WorldWideScience

Sample records for subject experimental design

  1. Single-Subject Experimental Design for Evidence-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byiers, Breanne J.; Reichle, Joe; Symons, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs) represent an important tool in the development and implementation of evidence-based practice in communication sciences and disorders. The purpose of this article is to review the strategies and tactics of SSEDs and their application in speech-language pathology research. Method: The authors…

  2. Single-subject experimental design for evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byiers, Breanne J; Reichle, Joe; Symons, Frank J

    2012-11-01

    Single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs) represent an important tool in the development and implementation of evidence-based practice in communication sciences and disorders. The purpose of this article is to review the strategies and tactics of SSEDs and their application in speech-language pathology research. The authors discuss the requirements of each design, followed by advantages and disadvantages. The logic and methods for evaluating effects in SSED are reviewed as well as contemporary issues regarding data analysis with SSED data sets. Examples of challenges in executing SSEDs are included. Specific exemplars of how SSEDs have been used in speech-language pathology research are provided throughout. SSED studies provide a flexible alternative to traditional group designs in the development and identification of evidence-based practice in the field of communication sciences and disorders.

  3. Estimating Intervention Effects across Different Types of Single-Subject Experimental Designs: Empirical Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeyaert, Mariola; Ugille, Maaike; Ferron, John M.; Onghena, Patrick; Heyvaert, Mieke; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to illustrate the multilevel meta-analysis of results from single-subject experimental designs of different types, including AB phase designs, multiple-baseline designs, ABAB reversal designs, and alternating treatment designs. Current methodological work on the meta-analysis of single-subject experimental designs…

  4. Bias Corrections for Standardized Effect Size Estimates Used with Single-Subject Experimental Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugille, Maaike; Moeyaert, Mariola; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Ferron, John M.; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2014-01-01

    A multilevel meta-analysis can combine the results of several single-subject experimental design studies. However, the estimated effects are biased if the effect sizes are standardized and the number of measurement occasions is small. In this study, the authors investigated 4 approaches to correct for this bias. First, the standardized effect…

  5. Multilevel meta-analysis of single-subject experimental designs: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugille, Maaike; Moeyaert, Mariola; Beretvas, S Natasha; Ferron, John; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2012-12-01

    One way to combine data from single-subject experimental design studies is by performing a multilevel meta-analysis, with unstandardized or standardized regression coefficients as the effect size metrics. This study evaluates the performance of this approach. The results indicate that a multilevel meta-analysis of unstandardized effect sizes results in good estimates of the effect. The multilevel meta-analysis of standardized effect sizes, on the other hand, is suitable only when the number of measurement occasions for each subject is 20 or more. The effect of the treatment on the intercept is estimated with enough power when the studies are homogeneous or when the number of studies is large; the power of the effect on the slope is estimated with enough power only when the number of studies and the number of measurement occasions are large.

  6. Quality Appraisal of Single-Subject Experimental Designs: An Overview and Comparison of Different Appraisal Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Oliver; Miller, Bridget

    2012-01-01

    Critical appraisal of the research literature is an essential step in informing and implementing evidence-based practice. Quality appraisal tools that assess the methodological quality of experimental studies provide a means to identify the most rigorous research suitable for evidence-based decision-making. In single-subject experimental research,…

  7. The influence of the design matrix on treatment effect estimates in the quantitative analyses of single-subject experimental design research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeyaert, Mariola; Ugille, Maaike; Ferron, John M; Beretvas, S Natasha; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2014-09-01

    The quantitative methods for analyzing single-subject experimental data have expanded during the last decade, including the use of regression models to statistically analyze the data, but still a lot of questions remain. One question is how to specify predictors in a regression model to account for the specifics of the design and estimate the effect size of interest. These quantitative effect sizes are used in retrospective analyses and allow synthesis of single-subject experimental study results which is informative for evidence-based decision making, research and theory building, and policy discussions. We discuss different design matrices that can be used for the most common single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs), namely, the multiple-baseline designs, reversal designs, and alternating treatment designs, and provide empirical illustrations. The purpose of this article is to guide single-subject experimental data analysts interested in analyzing and meta-analyzing SSED data. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Treadmill training for ataxic patients: a single-subject experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Daniela Virgínia; Schettino, Renata de Carvalho; Rolla de Castro, Teresa Regina; Teixeira, Valéria Reis; Cavalcanti Furtado, Sheyla Rossana; de Mello Figueiredo, Elyonara

    2008-03-01

    To investigate changes in gait quality, balance and mobility associated with treadmill training for ataxic individuals. Single-subject ABA design. Baseline phases (A) lasted three weeks and intervention (B) lasted four weeks. University rehabilitation clinic. A woman (25 years) and a man (53 years) with chronic ataxia due to head trauma. Three 20-minute treadmill training sessions each week with progression in velocity and step length. Rivermead Visual Gait Assessment, Timed Up and Go, time to complete a balance task, walking speed, cadence, and stride length assessments three times a week during the 10 weeks. Data were analysed with the celeration line technique and two standard deviation band. Both individuals demonstrated gains in all parameters over initial baseline and subsequent phases, with performance increases ranging from 26% to 233% when first and last assessments were compared. Significantly superior effects of treadmill training over baseline conditions on cadence were detected (Psubject 2 (Psubject 1. Results suggest that the association between repeated testing and treadmill training might have been responsible for the observed gains in the two ataxic patients.

  9. Action potential simulation (APS) in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS): a controlled single subject experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fengler, R K B; Jacobs, J W G; Bac, M; van Wijck, A J M; van Meeteren, N L U

    2007-03-01

    Action potential simulation (APS) is becoming a popular method of pain reduction. Nevertheless, little is known about the efficacy of this relatively new treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate whether APS helps to reduce pain, improves patients' perception of daily functioning and social participation in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Ten patients with FMS according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria entered this double blind crossover single-case study. In a period of 20 weeks, the patients underwent two treatment periods of 4 weeks, one with verum and one with placebo, at random, in a double blind fashion. Outcome measures were evaluated on a weekly basis. Primary outcome measure was pain measured with the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) questions 4 and 5, the number of tender points and the total tender point pain intensity score. Both visual inspection and statistical analysis were done to analyse the data from this single-subject design. Performing visual inspection and statistical analysis, no positive results of the APS treatment were found in this study. Remarkable is the fact that placebo APS had significantly better results than verum APS. In this single-case study with ten patients (all female), APS was not a helpful method to reduce pain, to improve patients' perception of daily functioning and social participation in patients with FMS.

  10. Optimizing Within-Subject Experimental Designs for jICA of Multi-Channel ERP and fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalathu-Arumana, Jain; Liebenthal, Einat; Beardsley, Scott A.

    2018-01-01

    Joint independent component analysis (jICA) can be applied within subject for fusion of multi-channel event-related potentials (ERP) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), to measure brain function at high spatiotemporal resolution (Mangalathu-Arumana et al., 2012). However, the impact of experimental design choices on jICA performance has not been systematically studied. Here, the sensitivity of jICA for recovering neural sources in individual data was evaluated as a function of imaging SNR, number of independent representations of the ERP/fMRI data, relationship between instantiations of the joint ERP/fMRI activity (linear, non-linear, uncoupled), and type of sources (varying parametrically and non-parametrically across representations of the data), using computer simulations. Neural sources were simulated with spatiotemporal and noise attributes derived from experimental data. The best performance, maximizing both cross-modal data fusion and the separation of brain sources, occurred with a moderate number of representations of the ERP/fMRI data (10–30), as in a mixed block/event related experimental design. Importantly, the type of relationship between instantiations of the ERP/fMRI activity, whether linear, non-linear or uncoupled, did not in itself impact jICA performance, and was accurately recovered in the common profiles (i.e., mixing coefficients). Thus, jICA provides an unbiased way to characterize the relationship between ERP and fMRI activity across brain regions, in individual data, rendering it potentially useful for characterizing pathological conditions in which neurovascular coupling is adversely affected. PMID:29410611

  11. Pilot testing of methods for evaluation of acupuncture for emesis during radiotherapy: a randomised single subject experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enblom, Anna; Tomasson, Annica; Hammar, Mats; Steineck, Gunnar; Börjeson, Sussanne

    2011-06-01

    Many acupuncture studies are of weak methodological quality, possibly due to lack of pilot testing. This pilot study tested design features, including test of feasibility, compliance to treatment and data collection, level of blinding success and the patients' potential perceived effects of the treatment, in preparation for an efficacy study. A modified single subject experimental design was conducted. 10 cancer patients were randomised to verum penetrating acupuncture or non-penetrating sham needles for 30 min 2-3 times/week during radiotherapy over abdomen/pelvis. They answered test-retested emesis questions (r=0.527-1.0) covering nausea, vomiting, use of antiemetics, wellbeing and activities of daily living. Overall, the patients completed 98% of the 345 emesis-questionnaire days and 101 of the 115 offered treatments. All patients believed they received verum acupuncture. 10 patients experienced antiemetic effects, seven relaxation, five pain-reduction and five experienced sleep improvement. Two types of nausea questions showed absolute concordance (r=1.0) (n of observations=456). Nausea was experienced by one of five verum acupuncture treated patients (duration median 0% of the radiotherapy-days) and four of five sham acupuncture treated patients (duration median 24% of the radiotherapy-days). Patients experiencing nausea rated decreased wellbeing and performance of daily activities compared to patients free from nausea. All patients were blinded, complied with verum/sham treatments and data-collection, and believed they had effects of the received treatment. The methods for verum/sham treatment and data collection may thus be used in an adequately powered randomised controlled study of the effect of acupuncture for radiotherapy-induced emesis.

  12. Rating the methodological quality of single-subject designs and n-of-1 trials: introducing the Single-Case Experimental Design (SCED) Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Robyn L; McDonald, Skye; Perdices, Michael; Togher, Leanne; Schultz, Regina; Savage, Sharon

    2008-08-01

    Rating scales that assess methodological quality of clinical trials provide a means to critically appraise the literature. Scales are currently available to rate randomised and non-randomised controlled trials, but there are none that assess single-subject designs. The Single-Case Experimental Design (SCED) Scale was developed for this purpose and evaluated for reliability. Six clinical researchers who were trained and experienced in rating methodological quality of clinical trials developed the scale and participated in reliability studies. The SCED Scale is an 11-item rating scale for single-subject designs, of which 10 items are used to assess methodological quality and use of statistical analysis. The scale was developed and refined over a 3-year period. Content validity was addressed by identifying items to reduce the main sources of bias in single-case methodology as stipulated by authorities in the field, which were empirically tested against 85 published reports. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using a random sample of 20/312 single-subject reports archived in the Psychological Database of Brain Impairment Treatment Efficacy (PsycBITE). Inter-rater reliability for the total score was excellent, both for individual raters (overall ICC = 0.84; 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.92) and for consensus ratings between pairs of raters (overall ICC = 0.88; 95% confidence interval 0.78-0.95). Item reliability was fair to excellent for consensus ratings between pairs of raters (range k = 0.48 to 1.00). The results were replicated with two independent novice raters who were trained in the use of the scale (ICC = 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.95). The SCED Scale thus provides a brief and valid evaluation of methodological quality of single-subject designs, with the total score demonstrating excellent inter-rater reliability using both individual and consensus ratings. Items from the scale can also be used as a checklist in the design, reporting and critical

  13. Progressive resistance training for community-dwelling women aged 90 or older; a single-subject experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idland, Gro; Sylliaas, Hilde; Mengshoel, Anne Marit; Pettersen, Renate; Bergland, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    To examine the effect and feasibility of a 12-week programme of progressive resistance exercise on a group of nonagenarian (≥90 years) community-dwelling women. An A-B single-subject experimental design was applied. Visual analyses were used for estimating the effect of the intervention. Outcome measurements were: Timed Up and Go (TUG), comfortable walking speed and 30-s chair stands. The programme comprised four exercises, following the principle of overload, aiming at improving strength in the main muscle groups. Feasibility of the progressive resistance intervention was assessed by recording the recruitment of participants, adherence to the intervention and adverse events. Twenty-seven women were invited; eight women aged 90 and above agreed to participate and six completed the study. They suffered from one to 10 chronic medical conditions. All improved their performance in the TUG test. Five of the six participants achieved a higher walking speed (11-59%) and four of them improved on the 30-s chair-stand test with five to 10 stands. No major adverse events were reported. Progressive resistance training was a safe and efficient method to enhance mobility and increase lower body strength in this heterogeneous group of nonagenarian community-dwelling women. Progressive resistance (PRT) training was found to be a safe and efficient method to enhance mobility and increase lower body strength in a group of community-dwelling women 90+. Participants with the poorest initial functional performance had great benefits, and the improvements appeared already after a few weeks of PRT. PRT might be useful in the rehabilitation field and could be implemented in facilities such as day care and senior centres frequented by very old persons with mobility limitations.

  14. Exposure-based cognitive behavioral therapy for irritable bowel syndrome. A single-case experimental design across 13 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, Katja; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Edebol-Carlman, Hanna; Schrooten, Martien; Linton, Steven J; Brummer, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a highly prevalent disorder with a significant impact on quality of life. The presence of psychological symptoms in IBS patients such as catastrophic worry and behavioral avoidance suggests the possible efficacy of cognitive behavioral interventions. Exposure-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has proven to be a promising approach but has only been investigated in a few studies and mainly via the Internet. Therefore, the aims of this study were to extend and replicate previous findings and to evaluate whether an individual, face-to-face, exposure-based CBT leads to improvement in gastrointestinal symptoms, pain catastrophizing, avoidance behavior and quality of life in IBS patients. Thirteen patients with IBS according to Rome III criteria participated in a single-case experimental study using a five-week baseline and a subsequent twelve-session intervention phase focusing on psycho-education, mindfulness and in vivo exposure. Standardized measurement of gastrointestinal symptoms, pain catastrophizing, avoidance behavior and quality of life was conducted weekly during baseline as well as intervention phase and at six-month follow-up. Results showed that over 70% of patients improved significantly on gastrointestinal symptoms, pain catastrophizing, and quality of life. Effects on avoidance behavior were modest. These results strengthen and extend earlier findings and provide further support for the efficacy of exposure-based strategies for IBS.

  15. Experimental Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents a new, multidisciplinary perspective on and paradigm for integrative experimental design research. It addresses various perspectives on methods, analysis and overall research approach, and how they can be synthesized to advance understanding of design. It explores the foundations...... of experimental approaches and their utility in this domain, and brings together analytical approaches to promote an integrated understanding. The book also investigates where these approaches lead to and how they link design research more fully with other disciplines (e.g. psychology, cognition, sociology......, computer science, management). Above all, the book emphasizes the integrative nature of design research in terms of the methods, theories, and units of study—from the individual to the organizational level. Although this approach offers many advantages, it has inherently led to a situation in current...

  16. Treatment of hemispatial neglect in patients with post-hemiparesis: a single-subject experimental design study using a whole-body tilt exercise plus mental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae-Woo; Oh, Duck-Won

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effect of whole-body tilt exercise for treating hemispatial neglect and to identify the effects of incorporating mental practice into the exercise. We used a single-subject experimental design alternating with multiple baselines. Three stroke patients with hemispatial neglect participated in this study. The severity of hemispatial neglect and balance function were measured during baseline and intervention sessions. The whole-body tilt exercise was performed by using a device that allows the body to tilt 20° from the neutral upright position. Mental practice consisted of 5 min of relaxation, main whole-body tilt imagination, and normalization phases. When the whole-body tilt exercise alone was performed, the average severity score of hemispatial neglect in subjects 1, 2, and 3 decreased by 7.54, 10.02, and 8.24, respectively; their respective average balance function score increased by 35.95%, 28.13%, and 15.33% under the open-eye condition and 34.66%, 20.33%, and 13.77% under the closed-eye condition. For subjects 1, 2, and 3, the respective average hemispatial neglect score decreased by 9.07, 11.35, and 10.13 after the whole-body tilt exercise with mental practice; their average balance function scores increased by 40.15%, 33.38%, and 24.22% under the open-eye condition and by 38.93%, 27.08%, and 11.88% under the closed-eye condition, respectively. These findings suggest that a whole-body tilt exercise alone may be beneficial in enhancing hemispatial neglect symptoms but the addition of mental practice produces a greater positive effect.

  17. Potential Pitfalls of Experimental Design

    OpenAIRE

    Phillip Watkins

    2017-01-01

    Good experimental design begins with the end in mind. An early conversation with a statistician will both increase the chances of an experimental study contributing to the literature and minimize the risks to participating human subjects.  Sir R.A. Fisher felt that “to consult the statistician after an experiment is finished is often merely to ask him to conduct a post mortem examination: he can perhaps say what the experiment died of.” To this end, some questions from a statistician are pres...

  18. Modified constraint-induced therapy for the lower extremity in elderly persons with chronic stroke: single-subject experimental design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Katja; Nilsson-Wikmar, Lena; Thorsén, Ann-Mari

    2014-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated improvements in arm motor function after constraint-induced (CI) therapy. Few studies of CI therapy for lower extremity conditions have been done. Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of modified CI therapy for the lower extremity in terms of motor control in elderly persons with chronic stroke. A single-subject experimental AB design was used, with 3 months of follow-up. The A phase consisted of a baseline period of 2 weeks with 6 measurements, and the B phase was a 4-week intervention with 8 measurements. Two men and 1 woman were included. The intervention consisted of intensive rehabilitation of the affected leg for 2 hours each weekday. A whole-leg orthosis was used to immobilize the nonaffected leg. The following tests were conducted: a step test for dynamic balance, Fugl-Meyer assessment for lower-extremity motor function, the Timed Up and Go test for mobility, and the 6-minute and 10-meter walk tests for walking ability. Statistical significance was analyzed by using Shewhart charts with a 2-standard deviation band method. A positive change was observed in 14 of 18 variables. Significant improvements existed in 7 of the 14 positively changed variables. Positive changes remained in 13 of 14 variables at the 3-month follow-up evaluation. Modified CI therapy may result in positive changes in balance and motor function in elderly persons with chronic stroke.

  19. Experimental Engineering: Articulating and Valuing Design Experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna; Grönvall, Erik; Fritsch, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we propose Experimental Engineering as a way to articulate open- ended technological experiments as a legitimate design research practice. Experimental Engineering introduces a move away from an outcome or result driven design process towards an interest in existing technologies...

  20. Potential Pitfalls of Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Watkins

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Good experimental design begins with the end in mind. An early conversation with a statistician will both increase the chances of an experimental study contributing to the literature and minimize the risks to participating human subjects.  Sir R.A. Fisher felt that “to consult the statistician after an experiment is finished is often merely to ask him to conduct a post mortem examination: he can perhaps say what the experiment died of.” To this end, some questions from a statistician are presented along with the associated experimental study pitfalls to avoid during the study planning phase. Several concrete examples are provided to give some practical knowledge on how to improve an experimental study at the onset.  Hypothesis formulation, sample size determination, randomization, and double-blinding are all explained from the viewpoint of a statistician’s final analysis. Confounders, sampling, and missing data are also briefly covered through this hypothetical question and answer session.

  1. Analysis of Performance on Cognitive Test Measures Before, During, and After 6 Months of Hearing Aid Use: A Single-Subject Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Jamie L

    2016-06-01

    The present study examined the effect of hearing aid use on cognitive test performance using a single-subject treatment design. Six participants 54 to 64 years old with sensorineural hearing loss were fitted with hearing aids. Participants used the hearing aids for approximately 8 hr each day for the duration of the study. A battery of cognitive tests was administered to participants during baseline (pre-hearing aid fitting), treatment (hearing aid use), and withdrawal (post-hearing aid use) study phases over a period of 6 months of hearing aid use. All participants showed significant improvements in performance on the cognitive test measures with hearing aid use. The most significant treatment effects were evidenced at 2 to 4 weeks of hearing aid use on the Listening Span Test and an auditory selective attention task. In many cases, cognitive performance scores returned to baseline levels after the participant stopped using the hearing aids. The findings from this study are consistent with the hypothesis that hearing aid use may improve cognitive performance by improving audibility and decreasing the cognitive load of the listening task.

