WorldWideScience

Sample records for subject geographic location

  1. Handy Key to Your "National Geographics": Subject and Picture Locater. 14th Edition, 1915-1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Charles S., Comp.

    This subject guide to articles and illustrations appearing in the National Geographic over a 64 year period groups detailed topics under broader alphabetical headings. It is not an author or title index, and includes people only as featured subjects of articles. An abbreviation key is provided. (FM)

  2. GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION AND SOLAR SALT PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diógenes Félix da Silva Costa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Along the Brazilian shoreline, on the northern coast of Rio Grande do Norte State Brazil are located the largest solar saltworks of the country. The present research aims to evaluate the sustainability of the con- sumption of estuarine water and the area required for salt production in Brazilian solar saltworks situated along the estuary of the River Apodi-Mossoró (Rio Grande do Norte State. The analysis of the total area of production values, water volume estuary used and annual salt production was carried out, relating to the area required for this production in a solar saltwork located upstream ( lower estuary and another downstream (high estuary in this estuary. That due to high salinity values of estuarine water upstream, the downstream saltworks require a production area three times larger than those located upstream, which obtain a production only twice superior. It was verified that the saltworks located downstream utilize the largest area and require more water volume for salt production.

  3. Pre-Service Geography Teachers' Confidence in Geographical Subject Matter Knowledge and Teaching Geographical Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Wendy; Reitano, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This research tracked the confidence of 16 undergraduate and postgraduate pre-service geography teachers as they completed a single semester, senior phase geography curriculum course. The study focused specifically on the pre-service teachers' confidence in geographical subject matter knowledge and their confidence in teaching geographical skills.…

  4. Derived Subjects In Kinyarwanda Locative Constructions*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Technology

    To the best of my knowledge, contrasts such as the one between (3b) and (4) have not been systematically discussed in the existing literature on Kinyarwanda. In this paper, I therefore examine the syntax of transitive locative constructions such as (3b) and (4) within the framework of the Minimalist Program (Chomsky 1995, ...

  5. Geographical differences in subjective well-being predict extraordinary altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brethel-Haurwitz, Kristin M; Marsh, Abigail A

    2014-03-01

    Altruistic kidney donation is a form of extraordinary altruism, the antecedents of which are poorly understood. Although well-being is known to increase the incidence of prosocial behaviors and there is significant geographical variation in both well-being and altruistic kidney donation in the United States, it is unknown whether geographical variation in well-being predicts the prevalence of this form of extraordinary altruism. We calculated per capita rates of altruistic kidney donation across the United States and found that an index of subjective well-being predicted altruistic donation, even after we controlled for relevant sociodemographic variables. This relationship persisted at the state level and at the larger geographic regional level. Consistent with hypotheses about the relationship between objective and subjective well-being, results showed that subjective well-being mediated the relationship between increases in objective well-being metrics, such as income, and altruism. These results suggest that extraordinary altruism may be promoted by societal factors that increase subjective well-being.

  6. Soil microbial communities: Influence of geographic location and hydrocarbon pollutants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maila, MP

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance and relevance of the geographical origin of the soil sample and the hydrocarbons in determining the functional or species diversity within different bacterial communities was evaluated using the community level physiological profiles...

  7. Geographic location and phylogeny are the main determinants of the size of the geographical range in aquatic beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abellán Pedro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Why some species are widespread while others are very restricted geographically is one of the most basic questions in biology, although it remains largely unanswered. This is particularly the case for groups of closely related species, which often display large differences in the size of the geographical range despite sharing many other factors due to their common phylogenetic inheritance. We used ten lineages of aquatic Coleoptera from the western Palearctic to test in a comparative framework a broad set of possible determinants of range size: species' age, differences in ecological tolerance, dispersal ability and geographic location. Results When all factors were combined in multiple regression models between 60-98% of the variance was explained by geographic location and phylogenetic signal. Maximum latitudinal and longitudinal limits were positively correlated with range size, with species at the most northern latitudes and eastern longitudes displaying the largest ranges. In lineages with lotic and lentic species, the lentic (better dispersers display larger distributional ranges than the lotic species (worse dispersers. The size of the geographical range was also positively correlated with the extent of the biomes in which the species is found, but we did not find evidence of a clear relationship between range size and age of the species. Conclusions Our findings show that range size of a species is shaped by an interplay of geographic and ecological factors, with a phylogenetic component affecting both of them. The understanding of the factors that determine the size and geographical location of the distributional range of species is fundamental to the study of the origin and assemblage of the current biota. Our results show that for this purpose the most relevant data may be the phylogenetic history of the species and its geographical location.

  8. Geographical thinking in nursing inquiry, part one: locations, contents, meanings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Gavin J

    2016-10-01

    Spatial thought is undergoing somewhat of a renaissance in nursing. Building on a long disciplinary tradition of conceptualizing and studying 'nursing environment', the past twenty years has witnessing the establishment and refinement of explicitly geographical nursing research. This article - part one in a series of two - reviews the perspectives taken to date, ranging from historical precedent in classical nursing theory through to positivistic spatial science, political economy, and social constructivism in contemporary inquiry. This discussion sets up part two, which considers the potential of non-representational theory for framing future studies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Oil and Gas Field Locations, Geographic NAD83, LDNR (2007) [oil_gas_fields_LDNR_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS layer consists of oil and gas field approximate center point locations (approximately 1,800). Oil and gas fields not assigned a center point by the DNR...

  10. Utilizing Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to analyze geographic and demographic patterns related to forensic case recovery locations in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpan, Katharine E; Warren, Michael

    2017-12-01

    This paper highlights how Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can be utilized to analyze biases and patterns related to physical and cultural geography in Florida. Using case recovery locations from the C. Addison Pound Human Identification Laboratory (CAPHIL), results indicate that the majority of CAPHIL cases are recovered from urban areas with medium to low population density and low rates of crime. The results also suggest that more accurate record keeping methods would enhance the data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The geographical location of retail outlets/ service stations in the Nigerian petroleum industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Lawal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examinie the channels of petroleum distribution in Nigeria from the Refineries to Depot and Retail Outlets/Service Stations where the consumers finally purchase their products. Specifically the paper considers some of the geographical factors that are influencing the location of service stations in the Nigerian Petroleum Industry.

  12. Geographic variation in Australasian microtektite concentrations: Implications concerning the location and size of the source crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, B. P.; Pizzuto, J. E.

    1994-09-01

    Geographic variations in the concentration of Australasian microtektites in 42 cores from the Indian Ocean, western equatorial Pacific Ocean, and the Philippine, Celebes, and Sulo Seas were used to predict the location of the Australasian tektite source crater and to estimate its size. The location that seems to best explain the geographic variations in microtektite concentrations is located in central Cambodia at about 12 deg N latitude and 106 deg E longitude. The diameter of the source crater is estimated to be between 32 and 114 km based on thickness of the microtektite layer at each site and distance from the predicted source area in Cambodia. The large range in estimated size of the source crater is due to a lack of knowledge about the value of the exponent that describes the radial decrease in ejecta thickness. Additional microtektite/ejecta-bearing sites closer to the source region could help resolve this problem.

  13. Lifestyle and geographic insights into the distinct gut microbiota in elderly women from two different geographic locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ji-Hee; Sim, Minju; Lee, Joo-Young; Shin, Dong-Mi

    2016-12-12

    A large number of microorganisms reside within the gastrointestinal tract, especially in the colon, and play important roles in human health and disease. The composition of the human gut microbiota is determined by intrinsic host factors and environmental factors. While investigating environmental factors to promote human health is of great interest, few studies have focused on their effect on the gut microbiota. This study aimed to investigate differences in gut microbiota composition according to lifestyle and geographical area, even in people with similar genetic background. We enrolled ten and nine elderly women in their seventies from island and inland areas, respectively. Fecal samples were obtained from individuals, and bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA genes were analyzed by next-generation sequencing to define the gut microbiota composition. We assessed their diet, which can influence the gut microbial community. We also conducted physical examination and determined the physical activity levels of the subjects. The inland subjects had a significantly higher rectal temperature, systolic blood pressure, and heart rate and a significantly lower physical activity score than the island subjects. Fecal samples from the island group showed a tendency to have greater microbial diversity than those from the inland group. Interestingly, the microbial community composition differed significantly between the two groups. Catenibacterium was enriched in subjects from the island area. Catenibacterium showed a negative correlation with rectal temperature and a positive correlation with the dietary level of animal fat. In contrast, Butyricimonas was enriched in the inland subjects. A positive correlation was found between Butyricimonas and mean arterial pressure. This study identified differences in the gut microbiota composition between elderly women from different parts of South Korea, and our findings suggest that further studies of the human gut microbiota should evaluate

  14. New spatial clustering-based models for optimal urban facility location considering geographical obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Maryam; Shahrabi, Jamal

    2014-03-01

    The problems of facility location and the allocation of demand points to facilities are crucial research issues in spatial data analysis and urban planning. It is very important for an organization or governments to best locate its resources and facilities and efficiently manage resources to ensure that all demand points are covered and all the needs are met. Most of the recent studies, which focused on solving facility location problems by performing spatial clustering, have used the Euclidean distance between two points as the dissimilarity function. Natural obstacles, such as mountains and rivers, can have drastic impacts on the distance that needs to be traveled between two geographical locations. While calculating the distance between various supply chain entities (including facilities and demand points), it is necessary to take such obstacles into account to obtain better and more realistic results regarding location-allocation. In this article, new models were presented for location of urban facilities while considering geographical obstacles at the same time. In these models, three new distance functions were proposed. The first function was based on the analysis of shortest path in linear network, which was called SPD function. The other two functions, namely PD and P2D, were based on the algorithms that deal with robot geometry and route-based robot navigation in the presence of obstacles. The models were implemented in ArcGIS Desktop 9.2 software using the visual basic programming language. These models were evaluated using synthetic and real data sets. The overall performance was evaluated based on the sum of distance from demand points to their corresponding facilities. Because of the distance between the demand points and facilities becoming more realistic in the proposed functions, results indicated desired quality of the proposed models in terms of quality of allocating points to centers and logistic cost. Obtained results show promising

  15. Utilizing patient geographic information system data to plan telemedicine service locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Neelkamal; Dewalle, Joseph; Marsh, Ben

    2017-09-01

    To understand potential utilization of clinical services at a rural integrated health care system by generating optimal groups of telemedicine locations from electronic health record (EHR) data using geographic information systems (GISs). This retrospective study extracted nonidentifiable grouped data of patients over a 2-year period from the EHR, including geomasked locations. Spatially optimal groupings were created using available telemedicine sites by calculating patients' average travel distance (ATD) to the closest clinic site. A total of 4027 visits by 2049 unique patients were analyzed. The best travel distances for site groupings of 3, 4, 5, or 6 site locations were ranked based on increasing ATD. Each one-site increase in the number of available telemedicine sites decreased minimum ATD by about 8%. For a given group size, the best groupings were very similar in minimum travel distance. There were significant differences in predicted patient load imbalance between otherwise similar groupings. A majority of the best site groupings used the same small number of sites, and urban sites were heavily used. With EHR geospatial data at an individual patient level, we can model potential telemedicine sites for specialty access in a rural geographic area. Relatively few sites could serve most of the population. Direct access to patient GIS data from an EHR provides direct knowledge of the client base compared to methods that allocate aggregated data. Geospatial data and methods can assist health care location planning, generating data about load, load balance, and spatial accessibility.

  16. Toxic effect of copper on marine picophytoplankton populations isolated from different geographic locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Debelius

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In an approach to understand more about copper toxicity effects on marine microalgae, 72-h growth inhibition toxicity tests were followed on natural picophytoplanktonic populations belonging to different coastal and oceanic geographic locations (Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean covering, at an approximate longitude of 30ºW, latitudes from 32º14´S to 29º10´N. Analyses of samples established different predominant populations for different locations. Copper toxicity tests showed a group of cyanobacteria isolated from coastal samples that were the most sensitive, and a second group of picoeukaryotes collected from the Atlantic Ocean surface, which were more tolerant to copper. The use of flow cytometry for studying copper toxic effects provided a variety of information on cell parameters in addition to cellular density. In particular, an established increase in copper tolerance with increase of cell size was observed in cyanobacteria, but it was not clearly followed in picoeukaryotes. This study aims to relate copper tolerance to the geographic location sites of sampling collection. The results obtained establish that other factors such as cell size, proximity to the coast and copper concentration in situ are considered to have a greater influence than the fact of belonging to a determined location site.

  17. Systematic data ingratiation of clinical trial recruitment locations for geographic-based query and visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jake; Chen, Weiheng; Wu, Min; Weng, Chunhua

    2017-12-01

    Prior studies of clinical trial planning indicate that it is crucial to search and screen recruitment sites before starting to enroll participants. However, currently there is no systematic method developed to support clinical investigators to search candidate recruitment sites according to their interested clinical trial factors. In this study, we aim at developing a new approach to integrating the location data of over one million heterogeneous recruitment sites that are stored in clinical trial documents. The integrated recruitment location data can be searched and visualized using a map-based information retrieval method. The method enables systematic search and analysis of recruitment sites across a large amount of clinical trials. The location data of more than 1.4 million recruitment sites of over 183,000 clinical trials was normalized and integrated using a geocoding method. The integrated data can be used to support geographic information retrieval of recruitment sites. Additionally, the information of over 6000 clinical trial target disease conditions and close to 4000 interventions was also integrated into the system and linked to the recruitment locations. Such data integration enabled the construction of a novel map-based query system. The system will allow clinical investigators to search and visualize candidate recruitment sites for clinical trials based on target conditions and interventions. The evaluation results showed that the coverage of the geographic location mapping for the 1.4 million recruitment sites was 99.8%. The evaluation of 200 randomly retrieved recruitment sites showed that the correctness of geographic information mapping was 96.5%. The recruitment intensities of the top 30 countries were also retrieved and analyzed. The data analysis results indicated that the recruitment intensity varied significantly across different countries and geographic areas. This study contributed a new data processing framework to extract and integrate

  18. Do Cultivar, Geographical Location and Crop Season Influence Phenolic Profile of Walnut Leaves?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa M. Seabra

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Walnut leaves from nine different cultivars (Arco, Franquette, Hartley, Lara, Marbot, Mayette, Meylannaise, Parisienne and Rego were studied for their phenolic compounds. Samples were harvested along three consecutive years, at two different geographical locations, in order to evaluate if significant differences in the phenolics composition can be related with genetic, climatic or geographical factors. Nine compounds (3-caffeoylquinic, 3-p-coumaroylquinic and 4-p-coumaroylquinic acids, quercetin 3- galactoside, quercetin 3-arabinoside, quercetin 3-xyloside, quercetin 3-rhamnoside, a quercetin 3-pentoside derivative and a kaempferol 3-pentoside derivative were quantified using an HPLC-DAD methodology. The qualitative profiles were identical for all samples, but differences were observed in terms of individual compounds’ contents. Multivariate statistical analysis was carried out, showing that significant differences exist among production years, which can be related to climatic reasons.

  19. Four barriers to the global understanding of biodiversity conservation: wealth, language, geographical location and security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Tatsuya; Sutherland, William J

    2013-04-07

    Global biodiversity conservation is seriously challenged by gaps and heterogeneity in the geographical coverage of existing information. Nevertheless, the key barriers to the collection and compilation of biodiversity information at a global scale have yet to be identified. We show that wealth, language, geographical location and security each play an important role in explaining spatial variations in data availability in four different types of biodiversity databases. The number of records per square kilometre is high in countries with high per capita gross domestic product (GDP), high proportion of English speakers and high security levels, and those located close to the country hosting the database; but these are not necessarily countries with high biodiversity. These factors are considered to affect data availability by impeding either the activities of scientific research or active international communications. Our results demonstrate that efforts to solve environmental problems at a global scale will gain significantly by focusing scientific education, communication, research and collaboration in low-GDP countries with fewer English speakers and located far from Western countries that host the global databases; countries that have experienced conflict may also benefit. Findings of this study may be broadly applicable to other fields that require the compilation of scientific knowledge at a global level.

  20. Distinct patterns in human milk microbiota and fatty acid profiles across specific geographic locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Breast feeding results in long term health benefits in the prevention of communicable and non-communicable diseases at both individual and population levels. Geographical location directly impacts the composition of breast milk including microbiota and lipids. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of geographical location, i.e., Europe (Spain and Finland, Africa (South Africa and Asia (China, on breast milk microbiota and lipid composition in samples obtained from healthy mothers after the first month of lactation. Altogether, 80 women (20 from each country participated in the study, with equal number of women who delivered by vaginal or caesarean section from each country. Lipid composition particularly that of polyunsaturated fatty acids differed between the countries, with the highest amount of n-6 PUFA (25.6% observed in the milk of Chinese women. Milk microbiota composition also differed significantly between the countries (p=0.002. Among vaginally delivered women, Spanish women had highest amount of Bacteroidetes whereas Chinese women had highest amount of Actinobacteria. Women who had had a caesarean section had higher amount of Proteobacteria as observed in the milk of the Spanish and South African women. Interestingly, the Spanish and South African women had significantly higher bacterial genes mapped to lipid, amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism (p<0.05. Association of the lipid profile with the microbiota revealed that monounsaturated fatty acids were negatively associated with Proteobacteria (r= -0.43, p<0.05, while Lactobacillus genus was associated with monounsaturated fatty acids (r= -0.23, p=0.04. These findings reveal that the milk microbiota and lipid composition exhibit differences based on geographical locations in addition to the differences observed due to the mode of delivery.

  1. Distinct Patterns in Human Milk Microbiota and Fatty Acid Profiles Across Specific Geographic Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Himanshu; du Toit, Elloise; Kulkarni, Amruta; Aakko, Juhani; Linderborg, Kaisa M; Zhang, Yumei; Nicol, Mark P; Isolauri, Erika; Yang, Baoru; Collado, Maria C; Salminen, Seppo

    2016-01-01

    Breast feeding results in long term health benefits in the prevention of communicable and non-communicable diseases at both individual and population levels. Geographical location directly impacts the composition of breast milk including microbiota and lipids. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of geographical location, i.e., Europe (Spain and Finland), Africa (South Africa), and Asia (China), on breast milk microbiota and lipid composition in samples obtained from healthy mothers after the 1 month of lactation. Altogether, 80 women (20 from each country) participated in the study, with equal number of women who delivered by vaginal or cesarean section from each country. Lipid composition particularly that of polyunsaturated fatty acids differed between the countries, with the highest amount of n-6 PUFA (25.6%) observed in the milk of Chinese women. Milk microbiota composition also differed significantly between the countries (p = 0.002). Among vaginally delivered women, Spanish women had highest amount of Bacteroidetes (mean relative abundance of 3.75) whereas Chinese women had highest amount of Actinobacteria (mean relative abundance 5.7). Women who had had a cesarean section had higher amount of Proteobacteria as observed in the milk of the Spanish and South African women. Interestingly, the Spanish and South African women had significantly higher bacterial genes mapped to lipid, amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism (p profile with the microbiota revealed that monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were negatively associated with Proteobacteria (r = -0.43, p < 0.05), while Lactobacillus genus was associated with MUFA (r = -0.23, p = 0.04). These findings reveal that the milk microbiota and lipid composition exhibit differences based on geographical locations in addition to the differences observed due to the mode of delivery.

  2. Solar photovoltaic powered refrigerators/freezers for medical use in remote geographic locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darkazalli, G.; Hein, G. F.

    1983-01-01

    One of the obstacles preventing widespread immunication against disease is the virtual absence of reliable, low maintenance refrigeration systems for storage of vaccines in remote geographic locations. A system which consists of a solar photovoltaic cell array and an integrated refrigerator/freezer-energy storage unit is discussed herein. The array converts solar radiation into direct current (DC) electricity with no moving parts and no intermediate steps. A detailed description of the refrigeration system, its design and an analysis thereof, performance test procedures, and test results are presented. A system schematic is also provided.

  3. Determinants of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts: parallel cross-sectional analyses examining geographical location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inder, Kerry J; Handley, Tonelle E; Johnston, Amy; Weaver, Natasha; Coleman, Clare; Lewin, Terry J; Slade, Tim; Kelly, Brian J

    2014-07-23

    associated with a lower likelihood of lifetime suicidal ideation, when age, gender, psychological distress, marital status and mental health service use were taken into account. Rates and determinants of suicidal ideation and attempts did not differ according to geographical location. Psychiatric disorder, current distress, employment and financial adversity remain important factors associated with suicidal ideation and attempts across all regions in Australia. Regional characteristics that influence availability of services and lower personal optimism may also be associated with suicidal ideation in rural communities.

  4. Life Cycle Assessment of a HYSOL Concentrated Solar Power Plant: Analyzing the Effect of Geographic Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Corona

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Concentrating Solar Power (CSP technology is developing in order to achieve higher energy efficiency, reduced economic costs, and improved firmness and dispatchability in the generation of power on demand. To this purpose, a research project titled HYSOL has developed a new power plant, consisting of a combined cycle configuration with a 100 MWe steam turbine and an 80 MWe gas-fed turbine with biomethane. Technological developments must be supported by the identification, quantification, and evaluation of the environmental impacts produced. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the environmental performance of a CSP plant based on HYSOL technology using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA methodology while considering different locations. The scenarios investigated include different geographic locations (Spain, Chile, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Mexico, and South Africa, an alternative modelling procedure for biomethane, and the use of natural gas as an alternative fuel. Results indicate that the geographic location has a significant influence on the environmental profile of the HYSOL CSP plant. The results obtained for the HYSOL configuration located in different countries presented significant differences (between 35% and 43%, depending on the category, especially in climate change and water stress categories. The differences are mainly attributable to the local availability of solar and water resources and composition of the national electricity mix. In addition, HYSOL technology performs significantly better when hybridizing with biomethane instead of natural gas. This evidence is particularly relevant in the climate change category, where biomethane hybridization emits 27.9–45.9 kg CO2 eq per MWh (depending on the biomethane modelling scenario and natural gas scenario emits 264 kg CO2 eq/MWh.

  5. Geographical location has greater impact on carotenoid content and bioaccessibility from tomatoes than variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aherne, S A; Jiwan, M A; Daly, T; O'Brien, N M

    2009-12-01

    The suggested health benefits of consuming tomatoes and tomato-based products have been attributed, in part, to the carotenoids present in these foods. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were to (i) analyse carotenoid content and bioaccessibility from different tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) types namely cherry, plum, round, and certain tomatoes-on-the-vine; and (ii) determine if geographical location (Ireland vs Spain) influenced the content and bioaccessibility of carotenoids in tomatoes of the same variety. Carotenoid bioaccessibility is defined as the amount of ingested carotenoids that, after digestion, are available for absorption by intestinal cells. Differences were seen in carotenoid content and bioaccessibility between the different tomato types tested. For instance, Irish round high-lycopene tomatoes contained the greatest amounts of lycopene and lutein but lowest levels of beta-carotene compared with the other Irish tomatoes. Furthermore, the content and bioaccessibility of carotenoids that were sourced from Ireland and Spain also varied greatly. Spanish tomatoes were generally superior in the content, bioaccessibility, and micelle content of carotenoids. To conclude, our findings suggest that geographical location, rather than the type of tomato, seems to have a more pronounced effect on carotenoid bioaccessibility from tomatoes.

  6. Total arsenic concentrations in Chinese children's urine by different geographic locations, ages, and genders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Beibei; Cui, Xiaoyong; Lin, Chunye; Liu, Xitao; Ma, Jin

    2017-04-26

    Little is known about the variation of Chinese children's exposure to arsenic by geography, age, gender, and other potential factors. The main objective of this study was to investigate the total arsenic concentration in Chinese children's urine by geographic locations, ages, and genders. In total, 259 24-h urine samples were collected from 210 2- to 12-year-old children in China and analyzed for total arsenic and creatinine concentrations. The results showed that the upper limit (upper limit of the 90% confidence interval for the 97.5 fractile) was 27.51 µg/L or 55.88 µg/g creatinine for Chinese children. The total urinary arsenic levels were significantly different for children in Guangdong, Hubei, and Gansu provinces (P  0.05), although the level for boys (the upper limit was 59.30 µg/g) was slightly higher than that for girls (the upper limit was 58.64 µg/g creatinine). Because the total urinary arsenic concentrations are significantly different for general populations of children in different locations and age groups, the reference level of total urinary arsenic might be dependent on the geographic site and the child's age.

  7. Geographic location of antineoplastic agent clinical trials conducted in developed and developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Feng; Suda, Katie J; Marks, Katherine E

    2013-02-01

    For the past 30 years, clinical trials have been increasingly conducted in developing countries. These trials allow results to be generalizable to similar populations, offer access to treatment for patients in need, and examine diseases with differing patterns than developed countries. However, the characteristics of antineoplastic clinical trials and recent trends in study location in developing countries are unknown. The primary objective was to evaluate the location, study phase, results, funding source, and ethics board approval of randomized double-blind controlled clinical trials evaluating antineoplastic agents by geographic location. This is a retrospective evaluation of studies indexed in the PubMed/Medline database published in 2007-2011. Clinical trials were identified with the search terms "drug therapy", "antineoplastic agents" and "double blind method" and limited to English language, human, and randomized controlled trial. We assessed frequencies of characteristics of antineoplastic clinical trials. A total of 116 trials evaluating antineoplastic drug therapy were identified. The highest frequency of clinical trials were published in 2009 (27.6 %), followed by 2011 (23.3 %), 2010 (20.7 %), 2007 (14.6 %), and 2008 (13.8 %). According to geographic region, 33.8 % were conducted in North America, followed by Europe (31.5 %) and Asia (16.2 %). Based on economic status, the majority (77.8 %) of clinical trial locations were in developed countries and 22.2 % were in developing countries. No significant difference was found between study locations in developed countries and developing countries from 2007 to 2011. When comparing studies conducted in developing and developed countries, there was no difference in the year published, study phase, results, funding source, or investigational review board approval and informed consent. Studies conducted in developed countries were significantly more likely to be single country studies (p = 0.02) and published in a

  8. PLANNING OF SECONDARY SCHOOL LOCATION AT SUBCENTRE OF MEDAN SELAYANG SERVICE BASED ON GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATON SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansyur Hidayat Pasaribu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available his research aimed to solve the problem of requirement of facility and infrastructure of high school education year 2030 at 4 sub-districts in sub department of Medan Selayang. By knowing the number of junior high school student we can calculate requirement of middle school infrastructure needed. The need for secondary school building infrastructure at the Medan Selayang service sub-center in 2030 is calculated based on the number of population aged 0-4 years in 2016 as users of secondary education services in the planning year. The need for the number of new school units based on the maximum capacity of study groups available in each school in the study area, the lack of learning groups is met through new classroom addition programs and the addition of new school units. With the population of middle school age in 2030 in four districts amounting to 33,299, it is required to provide 1 unit of new school in Medan Baru sub-district, 1 unit of new school in Medan Selayang sub-district, 2 units of new school in Medan Tuntungan sub-district. The lack of study group in Medan Baru sub-district can be fulfilled by adding new classroom based on the availability of school land. Planning of school location in the addition of new school unit based on spatial analysis using geographic information system application. Method of research used is descriptive method quantitatively. Quantitative analysis done By using Geographic Information System. Analysis is done based on the factors that influence the selection of school location which consists of service coverage factors, distribution pattern factors, accessibility factors and land use factors. From the results of analysis based on spatial data found sowed that the area has not been served in the region Planning. This underserved area became a zone in the determination of secondary school location planning at the Medan Selayang service sub-center.

  9. National Priority List Site Locations in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, EPA (2006) [national_priority_list_pt_EPA_2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This dataset includes point locations for Louisiana sites on the EPA's National Priority List (NPL) as of 12/01/2006. The field "Status" provides a description of...

  10. Offshore Pipeline Locations in the Gulf of Mexico, Geographic NAD27, MMS (2007) [pipelines_vectors_mms_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Offshore Minerals Management Pipeline Locations for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Contains the lines of the pipeline in the GOM. All pipelines existing in the databases...

  11. Offshore Pipeline Locations in the Gulf of Mexico, Geographic NAD27, MMS (2007) [pipelines_points_mms_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Offshore Minerals Management Pipeline Locations for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Contains the points of the pipeline in the GOM. All pipelines existing in the databases...

  12. Predictors of disability-related attitudes: considering self-esteem, communication apprehension, contact, and geographic location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Tetteh, Dinah; Lee, Yen-I

    2016-01-01

    Individuals' attitudes about persons with disability (PwD) strongly affect differently-abled persons' quality of life and position in society. Some research offers support for the ability of systematic, supported, longitudinal contact between different groups of individuals to improve attitudes. College campuses, in particular, offer a potentially useful arena in which to facilitate this type of contact. This study explored contextual factors (eg, geographic region, biological sex) and predictors of disability-related attitudes among a college student population to determine strategies for course-based intervention design (eg, as community-engaged or service-learning initiatives). Surveying participants from universities in two regions of the United States, we found that self-esteem, audience-based communication apprehension, and contact with PwD explain more than 50% of the variance in disability-related attitudes. Further, we found that geographic location affects both self-esteem and audience-based communication apprehension (communicating/interacting with PwD). We discuss the implications for community engagement and/or service learning and highlight the importance of partnerships among relevant community stakeholders, including university faculty, students, and staff.

  13. Predictors of disability-related attitudes: considering self-esteem, communication apprehension, contact, and geographic location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Tetteh, Dinah; Lee, Yen-I

    2016-01-01

    Individuals’ attitudes about persons with disability (PwD) strongly affect differently-abled persons’ quality of life and position in society. Some research offers support for the ability of systematic, supported, longitudinal contact between different groups of individuals to improve attitudes. College campuses, in particular, offer a potentially useful arena in which to facilitate this type of contact. This study explored contextual factors (eg, geographic region, biological sex) and predictors of disability-related attitudes among a college student population to determine strategies for course-based intervention design (eg, as community-engaged or service-learning initiatives). Surveying participants from universities in two regions of the United States, we found that self-esteem, audience-based communication apprehension, and contact with PwD explain more than 50% of the variance in disability-related attitudes. Further, we found that geographic location affects both self-esteem and audience-based communication apprehension (communicating/interacting with PwD). We discuss the implications for community engagement and/or service learning and highlight the importance of partnerships among relevant community stakeholders, including university faculty, students, and staff. PMID:27980439

  14. Impacts of geographical locations and sociocultural traits on the Vietnamese entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Quan Hoang

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents new results obtained from investigating the data from a 2015 Vietnamese entrepreneurs' survey, containing 3071 observations. Evidence from the estimations using multinomial logits was found to support relationships between several sociocultural factors and entrepreneurship-related performance or traits. Specifically, those relationships include: (a) Active participation in entrepreneurs' social networks and reported value of creativity; (b) CSR-willingness and reported entrepreneurs' perseverance; (c) Transforming of sociocultural values and entrepreneurs' decisiveness; and, (d) Lessons learned from others' failures and perceived chance of success. Using geographical locations as the control variate, evaluations of the baseline-category logits models indicate their varying effects on the outcomes when combined with the sociocultural factors that are found to be statistically significant. Empirical probabilities that give further detail about behavioral patterns are provided; and toward the end, the paper offers some conclusions with some striking insights and useful explanations on the Vietnamese entrepreneurship processes.

  15. Stress Tolerance Variations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains from Diverse Ecological Sources and Geographical Locations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Lin Zheng

    Full Text Available The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a platform organism for bioethanol production from various feedstocks and robust strains are desirable for efficient fermentation because yeast cells inevitably encounter stressors during the process. Recently, diverse S. cerevisiae lineages were identified, which provided novel resources for understanding stress tolerance variations and related shaping factors in the yeast. This study characterized the tolerance of diverse S. cerevisiae strains to the stressors of high ethanol concentrations, temperature shocks, and osmotic stress. The results showed that the isolates from human-associated environments overall presented a higher level of stress tolerance compared with those from forests spared anthropogenic influences. Statistical analyses indicated that the variations of stress tolerance were significantly correlated with both ecological sources and geographical locations of the strains. This study provides guidelines for selection of robust S. cerevisiae strains for bioethanol production from nature.

  16. Subjectivity and Reflexivity: Locating the Self in Research on Dislocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosselson, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    I argue in this article that recognizing the role of subjectivity and bringing in the researcher's positionality as a tool in the research process can not only enhance the ethical integrity of the research but also enhance both the research process and the analysis and interpretation of the data. Cultural studies theorists have long argued that…

  17. 1997 Baseline Sampling and Analysis Sample Locations, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [BSA_1997_sample_locations_LOSCO_2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The monitor point data set was produced as a part of the Baseline Sampling and Analysis (BSA) program coordinated by the Louisiana Oil Spill Coordinator's Office....

  18. 1999 Baseline Sampling and Analysis Sampling Locations, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [BSA_1999_sample_locations_LOSCO_2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The monitor point data set was produced as a part of the Baseline Sampling and Analysis program coordinated by the Louisiana Oil Spill Coordinator's Office. This...

  19. 1998 Baseline Sampling and Analysis Sampling Locations, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [BSA_1998_sample_locations_LOSCO_2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The monitor point data set was produced as a part of the Baseline Sampling and Analysis program coordinated by the Louisiana Oil Spill Coordinator's Office. This...

  20. a Geographic Analysis of Optimal Signage Location Selection in Scenic Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Ling; Long, Ying; Zhang, Ling; Wu, Xiao Ling

    2016-06-01

    As an important part of the scenic area infrastructure services, signage guiding system plays an indispensable role in guiding the way and improving the quality of tourism experience. This paper proposes an optimal method in signage location selection and direction content design in a scenic area based on geographic analysis. The object of the research is to provide a best solution to arrange limited guiding boards in a tourism area to show ways arriving at any scenic spot from any entrance. There are four steps to achieve the research object. First, the spatial distribution of the junction of the scenic road, the passageway and the scenic spots is analyzed. Then, the count of scenic roads intersection on the shortest path between all entrances and all scenic spots is calculated. Next, combing with the grade of the scenic road and scenic spots, the importance of each road intersection is estimated quantitatively. Finally, according to the importance of all road intersections, the most suitable layout locations of signage guiding boards can be provided. In addition, the method is applied in the Ming Tomb scenic area in China and the result is compared with the existing signage guiding space layout.

  1. A GEOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF OPTIMAL SIGNAGE LOCATION SELECTION IN SCENIC AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ruan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As an important part of the scenic area infrastructure services, signage guiding system plays an indispensable role in guiding the way and improving the quality of tourism experience. This paper proposes an optimal method in signage location selection and direction content design in a scenic area based on geographic analysis. The object of the research is to provide a best solution to arrange limited guiding boards in a tourism area to show ways arriving at any scenic spot from any entrance. There are four steps to achieve the research object. First, the spatial distribution of the junction of the scenic road, the passageway and the scenic spots is analyzed. Then, the count of scenic roads intersection on the shortest path between all entrances and all scenic spots is calculated. Next, combing with the grade of the scenic road and scenic spots, the importance of each road intersection is estimated quantitatively. Finally, according to the importance of all road intersections, the most suitable layout locations of signage guiding boards can be provided. In addition, the method is applied in the Ming Tomb scenic area in China and the result is compared with the existing signage guiding space layout.

  2. Genotypic characterization of Orientia tsutsugamushi from patients in two geographical locations in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premaratna, Ranjan; Blanton, Lucas S; Samaraweera, Dilhar N; de Silva, G Nalika N; Chandrasena, Nilmini T G A; Walker, David H; de Silva, H J

    2017-01-13

    To date more than 20 antigenically distinct strains of Orientia tsutsugamushi (OT) reported within the tsutsugamushi triangle that cause an undifferentiated acute febrile illness in humans. Genotypic characterization of OT in different geographic regions or within the same country, is important in order to establish effective diagnostics, clinical management and to develop effective vaccines. Genetic and antigenic characterization of OT causing human disease in OT-endemic regions is not known for Sri Lanka. Adult patients and children who were admitted with an acute febrile illness and presumed to having acute scrub typhus based on presence of an eschar and other supporting clinical features were recruited. Eschar biopsies and buffy coat samples collected from patients who were confirmed having OT by IFA were further studied by real time PCR (Orientia 47 kD) and nested PCR (Orientia 56 kD) amplification. DNA sequences were obtained for 56 kD gene amplicons and phylogenetic comparisons were analyzed using currently available data in GenBank [Neucleotide substitution per 100 residues, 1000 Bootstrap Trials]. Twenty eschar biopsies (Location1,19, Location 2,1) and eight buffy coat samples (Location1,6, Location2,2) examined by real time PCR revealed Orientia amplicons in 16 samples. DNA sequences were obtained for the 56 kD gene amplicons in 12 eschars and 4 buffy coat samples. The genotypes of the Location1 samples revealed that, 7 exhibiting close homology with JP1 [distantly related to UT177 Thai (Karp related)], five had close homology with Kato strain, two had close homology with JGv and JG AF [Distantly related to Kawasaki M63383] and one had close homology with Gilliam strain. The Location 2 strain was closely related to Kuroki-Boryong L04956, the genotype which is distributed in far eastern Asia. Similar to other patients in the cohort this patient also had never travelled out of Sri Lanka. We observed all three main OT genotypes in Sri Lanka, and the majority

  3. LOCATION MODELS FOR MAIN INDUSTRIES AT MACRO-GEOGRAPHICAL LEVEL USING OPEN GEOSPATIAL DATA AND SOFTWARE: CASE OF ROMANIAN COUNTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel GHITA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reveals the mathematical models to explain the location of industries within macro-geographical areas (Romania’s counties, by means of GIS (Geographical Information System metrics. While the explained variable (output was a composite indicator equally weighting employment and turnover quotients computed from statistical data, the explaining variables (inputs were a set of GIS metrics, computed on geospatial open data, using open GIS software. The preferred method for modelling was the multiple linear regression; different nonlinear functions were tested to provide the best fit. The GIS metrics are an alternative to statistical data, having the advantage of being procured and updated easier by the automatic import of the GIS database. For all industries, the study delivered relevant models. This study is part of a spatial decision support system (SDSS for the location of enterprises, including both a macro-geographical layer and a micro-geographical layer of factors. This paper’s results can be used independently (the micro-geographical layer was addressed by a previous study. The macro-geographical and the micro-geographical layer could share the 100% weight according to the desired level of location. For example, a governmental organization could grant all weight to the macro layer, while an enterprise could weight more the micro layer.

  4. Predictors of disability-related attitudes: considering self-esteem, communication apprehension, contact, and geographic location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magsamen-Conrad K

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kate Magsamen-Conrad,1 Dinah Tetteh,2 Yen-I Lee3 1Department of Communication, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH, 2Department of Communication, Arkansas State University, Jonesboro, AR, 3Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA Abstract: Individuals’ attitudes about persons with disability (PwD strongly affect differently-abled persons’ quality of life and position in society. Some research offers support for the ability of systematic, supported, longitudinal contact between different groups of individuals to improve attitudes. College campuses, in particular, offer a potentially useful arena in which to facilitate this type of contact. This study explored contextual factors (eg, geographic region, biological sex and predictors of disability-related attitudes among a college student population to determine strategies for course-based intervention design (eg, as community-engaged or service-learning initiatives. Surveying participants from universities in two regions of the United States, we found that self-esteem, audience-based communication apprehension, and contact with PwD explain more than 50% of the variance in disability-related attitudes. Further, we found that geographic location affects both self-esteem and audience-based communication apprehension (communicating/interacting with PwD. We discuss the implications for community engagement and/or service learning and highlight the importance of partnerships among relevant community stakeholders, including university faculty, students, and staff. Keywords: community engagement, service learning, intervention, regional culture, PwD, intergroup, quality of life, college students, community partnerships

  5. Breast Milk Polyamines and Microbiota Interactions: Impact of Mode of Delivery and Geographical Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gallego, Carlos; Kumar, Himanshu; García-Mantrana, Izaskun; du Toit, Elloise; Suomela, Jukka-Pekka; Linderborg, Kaisa M; Zhang, Yumei; Isolauri, Erika; Yang, Baoru; Salminen, Seppo; Collado, M Carmen

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify and quantify the polyamine levels in human milk obtained from different countries and through different modes of delivery, and to investigate their association with breast milk microbes. Mature breast milk samples were obtained from 78 healthy mothers after 1 month of lactation from 4 different geographical locations: Finland, Spain (Europe); South Africa (Africa); and China (Asia). Polyamines were determined using HPLC after dansyl derivatization and milk microbiota was obtained by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The mean values of polyamines in breast milk were 70.0, 424.2, and 610.0 nmol/dL for putrescine, spermidine and spermine, respectively, and 1,170.9 nmol/dL of total polyamines. The levels of putrescine were significantly higher in Spain (p milk polyamine concentrations, being correlated with human milk microbiota composition. These differences may have an impact on infant development during lactation. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Geographic location of antiretroviral clinical trials in HIV infected pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Katie J; Greene, Jodie; Shelton, Chasity M

    2013-12-01

    Some medicines regulatory authorities are encouraging research in pediatrics. However, children are a vulnerable population, and previous studies have suggested that research is increasingly being conducted outside of developed countries. The purpose of this study is to determine the location of trials in the pediatric population with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Not applicable. Clinical trials registered in the largest international clinical trials registry (clinicaltrials.gov) evaluating antiretrovirals in pediatric HIV infected patients were included. Data were collected on the location, funding, study purpose, design, initiation date, age of subjects, and medication classes tested. We assessed frequencies of characteristics of pediatric HIV trials registered in the clinicaltrials.gov database. Overall, 288 studies were included in the analysis. Most trials were conducted in ages 12-17 years (83 %), followed by studies in those trials included at least one site in developed countries (83 %). The number of trials completed exclusively in developing countries increased from 1989 to 2011. The majority of pediatric antiretroviral trials registered in clinicaltrials.gov were conducted in adolescent subjects in developed countries. The number of pediatric HIV studies in developing countries increased while studies conducted in developed countries decreased similar to trends of HIV.

  7. Geographical location and age affects the incidence of parasitic infestations in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, Paran; Verghese, Susan; McDonnell, Pauline Ann

    2010-01-01

    Environmental factors affect the dissemination and distribution of intestinal parasites in human communities. To comprehend the prevalence of parasitic infestation and to examine whether geographical location and age also influence the prevalence of infection, fecal samples from 195 school children (rural = 95; male = 39; female = 56) (urban = 100; male = 60; female = 40) of five age groups ranging from 5 to 11 years in two different socio-economic zones (rural and urban) were screened for specific intestinal parasites using standard histological techniques. Percentage incidences of parasitic species found in fecal wet mounts and concentrates in rural children were Entamoeba coli (25.3%), Giardia lamblia (17.9%), Blastocystis hominis (14.7%), Entamoeba histolytica (4.2%), Iodamoeba butschlii (1.1%), Hymenolepis nana (1.1%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (1.1%). Whereas the percentage incidences among urban children were E. coli (26%), A. lumbricoides (21%), B. hominis (18%), G. lamblia (14%), T. trichiura (8%), I. butschlii (4%) and A. duodenale (1%). Such findings may be related to dietary differences, living conditions and the greater use of natural anti-helminthic medicinal plants in rural communities. These results are important for both epidemiological data collection and for correlating dietary differences to intestinal parasitic diseases. We chose to investigate whether geographical location and age affect the prevalence and distribution of intestinal parasites among school children from two separate regions (rural and urban) in areas surrounding, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. A study of the prevalence of parasitic infestations was undertaken among primary school children, in rural and urban communities around Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Faecal sample collection, direct microscopic techniques, macroscopic examination and concentration techniques for identifying the parasites. Percentage incidences of parasitic species found in faecal wet mounts and concentrates were

  8. Use of Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR Method to Estimate the Effects of Location Attributes on the Residential Property Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Faris Dziauddin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates the effect of locational attributes on residential property values in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Geographically weighted regression (GWR enables the use of the local parameter rather than the global parameter to be estimated, with the results presented in map form. The results of this study reveal that residential property values are mainly determined by the property’s physical (structural attributes, but proximity to locational attributes also contributes marginally. The use of GWR in this study is considered a better approach than other methods to examine the effect of locational attributes on residential property values. GWR has the capability to produce meaningful results in which different locational attributes have differential spatial effects across a geographical area on residential property values. This method has the ability to determine the factors on which premiums depend, and in turn it can assist the government in taxation matters.

  9. A fuzzy approach to a multiple criteria and Geographical Information System for decision support on suitable locations for biogas plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco, Camilo; Bojesen, Mikkel; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to model the multi-criteria decision problem of identifying the most suitable facility locations for biogas plants under an integrated decision support methodology. Here the Geographical Information System (GIS) is used for measuring the attributes of the alternatives...... frame for identifying the most suitable locations for biogas facilities, taking into account the most relevant criteria for the social, economic and political dimensions....

  10. Use of Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) Method to Estimate the Effects of Location Attributes on the Residential Property Values

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Faris Dziauddin; Zulkefli Idris

    2017-01-01

    This study estimates the effect of locational attributes on residential property values in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) enables the use of the local parameter rather than the global parameter to be estimated, with the results presented in map form. The results of this study reveal that residential property values are mainly determined by the property’s physical (structural) attributes, but proximity to locational attributes also contributes marginally. The ...

  11. Overcoming the Triad of Rural Health Disparities: How Local Culture, Lack of Economic Opportunity, and Geographic Location Instigate Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tami L.; DiClemente, Ralph; Snell, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To discuss how the effects of culture, economy, and geographical location intersect to form a gestalt triad determining health-related disparities in rural areas. Methods: We critically profile each component of the deterministic triad in shaping current health-related disparities in rural areas; evaluate the uniquely composed…

  12. THE TRANSFORM BETWEEN GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATES AND LOCATION CODES OF APERTURE 4 HEXAGONAL GRID SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Discrete global grid system is a new data model which supports the fusion processing of multi-source geospatial data. In discrete global grid systems, all cell operations can be completed by codes theoretically, but most of current spatial data are in the forms of geographic coordinates and projected coordinates. It is necessary to study the transform between geographic coordinates and grid codes, which will support data entering and getting out of the systems. This paper chooses the icosahedral hexagonal discrete global system as a base, and builds the mapping relationships between the sphere and the icosahedron. Then an encoding scheme of planar aperture 4 hexagonal grid system is designed and applied to the icosahedron. Basing on this, a new algorithm of transforms between geographic coordinates and grid codes is designed. Finally, experiments test the accuracy and efficiency of this algorithm. The efficiency of code addition of HLQT is about 5 times the efficiency of code addition of HQBS.

  13. The Transform Between Geographic Coordinates and Location Codes of Aperture 4 Hexagonal Grid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Ben, J.; Li, Y.; Du, L.

    2017-09-01

    Discrete global grid system is a new data model which supports the fusion processing of multi-source geospatial data. In discrete global grid systems, all cell operations can be completed by codes theoretically, but most of current spatial data are in the forms of geographic coordinates and projected coordinates. It is necessary to study the transform between geographic coordinates and grid codes, which will support data entering and getting out of the systems. This paper chooses the icosahedral hexagonal discrete global system as a base, and builds the mapping relationships between the sphere and the icosahedron. Then an encoding scheme of planar aperture 4 hexagonal grid system is designed and applied to the icosahedron. Basing on this, a new algorithm of transforms between geographic coordinates and grid codes is designed. Finally, experiments test the accuracy and efficiency of this algorithm. The efficiency of code addition of HLQT is about 5 times the efficiency of code addition of HQBS.

  14. Draw-a-Person-in-the-Rain: Does Geographic Location Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Adam; Jones, Leslie; Kaplan, Frances F.

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study examines an aspect of construct validity of the Draw-a-Person-in-the-Rain (DAPR) assessment utilizing a sample ("N" = 58) of third-grade public school children from three geographic regions of the United States (Great Plains, Rocky Mountain, and Pacific Northwest) that differ in climate and frequency of precipitation. A…

  15. Locating food sovereignty: geographical and sectoral distance in the global food system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Robbins (Martha Jane)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis paper seeks to problematize the role of local food systems within the food sovereignty movement and as a counter to the logic of the global industrial food system. It answers the question of how food sovereignty, via its tenet of local food systems, addresses the geographical and

  16. A fuzzy approach to a multiple criteria and geographical information system for decision support on suitable locations for biogas plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco de los Rios, Camilo Andres; Bojesen, Mikkel; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    The purpose of this paper is to model the multi-criteria decision problem of identifying the most suitable facility locations for biogas plants under an integrated decision support methodology. Here the Geographical Information System (GIS) is used for measuring the attributes of the alternatives...... can also be successfully applied over the outcomes of different decision makers, in case a unique social solution is required to exist. The proposed methodology can be used under an integrated decision support frame for identifying the most suitable locations for biogas facilities, taking into account...

