluminide alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smashey, Russell W. (Inventor); Kelly, Thomas J. (Inventor); Snyder, John H. (Inventor); Sheranko, Ronald L. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An article made of a gamma titanium aluminide alloy is welded, as for example in the weld repair of surface cracks, by removing foreign matter from the area to be welded, first stress relieving the article, cooling the entire article to a welding temperature of from about 1000.degree. F. to about 1400.degree. F., welding a preselected region in an inert atmosphere at the welding temperature, and second stress relieving the article. Welding is preferably accomplished by striking an arc in the preselected region so as to locally melt the alloy in the preselected region, providing a filler metal having the same composition as the gamma titanium aluminide alloy of the article, and feeding the filler metal into the arc so that the filler metal is melted and fused with the article to form a weldment upon solidification.

  11. Stellar Photon Archaeology with Gamma-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, Floyd W.

    2009-01-01

    Ongoing deep surveys of galaxy luminosity distribution functions, spectral energy distributions and backwards evolution models of star formation rates can be used to calculate the past history of intergalactic photon densities and, from them, the present and past optical depth of the Universe to gamma-rays from pair production interactions with these photons. The energy-redshift dependence of the optical depth of the Universe to gamma-rays has become known as the Fazio-Stecker relation (Fazio & Stecker 1970). Stecker, Malkan & Scully have calculated the densities of intergalactic background light (IBL) photons of energies from 0.03 eV to the Lyman limit at 13.6 eV and for 0$ photon densities in the past, i.e., the "archaeo-IBL.", and therefore allow a better measure of the past history of the total star formation rate, including that from galaxies too faint to be observed.

  12. The Future of Gamma Ray Astrophysics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, gamma ray astrophysics has entered the astrophysical mainstream. Extremely successful space-borne (GeV) and ground-based (TeV) detectors, combined with a multitude of partner telescopes, have revealed a fascinating “astroscape" of active galactic nuclei, pulsars, gamma ray bursts, supernova remnants, binary stars, star-forming galaxies, novae much more, exhibiting major pathways along which large energy releases can flow. From  a basic physics perspective, exquisitely sensitive measurements have constrained the nature of dark matter, the cosmological origin of magnetic field and the properties of black holes. These advances have motivated the development of new facilities, including HAWC, DAMPE, CTA and SVOM, which will further our understanding of the high energy universe. Topics that will receive special attention include merging neutron star binaries, clusters of galaxies, galactic cosmic rays and putative, TeV dark matter.

  13. High Energy Neutron Induced Gamma Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D A; Johnson, M; Navratil, P

    2007-09-28

    N Division has an interest in improving the physics and accuracy of the gamma data it provides to its customers. It was asked to look into major gamma producing reactions for 14 MeV incident neutrons for several low-Z materials and determine whether LLNL's processed data files faithfully represent the current state of experimental and theoretical knowledge for these reactions. To address this, we surveyed the evaluations of the requested materials, made recommendations for the next ENDL release and noted isotopes that will require further experimental study. This process uncovered several major problems in our translation and processing of the ENDF formatted evaluations, most of which have been resolved.

  14. Evaluation of gamma irradiation of teas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerolis, Luanai G.L.; Lameiras, Fernando S.; Menezes, Maria A.B.C.; Leal, Alexandre S., E-mail: luanaigraz@yahoo.com.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Krambrock, Klaus, E-mail: klaus@fisica.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica. Lab. de Ressonancia Paramagnetica Eletronica

    2013-07-01

    There is a growing interest in the determination of non-essential traces elements in agroindustrial products. The continuous ingestion and accumulation in the organism of such elements, that may be toxic, can cause hazards to the human health in the long term. Reliable analytical techniques are necessary to monitor such products, including teas. In this work, the neutron activation technique is being employed to determine the trace elements in teas, due to its high sensibility and the possibility to perform a multi-elementary analysis. The gamma irradiation of teas is also being studied, because the shelf life can be extended and no chemical product is added to the teas. There is a concern related to the formation of free radicals in the teas, which is being accessed with electronic paramagnetic resonance. The results of the gamma irradiation up to 20 kGy of Camelia sinensis, Ilex paraguariensis, and Matricaria recutita are presented. (author)

  15. Gamma Ray Bursts Observations and Theoretical Conjectures

    CERN Document Server

    Alagoz, E; Carrillo, C; Golup, G T; Grimes, M; Herrera, Mora C; Gallo, Palomino J L; López, Vega A; Wicht, J

    2008-01-01

    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are short bursts of very high energy photons which were discovered in the late 1960s. Ever since their discovery, scientists have wondered about their origin. Nowadays it is known that they originate outside the Milky Way because of their high red shift rst measured in the afterglows thanks to the Beppo-SAX satellite and ground-based observations. However, theoreticians still do not agree about the mechanism that generates the bursts, and different competing models are animatedly debated. Current GRB experiments include the Swift satellite and the Pierre Auger Observatory that could detect GRBs with an increase of the background. A forthcoming dedicated experiment is GLAST, a satellite observatory for detecting gamma rays with energies up to 300 GeV, whose launch is scheduled for early 2008.

  16. Gamma camera performance: technical assessment protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolster, A.A. [West Glasgow Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Clinical Physics; Waddington, W.A. [University College London Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom). Inst. of Nuclear Medicine

    1996-12-31

    This protocol addresses the performance assessment of single and dual headed gamma cameras. No attempt is made to assess the performance of any associated computing systems. Evaluations are usually performed on a gamma camera commercially available within the United Kingdom and recently installed at a clinical site. In consultation with the manufacturer, GCAT selects the site and liaises with local staff to arrange a mutually convenient time for assessment. The manufacturer is encouraged to have a representative present during the evaluation. Three to four days are typically required for the evaluation team to perform the necessary measurements. When access time is limited, the team will modify the protocol to test the camera as thoroughly as possible. Data are acquired on the camera`s computer system and are subsequently transferred to the independent GCAT computer system for analysis. This transfer from site computer to the independent system is effected via a hardware interface and Interfile data transfer. (author).

  17. Real time gamma-ray signature identifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Mark [Alamo, CA; Gosnell, Tom B [Moraga, CA; Ham, Cheryl [Livermore, CA; Perkins, Dwight [Livermore, CA; Wong, James [Dublin, CA

    2012-05-15

    A real time gamma-ray signature/source identification method and system using principal components analysis (PCA) for transforming and substantially reducing one or more comprehensive spectral libraries of nuclear materials types and configurations into a corresponding concise representation/signature(s) representing and indexing each individual predetermined spectrum in principal component (PC) space, wherein an unknown gamma-ray signature may be compared against the representative signature to find a match or at least characterize the unknown signature from among all the entries in the library with a single regression or simple projection into the PC space, so as to substantially reduce processing time and computing resources and enable real-time characterization and/or identification.

  18. Updated level scheme of 172Yb from 171Yb(nth, γ) reaction studied via gamma-gamma coincidence spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ngoc Anh; Nguyen, Xuan Hai; Pham, Dinh Khang; Nguyen, Quang Hung; Ho, Huu Thang

    2017-08-01

    This paper provides the updated information on the level scheme of 172Yb nucleus studied via 171Yb(nth, γ) reaction using the gamma-gamma coincidence spectrometer at Dalat Nuclear Research Institute (Viet Nam). The latter is used because of its advantages in achieving the low Compton background as well as in identifying the correlated gamma transitions. We have detected in total the energies and intensities of 128 two-step gamma cascades corresponding to 79 primary transitions. By comparing the measured data with those extracted from the ENSDF library, 61 primary gamma transitions and corresponding energy levels together with 20 secondary gamma transitions are found to be the same as the ENSDF data. Beside that, 18 additional primary gamma transitions and corresponding energy levels plus 108 secondary ones are not found to currently exist in this library and they are therefore considered as the new data.