  2. Experimental design a chemometric approach

    CERN Document Server

    Deming, SN

    1987-01-01

    Now available in a paperback edition is a book which has been described as ``...an exceptionally lucid, easy-to-read presentation... would be an excellent addition to the collection of every analytical chemist. I recommend it with great enthusiasm.'' (Analytical Chemistry). Unlike most current textbooks, it approaches experimental design from the point of view of the experimenter, rather than that of the statistician. As the reviewer in `Analytical Chemistry' went on to say: ``Deming and Morgan should be given high praise for bringing the principles of experimental design to the level of the p

  3. Design approaches to experimental mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirlott, Angela G; MacKinnon, David P

    2016-09-01

    Identifying causal mechanisms has become a cornerstone of experimental social psychology, and editors in top social psychology journals champion the use of mediation methods, particularly innovative ones when possible (e.g. Halberstadt, 2010, Smith, 2012). Commonly, studies in experimental social psychology randomly assign participants to levels of the independent variable and measure the mediating and dependent variables, and the mediator is assumed to causally affect the dependent variable. However, participants are not randomly assigned to levels of the mediating variable(s), i.e., the relationship between the mediating and dependent variables is correlational. Although researchers likely know that correlational studies pose a risk of confounding, this problem seems forgotten when thinking about experimental designs randomly assigning participants to levels of the independent variable and measuring the mediator (i.e., "measurement-of-mediation" designs). Experimentally manipulating the mediator provides an approach to solving these problems, yet these methods contain their own set of challenges (e.g., Bullock, Green, & Ha, 2010). We describe types of experimental manipulations targeting the mediator (manipulations demonstrating a causal effect of the mediator on the dependent variable and manipulations targeting the strength of the causal effect of the mediator) and types of experimental designs (double randomization, concurrent double randomization, and parallel), provide published examples of the designs, and discuss the strengths and challenges of each design. Therefore, the goals of this paper include providing a practical guide to manipulation-of-mediator designs in light of their challenges and encouraging researchers to use more rigorous approaches to mediation because manipulation-of-mediator designs strengthen the ability to infer causality of the mediating variable on the dependent variable.

  4. Sudoku Squares as Experimental Designs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 9. Sudoku Squares as Experimental Designs. Jyotirmoy Sarkar Bikas K Sinha. General Article ... Author Affiliations. Jyotirmoy Sarkar1 Bikas K Sinha2. Indiana University-Purdue University, Indianapolis, USA; Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata ...

  5. Effect Size Calculations and Single Subject Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Melissa L.; Smith, Benjamin W.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared visual analyses with five alternative methods for assessing the magnitude of effect with single subject designs. Each method was successful in detecting intervention effect. When rank ordered, each method was consistent in identifying the participants with the largest effect. We recommend the use of the standard mean difference…

  6. The Utility of Single Subject Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kyle D.

    2016-01-01

    Single subject design (SSD) research is a quantitative approach used to investigate basic and applied research questions. It has been used for decades to examine issues of social importance such as those related to general and special education strategies, therapeutic approaches in mental health, community health practices, safety, and business…

  7. Elements of Bayesian experimental design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivia, D.S. [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Oxon (United Kingdom)

    1997-09-01

    We consider some elements of the Bayesian approach that are important for optimal experimental design. While the underlying principles used are very general, and are explained in detail in a recent tutorial text, they are applied here to the specific case of characterising the inferential value of different resolution peakshapes. This particular issue was considered earlier by Silver, Sivia and Pynn (1989, 1990a, 1990b), and the following presentation confirms and extends the conclusions of their analysis.

  8. Epistemological Dizziness in the Psychology Laboratory: Lively Subjects, Anxious Experimenters, and Experimental Relations, 1950-1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawski, Jill

    2015-09-01

    Since the demise of introspective techniques in the early twentieth century, experimental psychology has largely assumed an administrative arrangement between experimenters and subjects wherein subjects respond to experimenters' instructions and experimenters meticulously constrain that relationship through experimental controls. During the postwar era this standard arrangement came to be questioned, initiating reflections that resonated with Cold War anxieties about the nature of the subjects and the experimenters alike. Albeit relatively short lived, these interrogations of laboratory relationships gave rise to unconventional testimonies and critiques of experimental method and epistemology. Researchers voiced serious concerns about the honesty and normality of subjects, the politics of the laboratory, and their own experimental conduct. Their reflective commentaries record the intimacy of subject and experimenter relations and the plentiful cultural materials that constituted the experimental situation, revealing the permeable boundaries between laboratory and everyday life.

  9. Fundamentals of statistical experimental design and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Easterling, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    Professionals in all areas - business; government; the physical, life, and social sciences; engineering; medicine, etc. - benefit from using statistical experimental design to better understand their worlds and then use that understanding to improve the products, processes, and programs they are responsible for. This book aims to provide the practitioners of tomorrow with a memorable, easy to read, engaging guide to statistics and experimental design. This book uses examples, drawn from a variety of established texts, and embeds them in a business or scientific context, seasoned with a dash of humor, to emphasize the issues and ideas that led to the experiment and the what-do-we-do-next? steps after the experiment. Graphical data displays are emphasized as means of discovery and communication and formulas are minimized, with a focus on interpreting the results that software produce. The role of subject-matter knowledge, and passion, is also illustrated. The examples do not require specialized knowledge, and t...

  10. Subject-Spotting Experimental Method for Gen Z

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Opriș

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The technological changes along with the psychological and structural changes of the young generation (Gen Z require adjustment of the educational methods. In this regard, the paper presents a way of explaining uncertainty of measurements by the use of experimental subject-spotting. The method consists in splitting – subject-spotting – a complex subject into small parts that require lower sustained attention and are easier to be understood and memorized. Each subject-spot uses the link between theory and practice, allowing multi-tasking behaviours. The focus is on obtaining quick results. The practical application of experimental subject-spotting of uncertainty is based on the measurement of the water flow through a pipe by the method of time volume collection. The flow rate measurement represents the grounding for developing several experimental subject-spots that explain the uncertainty of analogue and digital readings, of repeated measurements, the level of confidence, expanded uncertainty and the propagation of uncertainty. The mathematical model and program, some final considerations and further reading suggestions open other directions of studying uncertainty, eventually covered by other subject-spots.

  11. Experimental Design and Some Threats to Experimental Validity: A Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Experimental designs are distinguished as the best method to respond to questions involving causality. The purpose of the present paper is to explicate the logic of experimental design and why it is so vital to questions that demand causal conclusions. In addition, types of internal and external validity threats are discussed. To emphasize the…

  12. Sudoku Squares as Experimental Designs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Sudoku is a popular combinatorial puzzle. We give a brief overview of some mathematical fea- tures of a Sudoku square. Then we focus on in- terpreting Sudoku squares as experimental de- signs in order to meet a practical need. 1. Sudoku Squares and Sudoku Puzzles. The (standard) Sudoku square of order 9 entails a ...

  13. An Introduction to Experimental Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Stanković, Tino; Štorga, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Design research brings together influences from the whole gamut of social, psychological, and more technical sciences to create a tradition of empirical study stretching back over 50 years (Horvath 2004; Cross 2007). A growing part of this empirical tradition is experimental, which has gained...... design researcher. Thus, this book brings together leading researchers from across design research in order to provide the reader with a foundation in experimental design research; an appreciation of possible experimental perspectives; and insight into how experiments can be used to build robust...... and significant scientific knowledge. This chapter sets the stage for these discussions by introducing experimental design research, outlining the various types of experimental approach, and explaining the role of this book in the wider methodological context....

  14. Single-Subject Designs in Special Education: Advantages and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnahdi, Ghaleb H.

    2015-01-01

    Single-subject designs provide the special education field with an alternative to group designs. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the topic of single-subject designs by providing an overview of the relevant literature and a discussion of the major issues and applications of these designs in the field of special education. This paper is…

  15. Descriptive Analysis of Single Subject Research Designs: 1983-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Diana; Gast, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Single subject research methodology is commonly used and cited in special education courses and journals. This article reviews the types of single subject research designs published in eight refereed journals between 1983 and 2007 used to answer applied research questions. Single subject designs were categorized as withdrawal/reversal, time…

  16. The Synthesis of Single-Subject Experimental Data: Extensions of the Basic Multilevel Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Noortgate, Wim; Moeyaert, Mariola; Ugille, Maaike; Beretvas, Tasha; Ferron, John

    2014-01-01

    Due to an increasing interest in the use of single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs), appropriate techniques are needed to analyze this type of data. The purpose of this paper proposal is to present four studies (Beretvas, Hembry, Van den Noortgate, & Ferron, 2013; Bunuan, Hembry & Beretvas, 2013; Moeyaert, Ugille, Ferron, Beretvas,…

  17. An experimentally validated fatigue model for wood subjected to tension perpendicular to the grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    2009-01-01

    This study presents an experimental investigation of fatigue in wood subjected to tension perpendicular to the grain. The study has been designed with special reference to the influence of the frequency of loading. The investigation reveals an interaction between number of load oscillations...

  18. Handbook of statistical methods single subject design

    CERN Document Server

    Satake, Eiki; Maxwell, David L

    2008-01-01

    This book is a practical guide of the most commonly used approaches in analyzing and interpreting single-subject data. It arranges the methodologies used in a logical sequence using an array of research studies from the existing published literature to illustrate specific applications. The book provides a brief discussion of each approach such as visual, inferential, and probabilistic model, the applications for which it is intended, and a step-by-step illustration of the test as used in an actual research study.

  19. Effect Sizes as Result Interpretation Aids in Single-Subject Experimental Research: Description and Application of Four Nonoverlap Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakap, Salih

    2015-01-01

    Single-subject experimental research (SSER), one of the most commonly used research methods in special education and applied behaviour analysis, is a scientific, rigorous and valid method to evaluate the effectiveness of behavioural, educational and psychological treatments. However, studies using single-subject experimental research designs are…

  20. Chemicals-Based Formulation Design: Virtual Experimentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Elisa; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic procedure for virtual experimentations related to the design of liquid formulated products. All the experiments that need to be performed when designing a liquid formulated product (lotion), such as ingredients selection and testing, solubility tests, property mea...... on the design of an insect repellent lotion will show that the software is an essential instrument in decision making, and that it reduces time and resources since experimental efforts can be focused on one or few product alternatives.......This paper presents a systematic procedure for virtual experimentations related to the design of liquid formulated products. All the experiments that need to be performed when designing a liquid formulated product (lotion), such as ingredients selection and testing, solubility tests, property...... measurements, can now be performed through the virtual Product-Process Design laboratory [[1], [2] and [3

  1. Experimental toxicology: Issues of statistics, experimental design, and replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briner, Wayne; Kirwan, Jeral

    2017-01-01

    The difficulty of replicating experiments has drawn considerable attention. Issues with replication occur for a variety of reasons ranging from experimental design to laboratory errors to inappropriate statistical analysis. Here we review a variety of guidelines for statistical analysis, design, and execution of experiments in toxicology. In general, replication can be improved by using hypothesis driven experiments with adequate sample sizes, randomization, and blind data collection techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Yakima Hatchery Experimental Design : Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busack, Craig; Knudsen, Curtis; Marshall, Anne

    1991-08-01

    This progress report details the results and status of Washington Department of Fisheries' (WDF) pre-facility monitoring, research, and evaluation efforts, through May 1991, designed to support the development of an Experimental Design Plan (EDP) for the Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP), previously termed the Yakima/Klickitat Production Project (YKPP or Y/KPP). This pre- facility work has been guided by planning efforts of various research and quality control teams of the project that are annually captured as revisions to the experimental design and pre-facility work plans. The current objective are as follows: to develop genetic monitoring and evaluation approach for the Y/KPP; to evaluate stock identification monitoring tools, approaches, and opportunities available to meet specific objectives of the experimental plan; and to evaluate adult and juvenile enumeration and sampling/collection capabilities in the Y/KPP necessary to measure experimental response variables.

  3. Experimental design optimization for screening relevant free ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimental design methodology was used to optimize the HPLC separation of various relevant phenolic acids from an artificial mixture. The effect of four characteristic factors of the HPLC procedure on the Chromatographic Response Function was investigated by a Central Composite Face-Centred Design and Multi ...

  4. Optimal Bayesian Experimental Design for Combustion Kinetics

    KAUST Repository

    Huan, Xun

    2011-01-04

    Experimental diagnostics play an essential role in the development and refinement of chemical kinetic models, whether for the combustion of common complex hydrocarbons or of emerging alternative fuels. Questions of experimental design—e.g., which variables or species to interrogate, at what resolution and under what conditions—are extremely important in this context, particularly when experimental resources are limited. This paper attempts to answer such questions in a rigorous and systematic way. We propose a Bayesian framework for optimal experimental design with nonlinear simulation-based models. While the framework is broadly applicable, we use it to infer rate parameters in a combustion system with detailed kinetics. The framework introduces a utility function that reflects the expected information gain from a particular experiment. Straightforward evaluation (and maximization) of this utility function requires Monte Carlo sampling, which is infeasible with computationally intensive models. Instead, we construct a polynomial surrogate for the dependence of experimental observables on model parameters and design conditions, with the help of dimension-adaptive sparse quadrature. Results demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the surrogate, as well as the considerable effectiveness of the experimental design framework in choosing informative experimental conditions.

  5. Experimental design in chromatography: a tutorial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbert, D Brynn

    2012-12-01

    The ability of a chromatographic method to successful separate, identify and quantitate species is determined by many factors, many of which are in the control of the experimenter. When attempting to discover the important factors and then optimise a response by tuning these factors, experimental design (design of experiments, DoE) gives a powerful suite of statistical methodology. Advantages include modelling by empirical functions, not requiring detailed knowledge of the underlying physico-chemical properties of the system, a defined number of experiments to be performed, and available software to accomplish the task. Two uses of DoE in chromatography are for showing lack of significant effects in robustness studies for method validation, and for identifying significant factors and then optimising a response with respect to them in method development. Plackett-Burman designs are widely used in validation studies, and fractional factorial designs and their extensions such as central composite designs are the most popular optimisers. Box-Behnken and Doehlert designs are becoming more used as efficient alternatives. If it is not possible to practically realise values of the factors required by experimental designs, or if there is a constraint on the total number of experiments that can be done, then D-optimal designs can be very powerful. Examples of the use of DoE in chromatography are reviewed. Recommendations are given on how to report DoE studies in the literature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Experimental design in chemistry: A tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leardi, Riccardo

    2009-10-12

    In this tutorial the main concepts and applications of experimental design in chemistry will be explained. Unfortunately, nowadays experimental design is not as known and applied as it should be, and many papers can be found in which the "optimization" of a procedure is performed one variable at a time. Goal of this paper is to show the real advantages in terms of reduced experimental effort and of increased quality of information that can be obtained if this approach is followed. To do that, three real examples will be shown. Rather than on the mathematical aspects, this paper will focus on the mental attitude required by experimental design. The readers being interested to deepen their knowledge of the mathematical and algorithmical part can find very good books and tutorials in the references [G.E.P. Box, W.G. Hunter, J.S. Hunter, Statistics for Experimenters: An Introduction to Design, Data Analysis, and Model Building, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1978; R. Brereton, Chemometrics: Data Analysis for the Laboratory and Chemical Plant, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1978; R. Carlson, J.E. Carlson, Design and Optimization in Organic Synthesis: Second Revised and Enlarged Edition, in: Data Handling in Science and Technology, vol. 24, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2005; J.A. Cornell, Experiments with Mixtures: Designs, Models and the Analysis of Mixture Data, in: Series in Probability and Statistics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1991; R.E. Bruns, I.S. Scarminio, B. de Barros Neto, Statistical Design-Chemometrics, in: Data Handling in Science and Technology, vol. 25, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2006; D.C. Montgomery, Design and Analysis of Experiments, 7th edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2009; T. Lundstedt, E. Seifert, L. Abramo, B. Thelin, A. Nyström, J. Pettersen, R. Bergman, Chemolab 42 (1998) 3; Y. Vander Heyden, LC-GC Europe 19 (9) (2006) 469].

  7. Human Factors Experimental Design and Analysis Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    8.75 83.36 8 =where, tObserved YPD = 53.75 YSD = 62.00 3.6.5. Within-Subjects t-Test (Cont’d) (Click in this red rectangle to see SAS calculations...expands computer experience into 3 levels, High, Medium , and Low, as compared to the original example that used only 2 levels of computer experience...High and Low. In this example, each of the 80 subjects who used the experimental text editor rated their computer experience as high, medium , or

  8. Experimental design matters for statistical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Signe Marie; Schaarschmidt, Frank; Onofri, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    , the experimental design is often more or less neglected when analyzing data. Two data examples were analyzed using different modelling strategies: Firstly, in a randomized complete block design, mean heights of maize treated with a herbicide and one of several adjuvants were compared. Secondly, translocation......BACKGROUND: Nowadays, the evaluation of effects of pesticides often relies on experimental designs that involve multiple concentrations of the pesticide of interest or multiple pesticides at specific comparable concentrations and, possibly, secondary factors of interest. Unfortunately...... of an insecticide applied to maize as a seed treatment was evaluated using incomplete data from an unbalanced design with several layers of hierarchical sampling. Extensive simulations were carried out to further substantiate the effects of different modelling strategies. RESULTS: It was shown that results from sub...

  9. Experimental design research approaches, perspectives, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stanković, Tino; Štorga, Mario

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a new, multidisciplinary perspective on and paradigm for integrative experimental design research. It addresses various perspectives on methods, analysis and overall research approach, and how they can be synthesized to advance understanding of design. It explores the foundations of experimental approaches and their utility in this domain, and brings together analytical approaches to promote an integrated understanding. The book also investigates where these approaches lead to and how they link design research more fully with other disciplines (e.g. psychology, cognition, sociology, computer science, management). Above all, the book emphasizes the integrative nature of design research in terms of the methods, theories, and units of study—from the individual to the organizational level. Although this approach offers many advantages, it has inherently led to a situation in current research practice where methods are diverging and integration between individual, team and organizational under...

  10. Creating single-subject design graphs in Microsoft Excel 2007

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dixon, Mark R; Jackson, James W; Small, Stacey L; Horner-King, Mollie J; Lik, Nicholas Mui Ker; Garcia, Yors; Rosales, Rocio

    2009-01-01

    .... The task analyses were evaluated using a between-subjects design that compared the graphing skills of 22 behavior-analytic graduate students using Excel 2007 and either the Carr and Burkholder...

  11. Fully Bayesian Experimental Design for Pharmacokinetic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth G. Ryan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Utility functions in Bayesian experimental design are usually based on the posterior distribution. When the posterior is found by simulation, it must be sampled from for each future dataset drawn from the prior predictive distribution. Many thousands of posterior distributions are often required. A popular technique in the Bayesian experimental design literature, which rapidly obtains samples from the posterior, is importance sampling, using the prior as the importance distribution. However, importance sampling from the prior will tend to break down if there is a reasonable number of experimental observations. In this paper, we explore the use of Laplace approximations in the design setting to overcome this drawback. Furthermore, we consider using the Laplace approximation to form the importance distribution to obtain a more efficient importance distribution than the prior. The methodology is motivated by a pharmacokinetic study, which investigates the effect of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation on the pharmacokinetics of antibiotics in sheep. The design problem is to find 10 near optimal plasma sampling times that produce precise estimates of pharmacokinetic model parameters/measures of interest. We consider several different utility functions of interest in these studies, which involve the posterior distribution of parameter functions.