  17. The spatial preference map of Dutch entrepreneurs : Subjective rating of locations, 1983, 1993 and 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meester, Wilhelm J.; Pellenbarg, Pieter H.

    2006-01-01

    Location decisions are often based on inaccurate information about potential locations. Decision-makers seem to be guided by their subjective interpretation of reality, not so much by reality itself. Twenty years ago this fundamental idea was the starting point for a research programme of the

  18. Geographic Accessibility - Providing government servies in an spatially equitable manner: Perspectives for Fire Station location

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, Cheri A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Green1_2012.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 6780 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Green1_2012.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Geographic Accessibility... - Rural 8 878 7 820 28533 Cato Ridge E - Special 45 140 6698 Craigieburn A - High 1 411 160 6698 Craigieburn B - Moderate 177 20 6698 Craigieburn C - Low 28 262 2 460 6698 Craigieburn D - Rural 25 875 10 660 6698 Craigieburn E - Special 2 203 180...

  19. Location Allocation of Health Care Centers Using Geographical Information System: region 11 of Tehran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohsen Ahadnejad; Hosein Ghaderi; Mohammad Hadian; Payam Haghighatfard; Banafsheh Darvishi; Elham Haghighatfard; Bitasadat Zegordi; Arash Bordbar

    2015-01-01

    Background & Objective: Location allocation of healthcare centers facilitates the accessibility of health services and the lack of proper distribution of these centers leads to increasing problems of citizens' access to these centers...

  20. Locating a geography of nursing: space, place and the progress of geographical thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Gavin J

    2003-10-01

    Although traditionally, nursing research has paid little attention to geographical approaches, recent years have witnessed some initial research interest in the dynamic between nursing, space and place. Such research potentially represents the foundations of what may be termed a 'geography of nursing'. Although, to date, some novel and valuable perspectives have been gained into the spatial features of nursing, no consideration has been given to the theoretical development of, and basis for, a geography of nursing. Furthermore, no consideration has been given to philosophical heritage; the treatment of space and place in human geography and the insights that this may provide for the new field of research. In this context, this paper provides an historical review of geographical research and traces the evolution of how space and place have been conceptualized and operationalized by it. The paper outlines the emergence of a health geography subdiscipline and its own changing and diverse perspectives. In the final section, the central themes of the current geography of nursing are considered and, reflecting back on the theoretical concerns of contemporary human geography, the paper outlines some philosophies and theories on which future geography of nursing could be based. From a disciplinary perspective, one potential role of the geography of nursing is argued to be the maintenance of the relationship between health geography and mainstream health service and medical concerns, but in a place-sensitive, patient-sensitive and qualitative form.

  1. Biofouling community composition across a range of environmental conditions and geographical locations suitable for floating marine renewable energy generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Adrian K; Stanley, Michele S; Day, John G; Cook, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of biofouling typical of marine structures is essential for engineers to define appropriate loading criteria in addition to informing other stakeholders about the ecological implications of creating novel artificial environments. There is a lack of information regarding biofouling community composition (including weight and density characteristics) on floating structures associated with future marine renewable energy generation technologies. A network of navigation buoys were identified across a range of geographical areas, environmental conditions (tidal flow speed, temperature and salinity), and deployment durations suitable for future developments. Despite the perceived importance of environmental and temporal factors, geographical location explained the greatest proportion of the observed variation in community composition, emphasising the importance of considering geography when assessing the impact of biofouling on device functioning and associated ecology. The principal taxa associated with variation in biofouling community composition were mussels (Mytilus edulis), which were also important when determining loading criteria.

  2. Prevalence and characteristics of home Internet access in patients with cardiovascular disease from diverse geographical locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Scott A; Araki, Yuriko; Maric, Biljana; Kaan, Annemarie; Horvat, Dan

    2009-10-01

    Patients living outside of urban centres do not have access to the same level of care as patients in cities. The use of the Internet has been suggested as a possible resolution to this geographic inequity. To identify the determinants of Internet use in patients with cardiovascular disease and the patterns of use. Cardiac inpatients of an urban tertiary and a northern regional hospital in British Columbia were invited to participate. Patients who could not speak English or who had mental impairment were excluded. Consenting patients were interviewed regarding demographics and home Internet use. A total of 294 patients participated. The mean (+/- SD) age was 64.0+/-12.7 years. Most participants were men (68%) of European ancestry (77%) with some postsecondary education (57%). All geographical regions of British Columbia were represented. A total of 66% of patients had home Internet access. In rural areas, 47% of patients had access to the Internet (P=0.020 compared with nonrural areas). Eighty-four per cent of patients with Internet access had a high-speed connection, 55% reported using the Internet daily and 23% used it more than once per week. Accessing health information from the Internet was reported by 70% of patients. These data indicate a high prevalence of Internet use among English-speaking cardiac patients and a strong desire to obtain health information using the Internet. Health care organizations can take advantage of the Internet to develop and evaluate the delivery of cardiac services to patients in their homes, particularly to patients in rural and remote communities.

  3. What influences national and foreign physicians’ geographic distribution? An analysis of medical doctors’ residence location in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russo Giuliano

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The debate over physicians’ geographical distribution has attracted the attention of the economic and public health literature over the last forty years. Nonetheless, it is still to date unclear what influences physicians’ location, and whether foreign physicians contribute to fill the geographical gaps left by national doctors in any given country. The present research sets out to investigate the current distribution of national and international physicians in Portugal, with the objective to understand its determinants and provide an evidence base for policy-makers to identify policies to influence it. Methods A cross-sectional study of physicians currently registered in Portugal was conducted to describe the population and explore the association of physician residence patterns with relevant personal and municipality characteristics. Data from the Portuguese Medical Council on physicians’ residence and characteristics were analysed, as well as data from the National Institute of Statistics on municipalities’ population, living standards and health care network. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, negative binomial and logistic regression modelling were applied to determine: (a municipality characteristics predicting Portuguese and International physicians’ geographical distribution, and; (b doctors’ characteristics that could increase the odds of residing outside the country’s metropolitan areas. Results There were 39,473 physicians in Portugal in 2008, 51.1% of whom male, and 40.2% between 41 and 55 years of age. They were predominantly Portuguese (90.5%, with Spanish, Brazilian and African nationalities also represented. Population, Population’s Purchasing Power, Nurses per capita and Municipality Development Index (MDI were the municipality characteristics displaying the strongest association with national physicians’ location. For foreign physicians, the MDI was not statistically significant

  4. Gender, Geographic Locations, Achievement Goals and Academic Performance of Secondary School Students from Borno State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Alice K.J.

    2013-01-01

    The paper examined gender, geography location, achievement goals and academic performance of senior secondary school students in Borno State, Nigeria. The sample consists of 827 students from 18 public boarding secondary schools across South and North of Borno State: 414 (50.1 per cent) males and 413 (49.9 per cent) are females; 414 (50.1 per…

  5. Geographic location, network patterns and population distribution of rural settlements in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimakopoulos, Avraam; Mogios, Emmanuel; Xenikos, Dimitrios G.

    2016-10-01

    Our work addresses the problem of how social networks are embedded in space, by studying the spread of human population over complex geomorphological terrain. We focus on villages or small cities up to a few thousand inhabitants located in mountainous areas in Greece. This terrain presents a familiar tree-like structure of valleys and land plateaus. Cities are found more often at lower altitudes and exhibit preference on south orientation. Furthermore, the population generally avoids flat land plateaus and river beds, preferring locations slightly uphill, away from the plateau edge. Despite the location diversity regarding geomorphological parameters, we find certain quantitative norms when we examine location and population distributions relative to the (man-made) transportation network. In particular, settlements at radial distance ℓ away from road network junctions have the same mean altitude, practically independent of ℓ ranging from a few meters to 10 km. Similarly, the distribution of the settlement population at any given ℓ is the same for all ℓ. Finally, the cumulative distribution of the number of rural cities n(ℓ) is fitted to the Weibull distribution, suggesting that human decisions for creating settlements could be paralleled to mechanisms typically attributed to this particular statistical distribution.

  6. Does Fear of Terrorism Differ From Fear of Crime and Sexual Assault: A Question of Geographical Location and Residential Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechory-Bitton, Mally; Cohen-Louck, Keren

    2018-02-01

    The study describes an examination of three types of fear: crime, sexual assault, and terrorism. The sample consisted of 507 adults from three different geographical locations in Israel with different levels of crime and terror attacks. With regard to fear of crime and fear of sexual assault, the results were compatible with the findings of many studies that indicate the effect of residential area features on levels of fear. Fear of terrorism was found to be more complex. The theoretical framework used to assess fear of crime is not fully suitable for assessing and examining fear of terrorism. Other variables should be taken into consideration, such as religion and ideology.

  7. Biodiversity of Jinggangshan Mountain: the importance of topography and geographical location in supporting higher biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ting; Chen, Bao-Ming; Liu, Gang; Huang, Fang-Fang; Liu, Jin-Gang; Liao, Wen-Bo; Wang, Ying-Yong; Ren, Si-Jie; Chen, Chun-Quan; Peng, Shao-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Diversity is mainly determined by climate and environment. In addition, topography is a complex factor, and the relationship between topography and biodiversity is still poorly understood. To understand the role of topography, i.e., altitude and slope, in biodiversity, we selected Jinggangshan Mountain (JGM), an area with unique topography, as the study area. We surveyed plant and animal species richness of JGM and compared the biodiversity and the main geographic characteristics of JGM with the adjacent 4 mountains. Gleason's richness index was calculated to assess the diversity of species. In total, 2958 spermatophyte species, 418 bryophyte species, 355 pteridophyte species and 493 species of vertebrate animals were recorded in this survey. In general, the JGM biodiversity was higher than that of the adjacent mountains. Regarding topographic characteristics, 77% of JGM's area was in the mid-altitude region and approximately 40% of JGM's area was in the 10°-20° slope range, which may support more vegetation types in JGM area and make it a biodiversity hotspot. It should be noted that although the impact of topography on biodiversity was substantial, climate is still a more general factor driving the formation and maintenance of higher biodiversity. Topographic conditions can create microclimates, and both climatic and topographic conditions contribute to the formation of high biodiversity in JGM.

  8. Sequence Diversity in MIC6 Gene among Toxoplasma gondii Isolates from Different Hosts and Geographical Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-Yuan; Song, Hui-Qun; Chen, Jia; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic protozoan parasite that can infect almost all warm-blooded animals including humans with a worldwide distribution. Micronemes play an important role in invasion process of T. gondii, associated with the attachment, motility, and host cell recognition. In this research, sequence diversity in microneme protein 6 (MIC6) gene among 16 T. gondii isolates from different hosts and geographical regions and 1 reference strain was examined. The results showed that the sequence of all the examined T. gondii strains was 1,050 bp in length, and their A + T content was between 45.7% and 46.1%. Sequence analysis presented 33 nucleotide mutation positions (0-1.1%), resulting in 23 amino acid substitutions (0-2.3%) aligned with T. gondii RH strain. Moreover, T. gondii strains representing the 3 classical genotypes (Type I, II, and III) were separated into different clusters based on the locus of MIC6 using phylogenetic analyses by Bayesian inference (BI), maximum parsimony (MP), and maximum likelihood (ML), but T. gondii strains belonging to ToxoDB #9 were separated into different clusters. Our results suggested that MIC6 gene is not a suitable marker for T. gondii population genetic studies.

  9. Biodiversity of Jinggangshan Mountain: the importance of topography and geographical location in supporting higher biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Zhou

    Full Text Available Diversity is mainly determined by climate and environment. In addition, topography is a complex factor, and the relationship between topography and biodiversity is still poorly understood. To understand the role of topography, i.e., altitude and slope, in biodiversity, we selected Jinggangshan Mountain (JGM, an area with unique topography, as the study area. We surveyed plant and animal species richness of JGM and compared the biodiversity and the main geographic characteristics of JGM with the adjacent 4 mountains. Gleason's richness index was calculated to assess the diversity of species. In total, 2958 spermatophyte species, 418 bryophyte species, 355 pteridophyte species and 493 species of vertebrate animals were recorded in this survey. In general, the JGM biodiversity was higher than that of the adjacent mountains. Regarding topographic characteristics, 77% of JGM's area was in the mid-altitude region and approximately 40% of JGM's area was in the 10°-20° slope range, which may support more vegetation types in JGM area and make it a biodiversity hotspot. It should be noted that although the impact of topography on biodiversity was substantial, climate is still a more general factor driving the formation and maintenance of higher biodiversity. Topographic conditions can create microclimates, and both climatic and topographic conditions contribute to the formation of high biodiversity in JGM.

  10. Geographical location and key sensitivity issues of post-industrial regions in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuczynski, Tomasz; Siebielec, Grzegorz; Korzeniowska-Puculek, Renata; Koza, Piotr; Pudelko, Rafal; Lopatka, Artur; Kowalik, Monika

    2009-04-01

    Primary objectives of our work were to spatially delineate post industrial areas of the EU-27 and indicate key environmental, social and economic sensitivity issues for these regions. The density of industrial sites within NUTS-x regions for EU-27 countries was assessed by using CORINE 2000 land cover layer. A development of postindustrial society in Europe represents a strong geographic diversity. There are distinct historical and current differences between regions which form major groups, comprising similar internal characteristics and definable trends in environmental and socioeconomic sense. Regions grouped into postindustrial clusters are fundamentally different from the European average, and are facing specific problems related to global market and political changes. Eastern postindustrial regions can be characterized as socially and economically weak, exhibiting high unemployment rate, low GDP, negative population growth and a strong environmental pressure, represented by a high density of dump sites. Most of the western EU postindustrial areas have been successfully recovered and moved into new economy as shown by most of the indicators. In urban postindustrial zones, however, emission sources of pollutants seem to continually be a major problem--not necessarily in terms of exceeding thresholds, but through a remarkable difference in the amount of pollutants produced relative to other regions.

  11. Optimum aggregation of geographically distributed flexible resources in strategic smart-grid/microgrid locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu P.; Myers, Kurt S.; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    This study determines optimum aggregation areas for a given distribution network considering spatial distribution of loads and costs of aggregation. An elitist genetic algorithm combined with a hierarchical clustering and a Thevenin network reduction is implemented to compute strategic locations ...... configuration, steady-state performance of aggregated network is significantly accurate (≈±≈±1.5% error) compared to very high errors associated with forecast of individual consumer demand....

  12. Location, Location, Location!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsdell, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    Of prime importance in real estate, location is also a key element in the appeal of romances. Popular geographic settings and historical periods sell, unpopular ones do not--not always with a logical explanation, as the author discovered when she conducted a survey on this topic last year. (Why, for example, are the French Revolution and the…

  13. Risks of developing breast and colorectal cancer in association with incomes and geographic locations in Texas: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheyu; Zhang, Kai; Du, Xianglin L

    2016-04-26

    No study has been conducted to investigate the spatial pattern and association of socioeconomic status (such as income) with breast and colorectal cancer incidence in Texas, United States. This study aimed to determine whether median household income was associated with the risk of developing breast and colorectal cancer in Texas and to identify higher cancer risks by race/ethnicity and geographic areas. This was a retrospective cohort study with an ecological component in using aggregated measures at the county level. We identified 243,677 women with breast cancer and 155,534 men and women with colorectal cancer residing in 254 counties in Texas in 1995-2011 from the public-use dataset of Texas Cancer Registry. The denominator population and median household income at the county level was obtained from the U.S. Bureau of the Census. Cancer incidence rates were calculated as number of cases per 100,000 persons and age-adjusted using the 2000 US population data. We used the ArcGIS v10.1 (geographic information system software) to identify multiple clustered counties with high and low cancer incidences in Texas. Age-adjusted breast cancer incidence rate in the highest median income quintile group was 151.51 cases per 100,000 in 2008-2011 as compared to 98.95 cases per 100,000 in the lowest median income quintile group. The risk of colorectal cancer appeared to decrease with increasing median income in racial/ethnic population. Spatial analysis revealed the significant low breast cancer incidence cluster regions located in southwest US-Mexico border counties in Texas. This study demonstrated that higher income was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer and a decreased risk of colorectal cancer in Texas. There were geographic variations with cancer incidence clustered in high risk areas in Texas. Future studies may need to explore more factors that might explain income and cancer risk associations and their geographic variations.

  14. Overcoming scepticism: Interacting influences of geographical location on perceived climate change adaptation measures to water resources in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Ana; Garrote, Luis; Bardaji, Isabel; Iglesias, Pedro; Granados, Alfredo

    2016-04-01

    Though many climate adaptation efforts attempt to be defined with the participation of local communities, these strategies may be ineffective because among citizens affected equally, a local risk perception rather than scientific understanding largely drives adaptation choices. Further, the geographical location may polarize climate risk perceptions, making some adaptation efforts ineffective among sceptics. This study examines how the local degradation of the environment and water resources relates to adaption choices and in turn, climate change risk perception among a range of citizens in the Tagus basin, Spain (n = 300). We find respondents of less degraded areas have individualistic responses, and are significantly less likely to accept adaptation strategies than respondents in water stressed communities. The interaction between climate knowledge and adaptation choices is positively related to acceptance of adaptation choices in both groups, and had a stronger positive relationship among individualists. There is no statistical difference in acceptance of adaptation between individualists and communitarians at high levels of knowledge (top decile). Thus, education efforts specific to climate change may counteract divisions based geographical location and environmental stress.

  15. Modeling inter-subject variability in fMRI activation location: A Bayesian hierarchical spatial model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Johnson, Timothy D.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Nee, Derek E.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The aim of this work is to develop a spatial model for multi-subject fMRI data. There has been extensive work on univariate modeling of each voxel for single and multi-subject data, some work on spatial modeling of single-subject data, and some recent work on spatial modeling of multi-subject data. However, there has been no work on spatial models that explicitly account for inter-subject variability in activation locations. In this work, we use the idea of activation centers and model the inter-subject variability in activation locations directly. Our model is specified in a Bayesian hierarchical frame work which allows us to draw inferences at all levels: the population level, the individual level and the voxel level. We use Gaussian mixtures for the probability that an individual has a particular activation. This helps answer an important question which is not addressed by any of the previous methods: What proportion of subjects had a significant activity in a given region. Our approach incorporates the unknown number of mixture components into the model as a parameter whose posterior distribution is estimated by reversible jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo. We demonstrate our method with a fMRI study of resolving proactive interference and show dramatically better precision of localization with our method relative to the standard mass-univariate method. Although we are motivated by fMRI data, this model could easily be modified to handle other types of imaging data. PMID:19210732

  16. Wide-focus subject-verb inversion in Ibero-Romance: A locative account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Corr

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the hypothesis that wide-focus subject-verb inversion in Ibero-Romance is a type of locative inversion, involving a null locative argument. Ibero-Romance displays fine-grained, systematic variation determined by verbal class and variety, offering evidence that Ibero-Romance neutral word order is SVO, rather than VSO as claimed by some null-subject accounts. It is proposed that ‘locative’ subject-verb inversion is a consequence of grammatically-encoded deictic features correlating with the semantic properties of the verbs involved. The locative element, available unequally across Ibero-Romance, can surface in different positions in the left periphery, yielding the variation encountered. The data indicate that the licensing of these constructions depends neither on the null-subject parameter, since this type of inversion also occurs in non- and partial null-subject varieties, nor on the unaccusative/unergative division, though in both cases a degree of correspondence exists.

  17. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori in Bhutan: the role of environment and Geographic location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorji, Dorji; Dendup, Tashi; Malaty, Hoda M; Wangchuk, Kinley; Yangzom, Deki; Richter, James M

    2014-02-01

    Bhutan is small mountainous country bordering India and China and consists of four geographic regions, west, east, central, and south. The epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection and risk factors associated with in Bhutan are not previously studied. The World Health Organization reported the incidence of stomach cancer to be very high in Bhutan. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the seroepidemiologic pattern of H. pylori among Bhutanese from the four regions with emphasis on water source and household sanitation. Between June and November 2012, blood samples from patients with complaints of dyspepsia were collected after obtaining an informed consent. Demographic information, occupation, family size living in the same household, consumption of betel nut, and aspects of household environment including type of latrines, source of drinking water were collected. All serum samples were tested for H. pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using MAGIWELL ELISA kit from United Biotech, USA. Two hundred and forty-four patients between 17 and 75 years of age participated in the study, of them, 102 were men, and the mean age was 38 (±14.2) years. The overall prevalence of H. pylori among patients was 86% with no difference between men and women (90 vs 83%, respectively, p = .12). The prevalence was almost identical among all age groups: 81% at 17-20, 84% at 20-29, 93% at 30-39, 82% at 40-49, 87% at 50-59, and 82% at ≥60 years (p = .51). H. pylori prevalence was lower in the southern region of Bhutan (78%) compared with the central region (97%) (OR = 8.6; 95% CI = 1.1-55; p = .02), eastern region (91%) (OR = 2.7; 95% CI = 1.1-7.2, p = .004) or the western region (83%) (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 0.8-3.1, p = .07). The prevalence of H. pylori was significantly lower among household with less than 4 persons living in the same household. Source of drinking water, type of occupation, type of latrines

  18. A systematic study of the impact of freshwater pulses with respect to different geographical locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, Didier M.; Renssen, Hans [Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Section Climate Change and Landscape Dynamics, Department of Earth Sciences, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wiersma, Ane P. [Deltares, Subsurface and Groundwater systems, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-06-15

    The first comparative and systematic climate model study of the sensitivity of the climate response under Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) conditions to freshwater perturbations at various locations that are known to have received significant amounts of freshwater during the LGM (21 kyr BP) climate conditions is presented. A series of ten regions representative of those receiving most of the meltwater from decaying ice-sheets during the deglaciation is defined, comprising the border of LGM ice-sheets, outlets of rivers draining part of the melting ice-sheets and iceberg melt zones. The effect of several given freshwater fluxes applied separately in each of these regions on regional and global climate is subsequently tested. The climate response is then analysed both for the atmosphere and oceans. Amongst the regions defined, it is found that the area close by and dynamically upstream to the main deep water formation zone in the North Atlantic are most sensitive to freshwater pulses, as is expected. However, some important differences between Arctic freshwater forcing and Nordic Seas forcing are found, the former having a longer term response linked to sea-ice formation and advection whereas the latter exhibits more direct influence of direct freshening of the deep water formation sites. Combining the common surface temperature response for each respective zone, we fingerprint the particular surface temperature response obtained by adding freshwater in a particular location. This is done to examine if a surface climate response can be used to determine the origin of a meltwater flux, which is relevant for the interpretation of proxy data. We show that it is indeed possible to generally classify the fingerprints by their origin in terms of sea-ice modification and modification of deep-water formation. Whilst the latter is not an unambiguous characterization of each zone, it nonetheless provides important clues on the physical mechanisms at work. In particular, it is shown

  19. A systematic study of the impact of freshwater pulses with respect to different geographical locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Didier M.; Wiersma, Ane P.; Renssen, Hans

    2010-06-01

    The first comparative and systematic climate model study of the sensitivity of the climate response under Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) conditions to freshwater perturbations at various locations that are known to have received significant amounts of freshwater during the LGM (21 kyr BP) climate conditions is presented. A series of ten regions representative of those receiving most of the meltwater from decaying ice-sheets during the deglaciation is defined, comprising the border of LGM ice-sheets, outlets of rivers draining part of the melting ice-sheets and iceberg melt zones. The effect of several given freshwater fluxes applied separately in each of these regions on regional and global climate is subsequently tested. The climate response is then analysed both for the atmosphere and oceans. Amongst the regions defined, it is found that the area close by and dynamically upstream to the main deep water formation zone in the North Atlantic are most sensitive to freshwater pulses, as is expected. However, some important differences between Arctic freshwater forcing and Nordic Seas forcing are found, the former having a longer term response linked to sea-ice formation and advection whereas the latter exhibits more direct influence of direct freshening of the deep water formation sites. Combining the common surface temperature response for each respective zone, we fingerprint the particular surface temperature response obtained by adding freshwater in a particular location. This is done to examine if a surface climate response can be used to determine the origin of a meltwater flux, which is relevant for the interpretation of proxy data. We show that it is indeed possible to generally classify the fingerprints by their origin in terms of sea-ice modification and modification of deep-water formation. Whilst the latter is not an unambiguous characterization of each zone, it nonetheless provides important clues on the physical mechanisms at work. In particular, it is shown

  20. Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum): (II) Phytochemical Profiles of Four Prime Maca Phenotypes Grown in Two Geographically-Distant Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Meissner, Henry; Mscisz, Alina; Piatkowska, Ewa; Baraniak, Marek; Mielcarek, Sebastian; Kedzia, Bogdan; Holderna-Kedzia, Elzbieta; Pisulewski, Pawel

    2016-03-01

    Peruvian Maca crops (Lepidium peruvianum), grown in two geographically-distant cultivation sites located at similar altitudes in the highlands of the Peruvian Andes (Junin at 4,200 m a.s.l. and Ancash 4,150 m a.s.l.), were used in the study. Four prime Maca phenotypes, distinguished by hypocotyl colours labelled as "Yellow", "Purple", "Red" and "Black" were selected to determine distribution in levels and corresponding ratios between individual Glucosinolates (Glucotropaeolin and m-methylglucotropaeolin) in an attempt to identify four Peruvian Maca phenotypes from analyses of powdered hypocotyls. There were highly significant differences (PMaca phenotypes harvested in two locations. The Junin crop represented a mostly "large" class (13.3 g) with "small" size hypocotyls (7.2 g), while a "small" class was predominant in Ancash (3.5 g). Powdered Yellow Maca showed significantly higher (PMaca being the least infected. Only minor, statistically-confirmed differences were detected in nutritive characteristics between the four Maca phenotypes grown in Junin, however highly significant differences (PMaca grown in Junin and Ancash. Irrespective of the cultivation location, Red phenotypes showed the highest content of Total Glucosinolates, followed by Black and Purple, with the Yellow phenotype showing consistently lower levels. Highly significant PMaca phenotypes grown in two locations, confirms an earlier assumption that sums of individual Glucosinolates, their ratios and profiles, may be feasible to explore in analytically identifying individual Maca phenotypes in pulverised marketed Maca products.

  1. Accreditation Status and Geographic Location of Outpatient Echocardiographic Testing Facilities Among Medicare Beneficiaries: The VALUE-ECHO Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott C; Wang, Kefeng; Dong, Chuanhui; Yi, Li; Marinovic Gutierrez, Carolina; Di Tullio, Marco R; Farrell, Mary Beth; Burgess, Pamela; Gornik, Heather L; Hamburg, Naomi M; Needleman, Laurence; Orsinelli, David; Robison, Susana; Rundek, Tatjana

    2017-08-08

    Accreditation of echocardiographic testing facilities by the Intersocietal Accreditation Commission (IAC) is supported by the American College of Cardiology and American Society of Echocardiography. However, limited information exists on the accreditation status and geographic distribution of echocardiographic facilities in the United States. Our study aimed to identify (1) the proportion of outpatient echocardiography facilities used by Medicare beneficiaries that are IAC accredited, (2) their geographic distribution, and (3) variations in procedure type and volume by accreditation status. As part of the VALUE-ECHO (Value of Accreditation, Location, and Utilization Evaluation-Echocardiography) study, we examined the proportion of IAC-accredited echocardiographic facilities performing outpatient echocardiography in the 2013 Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services outpatient limited data set (100% sample) and their geographic distribution using geocoding in ArcGIS (ESRI, Redlands, CA). Among 4573 outpatient facilities billing Medicare for echocardiographic testing in 2013, 99.6% (n = 4554) were IAC accredited (99.7% in the 50 US states and 86.2% in Puerto Rico). The proportion IAC-accredited echocardiographic facilities varied by region, with 98.7%, 99.9%, 99.9%, 99.5%, and 86.2% of facilities accredited in the Northeast, South, Midwest, West, and Puerto Rico, respectively (P < .01, Fisher exact test). Of all echocardiographic outpatient procedures conducted (n = 1,890,156), 99.8% (n = 1,885,382) were performed in IAC-accredited echocardiographic facilities. Most procedures (90.9%) were transthoracic echocardiograms, of which 99.7% were conducted in IAC-accredited echocardiographic facilities. Almost all outpatient echocardiographic facilities billed by Medicare are IAC accredited. This accreditation rate is substantially higher than previously reported for US outpatient vascular testing facilities (13% IAC accredited). The uniformity of imaging

  2. Applying geographic profiling used in the field of criminology for predicting the nest locations of bumble bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki-Ohno, Yukari; Inoue, Maki N; Ohno, Kazunori

    2010-07-21

    We tested whether geographic profiling (GP) can predict multiple nest locations of bumble bees. GP was originally developed in the field of criminology for predicting the area where an offender most likely resides on the basis of the actual crime sites and the predefined probability of crime interaction. The predefined probability of crime interaction in the GP model depends on the distance of a site from an offender's residence. We applied GP for predicting nest locations, assuming that foraging and nest sites were the crime sites and the offenders' residences, respectively. We identified the foraging and nest sites of the invasive species Bombus terrestris in 2004, 2005, and 2006. We fitted GP model coefficients to the field data of the foraging and nest sites, and used GP with the fitting coefficients. GP succeeded in predicting about 10-30% of actual nests. Sensitivity analysis showed that the predictability of the GP model mainly depended on the coefficient value of buffer zone, the distance at the mode of the foraging probability. GP will be able to predict the nest locations of bumble bees in other area by using the fitting coefficient values measured in this study. It will be possible to further improve the predictability of the GP model by considering food site preference and nest density. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The association of geographical location and neighbourhood deprivation with older people's use of NHS Direct: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wen-Chin; Bath, Peter A; Large, Shirley; Williams, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    no research has investigated how older people's use of NHS Direct, the 24-h telephone health advice and information service in England and Wales, varies according to geographical location and deprivation. to describe the geographic pattern of older people's use of NHS Direct and examine the relationship between service use and deprivation. descriptive, exploratory, cross-sectional, population-based study. calls to all 32-NHS Direct contact centres in England/Wales. people aged 65 years and above who used NHS Direct between 1 December 2007 and 30 November 2008. differences in older people's use of NHS Direct were observed in England and Wales. In England, the call rate was highest in Yorkshire and the Humber and was lowest in the West Midlands. At the postcode level, the rate of calls ranged from 0.167 (Blackburn) to 0.011 (Carlisle) per person per annum. In England, but not in Wales, the level of deprivation was associated with the rate of calls, older people living in the most deprived areas had the highest rate of calls to NHS Direct. the results are useful for future planning to meet the needs of older people, and in informing national policies for the development of NHS Direct.

  4. Association between patient age, geographical location, Indigenous status and hospitalisation for oral and dental conditions in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffery, Liam; Bradford, Natalie; Meurer, Maria; Smith, Anthony

    2016-07-15

    A retrospective analysis of hospitalisation due to oral and dental conditions (ODC) was performed for patients in Queensland. The aim was to identify the rate and cost of hospitalisation and to examine the association between hospitalisation and age, geographical location and Indigenous status. There were 81528 admissions to Queensland's hospitals due to ODC during the 3-year study period (2011-2013). The annual cost of ODC-related hospitalisation was estimated to be AU$87million. Indigenous infants (Z=4.08, PIndigenous counterparts. A non-Indigenous high school child was almost fourfold more likely to be hospitalised. There was no significant difference in the rate of hospitalisation for adults. Infants (Z=6.70, Pcare to service remote areas of Queensland and Indigenous populations. Strategies that enable Indigenous Health Workers to provide dental care, and the use of teledentistry, are models of care that may reduce potentially preventable hospitalisations and lead to cost savings and better health outcomes.

  5. Application of geographic information systems to investigating associations between social status and burial location in medieval Trino Vercellese (Piedmont, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Marissa C; Vercellotti, Giuseppe

    2017-09-01

    Socioeconomic status differences in skeletal populations are often inferred from skeletal indicators of stress and burial location. However, to date, the association between osteometric parameters and spatial location in relation to socioeconomic status in medieval Italy has not been explicitly tested. This study examined the spatial distribution of osteometric data in the medieval (8th-13th c.) cemetery of San Michele di Trino (Trino Vercellese, VC, Italy) to determine whether skeletal correlates of socioeconomic status correspond with privileged burial locations. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that greater growth outcomes are associated with privileged burials located inside the church by examining osteometric data (femoral bicondylar length [N = 74], maximum tibial length [N = 62], and the sum of the two measurements [N = 59]) in a geographic information system (GIS) of the cemetery. Getis-Ord G Hot Spot analysis identified significant (90% CI) spatial clustering of high osteometric values within the church, while low values clustered in areas of the cemetery farther from the church. These results, supported by the results of interpolation analyses, became more pronounced when z-scores were calculated to combine the male and female samples and the analyses were repeated. Overall, the findings corroborate the observation that the spatial distribution of osteometric data reflects socioeconomic status differences within the population. This research exemplifies the advantages of integrating bioarchaeology and spatial analysis to examine mortuary behavior and health outcomes in highly stratified societies where access to resources is demarcated in both life and in death. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Subject-level differences in reported locations of cutaneous tactile and nociceptive stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eSteenbergen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent theoretical advances on the topic of body representations have raised the question whether spatial perception of touch and nociception involve the same representations. Various authors have established that subjective localizations of touch and nociception are displaced in a systematic manner. The relation between veridical stimulus locations and localizations can be described in the form of a perceptual map; these maps differ between subjects. Recently, evidence was found for a common set of body representations to underlie spatial perception of touch and slow and fast pain, which receive information from modality specific primary representations. There are neurophysiological clues that the various cutaneous senses may not share the same primary representation. If this is the case, then differences in primary representations between touch and nociception may cause subject-dependent differences in perceptual maps of these modalities. We studied localization of tactile and nociceptive sensations on the forearm using electrocutaneous stimulation. The perceptual maps of these modalities differed at the group level. When assessed for individual subjects, the differences localization varied in nature between subjects. The agreement of perceptual maps of the two modalities was moderate. These findings are consistent with a common internal body representation underlying spatial perception of touch and nociception. The subject level differences suggest that in addition to these representations other aspects, possibly differences in primary representation and/or the influence of stimulus parameters, lead to differences in perceptual maps in individuals.

  7. LEXICOSTRATIGRAPHY: TRACING GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    Abstract. Lexicostratigraphy is an aspect of historical linguistics that makes use of interlingual borrowings in determining the original settlers of a given speech environment. This paper explores this theoretical framework in an attempt to determine the original settlers in Ebonyi state, southeastern Nigeria. The two groups of ...

  8. Development of an indoor location based service test bed and geographic information system with a wireless sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Shau-Shiun; Hsu, Li-Ta; Tsai, Wen-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In order to provide the seamless navigation and positioning services for indoor environments, an indoor location based service (LBS) test bed is developed to integrate the indoor positioning system and the indoor three-dimensional (3D) geographic information system (GIS). A wireless sensor network (WSN) is used in the developed indoor positioning system. Considering the power consumption, in this paper the ZigBee radio is used as the wireless protocol, and the received signal strength (RSS) fingerprinting positioning method is applied as the primary indoor positioning algorithm. The matching processes of the user location include the nearest neighbor (NN) algorithm, the K-weighted nearest neighbors (KWNN) algorithm, and the probabilistic approach. To enhance the positioning accuracy for the dynamic user, the particle filter is used to improve the positioning performance. As part of this research, a 3D indoor GIS is developed to be used with the indoor positioning system. This involved using the computer-aided design (CAD) software and the virtual reality markup language (VRML) to implement a prototype indoor LBS test bed. Thus, a rapid and practical procedure for constructing a 3D indoor GIS is proposed, and this GIS is easy to update and maintenance for users. The building of the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at National Cheng Kung University in Taiwan is used as an example to assess the performance of various algorithms for the indoor positioning system.

  9. Development of an Indoor Location Based Service Test Bed and Geographic Information System with a Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shau-Shiun Jan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide the seamless navigation and positioning services for indoor environments, an indoor location based service (LBS test bed is developed to integrate the indoor positioning system and the indoor three-dimensional (3D geographic information system (GIS. A wireless sensor network (WSN is used in the developed indoor positioning system. Considering the power consumption, in this paper the ZigBee radio is used as the wireless protocol, and the received signal strength (RSS fingerprinting positioning method is applied as the primary indoor positioning algorithm. The matching processes of the user location include the nearest neighbor (NN algorithm, the K-weighted nearest neighbors (KWNN algorithm, and the probabilistic approach. To enhance the positioning accuracy for the dynamic user, the particle filter is used to improve the positioning performance. As part of this research, a 3D indoor GIS is developed to be used with the indoor positioning system. This involved using the computer-aided design (CAD software and the virtual reality markup language (VRML to implement a prototype indoor LBS test bed. Thus, a rapid and practical procedure for constructing a 3D indoor GIS is proposed, and this GIS is easy to update and maintenance for users. The building of the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at National Cheng Kung University in Taiwan is used as an example to assess the performance of various algorithms for the indoor positioning system.

  10. A novel approach to find and optimize bin locations and collection routes using a geographic information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfani, Seyed Mohammad Hassan; Danesh, Shahnaz; Karrabi, Seyed Mohsen; Shad, Rouzbeh

    2017-07-01

    One of the major challenges in big cities is planning and implementation of an optimized, integrated solid waste management system. This optimization is crucial if environmental problems are to be prevented and the expenses to be reduced. A solid waste management system consists of many stages including collection, transfer and disposal. In this research, an integrated model was proposed and used to optimize two functional elements of municipal solid waste management (storage and collection systems) in the Ahmadabad neighbourhood located in the City of Mashhad - Iran. The integrated model was performed by modelling and solving the location allocation problem and capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) through Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The results showed that the current collection system is not efficient owing to its incompatibility with the existing urban structure and population distribution. Application of the proposed model could significantly improve the storage and collection system. Based on the results of minimizing facilities analyses, scenarios with 100, 150 and 180 m walking distance were considered to find optimal bin locations for Alamdasht, C-metri and Koohsangi. The total number of daily collection tours was reduced to seven as compared to the eight tours carried out in the current system (12.50% reduction). In addition, the total number of required crews was minimized and reduced by 41.70% (24 crews in the current collection system vs 14 in the system provided by the model). The total collection vehicle routing was also optimized such that the total travelled distances during night and day working shifts was cut back by 53%.

  11. Bacterial diversity and composition in major fresh produce growing soils affected by physiochemical properties and geographic locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Jincai [Key Laboratory of Groundwater Resources and Environment, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); USDA-ARS U. S. Salinity Laboratory, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States); Ibekwe, A. Mark, E-mail: Mark.Ibekwe@ars.usda.gov [USDA-ARS U. S. Salinity Laboratory, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States); Yang, Ching-Hong [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Crowley, David E. [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Microbial diversity of agricultural soils has been well documented, but information on leafy green producing soils is limited. In this study, we investigated microbial diversity and community structures in 32 (16 organic, 16 conventionally managed soils) from California (CA) and Arizona (AZ) using pyrosequencing, and identified factors affecting bacterial composition. Results of detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and dissimilarity analysis showed that bacterial community structures of conventionally managed soils were similar to that of organically managed soils; while the bacterial community structures in soils from Salinas, California were different (P < 0.05) from those in soils from Yuma, Arizona and Imperial Valley, California. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and artificial neural network (ANN) analysis of bacterial community structures and soil variables showed that electrical conductivity (EC), clay content, water-holding capacity (WHC), pH, total nitrogen (TN), and organic carbon (OC) significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with microbial communities. CCA based variation partitioning analysis (VPA) showed that soil physical properties (clay, EC, and WHC), soil chemical variables (pH, TN, and OC) and sampling location explained 16.3%, 12.5%, and 50.9%, respectively, of total variations in bacterial community structure, leaving 13% of the total variation unexplained. Our current study showed that bacterial community composition and diversity in major fresh produce growing soils from California and Arizona is a function of soil physiochemical characteristics and geographic distances of sampling sites. - Highlights: • Geographic distance was the most significant factor affecting microbial composition. • Physical and chemical properties significantly impacted microbial communities. • Higher numbers of OTUs were observed in organic soils than in convention soils.

  12. Identifying suitable sanitary landfill locations in the state of Morelos, México, using a Geographic Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Luis E.; Torres, Vicente; Bolongaro, Andrea; Reyna, José A.; Pohle, O.; Hernández-Espriú, A.; Chavarría, Jerónimo; García-Barrios, R.; Tabla, Hugo Francisco Parra

    GIS is a powerful tool that may help to better manage natural resources. In this paper, we present a GIS model developed for the state of Morelos as an aid to determine whether a potential site, Loma de Mejia, met the Mexican Federal Guidelines. The Mexican Government has established federal guidelines for sanitary landfill site selection (NOM-083-SERMARNAT-2003). These guidelines were translated into a water-based Geographic Information System and applied to the state of Morelos, Mexico. For these examples, we used the SIGAM® (Sistema de Información Geográfico del Agua en México; a water-based GIS for Mexico) which has at least 60 layers from the National Water Commission (CONAGUA), the national mapping agency (INEGI; Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática), NASA, and academic institutions. Results show that a GIS is a powerful tool that may allow federal, state and municipal policy makers to conduct an initial regional site reconnaissance rapidly. Once potential sites are selected, further characterization must be carried out in order to determine if proposed locations are suitable or not for a sanitary landfill. Based on the SIGAM© software, the Loma de Mejia would not comply with the Mexican Federal Guidelines.

  13. Effects of the Tip Location on Single Piles Subjected to Surcharge and Axial Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaru Lv

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When applying axial load on piles subjected to negative skin friction (NSF, the yielded NSF is gradually eliminated. The process is notably influenced by the tip location (Y and still a lack of understanding. This paper reports three-dimensional numerical simulations with tip locations Y=1.00 pile diameter (D, 0.25D, 0.00D, and -1.00D. It is found that, against expectations, the dragload and NSF are not proportionally related to the tip location. When maximum dragload (Pmax is eventually eliminated due to an axial load, there is also a negative crest of the skin friction, indicating that NSF still exists based on the criterion of the dragload reduction. The side resistance of the piles with Y=1.00D and 0.25D is almost fully mobilised, which is demonstrated by the increment of end resistance that greatly increases with the larger axial loads. However, the side resistance of the piles with Y=0.00D and -1.00D has a potential capacity to carry more loads with continued displacement since the increment of end resistance increases almost linearly with axial load. Therefore, when designing the pile foundation, the inclusion of the NSF should be governed by the amount of axial load to be resisted.

  14. Effects of the tip location on single piles subjected to surcharge and axial loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yaru; Ding, Xuanming; Wang, Dubo

    2013-01-01

    When applying axial load on piles subjected to negative skin friction (NSF), the yielded NSF is gradually eliminated. The process is notably influenced by the tip location (Y) and still a lack of understanding. This paper reports three-dimensional numerical simulations with tip locations Y = 1.00 pile diameter (D), 0.25D, 0.00D, and -1.00D. It is found that, against expectations, the dragload and NSF are not proportionally related to the tip location. When maximum dragload (P max) is eventually eliminated due to an axial load, there is also a negative crest of the skin friction, indicating that NSF still exists based on the criterion of the dragload reduction. The side resistance of the piles with Y = 1.00D and 0.25D is almost fully mobilised, which is demonstrated by the increment of end resistance that greatly increases with the larger axial loads. However, the side resistance of the piles with Y = 0.00D and -1.00D has a potential capacity to carry more loads with continued displacement since the increment of end resistance increases almost linearly with axial load. Therefore, when designing the pile foundation, the inclusion of the NSF should be governed by the amount of axial load to be resisted.

  15. Best practices for using geographic data in transit : a location referencing guidebook : defining geographic locations of bus stops, routes and other map data for ITS, GIS and operational efficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    This Guidebook was developed at the request of the transit industry. It provides best practices for both transit managers and technical staff with respect to planning, implementing and using geographic data in transit. The Guidebook discusses issues ...

  16. Genotyping of turkey coronavirus field isolates from various geographic locations in the Unites States based on the spike gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ning; Loa, Chien Chang; Ababneh, Mustafa Mohammed-Khair; Wu, Ching Ching; Lin, Tsang Long

    2015-11-01

    Turkey flocks have experienced turkey coronaviral enteritis sporadically in the United States since the 1990s. Twenty-four field isolates of turkey coronavirus (TCoV) from multiple states in the United States were recovered from 1994 to 2010 to determine the genetic relationships among them. The entire spike (S) gene of each TCoV isolate was amplified and sequenced. Pairwise comparisons were performed using the Clustal W program, revealing 90.0% to 98.4% sequence identity in the full-length S protein, 77.6% to 96.6% in the amino terminus of the S1 subunit (containing one hypervariable region in S1a), and 92.1% to 99.3% in the S2 subunit at the deduced amino acid sequence level. The conserved motifs, including two cleavage recognition sequences of the S protein, two heptad repeats, the transmembrane domain, and the Golgi retention signal were identified in all TCoV isolates. Phylogenetic analysis based on the full-length S gene was used to distinguish North American TCoV isolates from French TCoV isolates. Among the North American TCoV isolates, three distinct genetic groups with 100% bootstrap support were observed. North Carolina isolates formed group I, Texas isolates formed group II, and Minnesota isolates formed Group III. The S genes of 24 TCoV isolates from the United States remained conserved because they contained predominantly synonymous substitutions. The findings of the present study suggest endemic circulation of distinct TCoV genotypes in different geographic locations.