  19. Gamma Oscillations and Neural Field DCMs Can Reveal Cortical Excitability and Microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Pinotsis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how gamma oscillations can be combined with neural population models and dynamic causal modeling (DCM to distinguish among alternative hypotheses regarding cortical excitability and microstructure. This approach exploits inter-subject variability and trial-specific effects associated with modulations in the peak frequency of gamma oscillations. Neural field models are used to evaluate model evidence and obtain parameter estimates using invasive and non-invasive gamma recordings. Our overview comprises two parts: in the first part, we use neural fields to simulate neural activity and distinguish the effects of post synaptic filtering on predicted responses in terms of synaptic rate constants that correspond to different timescales and distinct neurotransmitters. We focus on model predictions of conductance and convolution based field models and show that these can yield spectral responses that are sensitive to biophysical properties of local cortical circuits like synaptic kinetics and filtering; we also consider two different mechanisms for this filtering: a nonlinear mechanism involving specific conductances and a linear convolution of afferent firing rates producing post synaptic potentials. In the second part of this paper, we use neural fields quantitatively—to fit empirical data recorded during visual stimulation. We present two studies of spectral responses obtained from the visual cortex during visual perception experiments: in the first study, MEG data were acquired during a task designed to show how activity in the gamma band is related to visual perception, while in the second study, we exploited high density electrocorticographic (ECoG data to study the effect of varying stimulus contrast on cortical excitability and gamma peak frequency.

  20. Gamma radiation stability studies of mercury fulminate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F.F.

    2000-02-17

    Mercury fulminate completely decomposed in a gamma source (0.86 Mrad/h) after a dose of 208 Mrad. This exposure equates to approximately 2.4 years in Tank 15H and 4 years in Tank 12H, one of the vessels of concern. Since the tanks lost the supernatant cover layer more than a decade ago, this study suggests that any mercury fulminate or closely related energetic species decomposed long ago if ever formed.

  1. Resistance of acrylic vessel to gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Andre Cavalcanti; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Pereira, Marcio Tadeu; Rocha, Nirlando Antonio; Vilela, Jefferson Jose, E-mail: andreccarneiro@gmail.com, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br, E-mail: mtp@cdtn.br, E-mail: nar@cdtn.br, E-mail: jjv@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Braga, Mario Roberto Martins S.S., E-mail: mariomartins@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the preliminary studies made in acrylic material in order to verify the effects of radiolysis in acrylic recipients in which the uranium ore standards are conditioned and check if the material is able to keep the {sup 222}Rn inside the vessel. The preliminary results after gamma irradiation of two kinds of recipients indicate no differences between the vessels irradiated and the ones no irradiated, related to color changes and tension resistance. (author)

  2. The cannonball model of gamma ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Dar, Arnon

    2003-01-01

    The cannonball model (CB) of gamma ray bursts (GRBs) is incredibly more successful than the standard blast-wave models (SM) of GRBs, which suffer from profound inadequacies and limited predictive power. The CB model is falsifiable in its hypothesis and results. Its predictions are summarized in simple analytical expressions, derived, in fair approximations, from first principles. It provides a good description on a universal basis of the properties of long-duration GRBs and of their afterglows (AGs).

  3. Nucleosynthesis and gamma-ray lines

    OpenAIRE

    Prantzos, Nikos

    2011-01-01

    Astrophysical gamma-ray spectroscopy is an invaluable tool for studying nuclear astrophysics, supernova structure, recent star formation in the Milky Way and mixing of nucleosynthesis products in the interstellar medium. After a short, historical, introduction to the field, I present a brief review of the most important current issues. Emphasis is given to radioactivities produced by massive stars and associated supernova explosions, and in particular, those related to observations carried ou...

  4. ESR identification of gamma-irradiated albendazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çolak, Seyda

    2010-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation for sterilization of pharmaceuticals is a well-established technology. In the present work, the spectroscopic and kinetic features of the radicals induced in gamma-irradiated solid albendazole samples is investigated at different temperatures in the dose range of 3-34 kGy by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Irradiation with gamma radiation produced two different radical species in albendazole. They were fairly stable at room temperature but relatively unstable above room temperature, giving rise to an unresolved ESR spectrum consisting of three resonance peaks centered at g=2.0057. Decay activation energies of the contributing radical species were calculated to be 47.8 (±13.5) and 50.5 (±9.7) kJ/mol using the signal intensity decay data derived from annealing studies performed at high temperatures. A linear function of the applied dose was found to best describe the experimental dose-response data. Albendazole does not present the characteristics of good dosimetric materials. However, the discrimination of irradiated albendazole from its unirradiated form was possible even 6 months after storage in normal conditions. Based on these findings, it is concluded that albendazole and albendazole-containing drugs can be safely sterilized by gamma radiation and that ESR spectroscopy could be successfully used as a potential technique for monitoring their radiosterilization.

  5. Gamma Irradiation Induced Degradation of Orange Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Saucedo Luna

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, gamma irradiation induced degradation of orange peels (OP was investigated. The lignocellulosic biomass degradation was carried out at doses of 0 (control, 600, 1800 and 3500 kGy using a Co-60 gamma radiation source. The samples were tested for total and reducing sugars. The concentrations of total sugars ranged from 0.530 g∙g−1 in control sample to 0.382 g∙g−1 of dry weight in the sample which received the highest radiation dose. The reducing sugars content varying from 0.018 to 0.184 g∙g−1 of dry weight with the largest rise occurring in the sample irradiated at 3500 kGy. The concentrations of sucrose, glucose and fructose were determined. The changes generated in physico-chemical properties were determined by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and termogravimetric analysis (TG-DTG. The results show that OP was affected, but not significantly, which suggests that lignocellulose and sugars profiles were partially degraded after gamma irradiation.

  6. Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Choroidal Hemangioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yun Taek; Kang, Se Woong [Department of Ophthalmology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung-Il, E-mail: jilee@skku.edu [Department of Neurosurgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Patients with choroidal hemangioma (CH), a benign ocular hamartoma, frequently presents with visual disturbance as a result of exudative retinal detachment (RD), which originates in subretinal fluid accumulation. We report our experience using the Leksell Gamma Knife in the management of symptomatic CH. Methods and Materials: Seven patients with symptomatic CH (circumscribed form in 3 patients and diffuse form in 4) were treated with the Leksell Gamma Knife at our institution during a 7-year period. All patients presented with exudative RD involving the macula that resulted in severe visual deterioration. The prescription dose to the target margin was 10 Gy in all cases. The mean tumor volume receiving the prescription dose was 536 mm{sup 3} (range, 151-1,057). The clinical data were analyzed in a retrospective fashion after a mean follow-up of 34.4 months (range, 9-76). Results: The resolution of exudative RD was achieved within 6 months, and the visual acuity of the affected eye had improved at the latest follow-up examination (p = .018) in all patients. No recurrence of exudative RD occurred. Thinning of the CHs was observed in most patients; however, symptomatic radiation toxicity had not developed in any of the patients. Conclusion: Symptomatic CHs can be safely and effectively managed with Gamma Knife radiosurgery using a marginal dose of 10 Gy.