  12. A new approach to assessing intra-subject variability in single-subject designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Borodkin

    2014-04-01

    to very high across sessions (.47 to .99. There were low to very high correlations between the percentage of grammatical sentences across testing times (.27 to .93 and across sessions (.02 to .95. The number of different verbs showed adequate to very high correlations across testing times (.75 to .99 and marginal to very high correlations across sessions (.69 to .99. Conclusions: The findings indicate that repeated testing using identical and comparable materials result in correlations of similar magnitude, suggesting that comparable and identical testing materials yield similar information about intra-individual variability in performance. Given these findings, it seems methodologically sound to use non-identical stimuli to establish stability in performance and in this way minimize practice effects in testing procedures for patients with aphasia. McReynolds, L. V., & Thompson, C. K. (1986. Flexibility of Single-Subject Experimental Designs. Part I: Review of the Basics of Single-Subject Designs. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 51(3, 194-203. doi: 10.1044/jshd.5103.194 Strauss, E., Sherman, E. M. S., & Spreen, O. (2006. A compendium of neuropsychological tests: Administration, norms, and commentary. New York: Oxford University Press.

  13. Chemical-Based Formulation Design: Virtual Experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Elisa; Gani, Rafiqul

    of databases with data of AIs used in different products (such as insect repellents), solvents classified in terms of special characteristics (such as solubility in water), and additives classified in terms of their application (such as aroma agents, wetting agents and preservatives). In addition, the software......This paper presents a software, the virtual Product-Process Design laboratory (virtual PPD-lab) and the virtual experimental scenarios for design/verification of consumer oriented liquid formulated products where the software can be used. For example, the software can be employed for the design......; the addition of the missing chemicals to an incomplete formulation and the verification of the final product. The software is based on a framework that allows quick implementation of different design/verification work-flows and their associated models, methods, tools and data. The software contains a suite...

  14. Involving students in experimental design: three approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, A P; Silverthorn, D U; Stratton, D B

    1998-12-01

    Many faculty want to involve students more actively in laboratories and in experimental design. However, just "turning them loose in the lab" is time-consuming and can be frustrating for both students and faculty. We describe three different ways of providing structures for labs that require students to design their own experiments but guide the choices. One approach emphasizes invertebrate preparations and classic techniques that students can learn fairly easily. Students must read relevant primary literature and learn each technique in one week, and then design and carry out their own experiments in the next week. Another approach provides a "design framework" for the experiments so that all students are using the same technique and the same statistical comparisons, whereas their experimental questions differ widely. The third approach involves assigning the questions or problems but challenging students to design good protocols to answer these questions. In each case, there is a mixture of structure and freedom that works for the level of the students, the resources available, and our particular aims.

  15. Sequential experimental design based generalised ANOVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Souvik, E-mail: csouvik41@gmail.com; Chowdhury, Rajib, E-mail: rajibfce@iitr.ac.in

    2016-07-15

    Over the last decade, surrogate modelling technique has gained wide popularity in the field of uncertainty quantification, optimization, model exploration and sensitivity analysis. This approach relies on experimental design to generate training points and regression/interpolation for generating the surrogate. In this work, it is argued that conventional experimental design may render a surrogate model inefficient. In order to address this issue, this paper presents a novel distribution adaptive sequential experimental design (DA-SED). The proposed DA-SED has been coupled with a variant of generalised analysis of variance (G-ANOVA), developed by representing the component function using the generalised polynomial chaos expansion. Moreover, generalised analytical expressions for calculating the first two statistical moments of the response, which are utilized in predicting the probability of failure, have also been developed. The proposed approach has been utilized in predicting probability of failure of three structural mechanics problems. It is observed that the proposed approach yields accurate and computationally efficient estimate of the failure probability.

  16. Vulnerable subjects? The case of nonhuman animals in experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jane

    2013-12-01

    The concept of vulnerability is deployed in bioethics to, amongst other things, identify and remedy harms to participants in research, yet although nonhuman animals in experimentation seem intuitively to be vulnerable, this concept and its attendant protections are rarely applied to research animals. I want to argue, however, that this concept is applicable to nonhuman animals and that a new taxonomy of vulnerability developed in the context of human bioethics can be applied to research animals. This taxonomy does useful explanatory work, helping to pinpoint the limitations of the 3Rs/welfare approach currently adopted in the context of animal experimentation. On this account, the 3Rs/welfare approach fails to deliver for nonhuman animals in experimentation because it effectively addresses only one element of their vulnerability (inherent) and paradoxically through the institution of Animal Ethics Committees intended to protect experimental animals in fact generates new vulnerabilities that exacerbate their already precarious situation.

  17. POBE: A Computer Program for Optimal Design of Multi-Subject Blocked fMRI Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bärbel Maus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies, researchers can use multi-subject blocked designs to identify active brain regions for a certain stimulus type of interest. Before performing such an experiment, careful planning is necessary to obtain efficient stimulus effect estimators within the available financial resources. The optimal number of subjects and the optimal scanning time for a multi-subject blocked design with fixed experimental costs can be determined using optimal design methods. In this paper, the user-friendly computer program POBE 1.2 (program for optimal design of blocked experiments, version 1.2 is presented. POBE provides a graphical user interface for fMRI researchers to easily and efficiently design their experiments. The computer program POBE calculates the optimal number of subjects and the optimal scanning time for user specified experimental factors and model parameters so that the statistical efficiency is maximised for a given study budget. POBE can also be used to determine the minimum budget for a given power. Furthermore, a maximin design can be determined as efficient design for a possible range of values for the unknown model parameters. In this paper, the computer program is described and illustrated with typical experimental factors for a blocked fMRI experiment.

  18. Subjective knowledge and fear appeal effectiveness: implications for message design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Robin L; Roskos-Ewoldsen, David; Carpentier, Francesca Dillman

    2008-01-01

    This research investigates the role of perceived health knowledge on the effectiveness of fear-based persuasive appeals. Undergraduates (N = 263) read a strong fear, weak fear, or efficacy-only message encouraging breast or testicular self-examination. As expected, results indicated that men high in subjective knowledge were less reactant and more persuaded by the efficacy-only message whereas those low in subjective knowledge did not evidence this pattern. Contrary to expectation, women high in subjective knowledge had comparable reactions to each of the 3 messages. Implications for fear appeal theory and message design are discussed.

  19. The Subjective Sensation of Synchrony: An Experimental Study

    KAUST Repository

    Llobera, Joan

    2016-02-12

    People performing actions together have a natural tendency to synchronize their behavior. Consistently, people doing a task together build internal representations not only of their actions and goals, but also of the other people performing the task. However, little is known about which are the behavioral mechanisms and the psychological factors affecting the subjective sensation of synchrony, or “connecting” with someone else. In this work, we sought to find which factors induce the subjective sensation of synchrony, combining motion capture data and psychological measures. Our results show that the subjective sensation of synchrony is affected by performance quality together with task category, and time. Psychological factors such as empathy and negative subjective affects also correlate with the subjective sensation of synchrony. However, when people estimate synchrony as seen from a third person perspective, their psychological factors do not affect the accuracy of the estimation. We suggest that to feel this sensation it is necessary to, first, have a good joint performance and, second, to assume the existence of an attention monitoring mechanism that reports that the attention of both participants (self and other) is focused on the task.

  20. Critical thinking at primary school design and technology subject

    OpenAIRE

    Zalar, Jona

    2017-01-01

    Thesis aims to present the state of critical thinking at primary school Design and Technology classes. First, we provide critical thinking definitions in everyday life as it has a key importance role for leading an efficient and quality lifestyle. Further characteristics that a critical thinker has to possess are presented. The guidelines for critical thinking teaching methods are briefly presented. For the field of design and technology subject no particular research focused on critical thin...

  1. The Designer-by-Assignment in Practice: Instructional Design Thinking of Subject Matter Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, Sandra V.

    2012-01-01

    Designers-by-assignment, or subject matter experts (SMEs) who are pressed into training service, have become common in the workplace. A review of more than 24 studies on expert and novice instructional designers, however, revealed that little is known about how designers-by-assignment think about design and make design decisions in the field. A…

  2. Fish Attraction Devices (FADs and experimental designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Kingsford

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available There is widespread use of fish attraction devices (FADs in commercial fisheries and research. Investigations on the utility of FADs to catch fishes, and factors influencing fishes associated with FADs, require careful consideration of experimental designs. The development of appropriate models, from observations and the literature, should be developed before hypotheses can be tested with robust sampling designs. Robust sampling designs may only be possible if investigators have some role in the planning stage of deploying FADs. If the objective of the study is to determine the influence of FADs on assemblages of fishes, then experimenters need to consider that a `FAD-effect´ (=impact cannot be demonstrated without controls. Some preliminary studies may be required to determine the spatial extent of a FAD-effect before suitable sites can be chosen for controls. Other controls may also be necessary, depending on the method used to estimate numbers of fishes (e.g. controls for disturbance. Recent advances in sampling designs that are applicable to impact studies are discussed. Beyond-BACI (Before After Control Impact and MBACI (Multiple BACI designs are recommended because they cater for temporal and spatial variation in the abundance of organisms, which is generally great for pelagic fishes. The utility of orthogonal sampling designs is emphasised as a means of elucidating the influence of multiple factors and, importantly, interactions between them. Further, nested analyses are suggested to deal with multiple temporal and/or spatial time scales in sampling designs. The independence of replicate FADs should also be considered. Problems of independence include: FADs that are connected, thus providing potential routes of movement of associated fishes; temporal dependence where the number of fish at a time influences the number at the next time due to fish becoming residents; and the fact that the proximity of other FADs may influence numbers of

  3. Comparison of a Stimulus Equivalence Protocol and Traditional Lecture for Teaching Single-Subject Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, Sadie; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne; Garcia, Yors; Dunning, Johnna

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the effects of a computer-based stimulus equivalence protocol to a traditional lecture format in teaching single-subject experimental design concepts to undergraduate students. Participants were assigned to either an equivalence or a lecture group, and performance on a paper-and-pencil test that targeted relations among the…

  4. Effect Size for Single-Subject Design in Phonological Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.; Dickinson, Stephanie L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to document, validate, and corroborate effect size (ES) for single­-subject design in treatment of children with functional phonological disorders; to evaluate potential child-­specific contributing variables relative to ES; and to establish benchmarks for interpretation of ES for the population. Method: Data…

  5. Bayesian Hypothesis Testing for Single-Subject Designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Rivka M.; Morey, Richard D.

    Researchers using single-subject designs are typically interested in score differences between intervention phases, such as differences in means or trends. If intervention effects are suspected in data, it is desirable to determine how much evidence the data show for an intervention effect. In

  6. Design for subjective well-being in interior architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petermans, A.; Pohlmeyer, A.E.

    2014-01-01

    Can interior environments engage people in pleasurable and meaningful experiences and thereby have a positive influence on their happiness? This paper discusses why and how interior architects might want to consider implementing ideas in relation to ‘design for subjective well-being’. Despite of

  7. Creating single-subject design graphs in Microsoft Excel 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark R; Jackson, James W; Small, Stacey L; Horner-King, Mollie J; Lik, Nicholas Mui Ker; Garcia, Yors; Rosales, Rocio

    2009-01-01

    Over 10 years have passed since the publication of Carr and Burkholder's (1998) technical article on how to construct single-subject graphs using Microsoft Excel. Over the course of the past decade, the Excel program has undergone a series of revisions that make the Carr and Burkholder paper somewhat difficult to follow with newer versions. The present article provides task analyses for constructing various types of commonly used single-subject design graphs in Microsoft Excel 2007. The task analyses were evaluated using a between-subjects design that compared the graphing skills of 22 behavior-analytic graduate students using Excel 2007 and either the Carr and Burkholder or newly developed task analyses. Results indicate that the new task analyses yielded more accurate and faster graph construction than the Carr and Burkholder instructions.

  8. Set membership experimental design for biological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvel Skylar W

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental design approaches for biological systems are needed to help conserve the limited resources that are allocated for performing experiments. The assumptions used when assigning probability density functions to characterize uncertainty in biological systems are unwarranted when only a small number of measurements can be obtained. In these situations, the uncertainty in biological systems is more appropriately characterized in a bounded-error context. Additionally, effort must be made to improve the connection between modelers and experimentalists by relating design metrics to biologically relevant information. Bounded-error experimental design approaches that can assess the impact of additional measurements on model uncertainty are needed to identify the most appropriate balance between the collection of data and the availability of resources. Results In this work we develop a bounded-error experimental design framework for nonlinear continuous-time systems when few data measurements are available. This approach leverages many of the recent advances in bounded-error parameter and state estimation methods that use interval analysis to generate parameter sets and state bounds consistent with uncertain data measurements. We devise a novel approach using set-based uncertainty propagation to estimate measurement ranges at candidate time points. We then use these estimated measurements at the candidate time points to evaluate which candidate measurements furthest reduce model uncertainty. A method for quickly combining multiple candidate time points is presented and allows for determining the effect of adding multiple measurements. Biologically relevant metrics are developed and used to predict when new data measurements should be acquired, which system components should be measured and how many additional measurements should be obtained. Conclusions The practicability of our approach is illustrated with a case study. This

  9. Positive design : An introduction to design for subjective well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desmet, P.M.A.; Pohlmeyer, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of how design can contribute to the happiness of individuals–to their subjective well-being. A framework for positive design is introduced that includes three main components of subjective well-being: pleasure, personal significance and virtue. Each component

  10. REFERENCE POINTS IN CURRICULUM DESIGN: GEOGRAPHY AS A SCHOOL SUBJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian MÂNDRUŢ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is theoretical and exploratory. It aims to describe a reference system which should determine or influence the decisions for the new curriculum design. The example of geography as a subject matter (or, in a wider perspective, of a field of study called “Geography – Environmental Studies” reveals specific elements resulting from the characteristics of the interior structure. The reference system may be altered, reduced, amplified, categorized or adjusted with respect to other subjects or fields of study, that are at least similar. The example of the “vertical” curriculum of Geography (grades V – XII relies upon a system of outcomes (competencies in progression (according to levels and ages and it depends on the time horizon of the design. Consequently, different options might come out within the process. Nevertheless, the curriculum depends a lot on the paradigm of its design: with a scientific dominance (with a likely minimal individual human insertion or with a subjective touch, as a result of some individual or group opinions which are more or less justified.

  11. D-Optimal Experimental Design for Contaminant Source Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Baba, A. K.; Alexanderian, A.

    2016-12-01

    Contaminant source identification seeks to estimate the release history of a conservative solute given point concentration measurements at some time after the release. This can be mathematically expressed as an inverse problem, with a linear observation operator or a parameter-to-observation map, which we tackle using a Bayesian approach. Acquisition of experimental data can be laborious and expensive. The goal is to control the experimental parameters - in our case, the sparsity of the sensors, to maximize the information gain subject to some physical or budget constraints. This is known as optimal experimental design (OED). D-optimal experimental design seeks to maximize the expected information gain, and has long been considered the gold standard in the statistics community. Our goal is to develop scalable methods for D-optimal experimental designs involving large-scale PDE constrained problems with high-dimensional parameter fields. A major challenge for the OED, is that a nonlinear optimization algorithm for the D-optimality criterion requires repeated evaluation of objective function and gradient involving the determinant of large and dense matrices - this cost can be prohibitively expensive for applications of interest. We propose novel randomized matrix techniques that bring down the computational costs of the objective function and gradient evaluations by several orders of magnitude compared to the naive approach. The effect of randomized estimators on the accuracy and the convergence of the optimization solver will be discussed. The features and benefits of our new approach will be demonstrated on a challenging model problem from contaminant source identification involving the inference of the initial condition from spatio-temporal observations in a time-dependent advection-diffusion problem.

  12. Two-stage microbial community experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickle, Timothy L; Segata, Nicola; Waldron, Levi; Weingart, Uri; Huttenhower, Curtis

    2013-12-01

    Microbial community samples can be efficiently surveyed in high throughput by sequencing markers such as the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Often, a collection of samples is then selected for subsequent metagenomic, metabolomic or other follow-up. Two-stage study design has long been used in ecology but has not yet been studied in-depth for high-throughput microbial community investigations. To avoid ad hoc sample selection, we developed and validated several purposive sample selection methods for two-stage studies (that is, biological criteria) targeting differing types of microbial communities. These methods select follow-up samples from large community surveys, with criteria including samples typical of the initially surveyed population, targeting specific microbial clades or rare species, maximizing diversity, representing extreme or deviant communities, or identifying communities distinct or discriminating among environment or host phenotypes. The accuracies of each sampling technique and their influences on the characteristics of the resulting selected microbial community were evaluated using both simulated and experimental data. Specifically, all criteria were able to identify samples whose properties were accurately retained in 318 paired 16S amplicon and whole-community metagenomic (follow-up) samples from the Human Microbiome Project. Some selection criteria resulted in follow-up samples that were strongly non-representative of the original survey population; diversity maximization particularly undersampled community configurations. Only selection of intentionally representative samples minimized differences in the selected sample set from the original microbial survey. An implementation is provided as the microPITA (Microbiomes: Picking Interesting Taxa for Analysis) software for two-stage study design of microbial communities.

  13. Designing Awe in Virtual Reality: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Chirico

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Awe is a little-studied emotion with a great transformative potential. Therefore, the interest toward the study of awe’s underlying mechanisms has been increased. Specifically, researchers have been interested in how to reproduce intense feelings of awe within laboratory conditions. It has been proposed that the use of virtual reality (VR could be an effective way to induce awe in controlled experimental settings, thanks to its ability of providing participants with a sense of “presence,” that is, the subjective feeling of being displaced in another physical or imaginary place. However, the potential of VR as awe-inducing medium has not been fully tested yet. In the present study, we provided an evidence-based design and a validation of four immersive virtual environments (VEs involving 36 participants in a within-subject design. Of these, three VEs were designed to induce awe, whereas the fourth VE was targeted as an emotionally neutral stimulus. Participants self-reported the extent to which they felt awe, general affect and sense of presence related to each environment. As expected, results showed that awe-VEs could induce significantly higher levels of awe and presence as compared to the neutral VE. Furthermore, these VEs induced significantly more positive than negative affect. These findings supported the potential of immersive VR for inducing awe and provide useful indications for the design of awe-inspiring virtual environments.