  17. The effect of gender, age, and geographical location on the incidence and prevalence of renal replacement therapy in Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heaven Martin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study used a cross sectional survey to examine the effect of gender, age, and geographical location on the population prevalence of renal replacement therapy (RRT provision in Wales. Methods Physicians in renal centres in Wales and in adjacent areas of England were asked to undertake a census of patients on renal replacement therapy on 30 June 2004 using an agreed protocol. Data were collated and analysed in anonymous form. Results 2434 patients were on RRT in Wales at the census date. Median age of patients on RRT was 56 years, peritoneal dialysis 58 years, haemodialysis 66 years and transplantation 50 years. The three treatment modalities had significantly different age-specific peak prevalence rates and distributions. RRT age-specific prevalence rates peaked at around 70 years (1790 pmp, transplantation at around 60 years (924 pmp, haemodialysis at around 80 years (1080 pmp and peritoneal dialysis did not have a clear peak prevalence rate. Age-specific incidence of RRT peaked at a rate of 488 pmp at 79 years, as did incidence rates for haemodialysis, which peaked at the same age. Age had less effect on the initiation of peritoneal dialysis, which had a broad plateau between the early fifties and late seventies. Kidney transplantation rates were highest in the early fifties but were markedly absent in old age. Conclusion Differences in the provision of RRT are evident, particularly in the very elderly, where the gender difference for haemodialysis is particularly marked. The study illustrates that grouping patients over 75 years into a single age-band may mask significant diversity within this age group. Significant numbers of very elderly patients who are currently not receiving RRT may wish to receive RRT as the elderly population increases, and as technology improves survival and quality of life on RRT. The study suggests that if technologies that are more effective were developed, and which had a lower impact on

  18. Class and comparison: subjective social location and lay experiences of constraint and mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Sarah

    2015-06-01

    Lay perceptions and experiences of social location have been commonly framed with reference to social class. However, complex responses to, and ambivalence over, class categories have raised interesting analytic questions relating to how sociological concepts are operationalized in empirical research. For example, prior researchers have argued that processes of class dis-identification signify moral unease with the nature of classed inequalities, yet dis-identification may also in part reflect a poor fit between 'social class' as a category and the ways in which people accord meaning to, and evaluate, their related experiences of socio-economic inequality. Differently framed questions about social comparison, aligned more closely with people's own terms of reference, offer an interesting alternative avenue for exploring subjective experiences of inequality. This paper explores some of these questions through an analysis of new empirical data, generated in the context of recession. In the analysis reported here, class identification was common. Nevertheless, whether or not people self identified in class terms, class relevant issues were perceived and described in highly diverse ways, and lay views on class revealed it to be a very aggregated as well as multifaceted construct. It is argued that it enables a particular, not general, perspective on social comparison. The paper therefore goes on to examine how study participants compared themselves with familiar others, identified by themselves. The evidence illuminates social positioning in terms of constraint, agency and (for some) movement, and offers insight into very diverse experiences of inequality, through the comparisons that people made. Their comparisons are situated, and pragmatic, accounts of the material contexts in which people live their lives. Linked evaluations are circumscribed and strongly tied to these proximate material contexts.The paper draws out implications for theorizing lay perspectives on

  19. Concentration and correlations of perfluoroalkyl substances in whole blood among subjects from three different geographical areas in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chon Rae; Lam, Nguyen Hoang [College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, Chonnam National University, Yeosu 550-749 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Byung Mann [Department of Preventive Medicine and Occupational Medicine, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Kannan, Kurunthachalam [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza PO Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Cho, Hyeon Seo, E-mail: hscho@jnu.ac.kr [College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, Chonnam National University, Yeosu 550-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Toxicity and persistence of perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) in human have raised considerable concern and several biomonitoring studies throughout the world reported the widespread occurrence of these compounds in human tissues. However, information regarding influence of geographic, lifestyle and demographic factor on PFAS levels in human blood tissues is limited. In this study, whole blood samples collected in 2006–2007 from 319 donors from suburban Seoul (Suwon and Yongin), Busan and Yeosu in Korea were analyzed for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA). Blood donors classified into seven age groups with ages ranging from 8 to 82 years, and different lifestyles and socio-economic status. PFOS (median = 4.15 ng/mL) was found at the highest concentration with a maximum concentration of 59.1 ng/mL. The concentrations of other PFASs were in the decreasing order of; PFOA (median = 1.30 ng/mL) > PFNA (median = 0.85 ng/mL) > PFHxS (median = 0.47 ng/mL) > PFOSA (median = 0.12 ng/mL). Geographical differences in the concentrations of five target PFASs were found. Significant positive relationships between PFAS concentrations and the age of the donors were found. Gender-related differences were found in the concentrations of PFOA, PFNA, PFHxS and PFOSA. No association was found between PFAS levels and several lifestyle factors and socio-economic status which included drinking habit, furniture/carpet in an indoor environment and monthly income. Occupation was an important determinant for PFNA and PFHxS concentrations in the whole blood. Except for PFOSA, significant associations were noted between PFASs concentrations and smoking habit. The results of this study provide information for further public health monitoring and safety management for PFASs in Korea. - Highlights: • Significant geographical differences in PFAS levels in whole

  20. Effect of meteorological factors and geographic location on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci colonization in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Natalia; Perencevich, Eli; Li, Shan Shan; Morgan, Daniel J; Pineles, Lisa; Johnson, J Kristie; Robinson, Gwen; Anderson, Deverick J; Jacob, Jesse T; Maragakis, Lisa L; Harris, Anthony D

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the effect of meteorological conditions and geographical location on bacterial colonization rates particularly of antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. We aimed to evaluate the effect of season, meteorological factors, and geographic location on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) colonization. The prospective cohort included all adults admitted to 20 geographically-dispersed ICUs across the US from September 1, 2011 to October 4, 2012. Nasal and perianal swabs were collected at admission and tested for MRSA and VRE colonization respectively. Poisson regression models using monthly aggregated colonization counts as the outcome and mean temperature, relative humidity, total precipitation, season, and/or latitude as predictors were constructed for each pathogen. A total of 24,704 ICU-admitted patients were tested for MRSA and 24,468 for VRE. On admission, 10% of patients were colonized with MRSA and 12% with VRE. For MRSA and VRE, a 10% increase in relative humidity was associated with approximately a 9% increase in prevalence rate. Southerly latitudes in the US were associated with higher MRSA colonization, while northerly latitudes were associated with higher VRE colonization. In contrast to MRSA, the association between VRE colonization and latitude was observed only after adjusting for relative humidity, which demonstrates how this effect is highly driven by this meteorological factor. To our knowledge, we are the first to study the effect of meteorological factors and geographical location/latitude on MRSA and VRE colonization in adults. Increasing humidity was associated with greater MRSA and VRE colonization. Southerly latitudes in the US were associated with greater MRSA and less VRE. The effect of these factors on MRSA and VRE rates has the potential not only to inform patient management and treatment, but also infection prevention interventions.

  1. Effect of precipitation, geographical location and biosynthesis on New Zealand milk powder bulk and fatty acids D/H ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, R.; Emad Ehtesham, R.; Van Hale, R.; Hayman, A.; Baisden, T.

    2012-04-01

    D/H ratio measurements provide useful information for the investigation of biogeochemical influences on natural and agricultural produce, particularly with application to food traceability and authentication. Numerous studies have shown that variation of a product's D/H ratio is influenced by both environmental factors and biological processes. This study investigates the D/H ratio of New Zealand milk powder and individual fatty acids, and causal determinants of isotopic variation. One of the key environmental factors is precipitation, and the D/H ratio "isoscaping" of NZ has been undertaken. New Zealand provides a unique geography for these kinds of study in terms of proximity to the ocean and natural geographical variability from sea level to elevations as high as 3700 m. Milk powder samples were collected from different geographical regions from milk processing units, which were supplied by producers in the immediate region. H/D ratios of bulk milk powder and of individual fatty acids were determined. Initial comparison of the precipitation and milk powder bulk D/H data show a very good differentiation from north to southernmost parts of New Zealand and a relation between rain and milk bulk D/H abundance ratio. Almost 98% of milk FAs are in the form of triglycerides that have been extracted and hydrolysed to free FAs. Free FAs were esterified and analyzed with GC-IRMS. Individual FAs show variation in D/H ratio, and all values are depleted relative to the precipitation data. The difference in D/H ratio amongst individual FAs reflects the geographical environment and biological processes i.e. micro-organisms activity in the rumen of the cow. Short chain FAs (less than 8 carbons), particularly C4 (Butyric acid), appear to be key determinants. The variation in the data can be rationalized using statistical multivariate analysis.

  2. Effect of gender, age and anthropometric variables on plantar fascia thickness at different locations in asymptomatic subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascual Huerta, Javier [Department of Podiatry, Universidad Europea de Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: javier.pascual@uem.es; Alarcon Garcia, Juan Maria [Ultrasound Unit, Hospital Nuestra Senora de America, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-06-15

    Purpose: The study was aimed to investigate plantar fascia thickness at different locations in healthy asymptomatic subjects and its relationship to the following variables: weight, height, sex and age. Material and methods: The study evaluates 96 feet of healthy asymptomatic volunteers. The plantar fascia thickness was measured at four different locations: 1 cm proximal to the insertion of the plantar fascia, at the insertion of the plantar fascia on the calcaneus and separate out 1 cm + 2 cm distal to the insertion. A 10 MHz linear-array transducer was used. Results: There were statistically significant differences in plantar fascia thickness at the four different locations (p < 0.001) although no differences in PF thickness were found between the two distal from insertion locations (1 and 2 cm). Multiple regression analysis showed sex as independent predictor of plantar fascia thickness at 1 cm proximal to the insertion. At origin and 1 cm distal to insertion weight was an independent predictor of plantar fascia thickness. Conclusions: There are differences of thickness at different locations of plantar fascia measured by ultrasonography. Thickness at 1 cm proximal to the insertion is influenced by sex and thickness at origin and at 1 cm distal to the insertion has a direct relationship with body weight. This could be attributed to the overloading effect that weight has on plantar fascia in healthy symptomatic subjects at these two locations. Height and age did not seem to influence as independent variables in plantar fascia thickness among non-painful subjects.

  3. Subject-level differences in reported locations of cutaneous tactile and nociceptive stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, P.; Buitenweg, Jan R.; Trojan, J.; Klaassen, Bart; Veltink, Petrus H.

    2012-01-01

    Recent theoretical advances on the topic of body representations have raised the question whether spatial perception of touch and nociception involve the same representations. Various authors have established that subjective localizations of touch and nociception are displaced in a systematic

  4. The location of the mandibular canal in prognathic patients compared to subjects with normal occlusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yun Hoa; Nah, Kyung Soo; Cho, Bong Hae [Pusan National Univ. College of Dentistry, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare the location of the mandibular canal in Class {iota}{iota}{iota} patients and 26 normal patients were observed. Four measurements were taken on cross sectional tomography between the first and second molars: the distance from the mandibular canal to the inner surface of both the buccal and lingual cortices, the distance from the mandibular canal to the inferior border of the mandible, and the buccolingual width of the mandible. The buccolingual location of the canals was classified as lingual, central, of buccal. Each measurement was analyzed with an independent test to compare Class {iota}{iota}{iota} malocclusion to normal occlusion. Compared to the control group, the prognathic group had a shorter distance from the canal to the inner surface of the lingual cortex and to the base of the mandible. A higher percentage of the canals were located lingually in the prognathic group. This study showed that the mandibular canal was located more lingually and interiorly in prognathic patients than in patients with normal occlusion. These results could help surgeons to reduce injuries to the inferior alveolar nerve.

  5. Comparative Study of Hypolipidemic Profile of Resinoids of Commiphora mukul/Commiphora wightii from Different Geographical Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, M Z; Mazumder, P M

    2012-09-01

    The antihyperlipidemic activity of resinoids of guggul (Commiphora mukul/Commiphora wightii), belonging to family Burseraceae (Genus: Commiphora), collected from different parts of India (Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan), was studied on cholesterol-rich high fat diet-induced model of hyperlipidemia in rats. The resinoids of these exudates were prepared in ethyl acetate and ethyl alcohol. The physicochemical characterization of these resinoids was carried out to determine their appearance, %yield, %moisture, %ash, acid value (mg/KOH/g), saponification value (mg/KOH/g), ester value and iodine value (g/g). Antihyperlipidemic study was carried out on all resinoids in high fat diet induced model of hyperlipidemia in Wistar albino rats. The result demonstrated that the resinoids of exudates of Commiphora wightii and Commiphora mukul, collected from Gujarat and extracted in ethyl acetate, and the resinoids of exudates of Commiphora mukul, collected from Madhya Pradesh and extracted in ethyl acetate, possessed significantly higher antihyperlipidemic activity compared with other resinoids, which may be due to regional/geographical variations.

  6. Integrating multi-criteria techniques with geographical information systems in waste facility location to enhance public participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Gary

    2006-04-01

    Despite recent U.K. Government commitments' to encourage public participation in environmental decision making, those exercises conducted to date have been largely confined to 'traditional' modes of participation such as the dissemination of information and in encouraging feedback on proposals through, for example, questionnaires or surveys. It is the premise of this paper that participative approaches that use IT-based methods, based on combined geographical information systems (GIS) and multi-criteria evaluation techniques that could involve the public in the decision-making process, have the potential to build consensus and reduce disputes and conflicts such as those arising from the siting of different types of waste facilities. The potential of these techniques are documented through a review of the existing literature in order to highlight the opportunities and challenges facing decision makers in increasing the involvement of the public at different stages of the waste facility management process. It is concluded that there are important lessons to be learned by researchers, consultants, managers and decision makers if barriers hindering the wider use of such techniques are to be overcome.

  7. Chemical composition and mosquito repellency of essential oil of Conyza newii propagated in different geographical locations of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayeku, W P; Omollo, N I; Odalo, O J; Hassanali, A

    2014-09-01

    Previously, essential oil of Conyza newii (Asterale: Asteracea, Oliv. & Hiern) growing in the northern part of West Pokot (35°E, 1°N) of Kenya was shown to be highly repellent [RD50 = 8.9 × 10(-5) mg/cm(2) , 95% confidence interval (CL)] to Anopheles gambiae s.s. Fumigant toxicity of the oil to the mosquito was also demonstrated. The major constituents of the oil were found to be monoterpenoids, including (S)-(-)-perillyl alcohol, (S)-(-)-perillaldehyde, geraniol, (R)-(+)-limonene, trans-β-ocimene and 1,8-cineol. In this study, the chemical composition and repellency of essential oils of the plant seedlings collected from West Pokot (35°E, 1°N) and propagated in seven different geographical regions of Kenya [West Pokot (35°E, 1°N), Kilome (37°E, 1°S), Naivasha (36°E, 0°), Webuye (34°E, 1°N), Nyakach (34°E, 0°), Kericho (35°E, 0°) and Nairobi (36°E, 1°S)] were compared. There were significant variations (P < 0.01, 95% CL) in the relative proportions of the six constituents and this was reflected in the repellency of the essential oils (P < 0.01, 95% CL). Higher repellency of the oil was associated with greater proportions of (S)-(-) perillyl alcohol, (S)-(-)-perillaldehyde and geraniol, and lower repellency was associated with an increased proportion of (R)-(+)-limonene. The results suggest significant epigenetic (chemotypic) variations in the repellency and composition of C. newii essential oils growing in different regions of Kenya. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

  8. Activity spaces of men who have sex with men: An initial exploration of geographic variation in locations of routine, potential sexual risk, and prevention behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Adam S; Kramer, Michael R; Cooper, Hannah L F; Rosenberg, Eli S; Sullivan, Patrick S

    2017-02-01

    Theory and research on HIV and among men who have sex with men (MSM) have long suggested the importance of non-residential locations in defining structural exposures. Despite this, most studies within these fields define place as a residential context, neglecting the potential influence of non-residential locations on HIV-related outcomes. The concept of activity spaces, defined as a set of locations to which an individual is routinely exposed, represents one theoretical basis for addressing this potential imbalance. Using a one-time online survey to collect demographic, behavioral, and spatial data from MSM, this paper describes activity spaces and examines correlates of this spatial variation. We used latent class analysis to identify categories of activity spaces using spatial data on home, routine, potential sexual risk, and HIV prevention locations. We then assessed individual and area-level covariates for their associations with these categories. Classes were distinguished by the degree of spatial variation in routine and prevention behaviors (which were the same within each class) and in sexual risk behaviors (i.e., sex locations and locations of meeting sex partners). Partner type (e.g. casual or main) represented a key correlate of the activity space. In this early examination of activity spaces in an online sample of MSM, patterns of spatial behavior represent further evidence of significant spatial variation in locations of routine, potential HIV sexual risk, and HIV prevention behaviors among MSM. Although prevention behaviors tend to have similar geographic variation as routine behaviors, locations where men engage in potentially high-risk behaviors may be more spatially focused for some MSM than for others. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Compositions in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) Grown in Different Geographical Locations

    OpenAIRE

    Sami, Rokayya; Lianzhou, Jiang; Yang, Li; Ma, Ying; Jing, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Okra has different uses as a food and a remedy in traditional medicine. Since it produces many seeds, distribution of the plant is also quite easy. Although seed oil yield is low (4.7%), since the linoleic acid composition of the seed oil is quiet high (67.5%), it can still be used as a source of (UNSAT) unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, samples of okra grown in four different locations were analyzed to measure fatty acid and amino acid compositions. The content of the lipid extraction ...

  10. Placed Parenting, locating unrest: failed femininities, troubled mothers and rioting subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Allen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Critical attention has been given to the consolidation of classed forms of 'placed personhood', as compelling future-orientated and self-regulating subjects that 'fit' into contemporary economic and social formation. These forms of personhood, spoken of as moral character and behavioural 'traits', are increasingly attached to placed parenthood: as that which (selflocates in the right moral and material terrain. Good subjects – made through good parenting and in particular via 'good mothers' – are tasked with self-optimizing and bringing forward their own futures and those of their families (Allen and Osgood 2009; Armstrong 2010; Evans 2010, Gillies 2007; Lawler 2000; Taylor 2012a; Taylor and Addison 2011. A broader 'public' as concerned with equity, welfare and redistribution is dis-placed and entirely re-placed with a self-orientated 'enterprising' privatized response. This limited response is self-congratulating of its own 'responsibility' and condemning of those who 'fail' heightened efforts (in times of 'cutting back' parent-citizens are told simply to be more 'efficient'. 'Necessity' and 'austerity' are, as the editors of this special issue highlight, invoked to re-do all kind of classed and gendered violence, where the most privileged sections of society are evacuated from blame in times of economic crisis: in contrast, what re-circulates is a stated need for poor, 'failing mothers' to 'step-up' for all our sakes. Those who cannot bring themselves forward and propel into this neo-liberal future are increasingly condemned as the wrong kind of parents. This piece aims to chart some of the 'ugliness of parenting' (Taylor 2009, 2012b as placed parenthood attaches to specific classed locales and subjects as that which 'fails' and 'troubles' the future. This is witnessed in the example of and responses to the English Riots of 2011, which is placed as a case study casting light on intersections of class, race, gender and sexuality in forms

  11. Evaluation of fatty acid and amino acid compositions in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) grown in different geographical locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, Rokayya; Lianzhou, Jiang; Yang, Li; Ma, Ying; Jing, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Okra has different uses as a food and a remedy in traditional medicine. Since it produces many seeds, distribution of the plant is also quite easy. Although seed oil yield is low (4.7%), since the linoleic acid composition of the seed oil is quiet high (67.5%), it can still be used as a source of (UNSAT) unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, samples of okra grown in four different locations were analyzed to measure fatty acid and amino acid compositions. The content of the lipid extraction ranged from 4.34% to 4.52% on a dry weight basis. Quantitatively, the main okra fatty acids were palmitic acid (29.18-43.26%), linoleic acid (32.22-43.07%), linolenic acid (6.79-12.34%), stearic acid (6.36-7.73%), oleic acid (4.31-6.98%), arachidic acid (ND-3.48%), margaric acid (1.44-2.16%), pentadecylic acid (0.63-0.92%), and myristic acid (0.21-0.49%). Aspartic acid, proline, and glutamic acids were the main amino acids in okra pods, while cysteine and tyrosine were the minor amino acids. Statistical methods revealed how the fatty acid and amino acid contents in okra may be affected by the sampling location.

  12. Evaluation of Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Compositions in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Grown in Different Geographical Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokayya Sami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Okra has different uses as a food and a remedy in traditional medicine. Since it produces many seeds, distribution of the plant is also quite easy. Although seed oil yield is low (4.7%, since the linoleic acid composition of the seed oil is quiet high (67.5%, it can still be used as a source of (UNSAT unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, samples of okra grown in four different locations were analyzed to measure fatty acid and amino acid compositions. The content of the lipid extraction ranged from 4.34% to 4.52% on a dry weight basis. Quantitatively, the main okra fatty acids were palmitic acid (29.18–43.26%, linoleic acid (32.22–43.07%, linolenic acid (6.79–12.34%, stearic acid (6.36–7.73%, oleic acid (4.31–6.98%, arachidic acid (ND–3.48%, margaric acid (1.44–2.16%, pentadecylic acid (0.63–0.92%, and myristic acid (0.21–0.49%. Aspartic acid, proline, and glutamic acids were the main amino acids in okra pods, while cysteine and tyrosine were the minor amino acids. Statistical methods revealed how the fatty acid and amino acid contents in okra may be affected by the sampling location.

  13. Geographic information system-based healthcare waste management planning for treatment site location and optimal transportation routeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasundaram, Jothiganesh; Soulalay, Vongdeuane; Chettiyappan, Visvanathan

    2012-06-01

    In Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), a growth of healthcare centres, and the environmental hazards and public health risks typically accompanying them, increased the need for healthcare waste (HCW) management planning. An effective planning of an HCW management system including components such as the treatment plant siting and an optimized routeing system for collection and transportation of waste is deemed important. National government offices at developing countries often lack the proper tools and methodologies because of the high costs usually associated with them. However, this study attempts to demonstrate the use of an inexpensive GIS modelling tool for healthcare waste management in the country. Two areas were designed for this study on HCW management, including: (a) locating centralized treatment plants and designing optimum travel routes for waste collection from nearby healthcare facilities; and (b) utilizing existing hospital incinerators and designing optimum routes for collecting waste from nearby healthcare facilities. Spatial analysis paved the way to understand the spatial distribution of healthcare wastes and to identify hotspots of higher waste generating locations. Optimal route models were designed for collecting and transporting HCW to treatment plants, which also highlights constraints in collecting and transporting waste for treatment and disposal. The proposed model can be used as a decision support tool for the efficient management of hospital wastes by government healthcare waste management authorities and hospitals.

  14. Assessing serum metabolite profiles as predictors for feed efficiency in broiler chickens reared at geographically distant locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Magowan, E; Hollmann, M; Ball, M E E; Molnár, A; Lawlor, P G; Hawken, R J; O'Connell, N E; Zebeli, Q

    2017-12-01

    1. The objective of this study was to investigate differences in growth performance, serum intermediary metabolites, acute-phase proteins and white blood cells in low, medium and high-residual feed intake (RFI) chickens. It was also assessed if the environment affects the feed efficiency (FE) and FE-related performance and serum profiles of chickens. 2. Individual body weight (BW) and feed intake (FI) were recorded from d 7 of life. At 5 weeks of age, female and male broiler chickens (Cobb 500) were selected according to their RFI (L1: Austria; L2: UK; n = 9/RFI group, sex and locatity -45on) and blood samples were collected. 3. Chickens at L1 had similar FI but a 15% higher BW gain compared to chickens at L2. The RFI values of female chickens were -231, 8 and 215 g and those of male chickens -197, 0 and 267 g for low, medium and high RFI, respectively. 4. Location affected serum glucose, urea, cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and ovotransferrin in females, and serum glucose and triglycerides in male chickens. Serum uric acid and NEFA linearly increased from low to high RFI in females, whereas in males, cholesterol showed the same linear response from low to high RFI. Serum alpha-1-acid glycoprotein and blood heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio linearly increased by 35% and 68%, respectively, from low to high RFI but only in male chickens at L1. 5. Regression analysis showed significant positive relationships between RFI and serum uric acid (R2 = 0.49) and cholesterol (R2 = 0.13). 6. It was concluded that RFI-related variation in serum metabolites of chickens was largely similar for the two environments and that serum metabolite patterns could be used to predict RFI in chickens.

  15. Association between socioeconomic position and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Ghanaians in different geographic locations: the RODAM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addo, Juliet; Agyemang, Charles; de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Beune, Erik; Schulze, Matthias B; Danquah, Ina; Galbete, Cecilia; Nicolaou, Mary; Meeks, Karlijn; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Bahendaka, Silver; Mockenhaupt, Frank P; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Kunst, Anton; Stronks, Karien; Smeeth, Liam

    2017-07-01

    The prevalence of diabetes has been shown to be socially patterned but the direction of the association in low-income countries and among migrant populations in Europe has varied in the literature. This study examined the association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and diabetes in Ghanaians in Europe and in Ghana. Data were derived from the multicentre Research on Obesity and Diabetes among African Migrants (RODAM) study of Ghanaian adults aged 25-70 years residing in Europe (Amsterdam, Berlin and London) and in urban and rural Ghana. Educational attainment (elementary, secondary or higher) and occupational class (low or high) were used as indicators of SEP. Age-standardised prevalence of diabetes and prevalence ratios were evaluated separately for men and women of different SEP in Ghana and Europe. A total of 5290 participants were included in the analyses. The prevalence of diabetes decreased with increasing level of education in Ghanaian men and women in Europe and in men in urban Ghana, whereas diabetes prevalence increased with increasing level of education in men and women in rural Ghana. The association between occupational class and the prevalence of diabetes followed a less consistent pattern in men and women in the different locations. The association of diabetes and SEP differed in rural Ghana compared with urban settings in Ghana and Europe and comparing men and women, highlighting the complex interaction of SEP and the development of diabetes. These findings have important implications for diabetes prevention strategies in Ghanaians in different locations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Evaluation of location and number of aid post for sustainable humanitarian relief using agent based modeling (ABM) and geographic information system (GIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khair, Fauzi; Sopha, Bertha Maya

    2017-12-01

    One of the crucial phases in disaster management is the response phase or the emergency response phase. It requires a sustainable system and a well-integrated management system. Any errors in the system on this phase will impact on significant increase of the victims number as well as material damage caused. Policies related to the location of aid posts are important decisions. The facts show that there are many failures in the process of providing assistance to the refugees due to lack of preparation and determination of facilities and aid post location. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the number and location of aid posts on Merapi eruption in 2010. This study uses an integration between Agent Based Modeling (ABM) and Geographic Information System (GIS) about evaluation of the number and location of the aid post using some scenarios. The ABM approach aims to describe the agents behaviour (refugees and volunteers) in the event of a disaster with their respective characteristics. While the spatial data, GIS useful to describe real condition of the Sleman regency road. Based on the simulation result, it shows alternative scenarios that combine DERU UGM post, Maguwoharjo Stadium, Tagana Post and Pakem Main Post has better result in handling and distributing aid to evacuation barrack compared to initial scenario. Alternative scenarios indicates the unmet demands are less than the initial scenario.

  17. Evolution of magnetic phases located in Boyacá clays subject to high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Orlando Ruge-Guerrero

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze clay samples obtained from the region of Tunja Boyacá to study the effect of heating temperature in the color of these materials and at the same time as indicative of the nature and distribution of constituents iron oxide Fe2 O3 . These colors are of decorative importance in the manufacture of roofing and brick housing construction. X-ray Fluorescence (XRF, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Mössbauer Spectroscopy (MS and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM for samples subjected to heat treatment between (400-1200 ⁰C was used to assess the evolution of the phases and microstructure in the samples. The results indicate that the spectral properties of the samples are influenced primarily by the mineralogy of Fe. Goethite and hematite phases were identified in all samples. Mössbauer analyzes indicated that with increasing temperature of the raw clay presents an increase in phase of hematite and the red tone from the body of the same, in contrast to samples of yellow tone natural clay . Hematite formation and increased its magnetic ordering is largely due to the disappearance of organic matter and the oxidation of iron ions arranged in mineralogical phases of raw clay.

  18. Correlation between precipitation and geographical location of the δ2H values of the fatty acids in milk and bulk milk powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehtesham, E.; Baisden, W. T.; Keller, E. D.; Hayman, A. R.; Van Hale, R.; Frew, R. D.

    2013-06-01

    Hydrogen isotope ratios (δ2H) have become a tool for food traceability and authentication of agricultural products. The principle is that the isotopic composition of the produce is influenced by environmental and biological factors and hence exhibits a spatial differentiation of δ2H. This study investigates the variation in δ2H values of New Zealand milk, both in the bulk powder and individual fatty acids extracted from milk samples from dairy factories across New Zealand. Multivariate statistical analyses were used to test for relationships between δ2H of bulk milk powder, milk fatty acid and geographical location. Milk powder samples from different regions of New Zealand were found to exhibit patterns in isotopic composition similar to the corresponding regional precipitation associated with their origin. A model of δ2H in precipitation was developed based on measurements between 2007 and 2010 at 51 stations across New Zealand (Frew and Van Hale, 2011). The model uses multiple linear regressions to predict daily δ2H from 2 geographic and 5 rain-weighted climate variables from the 5 × 5 km New Zealand Virtual Climate Station Network (VCSN). To approximate collection radius for a drying facility the modelled values were aggregated within a 50 km radius of each dairy factory and compared to observed δ2H values of precipitation and bulk milk powder. Daily δ2H predictions for the period from August to December for the area surrounding the sample collection sites were highly correlated with the δ2H values of bulk milk powder. Therefore the δ2H value of milk fatty acids demonstrates promise as a tool for determining the provenance of milk powders and products where milk powder is an ingredient. Separation of milk powder origin to geographic sub-regions within New Zealand was achieved. Hydrogen isotope measurements could be used to complement traditional tracking systems in verifying point of origin.

  19. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  20. Concentration and correlations of perfluoroalkyl substances in whole blood among subjects from three different geographical areas in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chon Rae; Lam, Nguyen Hoang; Cho, Byung Mann; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Cho, Hyeon Seo

    2015-04-15

    Toxicity and persistence of perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) in human have raised considerable concern and several biomonitoring studies throughout the world reported the widespread occurrence of these compounds in human tissues. However, information regarding influence of geographic, lifestyle and demographic factor on PFAS levels in human blood tissues is limited. In this study, whole blood samples collected in 2006-2007 from 319 donors from suburban Seoul (Suwon and Yongin), Busan and Yeosu in Korea were analyzed for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA). Blood donors classified into seven age groups with ages ranging from 8 to 82 years, and different lifestyles and socio-economic status. PFOS (median=4.15 ng/mL) was found at the highest concentration with a maximum concentration of 59.1 ng/mL. The concentrations of other PFASs were in the decreasing order of; PFOA (median=1.30 ng/mL)>PFNA (median=0.85 ng/mL)>PFHxS (median=0.47 ng/mL)>PFOSA (median=0.12 ng/mL). Geographical differences in the concentrations of five target PFASs were found. Significant positive relationships between PFAS concentrations and the age of the donors were found. Gender-related differences were found in the concentrations of PFOA, PFNA, PFHxS and PFOSA. No association was found between PFAS levels and several lifestyle factors and socio-economic status which included drinking habit, furniture/carpet in an indoor environment and monthly income. Occupation was an important determinant for PFNA and PFHxS concentrations in the whole blood. Except for PFOSA, significant associations were noted between PFASs concentrations and smoking habit. The results of this study provide information for further public health monitoring and safety management for PFASs in Korea. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Extractives content in cooperage oak wood during natural seasoning and toasting; influence of tree species, geographic location, and single-tree effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doussot, Franck; De Jéso, Bernard; Quideau, Stéphane; Pardon, Patrick

    2002-10-09

    The chemical composition of cooperage oak wood is highly variable, depending upon the tree species (Quercus robur L. versus Quercus petraea Liebl.), its geographic location, and the single-tree effect. In the process of cask-making, natural seasoning and toasting contribute strongly to the modification of the oak wood chemical composition and therefore influence wine cooperaging. HPLC and GC quantification of ellagitannins and volatile compounds such as whiskey-lactones, eugenol, and vanillin over a sample set of 61 pedunculate oaks and 72 sessile oaks originating from six different forests showed that natural drying leads to a decrease of the ellagitannins and total extractives content level and a quasi constant level of the volatile compounds. Toasting (medium type) drastically enhanced the loss of ellagitannins and the gain in volatile compounds. Statistical treatment showed that the species effect remained significant throughout the process of drying and toasting, but not the provenance. The poor correlation with ring width of extractives levels measured on fresh timber remained unchanged as did the single-tree effect, with high variability found for all chemical parameters. These results provide further evidence that cooperage oak selection should not be based solely on the wood grain or the provenance but rather on a species-provenance combination.

  2. Risk assessment of trace metal-polluted coastal sediments on Hainan Island: A full-scale set of 474 geographical locations covering the entire island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Lin, Ze-Feng; Wen, Jia-Sheng; Wei, Yan-Sha; Gan, Hua-Yang; He, Hai-Jun; Lin, Jin-Qin; Xia, Zhen; Chen, Bi-Shuang; Guo, Wen-Jie; Tan, Cha-Sheng; Cai, Hua-Yang

    2017-09-29

    Hainan Island is the second largest island and one of the most famous tourist destinations in China, but sediment contamination by trace metals in coastal areas is a major issue. However, full-scale risk assessments of trace metal-polluted coastal sediments are lacking. In this study, coastal surface sediments from 474 geographical locations covering almost the entire island were collected to identify risk-related variables. Controlling factors and possible sources of trace metals were identified, and the toxicity effects were carefully evaluated. Our results suggest that trace-metal pollution in coastal sediments, which was mainly caused by Pb, Zn and Cu emissions, has primarily resulted from industrial sewage and shipping activities and has threatened the offshore ecosystem of Hainan Island and warrants extensive consideration. This is the first study that has systematically investigated trace metal-polluted coastal sediments throughout the entirety of Hainan Island and provides solid evidence for sustainable marine management in the region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Terrestrial service environments for selected geographic locations. Final report. [1965--1974 data; to define solar array environment to aid in encapsulation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R.E.; Carmichael, D.C.

    1976-06-24

    This report contains results obtained from analyses of climatic, precipitation, air pollution, and other environmental data for the years 1965 to 1974 at nine widely different geographic locations in the United States (Albuquerque, N.M.; Bismarck, N.D.; Boston, Mass.; Brownsville, TX.; Cleveland, OH; Fairbanks, AK; Los Angeles, CA; Miami, FL; and Phoenix, AZ). In addition to descriptive and diurnal statistics for 24 individual climatic variables, ''environmental cell'' statistics were computed to obtain the frequencies, durations, and transitions for the simultaneous occurrence of various combinations of environmental variables. Results are presented for the simultaneous occurrence of specific levels of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and insolation, in addition to representative results obtained for other combinations of variables. The results characterize the environmental conditions to which terrestrial solar arrays would be exposed over a 20-year lifetime, and serve to identify environmental factors and levels that can be used in testing candidate encapsulation materials and systems for such terrestrial exposures. An innovative methodology was applied to obtain these results for combinations of environmental variables. Because of its generality and demonstrated feasibility, it is concluded that the methodology also has broad applications to other testing programs.

  4. Prevalence and incidence of chronic bronchitis and farmer's lung with respect to the geographical location of the farm and to the work of farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohlonen, I; Tupi, K; Terho, E O; Husman, K

    1987-01-01

    Prevalence and incidence of chronic bronchitis and farmer's lung in the Finnish farming population were studied by cross-sectional and follow-up surveys of 12,056 farmers. Occurrence of both these diseases varied greatly according to geographical location of the farm. The incidence of chronic bronchitis (2,687 new cases annually per 100,000 farmers) was twice as large in southwestern as in northern Finland. Chronic bronchitis was more common among farmers in livestock production than among those in grain production. The definition of farmer's lung adopted confined the occurrence of the disease among farmers engaged in animal tending. In livestock production, chronic bronchitis was strongly associated with swine tending, but farmer's lung with both cattle and swine tending. Use of a harvester with a sack loader turned out to be characteristic of the chronic bronchitis cases, and the number of new cases was largest among farmers who used a batch type cell drier. The farmers with grain driers that use unheated air most frequently suffered from farmer's lung. Of all (147) the characteristics of farming occupation analyzed, the methods of grain handling and drying were the most important factors for predisposing farmers to chronic bronchitis and farmer's lung.

  5. Predictive global trends in the incidence and mortality of pancreatic cancer based on geographic location, socio-economic status, and demographic shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Are, Chandrakanth; Chowdhury, Sanjib; Ahmad, Humera; Ravipati, Advaitaa; Song, Tianqiang; Shrikandhe, Shailesh; Smith, Lynette

    2016-11-01

    Pancreatic Cancer (PC) is a lethal malignancy that accounts for about 4% of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The aim of this study is to describe the influence of geography (based on WHO regions), socio-economic development (based on Human Development Index [HDI]) and demographic shift on the temporal trends in global incidence and mortality of PC. Data (2012-2030) relating to the incidence, mortality of PC and demographic shifts based on WHO regions and HDI areas were extracted from GLOBOCAN 2012. Linear regression was used to evaluate trends in total incidence and mortality. We noted a definite association between PC and higher socio-economic status. Advanced age (age ≥65) contributed to the rising burden in all socio-economic regions of the world except in the Low Human Development (LHD) countries where the disease predominantly affected population global burden of PC is expected to rise significantly over the next few decades regardless of geographic location, socio-economic development, age and gender. Advance knowledge of this data can help formulate strategies to specifically target countries and populations that promote public health policy to tackle this lethal disease on the global stage. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:736-742. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Geographical location as critical factor in design and planning for international projects; La localizacion geografica como factor critico en el diseno y planificacion de proyectos internacionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matranga, Mariana; Rawson, Carola; Pandolfi, Juan Martin; Guamantica, Diego; Eberle, Juan Manuel; Mastandrea, Martin [TECNA S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2004-07-01

    The success of an international project is closely linked to the knowledge of the scene where the steps of construction, installation and operation will take place. In that sense, early consideration of geographic factors, socio-economic and environmental impact has proven to be determinant for the successful development of the phases of design, construction, transportation, assembly and operation. In the case of the Planta de Tratamiento de Gas Sabalo, taking into account the above factors not only enabled the efficient development of the various phases of the project, but also complete stages of assembly and start-up in twenty weeks. The Planta de Tratamiento de Gas Sabalo is located in the Chaco, region in the Bolivian jungle, and has a capacity of 13.4 MMSCMD gas specification, which makes the plant increased capacity in Bolivia and one of the highest capacity in South America. Companies in Brazil, Bolivia, Ecuador and Argentina were involved in the project, the latter in charge of its design, construction and management. Based on the experience of the project Sabalo, this article presents a series of lines especially applicable to international projects.

  7. SUBJECTIVE HEALTH ASSESSMENT AND HEALTH BEHAVIOUR OF ADULT INHABITANTS OF TOWNS LOCATED IN THE VICINITY OF WIND FARMS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Mroczek

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The development of wind power industry is beneficial both for human beings and their environment, even so it causes anxiety of people living near wind farms. It is highly related to insufficient information on the effect of wind farms on human health. The aim of this study was to assess subjective health, existing problems and health behaviours demonstrated by the residents of places located near wind farms. Materials of methods. The study was performed in January and February 2009. The research tool was a questionnaire consisting of the Norwegian version of The SF-36 General Health Questionnaire, the Visual Analog Scale (VAS for health assessment, and author’s questions. Information was obtained from 343 respondents, whose average age was 45 years. Out of them 57% had a job, while 12% were unemployed. All respondents were country dwellers. Results: General health was assessed as excellent or very good by 30%, as bad by 10.8%. One-fourth of respondents observed the worsening of their health. Some 59.2% claimed that wind farms were over 1500 m from their houses; people living in the shortest distance form a wind mill (700 m constituted 8%. One-third thought that windmills were safe for health; 69.1% did not regard windmills beneficial to themselves, and 2.6% could not see any advantages for the local community. Overweight and obesity were found in 42.34%, and 96.8% suffered from chronic diseases. Conclusions: 1. Subjective quality of life assessment depends directly on internal conditions of an individual. Construction of wind farms is not evaluated as an investment that changes the life of an individual. It is thought to have no effect on the assessment of health or its worsening. 2. Risk behaviours in the group examined do not differ from those observed in the general population. The factors which make the behaviours different are gender, age below 65 and occupational inactivity.

  8. Identification, assessment and prioritization of ecotoxicological risks on the scale of a territory: Application to WWTP discharges in a geographical area located in northeast Lyon, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brus, Alain; Perrodin, Yves

    2017-12-01

    The ecotoxicological risk assessment methodologies developed up to now mainly focus on local pollution and do not incorporate an evaluation and prioritization of the different risk situations present in the same territory. This article presents the different phases of formulating an innovative methodology developed to fill this gap, and its application to all the 18 WasteWater Treatment Plants (WWTP) of a geographical area located northeast of Lyon, France. The aim was also take into account emerging pollutants that are very often "forgotten" in ecotoxicological risk assessments. The results of the study show the extreme diversity of the ecotoxicity of the pollutants present in discharges, with "minimum" PNEC values in the region of a millionth of a microgram (10(-6) μg/l) and "maximum" PNEC values in the region of several tens of micrograms. They also show very considerable diversity of the flows of the receiving watercourses in the territory concerned (from several m(3)/s to 600 m(3)/s). The Risk Quotients (RQ) resulting from these 2 datasets, calculated for each WWTP and for each of the 10 pollutants most implicated in ecotoxicological risks (Diclofenac, Amoxicillin, Trimethoprim, Roxithromycin, 17β-estradiol, 17α-Ethynylestradiol, Estrone, Nonylphenol, Octylphenol, Nickel, et NH4(+)), vary from 0.000002 to 187.7 when using the median concentration values of these pollutants, and from 0.000007 to 3750 when using their maximum concentration values. Globally, they show that: (1) the risks are higher for small streams that receive WWTP discharges of average size, (2) the risks are low to very low for discharges into watercourses with high flow rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus from distinct geographic locations in China: an increasing prevalence of spa-t030 and SCCmec type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Liu, Zhengxiang; Duo, Libo; Xiong, Jie; Gong, Yanwen; Yang, Jiyong; Wang, Zhanke; Wu, Xuqin; Lu, Zhongyi; Meng, Xiangzhao; Zhao, Jingya; Zhang, Changjian; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Yulong; Zhang, Mengqiang; Han, Li

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus belongs to one of the most common bacteria causing healthcare and community associated infections in China, but their molecular characterization has not been well studied. From May 2011 to June 2012, a total of 322 non-duplicate S. aureus isolates were consecutively collected from seven tertiary care hospitals in seven cities with distinct geographical locations in China, including 171 methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and 151 MRSA isolates. All isolates were characterized by spa typing. The presence of virulence genes was tested by PCR. MRSA were further characterized by SCCmec typing. Seventy four and 16 spa types were identified among 168 MSSA and 150 MRSA, respectively. One spa type t030 accounted for 80.1% of all MRSA isolates, which was higher than previously reported, while spa-t037 accounted for only 4.0% of all MRSA isolates. The first six spa types (t309, t189, t034, t377, t078 and t091) accounted for about one third of all MSSA isolates. 121 of 151 MRSA isolates (80.1%) were identified as SCCmec type III. pvl gene was found in 32 MSSA (18.7%) and 5 MRSA (3.3%) isolates, with ST22-MSSA-t309 as the most commonly identified strain. Compared with non-epidemic MRSA clones, epidemic MRSA clones (corresponding to ST239) exhibited a lower susceptibility to rifampin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, a higher prevalence of sea gene and a lower prevalence of seb, sec, seg, sei and tst genes. The increasing prevalence of multidrug resistant spa-t030 MRSA represents a major public health problem in China.

  10. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus from distinct geographic locations in China: an increasing prevalence of spa-t030 and SCCmec type III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chen

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus belongs to one of the most common bacteria causing healthcare and community associated infections in China, but their molecular characterization has not been well studied. From May 2011 to June 2012, a total of 322 non-duplicate S. aureus isolates were consecutively collected from seven tertiary care hospitals in seven cities with distinct geographical locations in China, including 171 methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA and 151 MRSA isolates. All isolates were characterized by spa typing. The presence of virulence genes was tested by PCR. MRSA were further characterized by SCCmec typing. Seventy four and 16 spa types were identified among 168 MSSA and 150 MRSA, respectively. One spa type t030 accounted for 80.1% of all MRSA isolates, which was higher than previously reported, while spa-t037 accounted for only 4.0% of all MRSA isolates. The first six spa types (t309, t189, t034, t377, t078 and t091 accounted for about one third of all MSSA isolates. 121 of 151 MRSA isolates (80.1% were identified as SCCmec type III. pvl gene was found in 32 MSSA (18.7% and 5 MRSA (3.3% isolates, with ST22-MSSA-t309 as the most commonly identified strain. Compared with non-epidemic MRSA clones, epidemic MRSA clones (corresponding to ST239 exhibited a lower susceptibility to rifampin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, a higher prevalence of sea gene and a lower prevalence of seb, sec, seg, sei and tst genes. The increasing prevalence of multidrug resistant spa-t030 MRSA represents a major public health problem in China.

  11. U.S. Navigated Waterway Mile Marker Locations from USCOE source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2000) [river_mile_markers_USACE_1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a point dataset representing 10,044 sequential mile positions of navigable inland waterways and the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway. These data were developed as...

  12. Analysis of several methods and inertial sensors locations to assess gait parameters in able-bodied subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Mansour, Khaireddine; Rezzoug, Nasser; Gorce, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this paper was to determine which types of inertial sensors and which advocated locations should be used for reliable and accurate gait event detection and temporal parameter assessment in normal adults. In addition, we aimed to remove the ambiguity found in the literature of the definition of the initial contact (IC) from the lumbar accelerometer. Acceleration and angular velocity data was gathered from the lumbar region and the distal edge of each shank. This data was evaluated in comparison to an instrumented treadmill and an optoelectronic system during five treadmill speed sessions. The lumbar accelerometer showed that the peak of the anteroposterior component was the most accurate for IC detection. Similarly, the valley that followed the peak of the vertical component was the most precise for terminal contact (TC) detection. Results based on ANOVA and Tukey tests showed that the set of inertial methods was suitable for temporal gait assessment and gait event detection in able-bodied subjects. For gait event detection, an exception was found with the shank accelerometer. The tool was suitable for temporal parameters assessment, despite the high root mean square error on the detection of IC (RMSEIC) and TC (RMSETC). The shank gyroscope was found to be as accurate as the kinematic method since the statistical tests revealed no significant difference between the two techniques for the RMSE off all gait events and temporal parameters. The lumbar and shank accelerometers were the most accurate alternative to the shank gyroscope for gait event detection and temporal parameters assessment, respectively. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Geographical Tatoos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cazetta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with maps tattooed on bodies. My interest in studying the corporeality is inserted in a broader project entitled Geographies and (in Bodies. There is several published research on tattoos, but none in particular about tattooed maps. However some of these works interested me because they present important discussions in contemporary about body modification that helped me locate the body modifications most within the culture than on the nature. At this time, I looked at pictures of geographical tattoos available in several sites of the internet.

  14. Location of Sea-Floor Photographs acquired during USGS cruise 04011 (RAFA04011) from off Eastern Cape Cod, Massachusetts (RAFA04011_BOTPHOTOS.SHP, Geographic, NAD83)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes the locations and identifiers of 240 bottom photographs collected at 89 stations on topographic and backscatter data of the sea floor offshore...

  15. Air Mobility Command’s En Route Support Infrastructure: A Construct of Aircraft Type and Geographic Location Utilized to Assess En Route Aircraft Logistic Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Support Locations (2000 – 2004)........................................... 99 Table C5 . KC-10 Logistic Support Locations (2000 – 2004...information for the following aircraft descriptions. C-5 Galaxy . The C-5 is one of the largest aircraft in the world and is a critical AMC...airlift asset. The Galaxy is used as a heavy-lift, air refuelable cargo transport for massive strategic airlift over long ranges, including outsize cargo

  16. Vegetation Changes in the Permafrost Regions of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau from 1982-2012: Different Responses Related to Geographical Locations and Vegetation Types in High-Altitude Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaodong; Zhao, Lin; Yue, Guangyang; Nan, Zhuotong; Wang, Puchang; Yi, Shuhua; Zou, Defu; Qin, Yu; Wu, Tonghua; Shi, Jianzong

    2017-01-01

    The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) contains the largest permafrost area in a high-altitude region in the world, and the unique hydrothermal environments of the active layers in this region have an important impact on vegetation growth. Geographical locations present different climatic conditions, and in combination with the permafrost environments, these conditions comprehensively affect the local vegetation activity. Therefore, the responses of vegetation to climate change in the permafrost region of the QTP may be varied differently by geographical location and vegetation condition. In this study, using the latest Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) product based on turning points (TPs), which were calculated using a piecewise linear model, 9 areas within the permafrost region of the QTP were selected to investigate the effect of geographical location and vegetation type on vegetation growth from 1982 to 2012. The following 4 vegetation types were observed in the 9 selected study areas: alpine swamp meadow, alpine meadow, alpine steppe and alpine desert. The research results show that, in these study areas, TPs mainly appeared in 2000 and 2001, and almost 55.1% and 35.0% of the TPs were located in 2000 and 2001. The global standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) and 7 meteorological variables were selected to analyze their correlations with NDVI. We found that the main correlative variables to vegetation productivity in study areas from 1982 to 2012 were precipitation, surface downward long-wave radiation and temperature. Furthermore, NDVI changes exhibited by different vegetation types within the same study area followed similar trends. The results show that regional effects rather than vegetation type had a larger impact on changes in vegetation growth in the permafrost regions of the QTP, indicating that climatic factors had a larger impact in the permafrost regions than the

  17. Vegetation Changes in the Permafrost Regions of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau from 1982-2012: Different Responses Related to Geographical Locations and Vegetation Types in High-Altitude Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Wang

    Full Text Available The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP contains the largest permafrost area in a high-altitude region in the world, and the unique hydrothermal environments of the active layers in this region have an important impact on vegetation growth. Geographical locations present different climatic conditions, and in combination with the permafrost environments, these conditions comprehensively affect the local vegetation activity. Therefore, the responses of vegetation to climate change in the permafrost region of the QTP may be varied differently by geographical location and vegetation condition. In this study, using the latest Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI product based on turning points (TPs, which were calculated using a piecewise linear model, 9 areas within the permafrost region of the QTP were selected to investigate the effect of geographical location and vegetation type on vegetation growth from 1982 to 2012. The following 4 vegetation types were observed in the 9 selected study areas: alpine swamp meadow, alpine meadow, alpine steppe and alpine desert. The research results show that, in these study areas, TPs mainly appeared in 2000 and 2001, and almost 55.1% and 35.0% of the TPs were located in 2000 and 2001. The global standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI and 7 meteorological variables were selected to analyze their correlations with NDVI. We found that the main correlative variables to vegetation productivity in study areas from 1982 to 2012 were precipitation, surface downward long-wave radiation and temperature. Furthermore, NDVI changes exhibited by different vegetation types within the same study area followed similar trends. The results show that regional effects rather than vegetation type had a larger impact on changes in vegetation growth in the permafrost regions of the QTP, indicating that climatic factors had a larger impact in the permafrost

  18. Power and pain: the location of pain and fear in dentistry and the creation of a dental subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettleton, S

    1989-01-01

    It has been argued that the meaning of pain in childbirth and in general medicine has changed and that this change was part of a cognitive transformation that occurred in medicine during the post World War II period. This paper uses Foucault's notion of the gaze and his unique conception of power to explore the extent to which the understanding of pain, and the associated concept of fear, in dentistry, reflects those understandings found in medicine and obstetrics. Within the discourse of dentistry the conception of pain is both object and effect of the profession's techniques of observation and analysis. Analyses of pain and fear occurred on two levels: the micro-level of the individual and the macro-level of the population. The examples of the case history and the epidemiological survey are used to demonstrate these two levels of power/knowledge. The first technique contributed to the constitution of the psychological space, the second technique confirmed the social space. Within these spatialisations new conceptualisations of pain were realised and a subjective dental subject was manufactured. The findings of this paper add weight to the thesis that the functioning of power/knowledge transcends professional and disciplinary boundaries and is a process which is far more subtle and fundamental than one of political manoeuverings by interested groups or individuals or the accumulation of an increasingly sophisticated knowledge.