  7. Effects of gamma radiation in soybean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Jose Gilmar; Franco, Suely Salumita Haddad; Arthur, Valter; Arthur, Paula Bergamin, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Franco, Caio Haddad [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa em Energia e Materiais (LNBio/CNPEM), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Laboratorio Nacional de Biociencias; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia, E-mail: zegilmar60@gmail.com, E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The degree of radiosensitivity depends mostly on the species, the stage of the embryo at irradiation, the doses employed and the criteria used to measure the effect. One of the most common criteria to evaluate radiosensitivity in seeds is to measure the average plant production. Soya dry seeds were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from source of Cobalt-60, type Gammecell-220, at 0.245 kGy dose rate. In order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination, plant growth and production. Five treatments radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 25; 50; 75 and 100 Gy. Seed germination and harvest of number of seeds and total production were assessed to identify occurrence of stimulation. Soya seeds and plants were handled as for usual seed production in Brazil. The low doses of gamma radiation in the seeds that stimulate the production were doses of 25, 50 and 75 Gy. There are evidences that the use of low doses of gamma radiation can stimulate germination and plant production. (author)

  8. Analysis of gamma irradiated pepper constituents, 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, Kazuko; Okuyama, Tsuneo; Ishikawa, Toshihiro.

    1988-11-01

    Gamma irradiated peppers (10 krad, 100 krad, 1 Mrad) were analyzed by HPLC. The extraction method and HPLC conditions were same as the first report, that is, the extraction from pepper was performed by Automatic Air Hammer and the extracted samples were separated on a reversed phase C/sub 8/ column with a concave gradient from 0.1% trifluoroaceticacid (TFA) in water to 75% acetonitrile-0.1% TFA in water for 60 minutes and detected at 210 nm, 280 nm. It is difficult to compare with irradiated and unirradiated pepper constituents by their peak height or area. And the method of multivariant statistically analysis was introduced. The 'peak n area/peak n + 1 area' ratio was calculated by computer. Each peak area was accounted by integrator. The value of these ratio were called 'parameter'. Each chromatogram has 741 parameters calculated with 39 chromatographic peaks. And these parameters were abopted to the multivariant statiscally analysis. Comparison of constituents between irradiated pepper and unirradiated pepper was done by 741 parameters. The correlation of parameters between irradiated and unirradiated was investigated by use of computer. Some parameters of irradiated case were selected as which had no correlation with unirradiated case. That is to say these parameters were thought to be changed with gamma spectrum irradiation. By this method, Coumarin was identified as a changed component with gamma irradiation.

  9. RADIO FLARES FROM GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopač, D.; Mundell, C. G.; Kobayashi, S.; Virgili, F. J. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Harrison, R. [Department of Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Japelj, J.; Gomboc, A. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Guidorzi, C. [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat, 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Melandri, A., E-mail: D.Kopac@ljmu.ac.uk [INAF/Brera Astronomical Observatory, via Bianchi 46, I-23807, Merate (Italy)

    2015-06-20

    We present predictions of centimeter and millimeter radio emission from reverse shocks (RSs) in the early afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with the goal of determining their detectability with current and future radio facilities. Using a range of GRB properties, such as peak optical brightness and time, isotropic equivalent gamma-ray energy, and redshift, we simulate radio light curves in a framework generalized for any circumburst medium structure and including a parameterization of the shell thickness regime that is more realistic than the simple assumption of thick- or thin-shell approximations. Building on earlier work by Mundell et al. and Melandri et al. in which the typical frequency of the RS was suggested to lie at radio rather than optical wavelengths at early times, we show that the brightest and most distinct RS radio signatures are detectable up to 0.1–1 day after the burst, emphasizing the need for rapid radio follow-up. Detection is easier for bursts with later optical peaks, high isotropic energies, lower circumburst medium densities, and at observing frequencies that are less prone to synchrotron self-absorption effects—typically above a few GHz. Given recent detections of polarized prompt gamma-ray and optical RS emission, we suggest that detection of polarized radio/millimeter emission will unambiguously confirm the presence of low-frequency RSs at early time.

  10. Gamma-Ray Pulsars Models and Predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Harding, A K

    2001-01-01

    Pulsed emission from gamma-ray pulsars originates inside the magnetosphere, from radiation by charged particles accelerated near the magnetic poles or in the outer gaps. In polar cap models, the high energy spectrum is cut off by magnetic pair production above an energy that is dependent on the local magnetic field strength. While most young pulsars with surface fields in the range B = 10^{12} - 10^{13} G are expected to have high energy cutoffs around several GeV, the gamma-ray spectra of old pulsars having lower surface fields may extend to 50 GeV. Although the gamma-ray emission of older pulsars is weaker, detecting pulsed emission at high energies from nearby sources would be an important confirmation of polar cap models. Outer gap models predict more gradual high-energy turnovers at around 10 GeV, but also predict an inverse Compton component extending to TeV energies. Detection of pulsed TeV emission, which would not survive attenuation at the polar caps, is thus an important test of outer gap models. N...

  11. Gamma knife radiosurgery to the trigeminal ganglion for treatment of trigeminal neuralgia secondary to vertebrobasilar ectasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somaza, Salvador; Hurtado, Wendy; Montilla, Eglee; Ghaleb, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Background: We report the result obtained using Gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery on the trigeminal ganglion (TG) in a patient with trigeminal neuralgia (TN) secondary to vertebrobasilar ectasia (VBE). Case Description: Retrospective review of medical records corresponding to one patient with VBE-related trigeminal pain treated with radiosurgery. Because of the impossibility of visualization of the entry zone or the path of trigeminal nerve through the pontine cistern, we proceeded with stereotactic radiosurgery directed to the TG. The maximum radiation dose was 86 Gy with a 8-mm and a 4-mm collimator. The follow-up period was 24 months. The pain disappeared in 15 days, passing from Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) grade V to BNI grade IIIa in 4 months and then to grade I. The patient did not experience noticeable subjective facial numbness. Conclusions: This experience showed that Gamma knife radiosurgery was effective in the management of VBE-related trigeminal pain, using the TG as radiosurgical target. PMID:25593782

  12. Effect of gamma radiation on lipids by the TBARS and NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Adriana Cristina de Oliveira; Cortez, Marco Antonio Sloboda, E-mail: vetdri@gmail.com [Lab. de Inspecao e Tecnologia de Leite e Derivados Lacteos, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi - RJ (Brazil); Marsico, Eliane Teixeira; Guimaraes, Carlos Frederico [Laboratorio de Controle Fisico-Quimico de Produtos de Origem Animal, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi - RJ (Brazil); Jesus, Edgar Francisco Oliveira de [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao Nuclear, Instituto Alberto Luiz Coimbra de Pos-graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro - RJ (Brazil)

    2011-11-15

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of gamma radiation on lipids by TBARS and NMR. The samples of raw whole milk were subjected to gamma radiation from Co{sup 60} in doses of 1, 2 and 3 kGy and the production of rancidity was studied through Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Thiobarbituric Acid Test (2-TBARS). The TBARS values increased according to the intensity of the radiation dose applied at the samples, demonstrating correlation between the radiation dose and the production of lipid oxidation. This was confirmed by NMR with the formation of peaks of aldehydes and ketones that were small and similar in the doses of 1 and 2 kGy. In the dose of 3 kGy, the total degradation of milk fat was observed. A correlation between the NMR and 2-TBA was detected. (author)

  13. The Multi-Messenger Approach to High-Energy Gamma-Ray Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Paredes, Josep M; Torres, Diego F

    2008-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical and observational overview of the state of the art of gamma-ray astrophysics, and their impact and connection with the physics of cosmic rays and neutrinos. With the aim of shedding new and fresh light on the problem of the nature of the gamma-ray sources, particularly those yet unidentified, this book summarizes contributions to a workshop that continues with the series initiated by the meeting held at Tonantzintla in October 2000, and Hong-Kong in May 2004. This books will be of interest for all active researchers in the field of high energy astrophysics and astroparticle physics, as well as for graduate students entering into the subject.