  14. Bayesian hypothesis testing for single-subject designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Rivka M; Morey, Richard D

    2013-06-01

    Researchers using single-subject designs are typically interested in score differences between intervention phases, such as differences in means or trends. If intervention effects are suspected in data, it is desirable to determine how much evidence the data show for an intervention effect. In Bayesian statistics, Bayes factors quantify the evidence in the data for competing hypotheses. We introduce new Bayes factor tests for single-subject data with 2 phases, taking serial dependency into account: a time-series extension of Rouder, Speckman, Sun, Morey, and Iverson's (2009) Jeffreys-Zellner-Siow Bayes factor for mean differences, and a time-series Bayes factor for testing differences in intercepts and slopes. The models we describe are closely related to interrupted time-series models (McDowall, McCleary, Meidinger, & Hay, 1980). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Designing of Timber Bolt Connection Subjected To Double Unequal Shears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musilek, Josef; Plachy, Jan

    2017-10-01

    The paper deals with load-carrying capacity of bolted connections subjected to unequal double shear with thin plates as outer members and inner timber member. This type of connection is usually widespread and in building support structures made of wood is commonly used. This may occur for example in skeletal structures which contain structural elements based on wood, but also for smaller wooden buildings. Specifically, this type of connection can be found in ceiling structures in the joint joists and beams. If one joist greater margin than the second, bringing the load on the side of the joists of a larger span greater loads than on the side with a smaller span joist. Structure engineer, who is designing such a connection, must use for the design of the connection design procedures and formulas from which he or she calculates the design resistance in order to carry out further assessment of the reliability of the connection in the ultimate limit state. The load-carrying capacity of this connections type can be calculated at present according to Johansen’s equations, which are also contained in present European standard for the design timber structures -Eurocode 5. These Johansen’s equations assume that the loads which act on the outer plates are equal. For this reason, the structure engineer is often forced to use formulas intended for the timber bolt connection subjected to double equal shear and he or she must find ways how to use them although the formulas are not suitable. This paper deals with the case, when the loads acting on the outer plates are unequal.

  16. Design of an Annular Disc Subject to Thermomechanical Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Alexandrov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two solutions to design a thin annular disc of variable thickness subject to thermomechanical loading are proposed. It is assumed that the thickness of the disc is everywhere sufficiently small for the stresses to be averaged through the thickness. The state of stress is plane. The initiation of plastic yielding is controlled by Mises yield criterion. The design criterion for one of the solutions proposed requires that the distribution of stresses is uniform over the entire disc. In this case there is a relation between optimal values of the loading parameters at the final stage. The specific shape of the disc corresponds to each pair of such parameters. The other solution is obtained under the additional requirement that the distribution of strains is uniform. This solution exists for the disc of constant thickness at specific values of the loading parameters.

  17. Autonomous entropy-based intelligent experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakar, Nabin Kumar

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this thesis is to explore the application of probability and information theory in experimental design, and to do so in a way that combines what we know about inference and inquiry in a comprehensive and consistent manner. Present day scientific frontiers involve data collection at an ever-increasing rate. This requires that we find a way to collect the most relevant data in an automated fashion. By following the logic of the scientific method, we couple an inference engine with an inquiry engine to automate the iterative process of scientific learning. The inference engine involves Bayesian machine learning techniques to estimate model parameters based upon both prior information and previously collected data, while the inquiry engine implements data-driven exploration. By choosing an experiment whose distribution of expected results has the maximum entropy, the inquiry engine selects the experiment that maximizes the expected information gain. The coupled inference and inquiry engines constitute an autonomous learning method for scientific exploration. We apply it to a robotic arm to demonstrate the efficacy of the method. Optimizing inquiry involves searching for an experiment that promises, on average, to be maximally informative. If the set of potential experiments is described by many parameters, the search involves a high-dimensional entropy space. In such cases, a brute force search method will be slow and computationally expensive. We develop an entropy-based search algorithm, called nested entropy sampling, to select the most informative experiment. This helps to reduce the number of computations necessary to find the optimal experiment. We also extended the method of maximizing entropy, and developed a method of maximizing joint entropy so that it could be used as a principle of collaboration between two robots. This is a major achievement of this thesis, as it allows the information-based collaboration between two robotic units towards a same

  18. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Fiber Reinforced Laminated Composites Subject to Low-Velocity Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsson, Solver I.

    Foreign object impact on composite materials continues to be an active field due to its importance in the design of load bearing composite aerostructures. The problem has been studied by many through the decades. Extensive experimental studies have been performed to characterize the impact damage and failure mechanisms. Leaders in aerospace industry are pushing for reliable, robust and efficient computational methods for predicting impact response of composite structures. Experimental and numerical investigations on the impact response of fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite (FRPC) laminates are presented. A detailed face-on and edge-on impact experimental study is presented. A novel method for conducting coupon-level edge-on impact experiments is introduced. The research is focused on impact energy levels that are in the vicinity of the barely visible impact damage (BVID) limit of the material system. A detailed post-impact damage study is presented where non-destructive inspection (NDI) methods such as ultrasound scanning and computed tomography (CT) are used. Detailed fractography studies are presented for further investigation of the through-the-thickness damage due to the impact event. Following the impact study, specimens are subjected to compression after impact (CAI) to establish the effect of BVID on the compressive strength after impact (CSAI). A modified combined loading compression (CLC) test method is proposed for compression testing following an edge-on impact. Experimental work on the rate sensitivity of the mode I and mode II inter-laminar fracture toughness is also investigated. An improved wedge-insert fracture (WIF) method for conducting mode I inter-laminar fracture at elevated loading rates is introduced. Based on the experimental results, a computational modeling approach for capturing face-on impact and CAI is developed. The model is then extended to edge-on impact and CAI. Enhanced Schapery Theory (EST) is utilized for modeling the full

  19. Control Design of Active Magnetic Bearings for Rotors Subjected to Destabilising Seal Forces - Theory & Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Jonas Skjødt

    advantages over traditional types of bearings, including: no mechanical contact, no lubrication, low maintenance, low vibration level, high rotational speed and low energy consumption. These advantagesmake AMBs especially useful in challenging environments, for instance in subsea turbomachinery applications....... The main original contribution of the thesis is the framework for design of model based controllers for AMB systems subjected to uncertainand changing dynamic seal forces. An identification method has been developed, and experimentally validated, to obtain precise models of Linear Fractional Transformation...

  20. Shared Knowledge among Graphic Designers, Instructional Designers and Subject Matter Experts in Designing Multimedia-Based Instructional Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Rafiza Abdul

    2013-01-01

    The research identified and explored the shared knowledge among the instructional multimedia design and development experts comprising of subject matter expert, graphic designer and instructional designer. The knowledge shared by the team was categorized into three groups of multimedia design principles encompasses of basic principles, authoring…

  1. Web Based Learning Support for Experimental Design in Molecular Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmsen, Tinri; Bisseling, Ton; Hartog, Rob

    An important learning goal of a molecular biology curriculum is a certain proficiency level in experimental design. Currently students are confronted with experimental approaches in textbooks, in lectures and in the laboratory. However, most students do not reach a satisfactory level of competence in the design of experimental approaches. This…

  2. The researcher as experimental subject: using self-experimentation to access experiences, understand social phenomena, and stimulate reflexivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Kevin; Reddy, Geetha; Choi, Ellen; Gillespie, Alex

    2015-06-01

    The current article argues that researcher-as-subject self-experimentation can provide valuable insight and systematic knowledge to social psychologists. This approach, the modus operandi of experimental psychology when the field was in its infancy, has been largely eclipsed by an almost exclusive focus on participant-as-subject other-experimentation. Drawing from the non-experimental first-person traditions of autoethnography, participant observation, and phenomenology, we argue that participating as both observer and subject within one's own social psychological experiment affords researchers at least three potential benefits: (1) access to "social qualia," that is, the subjective experience of social phenomena; (2) improved mental models of social phenomena, potentially stimulating new research questions; and (3) an enhanced ability to be reflexive about the given experiment. To support our position, we provide first-person self-reflections from researchers who have self-experimented with transformed social interactions involving Milgram's cyranoid method. We close by offering guidelines on how one might approach self-experimentation, and discuss a variety of first-person perspective ethnographic technologies that can be incorporated into the practice.

  3. Experimental Device for Learning of Logical Circuit Design using Integrated Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    石橋, 孝昭

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental device for learning of logical circuit design using integrated circuits and breadboards. The experimental device can be made at a low cost and can be used for many subjects such as logical circuits, computer engineering, basic electricity, electrical circuits and electronic circuits. The proposed device is effective to learn the logical circuits than the usual lecture.

  4. HEW Proposed Policy on the Protection of Human Subjects: Experimentation and the Institutionalized Mentally Disabled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington University Law Quarterly, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Underlying bases for federal interest in experimentation on human subjects, including abuses of investigative processes and efforts at regulation, are explored. Focus is on recent HEW rules on the protection of human subjects, which will have a significant impact on many research institutions. (LBH)

  5. Comparison of Nonoverlap Methods for Identifying Treatment Effect in Single-Subject Experimental Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakap, Salih; Snyder, Patricia; Pasia, Cathleen

    2014-01-01

    Debate is occurring about which result interpretation aides focused on examining the experimental effect should be used in single-subject experimental research. In this study, we examined seven nonoverlap methods and compared results using each method to judgments of two visual analysts. The data sources for the present study were 36 studies…

  6. Development of the Biological Experimental Design Concept Inventory (BEDCI)

    OpenAIRE

    Deane, Thomas; Nomme, Kathy; Jeffery, Erica; Pollock, Carol; Birol, Gülnur

    2014-01-01

    Interest in student conception of experimentation inspired the development of a fully validated 14-question inventory on experimental design in biology (BEDCI) by following established best practices in concept inventory (CI) design. This CI can be used to diagnose specific examples of non–expert-like thinking in students and to evaluate the success of teaching strategies that target conceptual changes. We used BEDCI to diagnose non–expert-like student thinking in experimental design at the p...

  7. Conceptual design report, CEBAF basic experimental equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-04-13

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) will be dedicated to basic research in Nuclear Physics using electrons and photons as projectiles. The accelerator configuration allows three nearly continuous beams to be delivered simultaneously in three experimental halls, which will be equipped with complementary sets of instruments: Hall A--two high resolution magnetic spectrometers; Hall B--a large acceptance magnetic spectrometer; Hall C--a high-momentum, moderate resolution, magnetic spectrometer and a variety of more dedicated instruments. This report contains a short description of the initial complement of experimental equipment to be installed in each of the three halls.

  8. Being slower, feeling older? Experimentally induced cognitive aging experiences have limited impact on subjective age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrian, Martina; Wahl, Hans-Werner

    2017-06-01

    Initial experimental research has shown that subjective age may change in response to induced aging experiences, but replication and extension are needed. The present study investigates if age-related cognitive gain or loss experiences evoke decreases/increases in subjective age. A multidimensional subjective age measure was used to explore domain-specific internalization effects. 78 individuals aged 59-70 years were randomly assigned to two experimental conditions and a control group. Participants took a cognitive attention test and received gain-oriented feedback on their accuracy or loss-oriented feedback on their processing speed. A mixed factors analysis of covariance was used to examine changes in feel age, look age, do age, and interest age. After being primed with age-related losses, participants reported older do ages as compared to before the experimental priming. Priming age-related gains had only a marginally significant effect on do age. All other subjective age dimensions remained unaffected by the experimental priming. Although previous research has shown that subjective age can be manipulated experimentally, findings from the present study underscore that a comprehensive and cross-domain improvement of subjective age may require personally relevant and repeated experiences of age-related gains.

  9. The Effect of Applying Elements of Instructional Design on Teaching Material for the Subject of Classification of Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdilek, Zehra; Ozkan, Muhlis

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of instructional materials for the subject of classification of matter as solids, liquids and gases that were developed using a holistic instructional design model on student achievement. In the study a pre-test/post-test with control group experimental design was used. The study was conducted in the…

  10. Design of Formulated Products: Experimental Component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Elisa; Gani, Rafiqul; Cheng, Y. S.

    2012-01-01

    A systematic methodology for the design and verification of chemical-based products is proposed. By integrating modeling, and experiments, the search space is efficiently scanned to identify the feasible product candidates. The product design (or verification) problem consists of three stages: co...... and a sunscreen lotion....

  11. Optimization and Design of Experimental Bipedal Robot

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zezula, P.; Grepl, Robert

    -, A1 (2005), s. 293-300 ISSN 1210-2717. [Mechatronics, Robot ics and Biomechanics 2005. Třešť, 26.09.2005-29.09.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : walking machine * biped robot * computational modelling Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robot ics

  12. Experimental Validation of an Integrated Controls-Structures Design Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghami, Peiman G.; Gupta, Sandeep; Elliot, Kenny B.; Walz, Joseph E.

    1996-01-01

    The first experimental validation of an integrated controls-structures design methodology for a class of large order, flexible space structures is described. Integrated redesign of the controls-structures-interaction evolutionary model, a laboratory testbed at NASA Langley, was described earlier. The redesigned structure was fabricated, assembled in the laboratory, and experimentally tested against the original structure. Experimental results indicate that the structure redesigned using the integrated design methodology requires significantly less average control power than the nominal structure with control-optimized designs, while maintaining the required line-of-sight pointing performance. Thus, the superiority of the integrated design methodology over the conventional design approach is experimentally demonstrated. Furthermore, amenability of the integrated design structure to other control strategies is evaluated, both analytically and experimentally. Using Linear-Quadratic-Guassian optimal dissipative controllers, it is observed that the redesigned structure leads to significantly improved performance with alternate controllers as well.

  13. A Within-subjects Experimental Protocol to Assess the Effects of Social Input on Infant EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Ashley M; Kao, Katie; Chita-Tegmark, Meia; Liederman, Jacqueline; Grieve, Philip G; Tarullo, Amanda R

    2017-05-03

    Despite the importance of social interactions for infant brain development, little research has assessed functional neural activation while infants socially interact. Electroencephalography (EEG) power is an advantageous technique to assess infant functional neural activation. However, many studies record infant EEG only during one baseline condition. This protocol describes a paradigm that is designed to comprehensively assess infant EEG activity in both social and nonsocial contexts as well as tease apart how different types of social inputs differentially relate to infant EEG. The within-subjects paradigm includes four controlled conditions. In the nonsocial condition, infants view objects on computer screens. The joint attention condition involves an experimenter directing the infant's attention to pictures. The joint attention condition includes three types of social input: language, face-to-face interaction, and the presence of joint attention. Differences in infant EEG between the nonsocial and joint attention conditions could be due to any of these three types of input. Therefore, two additional conditions (one with language input while the experimenter is hidden behind a screen and one with face-to-face interaction) were included to assess the driving contextual factors in patterns of infant neural activation. Representative results demonstrate that infant EEG power varied by condition, both overall and differentially by brain region, supporting the functional nature of infant EEG power. This technique is advantageous in that it includes conditions that are clearly social or nonsocial and allows for examination of how specific types of social input relate to EEG power. This paradigm can be used to assess how individual differences in age, affect, socioeconomic status, and parent-infant interaction quality relate to the development of the social brain. Based on the demonstrated functional nature of infant EEG power, future studies should consider the role

  14. Autism genetics: Methodological issues and experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Roberto; Lintas, Carla; Persico, Antonio M

    2015-10-01

    Autism is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder of developmental origin, where multiple genetic and environmental factors likely interact resulting in a clinical continuum between "affected" and "unaffected" individuals in the general population. During the last two decades, relevant progress has been made in identifying chromosomal regions and genes in linkage or association with autism, but no single gene has emerged as a major cause of disease in a large number of patients. The purpose of this paper is to discuss specific methodological issues and experimental strategies in autism genetic research, based on fourteen years of experience in patient recruitment and association studies of autism spectrum disorder in Italy.

  15. Split-plot designs for multistage experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Tyssedal, John

    2016-01-01

    at the same time will be more efficient. However, there have been only a few attempts in the literature to provide an adequate and easy-to-use approach for this problem. In this paper, we present a novel methodology for constructing two-level split-plot and multistage experiments. The methodology is based...... be accommodated in each stage. Furthermore, split-plot designs for multistage experiments with good projective properties are also provided....

  16. Experimental design issues for the early detection of disease: novel designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ping; Zelen, Marvin

    2002-09-01

    This paper investigates two experimental designs which have been used to evaluate the benefit of the early detection of breast cancer. They have some advantages over a classical design (the screening program versus usual medical care) in that subjects in a control group may benefit by participating in the study. We refer to the two experimental designs as the up-front (UFD) and close-out (COD) designs. The UFD consists of offering an initial exam to all participants. Then they can be randomized to a usual care group or a screening group receiving one or more special examinations. If the outcome of the initial examination is included in the analysis, then the study can answer the question of the benefit of an additional screening program after an initial examination. If the analysis excludes all the cases diagnosed at the initial examination, then the analysis evaluates the benefit of a screening program after elimination of the prevalent cases. These prevalent cases are most likely to be affected by length bias sampling and consequently will tend to have less aggressive disease and live longer. As a result, the UFD can answer two scientific questions. The COD consists of randomizing subjects to a usual care group and a screened group. However, the usual care group receives an examination which coincides at the time of the last exam in the study group. In this paper the power of these two designs have been evaluated. In both cases the power is severely reduced compared to the usual control group receiving no special exams. The power is a function of the sensitivity of the exam, the number and spacings of the exams given to the screened group as well as the sample size, disease incidence of the population and the survival distribution. The theoretical results on power are applied to the Canadian National Breast Cancer Study (ages 40-49) which used an UFD and the Stockholm Mammography Breast Cancer Screening Trial which utilized a COD.

  17. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  18. On experimentation across science, design and society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boris, Stefan Darlan

    2016-01-01

    The article describes how the principal idea behind the landscape laboratories has been to develop a 1:1 platform where researchers, practitioners and lay people can meet and cooperate on the development and testing of new design concepts for establishing and managing urban landscapes. This is so......The article describes how the principal idea behind the landscape laboratories has been to develop a 1:1 platform where researchers, practitioners and lay people can meet and cooperate on the development and testing of new design concepts for establishing and managing urban landscapes....... This is something, which is becoming increasingly relevant, as landscape architects and urban planners today have to address the challenges confronting urbanism due to the continued entanglement of urbanisation and anthropogenic processes. These are challenges where the act of destabilizing dichotomies (inside....../outside, natural/manmade, etc.) is one out of several reasons for not only continuing but also strengthening the landscape laboratories as testing grounds for future urban landscapes and green spaces in the Anthropocene....

  19. ANIMATED DOCUMENTARY: EXPERIMENTATION, TECHNOLOGY AND DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    INDIA MARA MARTINS

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo desta tese é refletir sobre o documentário animado. Um produto audiovisual que mistura documentário e animação e está redefinindo o papel do design na produção das novas mídias. Mostramos também que o documentário animado reacende uma série de debates e reflexões relativas à teoria do documentário e da animação em relação às concepções de realismo. A nossa principal premissa é que o documentário sempre se apropriou da tecnologia de forma a favorecer a experimentação ...

  20. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH REGARDING LEATHER APPLICATIONS IN PRODUCT DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRALEA Jeni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the role and importance of experimental research in design activity. The designer, as a researcher and a project manager, proposes to establish a relationship between functional-aesthetic-constructive-technological-economic,based on the aesthetic possibilities of the materials used for the experiments. With the aim to identify areas for the application of leather waste resulted from the production process, the paper presents experiments conducted with this material in combination with wood, by using different techniques that lead to different aesthetic effects. Identifying the areas to use and creating products from leather and/or wood waste, is based on the properties of these materials. Leather, the subject of these experiments, has the advantage that it can be used on both sides. Tactile differences of the two sides of this material has both aesthetical and functional advantages, which makes it suitable for applications on products that meet the requirements of "design for all". With differentiated tactile characteristics, in combination with other materials, for these experiments wood, easily "read touch" products can be generated to help people with certain disabilities. Thus, experiments presented in this paper allows the establishment of aesthetic schemes applicable to products that are friendly both with the environment (based on the reuse of wood and leather waste and with the users (can be used as applications, accessories and concepts of products for people with certain disabilities. The designer’s choices or decisions can be based on the results of this experiment. The experiment enables the designer to develop creative, innovative and environmentally friendly products.