  19. COUNTRY LIFE QUALITY IN THE OPINION OF YOUNG PEOPLE IN RESPECT OF THEIR FIRST JOB LOCATION DECISION – SUBJECTIVE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Pieczonka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite advancement, numerous country regions have been observing adverse trends in terms of birth rates, society ageing, and negative migration balance. Such tendencies seem to affect particularly eastern (Podkarpacie, Podlasie and western (Opolszczyzna regions. Therefore, this article is aimed at investigating how young people assess rural life quality and identifying their preferences when choosing where to study, start their first job, or run their first business. The research sample consists of country-based farming school students and young country students of Opole colleges and universities. The level of country life has been presented through material and living conditions, while life quality has been presented through the respondents’ subjective assessment of their satisfaction with basic conditions that country regions can offer to young high school students. Survey results prove that filling gaps in income structure and narrowing distance between social-economic groups in urban and rural environments is importantly related to income from non-agricultural activities and consequently a better way of material life conditions in the country. Therefore, in the future, more effective measures should be dedicated to creating attractive, well-paid (perceived subjectively jobs. This element may determine rural populations’ satisfaction with their life quality to a greater extent than infrastructure. 

  20. Surveying and Mapping Geographical Information from the Perspective of Geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÜ Guonian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It briefly reviewed the history of geographic information content development since the existence of geographic information system. It pointed out that the current definition of geographic information is always the extension from the "spatial+ attributes" basic mapping framework of geographic information. It is increasingly difficult to adapt to the analysis and application of spatial-temporal big data. From the perspective of geography research subject and content, it summarized systematically that the content and extension of the "geographic information" that geography needs. It put forward that a six-element expression model of geographic information, including spatial location, semantic description, attribute characteristics, geometric form, evolution process, and objects relationship.Under the guidance of the laws of geography, for geographical phenomenon of spatial distribution, temporal pattern and evolution process, the interaction mechanism of the integrated expression, system analysis and efficient management, it designed that a unified GIS data model which is expressed by six basic elements, a new GIS data structure driven by geographical rules and interaction, and key technologies of unstructured spatio-temporal data organization and storage. It provided that a theoretical basis and technical support for the shift from the surveying and mapping geographic information to the scientific geographic information, and it can help improving the organization, management, analysis and expression ability of the GIS of the geographical laws such as geographical pattern, evolution process, and interaction between elements.

  1. 'Hella Ghetto!': (Dis)locating Race and Class Consciousness in Youth Discourses of Ghetto Spaces, Subjects and Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Kenzo K

    Based on analysis of interviews conducted during 2008-2009 in Oakland, California, this paper examines how narratives of inner-city youth reinforce and destabilize mainstream conceptions of 'ghetto.' The paper demonstrates that inner-city youth discourses regarding 'ghetto' spaces, subjects and schools often exemplify a consciousness informed by both counter-hegemonic insights and internalized psychological trauma. In other words, the interviewed youth reconstitute the term 'ghetto' to signify structural and cultural processes of dislocation occurring in their neighborhood through narratives characterized by contradiction. This finding is significant because it questions how to analyze non-white narratives and offers 'dislocated consciousness' as an interpretive lens grounded in the contradictions of subaltern consciousness theorized by W.E.B. Dubois, Frantz Fanon and Antonio Gramsci. By developing the concept of 'dislocation' to illuminate how such youth negotiate, resist and internalize the material and ideological structures that condition their existence, this study contributes to the existing literature on race and class consciousness of urban youth. The paper concludes by exploring how strategies urban youth utilize to come to terms with their lives can provide new understandings of urban communities and schooling.

  2. Variability of observed low-altitude astronomical refraction (LAAR) from different geographic locations: progress toward a global map of LAAR variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Russell D; Lozowski, Edward P; Machel, Hans G

    2005-09-20

    The variability of the astronomical refraction of the setting Sun as measured from Holetown, Barbados, West Indies, is compared to sunset refraction measured from Edmonton, Alberta, during the same time of year. At about 13 degrees N latitude, Holetown experiences a marine tropical climate, while Edmonton (53 degrees N) has a subarctic continental climate. The 17 sunsets recorded from Holetown between 27 December 2003, and 21 February 2004, and between 25 and 30 December 2004, show a mean astronomical refraction of 0 degrees .475 and standard deviation of 0 degrees .012. The 26 sunsets recorded from Edmonton between 31 December 1992, and 17 February 1993, show a mean astronomical refraction of 0 degrees .699 and standard deviation of 0 degrees .118. The Barbados mean is significantly less than the Edmonton mean, while the variability of the Barbados data is an order of magnitude less than the Edmonton data. The variability of refraction appears to be strongly correlated with the variability in the surface vertical temperature gradient recorded on the same day as the sunset observations. This suggests that mapping of the geographic distribution of low-altitude astronomical refraction variability could be based on climatology of the surface vertical temperature gradient.

  3. Genetic diversity of Fusarium graminearum sensu lato isolates from wheat associated with Fusarium Head Blight in diverse geographic locations of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolo, Verónica F; Ortega, Leonel M; Salerno, Graciela; Astoreca, Andrea L; Alconada, Teresa M

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium Head Blight is an important wheat disease in the Argentine Pampas region, being Fusarium graminearum the predominant pathogen. DNA polymorphism of the isolates was analyzed by IGS-RFLP and ISSR. IGS-RFLP and ISSR profiling were carried out using six endonucleases and eight primers, respectively. IGS-RFLP yielded 41 bands, 30 of which were polymorphic while ISSR produced 87 bands with 47 polymorphic bands. Both markers showed genetic variability among the analyzed isolates; however, IGS-RFLP was more efficient than ISSR, showing a higher polymorphic average (59.91%) than the latter (44.11%). The averages of polymorphic information content (PIC) were 0.211 and 0.129, respectively. Twenty haplotypes were identified by IGS-RFLP and 15 haplotypes by ISSR. Genotype clustering within dendrograms was different for both types of markers. The genetic groups obtained by IGS-RFLP showed a partial association to geographic origin. This is the first report on genetic variability of F. graminearum isolates from wheat in Argentina using IGS-RFLP and ISSR markers. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Geographic Names

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board of Geographic Names, provides...

  5. Integrated multi-criteria decision making techniques AHP with Geographic Information System for Modelling of suitable Landfill location: a case study in Keraniganj of Dhaka city, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, M.

    2015-12-01

    This study is approaches a GIS based multi-criteria decision making technique to select potential land fill in Keraniganj of Dhaka city in Bangladesh. Site selection of landfill for Municipal solid waste is an important concern for the urban government in whole world. Dhaka city is highly dense populated city in Bangladesh and municipal solid waste generation rate is increase rapidly day by day. These large amount of generated municipal waste needs appropriate landfill considering environmental, geological, social and technical aspect of the region. The traditional process of site selection process is much difficult, time consuming and costly and needs to replace by a new approaches. An integration of Geographical Information System (GIS) and Multi-criteria Evaluation (MCE) method is best combination to solve complex decision and used to select suitable site. Analytical Hierarchy process (AHP) is world widely most popular decision making MCE technique. In this study AHP used as a multi-criteria decision making to compare five suitability attributes with each other and evaluate weight according to attributes potentiality. Various type raster map layer created using GIS tool for this study. Five suitability raster was assigned with the AHP calculated weight value. A combined weighted spatial layer obtained name as suitability map which is overlapped with a restriction raster map, as result a final suitable map was obtained. The result shows that 12.2% of the area is suitable for constructing landfill site where 4.9% is very high suitable, 2.6% is moderate suitable and 4.7% is low suitable. The final site is constructed after detail field investigation, other technical investigation, land ownership status and public acceptancy. Suitable site selection for non-hazardous landfill is not easy and its needs to consider many environmental factor at time. GIS tool combining with many decision making tool such as multi-criteria evaluation can solve this problem. A combining

  6. A Poisson Cluster Stochastic Rainfall Generator That Accounts for the Interannual Variability of Rainfall Statistics: Validation at Various Geographic Locations across the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongkyun Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach for a Poisson cluster stochastic rainfall generator was validated in its ability to reproduce important rainfall and watershed response characteristics at 104 locations in the United States. The suggested novel approach, The Hybrid Model (THM, as compared to the traditional Poisson cluster rainfall modeling approaches, has an additional capability to account for the interannual variability of rainfall statistics. THM and a traditional approach of Poisson cluster rainfall model (modified Bartlett-Lewis rectangular pulse model were compared in their ability to reproduce the characteristics of extreme rainfall and watershed response variables such as runoff and peak flow. The results of the comparison indicate that THM generally outperforms the traditional approach in reproducing the distributions of peak rainfall, peak flow, and runoff volume. In addition, THM significantly outperformed the traditional approach in reproducing extreme rainfall by 2.3% to 66% and extreme flow values by 32% to 71%.

  7. Integrating Geographical Information Systems, Fuzzy Logic and Analytical Hierarchy Process in Modelling Optimum Sites for Locating Water Reservoirs. A Case Study of the Debub District in Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney G. Tsiko

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to model water reservoir site selection for a real world application in the administrative district of Debub, Eritrea. This is a region were scarcity of water is a fundamental problem. Erratic rainfall, drought and unfavourable hydro-geological characteristics exacerbates the region’s water supply. Consequently, the population of Debub is facing severe water shortages and building reservoirs has been promoted as a possible solution to meet the future demand of water supply. This was the most powerful motivation to identify candidate sites for locating water reservoirs. A number of conflicting qualitative and quantitative criteria exist for evaluating alternative sites. Decisions regarding criteria are often accompanied by ambiguities and vagueness. This makes fuzzy logic a more natural approach to this kind of Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA problems. This paper proposes a combined two-stage MCDA methodology. The first stage involved utilizing the most simplistic type of data aggregation techniques known as Boolean Intersection or logical AND to identify areas restricted by environmental and hydrological constraints and therefore excluded from further study. The second stage involved integrating fuzzy logic with the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP to identify optimum and back-up candidate water reservoir sites in the area designated for further study.

  8. Brechas salariales por etnia y ubicación geográfica en Santiago de Cali || Wage Gap by Geographic Location and Ethnicity in Cali (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mora, Jhon James

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se estima la brecha salarial entre afrodescendientes y blancos en la ciudad de Cali a partir de datos de la encuesta de empleo y calidad de vida de 2013. Con el fin de considerar los efectos de la ubicación geográfica, se incluyeron efectos fijos por conglomerado de comuna en la ecuación de participación laboral; esto implica que en el proceso de censura también influye la localización espacial. Nuestros resultados muestran que, al incluir variables como las migraciones y la percepción de discriminación en la ecuación de selección para los afrodescendientes, la brecha salarial es de un 42%, de los que el 9% está asociado a características explicadas por diferencias en capital humano y el 33% está asociado a discriminación laboral. || In this article we estimate the wage gap between white people and Afro-American people in Cali by using data from the survey of employment and quality of life of 2013. The estimation is weighted by the number of individuals that recognize themselves as Afro-American as a measure of statistical correction given the disaggregation of the data, and our approach lets us including the spatial location in the censure process. Our results show that including variables such as migrations and discrimination perception in the participation equation for Afro-Americans, the wage gap is about 43%, where 9% is associated to explained characteristics by differences in human capital and 33% remains associated with labour discrimination.

  9. How environmentally significant is water consumption during wastewater treatment? Application of recent developments in LCA to WWT technologies used at 3 contrasted geographical locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Eva; Loubet, Philippe; Núñez, Montserrat; Roux, Philippe

    2014-06-15

    Environmental impact assessment models are readily available for the assessment of pollution-related impacts in life cycle assessment (LCA). These models have led to an increased focus on water pollution issues resulting in numerous LCA studies. Recently, there have been significant developments in methods assessing freshwater use. These improvements widen the scope for the assessment of wastewater treatment (WWT) technologies, now allowing us to apprehend, for the first time, a combination of operational (energy and chemicals use), qualitative (environmental pollution) and quantitative (water deprivation) issues in wastewater treatment. This enables us to address the following question: Is water consumption during wastewater treatment environmentally significant compared to other impacts? To answer this question, a standard life cycle inventory (LCI) was performed with a focus on consumptive water uses at plant level, where several WWT technologies were operating, in different climatic conditions. The impacts of water consumption were assessed by integrating regionalized characterization factors for water deprivation within an existing life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) method. Results at the midpoint level, show that water deprivation impacts are highly variable in relation to the chosen WWT technology (water volume used) and of WWTP location (local water scarcity). At the endpoint level, water deprivation impacts on ecosystem quality and on the resource damage categories are significant for WWT technologies with great water uses in water-scarce areas. Therefore, our study shows the consideration of water consumption-related impacts is essential and underlines the need for a greater understanding of the water consumption impacts caused by WWT systems. This knowledge will help water managers better mitigate local water deprivation impacts, especially in selecting WWT technologies suitable for arid and semi-arid areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  10. Change of geographical location from Germany (Bavaria) to USA (Arizona) and its effect on H-C-N-S stable isotopes in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehn, Christine; Lihl, Christina; Roßmann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    To receive information about the duration of a person's stay abroad related to those questions in forensics, stable isotopes of H-C-N-S were analysed in beard hair samples from four young soldiers, who went from Fürstenfeldbruck (Bavaria, Germany) to Phoenix (Arizona, USA) on the same date for their pilot training over a time period of 3 months. All study subjects were almost of the same age, had similar physical constitutions and stayed at the same military bases for the whole study period. However, the results showed considerable individual variabilities. In Arizona, hair δ(13)C increased by 2.3‰ (±0.6) and δ(34)S decreased by 1.8‰ (±1.2). No remarkable shifts of hair δ(15)N and δ(2)H were observed. Significant shifts of δ(13)C or δ(34)S in the shaved beard hair samples occurred 8 or 9 days after arrival in Arizona, respectively. The time lag to receive the isotope signals in hair due to US diet correspond to the growth period that hair needs to cover the distance of 2-3 mm from its root to the surface of the skin. This implies that isotopic changes due to the consumption of food and drinks were incorporated almost immediately into the hair protein. Consequently, if connected with an isotopic change of the diet, short-term stays for only a few days might be clearly recognizable within the first millimetres of a scalp hair strand which includes the hair roots.

  11. Technology Integration around the Geographic Information: A State of the Art

    OpenAIRE

    Rocio Vargas; Gabriel Gonzalez-Serna; Rafael Ponce-Medellin; Lirio Ruiz

    2009-01-01

    One of the elements that have popularized and facilitated the use of geographical information on a variety of computational applications has been the use of Web maps; this has opened new research challenges on different subjects, from locating places and people, the study of social behavior or the analyzing of the hidden structures of the terms used in a natural language query used for locating a place. However, the use of geographic information under technological features is not new, instea...

  12. SGA Project Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The stream geomorphic assessment is a physical assessment competed by geomorphologists to determine the condition and sensitivity of a stream. The SGA locations...

  13. USAID Activity Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID Activities dataset is a snapshot of activities supported by USAID including their geographical locations within countries at the time of the snapshot. The...

  14. VT Hospital Site Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This data layer contains point locations of all major community, regional, comprehensive health, and healthcare provider hospitals in the state of...

  15. Three-dimensional Cervical Movement Characteristics in Healthy Subjects and Subgroups of Chronic Neck Pain Patients Based on Their Pain Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waeyaert, Patirck; Jansen, Daniel; Bastiaansen, Marco; Scafoglieri, Aldo; Buyl, Ronald; Schmitt, Maarten; Cattrysse, Erik

    2016-08-01

    A cross-sectional observational study of three-dimensional (3D) cervical kinematics in 41 chronic neck pain (CNPs) patients and 156 asymptomatic controls. The objective was to investigate 3D cervical kinematics by analyzing and comparing quantitative and qualitative parameters in healthy subjects and CNPs. Furthermore, subgroups were formed to explore the influence of pain-location on cervical kinematics. The possible correlation of kinematic parameters with the degree of functional disability was examined as well. In patients with chronic neck pain, a clear pathological cause is frequently not identifiable. Therefore, the need to assess neck pain with a broader view than structure or anatomical-based divergences is desirable. Movements of the cervical spine were registered using an electromagnetic tracking system. Quantitative and qualitative kinematics were analyzed for active axial rotation, lateral bending, and flexion-extension motion components. During lateral bending, the range of the main motion demonstrated significant higher values (P = 0.001) in the controls (mean: 68.67° ± 15.17°) than patients (mean: 59.28° ± 15.41°). Significant differences were demonstrated between subgroups for several kinematic parameters (P pain group, some parameters also distinguished subgroups from controls. On average, the symmetrical group showed significant less harmonic movement patterns, expressed by qualitative parameters, in comparison with the "asymmetrical" group and controls. Furthermore, the "asymmetrical" group showed significant lower scores on quantitative parameters than the "symmetrical" group and controls. The degree of functional disability correlated moderately with changes in qualitative parameters. In this study, chronic neck pain patients with a symmetrical pain pattern showed significant poorer quality of movement, while those with asymmetrical pain showed a significant reduction in quantitative measures. Subgrouping of neck patients

  16. Geographic Ontologies, Gazetteers and Multilingualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Laurini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Different languages imply different visions of space, so that terminologies are different in geographic ontologies. In addition to their geometric shapes, geographic features have names, sometimes different in diverse languages. In addition, the role of gazetteers, as dictionaries of place names (toponyms, is to maintain relations between place names and location. The scope of geographic information retrieval is to search for geographic information not against a database, but against the whole Internet: but the Internet stores information in different languages, and it is of paramount importance not to remain stuck to a unique language. In this paper, our first step is to clarify the links between geographic objects as computer representations of geographic features, ontologies and gazetteers designed in various languages. Then, we propose some inference rules for matching not only types, but also relations in geographic ontologies with the assistance of gazetteers.

  17. Determinants of Dentists' Geographic Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beazoglou, Tryfon J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A model for explaining the geographic distribution of dentists' practice locations is presented and applied to particular market areas in Connecticut. Results show geographic distribution is significantly related to a few key variables, including demography, disposable income, and housing prices. Implications for helping students make practice…

  18. Integração de modelos de localização a sistemas de informações geográficas Integration of location models to geographical information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Nogueira Lorena

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O problema de p-medianas consiste em decidir onde localizar p centros em uma rede composta por vértices e arestas, de forma a minimizar a soma de todas as distâncias de cada vértice ao centro mais próximo. Em alguns casos, quando uma demanda estiver associada a cada vértice, pode haver restrições na capacidade de atendimento dos centros (problema de pmedianas com restrições de capacidade. Modelos de localização de facilidades têm sido propostos como ferramentas de auxílio à decisão, principalmente quando é possível usar Sistemas de Informações Geográficas (SIGs na coleta e análise dos dados dos problemas. Apresentamos neste trabalho um relato da integração de modelos de p-medianas aos SIGs ArcView, da ESRI, e SPRING, um sistema desenvolvido no INPE. O código que foi integrado a estes SIGs implementa uma abordagem recente da heurística Lagrangiana/ surrogate, onde a viabilização da solução dual é feita através de uma heurística de localização-alocação alternada. O trabalho apresenta alguns testes computacionais usando dados do município de São José dos Campos, com tamanhos variando até o máximo de 3280 vértices e 1141 centros, para o caso sem restrições de capacidade.The p-median problems deal with decisions of locating p facilities (medians in a network, minimizing the sum of all distances from each vertex to its nearest facility. If demand information is available for each vertex of the network, then values on the capacity of each facility may be present (capacitated p-median problems. Facility location models have been proposed as decision making tools, mainly when geographic information systems (GIS can be used to capture, store and analyze the data of the problems. In this work we present the integration of a p-median algorithm to both ArcView, a GIS by ESRI (Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc., and SPRING, a GIS developed by INPE (National Institute for Space Research. The computer

  19. Do the risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus vary by location? A spatial analysis of health insurance claims in Northeastern Germany using kernel density estimation and geographically weighted regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauhl, Boris; Schweikart, Jürgen; Krafft, Thomas; Keste, Andrea; Moskwyn, Marita

    2016-11-03

    The provision of general practitioners (GPs) in Germany still relies mainly on the ratio of inhabitants to GPs at relatively large scales and barely accounts for an increased prevalence of chronic diseases among the elderly and socially underprivileged populations. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is one of the major cost-intensive diseases with high rates of potentially preventable complications. Provision of healthcare and access to preventive measures is necessary to reduce the burden of T2DM. However, current studies on the spatial variation of T2DM in Germany are mostly based on survey data, which do not only underestimate the true prevalence of T2DM, but are also only available on large spatial scales. The aim of this study is therefore to analyse the spatial distribution of T2DM at fine geographic scales and to assess location-specific risk factors based on data of the AOK health insurance. To display the spatial heterogeneity of T2DM, a bivariate, adaptive kernel density estimation (KDE) was applied. The spatial scan statistic (SaTScan) was used to detect areas of high risk. Global and local spatial regression models were then constructed to analyze socio-demographic risk factors of T2DM. T2DM is especially concentrated in rural areas surrounding Berlin. The risk factors for T2DM consist of proportions of 65-79 year olds, 80 + year olds, unemployment rate among the 55-65 year olds, proportion of employees covered by mandatory social security insurance, mean income tax, and proportion of non-married couples. However, the strength of the association between T2DM and the examined socio-demographic variables displayed strong regional variations. The prevalence of T2DM varies at the very local level. Analyzing point data on T2DM of northeastern Germany's largest health insurance provider thus allows very detailed, location-specific knowledge about increased medical needs. Risk factors associated with T2DM depend largely on the place of residence of the

  20. Do the risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus vary by location? A spatial analysis of health insurance claims in Northeastern Germany using kernel density estimation and geographically weighted regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Kauhl

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The provision of general practitioners (GPs in Germany still relies mainly on the ratio of inhabitants to GPs at relatively large scales and barely accounts for an increased prevalence of chronic diseases among the elderly and socially underprivileged populations. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM is one of the major cost-intensive diseases with high rates of potentially preventable complications. Provision of healthcare and access to preventive measures is necessary to reduce the burden of T2DM. However, current studies on the spatial variation of T2DM in Germany are mostly based on survey data, which do not only underestimate the true prevalence of T2DM, but are also only available on large spatial scales. The aim of this study is therefore to analyse the spatial distribution of T2DM at fine geographic scales and to assess location-specific risk factors based on data of the AOK health insurance. Methods To display the spatial heterogeneity of T2DM, a bivariate, adaptive kernel density estimation (KDE was applied. The spatial scan statistic (SaTScan was used to detect areas of high risk. Global and local spatial regression models were then constructed to analyze socio-demographic risk factors of T2DM. Results T2DM is especially concentrated in rural areas surrounding Berlin. The risk factors for T2DM consist of proportions of 65–79 year olds, 80 + year olds, unemployment rate among the 55–65 year olds, proportion of employees covered by mandatory social security insurance, mean income tax, and proportion of non-married couples. However, the strength of the association between T2DM and the examined socio-demographic variables displayed strong regional variations. Conclusion The prevalence of T2DM varies at the very local level. Analyzing point data on T2DM of northeastern Germany’s largest health insurance provider thus allows very detailed, location-specific knowledge about increased medical needs. Risk factors

  1. Geographical Indications

    OpenAIRE

    Anechitoae Constantin; Grigoru? Lavinia-Maria

    2011-01-01

    “The denomination of origin” may be the name of a region, a specific place or country used to describe an agricultural or food product. "The geographical indication" may be the name of a region, a specific place or a country, used to describe an agricultural or food product. The indication of provenance and the denomination of origin serve to identify the source and origin of goods or services.

  2. VT Transportation Project Point Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Project information for project that are located off system or on system at a discrete location. The projects in this data set represent the active projects in the...

  3. GEOGRAPHIC NAMES INFORMATION SYSTEM (GNIS) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN), contains information about physical and cultural geographic features in the United States and associated areas, both current and historical, but not including roads and highways. The database also contains geographic names in Antarctica. The database holds the Federally recognized name of each feature and defines the location of the feature by state, county, USGS topographic map, and geographic coordinates. Other feature attributes include names or spellings other than the official name, feature designations, feature class, historical and descriptive information, and for some categories of features the geometric boundaries. The database assigns a unique feature identifier, a random number, that is a key for accessing, integrating, or reconciling GNIS data with other data sets. The GNIS is our Nation's official repository of domestic geographic feature names information.

  4. Geographic variations of the International Diabetes Federation and the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III definitions of the metabolic syndrome in nondiabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Carlos; Serrano-Ríos, Manuel; Martínez-Larrad, María T; González-Sánchez, José L; Seclén, Segundo; Villena, Arturo; Gonzalez-Villalpando, Clicerio; Williams, Ken; Haffner, Steven M

    2006-03-01

    We have carried out international comparisons of the metabolic syndrome using the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) definitions. This analysis could help to discern the applicability of these definitions across populations. Nondiabetic subjects aged 35-64 years were eligible for analysis in population-based studies from San Antonio (Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites, n = 2,473), Mexico City (n = 1,990), Spain (n = 2,540), and Peru (n = 346). Kappa statistics examined the agreement between metabolic syndrome definitions. Because of the lower cutoff points for elevated waist circumference, the IDF definition of the metabolic syndrome generated greater prevalence estimates than the ATP III definition. Prevalence difference between definitions was more significant in Mexican-origin and Peruvian men than in Europid men from San Antonio and Spain because the IDF definition required ethnic group-specific cutoff points for elevated waist circumference. ATP III and IDF definitions disagreed in the classification of 13-29% of men and 3-7% of women. In men, agreement between these definitions was 0.54 in Peru, 0.43 in Mexico City, 0.62 in San Antonio Mexican Americans, 0.69 in San Antonio non-Hispanic whites, and 0.64 in Spain. In women, agreement between definitions was 0.87, 0.89, 0.86, 0.87, and 0.93, respectively. The IDF definition of the metabolic syndrome generates greater prevalence estimates than the ATP III definition. Agreement between ATP III and IDF definitions was lower for men than for women in all populations and was relatively poor in men from Mexico City.

  5. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  6. Geographical Income Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun

    In this paper we estimate the degree, composition and development of geographical income polarization based on data at the individual and municipal level in Denmark from 1984 to 2002. Rising income polarization is reconfirmed when applying new polarization measures, the driving force being greater...... inter municipal income inequality. Counter factual simulations show that rising property prices to a large part explain the rise in polarization. One side-effect of polarization is tendencies towards a parallel polarization of residence location patterns, where low skilled individuals tend to live...

  7. Crime Location Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernasco, Wim; Ruiter, Stijn

    2014-01-01

    Most behavior of interest to social scientists is choice behavior: actions people commit while they could also have done something else. In geographical and environmental criminology, a new framework has emerged for analyzing individual crime location choice. It is based on the principle of random

  8. Location of lacunar infarcts correlates with cognition in a sample of non-disabled subjects with age-related white-matter changes: the LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benisty, S; Gouw, A A; Porcher, R

    2009-01-01

    in the following areas: lobar white matter, putamen/pallidum, thalamus, caudate nucleus, internal/external capsule, infratentorial areas. An analysis of covariance was performed after adjustment for possible confounders. RESULTS: Among 633 subjects, 47% had at least one lacune (31% at least one within basal...... a significant negative association between the presence of lacunes in putamen/pallidum and the memory compound Z score (beta = -0.13; p = 0.038). By contrast, no significant negative association was found between cognitive parameters and the presence of lacunes in internal capsule, lobar white matter...

  9. VT School Locations - K-12

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) FacilitiesSchools_PTSCHOOL is designed to provide point locations of every Vermont School along with the established school ID (PSID) for...

  10. Multiple criteria facility location problems: A survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farahani, Reza Zanjirani; SteadieSeifi, Maryam; Asgari, Nasrin

    2010-01-01

    .... There are many decision making problems whose information is spatial (geographical). These kinds of decisions are called location decisions. Location decisions are now a major part of operations research and management science (named location science). Facility location, location science and location models are terms that can be used instead. Facility lo...

  11. mapFAST: A FAST Geographic Authorities Mashup with Google Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Bennett

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available When looking for information about a particular place, it is often useful to check surrounding locations as well. FAST geographic subjects provide clean access points to this material, and a Google Maps mashup allows users to see surrounding locations that are also FAST subjects. Moreover, the Web Service to the underlying data is also open and available for use. The map interface allows for simple selection of a location, with links to enter it directly as a search into either WorldCat.org or Google Books.

  12. Effect of blasts on subject-specific computational models of skin and bone sections at various locations on the human body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab Chanda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Blast injuries are very common among soldiers deployed in politically unstable regions such as Afghanistan and Iraq, and also in a battle field anywhere in the world. Understanding the mechanics of interaction of blasts with the skin and bone at various parts of the human body is the key to designing effective personal protective equipment (PPE's which can mitigate blast impacts. In the current work, subject-specific 3D computational models of the skin (with the three layers namely the epidermis, dermis and the hypodermis (muscles and bone sections from various parts of the human body (such as the elbow, finger, wrist, cheek bone, forehead, shin etc. have been developed to study the effect of blast loading. Non-linear material properties have been adopted for the skin and stress impulses at the different skin layers and bone sections are estimated. To date, such an extensive study on the effect of blast loading on the human skin and bone has not been attempted. The results of this study would be indispensable for medical practitioners to understand the effect of blast trauma and plan effective post-traumatic surgical strategies, and also for developing better PPE designs for the military in the future.

  13. ‘Hella Ghetto!’: (Dis)locating Race and Class Consciousness in Youth Discourses of Ghetto Spaces, Subjects and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Based on analysis of interviews conducted during 2008-2009 in Oakland, California, this paper examines how narratives of inner-city youth reinforce and destabilize mainstream conceptions of ‘ghetto.’ The paper demonstrates that inner-city youth discourses regarding ‘ghetto’ spaces, subjects and schools often exemplify a consciousness informed by both counter-hegemonic insights and internalized psychological trauma. In other words, the interviewed youth reconstitute the term ‘ghetto’ to signify structural and cultural processes of dislocation occurring in their neighborhood through narratives characterized by contradiction. This finding is significant because it questions how to analyze non-white narratives and offers ‘dislocated consciousness’ as an interpretive lens grounded in the contradictions of subaltern consciousness theorized by W.E.B. Dubois, Frantz Fanon and Antonio Gramsci. By developing the concept of ‘dislocation’ to illuminate how such youth negotiate, resist and internalize the material and ideological structures that condition their existence, this study contributes to the existing literature on race and class consciousness of urban youth. The paper concludes by exploring how strategies urban youth utilize to come to terms with their lives can provide new understandings of urban communities and schooling. PMID:25821398

  14. Geographic Projection of Cluster Composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nerbonne, J.; Bosveld-de Smet, L.M.; Kleiweg, P.; Blackwell, A.; Marriott, K.; Shimojima, A.

    2004-01-01

    A composite cluster map displays a fuzzy categorisation of geographic areas. It combines information from several sources to provide a visualisation of the significance of cluster borders. The basic technique renders the chance that two neighbouring locations are members of different clusters as the

  15. Beyond boundaries : Geographical aspects of urban health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, E.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis we look at urban health from a geographical perspective. It focuses specifically on environmental influences on health in Amsterdam. Spatial variations in health exist at multiple geographical scales. Differences in health between locations can be the result of individual

  16. The Geographical Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Schweikart

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Geographical Information System, normally called GIS, is a tool for representing spatial relationships and real processes with the help of a model. A GIS is a system of hardware, software and staff for collecting, managing, analysing and representing geospatial information. For example, we can study the evolution of an infectious disease in a certain territory, perform market analysis, or locate the best ways to choose a new industrial site. In substance, it is data manipulation software for that allows us to have, both the graphic component, that is a territorial representation of the reality that you want to represent, and the data components in the form of a database or more commonly, calculation sheets. Geographical data are divided in spatial data and attribute data: Spatial data are recorded as points, lines and polygons (vectorial structure. In other words, the survey systems have been projected to acquire information in accordance to elementary cells corresponding to a territorial grid (raster structure. It also includes remote sensing data.

  17. Historical Biogeography Using Species Geographical Ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Ignacio; Keil, Petr; Jetz, Walter; Crawford, Forrest W

    2015-11-01

    Spatial variation in biodiversity is the result of complex interactions between evolutionary history and ecological factors. Methods in historical biogeography combine phylogenetic information with current species locations to infer the evolutionary history of a clade through space and time. A major limitation of most methods for historical biogeographic inference is the requirement of single locations for terminal lineages, reducing contemporary species geographical ranges to a point in two-dimensional space. In reality, geographic ranges usually show complex geographic patterns, irregular shapes, or discontinuities. In this article, we describe a method for phylogeographic analysis using polygonal species geographic ranges of arbitrary complexity. By integrating the geographic diversification process across species ranges, we provide a method to infer the geographic location of ancestors in a Bayesian framework. By modeling migration conditioned on a phylogenetic tree, this approach permits reconstructing the geographic location of ancestors through time. We apply this new method to the diversification of two neotropical bird genera, Trumpeters (Psophia) and Cinclodes ovenbirds. We demonstrate the usefulness of our method (called rase) in phylogeographic reconstruction of species ancestral locations and contrast our results with previous methods that compel researchers to reduce the distribution of species to one point in space. We discuss model extensions to enable a more general, spatially explicit framework for historical biogeographic analysis. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Locating the Subject: Teens Online @ ninemsn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Stephen; Nixon, Helen

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we examine how the figure of the teenager is positioned within the discourses and practices of commercial online media. In particular, we explore how the popular, Australia-based web portal "ninemsn" works discursively to shape the identities of young people. Ninemsn not only constructs and circulates selected…

  19. Derived Subjects In Kinyarwanda Locative Constructions*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Technology

    Inyaanya z-eer-a-mo tomatoes ...... pronunciation is irrelevant for my analysis. 2. ... functional heads like T and ν, and I also pass over the function of case features and the .... MA-thesis, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

  20. Waste Recovery Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Locations where City residents are encouraged to drop off and dispose or recycle of unwanted materials. Information provided is subject to change. Please call ahead...

  1. Robust facility location

    OpenAIRE

    Carrizosa Priego, Emilio José; Nickel, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    Let A be a nonempty finite subset of the plane representing the geographical coordinates of a set of demand points (towns, …), to be served by a facility, whose location within a given region S is sought. Assuming that the unit cost for a∈A if the facility is located at x∈S is proportional to dist(x,a) — the distance from x to a — and that demand of point a is given by ωa, minimizing the total transportation cost TC(ω,x) amounts to solving the Weber problem. In practice, it may be the case, h...

  2. Geographic Information System and tools of spatial analysis in a pneumococcal vaccine trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanskanen, Antti; Nillos, Leilani T; Lehtinen, Antti; Nohynek, Hanna; Sanvictores, Diozele Hazel M; Simões, Eric Af; Tallo, Veronica L; Lucero, Marilla G

    2012-01-20

    The goal of this Geographic Information System (GIS) study was to obtain accurate information on the locations of study subjects, road network and services for research purposes so that the clinical outcomes of interest (e.g., vaccine efficacy, burden of disease, nasopharyngeal colonization and its reduction) could be linked and analyzed at a distance from health centers, hospitals, doctors and other important services. The information on locations can be used to investigate more accurate crowdedness, herd immunity and/or transmission patterns. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of an 11-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (11PCV) was conducted in Bohol Province in central Philippines, from July 2000 to December 2004. We collected the information on the geographic location of the households (N = 13,208) of study subjects. We also collected a total of 1982 locations of health and other services in the six municipalities and a comprehensive GIS data over the road network in the area. We calculated the numbers of other study subjects (vaccine and placebo recipients, respectively) within the neighborhood of each study subject. We calculated distances to different services and identified the subjects sharing the same services (calculated by distance). This article shows how to collect a complete GIS data set for human to human transmitted vaccine study in developing country settings in an efficient and economical way. The collection of geographic locations in intervention trials should become a routine task. The results of public health research may highly depend on spatial relationships among the study subjects and between the study subjects and the environment, both natural and infrastructural. ISRCTN: ISRCTN62323832.

  3. Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures Report FY2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures Report (GDX) located on the Expenditures page in the Expenditure Tables category. This report details VA expenditures at...

  4. Geographical information systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management.......The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management....

  5. Geographic Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukinbeal, Chris

    2014-01-01

    While the use of media permeates geographic research and pedagogic practice, the underlying literacies that link geography and media remain uncharted. This article argues that geographic media literacy incorporates visual literacy, information technology literacy, information literacy, and media literacy. Geographic media literacy is the ability…

  6. Road pricing : a transport geographical perspective. Geographical accessibility and short and long-term behavioural effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillema, T.

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of a road pricing measure leads to changes in the transport costs on (certain) roads in a network at a certain time, possibly influencing the geographical accessibility of (groups of) people or firms at certain locations. Geographical accessibility indicators or measures give the

  7. Gene Locater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anwar, Muhammad Zohaib; Sehar, Anoosha; Rehman, Inayat-Ur

    2012-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Locating genes on a chromosome is important for understanding the gene function and its linkage and recombination. Knowledge of gene positions on chromosomes is necessary for annotation. The study is essential for disease genetics and genomics, among other aspects. Currently available...... software's for calculating recombination frequency is mostly limited to the range and flexibility of this type of analysis. GENE LOCATER is a fully customizable program for calculating recombination frequency, written in JAVA. Through an easy-to-use interface, GENE LOCATOR allows users a high degree...

  8. Library Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh locations including address, coordinates, phone number, square footage, and standard operating hours. The map below does not display...

  9. Geographical Inquiry in Australian Schools: A Retrospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidman, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the occurrence of geographical inquiry in the Australian curriculum since Geography became a high school subject in 1911. In this historical overview, I reflect upon my own experiences of undertaking geographical inquiry during the 1970s and 1980s. Primary school geographical inquiry experiences can be virtually non-existent…

  10. Airports Geographic Information System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airports Geographic Information System maintains the airport and aeronautical data required to meet the demands of the Next Generation National Airspace System....

  11. The evolution of cooperation on geographical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yixiao; Wang, Yi; Sheng, Jichuan

    2017-11-01

    We study evolutionary public goods game on geographical networks, i.e., complex networks which are located on a geographical plane. The geographical feature effects in two ways: In one way, the geographically-induced network structure influences the overall evolutionary dynamics, and, in the other way, the geographical length of an edge influences the cost when the two players at the two ends interact. For the latter effect, we design a new cost function of cooperators, which simply assumes that the longer the distance between two players, the higher cost the cooperator(s) of them have to pay. In this study, network substrates are generated by a previous spatial network model with a cost-benefit parameter controlling the network topology. Our simulations show that the greatest promotion of cooperation is achieved in the intermediate regime of the parameter, in which empirical estimates of various railway networks fall. Further, we investigate how the distribution of edges' geographical costs influences the evolutionary dynamics and consider three patterns of the distribution: an approximately-equal distribution, a diverse distribution, and a polarized distribution. For normal geographical networks which are generated using intermediate values of the cost-benefit parameter, a diverse distribution hinders the evolution of cooperation, whereas a polarized distribution lowers the threshold value of the amplification factor for cooperation in public goods game. These results are helpful for understanding the evolution of cooperation on real-world geographical networks.

  12. Essential Oil Characterization of Thymus vulgaris from Various Geographical Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabodh Satyal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L. is a commonly used flavoring agent and medicinal herb. Several chemotypes of thyme, based on essential oil compositions, have been established, including (1 linalool; (2 borneol; (3 geraniol; (4 sabinene hydrate; (5 thymol; (6 carvacrol, as well as a number of multiple-component chemotypes. In this work, two different T. vulgaris essential oils were obtained from France and two were obtained from Serbia. The chemical compositions were determined using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. In addition, chiral gas chromatography was used to determine the enantiomeric compositions of several monoterpenoid components. The T. vulgaris oil from Nyons, France was of the linalool chemotype (linalool, 76.2%; linalyl acetate, 14.3%; the oil sample from Jablanicki, Serbia was of the geraniol chemotype (geraniol, 59.8%; geranyl acetate, 16.7%; the sample from Pomoravje District, Serbia was of the sabinene hydrate chemotype (cis-sabinene hydrate, 30.8%; trans-sabinene hydrate, 5.0%; and the essential oil from Richerenches, France was of the thymol chemotype (thymol, 47.1%; p-cymene, 20.1%. A cluster analysis based on the compositions of these essential oils as well as 81 additional T. vulgaris essential oils reported in the literature revealed 20 different chemotypes. This work represents the first chiral analysis of T. vulgaris monoterpenoids and a comprehensive description of the different chemotypes of T. vulgaris.

  13. Essential Oil Characterization of Thymus vulgaris from Various Geographical Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyal, Prabodh; Murray, Brittney L.; McFeeters, Robert L.; Setzer, William N.

    2016-01-01

    Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) is a commonly used flavoring agent and medicinal herb. Several chemotypes of thyme, based on essential oil compositions, have been established, including (1) linalool; (2) borneol; (3) geraniol; (4) sabinene hydrate; (5) thymol; (6) carvacrol, as well as a number of multiple-component chemotypes. In this work, two different T. vulgaris essential oils were obtained from France and two were obtained from Serbia. The chemical compositions were determined using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. In addition, chiral gas chromatography was used to determine the enantiomeric compositions of several monoterpenoid components. The T. vulgaris oil from Nyons, France was of the linalool chemotype (linalool, 76.2%; linalyl acetate, 14.3%); the oil sample from Jablanicki, Serbia was of the geraniol chemotype (geraniol, 59.8%; geranyl acetate, 16.7%); the sample from Pomoravje District, Serbia was of the sabinene hydrate chemotype (cis-sabinene hydrate, 30.8%; trans-sabinene hydrate, 5.0%); and the essential oil from Richerenches, France was of the thymol chemotype (thymol, 47.1%; p-cymene, 20.1%). A cluster analysis based on the compositions of these essential oils as well as 81 additional T. vulgaris essential oils reported in the literature revealed 20 different chemotypes. This work represents the first chiral analysis of T. vulgaris monoterpenoids and a comprehensive description of the different chemotypes of T. vulgaris. PMID:28231164

  14. Availability Estimation for Facilities in Extreme Geographical Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Gerd M.; Omotoso, Oluseun; Chen, Guangming; Evans, John W.

    2012-01-01

    A value added analysis for the Reliability. Availability and Maintainability of McMurdo Ground Station was developed, which will be a useful tool for system managers in sparing, maintenance planning and determining vital performance metrics needed for readiness assessment of the upgrades to the McMurdo System. Output of this study can also be used as inputs and recommendations for the application of Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) for the system. ReliaSoft's BlockSim. a commercial Reliability Analysis software package, has been used to model the availability of the system upgrade to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Near Earth Network (NEN) Ground Station at McMurdo Station in the Antarctica. The logistics challenges due to the closure of access to McMurdo Station during the Antarctic winter was modeled using a weighted composite of four Weibull distributions. one of the possible choices for statistical distributions throughout the software program and usually used to account for failure rates of components supplied by different manufacturers. The inaccessibility of the antenna site on a hill outside McMurdo Station throughout one year due to severe weather was modeled with a Weibull distribution for the repair crew availability. The Weibull distribution is based on an analysis of the available weather data for the antenna site for 2007 in combination with the rules for travel restrictions due to severe weather imposed by the administrating agency, the National Science Foundation (NSF). The simulations resulted in an upper bound for the system availability and allowed for identification of components that would improve availability based on a higher on-site spare count than initially planned.

  15. An intelligent method for geographic Web search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Kun; Yuan, Ying

    2008-10-01

    While the electronically available information in the World-Wide Web is explosively growing and thus increasing, the difficulty to find relevant information is also increasing for search engine user. In this paper we discuss how to constrain web queries geographically. A number of search queries are associated with geographical locations, either explicitly or implicitly. Accurately and effectively detecting the locations where search queries are truly about has huge potential impact on increasing search relevance, bringing better targeted search results, and improving search user satisfaction. Our approach focus on both in the way geographic information is extracted from the web and, as far as we can tell, in the way it is integrated into query processing. This paper gives an overview of a spatially aware search engine for semantic querying of web document. It also illustrates algorithms for extracting location from web documents and query requests using the location ontologies to encode and reason about formal semantics of geographic web search. Based on a real-world scenario of tourism guide search, the application of our approach shows that the geographic information retrieval can be efficiently supported.

  16. Geographical knowledge in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, W W; Bernstein, N

    1989-01-01

    Geographical knowledge, a measure of remote memory for visuospatial information, was studied in mildly and moderately demented patients who met NINCDS-Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria for Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's disease patients were moderately impaired on a test that emphasizes locating gross features of US geography and profoundly impaired in locating cities on a map of the region of the United States in which they resided. The possibility that performance on tests of geographical knowledge can be used to predict impending difficulties of demented patients in wayfinding is discussed.

  17. VT School Locations - Post-Secondary

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) FacilitiesSchools_PTSCHOOL is designed to provide point locations of every Vermont School along with the established school ID (PSID) for...

  18. National Data Buoy Center Buoy Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Buoy table consists of location information, ownership, and general geographic descriptions of buoys and weather stations. In addition to buoys operated by the...

  19. Uso combinado de sistemas de informações geográficas para transportes e programação linear inteira mista em problemas de localização de instalações Combining geographic information systems for transportation and mixed integer linear programming in location-allocation problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Maria Santana Mapa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho é avaliar a qualidade das soluções para o problema de localização-alocação de instalações geradas por um SIG-T (Sistema de Informação Geográfica para Transportes, obtidas após a utilização combinada das rotinas Localização de Facilidades e Problema do Transporte, quando comparadas com as soluções ótimas obtidas a partir de modelo matemático exato baseado em Programação Linear Inteira Mista (PLIM, desenvolvido externamente ao SIG. Os modelos foram aplicados a três simulações: a primeira propõe a abertura de fábricas e alocação de clientes no Estado de São Paulo; a segunda envolve um atacadista e um estudo de localização de centros de distribuição e alocação dos clientes varejistas; a terceira localiza creches em um contexto urbano, alocando a demanda. Os resultados mostraram que, quando se considera a capacidade das instalações, o modelo otimizante PLIM chegou a apresentar, em um dos cenários simulados, resultados até 37% melhores do que o SIG, além de propor locais diferentes para abertura de novas instalações. Quando não se considera a capacidade, o modelo SIG se mostrou tão eficiente quanto o modelo exato PLIM, chegando exatamente às mesmas soluções.This study aims to evaluate the quality of the solutions for facility location-allocation problems generated by a GIS-T (Geographic Information System for Transportation software. These solutions were obtained from combining the Facility Location and Transportation Problem routines, when compared with the optimal solutions, which were obtained using the exact mathematical model based on the Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP developed externally to the GIS. The models were applied to three simulations: the first one proposes set up businesses and customers' allocation in the state of São Paulo; the second involves a wholesaler and an investigation of distribution center location and retailers' allocation; and the third one

  20. Identifying Geographic Clusters: A Network Analytic Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Catini, Roberto; Penner, Orion; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in the role of networks and clusters in the global economy. Despite being a popular research topic in economics, sociology and urban studies, geographical clustering of human activity has often studied been by means of predetermined geographical units such as administrative divisions and metropolitan areas. This approach is intrinsically time invariant and it does not allow one to differentiate between different activities. Our goal in this paper is to present a new methodology for identifying clusters, that can be applied to different empirical settings. We use a graph approach based on k-shell decomposition to analyze world biomedical research clusters based on PubMed scientific publications. We identify research institutions and locate their activities in geographical clusters. Leading areas of scientific production and their top performing research institutions are consistently identified at different geographic scales.