  14. Human subjects research handbook: Protecting human research subjects. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-30

    This handbook serves as a guide to understanding and implementing the Federal regulations and US DOE Orders established to protect human research subjects. Material in this handbook is directed towards new and continuing institutional review board (IRB) members, researchers, institutional administrators, DOE officials, and others who may be involved or interested in human subjects research. It offers comprehensive overview of the various requirements, procedures, and issues relating to human subject research today.

  15. Converging signals synergistically activate the LAMC2 promoter and lead to accumulation of the laminin gamma 2 chain in human colon carcinoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørgen; Kirkeby, Lene T; Brorsson, Marianne M

    2003-01-01

    The trimeric extracellular matrix molecule laminin-5 and its constituent chains (alpha 3, beta 3, gamma 2) are normally not detectable intracellularly in intestinal epithelial cells but the laminin gamma 2 chain can be detected in cancer cells at the invasive front of a subset of colon carcinomas....... These cells are subjected to cytokines such as transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), produced by the tumour cells or by the surrounding stromal cells. The purpose of the present work was to investigate whether TGF-beta 1 and HGF, known to stimulate the LAMC2 gene...... encoding the laminin gamma 2 chain, might synergize to activate the LAMC2 promoter, and to identify the promoter elements involved. We find evidence for synergy between TGF-beta and HGF with respect to laminin gamma 2 chain expression and promoter activation and demonstrate that this requires the 5...

  16. Gamma Knife™ Radiosurgery Treatment Planning for Small Animals using High-Resolution 7T Micro-magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiant, D.; Atwood, T. F.; Olson, J.; Papagikos, M.; Forbes, M. E.; Riddle, D. R.; Bourland, J. D.

    2009-01-01

    Gamma Knife™ stereotactic radiosurgery is capable of providing small, high gradient dose distributions to a target with a high level of precision, which makes it an excellent choice for studies of focal irradiations with small animals. However, the Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery process makes use of a human-sized fiducial marker system that requires a field of view of at least 200 mm2 to relate computed tomography and magnetic resonance images to the Gamma Knife treatment planning software. Thus the Gamma Knife fiducial marker system is five to six times larger than a typical small animal subject. The required large field of view limits the spatial resolution and structural detail available in the animal treatment planning image set. In response to this challenge we have developed a custom-designed stereotactic jig and miniature fiducial marking system that allow small bore high-resolution micro-imaging techniques, such as 7T MR and micro-CT, to be used for treatment planning of Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery focal irradiation of small animals. PMID:19883231

  17. Gamma knife radiosurgery treatment planning for small animals using high-resolution 7T micro-magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiant, D; Atwood, T F; Olson, J; Papagikos, M; Forbes, M E; Riddle, D R; Bourland, J D

    2009-11-01

    Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery is capable of providing small, high gradient dose distributions to a target with a high level of precision, which makes it an excellent choice for studies of focal irradiations with small animals. However, the Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery process makes use of a human-sized fiducial marker system that requires a field of view of at least 200 mm(2) to relate computed tomography and magnetic resonance images to the Gamma Knife treatment planning software. Thus the Gamma Knife fiducial marker system is five to six times larger than a typical small animal subject. The required large field of view limits the spatial resolution and structural detail available in the animal treatment planning image set. In response to this challenge we have developed a custom-designed stereotactic jig and miniature fiducial marking system that allow small bore high-resolution micro-imaging techniques, such as 7T MR and micro-CT, to be used for treatment planning of Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery focal irradiation of small animals.

  18. High-gamma band fronto-temporal coherence as a measure of functional connectivity in speech motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingyon, J; Behroozmand, R; Kelley, R; Oya, H; Kawasaki, H; Narayanan, N S; Greenlee, J D W

    2015-10-01

    The neural basis of human speech is unclear. Intracranial electrophysiological recordings have revealed that high-gamma band oscillations (70-150Hz) are observed in the frontal lobe during speech production and in the temporal lobe during speech perception. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the frontal and temporal brain regions had high-gamma coherence during speech. We recorded electrocorticography (ECoG) from the frontal and temporal cortices of five humans who underwent surgery for medically intractable epilepsy, and studied coherence between the frontal and temporal cortex during vocalization and playback of vocalization. We report two novel results. First, we observed high-gamma band as well as theta (4-8Hz) coherence between frontal and temporal lobes. Second, both high-gamma and theta coherence were stronger when subjects were actively vocalizing as compared to playback of the same vocalizations. These findings provide evidence that coupling between sensory-motor networks measured by high-gamma coherence plays a key role in feedback-based monitoring and control of vocal output for human vocalization. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Shifts in gamma phase-amplitude coupling frequency from theta to alpha over posterior cortex during visual tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Voytek

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The phase of ongoing theta (4-8 Hz and alpha (8-12 Hz electrophysiological oscillations is coupled to high gamma (80-150 Hz amplitude, which suggests that low frequency oscillations modulate local cortical activity. While this phase-amplitude coupling (PAC has been demonstrated in a variety of tasks and cortical regions, it has not been shown whether task demands differentially affect the regional distribution of the preferred low-frequency coupling to high gamma. To address this issue we investigated multiple-rhythm theta/alpha phase to high gamma amplitude PAC in two subjects with implanted subdural electrocorticographic grids. We show that high gamma amplitude couples to the theta and alpha troughs and demonstrate that, during visual tasks, alpha/high gamma coupling preferentially increases in visual cortical regions. These results suggest that low-frequency phase to high-frequency amplitude PAC is modulated by behavioral task and may reflect a mechanism for selection between communicating neuronal networks.

  20. Resting gamma power is linked to reading ability in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Adam; Strait, Dana L; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Infants who have more power within the gamma frequency range at rest develop better language and cognitive abilities over their first 3 years of life (Benasich et al., 2008). This positive trend may reflect the gradual increase in resting gamma power that peaks at about 4 years (Takano & Ogawa, 1998): infants further along the maturational curve may exhibit both increased resting gamma power and more advanced language and cognitive function. Similar to other neural characteristics such as synaptic density, resting gamma power subsequently decreases with further development into adulthood (Tierney, Strait, O'Connell & Kraus, 2013). If previously reported relationships between resting gamma power and behavioral performance reflect variance in maturation, at least in part, negative correlations between resting gamma and behavior may predominate in later developmental stages, during which resting gamma activity is decreasing. We tested this prediction by examining resting gamma activity and language-dependent behavioral performance, reflected by a variety of reading-related tests, in adolescents between the ages of 14 and 15 years. Consistent with our predictions, resting gamma power inversely related to every aspect of reading assessed (i.e. reading fluency, rapid naming, and basic reading proficiency). Our results suggest that resting gamma power acts as an index of maturational progress in adolescents. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. EML Gamma Spectrometry Data Evaluation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, Karin M. [Environmental Measurements Lab. (EML), New York, NY (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of the analyses for the third EML Gamma Spectrometry Data Evaluation Program (October 1999). This program assists laboratories in providing more accurate gamma spectra analysis results and provides a means for users of gamma data to assess how a laboratory performed on various types of gamma spectrometry analyses. This is accomplished through the use of synthetic gamma spectra. A calibration spectrum, a background spectrum, and three sample spectra are sent to each participant in the spectral file format requested by the laboratory. The calibration spectrum contains nuclides covering the energy range from 59.5 keV to 1836 keV. The participants are told fallout and fission product nuclides could be present. The sample spectra are designed to test the ability of the software and user to properly resolve multiplets and to identify and quantify nuclides in a complicated fission product spectrum. The participants were asked to report values and uncertainties as Becquerel per sample with no decay correction. Thirty-one sets of results were reported from a total of 60 laboratories who received the spectra. Six foreign laboratories participated. The percentage of the results within 1 of the expected value was 68, 33, and 46 for samples 1, 2, and 3, respectively. From all three samples, 18% of the results were more than 3 from the expected value. Eighty-three (12%) values out of a total of 682 expected results were not reported for the three samples. Approximately 30% of these false negatives were due the laboratories not reporting 144Pr in sample 2 which was present at the minimum detectable activity level. There were 53 false positives reported with 25% of these responses due to problems with background subtraction. The results show improvement in the ability of the software or user to resolve peaks separated by 1 keV. Improvement is still needed either in the analysis report produced by the software or in the review of these