  1. The effects of hypnosis on an elite senior European tour golfer: a single-subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pates, John

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a hypnosis intervention on the performance and flow-state experiences of an elite senior European Tour golf professional. The experimental effect was assessed during 11 Senior European Tour golf events. Performance and flow data were analyzed using a single-subject design combined with a procedure to monitor the player's internal experience. The results indicated that the player's mean stroke average and mean flow scores increased from baseline to intervention. There were no overlapping data points between baseline and intervention conditions for both performance and flow-state scores. The qualitative data revealed hypnosis may positively control emotions, thoughts, feelings, and perceptions.

  2. Development and Validation of a Rubric for Diagnosing Students’ Experimental Design Knowledge and Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Annwesa P.; Anderson, Trevor R.

    2014-01-01

    It is essential to teach students about experimental design, as this facilitates their deeper understanding of how most biological knowledge was generated and gives them tools to perform their own investigations. Despite the importance of this area, surprisingly little is known about what students actually learn from designing biological experiments. In this paper, we describe a rubric for experimental design (RED) that can be used to measure knowledge of and diagnose difficulties with experimental design. The development and validation of the RED was informed by a literature review and empirical analysis of undergraduate biology students’ responses to three published assessments. Five areas of difficulty with experimental design were identified: the variable properties of an experimental subject; the manipulated variables; measurement of outcomes; accounting for variability; and the scope of inference appropriate for experimental findings. Our findings revealed that some difficulties, documented some 50 yr ago, still exist among our undergraduate students, while others remain poorly investigated. The RED shows great promise for diagnosing students’ experimental design knowledge in lecture settings, laboratory courses, research internships, and course-based undergraduate research experiences. It also shows potential for guiding the development and selection of assessment and instructional activities that foster experimental design. PMID:26086658

  3. Experimental design in analytical chemistry--part I: theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi-Najafabadi, Heshmatollah; Leardi, Riccardo; Jalali-Heravi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the main concepts of experimental design applicable to the optimization of analytical chemistry techniques. The critical steps and tools for screening, including Plackett-Burman, factorial and fractional factorial designs, and response surface methodology such as central composite, Box-Behnken, and Doehlert designs, are discussed. Some useful routines are also presented for performing the procedures.

  4. Reflections on the Ethics of Experimentation with Human Subjects with Respect to Arrowsmith (1931

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín del Cañizo Fernández-Roldán

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The moral tension between individual rights versus common good in experimentation with human subjects has been constant throughout history. Taking as a basis the film Arrowsmith in which this problem is well reflected, an ethical analysis is made, bearing in mind the time when the film was made, some historical antecedents and, finally, establishing a comparison with the current situation.

  5. Reflections on the Ethics of Experimentation with Human Subjects with Respect to Arrowsmith (1931)

    OpenAIRE

    Agustín del Cañizo Fernández-Roldán

    2008-01-01

    The moral tension between individual rights versus common good in experimentation with human subjects has been constant throughout history. Taking as a basis the film Arrowsmith in which this problem is well reflected, an ethical analysis is made, bearing in mind the time when the film was made, some historical antecedents and, finally, establishing a comparison with the current situation.

  6. Design Issues and Inference in Experimental L2 Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Thom; Llosa, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    Explicit attention to research design issues is essential in experimental second language (L2) research. Too often, however, such careful attention is not paid. This article examines some of the issues surrounding experimental L2 research and its relationships to causal inferences. It discusses the place of research questions and hypotheses,…

  7. The Effects of Classic and Web-Designed Conceptual Change Texts on the Subject of Water Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Erol; Gülen, Salih; Öner, Zeynep; Özyürek, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to research the effects of traditional and web-assisted conceptual change texts for the subject of water chemistry on the success, conceptual errors and permanent learning of students. A total of 37 8th graders in a secondary school of Samsun participated in this study which had a random experimental design with…

  8. COMPARISON OF A STIMULUS EQUIVALENCE PROTOCOL AND TRADITIONAL LECTURE FOR TEACHING SINGLE-SUBJECT DESIGNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, Sadie; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne; Garcia, Yors; Dunning, Johnna

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the effects of a computer-based stimulus equivalence protocol to a traditional lecture format in teaching single-subject experimental design concepts to undergraduate students. Participants were assigned to either an equivalence or a lecture group, and performance on a paper-and-pencil test that targeted relations among the names of experimental designs, design definitions, design graphs, and clinical vignettes was compared. Generalization of responding to novel graphs and novel clinical vignettes, as well as the emergence of a topography-based tact response after selection-based training, were evaluated for the equivalence group. Performance on the paper-and-pencil test following teaching was comparable for participants in the equivalence and lecture groups. All participants in the equivalence group showed generalization to novel graphs, and 6 participants showed generalization to novel clinical vignettes. Three of the 4 participants demonstrated the emergence of a topography-based tact response following training on the stimulus equivalence protocol. PMID:22219532

  9. A Bayesian experimental design approach to structural health monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Flynn, Eric [UCSD; Todd, Michael [UCSD

    2010-01-01

    Optimal system design for SHM involves two primarily challenges. The first is the derivation of a proper performance function for a given system design. The second is the development of an efficient optimization algorithm for choosing a design that maximizes, or nearly maximizes the performance function. In this paper we will outline how an SHM practitioner can construct the proper performance function by casting the entire design problem into a framework of Bayesian experimental design. The approach demonstrates how the design problem necessarily ties together all steps of the SHM process.

  10. Reflective Subjects in Kant and Architectural Design Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawes, Peg

    2007-01-01

    In architectural design education, students develop drawing, conceptual, and critical skills which are informed by their ability to reflect upon the production of ideas in design processes and in the urban, environmental, social, historical, and cultural context that define architecture and the built environment. Reflective actions and thinking…

  11. The Use of an Experimental Design Approach to Investigate the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    This study looked at using statistical design of experimental (DoE) principles to observe interactions between two graphite types and a nanocarbon ... Pb-acid battery, Pb-plate, graphite, expanders, design of experiment. 1. Introduction .... The CCA test was done by placing the cells in a freezer for 24 h at –18 ± 1 °C prior to ...

  12. Use of Experimental Design for Peuhl Cheese Process Optimization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of Experimental Design for Peuhl Cheese Process Optimization. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... This work consisting in use of a central composite design enables the determination of optimal process conditions concerning: leaf extract volume added (7 mL), heating temperature ...

  13. Experimental Methodology in English Teaching and Learning: Method Features, Validity Issues, and Embedded Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jang Ho

    2012-01-01

    Experimental methods have played a significant role in the growth of English teaching and learning studies. The paper presented here outlines basic features of experimental design, including the manipulation of independent variables, the role and practicality of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in educational research, and alternative methods…

  14. Design of an experimental set up for convective drying: experimental studies at different drying temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, V. P. Chandra; Talukdar, Prabal

    2013-01-01

    An experimental setup is designed to investigate the convective drying of moist object experimentally. All the design data, components of setup, materials and specifications are presented. Transient moisture content of a rectangular shaped potato slice (4 × 2 × 2 cm) is measured at different air temperatures of 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C with an air velocity of 2 m/s. Two different drying rate periods are observed. Results are compared with available results from literature.

  15. Using Self-Experimentation and Single-Subject Methodology to Promote Critical Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Cowley, PhD, BCBA

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Critical thinking is often absent from classroom endeavor because it is hard to define (Gelder, 2005 or is difficult to assess (Bissell & Lemons, 2006. Critical thinking is defined as application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation (Browne & Minnick, 2005. This paper shows how self-experimentation and single-subject methodology can be used to promote many levels of critical thinking in an Applied Behavior Analysis course. Two classroom assignment examples of this process and a grading rubric are provided.

  16. Using Self-Experimentation and Single-Subject Methodology to Promote Critical Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Langdon

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical thinking is often absent from classroom endeavor because it is hard to define (Gelder, 2005 or is difficult to assess (Bissell & Lemons, 2006. Critical thinking is defined as application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation (Browne & Minnick, 2005. This paper shows how self-experimentation and single-subject methodology can be used to promote many levels of critical thinking in an Applied Behavior Analysis course. Two classroom assignment examples of this process and a grading rubric are provided.

  17. Using Self-Experimentation and Single-Subject Methodology to Promote Critical Thinking

    OpenAIRE

    David Langdon; Ann Lindgren; Brian Cowley

    2006-01-01

    Critical thinking is often absent from classroom endeavor because it is hard to define (Gelder, 2005) or is difficult to assess (Bissell & Lemons, 2006). Critical thinking is defined as application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation (Browne & Minnick, 2005). This paper shows how self-experimentation and single-subject methodology can be used to promote many levels of critical thinking in an Applied Behavior Analysis course. Two classroom assignment examples of this process and a grading ...

  18. Effect Size Measure and Analysis of Single Subject Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness, 2013

    2013-01-01

    One of the vexing problems in the analysis of SSD is in the assessment of the effect of intervention. Serial dependence notwithstanding, the linear model approach that has been advanced involves, in general, the fitting of regression lines (or curves) to the set of observations within each phase of the design and comparing the parameters of these…

  19. Designing Cartoon as a Supplementary Material for English Structure Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Nurawati; Putranti, Sulistini Dwi

    2015-01-01

    Cartoon comes from an Italian word "Cartone" meaning a large paper. It is designed not only as the media to describe daily activities, but also to entertain, criticize, provoke, and even to teach people. A lot of studies have been conducted regarding the implementation of cartoon in classroom or outside classroom context. It is proven…

  20. Converting happiness theory into (interior) architectural design missions. Designing for subjective well-being in residential care centers.

    OpenAIRE

    STEVENS, Ruth; Petermans, Ann; Vanrie, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Subjective well-being (SWB) is an emerging research topic in the field of design sciences, whereby various design researchers focus on the key question ‘how to design for SWB’. Throughout different design disciplines, definitions for SWB are rising and design models and strategies are being developed in an effort to enable designers to increase users’ SWB. However, a clear image of how to design an (interior) architectural environment with the purpose of increasing people’s level of subjectiv...

  1. A Statistical Framework for Single Subject Design with an Application in Post-stroke Rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Ying; Scott, Marc; Raghavan, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a practical yet novel solution to a longstanding statistical testing problem regarding single subject design. In particular, we aim to resolve an important clinical question: does a new patient behave the same as one from a healthy population? This question cannot be answered using the traditional single subject design when only test subject information is used, nor can it be satisfactorily resolved by comparing a single-subject's data with the mean value of a healthy popu...

  2. Optimal Experimental Design of Furan Shock Tube Kinetic Experiments

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Daesang

    2015-01-07

    A Bayesian optimal experimental design methodology has been developed and applied to refine the rate coefficients of elementary reactions in Furan combustion. Furans are considered as potential renewable fuels. We focus on the Arrhenius rates of Furan + OH ↔ Furyl-2 + H2O and Furan ↔ OH Furyl-3 + H2O, and rely on the OH consumption rate as experimental observable. A polynomial chaos surrogate is first constructed using an adaptive pseudo-spectral projection algorithm. The PC surrogate is then exploited in conjunction with a fast estimation of the expected information gain in order to determine the optimal design in the space of initial temperatures and OH concentrations.

  3. Experimental gingivitis induces systemic inflammatory markers in young healthy individuals: a single-subject interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, Jörg; Grote, Karsten; Luchtefeld, Maren; Heuer, Wieland; Schuett, Harald; Divchev, Dimitar; Scherer, Ralph; Schmitz-Streit, Ruth; Langfeldt, Daniela; Stumpp, Nico; Staufenbiel, Ingmar; Schieffer, Bernhard; Stiesch, Meike

    2013-01-01

    We here investigated whether experimental gingivitis enhances systemic markers of inflammation which are also known as surrogate markers of atherosclerotic plaque development. Gingivitis is a low-level oral infection induced by bacterial deposits with a high prevalence within Western populations. A potential link between the more severe oral disease periodontitis and cardiovascular disease has already been shown. 37 non-smoking young volunteers with no inflammatory disease or any cardiovascular risk factors participated in this single-subject interventional study with an intra-individual control. Intentionally experimental oral inflammation was induced by the interruption of oral hygiene for 21 days, followed by a 21-days resolving phase after reinitiation of oral hygiene. Primary outcome measures at baseline, day 21 and 42 were concentrations of hsCRP, IL-6, and MCP-1, as well as adhesion capacity and oxLDL uptake of isolated blood monocytes. The partial cessation of oral hygiene procedures was followed by the significant increase of gingival bleeding (34.0%, Pgingivitis. Bacterial-induced gingival low-level inflammation induced a systemic increase in inflammatory markers. Dental hygiene almost completely reversed this experimental inflammatory process, suggesting that appropriate dental prophylaxis may also limit systemic markers of inflammation in subjects with natural gingivitis. International Clinical Trials Register Platform of the World Health Organization, registry number: DRKS00003366, URL: http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/Default.aspx.

  4. Principles of Experimental Design for Big Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drovandi, Christopher C; Holmes, Christopher; McGree, James M; Mengersen, Kerrie; Richardson, Sylvia; Ryan, Elizabeth G

    2017-08-01

    Big Datasets are endemic, but are often notoriously difficult to analyse because of their size, heterogeneity and quality. The purpose of this paper is to open a discourse on the potential for modern decision theoretic optimal experimental design methods, which by their very nature have traditionally been applied prospectively, to improve the analysis of Big Data through retrospective designed sampling in order to answer particular questions of interest. By appealing to a range of examples, it is suggested that this perspective on Big Data modelling and analysis has the potential for wide generality and advantageous inferential and computational properties. We highlight current hurdles and open research questions surrounding efficient computational optimisation in using retrospective designs, and in part this paper is a call to the optimisation and experimental design communities to work together in the field of Big Data analysis.

  5. Principles of Experimental Design for Big Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drovandi, Christopher C; Holmes, Christopher; McGree, James M; Mengersen, Kerrie; Richardson, Sylvia; Ryan, Elizabeth G

    2016-01-01

    Big Datasets are endemic, but are often notoriously difficult to analyse because of their size, heterogeneity and quality. The purpose of this paper is to open a discourse on the potential for modern decision theoretic optimal experimental design methods, which by their very nature have traditionally been applied prospectively, to improve the analysis of Big Data through retrospective designed sampling in order to answer particular questions of interest. By appealing to a range of examples, it is suggested that this perspective on Big Data modelling and analysis has the potential for wide generality and advantageous inferential and computational properties. We highlight current hurdles and open research questions surrounding efficient computational optimisation in using retrospective designs, and in part this paper is a call to the optimisation and experimental design communities to work together in the field of Big Data analysis. PMID:28883686

  6. Single-subject research designs in pediatric rehabilitation: a valuable step towards knowledge translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeiser-Logan, Lynne; Slaughter, Rebecca; Hickman, Robbin

    2017-06-01

    Knowledge translation may be particularly challenging in pediatric rehabilitation, where study findings are often ambiguous owing to low statistical power or inconsistent responses to intervention. Disconnection between research protocols and clinical practicality, as well as variability of responsiveness in heterogeneous pediatric populations, may further impede integration of research findings into everyday practice. Use of single-subject research designs (SSRDs) may bridge the gap between research and practice, with robust design options that better identify and preserve patterns of responsiveness to specific interventions and offer protocols that are more readily implemented in practice settings than can be done in traditional randomized controlled trials. This review defines SSRD, provides examples of research questions that can be answered using SSRD, details the experimental designs that can be used and the level of evidence of each design, and describes statistical analysis approaches and clinical application. This analysis will aid researchers, reviewers, clinicians, and others in better understanding SSRD methodology and its application in everyday practice. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  7. Development and experimental validation of a protein design software

    OpenAIRE

    Stiebritz, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Computational protein design - understood as the prediction of an amino acid sequence that will adopt a given 3-dimensional structure associated with a desired function - offers the promising perspective of tailoring proteins according to special needs. From a more fundamental point of view, it improves our understanding of protein architecture, folding and dynamics. Here, the development and experimental validation of a protein design software - MUMBO - is described. The current implementati...

  8. An Experimental Study of a Midbroken 2-Bay 6-Storey Reinforced Concrete Frame subject to Earthquakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjærbæk, P. S.; Taskin, B.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    1997-01-01

    A 2-bay, 6-storey model test reinforced concrete frame (scale 1:5) subjected to sequential earthquakes of increasing magnitude is considered in this paper. The frame was designed with a weak storey, in which the columns are weakened by using thinner and weaker reinforcement bars. The aim of the w......A 2-bay, 6-storey model test reinforced concrete frame (scale 1:5) subjected to sequential earthquakes of increasing magnitude is considered in this paper. The frame was designed with a weak storey, in which the columns are weakened by using thinner and weaker reinforcement bars. The aim...... of the work is to study global response to a damaging strong motion earthquake event of such buildings. Special emphasis is put on examining to what extent damage in the weak storey can be identified from global response measurements during an earthquake where the structure survives, and what level...

  9. Innovation in teaching and learning methods: Integrating sustainability subjects in the architectural design process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Sepúlveda M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Architectural training has always been linked to two opposed and complementary processes: creative thinking and linear/technical thinking. Nowadays, the training process of an architect is usually based on an experimental design studio, which is complemented by the formal teaching of theoretical and technical subjects. This system is based on the idea that it will produce a comprehensive professional who is capable of achieving creative, appropriate and viable solutions. However, this teaching method can carry hidden difficulties that may hinder the development of architecture students to their full potential. This article will inform on the methodology and results of applying an innovative method of teaching and learning architecture. This method aims at maximising the capacity of students to integrate their creative and technical competencies in order to increase the quality of work of future architects.

  10. Neural Network Assisted Experimental Designs for Food Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.S. Ramaswamy

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of artificial neural networks (ANN in predicting full factorial data from the fractional data corresponding to some of the commonly used experimental designs is explored in this paper. Factorial and fractional factorial designs such as L8, L9, L18, and Box and Behnken schemes were considered both in their original form and with some variations (L8+6, L15 and L9+1. Full factorial (3 factors x 5 levels and fractional data were generated employing sixteen different mathematical equations (four in each category: linear, with and without interactions, and non-linear, with and without interactions. Different ANN models were trained and the best model was chosen for each equation based on their ability to predict the fractional data. The best experimental design was then chosen based on their ability to simulate the full- factorial data for each equation. In several cases, the mean relative errors with the L18 design (which had more input data than other models were even higher than with other smaller fractional design. In general, the ANN assisted Lm, Box and Behnken, L15 and L18 designs were found to predict the full factorial data reasonably well with errors less than 5 %. The L8+6 model performed well with several experimental datasets reported in the literature.

  11. Experimental investigation on rectangular reinforced concrete beam subjected to bi-axial shear and torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chayanon Hansapinyo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experimental investigation on the failure mechanism and ultimate capacity of rectangular reinforced concrete beam under combined action of bi-axial shear accompanied with torsion through the test of four reinforced concrete members. The simple experimental set-up for a simply-supported beam under one point loading is introduced in this study by applying eccentric load to the tilted beam. This requires only one hydraulic jack to produce the complicated bi-axial shear and torsional loading. The main parameter is the magnitude of torsion induced to specimens which is relatively represented by the torsion-to-shear ratio. In addition, the influence of torsion on ultimate capacity of reinforced concrete with different ratio of two shears is investigated. From the experimental results, it is found that the increase in the magnitude of torsion about 69 percent drastically decreases bi-axial shear capacity as much as 12 to 39 percent according to the ratio of bi-axial shears. The experimental results are compared with the capacities calculated by the available interaction formula between uni-axial shear and torsion in the current design codes. The comparison indicates that the current design codes give quite conservative values of ultimate capacity.