  1. Geographic profiling and animal foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Comber, Steven C; Nicholls, Barry; Rossmo, D Kim; Racey, Paul A

    2006-05-21

    Geographic profiling was originally developed as a statistical tool for use in criminal cases, particularly those involving serial killers and rapists. It is designed to help police forces prioritize lists of suspects by using the location of crime scenes to identify the areas in which the criminal is most likely to live. Two important concepts are the buffer zone (criminals are less likely to commit crimes in the immediate vicinity of their home) and distance decay (criminals commit fewer crimes as the distance from their home increases). In this study, we show how the techniques of geographic profiling may be applied to animal data, using as an example foraging patterns in two sympatric colonies of pipistrelle bats, Pipistrellus pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus, in the northeast of Scotland. We show that if model variables are fitted to known roost locations, these variables may be used as numerical descriptors of foraging patterns. We go on to show that these variables can be used to differentiate patterns of foraging in these two species.

  2. Geographic information abstractions: conceptual clarity for geographic modeling

    OpenAIRE

    T L Nyerges

    1991-01-01

    Just as we abstract our reality to make life intellectually manageable, we must create abstractions when we build models of geographic structure and process. Geographic information abstractions with aspects of theme, time, and space can be used to provide a comprehensive description of geographic reality in a geographic information system (GIS). In the context of geographic modeling a geographic information abstraction is defined as a simultaneous focus on important characteristics of geograp...

  3. Groundwater quality mapping using geographic information system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatial variations in ground water quality in the corporation area of Gulbarga City located in the northern part of Karnataka State, India, have been studied using geographic information system (GIS) technique. GIS, a tool which is used for storing, analyzing and displaying spatial data is also used for investigating ground ...

  4. Geographical Information Systems Approach To Surveillance Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geographical Information Systems Approach To Surveillance Of Buruli Ulcer And Access To Health Care In Ga District Of Ghana. ... Journal of Applied Science and Technology ... Accessibility to health care facilities determined by using linear data indica-ted locational efficiency of existing health care facilities. In order to ...

  5. Road pricing : a transport geographical perspective. Geographical accessibility and short and long-term behavioural effects

    OpenAIRE

    Tillema, T

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of a road pricing measure leads to changes in the transport costs on (certain) roads in a network at a certain time, possibly influencing the geographical accessibility of (groups of) people or firms at certain locations. Geographical accessibility indicators or measures give the opportunity to gain a quick and interpretable insight into the (accessibility) effects as a result of changes in the land-use or transport system (e.g. caused by certain policy interventions). These ...

  6. Rule-guided human classification of Volunteered Geographic Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ahmed Loai; Falomir, Zoe; Schmid, Falko; Freksa, Christian

    2017-05-01

    During the last decade, web technologies and location sensing devices have evolved generating a form of crowdsourcing known as Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI). VGI acted as a platform of spatial data collection, in particular, when a group of public participants are involved in collaborative mapping activities: they work together to collect, share, and use information about geographic features. VGI exploits participants' local knowledge to produce rich data sources. However, the resulting data inherits problematic data classification. In VGI projects, the challenges of data classification are due to the following: (i) data is likely prone to subjective classification, (ii) remote contributions and flexible contribution mechanisms in most projects, and (iii) the uncertainty of spatial data and non-strict definitions of geographic features. These factors lead to various forms of problematic classification: inconsistent, incomplete, and imprecise data classification. This research addresses classification appropriateness. Whether the classification of an entity is appropriate or inappropriate is related to quantitative and/or qualitative observations. Small differences between observations may be not recognizable particularly for non-expert participants. Hence, in this paper, the problem is tackled by developing a rule-guided classification approach. This approach exploits data mining techniques of Association Classification (AC) to extract descriptive (qualitative) rules of specific geographic features. The rules are extracted based on the investigation of qualitative topological relations between target features and their context. Afterwards, the extracted rules are used to develop a recommendation system able to guide participants to the most appropriate classification. The approach proposes two scenarios to guide participants towards enhancing the quality of data classification. An empirical study is conducted to investigate the classification of grass

  7. Enhancing Phylogeography by Improving Geographical Information from GenBank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotch, Matthew; Sarkar, Indra Neil; Mei, Changjiang; Leaman, Robert; Cheung, Kei-Hoi; Ortiz, Pierina; Singraur, Ashutosh; Gonzalez, Graciela

    2011-01-01

    Phylogeography is a field that focuses on the geographical lineages of species such as vertebrates or viruses. Here, geographical data, such as location of a species or viral host is as important as the sequence information extracted from the species. Together, this information can help illustrate the migration of the species over time within a geographical area, the impact of geography over the evolutionary history, or the expected population of the species within the area. Molecular sequence data from NCBI, specifically GenBank, provide an abundance of available sequence data for phylogeography. However, geographical data is inconsistently represented and sparse across GenBank entries. This can impede analysis and in situations where the geographical information is inferred, and potentially lead to erroneous results. In this paper, we describe the current state of geographical data in GenBank, and illustrate how automated processing techniques such as named entity recognition, can enhance the geographical data available for phylogeographic studies. PMID:21723960

  8. Understanding the use of geographical information systems (GIS) in health informatics research: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Nicola; McGuire, Suzanne

    2017-06-23

    The purpose of this literature review is to understand geographical information systems (GIS) and how they can be applied to public health informatics, medical informatics, and epidemiology. Relevant papers that reflected the use of geographical information systems (GIS) in health research were identified from four academic databases: Academic Search Complete, BioMed Central, PubMed Central, and Scholars Portal, as well as Google Scholar. The search strategy used was to identify articles with "geographic information systems", "GIS", "public health", "medical informatics", "epidemiology", and "health geography" as main subject headings or text words in titles and abstracts. Papers published between 1997 and 2014 were considered and a total of 39 articles were included to inform the authors on the use of GIS technologies in health informatics research. The main applications of GIS in health informatics and epidemiology include disease surveillance, health risk analysis, health access and planning, and community health profiling. GIS technologies can significantly improve quality and efficiency in health research as substantial connections can be made between a population's health and their geographical location. Gains in health informatics can be made when GIS are applied through research, however, improvements need to occur in the quantity and quality of data input for these systems to ensure better geographical health maps are used so that proper conclusions between public health and environmental factors may be made.

  9. The Use of Planisphere to Locate Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Ping-Wai

    2013-01-01

    Planisphere is a simple and useful tool in locating constellations of the night sky at a specific time, date and geographic location. However it does not show the planet positions because planets are not fixed on the celestial sphere. It is known that the planet orbital planes are nearly coplanar and close to the ecliptic plane. By making…

  10. OUTDOOR EDUCATION AND GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA GUARAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the reflection on the relationship between values and methodological principles of Outdoor Education and spatial and geographical education perspectives, especially in pre-school and primary school, which relates to the age between 3 and 10 years. Outdoor Education is an educational practice that is already rooted in the philosophical thought of the 16th and the 17th centuries, from John Locke to Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and in the pedagogical thought, in particular Friedrich Fröbel, and it has now a quite stable tradition in Northern Europe countries. In Italy, however, there are still few experiences and they usually do not have a systematic and structural modality, but rather a temporarily and experimentally outdoor organization. In the first part, this paper focuses on the reasons that justify a particular attention to educational paths that favour outdoors activities, providing also a definition of outdoor education and highlighting its values. It is also essential to understand that educational programs in open spaces, such as a forest or simply the schoolyard, surely offers the possibility to learn geographical situations. Therefore, the question that arises is how to finalize the best stimulus that the spatial location guarantees for the acquisition of knowledge, skills and abilities about space and geography.

  11. A Geographic Optimization Approach to Coast Guard Ship Basing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    forward in this area. 14. SUBJECT TERMS coast guard, ship basing, ship allocation, geographic optimization 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 69 16. PRICE CODE 17...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS A GEOGRAPHIC OPTIMIZATION APPROACH TO COAST GUARD SHIP BASING by Mehmet Ali Gençay June 2015...AND SUBTITLE A GEOGRAPHIC OPTIMIZATION APPROACH TO COAST GUARD SHIP BASING 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Mehmet Ali Gençay 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION

  12. Reconstructing geographical parthenogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchheimer, Bernhard; Wessely, Johannes; Gattringer, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Asexual taxa often have larger ranges than their sexual progenitors, particularly in areas affected by Pleistocene glaciations. The reasons given for this geographical parthenogenesis' are contentious, with expansion of the ecological niche or colonisation advantages of uniparental reproduction a...... effects of niche differentiation and reproductive modes on range formation of related sexual and asexual taxa arising from their differential sensitivity to minority cytotype disadvantage....

  13. A Combination of Citation Analyses Can Reveal the Nature of a Journal’s Scholarly Communication, Its Influence in a Scientific Community, and the Geographic Location of Its Authors and Citers. A review of: Bonnevie‐Nebelong, Ellen. “Methods for Journal Evaluation: Journal Citation Identity, Journal Citation Image, and Internationalisation.” Scientometrics 66.2 (Jan. 2006: 411‐24.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaby Haddow

    2006-12-01

    journal. A high number of different citing journals implies influence in the field. The N JDF for the sample journals was compared with their Journal Impact Factor (JIF over the same period. Two further analyses of data gathered from 1990 to 2003 were conducted for the Journal of Documentation. The first identified journals most frequently co‐cited with JDOC, an analysis that can locate a journal within or outside its field. Lastly, Internationalisation analyses were carried out for JDOC. Internationalisation relates to the geographic affiliations of authors of JDOC articles and of authors citing JDOC. Geographic affiliation was analysed using three classifications: affiliation in North America, Western Europe, or other geographic locations.Main results –Journal Citation Identity: JASIST was found to have the highest citation/citee ratio at 1.88, while JDOC and JIS had similar ratios of 1.50 and 1.44 respectively. This finding suggests JASIST draws its citations from fewer journals than JDOC and JIS. The scientific content of JDOC ranged from 18% to 50% in the period analysed, the lowest proportion of the three journals. All journals had seen a reduction in the proportion of journal self‐citations over 23 years. Average journal self‐citations for the period were 4.3% for JASIST, 3.9% for JDOC, and 3.4% for JIS.Journal Citation Image: The number of journal self‐citations as a proportion of the total number of citations given to a journal was relatively stable for the three journals in the period 1991‐2003. JASIST had a slightly higher rate at around 30%, the rate for JDOCw as approximately 15%, and JIS showed theg reatest variation ranging from 25% to 12%. In the years 1980 to 1990 JIS was found toh ave a much higher proportion of journal self‐citations, spiking to over 85% in 1986. JDOC and JASIST self‐cited at a rate that differed little over the full 1980 to 2003 period.The average N JDF for JDOC increased from just over 0.3 in 1975 to almost 0.5 in 2003

  14. Geographical Topics Learning of Geo-Tagged Social Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Ji, Shufan; Wang, Senzhang; Li, Zhoujun; Lv, Xueqiang

    2016-03-01

    With the availability of cheap location sensors, geotagging of images in online social media is very popular. With a large amount of geo-tagged social images, it is interesting to study how these images are shared across geographical regions and how the geographical language characteristics and vision patterns are distributed across different regions. Unlike textual document, geo-tagged social image contains multiple types of content, i.e., textual description, visual content, and geographical information. Existing approaches usually mine geographical characteristics using a subset of multiple types of image contents or combining those contents linearly, which ignore correlations between different types of contents, and their geographical distributions. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a novel method to discover geographical characteristics of geo-tagged social images using a geographical topic model called geographical topic model of social images (GTMSIs). GTMSI integrates multiple types of social image contents as well as the geographical distributions, in which image topics are modeled based on both vocabulary and visual features. In GTMSI, each region of the image would have its own topic distribution, and hence have its own language model and vision pattern. Experimental results show that our GTMSI could identify interesting topics and vision patterns, as well as provide location prediction and image tagging.

  15. Louisiana Marinas and Boat Launches, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [marinas_LOSCO_2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The dataset defines the location and supplemental information for marinas and boat launches in southern Louisiana. The boat launch database includes public and...

  16. Geographical orientation. An integral geoperspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristóbal Cobo Arízaga

    2013-12-01

    This approach seeks to create a new line of discussion, to launch a proposal that is scientifically challenging to the hegemony of geographical thought and that provides new geographical rationality structures.

  17. CONTEMPORARY TRENDS IN GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wasileva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The geography includes rich, diverse and comprehensive themes that give us an understanding of our changing environment and interconnected world. It includes the study of the physical environment and resources; cultures, economies and societies; people and places; and global development and civic participation. As a subject, geography is particularly valuable because it provides information for exploring contemporary issues from a different perspective. This geographical information affects us all at work and in our daily lives and helps us make informed decisions that shape our future. All these facts result in a wide discussion on many topical issues in contemporary geography didactics. Subjects of research are the new geography and economics curriculum as well as construction of modern learning process. The paper presents briefly some of the current trends and key issues of geodidactics. As central notions we consider and analyze the training/educational goals, geography curriculum, target groups and environment of geography training, training methods as well as the information sources used in geography education. We adhere that all the above-mentioned finds its reflection in planning, analysis and assessment of education and thus in its quality and effectiveness.

  18. Volunteered Geographic Information in Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Darren

    2010-01-01

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI) refers to the geographic subset of online user-generated content. Through Geobrowsers and online mapping services, which use geovisualization and Web technologies to share and produce VGI, a global digital commons of geographic information has emerged. A notable example is Wikipedia, an online collaborative…

  19. Synergetic Paradigm of Geographical Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbanyov, Vladimir A.

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that in the last decades, geography has expanded so much, that it has lost its object of study. It was not clear, what the geographical science does, and, as a consequence, households have an extremely low level of geographical cultures and geographical education. Each geography is extremely isolated, has its own object of study.…

  20. Geographical conceptualization of quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murgaš František

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The conceptualization of quality of life in terms of geography is based on two assumptions. The first assumption is that the quality of life consists of two dimensions: subjective and objective. The subjective is known as ‘well-being’, while the objective is the proposed term ‘quality of place’. The second assumption is based on the recognition that quality of life is always a spatial dimension. The concept of quality of life is closely linked with the concept of a good life; geographers enriched this concept by using the term ‘good place’ as a place in which the conditions are created for a good life. The quality of life for individuals in terms of a good place overlaps with the quality of life in society, namely the societal quality of life. The geographical conceptualisation of quality of life is applied to settlements within the city of Liberec.

  1. The Ibibio Locative Copular Constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbonna Anyanwu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Ibibio language, a member of the Lower Cross group of languages is predominantly spoken in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Ibibio has two types of copular construction. One is locative while the other is predicative. Using a purely descriptive approach/method, this paper provides a descriptive account of the copular locative constructions in Ibibio. This study is based on a database collected from adult speakers of Ibibio by the author using an elicitation list. The database includes both actual and potential words/sentences, which standard Ibibio speakers found to be in consistent with their language rules.The paper has observed that Ibibio copular locatives make use of locative copular verbs which have semantic content, but are however, with indeterminate locative precision except when they co- occur with an appropriate locative complement. It has further observed that in Ibibio, the location of a subject entity can be marked with locative elements in two ways. In the first instance, a locative copular verb which can be dórò, ‘be on’ síne ‘be in’ bà ‘be at’ obligatorily co-occurs with a deitic locative complement or a locative prepositional phrase (PP complement headed by a multipurpose preposition (P, ké. The P is semantically, interpreted as either on, in, at or under depending on the particular locative copular verb that it co-occurs with. In the second instance, in addition to the locative copular verb and the locative PP complement headed by the P ké, there is also within the PP complement (headed by the P ké , a locative relational noun modifier which, modifies the head noun, a complement to the locative P ké. Based on Ameka andOgbonna Anyanwu71Levinson’s (2007 cross-linguistic classification of positional and locative verbs, the paper concludes that Ibibio belongs to the multi-verb type of languages with inherently locative copular verbs which are used to express the spatial locative orientation of subject

  2. Condom deserts: geographical disparities in condom availability and their relationship with rates of sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacham, Enbal; Nelson, Erik J; Schulte, Lauren; Bloomfield, Mark; Murphy, Ryan

    2016-05-01

    Identifying predictors that contribute to geographical disparities in sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is necessary. This study assesses the spatial relationship between condom availability to locations of STIs in order to better understand these geographical disparities. We conducted a condom availability audit among potential condom-selling establishments. New gonorrhoea and chlamydia cases in 2011 (n=6034) and HIV infection cases from 2006 to 2011 (n=565) were collected by census tract in St Louis, Missouri. 829 potential condom-selling establishments participated in the condom availability audit in St Louis City; 242 of which sold condoms. A negative linear relationship exists between condom vendors and cases of gonorrhoea and chlamydia, after adjusting for concentrated disadvantage and free condom locations. Higher concentrated disadvantage, higher proportions of convenience vendors and free locations were associated with higher rates of HIV. This study was conducted to provide evidence that lack of condom availability is associated with STI rates, and likely is an integral component to influencing the subjective norms surrounding condom use and STI rates. Condom distribution interventions may be addressing availability needs and social norms, yet are more likely to be effective when placed in locations with the highest STI rates. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Musings on privacy issues in health research involving disaggregate geographic data about individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbdelMalik Philip

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper offers a state-of-the-art overview of the intertwined privacy, confidentiality, and security issues that are commonly encountered in health research involving disaggregate geographic data about individuals. Key definitions are provided, along with some examples of actual and potential security and confidentiality breaches and related incidents that captured mainstream media and public interest in recent months and years. The paper then goes on to present a brief survey of the research literature on location privacy/confidentiality concerns and on privacy-preserving solutions in conventional health research and beyond, touching on the emerging privacy issues associated with online consumer geoinformatics and location-based services. The 'missing ring' (in many treatments of the topic of data security is also discussed. Personal information and privacy legislations in two countries, Canada and the UK, are covered, as well as some examples of recent research projects and events about the subject. Select highlights from a June 2009 URISA (Urban and Regional Information Systems Association workshop entitled 'Protecting Privacy and Confidentiality of Geographic Data in Health Research' are then presented. The paper concludes by briefly charting the complexity of the domain and the many challenges associated with it, and proposing a novel, 'one stop shop' case-based reasoning framework to streamline the provision of clear and individualised guidance for the design and approval of new research projects (involving geographical identifiers about individuals, including crisp recommendations on which specific privacy-preserving solutions and approaches would be suitable in each case.

  4. Geographic Variation in Condom Availability and Accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacham, Enbal; J Nelson, Erik; Schulte, Lauren; Bloomfield, Mark; Murphy, Ryan

    2016-12-01

    Identifying predictors that contribute to geographic disparities in sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is necessary in order to reduce disparities. This study assesses the spatial relationship condom availability and accessibility in order to better identify determinants of geographic disparities in STIs. We conducted a telephone-based audit among potential-condom selling establishments. Descriptive analyses were conducted to detect differences in condom-selling characteristics by stores and by store type. Geocoding, mapping, and spatial analysis were conducted to measure the availability of condoms. A total of 850 potential condom-selling establishments participated in the condom availability and accessibility audit in St. Louis city; 29 % sold condoms. There were several significant geographic clusters of stores identified across the study area. The first consisted of fewer convenience stores and gas stations that sold condoms in the northern section of the city, whereas condoms were less likely to be sold in non-convenience store settings in the southwestern and central parts of the city. Additionally, locations that distributed free condoms clustered significantly in city center. However, there was a dearth of businesses that were neither convenience stores nor gas stations in the northern region of the city, which also had the highest concentration of condoms sold. This initial study was conducted to provide evidence that condom availability and accessibility differ by geographic region, and likely are a determinant of social norms surrounding condom use and ultimately impact STI rates.

  5. Pressure Transducer Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Files are located here, defining the locations of the pressure transducers on the HIRENASD model. These locations also correspond to the locations that analysts...

  6. Assessing the use of Geographical Indications for the New England wine region in NSW

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Hui-Shung (Christie); Campbell, Gene; Sniekers, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Geographical Indications (GIs) have increasingly been used as a marketing tool to create an image of quality and uniqueness, and so capture premium prices. Hedonic pricing studies have shown that indication of geographical origin of production (e.g. country, region, wineries, and location), can affect prices. However, Geographical Indications only work when they are backed up by quality products. The objectives of this study are to assess the potential of a proposed Geographical Indication fo...

  7. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  8. Teaching a Geographical Component in World History Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachina, Olga A.

    2011-01-01

    This article is devoted to the topic of teaching a geographical component in World History curriculum in American public high schools. Despite the fact that the federal legislation entitled "No Child Left Behind" (2001) declared geography as a "core" academic subject, geography was the only subject dropped from federal funding.…

  9. Patterns and Effects of Geographic Mobility for Academic Women and Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Rachel A.

    1987-01-01

    Using career histories of academic psychologists, a study that investigated sex differences in patterns of geographic location and mobility, predictors of mobility, and the outcomes of geographic location and mobility is described. Women tend to be less mobile than men immediately after receiving their doctorates. (Author/MLW)

  10. LEGAL INSTRUMENT FOR PROTECTION OF GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATION PRODUCT IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almusawir Nansa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As an archipelago country, Indonesia comprises of a large territory where every region is capable of producing distinctive and characterized products due to its geographical, social, and cultural factors, in addition to its higher quality compared to imported products. In the market, goods with distinct characterization as a result of various geographical locations of production regions is known as Geographical Indication Products. Geographical Indication defines as a characterization that indicates the origin of a product, which includes several influencing factors such as geographical factor, natural factor, human factor or the combination of both factors which eventually contribute to establish a certain distinction and quality upon a product. Several geographical indicated products in Indonesia are widely known to have excellent reputation on the market, namely Delinese tobacco, Temanggung tobacco, Ciancur rice, Muntok white pepper, Lampung black pepper, Kerinci cinnamon, Cilembu cassava, Bandanese nutmeg, Proboliggo sweet mango, Balinese Kintamani coffee, Kalosi coffee, Papuan matoa, etc. Those are several richness of goods from certain regions in Indonesia widely known for their characterization. Characterization of goods are resulted by variation of geographic locations of producing regions in Indonesia. These goods possess high quality and high economic value. Consequently, certain instruments are required to provide protection upon the regions producing those goods against the act of counterfeiting.

  11. THEATRICALIZE GEOGRAPHIC TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Macabu de Sousa Soares

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article assumes that the theater, through the methodology of theater games, can contribute to the teaching of geography more meaningful and seek to practice and critical reflection in order to form citizens capable of conceiving a geographical reading of reality. This proposal combines the teaching of geography for artistic expression, seeking recovery of several languages. To validate the research were developed theater games activities with higher and elementary students. RESUMO: O presente artigo parte do pressuposto de que o Teatro, através da metodologia dos jogos teatrais, pode contribuir para um ensino de Geografia que seja mais significativo e que busque a prática e a reflexão crítica com o intuito de formar cidadãos capazes de conceber uma leitura geográfica da realidade. Esta proposta une o ensino de Geografia à expressão artística, na busca da valorização das diversas linguagens. Para validar a pesquisa foram desenvolvidas atividades de jogos teatrais com alunos de Licenciatura em Geografia e do Ensino Médio.

  12. Geographical Database Integrity Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Derya; Kauffman, Paul; Blackstock, Dexter

    2000-01-01

    Airport Safety Modeling Data (ASMD) was developed at the request of a 1997 White House Conference on Aviation Safety and Security. Politicians, military personnel, commercial aircraft manufacturers and the airline industry attended the conference. The objective of the conference was to study the airline industry and make recommendations to improve safety and security. One of the topics discussed at the conference was the loss of situational awareness by aircraft pilots. Loss of situational awareness occurs when a pilot loses his geographic position during flight and can result in crashes into terrain and obstacles. It was recognized at the conference that aviation safety could be improved by reducing the loss of situational awareness. The conference advised that a system be placed in the airplane cockpit that would provide pilots with a visual representation of the terrain around airports. The system would prevent airline crashes during times of inclement weather and loss of situational awareness. The system must be based on accurate data that represents terrain around airports. The Department of Defense and the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) released ASMD to be used for the development of a visual system for aircraft pilots. ASMD was constructed from NIMA digital terrain elevation data (DTED).

  13. Indoor Location Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Goswami, Subrata

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on the special challenges posed by accurately pinpointing a location indoors, this volume reflects the distance we have come in the handful of decades since the germination of GPS technology. Not only can we locate a signal to within a meter’s accuracy, but we now have this technology in the most basic mobile phone. Tracing recent practical developments in positioning technology and in the market it supplies, the author examines the contributions of the varied research—in silicon, signal and image processing, radio communications and software—to a fast-evolving field. The book looks forward to a time when, in addition to directing your road journey, positioning systems can peer indoors and guide you to an available photocopier in your office building. Featuring standalone chapters each dealing with a specific aspect of the subject, including treatments of systems such as Zebra, Awarepoint, Aeroscout, IEEE 802.11, etc. This study has all the detail needed to get up to speed on a key modern techn...

  14. SOLID WASTE: PRESENCE AND THREATIN GEOGRAPHICAL SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clesley Maria Tavares do Nascimento

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the trajectory of the solid waste in different historical periods, configuring them as a constructive element of geographical space. The intention to bring the theme from the timeline perspective, is marked out in the conviction of the inseparability of the categories of space and time and its importance in understanding a geographical phenomenon. The methodological support of this research relied on the documentary type of research involving literature, consultation of secondary sources such as books, academic journals, dissertations and theses on the subject. The results presented and discussed in this paper indicated that the production of waste is adjacent to historical time, reflects societies and techniques that generated them, and is a permanent part of the dialectical process of spatial formation.

  15. Trade Effects of Geographical Indications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmers, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    This contribution addresses the effects of geographical indications on intra-EU and international trade. Trade is hampered by the exclusiveness of indications like “Protected Designations of Origin or Protected Geographical Indications”, which at the same time is necessary to protect their value. As

  16. Adaptive Cartography and Geographical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecny, Milan; Stanek, Karel

    2010-01-01

    The article focuses on adaptive cartography and its potential for geographical education. After briefly describing the wider context of adaptive cartography, it is suggested that this new cartographic approach establishes new demands and benefits for geographical education, especially in offering the possibility for broader individual…

  17. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  18. A Location Privacy Aware Friend Locator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siksnys, Laurynas; Thomsen, Jeppe Rishede; Saltenis, Simonas

    2009-01-01

    to trade their location privacy for quality of service, limiting the attractiveness of the services. The challenge is to develop a communication-efficient solution such that (i) it detects proximity between a user and the user’s friends, (ii) any other party is not allowed to infer the location of the user...

  19. Geographic variation in resource use by specialist versus generalist butterflyfishes

    KAUST Repository

    Lawton, Rebecca J.

    2011-11-14

    Localised patterns of resource use can be constrained by multiple factors. Comparison of resource use at multiple locations with differing resource availability can allow fundamental specialists to be distinguished from species that simply feed predominantly on prey types that are locally abundant. This study investigates geographic variation in the feeding ecology of coral-feeding butterflyfishes to examine whether patterns of resource use and levels of dietary specialisation vary among distinct locations, corresponding with changes in resource availability. Our specific aims were to investigate whether the dietary niche breadth of four butterflyfishes varies among five geographically separated locations and assess whether each species utilises similar resources in each location. Resource availability and dietary composition of four butterflyfishes were quantified at three sites across each of five geographic locations throughout the Pacific. Niche breadth, niche overlap, and resource selection functions were calculated for each species at each site and compared among locations. Availability of dietary resources varied significantly among locations and sites. Chaetodon vagabundus, C. citrinellus and C. lunulatus had low levels of dietary specialisation and used different resources in each location. Chaetodon trifascialis had high levels of dietary specialisation and used the same few resources in each location. Our results indicate that relative levels of dietary specialisation among different butterflyfishes do hold at larger spatial scales, however, geographical variation in the dietary composition of all butterflyfishes indicates that prey availability has a fundamental influence on dietary composition. Highly specialised species such as C. trifascialis will be highly vulnerable to coral loss as they appear to be largely inflexible in their dietary composition. However, the increased feeding plasticity observed here for C. trifascialis suggests this species may

  20. Domestic violence, poverty, and social services: does location matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetling, Andrea; Zhang, Haiyan

    2010-01-01

    Objective. This study investigates whether or not domestic violence agencies are located in areas of need. Recent research indicates that community economic disadvantage is a risk factor for intimate partner violence, but related questions regarding the geographic location of social service agencies have not been investigated.Methods. Using Connecticut as a case study, we analyze the relationship of agency location and police-reported domestic violence incidents and assaults using OLS regression and correcting for spatial autocorrelation.Results. The presence of an agency within a town has no relationship with the rates of domestic violence. However, regional patterns are evident.Conclusion. Findings indicate that programs are not geographically mismatched with need, but neither are programs located in towns with higher rates of incidents or assaults. Future research and planning efforts should consider the geographic location of agencies.

  1. U-PLANT GEOGRAPHIC ZONE CLEANUP PROTOTYPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROMINE, L.D.

    2006-02-01

    The U Plant geographic zone (UPZ) occupies 0.83 square kilometers on the Hanford Site Central Plateau (200 Area). It encompasses the U Plant canyon (221-U Facility), ancillary facilities that supported the canyon, soil waste sites, and underground pipelines. The UPZ cleanup initiative coordinates the cleanup of the major facilities, ancillary facilities, waste sites, and contaminated pipelines (collectively identified as ''cleanup items'') within the geographic zone. The UPZ was selected as a geographic cleanup zone prototype for resolving regulatory, technical, and stakeholder issues and demonstrating cleanup methods for several reasons: most of the area is inactive, sufficient characterization information is available to support decisions, cleanup of the high-risk waste sites will help protect the groundwater, and the zone contains a representative cross-section of the types of cleanup actions that will be required in other geographic zones. The UPZ cleanup demonstrates the first of 22 integrated zone cleanup actions on the Hanford Site Central Plateau to address threats to groundwater, the environment, and human health. The UPZ contains more than 100 individual cleanup items. Cleanup actions in the zone will be undertaken using multiple regulatory processes and decision documents. Cleanup actions will include building demolition, waste site and pipeline excavation, and the construction of multiple, large engineered barriers. In some cases, different cleanup actions may be taken at item locations that are immediately adjacent to each other. The cleanup planning and field activities for each cleanup item must be undertaken in a coordinated and cohesive manner to ensure effective execution of the UPZ cleanup initiative. The UPZ zone cleanup implementation plan (ZCIP) was developed to address the need for a fundamental integration tool for UPZ cleanup. As UPZ cleanup planning and implementation moves forward, the ZCIP is intended to be a living

  2. Potential impacts of climatic change upon geographical distributions of birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huntley, Brian; Collingham, Yvonne C.; Green, Rhys E.

    2006-01-01

    biodiversity. Birds, in common with other terrestrial organisms, are expected to exhibit one of two general responses to climatic change: they may adapt to the changed conditions without shifting location, or they may show a spatial response, adjusting their geographical distribution in response...... to achieve a sufficient response by either or both of these mechanisms will be at risk of extinction; the Quaternary record documents examples of such extinctions. Relationships between the geographical distributions of birds and present climate have been modelled for species breeding in both Europe...... to the conclusion that the impacts upon birds are likely to be substantial. The boundaries of many species' potential geographical distributions are likely to be shifted  1000 km. There is likely to be a general decline in avian species richness, with the mean extent of species' potential geographical distributions...

  3. Order from noise: Toward a social theory of geographic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poore, B.S.; Chrisman, N.R.

    2006-01-01

    In the so-called Information Age, it is surprising that the concept of information is imprecisely defined and almost taken for granted. Historic and recent geographic information science (GIScience) literature relies on two conflicting metaphors, often espoused by the same author in adjacent paragraphs. The metaphor of invariance, derived from telecommunications engineering, defines information as a thing to be transported without loss through a conduit. Another metaphor, originating in the utopian movements of the 19th century, locates information within a hierarchy of refinement-a stopping place on the path to convert mere data into higher forms of knowledge and perhaps to wisdom. Both metaphors rely on long-forgotten debates outside geography and preclude us from seeing that there are important social and ethical concerns in the relationship between geographic information technologies and society. We examine the conflicts between competing metaphors and propose a social theory of geographic information. ?? 2006 by Association of American Geographers.

  4. NEPR Geographic Zone Map 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This geographic zone map was created by interpreting satellite and aerial imagery, seafloor topography (bathymetry model), and the new NEPR Benthic Habitat Map...

  5. Geographic Profiling: Knowledge Through Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    acts. In general, geographic profiling “is based on crime pattern, routine activity, and rational choice theories from environmental criminology , a...Information Systems and Crime Analysis , ed. Fahui Wang (Hershey, PA: Idea Group, 2005), 104. 3 models to the actual outcomes and determine the...order to construct a geographic profile, the coordinates of crime scenes are entered into a software analysis program that contains an algorithm known

  6. A Geographical History of Online Rhetoric and Composition Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirrell, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    The "Mapping Digital Technology in Rhetoric and Composition History" project can accommodate the geographical aspects of many relevant potential data sets, such as the locations of conferences, grant and award winners, book publications, graduate programs, job openings, and blog posts. The maps created for this article focus specifically on online…

  7. Application of Geographical Information Systems Technology in Soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the fertility status of soil around the River Otamiri watershed in Imo State of South-eastern Nigeria. A Geographical Positioning System was used to geo-reference the area and locate the soil samples, which were collected from 9 sampling points at 2 m depths each. The sample points were 210m, ...

  8. Using geographic information system (GIS) to determine waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lyndon

    Full Length Research Paper. Using geographic information system (GIS) to determine waste transfer stations in relation to location of landfill sites in Accra Metropolis. Lyndon Nii Adjiri Sackey. Waste Landfills Ghana Limited, P.O. Box DT 1670, Adenta-Accra, Ghana. Received 26 May, 2015; Accepted 23 December, 2015.

  9. Racial and Geographic Disparities in Interhospital ICU Transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Patrick D; Stone, David J; Geisler, Benjamin P; McLennan, Stuart; Celi, Leo Anthony; Rush, Barret

    2017-10-24

    Interhospital transfer, a common intervention, may be subject to healthcare disparities. In mechanically ventilated patients with sepsis, we hypothesize that disparities not disease related would be found between patients who were and were not transferred. Retrospective cohort study. Nationwide Inpatient Sample, 2006-2012. Patients over 18 years old with a primary diagnosis of sepsis who underwent mechanical ventilation. None. We obtained age, gender, length of stay, race, insurance coverage, do not resuscitate status, and Elixhauser comorbidities. The outcome used was interhospital transfer from a small- or medium-sized hospital to a larger acute care hospital. Of 55,208,382 hospitalizations, 46,406 patients met inclusion criteria. In the multivariate model, patients were less likely to be transferred if the following were present: older age (odds ratio, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.978-0.982), black race (odds ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.70-0.89), Hispanic race (odds ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.69-0.90), South region hospital (odds ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.72-0.88), teaching hospital (odds ratio, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.28-0.33), and do not resuscitate status (odds ratio, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.15-0.25). In mechanically ventilated patients with sepsis, we found significant disparities in race and geographic location not explained by medical diagnoses or illness severity.

  10. Nielsen PrimeLocation Web/Desktop: Assessing and GIS Mapping Market Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Nielsen PrimeLocation Web and Desktop Software Licensed for Internal Use only: Pop-Facts Demographics Database, Geographic Mapping Data Layers, Geo-Coding locations.

  11. Geographic Hotspots of Critical National Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Scott; Barr, Stuart; Pant, Raghav; Hall, Jim W; Alderson, David

    2017-06-12

    Failure of critical national infrastructures can result in major disruptions to society and the economy. Understanding the criticality of individual assets and the geographic areas in which they are located is essential for targeting investments to reduce risks and enhance system resilience. Within this study we provide new insights into the criticality of real-life critical infrastructure networks by integrating high-resolution data on infrastructure location, connectivity, interdependence, and usage. We propose a metric of infrastructure criticality in terms of the number of users who may be directly or indirectly disrupted by the failure of physically interdependent infrastructures. Kernel density estimation is used to integrate spatially discrete criticality values associated with individual infrastructure assets, producing a continuous surface from which statistically significant infrastructure criticality hotspots are identified. We develop a comprehensive and unique national-scale demonstration for England and Wales that utilizes previously unavailable data from the energy, transport, water, waste, and digital communications sectors. The testing of 200,000 failure scenarios identifies that hotspots are typically located around the periphery of urban areas where there are large facilities upon which many users depend or where several critical infrastructures are concentrated in one location. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Arbitrary mandibular hinge axis locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, J W; Hesby, R A; Pfeifer, D L; Pelleu, G B

    1984-06-01

    This study compared selected arbitrary hinge axis locations with the kinematic axis location. Fifty subjects were studied, and the data were statistically analyzed. Results showed significant differences between the location of experimental arbitrary axis point and those of Beyron, Gysi, and Bergstrom in relation to the kinematic axis. The arbitrary points of Beyron, Gysi, and Bergstrom showed directional tendencies, whereas the experimental arbitrary points were evenly distributed around the kinematic axis. This study indicates that the experimental arbitrary axis point more closely and consistently approximated the kinematic axis than the arbitrary points of Beyron, Gysi, and Bergstrom. The finding suggests that the clinical use of a point on Camper's line, 10 mm from the superior border of the tragus, results in a more accurate transfer of the maxillary cast to the articulator.

  13. Law Enforcement Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Law Enforcement Locations in Kansas Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law enforcement agencies "are...

  14. Accessible Transportation, Geographic Elevation, and Masticatory Ability Among Elderly Residents of a Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Hamano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Given that public transportation networks are often worse in rural areas than in urban areas, rural residents who do not drive can find it difficult to access health-promoting goods, services, and resources related to masticatory ability. Moreover, geographical location, assessed by elevation, could modify this association. The aim of this study was to test whether the association between access to transportation and masticatory ability varied by elevation. Data were collected from a cross-sectional study conducted in Mizuho and Iwami counties, Japan. Objective masticatory ability was evaluated using a test gummy jelly and elevation was estimated by the geographic information systems according to the participant’s address. After excluding subjects with missing data, 672 subjects (Mizuho = 401 and Iwami = 271 were analyzed. After adjustment for potential confounders, being a driver was not significantly associated with masticatory ability among elderly people living at low elevation (≤313 m in Mizuho county. However, after the same adjustment, being a driver remained significantly associated with increased masticatory ability among elderly at high elevations. Similar findings were observed in Iwami county. Accessible transportation was significantly associated with increased mastication ability in elderly people living at high elevations, but not in those living at low elevations.

  15. Accessible Transportation, Geographic Elevation, and Masticatory Ability Among Elderly Residents of a Rural Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Tominaga, Kazumichi; Takeda, Miwako; Sundquist, Kristina; Nabika, Toru

    2015-06-26

    Given that public transportation networks are often worse in rural areas than in urban areas, rural residents who do not drive can find it difficult to access health-promoting goods, services, and resources related to masticatory ability. Moreover, geographical location, assessed by elevation, could modify this association. The aim of this study was to test whether the association between access to transportation and masticatory ability varied by elevation. Data were collected from a cross-sectional study conducted in Mizuho and Iwami counties, Japan. Objective masticatory ability was evaluated using a test gummy jelly and elevation was estimated by the geographic information systems according to the participant's address. After excluding subjects with missing data, 672 subjects (Mizuho = 401 and Iwami = 271) were analyzed. After adjustment for potential confounders, being a driver was not significantly associated with masticatory ability among elderly people living at low elevation (≤313 m) in Mizuho county. However, after the same adjustment, being a driver remained significantly associated with increased masticatory ability among elderly at high elevations. Similar findings were observed in Iwami county. Accessible transportation was significantly associated with increased mastication ability in elderly people living at high elevations, but not in those living at low elevations.

  16. Shapley Facility Location Games

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Porat, Omer; Tennenholtz, Moshe

    2017-01-01

    Facility location games have been a topic of major interest in economics, operations research and computer science, starting from the seminal work by Hotelling. Spatial facility location models have successfully predicted the outcome of competition in a variety of scenarios. In a typical facility location game, users/customers/voters are mapped to a metric space representing their preferences, and each player picks a point (facility) in that space. In most facility location games considered i...

  17. Detection of mobile user location on next generation wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Saowanee; Olesen, Henning

    2005-01-01

    of a Mobile IPv6 device can be determined by mapping the geographical location information with the two care-of-addresses and the physical address of the access point where the user is connected. Such a mechanism makes location services for mobile entities available on a global IP network. The end-users can...

  18. Location, Location, Location: Where Do Location-Based Services Fit into Your Institution's Social Media Mix?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekritz, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Foursquare is a location-based social networking service that allows users to share their location with friends. Some college administrators have been thinking about whether and how to take the leap into location-based services, which are also known as geosocial networking services. These platforms, which often incorporate gaming elements like…

  19. Location, location, location: the BRMS1 protein and melanoma progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riker Adam I

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The metastasis suppressor, BRMS1, has been demonstrated to cause dramatic regression of metastatic lesions without blocking orthotopic tumor growth. The role of BRMS1 is well-documented for several non-melanoma malignancies, such as breast cancer, ovarian cancer and non-small-cell lung cancer. However, its role in melanoma is just beginning to be understood, with a recent article by Slipicevic et al. highlighting the levels of expression of BRMS1 in benign nevi, primary and metastatic melanoma samples. Their findings emphasize that the intracellular location of BRMS1 protein (cytoplasmic or nuclear, appears to have a significant impact upon the metastatic capacity of melanoma cells. Interestingly, this selective localization translates into a statistically significant decrease in the relapse-free period in melanoma patients, further associated with a thicker Breslow's depth of primary melanomas. However, and more importantly, this study begins to define a clearer role for BRMS1 in melanoma that is strictly dependent upon its cellular location, with nuclear expression associated with invasive and metastatic capacity and cytoplasmic expression resulting in repressive effects upon progression and metastasis. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2407/12/73

  20. New Geographical Regionalization of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Gorbanyov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After the October Revolution there was an urgent need for a new economic zoning of Russia. Under the leadership of the greatest scientists the Soviet Union was divided in to economic regions. After the collapse of the USSR and the emergence of a market economy, these regions have lost their meaning, and the new were not created. Therefore there was a need of a new zoning Russia, and not by economic regions, but by the complex geographical regions. This is a difficult task, but because of the author's opinion that geography should be a single, new geographical areas should reflect their historical, natural, economic, social, cultural view specifics. This approach will promote rational geographical division of labor in the country in a market economy. An attempt to new geographical zoning, with 10 allocated geographic regions: Capital, Central, European North, European South, North Caucasus, Volga-Urals, Western Siberia, Southern Siberia, Northern Siberia and the Far East. For each region area, population size and density, level of urbanization, natural, mechanical and overall population growth, GDP per capita, the structure of employment, Human Development Index were counted, and the appropriate analysis were made.

  1. An Empirical Analysis of Humanitarian Warehouse Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander de Leeuw

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to empirically verify characteristics of current warehouse locations of humanitarian organizations (based on public information and to relate those to the model developed by Richardson, de Leeuw and Dullaert (2016. This paper is based on desk research. Public data such as (annual reports and databases are used to determine the features of the location in empirical terms. We find that a significant proportion of our sample co-locates their products at UNHRD premises. This suggests that organizations prefer to cluster their warehouse activities, particularly when there is no fee involved for using the warehouse (as is the case in the UNHRD network. The geographic map of the current warehouses, together with the quantified location factors, provides an overview of the current warehouse locations. We found that the characteristics of the current warehouse locations are aligned with literature on location selection factors. Current location can be characterized by infrastructure characteristics (in particular closeness to airport and safety concerns and by the low occurrence of disasters. Other factors that were considered by us but were not supported by empirical evidence were labor quality and availability as well as the political environment. In our study we were only able to use a limited sample of warehouses. We also focused our research on countries where two or more organizations have their warehouses located. We did not account for warehouse sizes or the kinds of products stored in our analysis.

  2. Database Aspects of Location-Based Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2004-01-01

    in the databases underlying high-quality services. Several integrated representations - which capture different aspects of the same infrastructure - are needed. Further, all other content that can be related to geographical space must be integrated with the infrastructure representations. The chapter describes...... the general concepts underlying one approach to data modeling for location-based services. The chapter also covers techniques that are needed to keep a database for location-based services up to date with the reality it models. As part of this, caching is touched upon briefly. The notion of linear referencing...

  3. Smartphones as locative media

    CERN Document Server

    Frith, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Smartphone adoption has surpassed 50% of the population in more than 15 countries, and there are now more than one million mobile applications people can download to their phones. Many of these applications take advantage of smartphones as locative media, which is what allows smartphones to be located in physical space. Applications that take advantage of people's location are called location-based services, and they are the focus of this book. Smartphones as locative media raise important questions about how we understand the complicated relationship between the Internet and physical space

  4. Noise Source Location Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed O’Keefe

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a method to determine locations of noise sources that minimize modal coupling in complex acoustic volumes. Using the acoustic source scattering capabilities of the boundary element method, predictions are made of mode shape and pressure levels due to various source locations. Combining knowledge of the pressure field with a multivariable function minimization technique, the source location generating minimum pressure levels can be determined. The analysis also allows for an objective comparison of “best/worst” locations. The technique was implemented on a personal computer for the U.S. Space Station, predicting 5–10 dB noise reduction using optimum source locations.

  5. Image Processing and Geographic Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Ronald G.; Daily, Julie; Kiss, Kenneth

    1985-12-01

    A Geographic Information System, which is a product of System Development Corporation's Image Processing System and a commercially available Data Base Management System, is described. The architecture of the system allows raster (image) data type, graphics data type, and tabular data type input and provides for the convenient analysis and display of spatial information. A variety of functions are supported through the Geographic Information System including ingestion of foreign data formats, image polygon encoding, image overlay, image tabulation, costatistical modelling of image and tabular information, and tabular to image conversion. The report generator in the DBMS is utilized to prepare quantitative tabular output extracted from spatially referenced images. An application of the Geographic Information System to a variety of data sources and types is highlighted. The application utilizes sensor image data, graphically encoded map information available from government sources, and statistical tables.

  6. The Learning of a Geographical Map by Experts and Novices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postigo, Yolanda; Pozo, Juan Ignacio

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the codification involved in learning geographical maps and the extent to which this codification is affected by characteristics of the task (map information content and varied instructions) and subject (experience level and cognitive development). Reports results from three groups of adolescents and two groups of psychology and geography…

  7. The importance of geographic access for the impact of microfinance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alimukhamedova, Nargiza; Filer, Randall K.; Hanousek, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 35, September (2017), s. 645-657 ISSN 0950-6764 Grant - others:UK(CZ) GAUK 586912 Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : geographic access * microcredit * microfinance institutions Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.700, year: 2016

  8. The importance of geographic access for the impact of microfinance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alimukhamedova, N.; Filer, R. K.; Hanousek, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 35, September (2017), s. 645-657 ISSN 0950-6764 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31783S Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : geographic access * microcredit * microfinance institutions Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.700, year: 2016

  9. Molecular epidemiology and geographical distribution of Nosema ceranae in honeybees, Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vena Chupia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the contamination levels of Nosema ceranae in honeybees and its molecular linkages in different geographical areas of Northern Thailand. Methods: Seventy-eight apiaries in Northern Thailand were chosen at random. The detection was accomplished both by microscopic examination and multiplex PCR. Nosema positive samples were evaluated by PCR sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Results: Of the samples subjected to microscopic examination, 11.54% were found to be positive for Nosema while 29.49% of the samples evaluated by PCR were found to be positive for the disease. Honeybees from four of the six provinces surveyed in Northern Thailand were positive for Nosema, with the highest prevalence in Chiang Mai Province (48.57%. There was a high diversity of Nosema strains in some locations, while the same strain of pathogen was identified in many locations in Northern Thailand. Conclusions: This is the first report about the contamination levels and distribution pattern of nosemosis in Thailand. The study found the same group of Nosema in different locations, and different groups of Nosema in the same location. This pattern of distribution will be an advantage for disease control in the future.