  2. Measurement of the {gamma}-anisotropy in n{yields}+p{yields}{yields}d+{gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, T.M.; Dubbers, D.; Hautle, P.; Bunyatova, E.I.; Korobkina, E.I.; Zimmer, O

    2000-02-11

    The study of the radiative neutron capture by protons, n+p{yields}d+{gamma}, provides valuable information about the nucleon-nucleon interaction. So far, no experimental value has existed for the {gamma}-anisotropy which may appear if neutrons and protons both are polarised. A non-vanishing {gamma}-anisotropy {eta} is a clear-cut signal for the existence of transitions {sup 3}S{sub 1}{yields} {sup 3}d{sub 1} from the triplet initial state to the ground state of the deuteron. We report the first measurement of this observable. The result is {eta}=(1.0{+-}2.5)x10{sup -4} at 50.5% polarisation of neutrons and protons.

  3. Measurement of the gamma-anisotropy in n->+p->->d+gamma

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, T M; Hautle, P; Bunyatova, E I; Korobkina, E I; Zimmer, O

    2000-01-01

    The study of the radiative neutron capture by protons, n+p->d+gamma, provides valuable information about the nucleon-nucleon interaction. So far, no experimental value has existed for the gamma-anisotropy which may appear if neutrons and protons both are polarised. A non-vanishing gamma-anisotropy eta is a clear-cut signal for the existence of transitions sup 3 S sub 1-> sup 3 d sub 1 from the triplet initial state to the ground state of the deuteron. We report the first measurement of this observable. The result is eta=(1.0+-2.5)x10 sup - sup 4 at 50.5% polarisation of neutrons and protons.

  4. Subjective memory complaints and personality traits in normal elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänninen, T; Reinikainen, K J; Helkala, E L; Koivisto, K; Mykkänen, L; Laakso, M; Pyörälä, K; Riekkinen, P J

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between objectively measured memory functions and subjective complaints of memory disturbance and whether subjective complaints are affected by some personality traits or affective states. Cross-sectional two-group comparison. The city of Kuopio in Eastern Finland, considered representative of the urban elderly population of Finland. Originally 403 subjects aged 67-78 years from the random sample and then two matched study groups initially including eighteen subjects but only ten in the final analysis. Screening and follow-up examinations of subjects with and without subjective memory complaints: (1) Memory functions: Benton's visual retention test and the paired-associated learning subtest of Wechsler Memory Scale. (2) Memory complaints: Memory Complaint Questionnaire. (3) Personality traits and affective state: Two subscales from Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and Geriatric Depression Scale. Complaints of memory loss did not correlate with the actual memory performance in the tests. However, those subjects who most emphatically complained of memory disturbance had greater tendencies toward somatic complaining, higher feelings of anxiety about their physical health, and more negative feelings of their own competence and capabilities than those who did not complain of memory deterioration associated with aging. The study suggests that subjective feelings of memory impairment are more closely associated with personality traits than with actual memory performance in normal elderly people.

  5. Subjectivity and professional vocational counselling

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Marina

    2004-01-01

    In this work, I shall deal with the psychodynamic approach to subjectivity in P.V.C. To this effect, I want to develop the concept of subject and subjectivity, its variation and historical-social construction and its approach in counselling, from a psychodynamic conceptual framework in P.V.C. with a short reference to the theoretical sources on which this approach is founded. Departamento de Psicología

  6. Polarized gamma-rays with laser-Compton backscattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohgaki, H.; Noguchi, T.; Sugiyama, S. [Electrotechnical Lab., Ibaraki (Japan)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Polarized gamma-rays were generated through laser-Compton backscattering (LCS) of a conventional Nd:YAG laser with electrons circulating in the electron storage ring TERAS at Electrotechnical Laboratory. We measured the energy, the energy spread, and the yield of the gamma-rays to characterize our gamma-ray source. The gamma-ray energy can be varied by changing the energy of the electrons circulating the storage ring. In our case, the energy of electrons in the storage ring were varied its energy from 200 to 750 MeV. Consequently, we observed gamma-ray energies of 1 to 10 MeV with 1064 run laser photons. Furthermore, the gamma-ray energy was extended to 20 MeV by using the 2nd harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser. This shows a good agreement with theoretical calculation. The gamma-ray energy spread was also measured to be 1% FWHM for -1 MeV gamma-rays and to be 4% FWHM for 10 MeV gamma-rays with a narrow collimator that defined the scattering cone. The gamma-ray yield was 47.2 photons/mA/W/s. This value is consistent with a rough estimation of 59.5 photons/mA/W/s derived from theory. Furthermore, we tried to use these gamma-rays for a nuclear fluorescence experiment. If we use a polarized laser beam, we can easily obtain polarized gamma-rays. Elastically scattered photons from {sup 208} Pb were clearly measured with the linearly polarized gamma-rays, and we could assign the parity of J=1 states in the nucleus. We should emphasize that the polarized gamma-ray from LCS is quit useful in this field, because we can use highly, almost completely, polarized gamma-rays. We also use the LCS gamma-rays to measure the photon absorption coefficients. In near future, we will try to generate a circular polarized gamma-ray. We also have a plan to use an FEL, because it can produce intense laser photons in the same geometric configuration as the LCS facility.

  7. Localization of Gamma-Ray Bursts using the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor

    OpenAIRE

    Connaughton, V.; Briggs, M. S.; Goldstein, A.; Meegan, C. A.; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, R. D.; Wilson-Hodge, C.A.; Gibby, M. H.; Greiner, J.; Gruber, D.; Jenke, P.; Kippen, R. M.; Pelassa, V.; Xiong, S.; Yu, H-F

    2014-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) has detected over 1400 Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) since it began science operations in July, 2008. We use a subset of over 300 GRBs localized by instruments such as Swift, the Fermi Large Area Telescope, INTEGRAL, and MAXI, or through triangulations from the InterPlanetary Network (IPN), to analyze the accuracy of GBM GRB localizations. We find that the reported statistical uncertainties on GBM localizations, which can be as small as 1 degree, underestimat...