  12. Experimental and numerical investigation of slabs on ground subjected to concentrated loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øverli, Jan

    2014-09-01

    An experimental program is presented where a slab on ground is subjected to concentrated loading at the centre, the edges and at the corners. Analytical solutions for the ultimate load capacity fit well with the results obtained in the tests. The non-linear behaviour of the slab is captured by performing nonlinear finite element analyses. The soil is modelled as a no-tension bedding and a smeared crack approach is employed for the concrete. Through a parametric study, the finite element model has been used to assess the influence of subgrade stiffness and shrinkage. The results indicate that drying shrinkage can cause severe cracking in slabs on grade.

  13. Development and Validation of a Rubric for Diagnosing Students' Experimental Design Knowledge and Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Annwesa P; Anderson, Trevor R; Pelaez, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    It is essential to teach students about experimental design, as this facilitates their deeper understanding of how most biological knowledge was generated and gives them tools to perform their own investigations. Despite the importance of this area, surprisingly little is known about what students actually learn from designing biological experiments. In this paper, we describe a rubric for experimental design (RED) that can be used to measure knowledge of and diagnose difficulties with experimental design. The development and validation of the RED was informed by a literature review and empirical analysis of undergraduate biology students' responses to three published assessments. Five areas of difficulty with experimental design were identified: the variable properties of an experimental subject; the manipulated variables; measurement of outcomes; accounting for variability; and the scope of inference appropriate for experimental findings. Our findings revealed that some difficulties, documented some 50 yr ago, still exist among our undergraduate students, while others remain poorly investigated. The RED shows great promise for diagnosing students' experimental design knowledge in lecture settings, laboratory courses, research internships, and course-based undergraduate research experiences. It also shows potential for guiding the development and selection of assessment and instructional activities that foster experimental design. © 2014 A. P. Dasgupta et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2014 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  14. Experimental Design to Evaluate Directed Adaptive Mutation in Mammalian Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaro, Christopher R; May, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Background We describe the experimental design for a methodological approach to determine whether directed adaptive mutation occurs in mammalian cells. Identification of directed adaptive mutation would have profound practical significance for a wide variety of biomedical problems, including disease development and resistance to treatment. In adaptive mutation, the genetic or epigenetic change is not random; instead, the presence and type of selection influences the frequency and character of the mutation event. Adaptive mutation can contribute to the evolution of microbial pathogenesis, cancer, and drug resistance, and may become a focus of novel therapeutic interventions. Objective Our experimental approach was designed to distinguish between 3 types of mutation: (1) random mutations that are independent of selective pressure, (2) undirected adaptive mutations that arise when selective pressure induces a general increase in the mutation rate, and (3) directed adaptive mutations that arise when selective pressure induces targeted mutations that specifically influence the adaptive response. The purpose of this report is to introduce an experimental design and describe limited pilot experiment data (not to describe a complete set of experiments); hence, it is an early report. Methods An experimental design based on immortalization of mouse embryonic fibroblast cells is presented that links clonal cell growth to reversal of an inactivating polyadenylation site mutation. Thus, cells exhibit growth only in the presence of both the countermutation and an inducing agent (doxycycline). The type and frequency of mutation in the presence or absence of doxycycline will be evaluated. Additional experimental approaches would determine whether the cells exhibit a generalized increase in mutation rate and/or whether the cells show altered expression of error-prone DNA polymerases or of mismatch repair proteins. Results We performed the initial stages of characterizing our system

  15. Experimental design to evaluate directed adaptive mutation in Mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordonaro, Michael; Chiaro, Christopher R; May, Tobias

    2014-12-09

    We describe the experimental design for a methodological approach to determine whether directed adaptive mutation occurs in mammalian cells. Identification of directed adaptive mutation would have profound practical significance for a wide variety of biomedical problems, including disease development and resistance to treatment. In adaptive mutation, the genetic or epigenetic change is not random; instead, the presence and type of selection influences the frequency and character of the mutation event. Adaptive mutation can contribute to the evolution of microbial pathogenesis, cancer, and drug resistance, and may become a focus of novel therapeutic interventions. Our experimental approach was designed to distinguish between 3 types of mutation: (1) random mutations that are independent of selective pressure, (2) undirected adaptive mutations that arise when selective pressure induces a general increase in the mutation rate, and (3) directed adaptive mutations that arise when selective pressure induces targeted mutations that specifically influence the adaptive response. The purpose of this report is to introduce an experimental design and describe limited pilot experiment data (not to describe a complete set of experiments); hence, it is an early report. An experimental design based on immortalization of mouse embryonic fibroblast cells is presented that links clonal cell growth to reversal of an inactivating polyadenylation site mutation. Thus, cells exhibit growth only in the presence of both the countermutation and an inducing agent (doxycycline). The type and frequency of mutation in the presence or absence of doxycycline will be evaluated. Additional experimental approaches would determine whether the cells exhibit a generalized increase in mutation rate and/or whether the cells show altered expression of error-prone DNA polymerases or of mismatch repair proteins. We performed the initial stages of characterizing our system and have limited preliminary data

  16. Squeeze-film damper design with air channels : Experimental verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dias, R.A.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.; Cretu, E.; Rocha, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    The experimental evaluation of damping-improved parallel-plate geometries is reported in this paper. An improved damper geometry with air channels was developed to address contradictory design constraints: large sensing parallel-plate area is desirable for a significant readout capacitance as well

  17. Experimental design of natural and accellerated bone and wood ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Facorellis, Y.; Pournou, A.; Richter, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental design for natural and accelerated ageing of bone and wood samples found in museum conditions that was conceived as part of the INVENVORG (Thales Research Funding Program – NRSF) investigating the effects of the environmental factors on natural organic materials....

  18. Experimental and numerical analysis for optimal design parameters ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Later, the response surface curves are studied using ANOVA. Finally, the relations established are confirmed experimentally to validate the models. The relations thus established are beneficent in furtherance of designing evaporators. Additionally, the presentstudy is among the first attempts to reveal the effect of humidity ...

  19. Taguchi method of experimental design in materials education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Martin W.

    1993-01-01

    Some of the advantages and disadvantages of the Taguchi Method of experimental design as applied to Materials Science will be discussed. This is a fractional factorial method that employs the minimum number of experimental trials for the information obtained. The analysis is also very simple to use and teach, which is quite advantageous in the classroom. In addition, the Taguchi loss function can be easily incorporated to emphasize that improvements in reproducibility are often at least as important as optimization of the response. The disadvantages of the Taguchi Method include the fact that factor interactions are normally not accounted for, there are zero degrees of freedom if all of the possible factors are used, and randomization is normally not used to prevent environmental biasing. In spite of these disadvantages it is felt that the Taguchi Method is extremely useful for both teaching experimental design and as a research tool, as will be shown with a number of brief examples.

  20. Optimal Experimental Design for Large-Scale Bayesian Inverse Problems

    KAUST Repository

    Ghattas, Omar

    2014-01-06

    We develop a Bayesian framework for the optimal experimental design of the shock tube experiments which are being carried out at the KAUST Clean Combustion Research Center. The unknown parameters are the pre-exponential parameters and the activation energies in the reaction rate expressions. The control parameters are the initial mixture composition and the temperature. The approach is based on first building a polynomial based surrogate model for the observables relevant to the shock tube experiments. Based on these surrogates, a novel MAP based approach is used to estimate the expected information gain in the proposed experiments, and to select the best experimental set-ups yielding the optimal expected information gains. The validity of the approach is tested using synthetic data generated by sampling the PC surrogate. We finally outline a methodology for validation using actual laboratory experiments, and extending experimental design methodology to the cases where the control parameters are noisy.

  1. Masonry Vaults Subjected To Horizontal Loads: Experimental and Numerical Investigations to Evaluate the Effectiveness of A GFRM Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattesco, Natalino; Boem, Ingrid

    2017-10-01

    The paper investigates the effectiveness of a modern reinforcement technique based on a Glass Fiber-Reinforced Mortar (GFRM) for the enhancement of the performances of existing masonry vaults subjected to horizontal seismic actions. In fact, the authors recently evidenced, through numerical simulations, that the typical simplified loading patterns generally adopted in the literature for the experimental tests, based on concentrated vertical loads at 1/4 of the span, are not reliable for such a purpose, due to an unrealistic stress distribution. Thus, experimental quasi-static cyclic tests on full-scale masonry vaults based on a specific setup, designed to apply a horizontal load pattern proportional to the mass, were performed. Three samples were tested: an unreinforced vault, a vault reinforced at the extrados and a vault reinforced at the intrados. The experimental results demonstrated the technique effectiveness in both strength and ductility. Moreover, numerical simulations were performed by adopting a simplified FE, smear-crack model, evidencing the good reliability of the prediction by comparison with the experimental results.

  2. Design of Pump as Turbine Experimental Test Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zariatin D. L.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design process of experimental test facility for pump as turbine hydropower system. Three design possibilities that related to the PAT condition of operation was developed and analyzed by using CFD Software. It is found that the First Variant with a straight flow to the PAT will produce higher velocity, which is needed to generate more rotation of the shaft generator, in order to generate more electric power. The strength of PAT construction was analyzed by using FEM software. It was found that the maximum stress is 6 MPa and can be concluded that the construction is appropriate to the design requirement.

  3. COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL-DESIGNS COMBINING PROCESS AND MIXTURE VARIABLES .1. DESIGN CONSTRUCTION AND THEORETICAL EVALUATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DUINEVELD, C. A. A.; Smilde, A. K.; Doornbos, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    The combination of process variables and mixture variables in experimental design is a problem which has not yet been solved. It is examined here whether a set of designs can be found which can be used for a series of models of reasonable complexity. The proposed designs are compared with known

  4. COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL-DESIGNS COMBINING PROCESS AND MIXTURE VARIABLES .1. DESIGN CONSTRUCTION AND THEORETICAL EVALUATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DUINEVELD, CAA; SMILDE, AK; DOORNBOS, DA

    The combination of process variables and mixture variables in experimental design is a problem which has not yet been solved. It is examined here whether a set of designs can be found which can be used for a series of models of reasonable complexity. The proposed designs are compared with known

  5. Computational design and experimental validation of new thermal barrier systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The focus of this project is on the development of a reliable and efficient ab initio based computational high temperature material design method which can be used to assist the Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) bond-coat and top-coat design. Experimental evaluations on the new TBCs are conducted to confirm the new TBCs’ properties. Southern University is the subcontractor on this project with a focus on the computational simulation method development. We have performed ab initio density functional theory (DFT) method and molecular dynamics simulation on screening the top coats and bond coats for gas turbine thermal barrier coating design and validation applications. For experimental validations, our focus is on the hot corrosion performance of different TBC systems. For example, for one of the top coatings studied, we examined the thermal stability of TaZr2.75O8 and confirmed it’s hot corrosion performance.

  6. An Empirical Study of Parameter Estimation for Stated Preference Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The stated preference experimental design can affect the reliability of the parameters estimation in discrete choice model. Some scholars have proposed some new experimental designs, such as D-efficient, Bayesian D-efficient. But insufficient empirical research has been conducted on the effectiveness of these new designs and there has been little comparative analysis of the new designs against the traditional designs. In this paper, a new metro connecting Chengdu and its satellite cities is taken as the research subject to demonstrate the validity of the D-efficient and Bayesian D-efficient design. Comparisons between these new designs and orthogonal design were made by the fit of model and standard deviation of parameters estimation; then the best model result is obtained to analyze the travel choice behavior. The results indicate that Bayesian D-efficient design works better than D-efficient design. Some of the variables can affect significantly the choice behavior of people, including the waiting time and arrival time. The D-efficient and Bayesian D-efficient design for MNL can acquire reliability result in ML model, but the ML model cannot develop the theory advantages of these two designs. Finally, the metro can handle over 40% passengers flow if the metro will be operated in the future.

  7. Studies Using Single-Subject Designs in Sport Psychology: 30 Years of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G. L.; Thompson, K.; Regehr, K.

    2004-01-01

    A prominent feature of behavior-analytic research has been the use of single-subject designs. We examined sport psychology journals and behavioral journals published during the past 30 years, and located 40 studies using single-subject designs to assess interventions for enhancing the performance of athletes and coaches. In this paper, we…

  8. Design and Implementation of an Experimental Segway Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Wael; Abdelati, Mohammed

    2009-03-01

    The segway is the first transportation product to stand, balance, and move in the same way we do. It is a truly 21st-century idea. The aim of this research is to study the theory behind building segway vehicles based on the stabilization of an inverted pendulum. An experimental model has been designed and implemented through this study. The model has been tested for its balance by running a Proportional Derivative (PD) algorithm on a microprocessor chip. The model has been identified in order to serve as an educational experimental platform for segways.

  9. Fast Bayesian optimal experimental design and its applications

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Quan

    2015-01-07

    We summarize our Laplace method and multilevel method of accelerating the computation of the expected information gain in a Bayesian Optimal Experimental Design (OED). Laplace method is a widely-used method to approximate an integration in statistics. We analyze this method in the context of optimal Bayesian experimental design and extend this method from the classical scenario, where a single dominant mode of the parameters can be completely-determined by the experiment, to the scenarios where a non-informative parametric manifold exists. We show that by carrying out this approximation the estimation of the expected Kullback-Leibler divergence can be significantly accelerated. While Laplace method requires a concentration of measure, multi-level Monte Carlo method can be used to tackle the problem when there is a lack of measure concentration. We show some initial results on this approach. The developed methodologies have been applied to various sensor deployment problems, e.g., impedance tomography and seismic source inversion.

  10. Optimization of Metal Removal Factors Using Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Çağlar GENÇOSMAN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Experimental design methodology has been used in various research areas including industrial and chemical engineering. In this paper, factor analysis and response surface optimization approaches were used for cadmium removal from aqueous solutions. The factors affecting removal of Cd ions from aqueous solutions were investigated depending on pH, initial metal concentration and solution temperature. Activated carbon used in the experiments was produced from Tunçbilek lignite by physical activation method. The analysis of important factors is established by using the design of experiments method. The effect and the interaction among the investigated factors are evaluated using the analysis of variance method. Together with regression analysis, response surface optimization is also utilized to obtain optimum conditions for best copper removal within the experimental limits.

  11. TIBER: Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Research. Final design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.; Barr, W.L.; Bulmer, R.H.; Doggett, J.N.; Johnson, B.M.; Lee, J.D.; Hoard, R.W.; Miller, J.R.; Slack, D.S.

    1985-11-01

    The Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Research (TIBER) device is the smallest superconductivity tokamak designed to date. In the design plasma shaping is used to achieve a high plasma beta. Neutron shielding is minimized to achieve the desired small device size, but the superconducting magnets must be shielded sufficiently to reduce the neutron heat load and the gamma-ray dose to various components of the device. Specifications of the plasma-shaping coil, the shielding, coaling, requirements, and heating modes are given. 61 refs., 92 figs., 30 tabs. (WRF)

  12. Model-Based Optimal Experimental Design for Complex Physical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-03

    optimality aspect of sOED, another major difficulty remains: to numer - ically represent non-Gaussian, continuous random variable posteriors (i.e...construct, as they involve solving a convex optimization problem that can be easily separated into independent sub-problems for each dimension, and requires...OM Knio. “Bayesian Guided Optimal Experimental Design for Reactive Multilayers.” In preparation, 2015. 6. X Huan, “ Numerical Approaches for Sequential

  13. Experimental results for the behavior of MSMAs subjected to loads seen in power harvesting applications and complex loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocanel, C.; Feigenbaum, H. P.

    2012-04-01

    The microstructure of magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMAs) is comprised of tetragonal martensite variants, each with their preferred internal magnetization orientation. In the presence of an external magnetic field, the martensite variants tend to reorient so that the preferred internal magnetization aligns with the external magnetic field. Thus MSMAs exhibit the shape memory effect when there is a magnetic field in the vicinity of a material point. Furthermore, the tetragonal nature of the martensite variants allows for a compressive stress to cause variant reorientation. This paper focuses on the experimental evaluation of MSMAs in power harvesting as well as on the response of the material under complex loading conditions. The experimental data reported here provides a basis for the evaluation of MSMAs suitability for applications other than the traditional actuation under a constant magnetic field. For power harvesting applications, consider an MSMA element subject to a large enough magnetic field so that all the variants begin in a field preferred state. Keeping the magnetic field constant and adding a variable compressive stress in a direction normal to that of the magnetic field, some or all of the martensitic variants may rotate into a stress preferred state. As the variants reorient, the internal magnetization vectors rotate, and the specimen's magnetization changes. The change in magnetization induces a current in a pick-up coil, resulting in an output voltage at its terminals according to Faraday's law of inductance. For other applications, the loads that an MSMA element is subject to may be different. Investigation into other potential loadings of an MSMA will give a better overall understanding of the magneto-mechanical behavior of MSMAs and perhaps highlight potential applications of these materials. Thus complex loads on MSMAs should be investigated experimentally and eventually modeled mathematically. For example, this work will study variable field

  14. COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL-DESIGNS COMBINING PROCESS AND MIXTURE VARIABLES .2. DESIGN EVALUATION ON MEASURED DATA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DUINEVELD, CAA; SMILDE, AK; DOORNBOS, DA

    The construction of a small experimental design for a combination of process and mixture variables is a problem which has not been solved completely by now. In a previous paper we evaluated some designs with theoretical measures. This second paper evaluates the capabilities of the best of these

  15. COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL-DESIGNS COMBINING PROCESS AND MIXTURE VARIABLES .2. DESIGN EVALUATION ON MEASURED DATA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DUINEVELD, C. A. A.; Smilde, A. K.; Doornbos, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    The construction of a small experimental design for a combination of process and mixture variables is a problem which has not been solved completely by now. In a previous paper we evaluated some designs with theoretical measures. This second paper evaluates the capabilities of the best of these

  16. A quasi-experimental design based on regional variations: discussion of a method for evaluating outcomes of medical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, A; Andersen, T F; Madsen, Mette

    1989-01-01

    A large proportion of common medical practices are subject to substantial regional variation resulting in numerous natural experiments. Opportunities are thereby provided for outcome evaluation through quasi-experimental design. If patients treated in different regions were comparable a natural...... experiment involving alternative treatments could be regarded as 'pseudo randomised', but empirical investigations are needed to verify this prerequisite. This paper discusses the role of quasi-experimental designs in assessment of medical care with evaluation of outcomes after hysterectomy in Denmark...

  17. Who can benefit from virtual reality to reduce experimental pain? A crossover study in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeter, N; Josman, N; Eisenberg, E; Pud, D

    2015-11-01

    The present study aimed to identify predicting factors affecting experimental pain stimuli reduction by using 'EyeToy', which is an Immersive Virtual Reality System (IVRS). Sixty-two healthy subjects (31 M, 31 F) underwent a battery of pain tests to determine each participant's baseline sensitivity to nociceptive. The battery included thermal pain tests (hot and cold) as well as a paradigm to induce conditioned pain modulation (CPM). Later on, each subject participated in two study conditions in random order: (1) An exposure to tonic heat stimulation (46.5 °C/135 s) to the ankle while participating in VR environment which included an activity requiring limb movements; (2) Same heat stimulation with no exposure to VR. Six pain measures were taken during each study condition (baseline, test 1-5). An interaction of time × treatment was found (RM ANOVA, F(5, 305)  = 24.33, p manipulation for pain reduction in individuals with efficient CPM and in women. These findings constitute a promising platform for future research and hold potential for the improvement and facilitation of clinical treatment. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  18. Bayesian Optimal Experimental Design Using Multilevel Monte Carlo

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Issaid, Chaouki

    2015-01-07

    Experimental design is very important since experiments are often resource-exhaustive and time-consuming. We carry out experimental design in the Bayesian framework. To measure the amount of information, which can be extracted from the data in an experiment, we use the expected information gain as the utility function, which specifically is the expected logarithmic ratio between the posterior and prior distributions. Optimizing this utility function enables us to design experiments that yield the most informative data for our purpose. One of the major difficulties in evaluating the expected information gain is that the integral is nested and can be high dimensional. We propose using Multilevel Monte Carlo techniques to accelerate the computation of the nested high dimensional integral. The advantages are twofold. First, the Multilevel Monte Carlo can significantly reduce the cost of the nested integral for a given tolerance, by using an optimal sample distribution among different sample averages of the inner integrals. Second, the Multilevel Monte Carlo method imposes less assumptions, such as the concentration of measures, required by Laplace method. We test our Multilevel Monte Carlo technique using a numerical example on the design of sensor deployment for a Darcy flow problem governed by one dimensional Laplace equation. We also compare the performance of the Multilevel Monte Carlo, Laplace approximation and direct double loop Monte Carlo.