  10. APLICACIÓN DEL ALGORITMO EVOLUTIVO NSGAII EN LA UBICACIÓN DE CENTRALES TELEFÓNICAS EN UNÁREA GEOGRÁFICA DETERMINADA // APPLICATION OF EVOLUTIONARY ALGORITHM ON THE LOCATION OF NSGAII TELEPHONE EXCHANGES IN A GIVEN GEOGRAPHIC AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clavel Quintana

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Almeida, Amarilla y Barán estudiaron el problema de minimización multiobjetivo de costo a corto, mediano y largo plazo para la ubicación de centrales telefónicas en la ciudad de la Asunción, Paraguay, determinando el número de centrales y la ubicación ´optima de estas centrales usando el algoritmo evolutivo SPEAII. Proponemos en este trabajo aplicar el algoritmo evolutivo NSGAII al problema de ubicar centrales telefónicas en Cabudare, Estado Lara, Venezuela; demostrando que constituye una opción valida para abordar el problema multiobjetivo. // Abstract: Almeida, Amarilla and Baran studied the problem of cost-minimization multi-objective in short, medium and long term for the location of telephone exchanges in the city of Asuncion, Paraguay, determining the number of central and convenient location of these plants SPEAII using evolutionary algorithm. We propose in this paper to apply the evolutionary algorithm NSGAII the problem of locating telephone exchanges in Cabudare, Estado Lara, Venezuela; demonstrating that an option to address multiobjective problems.

  11. Geographic Information Processings for Astronomical Site Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, N.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, M. Y.

    2015-01-01

    The geographic information is of great importance for the site survey of ground-based telescopes. Especially, an effective utilization of the geographic information system (GIS) has been one of the most significant methods for the remote analysis of modern site survey. The astronomical site survey should give consideration to the following geographical conditions: a large relative fall, convenient traffic conditions, and far away from populated areas. Taking into account of the convenience of construction and maintenance of the observatories as well as the living conditions of the scientists-in-residence, the optimum candidate locations may meet the conditions to be at a altitude between 3000 m and 5000 m and within one-hour drive from villages/towns. In this paper, as an example, we take the regions of the Great Baicao mountain ridge at Dayao county in Yunnan province to research the role of the GIS for site survey task. The results indicate that the GIS can provide accurate and intuitive data for us to understand the three dimensional landforms, rivers, roads, villages, and the distributions of the electric power as well as to forecast the tendency of the population and city development around. According to the analysis based on the GIS, we find that the top of the Great Baicao mountain ridge is flat and droughty. There are few inhabitants to distribute around the place while the traffic conditions are convenient. Moreover, it is a natural conservation area protected by the local government, and no industry with pollution sources exists in this region. Its top is 1500 m higher than the nearby village 10 km away, and 1800 m higher than the town center 50 km away. The Great Baicao mountain ridge is definitely an isolated peak in the area of the Yi nationality of Yunnan. Therefore, the GIS data analysis is a very useful for the remote investigation stage for site survey, and the GIS is the indispensable source for modern astronomical site survey.

  12. [Differentiation of geographic biovariants of smallpox virus by PCR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babkin, I V; Babkina, I N

    2010-01-01

    Comparative analysis of amino acid and nucleotides sequences of ORFs located in extended segments of the terminal variable regions in variola virus genome detected a promising locus for viral genotyping according to the geographic origin. This is ORF O1L of VARV. The primers were calculated for synthesis of this ORF fragment by PCR, which makes it possible to distinguish South America-Western Africa genotype from other VARV strains. Subsequent RFLP analysis reliably differentiated Asian strains from African strains (except Western Africa isolates). This method has been tested using 16 VARV strains from various geographic regions. The developed approach is simple, fast and reliable.

  13. Geographic variation in speed of seed germination in central Oregon ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Weber; Frank C. Sorensen

    1992-01-01

    Variation in speed of seed germination was investigated among ponderosa pine trees representing 225 locations in central Oregon. Results suggested that at least some of the geographic variation is related to the severity of summer drought. In general, germination speed was greater in locations with shod, drought-limited growing seasons. Levels of geographic variation...

  14. Robustness in facility location

    OpenAIRE

    Van Lokven, Sander W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Facility location concerns the placement of facilities, for various objectives, by use of mathematical models and solution procedures. Almost all facility location models that can be found in literature are based on minimizing costs or maximizing cover, to cover as much demand as possible. These models are quite efficient for finding an optimal location for a new facility for a particular data set, which is considered to be constant and known in advance. In a real world situation, input da...

  15. Geographically weighted regression model on poverty indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamet, I.; Nugroho, N. F. T. A.; Muslich

    2017-12-01

    In this research, we applied geographically weighted regression (GWR) for analyzing the poverty in Central Java. We consider Gaussian Kernel as weighted function. The GWR uses the diagonal matrix resulted from calculating kernel Gaussian function as a weighted function in the regression model. The kernel weights is used to handle spatial effects on the data so that a model can be obtained for each location. The purpose of this paper is to model of poverty percentage data in Central Java province using GWR with Gaussian kernel weighted function and to determine the influencing factors in each regency/city in Central Java province. Based on the research, we obtained geographically weighted regression model with Gaussian kernel weighted function on poverty percentage data in Central Java province. We found that percentage of population working as farmers, population growth rate, percentage of households with regular sanitation, and BPJS beneficiaries are the variables that affect the percentage of poverty in Central Java province. In this research, we found the determination coefficient R2 are 68.64%. There are two categories of district which are influenced by different of significance factors.

  16. Acquiring geographical data with web harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dramowicz, K.

    2016-04-01

    Many websites contain very attractive and up to date geographical information. This information can be extracted, stored, analyzed and mapped using web harvesting techniques. Poorly organized data from websites are transformed with web harvesting into a more structured format, which can be stored in a database and analyzed. Almost 25% of web traffic is related to web harvesting, mostly while using search engines. This paper presents how to harvest geographic information from web documents using the free tool called the Beautiful Soup, one of the most commonly used Python libraries for pulling data from HTML and XML files. It is a relatively easy task to process one static HTML table. The more challenging task is to extract and save information from tables located in multiple and poorly organized websites. Legal and ethical aspects of web harvesting are discussed as well. The paper demonstrates two case studies. The first one shows how to extract various types of information about the Good Country Index from the multiple web pages, load it into one attribute table and map the results. The second case study shows how script tools and GIS can be used to extract information from one hundred thirty six websites about Nova Scotia wines. In a little more than three minutes a database containing one hundred and six liquor stores selling these wines is created. Then the availability and spatial distribution of various types of wines (by grape types, by wineries, and by liquor stores) are mapped and analyzed.

  17. Energy Consumption in Location Sharing Protocols for Android Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Prihodko, Mihails

    2012-01-01

    This thesis studies the Message Queue Telemetry Transport protocol (MQTT) as an application layer protocol in geographical location sharing applications using third generation cellular communication (3G). The MQTT protocol is compared in terms of energy efficiency and amount of data generated with the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which is currently used in typical location sharing applications. In order to compare the communication energy efficiency of both protocols a location sharing...

  18. Geographical Information in Virtual Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loo, J. van; Lawick van Pabst, J. van

    1998-01-01

    We studied the combination of a Geographical Information System (GIS) and a Virtual Environment (VE). The goal was to establish a bi-directional link between a GIS and a virtual environment. The first step was to combine three types of data to build the 3D world and store it into the GIS: a digital

  19. The Andes: A Geographical Portrait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Bebbington

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: The Andes: A Geographical Portrait. By Axel Borsdorf and Christoph Stadel. Translated by Brigitte Scott and Christoph Stadel. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, 2015. xiv + 368 pp. US$ 139.00. Also available as an e-book. ISBN 978-3-319-03529-1.

  20. Geographic Literacy through Children's Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Linda K.

    This activity-centered approach to teaching geography to elementary students is based on children's literature. Methodologies for teaching the themes of geography involving children's books and stories are given. The book is organized into five chapters: (1) "Geographic Literacy in Curriculum" gives instructions for using the book and provides…

  1. Lost in Location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2009-01-01

    performance, the article examines how the growing locative media industry can learn from the location-aware performative strategies employed by artists who create situated and urban performances for the curious participant. The academic frames employed in the analysis draw on psychogeography, site......-specific performance, social and cultural geography, and aspects of phenomenology....... traversed. While becoming destination aware, the individual loses her location awareness. The article proposes that the reason people get lost when using sat-nav is due to a wrong location-performative paradigm. As an alternative, the article introduces and analyzes two performance-related examples...

  2. Smart Location Database - Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Smart Location Database (SLD) summarizes over 80 demographic, built environment, transit service, and destination accessibility attributes for every census block...

  3. Smart Location Database - Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Smart Location Database (SLD) summarizes over 80 demographic, built environment, transit service, and destination accessibility attributes for every census block...

  4. Generic Network Location Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laban Mwansa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the Generic Network Location Service based on the Chord implementation utilizing data structures called distributed hash tables (DHT or structured overlay networks, which are used to build scalable self-managing distributed systems. The provided algorithms guarantee resilience in the presence of dynamism: they guarantee consistent lookup results in the presence of nodes failing and leaving. Generic Network Location Service provides a Location Service system based on DHT technology, which is storing device location records in nodes within a Chord DHT. Location records are consisting of network device identification keys as attributes, which are used to create replicas of additional location records through established Chord hashing mechanisms. Storing device location records, in places address-able (using the DHT lookup by individual location record keys provides a simple way of implementing transla¬tion functions similar to well¬ known network services (e.g. ARP, DNS, ENUM. The generic network location ser¬vice presented in the paper is not supposed to be a substitu¬tion of the existing translation techniques (e.g. ARP, DNS, ENUM, but it is considered as an overlay service that uses data available in existing systems and provides some translations currently unavailable.

  5. Seabird Nesting Colonies in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, LSU (1997) [seabirds_LSU_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a point dataset for seabird nesting colonies derived from GPS locations in the field. The attributes of the habitat points are based upon visual assessment...

  6. Louisiana Airports, Geographic NAD83, FEMA (1997)[airports_FEMA_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is is a point dataset for the locations and attributes of 20 Louisiana airports. The attributes include name, address, city, county (sic), state, phone,...

  7. US Coast Guard Stations in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, USCG [coast_guard_stations_USCG_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is is a point dataset for the locations and attributes of eight US Coast Guard stations in Louisiana. The attributes include name, address, latitude (NAD27),...

  8. Louisiana Heliports, Geographic NAD83, FEMA (1997) [heliports_FEMA_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is is a point dataset for the locations and attributes of 154 Louisiana heliports. The attributes include name, city, state, county (sic), county code (unknown...

  9. Railroad Bridges in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, FEMA (1997) [railroad_bridges_FEMA_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is is a point dataset for the locations and attributes of 32 Louisiana railroad bridges. The attributes include city (nearest?), county (sic), routefrom (city),...

  10. Oyster leases in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (1997) [oyster_leases_USACE_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set indicates the locations of oyster leases in Louisiana. The lease areas should be polygons, however, the source data has very poor topology including...

  11. Studying the making of geographical knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Madsen, Lene Møller

    2009-01-01

    The article addresses the issue of being a ‘double' insider when conducting interviews. Double insider means being an insider both in relation to one's research matter - in the authors' case the making of geographical knowledge - and in relation to one's interviewees - our colleagues. The article...... is a reflection paper in the sense that we reflect upon experiences drawn from a previous research project carried out in Danish academia. It is important that the project was situated in a Scandinavian workplace culture because this has bearings for the social, cultural, and economic situation in which knowledge...... was constructed. The authors show that being a double insider affects both the interview situation and how interviews are planned, located, and analysed. Being an insider in relation to one's interviewees gives the advantage of having a shared history and a close knowledge of the context, and these benefits...

  12. Shifting Geographical Configurations in Migrant Families: Narratives of Children Reunited with their Mothers in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Bonizzoni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the experiences of separation and reunification by children of migrant mothers in Italy by analysing 32 qualitative interviews conducted with adolescents who had rejoined their mothers at different points in their lives. We show that international migration causes children to face multiple shifts in the configuration of their family ties due to the geographical dislocations and re-locations to which these ties are subject. The way in which children interpret and adjust to these changes depends on factors such as the timing of the family migration process and the frequency of transnational family practices, which are affected by more or less abrupt discontinuities in family life after their mothers’ and their own departure.

  13. Management of Information and Infrastructure of Indigenous Community at Royal Belum State Park Using Geographical Information System: A Conceptual Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Zainon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Nowadays, an integrated location, descriptive inventory data and geographical information are required for a better decision making in Indigenous community management activities. The management system can improve productivity and to save time, money and man power. Conventional maps and Indigenous inventories on papers or spread sheet are lack of meeting these requirements which are not static and subjected to change rapidly. The Geographic Information Systems (GIS and Database Management (DBM System are capabilities and confined in manipulation of location and descriptive data, respectively. A GIS system is chosen in Management Information and Infrastructure of Indigenous Communities because its meets all the requirements that can help the authorities to managed the community. GIS able to manipulate location and descriptive data as well as the relationships between them are dynamic. This paper will discussed briefly the conceptual design of GIS activities and Indigenous community in Royal Belum State Park, Malaysia, then terminology and theoretical concepts of GIS, Indigenous community management and the link between them are reviewed.Keywords:  Management, information, infrastructure, conceptual design, Indigenous community 

  14. Management of Information and Infrastructure of Indigenous Community at Royal Belum State Park Using Geographical Information System: A Conceptual Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Zainon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Nowadays, an integrated location, descriptive inventory data and geographical information are required for a better decision making in Indigenous community management activities. The management system can improve productivity and to save time, money and man power. Conventional maps and Indigenous inventories on papers or spread sheet are lack of meeting these requirements which are not static and subjected to change rapidly. The Geographic Information Systems (GIS and Database Management (DBM System are capabilities and confined in manipulation of location and descriptive data, respectively. A GIS system is chosen in Management Information and Infrastructure of Indigenous Communities because its meets all the requirements that can help the authorities to managed the community. GIS able to manipulate location and descriptive data as well as the relationships between them are dynamic. This paper will discussed briefly the conceptual design of GIS activities and Indigenous community in Royal Belum State Park, Malaysia, then terminology and theoretical concepts of GIS, Indigenous community management and the link between them are reviewed. Keywords: Management, information, infrastructure, conceptual design, Indigenous community

  15. Geographic wormhole detection in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sookhak, Mehdi; Akhundzada, Adnan; Sookhak, Alireza; Eslaminejad, Mohammadreza; Gani, Abdullah; Khurram Khan, Muhammad; Li, Xiong; Wang, Xiaomin

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are ubiquitous and pervasive, and therefore; highly susceptible to a number of security attacks. Denial of Service (DoS) attack is considered the most dominant and a major threat to WSNs. Moreover, the wormhole attack represents one of the potential forms of the Denial of Service (DoS) attack. Besides, crafting the wormhole attack is comparatively simple; though, its detection is nontrivial. On the contrary, the extant wormhole defense methods need both specialized hardware and strong assumptions to defend against static and dynamic wormhole attack. The ensuing paper introduces a novel scheme to detect wormhole attacks in a geographic routing protocol (DWGRP). The main contribution of this paper is to detect malicious nodes and select the best and the most reliable neighbors based on pairwise key pre-distribution technique and the beacon packet. Moreover, this novel technique is not subject to any specific assumption, requirement, or specialized hardware, such as a precise synchronized clock. The proposed detection method is validated by comparisons with several related techniques in the literature, such as Received Signal Strength (RSS), Authentication of Nodes Scheme (ANS), Wormhole Detection uses Hound Packet (WHOP), and Wormhole Detection with Neighborhood Information (WDI) using the NS-2 simulator. The analysis of the simulations shows promising results with low False Detection Rate (FDR) in the geographic routing protocols.

  16. Geographic wormhole detection in wireless sensor networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Sookhak

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are ubiquitous and pervasive, and therefore; highly susceptible to a number of security attacks. Denial of Service (DoS attack is considered the most dominant and a major threat to WSNs. Moreover, the wormhole attack represents one of the potential forms of the Denial of Service (DoS attack. Besides, crafting the wormhole attack is comparatively simple; though, its detection is nontrivial. On the contrary, the extant wormhole defense methods need both specialized hardware and strong assumptions to defend against static and dynamic wormhole attack. The ensuing paper introduces a novel scheme to detect wormhole attacks in a geographic routing protocol (DWGRP. The main contribution of this paper is to detect malicious nodes and select the best and the most reliable neighbors based on pairwise key pre-distribution technique and the beacon packet. Moreover, this novel technique is not subject to any specific assumption, requirement, or specialized hardware, such as a precise synchronized clock. The proposed detection method is validated by comparisons with several related techniques in the literature, such as Received Signal Strength (RSS, Authentication of Nodes Scheme (ANS, Wormhole Detection uses Hound Packet (WHOP, and Wormhole Detection with Neighborhood Information (WDI using the NS-2 simulator. The analysis of the simulations shows promising results with low False Detection Rate (FDR in the geographic routing protocols.

  17. Industrial location and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brakman (Steven); J.H. Garretsen (Harry); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe interaction between the extent of location advantages and the intensity of firm competition relative to the size of the market jointly determines the location of industrial activity. Technology, factor endowments, geography, and scale economies are influential for determining

  18. A Geographic Method for High Resolution Spatial Heat Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    more detailed modelling that takes the geographic placement of buildings and the differences among DH systems into account. In the present article, a method for assessing the costs of DH expansions has been developed. The method was applied in a geographic information system (GIS) model that consists......In many countries, district heating (DH) covers a large share of the heat market. In these countries, the best locations for DH systems have already been found. Therefore, the challenge for these countries is to find expansion potentials for existing DH. The expansion to less ideal areas requires...... are considering distribution costs based on the geographic properties of each area and assessing transmission costs based on an iterative process that examines expansion potentials gradually. The GIS model is only applicable to a Danish context, but the method itself can be applied to other countries....

  19. A situated knowledge representation of geographical information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gahegan, Mark N.; Pike, William A.

    2006-11-01

    In this paper we present an approach to conceiving of, constructing and comparing the concepts developed and used by geographers, environmental scientists and other earth science researchers to help describe, analyze and ultimately understand their subject of study. Our approach is informed by the situations under which concepts are conceived and applied, captures details of their construction, use and evolution and supports their ultimate sharing along with the means for deep exploration of conceptual similarities and differences that may arise among a distributed network of researchers. The intent here is to support different perspectives onto GIS resources that researchers may legitimately take, and to capture and compute with aspects of epistemology, to complement the ontologies that are currently receiving much attention in the GIScience community.

  20. Geographic Location of a Computer Node Examining a Time-to-Location Algorithm and Multiple Autonomous System Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    OPENT Simulation Model...................................................................................4-4 Figure 4.5 80% Paretto Distribution for...States, Figure 4.4 shows the MCI Network model. Figure 4.4 MCI Fast Ethernet OPENT Simulation Model Background traffic arrives according to

  1. Geographic Information System Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Chad; Casad, Christopher; Floriano, Luis G.; Hill, Tracie; Johnson, Rashida K.; Locklear, J. Mark; Penn, Stephen; Rhoulac, Tori; Shay, Adam H.; Taylor, Antone; hide

    1995-01-01

    Data was collected in order to further NASA Langley Research Center's Geographic Information System(GIS). Information on LaRC's communication, electrical, and facility configurations was collected. Existing data was corrected through verification, resulting in more accurate databases. In addition, Global Positioning System(GPS) points were used in order to accurately impose buildings on digitized images. Overall, this project will help the Imaging and CADD Technology Team (ICTT) prove GIS to be a valuable resource for LaRC.

  2. Applications of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) in Archaeology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ManiMurali, R.

    The advancement of remote sensing technology and the analysing capability of Geographical Information System (GIS) can very well be used in the science of Archaeology. Though these subjects look apart, they can be studied in conjunction with each...

  3. Geographic thougth in Latin America: A retrospective and general balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Sergio Urquijo Torres

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report results of a thorough contemporary historiographic revision of published geographic research and geography research departments and centers in Latin America. The main focus was on the recognition of transnational subjects and global processes and patterns. We argue that this type of retrospective analyses allows the understanding of the what and the what for of Latin America (LAG Geography. First we describe the current situation of LAG as a social science. Second, we explain the nature of LA social processes that, in the 90s, triggered geographic change and subsequent theoretical reflection on this change in LAG and in other related social sciences. To this end, we describe how the major traditions in geographic research have influenced LAG thinking. To conclude, we suggest the major achievements that we think characterize the current situation of LAG.

  4. Global Volcano Locations Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC maintains a database of over 1,500 volcano locations obtained from the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program, Volcanoes of the World publication. The...

  5. Uranium Location Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A GIS compiled locational database in Microsoft Access of ~15,000 mines with uranium occurrence or production, primarily in the western United States. The metadata...

  6. Smart Location Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Smart Location Database, Access to Jobs and Workers via Transit, and National Walkability Index tools can help assess indicators related to the built environment, transit accessibility, and walkability.

  7. Allegheny County Dam Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the point locations of dams in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  8. SCHOOL LINGUISTIC CREATIVITY BASED ON SCIENTIFIC GEOGRAPHICAL TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIORICA BLÎNDĂ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis and observation of the natural environment and of the social and economic one, observing phenomena, objects, beings, and geographical events are at the basis of producing geographical scientific texts. The symbols of iconotexts and cartotexts are another source of inspiration for linguistic interpretation. The linguistic creations that we selected for our study are the scientific analysis, the commentary, the characterization, the parallel, the synthesis, epitomizing and abstracting, the scientific communication, the essay, and the scientific description. The representations on maps, photos, graphics and profiles are translated into verbal or written expression in order to render geographical scientific information from diagrams and images through diverse discursive procedures. Through school linguistic creations, teachers develop their students’ observation spirit, in a written and oral form, their geographical thinking through metaphors, they develop and stimulate their students’ imagination and fantasy, their cognitive, reflexive and affective sensitivity, their abilities to express themselves, to present and argument in a scientific way according to different criteria (sufficiency, demonstrative reasoning, lineal reasoning, pros and cons, giving examples, inferential deduction through using truth tables, etc.. Trough description, students give names and define geographical objects and beings (plants, animals, and people according to their form and aspect, they explain toponyms and appellatives, they classify and make hierarchies, they define their identity through processes of differentiation, emblematizing, personification, location in time and space.

  9. Location and logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Alumura, Sibel A.; Karab, Bahar Y.; Melo, M. Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Facility location decisions play a critical role in designing logistics networks. This article provides some guidelines on how location decisions and logistics functions can be integrated into a single mathematical model to optimize the configuration of a logistics network. This will be illustrated by two generic models, one supporting the design of a forward logistics network and the other addressing the specific requirements of a reverse logistics network. Several special cases and extensio...

  10. The Importance of Geographical Indications in Regional Tourism Development: The Case of Çanakkale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şefik Okan Mercan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many products unique to Turkey, the origins of which are recognized with the name of region. Turkey, its geographical location and climatic zone having three different soil structure and cultural heritage and human capital due to a rich variety of geographical product has the potential. Features of geographical environment revealed  this product wealth, this product also requires the protection of geographical indications through. In this study, in Çanakkale who have registered geographical indication products, to examine the importance of the development of regional tourism and how these products can be assessed on a tourism product relevant institutions/organizations are intended to be of the opinion. According to the findings, the general opinion of Canakkale geographical indication products are properly and effectively with the regional tourism promotion and marketing work done in the development of a tool is that it will undertake the task. 

  11. Geographical traceability of virgin olive oils from south-western Spain by their multi-elemental composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, María; Sánchez-Astudillo, María; Aparicio, Ramón; García-González, Diego L

    2015-02-15

    The geographical traceability of virgin olive oil can be controlled by chemical species that are linked to the production area. Trace elements are among these species. The hypothesis is that the transfer of elements from the soil to the oil is subjected to minor variations and therefore this chemical information can be used for geographical traceability. In order to confirm this hypothesis, the trace elements of virgin olive oils from south-western Spain were analysed, and the same elements were determined in the corresponding olive-pomaces and soils. The differences in the concentration were studied according to cultivars and locations. Results show some coincidences in the selection of elements in soils (W, Fe, Na), olive-pomace (W, Fe, Na, Mg, Mn, Ca, Ba, Li) and olive oils (W, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ca, Ba, Li, Bi), which supports their utility in traceability. In the case of olive oils, 93% of the samples were correctly classified in their geographical origins (96% for Beas, 77% for Gibraleón, 91% for Niebla, and 100% for Sanlúcar de Guadiana). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Geographic Information Technologies for analysing the digital footprint of tourists

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández, Toni; Sitjar, Josep; Olivella, Rosa; Vicens, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    Ponencias, comunicaciones y pósters presentados en el 17th AGILE Conference on Geographic Information Science "Connecting a Digital Europe through Location and Place", celebrado en la Universitat Jaume I del 3 al 6 de junio de 2014. As part of a study on the use of the city by visitors, this paper discusses the technical solution adopted in order to analyse and exploit the geo-digital footprint generated by the said visitors using GPS devices.

  13. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Antarctica Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  14. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Landform Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  15. The Geographer's Concern With Natural Hazard Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, J.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the interest of geographers in the interplay of physical and human influences in fashioning geographical patterns. Methods of stimulating student interest in geography are suggested. For journal availability, see SO 505 212. (Author/DB)

  16. Collaborative Geographic Information Systems for Business Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Juan José Ramírez

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows a number of sceneries where information (specifically, geographical-related information) is lost because there is no method for storing or sharing it. This research has been done with the aim to solve those scenery problems in a general way, by means of a geographical information system that can store geographical-related information and publish it in order to avoid loss of information and enabling geographical information sharing

  17. Collaborative Geographic Information Systems for Business Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Ramírez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a number of sceneries where information (specifically, geographical-related information is lost because there is no method for storing or sharing it. This research has been done with the aim to solve those scenery problems in a general way, by means of a geographical information system that can store geographical-related information and publish it in order to avoid loss of information and enabling geographical information sharing

  18. Geostar - Navigation location system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, Donald A.

    The author describes the Radiodetermination Satellite Service (RDSS). The initial phase of the RDSS provides for a unique service enabling central offices and headquarters to obtain position-location information and receive short digital messages from mobile user terminals throughout the contiguous United States, southern Canada, and northern Mexico. The system employs a spread-spectrum, CDMA modulation technique allowing multiple customers to use the system simultaneously, without preassigned coordination with fellow users. Position location is currently determined by employing an existing radio determination receiver, such as Loran-C, GPS, or Transit, in the mobile user terminal. In the early 1990s position location will be determined at a central earth station by time-differential ranging of the user terminals via two or more geostationary satellites. A brief overview of the RDSS system architecture is presented with emphasis on the user terminal and its diverse applications.

  19. Geographic mobility of Danish dual-erner couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the relationship between geographical residence and job mobility for Danish dual-earner couples. We estimate the probability of moving residence and changing job, taking the interdependence between the events into account. The results point to the importance of addressing...... the interrelationship between residence and jobs. Furthermore, the change of residence matter more than change of job and women respond relatively more to changes in their husbands’ job region. The findings imply that mobility promoting initiatives must focus on families rather than individuals and recognize...... that for most families the choice of residence location dominates the choice of job location...

  20. Human Geography and the Geographical Imagination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, William

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the development of human geography, pointing out linkages between human geography and sociology. Defines sociological imagination, summarizing the logic behind it. Provides arguments for a parallel geographical imagination, and assesses the extent to which geographers exhibit a geographical imagination. (LS)

  1. Location-based games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine

    to create meaningful experiences; and of the prerequisites of a meaningful meeting between players and locations. The dissertation contributes to the field of LBG research by offering an enhanced understanding of LBGs, and LBG player experiences, as well as providing an expanded vocabulary describing LBG...... elements. In addition, the dissertation provides design knowledge concerning creating LBGs that uses certain emergent opportunities when combining location-aware technologies with game mechanics to make use of the six dimensions of LBGs and to involve the player’s body – i.e. make a meaningful meeting...

  2. Location-assured, multifactor authentication on smartphones via LTE communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuseler, Torben; Lami, Ihsan A.; Al-Assam, Hisham

    2013-05-01

    With the added security provided by LTE, geographical location has become an important factor for authentication to enhance the security of remote client authentication during mCommerce applications using Smartphones. Tight combination of geographical location with classic authentication factors like PINs/Biometrics in a real-time, remote verification scheme over the LTE layer connection assures the authenticator about the client itself (via PIN/biometric) as well as the client's current location, thus defines the important aspects of "who", "when", and "where" of the authentication attempt without eaves dropping or man on the middle attacks. To securely integrate location as an authentication factor into the remote authentication scheme, client's location must be verified independently, i.e. the authenticator should not solely rely on the location determined on and reported by the client's Smartphone. The latest wireless data communication technology for mobile phones (4G LTE, Long-Term Evolution), recently being rolled out in various networks, can be employed to enhance this location-factor requirement of independent location verification. LTE's Control Plane LBS provisions, when integrated with user-based authentication and independent source of localisation factors ensures secure efficient, continuous location tracking of the Smartphone. This feature can be performed during normal operation of the LTE-based communication between client and network operator resulting in the authenticator being able to verify the client's claimed location more securely and accurately. Trials and experiments show that such algorithm implementation is viable for nowadays Smartphone-based banking via LTE communication.

  3. The Czech Locative Chameleon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarald Taraldsen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We show that under certain circumstances, the Czech locative prepositions (LOC show up as directional prepositions (DIR and vice versa, (under different circumstances the Czech DIR PPs show up as LOC. We argue that such a chameleon life of the PPs is structurally dependent.

  4. Tracking, say, SKYPE Locations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Tracking, say, SKYPE Locations. Real Time Communication: Peer-to-Peer (P2P). Datagram flows between the two conversing partners; Exposes the IP addresses of all the participants to one another. If A knows B's VoIP ID, she can establish a call with Bob & obtain his current ...

  5. General minisum circle location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Körner, Mark; Brimberg, Jack; Juel, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    In our paper we approximate a set of given points by a general circle. More precisely, we consider the problem of locating and scaling the unit ball of some given norm k1 with respect to xed points on the plane such that the sum of weighted distances between the circle and the xed points...

  6. ATL: ASA Tutor Locator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, Maurice; Brouns, Francis; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob

    2006-01-01

    ASA Tutor Locator creates ad hoc transient communities consisting of peer tutors, seeded with document fragments found in the learning network, to answer content questions of students. The sources are available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/asa-atl. Available under the three clause BSD

  7. ATL: A Tutor Locator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, André; Brouwers, Maurice; Brouns, Francis; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Kester, Liesbeth; Sloep, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A Tutor Locator creates ad hoc transient communities consisting of peer tutors, seeded with document fragments found in the learning network, to answer content questions of students. The sources are available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/asa-atl.Available under the three clause BSD licence,

  8. Immigrants' location preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    This paper exploits a spatial dispersal policy for refugee immigrants to estimate the importance of local and regional factors for refugees' location preferences. The main results of a mixed proportional hazard competing risks model are that placed refugees react to high regional unemployment...

  9. RFID Location Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zi Min

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of social services, people’s living standards improve further requirements, there is an urgent need for a way to adapt to the complex situation of the new positioning technology. In recent years, RFID technology have a wide range of applications in all aspects of life and production, such as logistics tracking, car alarm, security and other items. The use of RFID technology to locate, it is a new direction in the eyes of the various research institutions and scholars. RFID positioning technology system stability, the error is small and low-cost advantages of its location algorithm is the focus of this study.This article analyzes the layers of RFID technology targeting methods and algorithms. First, RFID common several basic methods are introduced; Secondly, higher accuracy to political network location method; Finally, LANDMARC algorithm will be described. Through this it can be seen that advanced and efficient algorithms play an important role in increasing RFID positioning accuracy aspects.Finally, the algorithm of RFID location technology are summarized, pointing out the deficiencies in the algorithm, and put forward a follow-up study of the requirements, the vision of a better future RFID positioning technology.

  10. Optimal Facility-Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, A J

    2006-01-01

    Dr. Christoph Witzgall, the honoree of this Symposium, can count among his many contributions to applied mathematics and mathematical operations research a body of widely-recognized work on the optimal location of facilities. The present paper offers to non-specialists a sketch of that field and its evolution, with emphasis on areas most closely related to Witzgall's research at NBS/NIST.

  11. Spatiotemporal AED Location Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, Timothy C.Y.; Sun, Christopher L.F.; Demirtas, Derya; Morrison, Laurie J.; Brooks, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mathematical optimization can be used to plan future AED placement to maximize out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) coverage. Many public access AEDs are placed in locations without 24/7 access. AED coverage can be overestimated unless temporal availability is considered. Objective: To

  12. Natural Scales in Geographical Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Telmo; Roth, Camille

    2017-04-01

    Human mobility is known to be distributed across several orders of magnitude of physical distances, which makes it generally difficult to endogenously find or define typical and meaningful scales. Relevant analyses, from movements to geographical partitions, seem to be relative to some ad-hoc scale, or no scale at all. Relying on geotagged data collected from photo-sharing social media, we apply community detection to movement networks constrained by increasing percentiles of the distance distribution. Using a simple parameter-free discontinuity detection algorithm, we discover clear phase transitions in the community partition space. The detection of these phases constitutes the first objective method of characterising endogenous, natural scales of human movement. Our study covers nine regions, ranging from cities to countries of various sizes and a transnational area. For all regions, the number of natural scales is remarkably low (2 or 3). Further, our results hint at scale-related behaviours rather than scale-related users. The partitions of the natural scales allow us to draw discrete multi-scale geographical boundaries, potentially capable of providing key insights in fields such as epidemiology or cultural contagion where the introduction of spatial boundaries is pivotal.

  13. Addressing Semantic Geographic Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore F. Pileggi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The progressive consolidation of information technologies on a large scale has been facilitating and progressively increasing the production, collection, and diffusion of geographic data, as well as facilitating the integration of a large amount of external information into geographic information systems (GIS. Traditional GIS is transforming into a consolidated information infrastructure. This consolidated infrastructure is affecting more and more aspects of internet computing and services. Most popular systems (such as social networks, GPS, and decision support systems involve complex GIS and significant amounts of information. As a web service, GIS is affected by exactly the same problems that affect the web as a whole. Therefore, next generation GIS solutions have to address further methodological and data engineering challenges in order to accommodate new applications’ extended requirements (in terms of scale, interoperability, and complexity. The conceptual and semantic modeling of GIS, as well as the integration of semantics into current GIS, provide highly expressive environments that are capable of meeting the needs and requirements of a wide range of applications.

  14. Geographic thougth in Latin America: A retrospective and general balance

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Sergio Urquijo Torres; Gerardo Bocco Verdinelli

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we report results of a thorough contemporary historiographic revision of published geographic research and geography research departments and centers in Latin America. The main focus was on the recognition of transnational subjects and global processes and patterns. We argue that this type of retrospective analyses allows the understanding of the what and the what for of Latin America (LAG) Geography. First we describe the current situation of LAG as a social science. Second, we...

  15. General geographical distribution, origin and evolution of the Taphrinales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusław Sałata

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available General geographical distribution, origin and evolution of Taphrinales are the subject of the paper. The distribution of holarctic species has been more carefully analyzed. Range spectra of the flora of Taphrinales of several regions of Europe have also been included. The problems connected with the orgin and evolution of Taphrinales are discussed on the basis of the more important hypotheses concerning phylogenesis of Ascomycetes.

  16. The commodification of location: Dynamics of power in location-based systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shklovski, Irina; Vertesi, Janet; Troshynski, Emily

    2009-01-01

    Location-based ubiquitous computing systems are entering mainstream society and becoming familiar parts of everyday life. However, the settings in which they are deployed are already suffused with complex social dynamics. We report on a study of parole officers and parolees whose relationships...... are being transformed by location-based technologies. While parolees are clearly subjects of state discipline, the parole officers also find themselves subject to new responsibilities. This study highlights the complexities of power in sociotechnical systems and what happens when location becomes a tradable...

  17. Locating and Tracking Everything Digital

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Telcos need actual locations for highly localized and targeted ads, location based services. Telcos need actual locations for highly localized and targeted ads, location based services. Governments need to know the location of the buyers for tax – state tax etc. Locating friends ...

  18. Location, Managerial Entrenchment, and Short-Term Pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Akyol (Ali); R. Wang (Rex); P. Verwijmeren (Patrick)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPrior studies have documented that geographic distance renders remotely located firms more difficult to monitor. This paper asks whether remote firms self-discipline by removing anti-takeover provisions. We find that remote firms are more likely to leave anti-takeover provisions in

  19. Discussion on a possible neutrino detector located in India

    CERN Document Server

    Murthy, M.V.N.; Balaji, K.R.S.; Bhattacharyya, G.; Dighe, Amol; Dugad, Shashikant; Hari Dass, N.D.; Kabir, P.K.; Kar, Kamales; Indumathi, D.; Learned, John G.; Majumdar, Debasish; Mondal, N.K.; Nayak, S.N.; Pakvasa, Sandip; Raychaudhuri, Amitava; Raghavan, R.S.; Rajasekaran, G.; Ramachandran, R.; Ray, Alak K.; Ray, Asim K.; Rindani, Saurabh; Sharatchandra, H.S.; Sinha, Rahul; Sinha, Nita; Sankar, S.Uma

    2000-01-01

    We have identified some important and worthwhile physics opportunitites with a possible neutrino detector located in India. Particular emphasis is placed on the geographical advantage with a stress on the complimentary aspects with respect to other neutrino detectors already in operation.

  20. Accessibility analysis as an urban planning tool: Gas station location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escobar, D.; Cadena-Gaitán, C.; Garcia, F.

    2014-01-01

    We apply geo-statistical techniques to find relationships between the geographic location of urban "Gas Stations" (GS) and operational features offered by the transport network in Manizales (Colombia). This research is built upon primary information collected during a period longer than one year

  1. Electric current locator

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Paul E [Corvallis, OR; Woodside, Charles Rigel [Corvallis, OR

    2012-02-07

    The disclosure herein provides an apparatus for location of a quantity of current vectors in an electrical device, where the current vector has a known direction and a known relative magnitude to an input current supplied to the electrical device. Mathematical constants used in Biot-Savart superposition equations are determined for the electrical device, the orientation of the apparatus, and relative magnitude of the current vector and the input current, and the apparatus utilizes magnetic field sensors oriented to a sensing plane to provide current vector location based on the solution of the Biot-Savart superposition equations. Description of required orientations between the apparatus and the electrical device are disclosed and various methods of determining the mathematical constants are presented.

  2. Aquatic Nuisance Species Locator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data in this map has been collected by the United States Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species program located in Gainesville, Florida (http://nas.er.usgs.gov/default.aspx). This dataset may have some inaccuracies and is only current to June 15, 2012. The species identified in this dataset are not inclusive of all aquatic nuisance species, but rather a subset identified to be at risk for transport by recreational activities such as boating and angling. Additionally, the locations where organisims have been identified are also not inclusive and should be treated as a guide. Organisms are limited to the following: American bullfrog, Asian clam, Asian shore crab, Asian tunicate, Australian spotted jellyfish, Chinese mitten crab, New Zealand mudsnail, Colonial sea squirt, Alewife, Bighead carp, Black carp, Flathead catfish, Grass carp, Green crab, Lionfish, Northern snakehead, Quagga mussel, Round Goby, Ruffe, Rusty crayfish, Sea lamprey, Silver carp, Spiny water flea, Veined rapa whelk, Zebra mussel

  3. Production Subcontracting and Location

    OpenAIRE

    Holl, Adelheid

    2007-01-01

    Using data from a panel of Spanish manufacturing firms, I examine factors that explain firms’ production subcontracting decisions and test whether there is any evidence that production subcontracting is facilitated in areas typically associated with higher agglomeration economies. The results show that location matters. Firms in industry agglomerations are more likely to subcontract production activities. While in general, larger and older firms as well as high wage firms show a greater proba...

  4. Choosing locations of landfills

    OpenAIRE

    Špacapan, Matjaž

    2008-01-01

    In my Graduation thesis we deal with the problem of choosing the most appropriate location of landfills and the criteria used in this process. The problem of waste management is one of the most critical areas of environmental protection in Slovenia. In these matters, the existing legislation and law directives in the Republic of Slovenia are followed. After this we have to pay attention to the composition of the waste and the technologies of waste management. Before we place a new facility fo...

  5. Optimal Facility-Location

    OpenAIRE

    Goldman, A. J.

    2006-01-01

    Dr. Christoph Witzgall, the honoree of this Symposium, can count among his many contributions to applied mathematics and mathematical operations research a body of widely-recognized work on the optimal location of facilities. The present paper offers to non-specialists a sketch of that field and its evolution, with emphasis on areas most closely related to Witzgall?s research at NBS/NIST.

  6. Ecological criteria, participant preferences and location models: A GIS approach toward ATV trail planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanie A. Snyder; Jay H. Whitmore; Ingrid E. Schneider; Dennis R. Becker

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a geographic information system (GIS)-based method for recreational trail location for all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) which considers environmental factors, as well as rider preferences for trail attributes. The method utilizes the Least-Cost Path algorithm within a GIS framework to optimize trail location. The trail location algorithm considered trail...

  7. GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM – TOBEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Koeva

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available TOBEL is Geographic Information System entirely developed by one of the leading Bulgarian Geo-information companies – "Mapex" JSC. The system is based on modern information technology and it is especially designed for Bulgarian authorities. GIS – TOBEL provides to municipalities extraordinary quantitative and qualitative benefits. The system offers a method of quick access, evaluation, and format conversion. It also allows producing interactive maps from different sources, leveraging database information, and automating work processes. The paper contains a description of the main functions of the system, the used data and the whole process of development and system integration in Bulgarian Municipalities. The examples of successful working GIS systems integrated from our company are demonstrated.

  8. Locational Factors in the New Textile Industry: Focus on the U.S. South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, James O.

    1998-01-01

    Chronicles the geographic and historical locational changes of the textile industry of the U.S. South. Economics of scope, flexible production, and quality of output characterize the contemporary textile industry. Provides basic geographic content enabling a teacher to develop a unit by applying geography to interpret the past and present. (CMK)

  9. Automatic extraction of geographic context from textual data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurijs Nikolajevs

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The amount of information on the internet grows exponentially. It isnot enough anymore just to have a general access to this huge amount of data,instead it is becoming a necessity to be able to use different kinds ofautomatic filters to retrieve just the information you actually want. Onesolution for the information filtering and retrieval is context analysis inwhich one of the contexts of interest is the geographic context. This paperstudies the problem and methodology of geoparsing – recognition of geographicnames in unstructured textual content for the aim of extracting geographiccontext. A prototype implementation of a geoparsing system, capable ofautomatically analyzing unstructured text, recognizing geographic informationand marking geographic names, is developed. Empirical evaluation of the systemusing articles from real-world news showed that the average quality of itsgeographic name recognition varies around 75-100%. Possible applications of thedeveloped prototype include automated grouping of any texts by their geographiccontexts (e.g., in news portals and location-based search. Preliminary resultsof empirical evaluation showed that the average rate of its geographic namerecognition varies around 75-100%.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15181/csat.v2i1.13

  10. Objective and subjective thermal comfort evaluation in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajtar Laszlo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal comfort sensation can be predicted in the most exact way based on Fanger’s predicted mean vote (PMV model. This evaluation method takes all the six influencing factors into consideration: air temperature and humidity, air velocity, mean radiant temperature of surrounding surfaces, clothing insulation, and occupants’ activities. Fanger’s PMV method was developed for temperate climate and European people, with the participation of university students as subjects. Many researchers had investigated its validity in different geographic locations (i. e. climatic conditions, people and under non-laboratory circumstances. The results were summarised by van Hoof which had been published in the scientific references. The articles gave us the idea to elaborate the former measurement results. During the last decades thermal comfort was evaluated by our research team using subjective scientific questionnaires and applying the objective Fanger’s model in several office buildings in Hungary. The relation between the PMV and actual mean vote values were analysed based on these results. Investigations were carried out under steady-state conditions in winter time. We performed objective thermal comfort evaluations based on instrumental measurements using the PMV theory. Parallel to this we assessed the subjective thermal sensation using scientific questionnaires. The mathematical relationship between the actual mean vote and PMV was defined according to the evaluated thermal environment: AMV = PMV + 0.275, (arg. –1.7 ≤ PMV ≤ +0.5.

  11. Probabilistic Flood Mapping using Volunteered Geographical Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, S. J.; Girons Lopez, M.; Seibert, J.; Minsker, B. S.

    2016-12-01

    Flood extent maps are widely used by decision makers and first responders to provide critical information that prevents economic impacts and the loss of human lives. These maps are usually obtained from sensory data and/or hydrologic models, which often have limited coverage in space and time. Recent developments in social media and communication technology have created a wealth of near-real-time, user-generated content during flood events in many urban areas, such as flooded locations, pictures of flooding extent and height, etc. These data could improve decision-making and response operations as events unfold. However, the integration of these data sources has been limited due to the need for methods that can extract and translate the data into useful information for decision-making. This study presents an approach that uses volunteer geographic information (VGI) and non-traditional data sources (i.e., Twitter, Flicker, YouTube, and 911 and 311 calls) to generate/update the flood extent maps in areas where no models and/or gauge data are operational. The approach combines Web-crawling and computer vision techniques to gather information about the location, extent, and water height of the flood from unstructured textual data, images, and videos. These estimates are then used to provide an updated flood extent map for areas surrounding the geo-coordinate of the VGI through the application of a Hydro Growing Region Algorithm (HGRA). HGRA combines hydrologic and image segmentation concepts to estimate a probabilistic flooding extent along the corresponding creeks. Results obtained for a case study in Austin, TX (i.e., 2015 Memorial Day flood) were comparable to those obtained by a calibrated hydrologic model and had good spatial correlation with flooding extents estimated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).

  12. Breastfeeding Support: A Geographic Perspective on Access and Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubesic, Tony H; Durbin, Kelly M

    2017-11-01

    Clinical lactation professionals, breastfeeding peer counseling, and mother-to-mother support are important sources of information and guidance for helping mothers initiate and maintain breastfeeding in the early weeks, months, and years postpartum. However, there is limited information concerning the geographic barriers that mothers face when seeking this support. Research aim: This study aimed to identify the geographic barriers to breastfeeding support, delineate gaps in access, assess inequities in the distribution of local support, and highlight the underlying differences in access and equity for different demographic and socioeconomic groups. The locations of formal breastfeeding support resources were collected for the state of Ohio for 2016 and were combined with demographic and socioeconomic estimates and derived transportation catchment areas to conduct an analysis of spatial access and equity. Significant geographic gaps in formal breastfeeding support exist within the state of Ohio. Although urban areas benefit from a higher density of support options, including a wide variety of clinical experts and mother-to-mother support groups, inequities in exurban and rural areas were more strongly aligned with socioeconomic status than geography. In particular, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children offices in rural Ohio offer breastfeeding support to income-qualifying mothers but cannot address the needs of mothers who do not qualify. Spatial analytical approaches facilitate a more nuanced view of access and equity to breastfeeding support options, helping to both decompose important structural differences in the state of Ohio and identify locations that could benefit from additional breastfeeding support resources.

  13. Location of Planet X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, R.S.

    1988-10-01

    Observed positions of Uranus and Neptune along with residuals in right ascension and declination are used to constrain the location of a postulated tenth planet. The residuals are converted into residuals in ecliptic longitude and latitude. The results are then combined into seasonal normal points, producing average geocentric residuals spaced slightly more than a year apart that are assumed to represent the equivalent heliocentric average residuals for the observed oppositions. Such a planet is found to most likely reside in the region of Scorpius, with considerably less likelihood that it is in Taurus. 8 references.