  8. Hybrid optical CDMA-FSO communications network under spatially correlated gamma-gamma scintillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado-Navas, Antonio; Raddo, Thiago R.; Garrido-Balsells, José María

    2016-01-01

    is thoroughly described. The users access the network in a fully asynchronous manner by means of assigned fast frequency hopping (FFH)-based codes. In the FSO receiver, an equal gain-combining technique is employed along with intensity modulation and direct detection. New analytical formalisms for evaluating...... the average bit error rate (ABER) performance are also proposed. These formalisms, based on the spatially correlated gamma-gamma statistical model, are derived considering three distinct scenarios, namely, uncorrelated, totally correlated, and partially correlated channels. Numerical results show that users...

  9. Modeling of gamma/gamma-prime phase equilibrium in the nickel-aluminum system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, J. M.; Barefoot, J. R.; Jarrett, R. N.; Tien, J. K.

    1984-01-01

    A theoretical model is proposed for the determination of phase equilibrium in alloys, taking into consideration dissimilar lattice parameters. Volume-dependent pair interactions are introduced by means of phenomenological Lennard-Jones potentials and the configurational entropy of the system is treated in the tetrahedron approximation of the cluster variation method. The model is applied to the superalloy-relevant, nickel-rich, gamma/gamma-prime phase region of the Ni-Al phase diagram. The model predicts reasonable values for the lattice parameters and the enthalpy of formation as a function of composition, and the calculated phase diagram closely approximates the experimental diagram.

  10. Searches for Lepton Flavor Violation in the Decays tau+- ---> e+- gamma and tau+- ---> mu+- gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, Bernard; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; /Bergen U.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, David Nathan; Hooberman, B.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS; /more authors..

    2010-06-11

    Searches for lepton-flavor-violating decays of a {tau} lepton to a lighter mass lepton and a photon have been performed with the entire dataset of (963 {+-} 7) x 10{sup 6} {tau} decays collected by the BABAR detector near the {Upsilon}(4S), {Upsilon}(3S) and {Upsilon}(2S) resonances. The searches yield no evidence of signals and they set upper limits on the branching fractions of {Beta}({tau}{sup {+-}} {yields} e{sup {+-}}{gamma}) < 3.3 x 10{sup -8} and {Beta}({tau}{sup {+-}} {yields} {mu}{sup {+-}}{gamma}) < 4.4 x 10{sup -8} at 90% confidence level.

  11. Performance of BICM-based QAM-SIM OWC over gamma-gamma turbulence channels

    KAUST Repository

    Malik, Muhammad Talha

    2015-05-01

    We derive a series expression for the pair-wise error probability (PEP) of bit interleaved coded modulation (BICM)-based subcarrier intensity modulation (SIM) optical wireless communication (OWC) system employing M^{2}-ary quadrature amplitude modulation ( M^{2} -QAM) over the Gamma-Gamma turbulence channels. Using this expression, we develop an upper bound (UB) to predict the bit-error rate performance of such system. Simulation results are presented to verify the analytical results. We also develop an asymptotic UB which reveals that the diversity order depends on the smaller channel parameter and the free distance of the convolutional code. © 1997-2012 IEEE.

  12. Low SNR Capacity of FSO Links over Gamma-Gamma Atmospheric Turbulence Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2013-01-27

    In this paper, we study the ergodic capacity of free space optical communication systems over Gamma-Gamma atmospheric turbulence fading channels with perfect channel state information at both the transmitter and the receiver. In our framework, we mainly focus on the low signal-to-noise ratio range and show that the ergodic capacity scales proportionally to SNR log^4(1/SNR). We show also that one-bit CSI feedback at the transmitter is enough to achieve this capacity using an on-o ff power control scheme.

  13. Low SNR Capacity of FSO Links over Gamma-Gamma Atmospheric Turbulence Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2013-02-23

    In this paper, we study the ergodic capacity of free space optical communication systems over Gamma-Gamma atmospheric turbulence fading channels with perfect channel state information at both the transmitter and the receiver. In our framework, we mainly focus on the low signal-to-noise ratio range and show that the ergodic capacity scales proportionally to SNR log^4(1/SNR). We show also that one-bit CSI feedback at the transmitter is enough to achieve this capacity using an on-off power control scheme.

  14. POISONING WITH GAMMA-HYDROXYBUTYRATE, GAMMA-BUTYROLACTONE AND 1.4-BUTANDIOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB is a popular recreational drug. GHB overdose typically presents with decreased level of consciousness, miosis, bradycardia, respiratory depression and death. Typically, combativeness, confusion and vomiting occur once the patient begins to recover. Gamma-butyrolactone (GBL and 1.4-butandiol (1.4-BD are the prodrugs of GHB and have similar clinical presentation. We present the case of GHB poisoning in Ljubljana.Conclusions. Physicians should suspect GHB poisoning in young ravers who present with CNS depression. Treatment is symptomatic. There is no specific antidote. Gastric lavage is not beneficial but activated charcoal is recommended.

  15. The measurement $\\gamma_{b\\overline{b}}/ \\gamma_{had}$ from DELPHI

    CERN Document Server

    Barker, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Using LEP1 data taken in 1994 and 1995, the DELPHI collaboration has a preliminary measurement of $Gamma_{b\\overline{b}}/\\Gamma_{had}$ which was submitted to the Jerusalem HEP'97 conference. Use of the upgraded microvertex detector, installed in spring 1994, together with an improved track search procedure has allowed the development of powerful new b-quark tags. The combination of these tags in a multivariate analysis is presented with particular emphasis on new features of the method compared to DELPHI publications on earlier data sets.

  16. Search for Charmonium States Decaying to J/\\psi\\gamma \\gamma $ Using Initial-State Radiation Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Bona, M.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Palano,; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B.; /Bergen U.; Abrams, G.S.; /LBL,

    2006-11-30

    We study the processes e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} (J/{psi}{gamma}{gamma}){gamma} and e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} (J/{psi}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}){gamma} where the hard photon radiated from an initial e{sup +}e{sup -} collision with center-of-mass (CM) energy near 10.58 GeV is detected. In the final state J/{psi}{gamma}{gamma} we consider J/{psi}{pi}{sup 0}, J/{psi}{eta}, {chi}{sub c1}{gamma}, and {chi}c{sub 2}{gamma} candidates. The invariant mass of the hadronic final state defines the effective e{sup +}e{sup -} CM energy in each event, so these data can be compared with direct e{sup +}e{sup -} measurements. We report 90% CL upper limits for the integrated cross section times branching fractions of the J/{psi}{gamma}{gamma} channels in the Y (4260) mass region.