  19. Experimental Investigations on Performance and Design Parameters of Solar Chimney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim ÜÇGÜL

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a solar chimney system, which is suitable for climate conditions of Isparta and its surroundings, is designed theoretically. With the aim of studying experimentally as based on that design, a prototype solar chimney has been constructed in the university campus area of Süleyman Demirel University-RACRER (Research and Application Center for Renewable Energy Resources. Additionally, after the experimental studies, the system is modelled theoretically with depending on the design. Then, this model constituted the basis for developed computer programme and performance parameters of the system are obtained. The obtained findings showed that the solar chimney, which is suitable for climate conditions of Isparta and its surroundings, are sufficient for determining design and performance parameters. The results showed that electricity generation with solar chimney is suitable for areas which have high solar incident and long sunshine duration and similar climate conditions as such as Isparta and its surroundings. When the results are evaluated, it is seen that electricity generation power of solar chimney depends on the region solar data, the chimney height and the size of greenhouse area.

  20. NRP-1 Receptor Expression Mismatch in Skin of Subjects with Experimental and Diabetic Small Fiber Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Acker, Nathalie; Ragé, Michael; Vermeirsch, Hilde; Schrijvers, Dorien; Nuydens, Rony; Byttebier, Geert; Timmers, Maarten; De Schepper, Stefanie; Streffer, Johannes; Andries, Luc; Plaghki, Léon; Cras, Patrick; Meert, Theo

    2016-01-01

    The in vivo cutaneous nerve regeneration model using capsaicin is applied extensively to study the regenerative mechanisms and therapeutic efficacy of disease modifying molecules for small fiber neuropathy (SFN). Since mismatches between functional and morphological nerve fiber recovery are described for this model, we aimed at determining the capability of the capsaicin model to truly mimic the morphological manifestations of SFN in diabetes. As nerve and blood vessel growth and regenerative capacities are defective in diabetes, we focused on studying the key regulator of these processes, the neuropilin-1 (NRP-1)/semaphorin pathway. This led us to the evaluation of NRP-1 receptor expression in epidermis and dermis of subjects presenting experimentally induced small fiber neuropathy, diabetic polyneuropathy and of diabetic subjects without clinical signs of small fiber neuropathy. The NRP-1 receptor was co-stained with CD31 vessel-marker using immunofluorescence and analyzed with Definiens® technology. This study indicates that capsaicin application results in significant loss of epidermal NRP-1 receptor expression, whereas diabetic subjects presenting small fiber neuropathy show full epidermal NRP-1 expression in contrast to the basal expression pattern seen in healthy controls. Capsaicin induced a decrease in dermal non-vascular NRP-1 receptor expression which did not appear in diabetic polyneuropathy. We can conclude that the capsaicin model does not mimic diabetic neuropathy related changes for cutaneous NRP-1 receptor expression. In addition, our data suggest that NRP-1 might play an important role in epidermal nerve fiber loss and/or defective regeneration and that NRP-1 receptor could change the epidermal environment to a nerve fiber repellant bed possibly through Sem3A in diabetes.

  1. Effect of experimental modulation of mood on perception of exertional dyspnea in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pramod; Morris, Norman R; Adams, Lewis

    2016-01-15

    In many diseases across a range of pathologies (e.g., cardiopulmonary, neuromuscular, and cancer), chronic dyspnea, particularly on exertion, is a major debilitating symptom often associated with clinical anxiety/depression. This study aims to explore the interaction between mood state and exertional dyspnea in a healthy population. Following familiarization, 20 healthy subjects (27-54 years old) performed six 5-min treadmill tests on three separate days. On each day subjects viewed randomly assigned images designed to induce positive, negative, or neutral mood states (International Affective Picture System). For each condition, at minute intervals, subjects rated dyspnea (sensory and affective domains) in the first test and mood (valence and arousal domains) in the second test. Oxygen uptake (V̇O2 , liters/min), carbon dioxide production (V̇CO2, liters/min), ventilation (V̇E, liters/min), respiratory frequency (f(R), beats/min), and heart rate (HR, bpm), were measured throughout the exercise. V̇O2, V̇CO2, V̇E, HR, and f(R) were not statistically significantly different among the three mood states (P > 0.05). Mood valence was significantly higher with parallel viewing of positive (last 2-min mean ± SE = 6.9 ± 0.2) compared with negative pictures (2.4 ± 0.2; P negative (sensory: 5.6 ± 0.3; affective: 3.3 ± 0.5) compared with positive mood (sensory: 4.4 ± 0.4, P positive mood alleviates both the sensory and affective domains of exertional dyspnea in healthy subjects. Thus the treatment of anxiety/depression in dyspenic populations could be a worthwhile therapeutic strategy in increasing symptom-limited exercise tolerance, thereby contributing to improved quality of life. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Theoretical and experimental performance analysis for cold trap design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemanath, M.G., E-mail: hemanath@igcar.gov.i [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Meikandamurthy, C.; Kumar, A. Ashok; Chandramouli, S.; Rajan, K.K.; Rajan, M.; Vaidyanathan, G.; Padmakumar, G.; Kalyanasundaram, P.; Raj, Baldev [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    2010-10-15

    Cold trap is a purification unit used in sodium system of FBR's for maintaining the oxygen/hydrogen level in sodium within acceptable limits. It works on the principle of crystallization and precipitation of oxides/hydrides of sodium in a wire mesh, when the temperature of sodium is reduced below the saturation temperature. The cold traps presently used have lower effectiveness and get plugged prematurely. The plugged cold traps are cleaned and then put back into service. Frequent cleaning of cold trap results in the long down time of the sodium system. New design of cold trap has been conceived to overcome the above problems. The mathematical modeling for the new design was carried out and validated with experimentally tested results for its effectiveness. This paper shares the experience gained on the new design of cold trap for FBR's.

  3. Amplified energy harvester from footsteps: design, modeling, and experimental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya; Chen, Wusi; Guzman, Plinio; Zuo, Lei

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents the design, modeling and experimental analysis of an amplified footstep energy harvester. With the unique design of amplified piezoelectric stack harvester the kinetic energy generated by footsteps can be effectively captured and converted into usable DC power that could potentially be used to power many electric devices, such as smart phones, sensors, monitoring cameras, etc. This doormat-like energy harvester can be used in crowded places such as train stations, malls, concerts, airport escalator/elevator/stairs entrances, or anywhere large group of people walk. The harvested energy provides an alternative renewable green power to replace power requirement from grids, which run on highly polluting and global-warming-inducing fossil fuels. In this paper, two modeling approaches are compared to calculate power output. The first method is derived from the single degree of freedom (SDOF) constitutive equations, and then a correction factor is applied onto the resulting electromechanically coupled equations of motion. The second approach is to derive the coupled equations of motion with Hamilton's principle and the constitutive equations, and then formulate it with the finite element method (FEM). Experimental testing results are presented to validate modeling approaches. Simulation results from both approaches agree very well with experimental results where percentage errors are 2.09% for FEM and 4.31% for SDOF.

  4. Single-Subject Designs and Action Research in the K-12 Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Sean A.; Ross, Margaret E.; Chesser, Svetlana S.

    2011-01-01

    In as much as educational research is concerned with individual student assessment and development, it is surprising that single-subject designs are not more readily utilized in classroom-based action research. The purpose of this article is to emphasize benefits of single-subject research in the K-12 setting, given that teachers teach and assess…

  5. Psychology of a subject-spatial environment: main trends in theoretical and experimental studies of foreign scholar

    OpenAIRE

    Panyukova Yu. G.

    2016-01-01

    The subject matter of this article is the analysis of the psychological studies presented in the Journal of Environmental Psychology. The purpose of the article is to define the main areas of theoretical and experimental research in contemporary foreign psychology related to subject-spatial environment

  6. Stimulated Brillouin scattering materials, experimental design and applications: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhenxu; Yuan, Hang; Liu, Zhaohong; Xu, Pengbai; Gao, Qilin; Williams, Robert J.; Kitzler, Ondrej; Mildren, Richard P.; Wang, Yulei; Lu, Zhiwei

    2018-01-01

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), as one type of third-order nonlinear optics effect, is extensively exploited and rapidly developed in the field of lasers and optoelectronics. A large number of theoretical and experimental studies on SBS have been carried out in the past decades. Especially, the exploration of new SBS materials and new types of SBS modulation methods have been engaged simultaneously, as the properties of different materials have great influence on the SBS performance such as generation threshold, Brillouin amplification efficiency, frequency shift, breakdown threshold, etc. This article provides a comprehensive review of the characteristics of different types of SBS materials, SBS applications, experimental design methods, as well as the parameter optimization method, which is expected to provide reference and guidance to SBS related experiments.

  7. Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

    2014-04-01

    This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2014), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This project will directly support the technical goals specified in DE-FOA-0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. In this project, the focus is to develop and implement novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and demonstrate our new thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments.

  8. Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

    2012-10-01

    This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2013), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This project will directly support the technical goals specified in DEFOA- 0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. We will develop and implement novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and demonstrate our new thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments. The durability of the coating will be examined using the proposed Durability Test Rig.

  9. Plant metabolomics: from experimental design to knowledge extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Amit; Umashankar, Shivshankar; Swarup, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Metabolomics is one of the most recent additions to the functional genomics approaches. It involves the use of analytical chemistry techniques to provide high-density data of metabolic profiles. Data is then analyzed using advanced statistics and databases to extract biological information, thus providing the metabolic phenotype of an organism. Large variety of metabolites produced by plants through the complex metabolic networks and their dynamic changes in response to various perturbations can be studied using metabolomics. Here, we describe the basic features of plant metabolic diversity and analytical methods to describe this diversity, which includes experimental workflows starting from experimental design, sample preparation, hardware and software choices, combined with knowledge extraction methods. Finally, we describe a scenario for using these workflows to identify differential metabolites and their pathways from complex biological samples.

  10. Optimization of formulation variables of benzocaine liposomes using experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Paola; Capasso, Gaetano; Maestrelli, Francesca; Furlanetto, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to optimize, by means of an experimental design multivariate strategy, a liposomal formulation for topical delivery of the local anaesthetic agent benzocaine. The formulation variables for the vesicle lipid phase uses potassium glycyrrhizinate (KG) as an alternative to cholesterol and the addition of a cationic (stearylamine) or anionic (dicethylphosphate) surfactant (qualitative factors); the percents of ethanol and the total volume of the hydration phase (quantitative factors) were the variables for the hydrophilic phase. The combined influence of these factors on the considered responses (encapsulation efficiency (EE%) and percent drug permeated at 180 min (P%)) was evaluated by means of a D-optimal design strategy. Graphic analysis of the effects indicated that maximization of the selected responses requested opposite levels of the considered factors: For example, KG and stearylamine were better for increasing EE%, and cholesterol and dicethylphosphate for increasing P%. In the second step, the Doehlert design, applied for the response-surface study of the quantitative factors, pointed out a negative interaction between percent ethanol and volume of the hydration phase and allowed prediction of the best formulation for maximizing drug permeation rate. Experimental P% data of the optimized formulation were inside the confidence interval (P < 0.05) calculated around the predicted value of the response. This proved the suitability of the proposed approach for optimizing the composition of liposomal formulations and predicting the effects of formulation variables on the considered experimental response. Moreover, the optimized formulation enabled a significant improvement (P < 0.05) of the drug anaesthetic effect with respect to the starting reference liposomal formulation, thus demonstrating its actually better therapeutic effectiveness.

  11. A descriptive roadmap: how to design for SWB? Interpreting design results in the field of subjective well-being

    OpenAIRE

    STEVENS, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Today’s public discourse on the design of care centers for the elderly population is increasingly emphasizing the importance of subjective well-being (SWB) and the value that architecture and interior architecture can have in this context. A design exercise was formulated for 10 groups of 4 master students in interior architecture in which they had to rethink the design of the communal space system of an existing residential care center (RCC) with the purpose of augmenting the living experien...

  12. Experimental subjects and partial truth telling during technological change in radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lisa Anne

    2017-06-01

    Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT), the focus of a number of radiotherapy fundraising campaigns in the mid-2000s, was introduced accompanied by a fanfare of newness and discourses of 'hope', 'inspiring clinical confidence' and 'accuracy'. The CBCT system, used in the delivery of Radiotherapy treatment, was incorporated into strategic planning priorities across the United Kingdom based on a rationale of self-evidence. During this time, the way in which the new system was discussed with patients was variable. The purpose of this study was to uncover how experimental practices were embedded and enacted during the use of a new technological system, specifically relating to how patients were enrolled during introductory phases of technology adoption. Research design and context: Drawing on ethnographic work and interviews with staff members in one hospital, the study examines staff discussions prior to the introduction of the Cone-Beam CT imaging system in radiotherapy. It considers how staff views were at odds with practices that occurred during the 'experimental' stages of use and how these were shared with patients. Ethical considerations: Approval was obtained from the Local National Health Service Research Ethics Committee and National Health Service Main Research Ethics Committee (REC 07/Q1308/16) for the interview and ethnographic stages, respectively. All names have been changed and participants signed a consent form. Staff reported a lack of evidence, absence of proof and perturbing doubts with the X-ray volumetric imaging. Both patients' and practitioners' partial understanding about the risks and benefits of the system created incommensurable ideas regarding its use and what the patients' role was during these introductory stages. Maintaining partial truth telling renders patients' experiences of new treatment at odds with 'experimental' practice. This has wide-reaching implications for practice.

  13. Experimental Study of Confined Low-, Medium- and High-Strength Concrete Subjected to Concentric Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study of 23 low-, medium- and high-strength concrete columns is presented in this paper. Square-confined concrete columns without longitudinal reinforcement were designed, and tested under concentric axial compression. The columns were made of concrete with a compressive strength ranging between 30 MPa and 70 MPa. The test parameters in the study are concrete compressive strengths and confining steel properties, i.e. spacing, volumetric ratios and configurations. The effects of these parameters on the strength and ductility of square-confined concrete were evaluated. Of the specimens tested in this study, the columns made with higher-strength concrete produced less strength enhancement and ductility than those with lower-strength concrete. The steel configurations were found to have an important role in governing the strength and ductility of the confined high-strength concrete. Moreover, several models of strength enhancement for confined concrete available in the literature turned out to be quite accurate in predicting the experimental results.

  14. Optimal experimental design to position transducers in ultrasound breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korta Martiartu, Naiara; Boehm, Christian; Vinard, Nicolas; Jovanović Balic, Ivana; Fichtner, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    We present methods to optimize the setup of a 3D ultrasound tomography scanner for breast cancer detection. This approach provides a systematic and quantitative tool to evaluate different designs and to optimize the con- figuration with respect to predefined design parameters. We consider both, time-of-flight inversion using straight rays and time-domain waveform inversion governed by the acoustic wave equation for imaging the sound speed. In order to compare different designs, we measure their quality by extracting properties from the Hessian operator of the time-of-flight or waveform differences defined in the inverse problem, i.e., the second derivatives with respect to the sound speed. Spatial uncertainties and resolution can be related to the eigenvalues of the Hessian, which provide a good indication of the information contained in the data that is acquired with a given design. However, the complete spectrum is often prohibitively expensive to compute, thus suitable approximations have to be developed and analyzed. We use the trace of the Hessian operator as design criterion, which is equivalent to the sum of all eigenvalues and requires less computational effort. In addition, we suggest to take advantage of the spatial symmetry to extrapolate the 3D experimental design from a set of 2D configurations. In order to maximize the quality criterion, we use a genetic algorithm to explore the space of possible design configurations. Numerical results show that the proposed strategies are capable of improving an initial configuration with uniformly distributed transducers, clustering them around regions with poor illumination and improving the ray coverage of the domain of interest.

  15. Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback Stress Relief Program for Depression*. A Replicated Single-Subject Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartogs, Bregje M A; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A; Van der Ploeg, Karen; Bos, Elske H

    2017-07-19

    Depressive disorders often have a chronic course and the efficacy of evidence-based treatments may be overestimated. To examine the effectiveness of the Heart Rate Variability Stress Reduction Program (SRP) as a supplement to standard treatment in patients with depressive disorders. The SRP was individually administered in eight weekly sessions. Seven participants completed the full protocol and were enrolled in a single-subject ABA multiple baseline experimental design. To perform interrupted time-series analyses, daily measures were completed in a diary (depression, resilience, happiness, heart coherence and a personalized outcome measure). Five out of seven patients improved in depressed mood and/or a personalized outcome measure. The effect of treatment was reversed in four patients during the withdrawal phase. One patient reliably improved on depression, whereas two patients recovered on autonomy and one on social optimism. No consistent relationship was found between the heart rate variability-related level of coherence and self-reported mood levels. The SRP is beneficial in some domains and for some patients. A prolonged treatment or continued home practice may be required for enduring effects. The intervention had more clinical impact on resilience-related outcome measures than on symptoms. The small sample size does not permit generalization of the results. We recommend future investigation of the underlying mechanisms of the SRP.

  16. Methods for Evidence-Based Practice: Quantitative Synthesis of Single-Subject Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadish, William R.; Rindskopf, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Good quantitative evidence does not require large, aggregate group designs. The authors describe ground-breaking work in managing the conceptual and practical demands in developing meta-analytic strategies for single subject designs in an effort to add to evidence-based practice. (Contains 2 figures.)

  17. Hybrid neural network model for the design of beam subjected to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper demonstrates the applicability of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Genetic Algorithms (GA) for the design of beams subjected to moment and shear. A hybrid neural network model which combines the features of feed forward neural networks and genetic algorithms has been developed for the design of beam ...

  18. Use of the single subject design for practice based primary care research

    OpenAIRE

    Janosky, J.

    2005-01-01

    The use of a single subject research design is proposed for practice based primary care research. An overview of the rationale of the design, an introduction to the methodology, strengths, limitations, a sample of recent literature citations, a working example, and possible clinical applications are presented.