  14. Locating Nordic Noir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft; Waade, Anne Marit

    such as Beck, The Killing, Trapped and The Bridge as well as a range of other important Nordic Noir cases. The book positions the development of Nordic Noir on the global market for popular television drama and places the international attention towards Nordic crime dramas within regional development of drama......This book is a comprehensive study of Nordic Noir television drama from the 1990’s until today. The authors introduce the history of contemporary Nordic Noir from the perspective of place, production and location studies. The chapters include readings of well-known television crime dramas...

  15. The LHCb Vertex Locator

    CERN Document Server

    Eklund, L

    2004-01-01

    LHCb is an experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), dedicated to the study of b-hadron physics. The Vertex Locator (VELO) is a sub-detector which reconstructs primary and secondary vertices, which is of importance for the processes under study. It is a silicon micro-strip detector operated in a harsh radiation environment with demands of high read-out speed and the use of minimal material. In this paper, the LHCb VELO is introduced and the technology choices of the detector are motivated. We report on the present status of the project and one possible upgrade technology is presented.

  16. Locating Nordic Noir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft; Waade, Anne Marit

    This book is a comprehensive study of Nordic Noir television drama from the 1990’s until today. The authors introduce the history of contemporary Nordic Noir from the perspective of place, production and location studies. The chapters include readings of well-known television crime dramas...... production in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Iceland. Consequently, Nordic Noir is read as both a transnational financial and creative phenomenon and as a local possibility for community building. The book is aimed at readers with an interest in crime drama as well as television scholars and students...

  17. Competitive facility location models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononov, A. V.; Kochetov, Yu. A.; Plyasunov, A. V.

    2009-06-01

    Two classes of competitive facility location models are considered, in which several persons (players) sequentially or simultaneously open facilities for serving clients. The first class consists of discrete two-level programming models. The second class consists of game models with several independent players pursuing selfish goals. For the first class, its relationship with pseudo-Boolean functions is established and a novel method for constructing a family of upper and lower bounds on the optimum is proposed. For the second class, the tight PLS-completeness of the problem of finding Nash equilibriums is proved.

  18. Geographic List of Prime Contract Awards. Oct 91 - Sep 92. FY92. (Germany - Classified Location Foreign)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    4-( <LI N1 .- I MON to 0 mo ~ 0 wI 0 00.. w l- 0 -4 1,4- 0a0> cEa c: WO0N to x l’- (Ao 0 - of- 4- C1oct ~ 1 4-ý() . I .-l(4-0 .-’ll N(0) 1 OP" it...4421* COO w is E I MDr ’ 4 I-f C’) 00-.1000 Z Z0 0 0 W C ao 0 WC’,00 w)C0 O- a".I(0O IZZ CL a- Co.0 < 000. 0o 0u COA)oO 0 cd)xz0- 00. l’w no-4 ot0

  19. Molecular identification of cyanobacteria associated with stromatolites from distinct geographical locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilan, Brett A; Burns, Brendan P; Relman, David A; Lowe, Donald R

    2002-01-01

    Modern stromatolites represent a significant resource for studying microbial ecology and evolution. A preliminary investigation was undertaken employing specific genetic probes to characterize the cyanobacteria responsible for stromatolite construction in a range of environments, including microbial mats found in Australia not previously examined with molecular methods. Isolates of cyanobacteria were collected from stromatolites in thermal springs, hypersaline lakes, and oceanic fringes on two continents. A polymerase chain reaction specific for DNA of cyanobacterial 16S rRNA was developed, the resulting products of the DNA amplification reaction were sequenced, and the data were used to infer relatedness between the isolates studied and other members of the cyanobacterial radiation. Complete sequence was generated for the region from position 27 to 408 for 13 strains of cyanobacteria associated with stromatolites. All stromatolite-derived sequences were most closely related to cyanobacteria, as indicated by local sequence alignment. It was possible to correlate genetic identity with morphological nomenclatures and to expand the phylogeny of benthic cyanobacteria. These inferences were also expanded to temporal variation in the dominant resident cyanobacterial species based on sampling of surface and core sinter laminations. Under the methods employed, only one cyanobacterial strain was detected in each sample, suggesting the possible dominance of a specific clonal population of cyanobacteria at any one time in the biota of the samples tested. The data indicate that internal core samples of a stromatolite at least 10 years old can be successfully analyzed by DNA-based methods to identify preserved cyanobacteria.

  20. Veterans Integrated Services Networks (VISN), Markets, Submarkets, Sectors and Counties by Geographic Location

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) provides healthcare services to its veterans across the USA including territories and possessions. Healthcare services are...

  1. Molecular characterization of mercury resistant bacteria inhabiting polluted water bodies of different geographical locations in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jan, A.T.; Azam, M.; Ali, A.; Haq, Q.M.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury pollution is a major environmental problem that arises as a result of natural processes as well as from anthropogenic sources. In response to toxic mercury compounds, microbes have developed astonishing array of resistance systems to detoxify them. To address this challenge, this study was

  2. The impact of air pollutants, UV exposure and geographic location on vitamin D deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinzadeh, Edris; Taha, Parisa; Wei, Chiang; Godini, Hatam; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Taghavi, Mahmoud; Miri, Mohammad

    2018-02-01

    Vitamin D (VD) is an important nutrient for preventing several chronic diseases, and vitamin D deficiency (VDD) causes many diseases. Air pollution has been reported as one of the most significant factors that causes VDD. Some epidemiological studies have evaluated VDD prevalence, and presented air pollution as a potential cause of VDD. In addition, recent case studies have found that VDD is associated with air pollutants. Nearly all reports agree that air pollution affects VD levels by reducing sun exposure, especially UVB radiation. Sun exposure accounts for >90% of VD production in humans. Recent studies have demonstrated that tropospheric ozone and particulate matter are independent risks to VD levels and cause deficiency. However, obtaining comprehensive conclusions on the impact of air pollution on VDD is necessary. This study aims to review all related papers to determine how air pollution can affect VD levels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. North, South, Least, Best: Geographical Location and the Thinking Styles of Italian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofo, Francesco; Berzins, Michelle; Colapinto, Cinzia; Ammirato, Salvatore

    2009-01-01

    There are economic and socio-cultural differences that characterise the north and south of Italy. A stereotype is that university students from rural southern Italy are more disadvantaged and isolated than those from the urban north. Past research has hypothesised that differences in socio-economic status impact on student learning, which is a…

  4. Life cycle assessment of a HYSOL concentrated solar power plant: Analyzing the effect of geographic location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corona, B.; Ruiz, Diego; San Miguel, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) technology is developing in order to achieve higher energy efficiency, reduced economic costs, and improved firmness and dispatchability in the generation of power on demand. To this purpose, a research project titled HYSOL has developed a new power plant, consisting

  5. Molecular characterization of Anopheline (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes from eight geographical locations of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeraratne, Thilini C; Surendran, Sinnathambi N; Reimer, Lisa J; Wondji, Charles S; Perera, M Devika B; Walton, Catherine; Parakrama Karunaratne, S H P

    2017-06-02

    Genus Anopheles is a major mosquito group of interest in Sri Lanka as it includes vectors of malaria and its members exist as species complexes. Taxonomy of the group is mainly based on morphological features, which are not conclusive and can be easily erased while handling the specimens. A combined effort, using morphology and DNA barcoding (using the markers cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region, was made during the present study to recognize anophelines collected from eight districts of Sri Lanka for the first time. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and ITS2 regions of morphologically identified anopheline mosquitoes from Sri Lanka were sequenced. These sequences together with GenBank sequences were used in phylogenetic tree construction and molecular characterization of mosquitoes. According to morphological identification, the field-collected adult mosquitoes belonged to 15 species, i.e., Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles annularis, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles culicifacies, Anopheles jamesii, Anopheles karwari, Anopheles maculatus, Anopheles nigerrimus, Anopheles pallidus, Anopheles peditaeniatus, Anopheles pseudojamesi, Anopheles subpictus, Anopheles tessellatus, Anopheles vagus, and Anopheles varuna. However, analysis of 123 COI sequences (445 bp) (16 clades supported by strong bootstrap value in the neighbour joining tree and inter-specific distances of >3%) showed that there are 16 distinct species. Identity of the morphologically identified species, except An. subpictus, was comparable with the DNA barcoding results. COI sequence analysis showed that morphologically identified An. subpictus is composed of two genetic entities: An. subpictus species A and species B (inter-specific K2P distance 0.128). All the four haplotypes of An. culicifacies discovered during the present study belonged to a single species. ITS2 sequences (542 bp) were obtained for all the species except for An. barbirostris, An. subpictus species B, An. tessellatus, and An. varuna. Each of these sequences was represented by a single species-specific haplotype. The present study reflects the importance and feasibility of COI and ITS2 genetic markers in identifying anophelines and their sibling species, and the significance of integrated systematic approach in mosquito taxonomy. Wide distribution of malaria vectors in the country perhaps indicates the potential for re-emergence of malaria in the country.

  6. The Clinical Characteristics of Kleine-Levin Syndrome According to Ethnicity and Geographic Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shareef, Saad M Al; Almeneessier, Aljohara S; Smith, Richard M; BaHammam, Ahmed S

    2018-02-03

    Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS) is a rare, relapsing-remitting, debilitating sleep disorder. Examining KLS characteristics in different ethnic populations may help elucidate the genetic basis of the disorder. No studies have examined Kleine-Levin syndrome in Arabs. Therefore, we compared the clinical characteristics of Saudi Arabian KLS patients to those in other published cohorts to determine whether Arab patients have a distinct phenotype. This study included all patients who were diagnosed with KLS at our center between June 2003 and July 2016 (P=12;6 familial cases). All participants completed the Stanford KLS questionnaire. Anxiety and depression were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; eating attitudes were assessed with the Eating Attitudes Test-26. We compared the clinical characteristics of our patients to those in other published cohorts. Saudi Arabian patients with KLS had similar features to those in patients from different countries and ethnic backgrounds, with only minor differences in sleep duration during disease episodes (2-3 h shorter). However, between episodes, Saudi Arabian KLS patients reported worse sleep, greater daytime sleepiness, and higher levels of baseline depression, which may be related to KLS or to local cultural practices. Ankylosing spondylitis was present in 5 of the 6 familial patients. Saudi Arabian patients with KLS exhibited similar clinical characteristics during episodes compared to patients with KLS of different ethnicities. However, a new and interesting finding is that KLS patients may have inter-episode behavioral and pathophysiological changes, which may suggest that KLS is not necessarily a static disorder.

  7. Qualification testing of solar photovoltaic powered refrigerator freezers for medical use in remote geographic locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszeta, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    One of the primary obstacles to the application of vaccination in developing countries is the lack of refrigerated storage. Vaccines exposed to elevated temperatures suffer a permanent loss of potency. Photovoltaic (PV) powered refrigerator/freezer (R/F) units could surmount the problem of refrigeration in remote areas where no reliable commercial power supply is available. The performance measurements of two different models of PV powered R/F units for medical use are presented. Qualification testing consisted of four major procedures: no-load pull down, ice making, steady-state (maintenance), and holdover. Both R/F units met the major World Health Organization (WHO) requirements. However, the testing performed does not provide complete characterization of the two units; such information could be derived only from further extensive test procedures.

  8. Arid soil microbial enzymatic activity profile as affected by geographical location and soil degradation status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluating soil health is critical for any successful remediation effort. Arid lands, with their minimal carbon and water contents, low nutritional status and restricted, seasonal microbial activity pose specific challenges to soil health restoration and by extension, restoration of ecosystem repr...

  9. Geographically Modified PageRank Algorithms: Identifying the Spatial Concentration of Human Movement in a Geospatial Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Wei-Chien-Benny; Wen, Tzai-Hung

    2015-01-01

    A network approach, which simplifies geographic settings as a form of nodes and links, emphasizes the connectivity and relationships of spatial features. Topological networks of spatial features are used to explore geographical connectivity and structures. The PageRank algorithm, a network metric, is often used to help identify important locations where people or automobiles concentrate in the geographical literature. However, geographic considerations, including proximity and location attractiveness, are ignored in most network metrics. The objective of the present study is to propose two geographically modified PageRank algorithms-Distance-Decay PageRank (DDPR) and Geographical PageRank (GPR)-that incorporate geographic considerations into PageRank algorithms to identify the spatial concentration of human movement in a geospatial network. Our findings indicate that in both intercity and within-city settings the proposed algorithms more effectively capture the spatial locations where people reside than traditional commonly-used network metrics. In comparing location attractiveness and distance decay, we conclude that the concentration of human movement is largely determined by the distance decay. This implies that geographic proximity remains a key factor in human mobility.

  10. Geographically Modified PageRank Algorithms: Identifying the Spatial Concentration of Human Movement in a Geospatial Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chien-Benny Chin

    Full Text Available A network approach, which simplifies geographic settings as a form of nodes and links, emphasizes the connectivity and relationships of spatial features. Topological networks of spatial features are used to explore geographical connectivity and structures. The PageRank algorithm, a network metric, is often used to help identify important locations where people or automobiles concentrate in the geographical literature. However, geographic considerations, including proximity and location attractiveness, are ignored in most network metrics. The objective of the present study is to propose two geographically modified PageRank algorithms-Distance-Decay PageRank (DDPR and Geographical PageRank (GPR-that incorporate geographic considerations into PageRank algorithms to identify the spatial concentration of human movement in a geospatial network. Our findings indicate that in both intercity and within-city settings the proposed algorithms more effectively capture the spatial locations where people reside than traditional commonly-used network metrics. In comparing location attractiveness and distance decay, we conclude that the concentration of human movement is largely determined by the distance decay. This implies that geographic proximity remains a key factor in human mobility.

  11. Geographic redistribution of U.S. manufacturing and the role of state development policy

    OpenAIRE

    Yoonsoo Lee

    2004-01-01

    Competition among state and local governments to lure businesses has attracted considerable interest from economists, as well as legislators and policymakers. This paper quantifies the role of plant relocations in the geographic redistribution of manufacturing employment and examines the effectiveness of state development policy. Only a few studies have looked at how manufacturing firms geographically locate their production facilities and have used either small manufacturing samples or small...

  12. Geographic Redistribution of the U.S. Manufacturing and The Role of State Development Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Yoonsoo Lee

    2007-01-01

    Competition among state and local governments to lure businesses has attracted considerable interest from economists, as well as legislators and policy makers. This paper quantifies the role of plant relocations in the geographic redistribution of manufacturing employment and examines the effectiveness of state development policy. Only a few studies have looked at how manufacturing firms locate their production facilities geographically; they have used either small manufacturing samples or sm...

  13. Geographical relationships and CEO compensation contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Junli Yu; Wei Xu; Ping Zhang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we empirically analyze the effects that the geographical relationships between chairman and CEO have on the latter’s compensation contracts, based on samples of listed A-share private firms from 2005 to 2014. We find that geographical relationships are related to lower pay–performance sensitivity, and that the correlation mainly exists in poor performance periods, suggesting that geographical relationships weaken the effectiveness of compensation contracts. We also find that ge...

  14. Locative inversion and agreement syntax in Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanito Ornelas de Avelar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Adopting the Minimalist Program framework (CHOMSKY 2000, 2001, this paper suggests that, in Brazilian Portuguese, sentences with a locative prepositional phrase in preverbal position can be characterized as instances of locative inversion in which prepositional constituents occupy the grammatical subject position. It will be proposed that particularities involving the patterns of locative inversion in Brazilian Portuguese derive from properties of the subject-verb agreement in this language.

  15. 41 CFR 102-83.95 - After an agency has identified that its geographic service area and delineated area are in an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.95 After an agency has identified that its geographic service area... identified that its geographic service area and delineated area are in an urban area, what is the next step...

  16. Geographical influences of an emerging network of gang rivalries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegemann, Rachel A.; Smith, Laura M.; Barbaro, Alethea B. T.; Bertozzi, Andrea L.; Reid, Shannon E.; Tita, George E.

    2011-10-01

    We propose an agent-based model to simulate the creation of street gang rivalries. The movement dynamics of agents are coupled to an evolving network of gang rivalries, which is determined by previous interactions among agents in the system. Basic gang data, geographic information, and behavioral dynamics suggested by the criminology literature are integrated into the model. The major highways, rivers, and the locations of gangs’ centers of activity influence the agents’ motion. We use a policing division of the Los Angeles Police Department as a case study to test our model. We apply common metrics from graph theory to analyze our model, comparing networks produced by our simulations and an instance of a Geographical Threshold Graph to the existing network from the criminology literature.

  17. Geographical relationships and CEO compensation contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junli Yu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we empirically analyze the effects that the geographical relationships between chairman and CEO have on the latter’s compensation contracts, based on samples of listed A-share private firms from 2005 to 2014. We find that geographical relationships are related to lower pay–performance sensitivity, and that the correlation mainly exists in poor performance periods, suggesting that geographical relationships weaken the effectiveness of compensation contracts. We also find that geographical relationships can be substituted by external formal institutions.

  18. Dry Port Location Problem: A Hybrid Multi-Criteria Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BENTALEB Fatimazahra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Choosing a location for a dry port is a problem which becomes more essential and crucial. This study deals with the problem of locating dry ports. On this matter, a model combining multi-criteria (MACBETH and mono-criteria (BARYCENTER methods to find a solution to dry port location problem has been proposed. In the first phase, a systematic literature review was carried out on dry port location problem and then a methodological classification was presented for this research. In the second phase, a hybrid multi-criteria approach was developed in order to determine the best dry port location taking different criteria into account. A Computational practice and a qualitative analysis from a case study in the Moroccan context have been provided. The results show that the optimal location is very convenient with the geographical region and the government policies.

  19. nowCOAST's Map Service for Geo-Referenced Hyperlinks to Forecasts for Geographic Areas or Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Map Information: This nowCOAST geolinks map service provides maps depicting the locations of geographic zones and points where NWS forecasts are available along with...

  20. Oil, Gas, and Injection Wells in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, LDNR (2007) [oil_gas_wells_LDNR_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a point dataset containing the location of over 230,000 oil and gas and injection wells in the state of Louisiana. It was developed from the DNR Office of...

  1. Oil and Gas Producing Platforms in the Gulf of Mexico, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1998)[platforms_MMS_1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a point data set for the location of over 4300 MMS administered platform structures used for oil and gas production in the Gulf of Mexico. Groups of platform...

  2. Offshore Minerals Management Platforms for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), Geographic NAD83, MMS (2006) [platforms_mms_2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Offshore Minerals Management Platforms for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Identifies the location of platforms in GOM. All platforms existing in the database are included.

  3. Formation and distribution of international tourism flows in geographical space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Korol

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Properties of geographical space that are of key importance for international tourism, as length and discreteness, are analyzed in the article. Length makes tourists cover distances, whereas discreteness manifests itself in spatial heterogeneity. Tourism in conditions of homogeneous space is vain. That is, heterogeneity brings sense to travels as well as determines their direction. So, the effect of geographical space’s length and spatial heterogeneity on formation and distribution of tourism flows is assessed, international tourism’s geographical essence is disclosed also. Apperception of geographical space in usual environment and its effect on tourist’s original motives are described. Following the bases of behaviorism, the tourism original motives, in particular those for migration, comfort, contrast and aesthetics are substantiated. The motive for migration is a kind of “pushing” tourists outside their usual environment. To stop all fears that may cause anxiety in destination, the latter should guarantee satisfaction of those human needs which A. Maslow refers to as basic needs. The necessity to satisfy these needs forms in tourists the motive for comfort. Closely located destinations in neighboring countries can be of little difference form usual environment. Driven by the motive for contrast, tourists aspire to visit places that totally differ from their usual environment, and contrast (are exotic to it. Thus, the motive for contrast seemingly “pulls” the tourists up to certain (exotic destinations. Finally, following the considered spatial specificities of land surface and tourist-driving original motives, a conceptual model of formation and distribution of international tourism flows in geographical space is developed.

  4. The geographic accessibility of pharmacies in Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Michael R; Heard, Deborah; Fisher, Judith; Douillard, Jay; Muzika, Greg; Sketris, Ingrid S

    2013-01-01

    Geographic proximity is an important component of access to primary care and the pharmaceutical services of community pharmacies. Variations in access to primary care have been found between rural and urban areas in Canadian and international jurisdictions. We studied access to community pharmacies in the province of Nova Scotia. We used information on the locations of 297 community pharmacies operating in Nova Scotia in June 2011. Population estimates at the census block level and network analysis were used to study the number of Nova Scotia residents living within 800 m (walking) and 2 km and 5 km (driving) distances of a pharmacy. We then simulated the impact of pharmacy closures on geographic access in urban and rural areas. We found that 40.3% of Nova Scotia residents lived within walking distance of a pharmacy; 62.6% and 78.8% lived within 2 km and 5 km, respectively. Differences between urban and rural areas were pronounced: 99.2% of urban residents lived within 5 km of a pharmacy compared with 53.3% of rural residents. Simulated pharmacy closures had a greater impact on geographic access to community pharmacies in rural areas than urban areas. The majority of Nova Scotia residents lived within walking or short driving distance of at least 1 community pharmacy. While overall geographic access appears to be lower than in the province of Ontario, the difference appears to be largely driven by the higher proportion of rural dwellers in Nova Scotia. Further studies should examine how geographic proximity to pharmacies influences patients' access to traditional and specialized pharmacy services, as well as health outcomes and adherence to therapy. Can Pharm J 2013;146:39-46.

  5. Locating Nordic Noir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft; Waade, Anne Marit

    This book is a comprehensive study of Nordic Noir television drama from the 1990’s until today. The authors introduce the history of contemporary Nordic Noir from the perspective of place, production and location studies. The chapters include readings of well-known television crime dramas...... such as Beck, The Killing, Trapped and The Bridge as well as a range of other important Nordic Noir cases. The book positions the development of Nordic Noir on the global market for popular television drama and places the international attention towards Nordic crime dramas within regional development of drama...... production in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Iceland. Consequently, Nordic Noir is read as both a transnational financial and creative phenomenon and as a local possibility for community building. The book is aimed at readers with an interest in crime drama as well as television scholars and students...

  6. Locating Nordic Noir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft; Waade, Anne Marit

    This book is a comprehensive study of Nordic Noir television drama from the 1990’s until today. The authors introduce the history of contemporary Nordic Noir from the perspective of place, production and location studies. The chapters include readings of well-known television crime dramas...... production in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Iceland. Consequently, Nordic Noir is read as both a transnational financial and creative phenomenon and as a local possibility for community building. The book is aimed at readers with an interest in crime drama as well as television scholars and students...... of television drama, and it offers a comprehensible, scholarly and methodologically original approach to the popularity of Nordic television crime dramas....

  7. Demographics and remote locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppus, G. [Dynawise Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Within the next decade, the number of people leaving the workforce will exceed the number of new entrants. The demand for workers is expected to increase in Alberta due to oil sands industry growth. Sixty-four per cent of all responding federal, provincial, and municipal government organizations have reported shortages in their work environments, and almost 8 in 10 organizations predict they will continue to be understaffed in the next 3 to 5 years. Tightness in the general labour market will have an impact on employers in remote locations, and planning is essential to avoid the creation of a mercenary culture and a reliance on compensation. Challenges found in remote locations include high turnover rates among recent hires; critical gaps in service length; aggressive retirement; and the fact that the local population is often seen as unqualified for many industrial jobs. This Power Point presentation suggested that although decisions to join or quit a company are often based on considerations such as the organizational environment and amount of compensation, the relationship between employees and management is the most important attribute in many career decisions. Rigorous quantitative analysis of current demographics combined with forecasting analysis may help to forestall recruitment difficulties for many companies. Productivity analyses, and the effects of work overload on absenteeism, attrition and quality of workmanship must also be examined. Many companies are now focusing on retention and development strategies on mid-career staff to address depletion, as well as redesigning procedures to operate with less skilled staff. It was concluded that extra efforts are now being made to attract non-traditional employees, and non-traditional employment models are being considered by some companies. refs., tabs., figs.

  8. Geographic Elevation and Cognitive Function among Elderly Residents in Rural Mountainous Areas: Shimane CoHRE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Hamano

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test whether there is an association between elevation and cognitive function among elderly residents in rural mountainous areas. Data were collected in 2012 from a cross-sectional study conducted in Ohnan Town, which is located in a rural mountainous area in the southern part of Shimane Prefecture, Japan. Cognitive function was evaluated using CADi (Cognitive Assessment for Dementia, iPad version and elevation was estimated by using Geographic Information Systems according to the participant’s address. After excluding subjects with missing data, 866 participants were analyzed. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, higher elevation was significantly associated with decreased cognitive function. This finding suggests that it is important to consider the physical environment, i.e., elevation, that would affect accessibility to health-promoting goods, services, and resources when seeking to maintain cognitive function in elderly people living in rural mountainous areas.

  9. The Location of Faith

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLisky, Claire Louise

    2010-01-01

    The description and analysis of religious faith, whether as embodied experience or as the subject of academic inquiry, is a troubled undertaking at the best of times. It is particularly fraught in the context of settler-colonial Christian missions to Indigenous peoples, where historical distance...... missions in the history of Aboriginal peoples and the continuing resonance of Christianity in many Aboriginal communities, the importance of undrstanding how and why faith worked on Aboriginal missions cannot be overestimated. This paper takes a fresh look at questions of belief through a consideration...... of the complex forces, including place, power and gender, which shaped one particularly important event in the history of Christian missions to Aboriginal peoples in Australia: the 1883-84 Maloga Misison revival....

  10. The research on data organization technology in the highway geographic information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhihui; Wu, Fang; Zeng, Yuhuai

    2008-10-01

    Data are the basis of GIS. It has direct impact on the efficiency and function of a Highway Geographic Information System (HGIS), because of the characteristics of data model and data organization of the traffic geographic information system such as spatial property, multi-path network, linearity. This paper discussed the data property of HGIS, studied and presented the HGIS spatial data on multi-source and model. Also, it described and verified highway geographical feature of special subject data's linearity, dynamic and multiple-path network property in HGIS.

  11. Legal sources of trademarks and geographical indications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boloş, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Trademarks and geographical indications are a highly internationally debated topic, mainly because of their economic value. This iswhy new international laws are created in order to keep up with the advances in economics, communications and internet. The article aims to study the international sources of law in trademarks and geographical indications field, in order to underline the applicable legislation.

  12. 7 CFR 3565.213 - Geographic distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Geographic distribution. 3565.213 Section 3565.213 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Loan Requirements § 3565.213 Geographic distribution. The...

  13. 34 CFR 642.33 - Geographic distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographic distribution. 642.33 Section 642.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY... Grant? § 642.33 Geographic distribution. The Secretary, to the greatest extent possible, awards grants...

  14. Geographical Literacy and the Role of GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Bryan A.

    1999-01-01

    Demonstrates how Geographical Information Systems (GIS) can help develop student skills that enhance learning. Describes the application of GIS within secondary geography education, providing an example of its use at the Windaroo Valley State High School (Australia). Discusses GIS and geographic literacy. (CMK)

  15. Ontology-Based Geographic Data Set Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitermark, Henricus Theodorus Johannes Antonius; Uitermark, H.T.J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Geographic data set integration is particularly important for update propagation, i.e. the reuse of updates from one data set in another data set. In this thesis geographic data set integration (also known as map integration) between two topographic data sets, GBKN and TOP10vector, is described.

  16. Conceptual Model of Dynamic Geographic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Rosales Miguel Alejandro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In geographic environments, there are many and different types of geographic entities such as automobiles, trees, persons, buildings, storms, hurricanes, etc. These entities can be classified into two groups: geographic objects and geographic phenomena. By its nature, a geographic environment is dynamic, thus, it’s static modeling is not sufficient. Considering the dynamics of geographic environment, a new type of geographic entity called event is introduced. The primary target is a modeling of geographic environment as an event sequence, because in this case the semantic relations are much richer than in the case of static modeling. In this work, the conceptualization of this model is proposed. It is based on the idea to process each entity apart instead of processing the environment as a whole. After that, the so called history of each entity and its spatial relations to other entities are defined to describe the whole environment. The main goal is to model systems at a conceptual level that make use of spatial and temporal information, so that later it can serve as the semantic engine for such systems.

  17. Socioeconomic Development Inequalities among Geographic Units ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic development inequality among geographic units is a phenomenon common in both the developed and developing countries. Regional inequality may result in dissension among geographic units of the same state due to the imbalance in socio-economic development. This study examines the inequality ...

  18. On location at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Joannah Caborn Wengler

    2012-01-01

    CERN continues to be a very popular candidate for film locations at the moment. Not only has it inspired a German author and a film-maker interested in the more exotic interpretations of the science being worked on at the Organization, but even the recent puppet animation film by the legendary Muppets featured some CERN scenes.   Dr Bunsen Honeydew (far left) and his friends at ATLAS. Beaker, Bunsen's assistant, has just been sucked up the vacuum tube top left... Image courtesy Walt Disney Studios. In “The Muppet Movie”, released in November 2011 in North America and world-wide in January and February this year, Kermit is reuniting his friends who have ended up in some far-flung places since they last worked together 10 years ago. CERN caught the imagination of the film-makers as the perfect place for the Muppet scientists, Dr. Honeydew Bunsen and his hapless assistant Beaker. After a brief scene filmed in front of a backdrop of the ATLAS detector, the rest of the ...

  19. Military-geographic evaluation of the Julian Alps area

    OpenAIRE

    Zvonimir Bratun

    1999-01-01

    The Julian Alps have been of military significance since Roman times in a military geographic sense because of its valleys, mountain passes and lines of defence on mountain ridges. They became especially important in the 19th and 20th century. The largest mountain front in World War I was located there,and evidence of that front is still visible today. The border between Italy and Yugoslavia in the heart of the Julian Alps was clearly a line of demarcation along the Soča and Sava watersheds a...

  20. Geographically weighted regression and multicollinearity: dispelling the myth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotheringham, A. Stewart; Oshan, Taylor M.

    2016-10-01

    Geographically weighted regression (GWR) extends the familiar regression framework by estimating a set of parameters for any number of locations within a study area, rather than producing a single parameter estimate for each relationship specified in the model. Recent literature has suggested that GWR is highly susceptible to the effects of multicollinearity between explanatory variables and has proposed a series of local measures of multicollinearity as an indicator of potential problems. In this paper, we employ a controlled simulation to demonstrate that GWR is in fact very robust to the effects of multicollinearity. Consequently, the contention that GWR is highly susceptible to multicollinearity issues needs rethinking.

  1. Preliminary Study on Secure Intranet Geographical Information System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Tae; Park, Jee Won; Ko Han Suk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    A Geographical Information System (GIS) is usually defined as an information system for capturing, checking, storing, retrieving, manipulating, analyzing, and displaying spatial and relevant non-spatial data. Here 'spatial' means 'geo-referenced to the earth'. It is estimated that about 80% of the data used in business and government are of spatial type. The georeferenced information on sensitive location is usually protected as the highest level of confidentiality by the most information system. This paper discusses a commercial satellite imagery based secure Intranet GIS which runs the Microsoft .NET technology.

  2. Mortality patterns in geographical areas with a high vs. low Sami population density in Arctic Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brustad, Magritt; Pettersen, Torunn; Melhus, Marita; Lund, Eiliv

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to study mortality patterns in the population in different geographical locations in northern Norway on the basis of Sami population density. Mortality statistics by sex and age from 1991 to 2006 were obtained from Statistics Norway. Mortality rates, including infant mortality rates, were compared across geographical locations. The data material was divided into within and outside the the geographical areas of the Sami Development Fund (SUF) and into coastal and inland residence. Differences in mortality rates were tested by chi-quadrate tests. Overall, no pronounced difference in mortality rate was found in the population between geographical areas. For men, mortality rates differed only between geographical residence in the time intervals 1991-95 and 1996-2000 for the age groups 45-59 years and 60-74 years, respectively, with outside SUF area, inland having the lowest rate. For women, there were no differences between geographical areas except for the age group 60-74 years in the time period 1991-95, where SUF coast had the highest mortality rate. For the SUF area, men had the lowest probabilities for surviving the age of 74 years and women had among the highest. No geographical difference was found in infant mortality. During the time period 1991-2006, the outside SUF area, inland had an average infant mortality rate of 1.8/1000 per year, and for SUF coast it was 6.2/1000 per year. This difference was, however, not significant (p = 0.08). Overall, mortality rates were similar across geographical areas with low and with high Sami population density. However, indications of geographical differences in infant mortality should be investigated further.

  3. Application of Digital Cellular Radio for Mobile Location Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhat Anwar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The capability to locate the position of mobiles is a prerequisite to implement a wide range of evolving ITS services. Radiolocation has the potential to serve a wide geographical area. This paper reports an investigation regarding the feasibility of utilizing cellular radio for the purpose of mobile location estimation. Basic strategies to be utilized for location estimation are elaborated. Two possible approaches for cellular based location estimation are investigated with the help of computer simulation. Their effectiveness and relative merits and demerits are identified. An algorithm specifically adapted for cellular environment is reported with specific features where mobiles, irrespective of their numbers, can locate their position without adversely loading the cellular system.Key Words: ITS, GSM, Cellular Radio, DRGS, GPS.

  4. Wage Inequality and the Location of Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrokhi, Farid; Jinkins, David

    In cross-sectional American census data, we document that isolated cities tend to have less wage inequality. To explain this correlation and other correlations between population and wages, we build an equilibrium empirical model that incorporates high and low-skill labor, costly trade, and both...... agglomeration and congestion forces. The model bridges the gap between the spatial inequality literature which abstracts from geography, and the economic geography literature which abstracts from inequality. We find that geographical location explains 9.2% of observed variation in wage inequality across...... American cities. In counterfactual experiments, we find that reductions in domestic trade costs benefit all American workers and decrease welfare inequality. We also examine the effects on inequality and welfare of both regional and national skill-biased technology shocks. We find that in larger cities...

  5. Using geographical information systems in planning NLLP decommissioning and environmental restoration activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, R.; Turner, W. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program (NLLP) manages Canada's nuclear legacy liabilities at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) sites and is funded by the Government of Canada through Natural Resources Canada (NRCan). Through the first five years of the Program these two organizations have worked collaboratively to bring numerous projects to completion. In addition to the diversity of facilities and waste dealt with under the NLLP, the Program involves seven sites in three different provinces. The breadth of the Program encompasses over 20 different projects at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site alone, with new projects evolving as work continues. Nuclear legacy liabilities are the result of over 60 years of nuclear research and development conducted by the National Research Council of Canada (1944 to 1952) and AECL (1952 to 2006) on behalf of the Government of Canada. The liabilities consist of outdated and unused research facilities and buildings, a wide variety of buried and stored radioactive waste, and affected lands. Since 1952, AECL has safely and cost effectively managed Canada's nuclear research facilities and the waste generated by their operation. During this time AECL improved waste management technologies and developed expertise in best practices. All projects undertaken by the NLLP contain a spatial, or geographically referenced, component that can be captured in a geographic information system (GIS). From the decommissioning of a single building within the plant itself (e.g. the building location itself or spaces within the building) to the process of locating a new facility within the CRL site (e.g. location within the CRL property in three dimensions and adjacency to other communities) all these projects contain spatially referenced information. This spatial information can be captured, organized and used by the GIS software to analyze and model any number of questions. The paper will discuss projects that address a

  6. Geographical variation of shoeprint comparison class correspondences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Indrika; Corke, Elisabeth; Morgan-Smith, Rian; Maynard, Philip; Curran, James M; Buckleton, John; Roux, Claude

    2014-09-01

    The underlying principles involved in the interpretation of shoeprint comparisons have become a topical subject due to criticisms in the 2009 National Academy of Science (NAS) report on forensic sciences[1]. Difficulties in the application and understanding of these principles were also highlighted in a recent court ruling [2-5] and subsequent discussion of the ruling. We report here a survey that may inform some aspects of this interpretation and discuss the implications of findings from this survey in the light of that court ruling and more importantly the NAS report. 1,511 shoeprints were taken from student volunteers in Auckland, Wellington and Dunedin, New Zealand. 500 shoeprints were sampled from student volunteers at Australian universities. 100 from each of the University of Technology in Sydney, University of Queensland in Brisbane, University of Newcastle, Charles Sturt University in Bathurst and University of Canberra, Australia. These cities are distributed along the east coast of Australia. The shoeprints, taken from each country, were compared against each other for the presence of any pattern correspondences However shoeprints have not been compared between countries. In all locations the pattern of some common and many rare outsole patterns was repeated, with Converse Chuck Taylor All Stars and Vans Canvas Era common in all locations. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Military-geographic evaluation of the Julian Alps area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonimir Bratun

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The Julian Alps have been of military significance since Roman times in a military geographic sense because of its valleys, mountain passes and lines of defence on mountain ridges. They became especially important in the 19th and 20th century. The largest mountain front in World War I was located there,and evidence of that front is still visible today. The border between Italy and Yugoslavia in the heart of the Julian Alps was clearly a line of demarcation along the Soča and Sava watersheds and was reinforced with fortification, obstacles and trenches. During the Cold War, there was an ideological line of demarcation along the western edge of the Julian Alps as well. Military strategy in that area included the use of military geographic approaches in both westerly and easterly directions. After the geopolitical changes of 1991, the Julian Alps no longer had same military geographic significance in terms of Slovenian national security. Today other military activities are more important: training under mountains conditions for NATO soldiers, non-commissioned and commissioned officers takes place in the Pokljuka region and on the Triglav mountain chain. Military facilities have been taken on significance in the terms of tourism as well.

  8. Finding Hidden Location Patterns of Two Competitive Supermarkets in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumsri, Jinattaporn; Fujihara, Akihiro

    There are two famous supermarkets in Thailand: Big C and Lotus. They are the highest competitive supermarkets whose hold the most market share by lots of promotions and also gather all convenience services including banking, restaurant, and others. In recent years, they gradually expand their stores and they take a similar strategy to determine where to locate a store. It is important for them to consider store allocation to obtain new customers efficiently. To consider this, we gather geographical locations of these supermarkets from Twitter using Twitter API. We gathered tweets having these supermarket names and geotags for seven months. To extract hidden location patterns from gathered data, we introduce location motif which is a directed subgraph whose edges are linked to every pair of the shortest-distance opponent node. We investigate every possible configuration of location motif when they have a small number of nodes and find that the configuration increases exponentially. We also visualize location motifs generated from gathered data on the map of Thailand and count the frequency of observed location motifs. As a result, we find that even if the possible location motifs exponentially increase as the number of nodes grows, limited location motifs can be observed. Using location motif, we successfully find an evidence of biased store allocation in reality.

  9. Ensuring Confidentiality of Geocoded Health Data: Assessing Geographic Masking Strategies for Individual-Level Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandbergen, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Public health datasets increasingly use geographic identifiers such as an individual's address. Geocoding these addresses often provides new insights since it becomes possible to examine spatial patterns and associations. Address information is typically considered confidential and is therefore not released or shared with others. Publishing maps with the locations of individuals, however, may also breach confidentiality since addresses and associated identities can be discovered through reverse geocoding. One commonly used technique to protect confidentiality when releasing individual-level geocoded data is geographic masking. This typically consists of applying a certain amount of random perturbation in a systematic manner to reduce the risk of reidentification. A number of geographic masking techniques have been developed as well as methods to quantity the risk of reidentification associated with a particular masking method. This paper presents a review of the current state-of-the-art in geographic masking, summarizing the various methods and their strengths and weaknesses. Despite recent progress, no universally accepted or endorsed geographic masking technique has emerged. Researchers on the other hand are publishing maps using geographic masking of confidential locations. Any researcher publishing such maps is advised to become familiar with the different masking techniques available and their associated reidentification risks. PMID:26556417

  10. National Geographic Society Kids Network: Report on 1994 teacher participants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    In 1994, National Geographic Society Kids Network, a computer/telecommunications-based science curriculum, was presented to elementary and middle school teachers through summer programs sponsored by NGS and US DOE. The network program assists teachers in understanding the process of doing science; understanding the role of computers and telecommunications in the study of science, math, and engineering; and utilizing computers and telecommunications appropriately in the classroom. The program enables teacher to integrate science, math, and technology with other subjects with the ultimate goal of encouraging students of all abilities to pursue careers in science/math/engineering. This report assesses the impact of the network program on participating teachers.

  11. Indoor Space Location Model Based on Location Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Zeng, G.; Huang, Y.; Yang, X.

    2017-10-01

    Location is the basis for the realization of location services, the integrity of the location information and its way of representation in indoor space model directly restricts the quality of location services. The construction of the existing indoor space model is mostly for specific applications and lack of uniform representation of location information. Several geospatial standards have been developed to meet the requirement of the indoor spatial information system, among which CityGML LOD4 and IndoorGML are the most relevant ones for indoor spatial information. However, from the perspective of Location Based Service (LBS), the CityGML LOD4 is more inclined to visualize the indoor space. Although IndoorGML is mainly used for indoor space navigation and has description (such as geometry, topology, and semantics) benefiting for indoor LBS, this standard model lack explicit representation of indoor location information. In this paper, from the perspective of Location Based Service (LBS), based on the IndoorGML standard, an indoor space location model (ISLM) conforming to human cognition is proposed through integration of the geometric and topological and semantic features of the indoor spatial entity. This model has the explicit description of location information which the standard indoor space model of IndoorGML and CityGML LOD4 does not have, which can lay the theoretical foundation for indoor location service such as indoor navigation, indoor routing and location query.

  12. An Introduction to Macro-Level Spatial Nonstationarity: A Geographically Weighted Regression Analysis of Diabetes and Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Siordia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Type II diabetes is a growing health problem in the United States. Understanding geographic variation in diabetes prevalence will inform where resources for management and prevention should be allocated. Investigations of the correlates of diabetes prevalence have largely ignored how spatial nonstationarity might play a role in the macro-level distribution of diabetes. This paper introduces the reader to the concept of spatial nonstationarity—variance in statistical relationships as a function of geographical location. Since spatial nonstationarity means different predictors can have varying effects on model outcomes, we make use of a geographically weighed regression to calculate correlates of diabetes as a function of geographic location. By doing so, we demonstrate an exploratory example in which the diabetes-poverty macro-level statistical relationship varies as a function of location. In particular, we provide evidence that when predicting macro-level diabetes prevalence, poverty is not always positively associated with diabetes.

  13. Sequence variability and geographic distribution of Lassa virus, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leski, Tomasz A; Stockelman, Michael G; Moses, Lina M; Park, Matthew; Stenger, David A; Ansumana, Rashid; Bausch, Daniel G; Lin, Baochuan

    2015-04-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is endemic to parts of West Africa and causes highly fatal hemorrhagic fever. The multimammate rat (Mastomys natalensis) is the only known reservoir of LASV. Most human infections result from zoonotic transmission. The very diverse LASV genome has 4 major lineages associated with different geographic locations. We used reverse transcription PCR and resequencing microarrays to detect LASV in 41 of 214 samples from rodents captured at 8 locations in Sierra Leone. Phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of nucleoprotein (NP), glycoprotein precursor (GPC), and polymerase (L) genes showed 5 separate clades within lineage IV of LASV in this country. The sequence diversity was higher than previously observed; mean diversity was 7.01% for nucleoprotein gene at the nucleotide level. These results may have major implications for designing diagnostic tests and therapeutic agents for LASV infections in Sierra Leone.

  14. Geographic tongue and psoriasis: clinical, histopathological, immunohistochemical and genetic correlation - a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciani, Bruna Lavinas Sayed; Domingos, Tábata Alves; Teixeira-Souza, Thays; Santos, Vanessa de Carla Batista Dos; Gonzaga, Heron Fernando de Sousa; Cardoso-Oliveira, Juliana; Gripp, Alexandre Carlos; Dias, Eliane Pedra; Carneiro, Sueli

    2016-01-01

    Geographic tongue is a chronic, inflammatory, and immune-mediated oral lesion of unknown etiology. It is characterized by serpiginous white areas around the atrophic mucosa, which alternation between activity, remission and reactivation at various locations gave the names benign migratory glossitis and wandering rash of the tongue. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease with frequent cutaneous involvement and an immunogenetic basis of great importance in clinical practice. The association between geographic tongue and psoriasis has been demonstrated in various studies, based on observation of its fundamental lesions, microscopic similarity between the two conditions and the presence of a common genetic marker, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) HLA-C*06. The difficulty however in accepting the diagnosis of geographic tongue as oral psoriasis is the fact that not all patients with geographic tongue present psoriasis. Some authors believe that the prevalence of geographic tongue would be much greater if psoriatic patients underwent thorough oral examination. This study aimed to develop a literature review performed between 1980 and 2014, in which consultation of theses, dissertations and selected scientific articles were conducted through search in Scielo and Bireme databases, from Medline and Lilacs sources, relating the common characteristics between geographic tongue and psoriasis. We observed that the frequency of oral lesions is relatively common, but to establish a correct diagnosis of oral psoriasis, immunohistochemical and genetic histopathological analyzes are necessary, thus highlighting the importance of oral examination in psoriatic patients and cutaneous examination in patients with geographic tongue.

  15. Extending the Intermediate Data Structure (IDS for longitudinal historical databases to include geographic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn Hedefalk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Intermediate Data Structure (IDS is a standardised database structure for longitudinal historical databases. Such a common structure facilitates data sharing and comparative research. In this study, we propose an extended version of IDS, named IDS-Geo, that also includes geographic data. The geographic data that will be stored in IDS-Geo are primarily buildings and/or property units, and the purpose of these geographic data is mainly to link individuals to places in space. When we want to assign such detailed spatial locations to individuals (in times before there were any detailed house addresses available, we often have to create tailored geographic datasets. In those cases, there are benefits of storing geographic data in the same structure as the demographic data. Moreover, we propose the export of data from IDS-Geo using an eXtensible Markup Language (XML Schema. IDS-Geo is implemented in a case study using historical property units, for the period 1804 to 1913, stored in a geographically extended version of the Scanian Economic Demographic Database (SEDD. To fit into the IDS-Geo data structure, we included an object lifeline representation of all of the property units (based on the snapshot time representation of single historical maps and poll-tax registers. The case study verifies that the IDS-Geo model is capable of handling geographic data that can be linked to demographic data.

  16. The economic-geographical and environmental polarization as a factor of new functional relations between areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milinčić Miroljub A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Geographical clustering, in the way of economic-geographical polarization represents regular and positive process of development of human society. These processes are characterized by stressed intensity, together with relatively short time dimension at the territory of Serbia. Extreme recent ecological polarization is the main consequence of this type of recomposition of economic-geographical elements in the territory of Serbia. At the one hand, anthropogenic or socio-economic areas (locations, axis and crossroads of development are formed, together with the numerous ecological problems as developing barriers, while at the other hand are territories of economic-geographical stagnation also with satisfying quality of basic natural resources and environmental condition. These differences generates and permanently increases their spatial, resource and ecological interdependence.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF A GEOGRAPHIC VISUALIZATION AND COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS (GVCS) FOR MONITORING REMOTE VEHICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COLEMAN, P.; DUNCAN, M.; DURFEE, R.C.; GOELTZ, R; HARRISON, G.; HODGSON, M.E.; KOOK, M.; MCCLAIN, S.

    1998-03-30

    The purpose of this project is to integrate a variety of geographic information systems capabilities and telecommunication technologies for potential use in geographic network and visualization applications. The specific technical goals of the project were to design, develop, and simulate the components of an audio/visual geographic communications system to aid future real-time monitoring, mapping and managing of transport vehicles. The system components of this feasibility study are collectively referred to as a Geographic Visualization and Communications System (GVCS). State-of-the-art techniques will be used and developed to allow both the vehicle operator and network manager to monitor the location and surrounding environment of a transport vehicle during shipment.

  18. ICE Online Detainee Locator System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Online Detainee Locator datasets provide the location of a detainee who is currently in ICE custody, or who was release from ICE custody for any reason with the...

  19. Duality in constrained location problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik; Love, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    The dual of a facility location problem with general norms, distance constraints, and linear constraints is formulated.......The dual of a facility location problem with general norms, distance constraints, and linear constraints is formulated....

  20. Geographic information system planning and monitoring best ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    emeje

    integrated planning approaches that result in environmental conservation. Geographic Information systems (GIS) provide the ... Regional Office for West and Central Africa. (UNOCHA/ROWCA). The major cities of West Africa lie .... democratic change, social learning, community building, and environmental enlightenment.