  17. A Study of J/psi-->gamma gamma V(rho,phi) Decays with the BESII Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, J Z; Bian, J G; Cai, X; Chang, J F; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, H X; Chen, J C; Chen, J; Chen, M L; Chen, Y B; Chi, S P; Chu, Y P; Cui, X Z; Dai, H L; Dai, Y S; Deng, Z Y; Dong, L Y; Du, S X; Du, Z Z; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fu, C D; Fu, H Y; Fu, L P; Gao, C S; Gao, M L; Gao, Y N; Gong, M Y; Gong, W X; Gu, S D; Guo, Y N; Guo, Y Q; Han, S W; He, J; He, K L; He, M; He, X; Heng, Y K; Hu, H M; Hu, T; Huang, G S; Huang, L; Huang, X P; Ji, X B; Jia, Q Y; Jiang, C H; Jiang, X S; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Jin, Y; Lai, Y F; Li, F; Li, G; Li, H H; Li, J; Li, J C; Li, Q J; Li, R B; Li, R Y; Li, S M; Li, W; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X Q; Li, X S; Liang, Y F; Liao, H B; Liu, C X; Liu, F; Liu, H M; Liu, J B; Liu, J P; Liu, R G; Liu, Y; Liu, Z A; Liu, Z X; Lu, G R; Lu, F; Lu, J G; Luo, C L; Luo, X L; Ma, F C; Ma, J M; Ma, L L; Ma, X Y; Mao, Z P; Meng, X C; Mo, X H; Nie, J; Nie, Z D; Peng, H P; Qi, N D; Qian, C D; Qin, H; Qiu, J F; Ren, Z Y; Rong, G; Shan, L Y; Shang, L; Shen, D L; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Shi, F; Shi, X; Song, L W; Sun, H S; Sun, S S; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Tang, X; Tao, N; Tian, Y R; Tong, G L; Wang, D Y; Wang, J Z; Wang, L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, S Z; Wang, W F; Wang, Y F; Wang, Z; Wang, Z Y; Wei, C L; Wu, N; Wu, Y M; Xia, X M; Xie, X X; Xin, B; Xu, G F; Xu, H; Xu, Y; Xue, S T; Yan, M L; Yan, W B; Yang, F; Yang, H X; Yang, J; Yang, S D; Yang, Y X; Yi, L H; Yi, Z Y; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Ye, Y X; Yu, C S; Yu, G W; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, J M; Yuan, Y; Yue, Q; Zang, S L; Zeng, Y; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J; Zhang, J M; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J W; Zhang, L S; Zhang, Q J; Zhang, S Q; Zhang Xiao Min; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y J; Zhang, Y Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Q; Zhao, D X; Zhao, J B; Zhao, J W; Zhao, P P; Zhao, W R; Zhao, X J; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zheng, H Q; Zheng, J P; Zheng, L S; Zheng, Z P; Zhong, X C; Zhou, B Q; Zhou, G M; Zhou, L; Zhou, N F; Zhu, K J; Zhu, Q M; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, B A; Zou, B S

    2004-01-01

    Using a sample of $58\\times 10^6$ $J/\\psi$ events collected with the BESII detector, radiative decays $J/\\psi\\to\\gamma\\gamma V$, where $V=\\rho$ or $\\phi$, are studied. A resonance around 1420 MeV/c$^2$ (X(1424)) is observed in the $\\gamma\\rho$ mass spectrum. Its mass and width are measured to be $1424\\pm 10(stat)\\pm 11(sys)$ MeV/c$^2$ and $ 101.0\\pm 8.8 \\pm 8.8$ MeV/c$^2$, respectively, and its branching ratio $B(J/\\psi\\to \\gamma X(1424)\\to \\gamma \\gamma \\rho)$ is determined to be $(1.07\\pm0.17 \\pm 0.11)\\times 10^{-4}$. A search for $X(1424)\\to \\gamma\\phi$ yields a 95% C.L. upper limit $B(J/\\psi\\to \\gamma X(1424)\\to \\gamma\\gamma \\phi) < 0.82 \\times 10^{-4}$.

  18. The Subject in Cognitive Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Caro-Gabalda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the various subjects embedded in cognitive psychotherapy. The cognitive model developed by Beck, considered as a rationalist and modernist model, will exemplify these subjects. Cognitive therapy should be placed in the modernist historical context and related to a subject characterized as having rationality and the ability to observe and detect cognitions, emotions and behaviors. The paper develops this background introducing three main subject types. The first is the introspective and conscious subject, who is able to observe what is within oneself, has free access, and is conscious of one's cognitive world. The second is the cognitive miser that describes the subject who enters into therapy. The final subject identified, is the trained scientist who is able to develop a more objective knowledge, changing faulty schemas and cognitive distortions. This subject is the one most looked for in cognitive therapy. We could connect these subjects to some of the main elements of cognitive therapy such as the concept of ABC, assessment procedures, cognitive techniques or the relevance of schemas. Finally, the paper suggests some issues for study that could contribute to the theoretical and clinical evolution of cognitive psychotherapy.

  19. A brain-computer interface based on self-regulation of gamma-oscillations in the superior parietal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse-Wentrup, Moritz; Schölkopf, Bernhard

    2014-10-01

    Objective. Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems are often based on motor- and/or sensory processes that are known to be impaired in late stages of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We propose a novel BCI designed for patients in late stages of ALS that only requires high-level cognitive processes to transmit information from the user to the BCI. Approach. We trained subjects via EEG-based neurofeedback to self-regulate the amplitude of gamma-oscillations in the superior parietal cortex (SPC). We argue that parietal gamma-oscillations are likely to be associated with high-level attentional processes, thereby providing a communication channel that does not rely on the integrity of sensory- and/or motor-pathways impaired in late stages of ALS. Main results. Healthy subjects quickly learned to self-regulate gamma-power in the SPC by alternating between states of focused attention and relaxed wakefulness, resulting in an average decoding accuracy of 70.2%. One locked-in ALS patient (ALS-FRS-R score of zero) achieved an average decoding accuracy significantly above chance-level though insufficient for communication (55.8%). Significance. Self-regulation of gamma-power in the SPC is a feasible paradigm for brain-computer interfacing and may be preserved in late stages of ALS. This provides a novel approach to testing whether completely locked-in ALS patients retain the capacity for goal-directed thinking.

  20. Terrestrial gamma-ray flash production by lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Brant E.

    Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are brief flashes of gamma-rays originating in the Earth's atmosphere and observed by satellites. First observed in 1994 by the Burst And Transient Source Experiment on board the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, TGFs consist of one or more ˜1 ms pulses of gamma-rays with a total fluence of ˜1/cm2, typically observed when the satellite is near active thunderstorms. TGFs have subsequently been observed by other satellites to have a very hard spectrum (harder than dN/d E ∝ 1/ E ) that extends from below 25 keV to above 20 MeV. When good lightning data exists, TGFs are closely associated with measurable lightning discharge. Such discharges are typically observed to occur within 300 km of the sub-satellite point and within several milliseconds of the TGF observation. The production of these intense energetic bursts of photons is the puzzle addressed herein. The presence of high-energy photons implies a source of bremsstrahlung, while bremsstrahlung implies a source of energetic electrons. As TGFs are associated with lightning, fields produced by lightning are naturally suggested to accelerate these electrons. Initial ideas about TGF production involved electric fields high above thunderstorms as suggested by upper atmospheric lightning research and the extreme energies required for lower-altitude sources. These fields, produced either quasi-statically by charges in the cloud and ionosphere or dynamically by radiation from lightning strokes, can indeed drive TGF production, but the requirements on the source lightning are too extreme and therefore not common enough to account for all existing observations. In this work, studies of satellite data, the physics of energetic electron and photon production, and consideration of lightning physics motivate a new mechanism for TGF production by lightning current pulses. This mechanism is then developed and used to make testable predictions. TGF data from satellite observations are compared

  1. Superluminal blazars and the extragalactic gamma ray background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xinyu Chi; Young, Enoch C.M. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    1997-07-01

    The detection of a few dozen extragalactic gamma ray blazars of extremely high luminosity by the EGRET instrument on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory appears to suggest that blazars make the overwhelming contribution to the cosmic gamma ray background in the energy range 100 MeV - 10 GeV. In this paper we point out that the superluminal effect which boosts and beams the gamma ray emission in the jets of blazars will flatten the source count in the low flux part. Consequently, the unresolved blazars would not be expected to make much contribution to the gamma ray background. From our direct modelling of the source count, we conclude that the contribution of the unresolved blazars to the gamma ray background is only 10% of the latest estimate of the EGRET data. The implication for the cosmological evolution of the blazars is discussed. (author)

  2. Lingering Problems in Gamma-Ray Observations of GRBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meegan, Charles A.

    2000-01-01

    Although observations of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) in other wavelengths have transformed the field, the gamma-ray region of the spectrum remains important. This talk will summarize a number of unresolved issues specific to gamma-ray observations. For example, the apparent narrowness of the distribution of peak energy is difficult to explain either as an intrinsic characteristic of bursts or as a selection effect. There have also been controversial claims for anisotropy in subgroups of bursts.

  3. Identical gamma-vibrational bands in {sup 165}Ho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radford, D.C.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Janzen, V.P. [Chalk River Labs., Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The structure of {sup 165}Ho at moderate spins has been investigated by means of Coulomb excitation. Two {gamma}-vibrational bands (K{sup {pi}} = 11/2{sup {minus}} and K{sup {pi}} = 3/2{sup {minus}}) are observed, with very nearly identical in-band {gamma}-ray energies. Gamma-ray branching ratios are analyzed to extract information on Coriolis mixing, and the role of the K quantum number in identical bands is discussed.

  4. News from Cosmic Gamma-ray Line Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Diehl, Roland

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of gamma rays at MeV energies from cosmic radioactivities is one of the key tools for nuclear astrophysics, in its study of nuclear reactions and how they shape objects such as massive stars and supernova explosions. Additionally, the unique gamma-ray signature from the annihilation of positrons falls into this same astronomical window, and positrons are often produced from radioactive beta decays. Nuclear gamma-ray telescopes face instrumental challenges from penetrating gamm...

  5. The disease-subject as a subject of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kottow Andrea R

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Based on the distinction between living body and lived body, we describe the disease-subject as representing the impact of disease on the existential life-project of the subject. Traditionally, an individual's subjectivity experiences disorders of the body and describes ensuing pain, discomfort and unpleasantness. The idea of a disease-subject goes further, representing the lived body suffering existential disruption and the possible limitations that disease most probably will impose. In this limit situation, the disease-subject will have to elaborate a new life-story, a new character or way-of-being-in-the-world, it will become a different subject. Health care professionals need to realize that patients are not mere observers of their body, for they are immersed in a reassesment of values, relationships, priorities, perhaps even life-plans. Becoming acquainted with literature's capacity to create characters, modify narratives and depict life-stories in crisis, might sharpen physicians' hermeneutic acumen and make them more receptive to the quandaries of disease-subjects facing major medical and existential decisions in the wake of disruptive disease.

  6. Atopic asthmatic subjects but not atopic subjects without ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Asthma is a known risk factor for acute ozone-associated respiratory disease. Ozone causes an immediate decrease in lung function and increased airway inflammation. The role of atopy and asthma in modulation of ozone-induced inflammation has not been determined. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether atopic status modulates ozone response phenotypes in human subjects. METHODS: Fifty volunteers (25 healthy volunteers, 14 atopic nonasthmatic subjects, and 11 atopic asthmatic subjects not requiring maintenance therapy) underwent a 0.4-ppm ozone exposure protocol. Ozone response was determined based on changes in lung function and induced sputum composition, including airway inflammatory cell concentration, cell-surface markers, and cytokine and hyaluronic acid concentrations. RESULTS: All cohorts experienced similar decreases in lung function after ozone. Atopic and atopic asthmatic subjects had increased sputum neutrophil numbers and IL-8 levels after ozone exposure; values did not significantly change in healthy volunteers. After ozone exposure, atopic asthmatic subjects had significantly increased sputum IL-6 and IL-1beta levels and airway macrophage Toll-like receptor 4, Fc(epsilon)RI, and CD23 expression; values in healthy volunteers and atopic nonasthmatic subjects showed no significant change. Atopic asthmatic subjects had significantly decreased IL-10 levels at baseline compared with healthy volunteers; IL-10 levels did not significa

  7. The Object of the Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The article presents a theory of the subject, based on the work of Jacques Lacan, using the concepts of alienation, separation and liberation.......The article presents a theory of the subject, based on the work of Jacques Lacan, using the concepts of alienation, separation and liberation....

  8. Fermi Large Area Telescope Bright Gamma-ray Source List

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, Aous A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Ackermann, M.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Ajello, M.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U., OKC /Stockholm U.; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Band, D.L.; /NASA, Goddard /NASA, Goddard; Barbiellini, Guido; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, Denis; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Bechtol, K.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bignami, G.F.; /Pavia U.; Bloom, Elliott D.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Burnett, Thompson H.; /Washington U., Seattle /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /IASF, Milan /IASF, Milan /DAPNIA, Saclay /ASDC, Frascati /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /George Mason U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /NASA, Goddard /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Montpellier U. /Sonoma State U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /Stockholm U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /ASDC, Frascati /NASA, Goddard /Maryland U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /INFN, Trieste /Pavia U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /UC, Santa Cruz /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Montpellier U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /NASA, Goddard; /more authors..

    2009-05-15

    Following its launch in 2008 June, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) began a sky survey in August. The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on Fermi in three months produced a deeper and better resolved map of the {gamma}-ray sky than any previous space mission. We present here initial results for energies above 100 MeV for the 205 most significant (statistical significance greater than {approx}10{sigma}) {gamma}-ray sources in these data. These are the best characterized and best localized point-like (i.e., spatially unresolved) {gamma}-ray sources in the early mission data.

  9. Review of GRANAT observations of gamma-ray bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terekhov, O.; Denissenko, D.; Sunyaev, R.

    1995-01-01

    of the observations of the time histories and spectral evolution of the detected events provided by the different instruments in different energy ranges. Short Gamma-Ray Bursts (histories. They have harder energy spectra than the long (> 2 s) events. Evidence of the existence...... of four differently behaving componenents in gamma-ray burst spectra is discussed. Statistical properties of the gamma-ray burst sources based on the 5 years of observations with (∼ 10−6 erg/cm2) sensitivity as well as the results of high sensitivity (∼ 10−8 erg/cm2) search for Gamma-Ray Bursts within...

  10. Gamma-ray burst interaction with dense interstellar medium

    OpenAIRE

    Barkov, Maxim; Bisnovatyi-Kogan, Gennady

    2004-01-01

    Interaction of cosmological gamma ray burst radiation with the dense interstellar medium of host galaxy is considered. Gas dynamical motion of interstellar medium driven by gamma ray burst is investigated in 2D approximation for different initial density distributions of host galaxy matter and different total energy of gamma ray burst. The maximum velocity of motion of interstellar medium is $1.8\\cdot10^4$ km/s. Light curves of gamma ray burst afterglow are calculated for set of non homogeneo...

  11. A tandem-based compact dual-energy gamma generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, A; Kwan, J W; Leitner, M; Leung, K-N; Ludewigt, B; Tanaka, N; Waldron, W; Wilde, S; Antolak, A J; Morse, D H; Raber, T

    2010-02-01

    A dual-energy tandem-type gamma generator has been developed at E. O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories. The tandem accelerator geometry allows higher energy nuclear reactions to be reached, thereby allowing more flexible generation of MeV-energy gammas for active interrogation applications. Both positively charged ions and atoms of hydrogen are created from negative ions via a gas stripper. In this paper, we show first results of the working tandem-based gamma generator and that a gas stripper can be utilized in a compact source design. Preliminary results of monoenergetic gamma production are shown.

  12. Mercuric Iodide Anticoincidence Shield for Gamma-Ray Spectrometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We utilize a new detector material, polycrystalline mercuric iodide, for background suppression by active anticoincidence shielding in gamma-ray spectrometers. Two...

  13. Mercuric Iodide Anticoincidence Shield for Gamma-Ray Spectrometer Project