  1. GNIS: Geographic Names Information Systems - All features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) actively seeks data from and partnerships with Government agencies at all levels and other interested organizations....

  2. Recommendation Of A National Geographic Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to provide guidance relative to building capacity and geographically focusing efforts to implement landscape scale conservation...

  3. Medicare Geographic Variation - Public Use File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Geographic Variation Public Use File provides the ability to view demographic, utilization and quality indicators at the state level (including...

  4. Geographic Learning Objects in Smart Cities Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Del Fatto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, many cities around the world are trying to find smarter ways to manage challenges such as ensuring livable conditions in a context of rapid urban population growth. These cities are often referred to as Smart Cities. In the last years, researchers from many disciplines have contributed to the Smart Cities definition and implementation. In this paper we investigate how topics from two particular fields, such as Geographic Information and E-learning Systems, can be mixed in order to contribute to the Smart Cities cause. In particular, we introduce the Geographic Learning Object and discuss how such Geographic Learning Objects can be used in a Geographic Information System in order to provide information and learning content to the citizens of a Smart City.

  5. Geographic Variation in Medicare Spending Dashboard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Geographic Variation Dashboards present Medicare fee-for-service per-capita spending at the state and county level in an interactive format. We calculated the...

  6. Training for Internationalization through Domestic Geographical Dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santangelo, Grazia D.; Stucchi, Tamara

    organizational learning, we seek to solve this puzzle in relation to the internationalization of Indian BGs. In particular, we argue that in heterogeneous domestic emerging markets BG’s geographical dispersion across sub-national states provides training for internationalization. To internationalize successfully......, BGs need to develop the capability of managing geographically dispersed units in institutional heterogeneous contexts. Domestic geographical dispersion would indeed help the BG dealing with different regulations, customers and infrastructures. However, there is less scope for such training as BGs...... become more internationally experienced, and the benefits of domestic geographical dispersions are limited by the degree of urbanization of sub-national states. We test our argument on a sample of 693 Indian BGs over the period 2001-2010....

  7. Geographic Data Bases Supporting Scene Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukes, George E.

    1980-12-01

    Recent activity in synthetic reference scene generation from geographic data bases has lead to new and expanding production responsibilities for the mapping community. It has also spawned a new and growing population of geographic data base users. Optimum utilization of this data requires an understanding of the natural and cultural patterns represented as well as knowledge of the conventions and specifications which guide data base preparation. Prudence dictates effective mechanisms for data base inspection by the user. Appropriate implementation of data display procedures can provide this capability while also supporting routine analysis of data base content. This paper first illustrates a set of convenient mechanisms for the display of the elevation and planimetric components of geographic data files. Then, a new USAETL program in Computer-Assisted Photo Interpretation Research (CAPIR) is introduced. The CAPIR program will explore issues of direct data entry to create geographic data bases from stereo aerial photography. CAPIR also provides a technique for displaying geographic data base contents in corresponding three-dimensional photo models. This capability, termed superposition, will impact on the critical tasks of data validation, revision and intensification which are essential for effective management of geographic files.

  8. CYBERNETICS AND GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION: CYBERNETICS OF LEARNING AND LEARNING OF CYBERNETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Arpentieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern geographical education implies a broad implementation of innovative technologies, allowing students to fully and deeply understand the subject and methods of professional activity, and effectively and productively act upon this understanding. Therefore, in the work of modern geographer computer and media technologies occupy a significant place, and geographic education occupies an important place in learning cybernetic disciplines: computer technologies act as an important condition for obtaining high quality professional education, as well as an important tool of professional activity of modern specialist-geographer. The article is devoted to comparing three modern approaches to the study and optimization of training Cybernetics and programming in the framework of geographical education: an approach devoted to the study of “learning styles”; the metacognitive approach to learning computer science and programming; and intersubjective, evergetic or actually cybernetic, approach. It describes their advantages and limitations in the context of geographical education, as well as the internal unity as different forms of study of productivity and conditions of the dialogical interaction between teacher and student in the context of obtaining high-quality geographical education.

  9. Analysis Of Educational Services Distribution-Based Geographic Information System GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Waleed Lagrab; Noura AKNIN

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study analyzes the spatial distribution of kindergarten facilities in the study area based on the Geographic Information Systems GIS in order to test an efficiency of GIS technology to redistribute the existing kindergarten and choose the best location in the future and applying the standard criteria for selecting the suitable locations for kindergarten. To achieve this goal the data and information are collected via interviews and comprehensive statistics on the education facil...

  10. Location theory a unified approach

    CERN Document Server

    Nickel, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Although modern location theory is now more than 90 years old, the focus of researchers in this area has been mainly problem oriented. However, a common theory, which keeps the essential characteristics of classical location models, is still missing.This monograph addresses this issue. A flexible location problem called the Ordered Median Problem (OMP) is introduced. For all three main subareas of location theory (continuous, network and discrete location) structural properties of the OMP are presented and solution approaches provided. Numerous illustrations and examples help the reader to bec

  11. The commuter family as a geographical adaptive strategy for the work-family balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klis, M.; Karsten, L.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we raise the question of how commuter families create a work-family balance in a situation of incongruity of the geographical scales of work and family. Commuter families combine the work location of a commuting parent on the (inter)national scale, with the home-based parent's work

  12. Integrating Geographic Information Systems in Business School Curriculum: An Initial Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael A.; Arnette, Andrew N.

    2011-01-01

    Geographic information systems have experienced rapid growth and user adoption over the last four decades, due to an increasing value to the business community. However, business schools are not teaching geospatial concepts and the related location intelligence to their students. This curriculum decision seems completely at odds with business'…

  13. Accurate continuous geographic assignment from low- to high-density SNP data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillot, Gilles; Jónsson, Hákon; Hinge, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    hotspot areas can be located. Such approaches, however, require fast and accurate geographical assignment methods. Results : We introduce a novel statistical method for geopositioning individuals of unknown origin from genotypes. Our method is based on a geostatistical model trained with a dataset...

  14. Location of Urban Logistic Terminals as Hub Location Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Pašagić Škrinjar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problems of locating urban logistic terminals are studied as hub location problems that due to a large number of potential nodes in big cities belong to hard non-polynomial problems, the so-called NP-problems. The hub location problems have found wide application in physical planning of transport and telecommunication systems, especially systems of fast delivery, networks of logistic and distribution centres and cargo traffic terminals of the big cities, etc. The paper defines single and multiple allocations and studies the numerical examples. The capacitated single allocation hub location problems have been studied, with the provision of a mathematical model of selecting the location for the hubs on the network. The paper also presents the differences in the possibilities of implementing the exact and heuristic methods to solve the actual location problems of big dimensions i.e. hub problems of the big cities.

  15. Zone-based RSS Reporting for Location Fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Treu, Georg; Linnhoff–Popien, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    In typical location fingerprinting systems a tracked terminal reports sampled Received Signal Strength (RSS) values to a location server, which estimates its position based on a database of pre-recorded RSS fingerprints. So far, poll-based and periodic RSS reporting has been proposed. However......, for supporting proactive Location-based Services (LBSs), triggered by pre-defined spatial events, the periodic protocol is inefficient. Hence, this paper introduces zone-based RSS reporting: the location server translates geographical zones defined by the LBS into RSS-based representations, which are dynamically...... configured with the terminal. The terminal, in turn, reports its measurements only when they match with the configured RSS patterns. As a result, the number of messages exchanged between terminal and server is strongly reduced, saving battery power, bandwidth and also monetary costs spent for mobile bearer...

  16. An Adaptive Method for Mining Hierarchical Spatial Co-location Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAI Jiannan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mining spatial co-location patterns plays a key role in spatial data mining. Spatial co-location patterns refer to subsets of features whose objects are frequently located in close geographic proximity. Due to spatial heterogeneity, spatial co-location patterns are usually not the same across geographic space. However, existing methods are mainly designed to discover global spatial co-location patterns, and not suitable for detecting regional spatial co-location patterns. On that account, an adaptive method for mining hierarchical spatial co-location patterns is proposed in this paper. Firstly, global spatial co-location patterns are detected and other non-prevalent co-location patterns are identified as candidate regional co-location patterns. Then, for each candidate pattern, adaptive spatial clustering method is used to delineate localities of that pattern in the study area, and participation ratio is utilized to measure the prevalence of the candidate co-location pattern. Finally, an overlap operation is developed to deduce localities of (k+1-size co-location patterns from localities of k-size co-location patterns. Experiments on both simulated and real-life datasets show that the proposed method is effective for detecting hierarchical spatial co-location patterns.

  17. Location Systems An Introduction to the Technology Behind Location Awareness

    CERN Document Server

    LaMarca, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Advances in electronic location technology and the coming of age of mobile computing have opened the door for location-aware applications to permeate all aspects of everyday life. Location is at the core of a large number of high-value applications ranging from the life-and-death context of emergency response to serendipitous social meet-ups. For example, the market for GPS products and services alone is expected to grow to US200 billion by 2015. Unfortunately, there is no single location technology that is good for every situation and exhibits high accuracy, low cost, and universal coverage.

  18. Evaluation of more demanding geographical contents regarding all educational levels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tatjana Resnik Planinc

    2002-01-01

    .... Further improvement of geography teaching and assurance of high quality syllabus on every level of geographical education require a defining of more demanding geographical contents and reasons...

  19. Working Memory Processing In Normal Subjects and Subjects with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, S. M.; Lajiness-O'Neill, R.; Weiland, B. J.; Mason, K.; Tepley, N.

    2004-10-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to determine the neuroanatomical location of working memory (WM) processes. Differences between subjects with dyslexia (SD; n=5) and normal readers (NR; n=5) were studied during two WM tasks. A spatial WM task (SMW) consisted of blocks visually presented in one of 12 positions for 2 s each. Subjects were to determine if the current position matched the position presented 2 slides earlier (N-Back Test). The verbal task (VMW) consisted of presentation of a single letter. The location of cortical activity during SWM in NR (determined with MR-FOCUSS analysis) was in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) and right angular gyrus (AG). Similar activation was seen in SD with a slight delay of approximately 20 ms. During VWM activity was seen in LEFT STG and LEFT AG in NR. In contrast for SD, activation was in the RIGHT STG and RIGHT AG. This study demonstrates the possibility to differentiate WM processing in subjects with and without learning disorders.

  20. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) for Lousiana, Geographic NAD83, USGS (2007) [GNIS_LA_USGS_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  1. Quarter Dates Location(s) Purpose Transportation and Travel ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Location(s). Purpose. Transportation and Travel. Accommodation,. Meals and Other. Hospitality. Total. Expenses. Quarter 1. April 15 to 17. Ottawa, ON. Functions. April 24 to 28. London, England. Meeting. April 30 to May 1. Montreal, QC. Event. 7,540.72. 4,132.54. 408.14. 12,081.40. May 12 to 23. Ghana, Botswana, South ...

  2. Location and the multinational enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    John Cantwell

    2009-01-01

    In the early development of the international business field, the focus of attention moved from the country level to the firm level, and interest in location issues declined. More recently, firm-based research has itself become increasingly concerned with the study of firm–location interactions. When examining two-way knowledge flows or spillovers between multinational enterprises (MNEs) and other actors in specific locations, the diversity or heterogeneity of firms matters, as does the diver...

  3. Where Chicagoans tweet the most: Semantic analysis of preferential return locations of Twitter users

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, Aiman; Yin, Junjun; Soltani, Kiumars; Padmanabhan, Anand; Wang, Shaowen

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies on human mobility show that human movements are not random and tend to be clustered. In this connection, the movements of Twitter users captured by geo-located tweets were found to follow similar patterns, where a few geographic locations dominate the tweeting activity of individual users. However, little is known about the semantics (landuse types) and temporal tweeting behavior at those frequently-visited locations. Furthermore, it is generally assumed that the top two visite...

  4. DeepCity: A Feature Learning Framework for Mining Location Check-ins

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, Jun; Zhang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Online social networks being extended to geographical space has resulted in large amount of user check-in data. Understanding check-ins can help to build appealing applications, such as location recommendation. In this paper, we propose DeepCity, a feature learning framework based on deep learning, to profile users and locations, with respect to user demographic and location category prediction. Both of the predictions are essential for social network companies to increase user engagement. Th...

  5. Field measurements of SOP transients in OPGW, with time and location correlation to lightning strikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Douglas; Clarke, Steven; Doucet, David; O'Sullivan, Maurice; Peterson, Daniel L; Wilson, Darryl; Wellbrock, Glenn; Bélanger, Michel

    2017-05-01

    We monitored the state of polarization (SOP) of polarized light in an optical ground wire (OPGW) link located in North America using a test method and apparatus that measured Stokes space angular velocity and geographic location of SOP transients. We observed transients up to 5.1 Mrad/s and were able to correlate these events in both time and location to lightning strikes documented by the United States Precision Lightning Network (USPLN).

  6. My Precious! the location and diffusion of scientific research: evidence from the synchrotron diamond light source

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Helmers; Henry G. Overman

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the impact of the establishment of a GBP 380 million basic scientific research facility in the UK on the geographical distribution of related research. We investigate whether the siting of the Diamond Light Source, a 3rd generation synchrotron light source, in Oxfordshire induced a clustering of related research in its geographic proximity. To account for the potentially endogenous location choice of the synchrotron, we exploit the availability of a `runner-up' site near Manchester...

  7. Louisiana State Soil Geographic, General Soil Map, Geographic NAD83, NWRC (1998) [statsgo_soils_NWRC_1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains vector line map information. The vector data contain selected base categories of geographic features, and characteristics of these features,...

  8. Assessment of the geographic origins of pinewood nematode isolates via single nucleotide polymorphism in effector genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Figueiredo

    Full Text Available The pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is native to North America but it only causes damaging pine wilt disease in those regions of the world where it has been introduced. The accurate detection of the species and its dispersal routes are thus essential to define effective control measures. The main goals of this study were to analyse the genetic diversity among B. xylophilus isolates from different geographic locations and identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs markers for geographic origin, through a comparative transcriptomic approach. The transcriptomes of seven B. xylophilus isolates, from Continental Portugal (4, China (1, Japan (1 and USA (1, were sequenced in the next generation platform Roche 454. Analysis of effector gene transcripts revealed inter-isolate nucleotide diversity that was validated by Sanger sequencing in the genomic DNA of the seven isolates and eight additional isolates from different geographic locations: Madeira Island (2, China (1, USA (1, Japan (2 and South Korea (2. The analysis identified 136 polymorphic positions in 10 effector transcripts. Pairwise comparison of the 136 SNPs through Neighbor-Joining and the Maximum Likelihood methods and 5-mer frequency analysis with the alignment-independent bilinear multivariate modelling approach correlated the SNPs with the isolates geographic origin. Furthermore, the SNP analysis indicated a closer proximity of the Portuguese isolates to the Korean and Chinese isolates than to the Japanese or American isolates. Each geographic cluster carried exclusive alleles that can be used as SNP markers for B. xylophilus isolate identification.

  9. Representations built from a true geographic database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodum, Lars

    2005-01-01

    The development of a system for geovisualisation under the Centre for 3D GeoInformation at Aalborg University, Denmark, has exposed the need for a rethinking of the representation of virtual environments. Now that almost everything is possible (due to technological advances in computer graphics...... a representation based on geographic and geospatial principles. The system GRIFINOR, developed at 3DGI, Aalborg University, DK, is capable of creating this object-orientation and furthermore does this on top of a true Geographic database. A true Geographic database can be characterized as a database that can cover......) within the creation of Virtual Environments, what will be the next challenge within Urban simulation and modelling to overcome? It will certainly not be to create the models as real as possible or refine details in the texturing. The challenge will be to do a proper object-orientation and thereby secure...

  10. Thematic cartography as a geographical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Perko

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A thematic map may be a geographical application (tool in itself or the basis for some other geographical work. The development of Slovene thematic cartography accelerated considerably following the independence of the country in 1991. From the viewpoint of content and technology, its greatest achievements are the Geographical Atlas of Slovenia and the National Atlas of Slovenia, which are outstanding achievements at the international level and of great significance for the promotion of Slovenia and Slovene geography and cartography. However, this rapid development has been accompanied by numerous problems, for example, the ignoring of various Slovene and international conventions for the preparation of maps including United Nations resolutions, Slovene and international (SIST ISO, and copyright laws.

  11. Narratives of Inquiry Learning in Middle-School Geographic Inquiry Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuisma, Merja

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed at modifying a teaching and learning model for a geographic inquiry to enhance both the subject-related skills of geography and so-called twenty-first century skills in middle-school students (14-15 years old). The purpose of this research is to extend our understanding of the user experiences concerning certain tools for learning…

  12. Student Perspectives on the Teaching of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in Geography Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seremet, Mehmet; Chalkley, Brian

    2015-01-01

    In an era when graduate employability is a key concern, the teaching of geographical information systems (GIS) has become a subject of considerable interest. This paper reports on a study of the GIS student learning experience using student survey data from six UK geography undergraduate programmes. The findings show that although students'…

  13. Geographies of American Popular Music: Introducing Students to Basic Geographic Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Stephen S.

    2010-01-01

    Popular music can be used to study many subjects and issues related to the social sciences. "Geographies of American Popular Music" was a workshop that not only examined the history and development of select genres of American music, it also introduced students to basic geographic concepts such as the culture hearth and spatial diffusion. Through…

  14. Computation of geographic variables for air pollution prediction models in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eum, Youngseob; Song, Insang; Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Leem, Jong-Han; Kim, Sun-Young

    2015-01-01

    Recent cohort studies have relied on exposure prediction models to estimate individuallevel air pollution concentrations because individual air pollution measurements are not available for cohort locations. For such prediction models, geographic variables related to pollution sources are important inputs. We demonstrated the computation process of geographic variables mostly recorded in 2010 at regulatory air pollution monitoring sites in South Korea. On the basis of previous studies, we finalized a list of 313 geographic variables related to air pollution sources in eight categories including traffic, demographic characteristics, land use, transportation facilities, physical geography, emissions, vegetation, and altitude. We then obtained data from different sources such as the Statistics Geographic Information Service and Korean Transport Database. After integrating all available data to a single database by matching coordinate systems and converting non-spatial data to spatial data, we computed geographic variables at 294 regulatory monitoring sites in South Korea. The data integration and variable computation were performed by using ArcGIS version 10.2 (ESRI Inc., Redlands, CA, USA). For traffic, we computed the distances to the nearest roads and the sums of road lengths within different sizes of circular buffers. In addition, we calculated the numbers of residents, households, housing buildings, companies, and employees within the buffers. The percentages of areas for different types of land use compared to total areas were calculated within the buffers. For transportation facilities and physical geography, we computed the distances to the closest public transportation depots and the boundary lines. The vegetation index and altitude were estimated at a given location by using satellite data. The summary statistics of geographic variables in Seoul across monitoring sites showed different patterns between urban background and urban roadside sites. This study

  15. Geographic variation in the relationship between body mass index and the built environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Lee, Chanam; Lee, Chunkuen; Carlos, Heather A; Saelens, Brian E; Berke, Ethan M; Doescher, Mark P

    2017-07-01

    Studies examining associations between weight status and neighborhood built environment (BE) have shown inconsistent results and have generally focused on urban settings. However, many Americans do not live in metropolitan areas and BE impacts may be different outside of metropolitan areas. We sought to examine whether the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and neighborhood BE exists and varies by geographic region across small towns in the United States. We conducted telephone surveys with 2156 adults and geographic information systems data in nine towns located within three geographic regions (Northeast, Texas, Washington) in 2011 and 2012. Multiple regression models examined the relationship between individual BMI and BE measures. Most physical activity variables were significantly associated with lower BMI in all geographic regions. We saw variation across geographic region in the relationship between characteristics of the BE variables and BMI. Some perceived and objectively-measured characteristics of the BE were significantly associated with adult BMI, but significant relationships varied by geographic region. For example, in the Northeast, perceived attractiveness of the neighborhood as a reason for why they chose to live there was associated with lower BMI; in Texas, the perceived presence of a fast food restaurant was negatively associated with BMI; in Washington, perceived presence of trees along the streets was associated with lower BMI. Our findings suggest that regional variation plays a role in the relationship between adult BMI and BE characteristics in small towns. Regardless of geographic location, interventions should encourage utilitarian walking and other forms of physical activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Computation of geographic variables for air pollution prediction models in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngseob Eum

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent cohort studies have relied on exposure prediction models to estimate individuallevel air pollution concentrations because individual air pollution measurements are not available for cohort locations. For such prediction models, geographic variables related to pollution sources are important inputs. We demonstrated the computation process of geographic variables mostly recorded in 2010 at regulatory air pollution monitoring sites in South Korea. On the basis of previous studies, we finalized a list of 313 geographic variables related to air pollution sources in eight categories including traffic, demographic characteristics, land use, transportation facilities, physical geography, emissions, vegetation, and altitude. We then obtained data from different sources such as the Statistics Geographic Information Service and Korean Transport Database. After integrating all available data to a single database by matching coordinate systems and converting non-spatial data to spatial data, we computed geographic variables at 294 regulatory monitoring sites in South Korea. The data integration and variable computation were performed by using ArcGIS version 10.2 (ESRI Inc., Redlands, CA, USA. For traffic, we computed the distances to the nearest roads and the sums of road lengths within different sizes of circular buffers. In addition, we calculated the numbers of residents, households, housing buildings, companies, and employees within the buffers. The percentages of areas for different types of land use compared to total areas were calculated within the buffers. For transportation facilities and physical geography, we computed the distances to the closest public transportation depots and the boundary lines. The vegetation index and altitude were estimated at a given location by using satellite data. The summary statistics of geographic variables in Seoul across monitoring sites showed different patterns between urban background and urban roadside

  17. History Shaped the Geographic Distribution of Genomic Admixture on the Island of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Via, Marc; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Roth, Lindsey A.; Fejerman, Laura; Galanter, Joshua; Choudhry, Shweta; Toro-Labrador, Gladys; Viera-Vera, Jorge; Oleksyk, Taras K.; Beckman, Kenneth; Ziv, Elad; Risch, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary genetic variation among Latin Americans human groups reflects population migrations shaped by complex historical, social and economic factors. Consequently, admixture patterns may vary by geographic regions ranging from countries to neighborhoods. We examined the geographic variation of admixture across the island of Puerto Rico and the degree to which it could be explained by historic and social events. We analyzed a census-based sample of 642 Puerto Rican individuals that were genotyped for 93 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to estimate African, European and Native American ancestry. Socioeconomic status (SES) data and geographic location were obtained for each individual. There was significant geographic variation of ancestry across the island. In particular, African ancestry demonstrated a decreasing East to West gradient that was partially explained by historical factors linked to the colonial sugar plantation system. SES also demonstrated a parallel decreasing cline from East to West. However, at a local level, SES and African ancestry were negatively correlated. European ancestry was strongly negatively correlated with African ancestry and therefore showed patterns complementary to African ancestry. By contrast, Native American ancestry showed little variation across the island and across individuals and appears to have played little social role historically. The observed geographic distributions of SES and genetic variation relate to historical social events and mating patterns, and have substantial implications for the design of studies in the recently admixed Puerto Rican population. More generally, our results demonstrate the importance of incorporating social and geographic data with genetics when studying contemporary admixed populations. PMID:21304981

  18. Using geographical information systems mapping to identify areas presenting high risk for traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colantonio Angela

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to show how geographical information systems (GIS can be used to track and compare hospitalization rates for traumatic brain injury (TBI over time and across a large geographical area using population based data. Results & Discussion Data on TBI hospitalizations, and geographic and demographic variables, came from the Ontario Trauma Registry Minimum Data Set for the fiscal years 1993-1994 and 2001-2002. Various visualization techniques, exploratory data analysis and spatial analysis were employed to map and analyze these data. Both the raw and standardized rates by age/gender of the geographical unit were studied. Data analyses revealed persistent high rates of hospitalization for TBI resulting from any injury mechanism between two time periods in specific geographic locations. Conclusions This study shows how geographic information systems can be successfully used to investigate hospitalizaton rates for traumatic brain injury using a range of tools and techniques; findings can be used for local planning of both injury prevention and post discharge services, including rehabilitation.

  19. África en el National Geographic

    OpenAIRE

    Cartagena, Andrés

    2011-01-01

    Por muchos años, el National Geographic Magazine sirvió como el único medio en el cual las personas leían sobre África. En mi trabajo propongo que la imagen que ha creado el National Geographic Magazine a través de sus artículos y fotos sobre el continente africano es una imagen exótica y en donde se exalta los valores imperialistas y los beneficios del colonialismo para África. Es una imagen en la que el continente es representado como un lugar a donde los estadounidenses pueden ir a hacer s...

  20. Family ties and residential locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.H.; Cooke, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, and in the Special Issue it introduces, the focus is on the role of family ties in residential location choice and, conversely, the role of residential locations in maintaining family ties. Not only do events in the nuclear family trigger residential relocations, but nearby family

  1. Locations in Television Drama Series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit

    2017-01-01

    This special issue is dedicated to the analysis of the increasingly significant role of location as a key element in television drama. In recent years, the popularity of serial television has progressively been tied to the expanded use of location as a central element in productions, both...

  2. Improved Dynamic Planar Point Location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Arge, Lars; Georgiadis, Loukas

    2006-01-01

    We develop the first linear-space data structures for dynamic planar point location in general subdivisions that achieve logarithmic query time and poly-logarithmic update time.......We develop the first linear-space data structures for dynamic planar point location in general subdivisions that achieve logarithmic query time and poly-logarithmic update time....

  3. Cold War Geopolitics: Embassy Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeler, Ingolf

    1995-01-01

    Asserts that the geopolitics of the Cold War can be illustrated by the diplomatic ties among countries, particularly the superpowers and their respective allies. Describes a classroom project in which global patterns of embassy locations are examined and compared. Includes five maps and a chart indicating types of embassy locations. (CFR)

  4. Uncapacitated facility location problems: contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galvão Roberto Diéguez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present paper is to review my personal contributions in the field of uncapacitated facility location problems. These contributions took place throughout my academic career, from the time I was a Ph.D. student at Imperial College to the present day. They cover approximately 30 years, from 1973 to 2003; they address: algorithms developed for the p-median problem and for a general formulation of uncapacitated location problems; the study of dynamic location models; covering and hierarchical location problems; queuing-based probabilistic location models. The contributions encompass theoretical developments, computational algorithms and practical applications. All work took place in an academic environment, with the invaluable collaboration of colleagues (both in Brazil and abroad and research students at COPPE. Each section in the paper is dedicated to a topic that involves a personal contribution. Every one of them is placed within the context of the existing literature.

  5. Modeling discrete competitive facility location

    CERN Document Server

    Karakitsiou, Athanasia

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an up-to-date review of modeling and optimization approaches for location problems along with a new bi-level programming methodology which captures the effect of competition of both producers and customers on facility location decisions. While many optimization approaches simplify location problems by assuming decision making in isolation, this monograph focuses on models which take into account the competitive environment in which such decisions are made. New insights in modeling, algorithmic and theoretical possibilities are opened by this approach and new applications are possible. Competition on equal term plus competition between market leader and followers are considered in this study, consequently bi-level optimization methodology is emphasized and further developed. This book provides insights regarding modeling complexity and algorithmic approaches to discrete competitive location problems. In traditional location modeling, assignment of customer demands to supply sources are made ...

  6. The geographic concentration of blue carbon in the continental US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feagin, R. A.; Hinson, A.

    2014-12-01

    Salt water wetlands have the potential to be bought and sold as relatively rich reservoirs of carbon in the context of sequestration projects. However, little is known about the geographic distribution of this potential, and no coarse scale investigation has addressed this ecosystem service at the continental scale. Our objective was to determine blue carbon stocks and flux in coastal wetland soils in the United States and categorize the potential for projects by estuarine basin, state, and wetland type. We linked National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) data with the Soil Survey Geographic Database (SSURGO) through spatial analysis within a Geographic Information System (GIS). We then calculated and mapped soil organic carbon across the continental US. Results were filtered by state, estuarine basin, wetland type, and accumulation rate, and ranking lists for each categorization were produced. The results showed that belowground carbon accumulation is concentrated in specific regions, with the richest and largest reservoirs in the Gulf and Atlantic southeastern estuaries, for example mangrove zones in Florida. Salt marshes on the southern Pacific Coast were relatively low in carbon due to small areas of coverage and the presence of sandy and inorganic soil. The geomorphic position of a wetland within a given estuary, for example on an exposed barrier island versus recessed towards inflowing headwaters, accounted for a greater degree of soil carbon variation than the wetland type, for example woody mangroves versus herbaceous marshes. The potential of a blue carbon sequestration project in relation to its location could be influential in determining wetland policy, conservation, and restoration in the coming decades.

  7. Identifying areas of need relative to liver disease: geographic clustering within a health service district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Atem, Nathan; Irvine, Katharine M; Valery, Patricia C; Wojcik, Kyle; Horsfall, Leigh; Johnson, Tracey; Janda, Monika; McPhail, Steven M; Powell, Elizabeth E

    2017-08-01

    Background Many people with chronic liver disease (CLD) are not detected until they present to hospital with advanced disease, when opportunities for intervention are reduced and morbidity is high. In order to build capacity and liver expertise in the community, it is important to focus liver healthcare resources in high-prevalence disease areas and specific populations with an identified need. The aim of the present study was to examine the geographic location of people seen in a tertiary hospital hepatology clinic, as well as ethnic and sociodemographic characteristics of these geographic areas. Methods The geographic locations of hepatology out-patients were identified via the out-patient scheduling database and grouped into statistical area (SA) regions for demographic analysis using data compiled by the Australian Bureau of Statistics. Results During the 3-month study period, 943 individuals from 71 SA Level 3 regions attended clinic. Nine SA Level 3 regions accounted for 55% of the entire patient cohort. Geographic clustering was seen especially for people living with chronic hepatitis B virus. There was a wide spectrum of socioeconomic advantage and disadvantage in areas with high liver disease prevalence. Conclusions The geographic area from which people living with CLD travel to access liver health care is extensive. However, the greatest demand for tertiary liver disease speciality care is clustered within specific geographic areas. Outreach programs targeted to these areas may enhance liver disease-specific health service resourcing. What is known about the topic? The demand for tertiary hospital clinical services in CLD is rising. However, there is limited knowledge about the geographic areas from which people living with CLD travel to access liver services, or the ethnic, socioeconomic and education characteristics of these areas. What does this paper add? The present study demonstrates that a substantial proportion of people living with CLD and

  8. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  9. About External Geographic Information and Knowledge in Smart Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurinia, R.; Favetta, F.

    2017-09-01

    Any territory can easily be considered as an open system in which external effects can greatly influence its evolution in addition to inner dynamics. However, in practically all local authorities, their so-called geographic information or knowledge systems are bounded by the jurisdiction's limit, and therefore are closed systems. In this paper, we advocate the necessity not only to consider but also to include external influences within any GIS or GKS. Therefore, among external influences, we will consider beyond intra muros knowledge, extra muros knowledge divided in two categories, nearby neighboring knowledge, for instance located in an outer crown around the jurisdiction territory, but also farther knowledge for instance from technology watch. After having analyzed the semantics of borderlines, we suggest some element for the design of the crown and we analyze how the various components of a geographic knowledge base (objects, relations, ontologies, gazetteers, rules, etc.) can be integrated. Then some aspects regarding updating external knowledge are rapidly sketched. As a conclusion, we evoke the necessity of designing administrative protocols so that administration can negotiate the exchange of external knowledge bunches. In other words, this is an attempt to fully integrate the so-called Tobler's first law of geography.

  10. ABOUT EXTERNAL GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE IN SMART CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Laurinia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Any territory can easily be considered as an open system in which external effects can greatly influence its evolution in addition to inner dynamics. However, in practically all local authorities, their so-called geographic information or knowledge systems are bounded by the jurisdiction’s limit, and therefore are closed systems. In this paper, we advocate the necessity not only to consider but also to include external influences within any GIS or GKS. Therefore, among external influences, we will consider beyond intra muros knowledge, extra muros knowledge divided in two categories, nearby neighboring knowledge, for instance located in an outer crown around the jurisdiction territory, but also farther knowledge for instance from technology watch. After having analyzed the semantics of borderlines, we suggest some element for the design of the crown and we analyze how the various components of a geographic knowledge base (objects, relations, ontologies, gazetteers, rules, etc. can be integrated. Then some aspects regarding updating external knowledge are rapidly sketched. As a conclusion, we evoke the necessity of designing administrative protocols so that administration can negotiate the exchange of external knowledge bunches. In other words, this is an attempt to fully integrate the so-called Tobler’s first law of geography.

  11. Urban drainage control applying rational method and geographic information technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldalur, Beatriz; Campo, Alicia; Fernández, Sandra

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a method of controlling urban drainages in the town of Ingeniero White motivated by the problems arising as a result of floods, water logging and the combination of southeasterly and high tides. A Rational Method was applied to control urban watersheds and used tools of Geographic Information Technology (GIT). A Geographic Information System was developed on the basis of 28 panchromatic aerial photographs of 2005. They were georeferenced with control points measured with Global Positioning Systems (basin: 6 km2). Flow rates of basins and sub-basins were calculated and it was verified that the existing open channels have a low slope with the presence of permanent water and generate stagnation of water favored by the presence of trash. It is proposed for the output of storm drains, the use of an existing channel to evacuate the flow. The solution proposed in this work is complemented by the placement of three pumping stations: one on a channel to drain rain water which will allow the drain of the excess water from the lower area where is located the Ingeniero White city and the two others that will drain the excess liquid from the port area.

  12. Geographically Weighted Logistic Regression Applied to Credit Scoring Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Melo Albuquerque

    Full Text Available Abstract This study used real data from a Brazilian financial institution on transactions involving Consumer Direct Credit (CDC, granted to clients residing in the Distrito Federal (DF, to construct credit scoring models via Logistic Regression and Geographically Weighted Logistic Regression (GWLR techniques. The aims were: to verify whether the factors that influence credit risk differ according to the borrower’s geographic location; to compare the set of models estimated via GWLR with the global model estimated via Logistic Regression, in terms of predictive power and financial losses for the institution; and to verify the viability of using the GWLR technique to develop credit scoring models. The metrics used to compare the models developed via the two techniques were the AICc informational criterion, the accuracy of the models, the percentage of false positives, the sum of the value of false positive debt, and the expected monetary value of portfolio default compared with the monetary value of defaults observed. The models estimated for each region in the DF were distinct in their variables and coefficients (parameters, with it being concluded that credit risk was influenced differently in each region in the study. The Logistic Regression and GWLR methodologies presented very close results, in terms of predictive power and financial losses for the institution, and the study demonstrated viability in using the GWLR technique to develop credit scoring models for the target population in the study.

  13. Geographical information modelling for land resource survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de S.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing popularity of geographical information systems (GIS) has at least three major implications for land resources survey. Firstly, GIS allows alternative and richer representation of spatial phenomena than is possible with the traditional paper map. Secondly, digital technology

  14. Geometric algorithms for delineating geographic regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinbacher, I.

    2006-01-01

    Everyone of us is used to geographical regions like the south of Utrecht, the dutch Randstad, or the mountainous areas of Austria. Some of these regions have crisp, fixed boundaries like Utrecht or Austria. Others, like the dutch Randstad and the Austrian mountains, have no such boundaries and are

  15. APPLICATION OF GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS (GIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the present and potential application of the Geographical Information System (GIS) in Swaziland to manage land resources. This was done by interviewing key persons in the different institutions in the country and assessing the facilities (hardware, software and personnel). The results ...

  16. House Prices, Geographical Mobility, and Unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingholt, Marcus Mølbak

    2017-01-01

    Geographical mobility correlates positively with house prices and negatively with unemployment over the U.S. business cycle. I present a DSGE model in which declining house prices and tight credit conditions impede the mobility of indebted workers. This reduces the workers’ cross-area competition...

  17. Geographical distances and support from family members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.H.; van der Meer, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    We address two questions: to what extent does geographical distance to parents, siblings and children living outside the household influence receiving support from them? And to what extent does the availability of other network members living closer play a part in receiving support? We use the

  18. Genetic variation and geographical differentiation revealed using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [Zhang L., Lu S., Sun D., and Peng J. 2015 Genetic variation and geographical differentiation revealed using ISSR markers in tung tree,. Vernicia fordii. J. Genet. 94, e5–e9. Online only: http://www.ias.ac.in/jgenet/OnlineResources/94/e5.pdf]. Introduction. Tung tree, Vernicia fordii is an oil-bearing woody plant species of ...

  19. Using Educational Tourism in Geographical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakapiene, Dalia; Olberkyte, Loreta

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses and defines the concept of educational tourism, presents the structure of the concept and looks into the opportunities for using educational tourism in geographical education. In order to reveal such opportunities a research was carried out in the Lithuanian national and regional parks using the qualitative method of content…

  20. GEOGRAPHERS AND ECOSYSTEMS: A POINT OF VIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GEOGRAPHERS AND ECOSYSTEMS: A POINT OF VIEW. Frances Gamble. A short note pertaining to the new ecQsystems section of the. South African Standard 10 Core. Syllabus in Goograpily. 'rhe ideas were presented at a workshop for teachers held in tile. Southern Transvnal region by the South African Geagrap}lical.

  1. GENETIC DIVERSITY AND ECO-GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Classic F-statistics revealed the highest intra-specific polymorphism recorded for E. africana (32.45%), followed by E. coracana (16.83%); implying .... Genetic diversity and eco-geographical distribution of Eleusine species. 47 regions of Ethiopia as a ... were collected from the central highlands, west, northwest, northern and ...

  2. Geographical localisation of the geomagnetic secular variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubert, Julien; Finlay, Chris; Olsen, Nils

    2013-01-01

    Directly observed changes in Earth’s magnetic field occur most prominently at low latitudes beneath the Atlantic hemisphere, while the Pacific is comparatively quiet. This striking hemispheric asymmetry in geomagnetic secular variation is a consequence of the geographical localisation of intense...

  3. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic Information ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 124; Issue 1. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic Information System to target restoration actions in watersheds of arid environment: A case study of Hathmati watershed, Sabarkantha district, Gujarat. Dhruvesh P Patel Prashant K Srivastava ...

  4. Europeans among themselves: Geographical and linguistic stereotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mamadouh, V.D.; Dąbrowska, A.; Pisarek, W.; Stickel, G.

    2017-01-01

    Stereotypes can be studied from the perspective of political geography and critical geopolitics as part of geographical imaginations, in other words those geopolitical representations that help us make sense of the world around us. They necessarily frame our perception of ongoing events, and inform

  5. Representing Historical Knowledge in Geographic Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossner, Karl Eric

    2010-01-01

    A growing number of historical scholars in social science and humanities fields are using geographic information systems (GIS) to help investigate spatial questions and map their findings. The nature of historical data and historiographic practices present several challenges in using GIS that have been addressed only partially to date. For…

  6. Geographic characterisation of African provenances of Faidherbia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of the study were to: (i) determine the phylogenetic relationship among the 16 provenances in order to establish the species centre of origin, and (ii) determine the extent of genetic diversity in F. alb ida using PCR markers. ITS data did not produce any consistent regional or geographic pattern. RAPD data ...

  7. The Geographic Extent of Global Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machikita, Tomohiro; Ueki, Yasushi

    2012-01-01

    We study the extent to which inter-firm relationships are locally concentrated and what determines firm differences in geographic proximity to domestic or foreign suppliers and customers. From micro-data on selfreported customer and supplier data of firms in Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, ...

  8. Geography and Geographical Information Science: Interdisciplinary Integrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellul, Claire

    2015-01-01

    To understand how Geography and Geographical Information Science (GIS) can contribute to Interdisciplinary Research (IDR), it is relevant to articulate the differences between the different types of such research. "Multidisciplinary" researchers work in a "parallel play" mode, completing work in their disciplinary work streams…

  9. Formal Ontologies and Uncertainty. In Geographical Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Caglioni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Formal ontologies have proved to be a very useful tool to manage interoperability among data, systems and knowledge. In this paper we will show how formal ontologies can evolve from a crisp, deterministic framework (ontologies of hard knowledge to new probabilistic, fuzzy or possibilistic frameworks (ontologies of soft knowledge. This can considerably enlarge the application potential of formal ontologies in geographic analysis and planning, where soft knowledge is intrinsically linked to the complexity of the phenomena under study.  The paper briefly presents these new uncertainty-based formal ontologies. It then highlights how ontologies are formal tools to define both concepts and relations among concepts. An example from the domain of urban geography finally shows how the cause-to-effect relation between household preferences and urban sprawl can be encoded within a crisp, a probabilistic and a possibilistic ontology, respectively. The ontology formalism will also determine the kind of reasoning that can be developed from available knowledge. Uncertain ontologies can be seen as the preliminary phase of more complex uncertainty-based models. The advantages of moving to uncertainty-based models is evident: whether it is in the analysis of geographic space or in decision support for planning, reasoning on geographic space is almost always reasoning with uncertain knowledge of geographic phenomena.

  10. A Comparison of Geographical Information Science Competency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors conclude that a new competency set based on the findings of the research is needed to best serve the GISc industry and academia. Recommendations for further research are made. Keywords: Curriculum design, data acquisition, geographical information science (GISc), knowledge and skills requirements, ...

  11. Historical North Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Tracks 1851-2005, Geographic NAD83, NOAA (2006) [atlantic_hurricane_tracks_1851_2005_NOAA_2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This Historical North Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Tracks file contains the 6-hourly (0000, 0600, 1200, 1800 UTC) center locations and intensities for all subtropical...

  12. A survey on the geographic scope of textual documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Bruno R.; Davis, Clodoveu A.; Fonseca, Fred

    2016-11-01

    Recognizing references to places in texts is needed in many applications, such as search engines, location-based social media and document classification. In this paper we present a survey of methods and techniques for the recognition and identification of places referenced in texts. We discuss concepts and terminology, and propose a classification of the solutions given in the literature. We introduce a definition of the Geographic Scope Resolution (GSR) problem, dividing it in three steps: geoparsing, reference resolution, and grounding references. Solutions to the first two steps are organized according to the method used, and solutions to the third step are organized according to the type of output produced. We found that it is difficult to compare existing solutions directly to one another, because they often create their own benchmarking data, targeted to their own problem.

  13. RAILWAY EMERGENCY SITUATIONS PREVENTION SYSTEM BASED ON GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Alekseev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the system of emergency situation prevention on railway based on geographic information technologies (GIS, which makes it possible to estimate the influence of railroad defects, industrial objects (factories, plants located near investigated section of the railway and natural factors (influence of the elements on traffic safety. The procedures of area maps design for information systematization and display are offered. The algorithm of measurement information processing is developed, based on wavelet transform, that gives the possibility for the definition of railway bed defect parameters immediately after the measurements and does not require accumulation of information for further decryption. Techniques for influence estimation of natural and industrial factors on traffic safety are suggested to provide immediate representation of information for decisionmaking.

  14. Using Geographic Information Systems in Knowledge Management Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Filiz Gürder

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, organizations are required to develop quick and accurate responses to internal and external changes that gain momentum. In this context, knowledge management activities become more important to all organizations. On the other hand, Geographic Information Systems (GIS become common more and more. GIS which address a broad spectrum of users such as public agencies, local communities, civil society organizations, the private sector, academic environment, and personal users have been aiming to solve problems which occurred in location-based areas. GIS are important to get, combine, analyze and transfer the spatial data. Common use of PCs for personal needs, digital geography and improvements of software technologies, also the need to make socially acceptable business decisions facilitated development and widespread use of GIS applications. The main purpose of this paper is to discuss using areas and contribution potentials of GIS in enterprise-wide knowledge management processes.

  15. Global Seismicity: Three New Maps Compiled with Geographic Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.; Montgomery, Brian C.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents three new maps of global seismicity compiled from NOAA digital data, covering the interval 1963-1998, with three different magnitude ranges (mb): greater than 3.5, less than 3.5, and all detectable magnitudes. A commercially available geographic information system (GIS) was used as the database manager. Epicenter locations were acquired from a CD-ROM supplied by the National Geophysical Data Center. A methodology is presented that can be followed by general users. The implications of the maps are discussed, including the limitations of conventional plate models, and the different tectonic behavior of continental vs. oceanic lithosphere. Several little-known areas of intraplate or passive margin seismicity are also discussed, possibly expressing horizontal compression generated by ridge push.

  16. Parameters Estimation of Geographically Weighted Ordinal Logistic Regression (GWOLR) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhdi, Shaifudin; Retno Sari Saputro, Dewi; Widyaningsih, Purnami

    2017-06-01

    A regression model is the representation of relationship between independent variable and dependent variable. The dependent variable has categories used in the logistic regression model to calculate odds on. The logistic regression model for dependent variable has levels in the logistics regression model is ordinal. GWOLR model is an ordinal logistic regression model influenced the geographical location of the observation site. Parameters estimation in the model needed to determine the value of a population based on sample. The purpose of this research is to parameters estimation of GWOLR model using R software. Parameter estimation uses the data amount of dengue fever patients in Semarang City. Observation units used are 144 villages in Semarang City. The results of research get GWOLR model locally for each village and to know probability of number dengue fever patient categories.

  17. Geographical Weighted Regression Model for Poverty Analysis in Jambi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inti Pertiwi Nashwari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture sector has an important contribution to food security in Indonesia, but it also huge contribution to the number of poverty, especially in rural area. Studies using a global model might not be sufficient to pinpoint the factors having most impact on poverty due to spatial differences. Therefore, a Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR was used to analyze the factors influencing the poverty among food crops famers. Jambi Province is selected because have high number of poverty in rural area and the lowest farmer exchange term in Indonesia. The GWR was better than the global model, based on high value of R2, lowers AIC and MSE and Leung test. Location in upland area and road system had more influence to the poverty in the western-southern. Rainfall was significantly influence in eastern. The effect of each factor, however, was not generic, since the parameter estimate might have a positive or negative value.

  18. Trends and Prospects of GIS in Geographical Education

    OpenAIRE

    Sakaue, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Developing of geographical skills about information education is one of the important themes in new Course of Study.GIS has two definitions, one is Geographical Information System which means computer skills to treat with information, another is Geographical Information Science that means method or way of thinking to control and analyze the geographical information. GIS as education also has "teaching with GIS" and "teaching about GIS". GIS in geographical education plays the important roll o...

  19. Geographic variation in gorilla limb bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Rebecca S; Pearman, Tessa L

    2016-06-01

    Gorilla systematics has received increased attention over recent decades from primatologists, conservationists, and paleontologists. Studies of geographic variation in DNA, skulls, and teeth have led to new taxonomic proposals, such as recognition of two gorilla species, Gorilla gorilla (western gorilla) and Gorilla beringei (eastern gorilla). Postcranial differences between mountain gorillas (G. beringei beringei) and western lowland gorillas (G. g. gorilla) have a long history of study, but differences between the limb bones of the eastern and western species have not yet been examined with an emphasis on geographic variation within each species. In addition, proposals for recognition of the Cross River gorilla as Gorilla gorilla diehli and gorillas from Tshiaberimu and Kahuzi as G. b. rex-pymaeorum have not been evaluated in the context of geographic variation in the forelimb and hindlimb skeletons. Forty-three linear measurements were collected from limb bones of 266 adult gorillas representing populations of G. b. beringei, Gorilla beringei graueri, G. g. gorilla, and G. g. diehli in order to investigate geographic diversity. Skeletal elements included the humerus, radius, third metacarpal, third proximal hand phalanx, femur, tibia, calcaneus, first metatarsal, third metatarsal, and third proximal foot phalanx. Comparisons of means and principal components analyses clearly differentiate eastern and western gorillas, indicating that eastern gorillas have absolutely and relatively smaller hands and feet, among other differences. Gorilla subspecies and populations cluster consistently by species, although G. g. diehli may be similar to the eastern gorillas in having small hands and feet. The subspecies of G. beringei are distinguished less strongly and by different variables than the two gorilla species. Populations of G. b. graueri are variable, and Kahuzi and Tshiaberimu specimens do not cluster together. Results support the possible influence of

  20. CBP List of Preclearance Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — CBP Preclearance provides for the U.S. border inspection and clearance of commercial air passengers and their goods at (15) locations in (6) foreign countries. CBP...