  19. Gender Differences in Natural Language Factors of Subjective Intoxication in College Students: An Experimental Vignette Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Ash; Schlauch, Robert C.; Bartholow, Bruce D.; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Examining the natural language college students use to describe various levels of intoxication can provide important insight into subjective perceptions of college alcohol use. Previous research (Levitt et al., 2009) has shown that intoxication terms reflect moderate and heavy levels of intoxication, and that self-use of these terms differs by gender among college students. However, it is still unknown whether these terms similarly apply to other individuals and, if so, whether similar gender differences exist. Method To address these issues, the current study examined the application of intoxication terms to characters in experimentally manipulated vignettes of naturalistic drinking situations within a sample of university undergraduates (N = 145). Results Findings supported and extended previous research by showing that other-directed applications of intoxication terms are similar to self-directed applications, and depend on the gender of both the target and the user. Specifically, moderate intoxication terms were applied to and from women more than men, even when the character was heavily intoxicated, whereas heavy intoxication terms were applied to and from men more than women. Conclusions The findings suggest that gender differences in the application of intoxication terms are other-directed as well as self-directed, and that intoxication language can inform gender-specific prevention and intervention efforts targeting problematic alcohol use among college students. PMID:23841828

  20. Gender differences in natural language factors of subjective intoxication in college students: an experimental vignette study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Ash; Schlauch, Robert C; Bartholow, Bruce D; Sher, Kenneth J

    2013-12-01

    Examining the natural language college students use to describe various levels of intoxication can provide important insight into subjective perceptions of college alcohol use. Previous research (Levitt et al., Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2009; 33: 448) has shown that intoxication terms reflect moderate and heavy levels of intoxication and that self-use of these terms differs by gender among college students. However, it is still unknown whether these terms similarly apply to other individuals and, if so, whether similar gender differences exist. To address these issues, the current study examined the application of intoxication terms to characters in experimentally manipulated vignettes of naturalistic drinking situations within a sample of university undergraduates (n = 145). Findings supported and extended previous research by showing that other-directed applications of intoxication terms are similar to self-directed applications and depend on the gender of both the target and the user. Specifically, moderate intoxication terms were applied to and from women more than men, even when the character was heavily intoxicated, whereas heavy intoxication terms were applied to and from men more than women. The findings suggest that gender differences in the application of intoxication terms are other-directed as well as self-directed and that intoxication language can inform gender-specific prevention and intervention efforts targeting problematic alcohol use among college students. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  1. Experimental Research on the Dynamic Response of Floating Structures with Coatings Subjected to Underwater Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental investigation into the dynamic response of three free floating stiffened metal boxes with protective coatings subjected to underwater explosion (UNDEX. One box was kept intact while the other two were, respectively, covered with monolithic coatings and chiral honeycomb coatings. Three groups of live fire tests with different attack angles and stand-off distances were conducted. The acceleration on the stiffener and strain peak on the bottom hull were selected as the major comparative criterions. Test results show that the impulse transmitted to the structure at the initial stage can be reduced, owing to the coating flexibility and fluid-structure interaction mechanism. Consequently, the acceleration peaks induced by both shock wave and bubble pulse were reduced. The shock environment can be more effectively improved by honeycomb coating when compared with monolithic coating. Most of the strain peaks decreased to a certain extent, but some of them were notably manifested, especially for honeycomb coating. The test affirms the fact that soft coating can cause stress concentration on the shell that is in direct contact with the coating due to the impedance mismatch between the interfaces of materials. A softer rubber coating induces a greater magnitude of strain.

  2. The subjective experience of acute, experimentally-induced Salvia divinorum inebriation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, Peter H; Garcia-Romeu, Albert; Metzger, Matthew; Wade, Jenny

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the overall psychological effects of inebriation facilitated by the naturally-occurring plant hallucinogen Salvia divinorum using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Thirty healthy individuals self-administered Salvia divinorum via combustion and inhalation in a quiet, comfortable research setting. Experimental sessions, post-session interviews, and 8-week follow-up meetings were audio recorded and transcribed to provide the primary qualitative material analyzed here. Additionally, post-session responses to the Hallucinogen Rating Scale provided a quantitative groundwork for mixed-methods discussion. Qualitative data underwent thematic content analysis, being coded independently by three researchers before being collaboratively integrated to provide the final results. Three main themes and 10 subthemes of acute intoxication emerged, encompassing the qualities of the experience, perceptual alterations, and cognitive-affective shifts. The experience was described as having rapid onset and being intense and unique. Participants reported marked changes in auditory, visual, and interoceptive sensory input; losing normal awareness of themselves and their surroundings; and an assortment of delusional phenomena. Additionally, the abuse potential of Salvia divinorum was examined post hoc. These findings are discussed in light of previous research, and provide an initial framework for greater understanding of the subjective effects of Salvia divinorum, an emerging drug of abuse. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Design of Experimental Suspended Footbridge with Deck Made of UHPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blank Marek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the static and dynamic design of experimental footbridge for pedestrians and cyclists in the municipality Lužec nad Vltavou in Czech Republic, Europe. This work aims to familiarize the reader with calculations carried out and the results obtained, describing the static and dynamic properties of proposed footbridge. The construction of footbridge is designed as a suspended structure with prestressed bridge deck consisting of prefabricated UHPC panels and reversed “V” shaped steel pylon with height of approximately 40 meters. The deck is anchored using 24 steel hangers in one row in a steel pylon - 17 ropes in the main span and 7 cables on the other side. Range of the main span is 99.18 meters and the secondary span is 31.9 m. Deck width is 4.5 meters with 3.0 meters passing space. The bridge is designed for the possibility of passage of vehicles weighting up to 3.5 tons. Deck panels are made of UHPC with reinforcement. At the edge of the bridge on the side of the shorter span the bridge deck is firmly connected with abutment and on the other deck it is stored using a pair of sliding bearings. The utilization of the excellent properties of UHPC allows to design a very thin and lightweight construction of the deck, which could not be achieved with the use of normal concrete.

  4. An Experimental Design of Bypass Magneto-Rheological (MR) damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, MM; Aziz, Mohammad Abdul; Raisuddin Khan, Md.

    2017-11-01

    The magnetorheological (MR) fluid bypass damper fluid flow through a bypass by utilizing an external channel which allows the controllability of MR fluid in the channel. The Bypass MR damper (BMRD) contains a rectangular bypass flow channel, current controlled movable piston shaft arrangement and MR fluid. The static piston coil case is winding by a coil which is used inside the piston head arrangement. The current controlled coil case provides a magnetic flux through the BMRD cylinder for controllability. The high strength of alloy steel materials are used for making piston shaft which allows magnetic flux propagation throughout the BMRD cylinder. Using the above design materials, a Bypass MR damper is designed and tested. An excitation of current is applied during the experiment which characterizes the BMRD controllability. It is shown that the BMRD with external flow channel allows a high controllable damping force using an excitation current. The experimental result of damping force-displacement characteristics with current excitation and without current excitation are compared in this research. The BMRD model is validated by the experimental result at various frequencies and applied excitation current.

  5. Experimental Vertical Stability Studies for ITER Performance and Design Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphreys, D A; Casper, T A; Eidietis, N; Ferrera, M; Gates, D A; Hutchinson, I H; Jackson, G L; Kolemen, E; Leuer, J A; Lister, J; LoDestro, L L; Meyer, W H; Pearlstein, L D; Sartori, F; Walker, M L; Welander, A S; Wolfe, S M

    2008-10-13

    Operating experimental devices have provided key inputs to the design process for ITER axisymmetric control. In particular, experiments have quantified controllability and robustness requirements in the presence of realistic noise and disturbance environments, which are difficult or impossible to characterize with modeling and simulation alone. This kind of information is particularly critical for ITER vertical control, which poses some of the highest demands on poloidal field system performance, since the consequences of loss of vertical control can be very severe. The present work describes results of multi-machine studies performed under a joint ITPA experiment on fundamental vertical control performance and controllability limits. We present experimental results from Alcator C-Mod, DIII-D, NSTX, TCV, and JET, along with analysis of these data to provide vertical control performance guidance to ITER. Useful metrics to quantify this control performance include the stability margin and maximum controllable vertical displacement. Theoretical analysis of the maximum controllable vertical displacement suggests effective approaches to improving performance in terms of this metric, with implications for ITER design modifications. Typical levels of noise in the vertical position measurement which can challenge the vertical control loop are assessed and analyzed.

  6. Fast Bayesian Optimal Experimental Design for Seismic Source Inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Quan

    2016-01-06

    We develop a fast method for optimally designing experiments [1] in the context of statistical seismic source inversion [2]. In particular, we efficiently compute the optimal number and locations of the receivers or seismographs. The seismic source is modeled by a point moment tensor multiplied by a time-dependent function. The parameters include the source location, moment tensor components, and start time and frequency in the time function. The forward problem is modeled by the elastic wave equations. We show that the Hessian of the cost functional, which is usually defined as the square of the weighted L2 norm of the difference between the experimental data and the simulated data, is proportional to the measurement time and the number of receivers. Consequently, the posterior distribution of the parameters, in a Bayesian setting, concentrates around the true parameters, and we can employ Laplace approximation and speed up the estimation of the expected Kullback-Leibler divergence (expected information gain), the optimality criterion in the experimental design procedure. Since the source parameters span several magnitudes, we use a scaling matrix for efficient control of the condition number of the original Hessian matrix. We use a second-order accurate finite difference method to compute the Hessian matrix and either sparse quadrature or Monte Carlo sampling to carry out numerical integration. We demonstrate the efficiency, accuracy, and applicability of our method on a two-dimensional seismic source inversion problem.

  7. Fast Bayesian optimal experimental design for seismic source inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Quan

    2015-07-01

    We develop a fast method for optimally designing experiments in the context of statistical seismic source inversion. In particular, we efficiently compute the optimal number and locations of the receivers or seismographs. The seismic source is modeled by a point moment tensor multiplied by a time-dependent function. The parameters include the source location, moment tensor components, and start time and frequency in the time function. The forward problem is modeled by elastodynamic wave equations. We show that the Hessian of the cost functional, which is usually defined as the square of the weighted L2 norm of the difference between the experimental data and the simulated data, is proportional to the measurement time and the number of receivers. Consequently, the posterior distribution of the parameters, in a Bayesian setting, concentrates around the "true" parameters, and we can employ Laplace approximation and speed up the estimation of the expected Kullback-Leibler divergence (expected information gain), the optimality criterion in the experimental design procedure. Since the source parameters span several magnitudes, we use a scaling matrix for efficient control of the condition number of the original Hessian matrix. We use a second-order accurate finite difference method to compute the Hessian matrix and either sparse quadrature or Monte Carlo sampling to carry out numerical integration. We demonstrate the efficiency, accuracy, and applicability of our method on a two-dimensional seismic source inversion problem. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Sparse linear models: Variational approximate inference and Bayesian experimental design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeger, Matthias W [Saarland University and Max Planck Institute for Informatics, Campus E1.4, 66123 Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2009-12-01

    A wide range of problems such as signal reconstruction, denoising, source separation, feature selection, and graphical model search are addressed today by posterior maximization for linear models with sparsity-favouring prior distributions. The Bayesian posterior contains useful information far beyond its mode, which can be used to drive methods for sampling optimization (active learning), feature relevance ranking, or hyperparameter estimation, if only this representation of uncertainty can be approximated in a tractable manner. In this paper, we review recent results for variational sparse inference, and show that they share underlying computational primitives. We discuss how sampling optimization can be implemented as sequential Bayesian experimental design. While there has been tremendous recent activity to develop sparse estimation, little attendance has been given to sparse approximate inference. In this paper, we argue that many problems in practice, such as compressive sensing for real-world image reconstruction, are served much better by proper uncertainty approximations than by ever more aggressive sparse estimation algorithms. Moreover, since some variational inference methods have been given strong convex optimization characterizations recently, theoretical analysis may become possible, promising new insights into nonlinear experimental design.

  9. Bayesian optimal experimental design for priors of compact support

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Quan

    2016-01-08

    In this study, we optimize the experimental setup computationally by optimal experimental design (OED) in a Bayesian framework. We approximate the posterior probability density functions (pdf) using truncated Gaussian distributions in order to account for the bounded domain of the uniform prior pdf of the parameters. The underlying Gaussian distribution is obtained in the spirit of the Laplace method, more precisely, the mode is chosen as the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate, and the covariance is chosen as the negative inverse of the Hessian of the misfit function at the MAP estimate. The model related entities are obtained from a polynomial surrogate. The optimality, quantified by the information gain measures, can be estimated efficiently by a rejection sampling algorithm against the underlying Gaussian probability distribution, rather than against the true posterior. This approach offers a significant error reduction when the magnitude of the invariants of the posterior covariance are comparable to the size of the bounded domain of the prior. We demonstrate the accuracy and superior computational efficiency of our method for shock-tube experiments aiming to measure the model parameters of a key reaction which is part of the complex kinetic network describing the hydrocarbon oxidation. In the experiments, the initial temperature and fuel concentration are optimized with respect to the expected information gain in the estimation of the parameters of the target reaction rate. We show that the expected information gain surface can change its shape dramatically according to the level of noise introduced into the synthetic data. The information that can be extracted from the data saturates as a logarithmic function of the number of experiments, and few experiments are needed when they are conducted at the optimal experimental design conditions.

  10. Experimental Design for the INL Sample Collection Operational Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amidan, Brett G.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Matzke, Brett D.; Filliben, James J.; Jones, Barbara

    2007-12-13

    This document describes the test events and numbers of samples comprising the experimental design that was developed for the contamination, decontamination, and sampling of a building at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This study is referred to as the INL Sample Collection Operational Test. Specific objectives were developed to guide the construction of the experimental design. The main objective is to assess the relative abilities of judgmental and probabilistic sampling strategies to detect contamination in individual rooms or on a whole floor of the INL building. A second objective is to assess the use of probabilistic and Bayesian (judgmental + probabilistic) sampling strategies to make clearance statements of the form “X% confidence that at least Y% of a room (or floor of the building) is not contaminated. The experimental design described in this report includes five test events. The test events (i) vary the floor of the building on which the contaminant will be released, (ii) provide for varying or adjusting the concentration of contaminant released to obtain the ideal concentration gradient across a floor of the building, and (iii) investigate overt as well as covert release of contaminants. The ideal contaminant gradient would have high concentrations of contaminant in rooms near the release point, with concentrations decreasing to zero in rooms at the opposite end of the building floor. For each of the five test events, the specified floor of the INL building will be contaminated with BG, a stand-in for Bacillus anthracis. The BG contaminant will be disseminated from a point-release device located in the room specified in the experimental design for each test event. Then judgmental and probabilistic samples will be collected according to the pre-specified sampling plan. Judgmental samples will be selected based on professional judgment and prior information. Probabilistic samples will be selected in sufficient numbers to provide desired confidence

  11. New synthetic thrombin inhibitors: molecular design and experimental verification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena I Sinauridze

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The development of new anticoagulants is an important goal for the improvement of thromboses treatments. OBJECTIVES: The design, synthesis and experimental testing of new safe and effective small molecule direct thrombin inhibitors for intravenous administration. METHODS: Computer-aided molecular design of new thrombin inhibitors was performed using our original docking program SOL, which is based on the genetic algorithm of global energy minimization in the framework of a Merck Molecular Force Field. This program takes into account the effects of solvent. The designed molecules with the best scoring functions (calculated binding energies were synthesized and their thrombin inhibitory activity evaluated experimentally in vitro using a chromogenic substrate in a buffer system and using a thrombin generation test in isolated plasma and in vivo using the newly developed model of hemodilution-induced hypercoagulation in rats. The acute toxicities of the most promising new thrombin inhibitors were evaluated in mice, and their stabilities in aqueous solutions were measured. RESULTS: New compounds that are both effective direct thrombin inhibitors (the best K(I was 1111.1 mg/kg. A plasma-substituting solution supplemented with one of the new inhibitors prevented hypercoagulation in the rat model of hemodilution-induced hypercoagulation. Activities of the best new inhibitors in physiological saline (1 µM solutions were stable after sterilization by autoclaving, and the inhibitors remained stable at long-term storage over more than 1.5 years at room temperature and at 4°C. CONCLUSIONS: The high efficacy, stability and low acute toxicity reveal that the inhibitors that were developed may be promising for potential medical applications.

  12. Demonstrating treatment efficacy using the single subject randomization design: A tutorial and demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rvachew, Susan; Matthews, Tanya

    2017-05-01

    Single case research refers to the broader category of research designs in which each case serves as his or her own control. A single subject randomization design is a specific form in which sessions are randomly allocated to treatment conditions within subjects. Two tutorials on the application of these designs are provided. In the single subject randomized phase design, baseline probes are administered repeatedly during a no-treatment or usual care phase; subsequently probes are administered repeatedly during the treatment phase of the experiment; the starting point for the treatment phase is determined by random selection. In the single subject randomized alternation design, any session can be randomly allocated to any treatment condition. In either case, the test statistic can be the mean of probe performance during the treatment sessions after subtracting the baseline mean. The significance of the obtained test statistic is determined by resampling test. Specifically, the obtained test statistic is interpreted relative to a distribution of test statistics generated by all possible random allocations. This distribution yields a P value which represents the probability of obtaining a test statistic as large as that obtained by the selected allocation. In addition to the tutorials, two experiments using these designs with a single 8-year-old participant with Childhood Apraxia of Speech are presented to demonstrate the utility of these designs and the application of the associated statistical analysis procedures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Toxic responses to defined chemical mixtures: mathematical models and experimental designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, J P; Gandolfi, A J; Brendel, K

    1994-01-01

    The problem and relevance of assessing biological responses to chemical mixtures is presented with reference to the literature on this problem and its possible solutions. This review is intended for a general audience as an introduction to, and comment on, assessing the interactions of defined mixtures of xenobiotics. The focus is on experimental toxicology, however, the methods are also applicable to pharmacology. Much of the literature on this topic is quite specialized in statistics, theory, or specific applications. This may deter a significant portion of the growing number of investigators in this field from using this literature, and may partially account for the persistent use of methods which have been shown to permit precarious conclusions. References are given for some of the most comprehensive and recent work and reviews on the subject. The reader is given some familiarity with this topic's basic problems and ideas, and the controversy on terminology. One example is presented of a popular experimental design and data analysis method which while applicable in some situations, has been shown to lead to precarious and even erroneous conclusions. Eight other methods of data analysis are briefly presented and some of their advantages, disadvantages, assumptions, and limitations are discussed. These methods were selected to illustrate similarities and differences in the various approaches taken in addressing this problem. Three basic types of experimental design appropriate to these kinds of studies are outlined. General considerations, suggested guidelines, and possible pitfalls in experimental design, and data analysis of biological responses to chemical mixtures are discussed.

  14. Protein design algorithms predict viable resistance to an experimental antifolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Stephanie M; Gainza, Pablo; Frey, Kathleen M; Georgiev, Ivelin; Donald, Bruce R; Anderson, Amy C

    2015-01-20

    Methods to accurately predict potential drug target mutations in response to early-stage leads could drive the design of more resilient first generation drug candidates. In this study, a structure-based protein design algorithm (K* in the OSPREY suite) was used to prospectively identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms that confer resistance to an experimental inhibitor effective against dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from Staphylococcus aureus. Four of the top-ranked mutations in DHFR were found to be catalytically competent and resistant to the inhibitor. Selection of resistant bacteria in vitro reveals that two of the predicted mutations arise in the background of a compensatory mutation. Using enzyme kinetics, microbiology, and crystal structures of the complexes, we determined the fitness of the mutant enzymes and strains, the structural basis of resistance, and the compensatory relationship of the mutations. To our knowledge, this work illustrates the first application of protein design algorithms to prospectively predict viable resistance mutations that arise in bacteria under antibiotic pressure.

  15. Two-Stage Experimental Design for Dose-Response Modeling in Toxicology Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Yang, Feng; Porter, Dale W; Wu, Nianqiang

    The efficient design of experiments (i.e., selection of experimental doses and allocation of animals) is important to establishing dose-response relationships in toxicology studies. The proposed procedure for design of experiments is distinct from those in the literature because it is able to adequately accommodate the special features of the dose-response data, which include non-normality, variance heterogeneity, possibly nonlinearity of the dose-response curve, and data scarcity. The design procedure is built in a sequential two-stage paradigm that allows for a learning process. In the first stage, preliminary experiments are performed to gain information regarding the underlying dose-response curve and variance structure. In the second stage, the prior information obtained from the previous stage is utilized to guide the second-stage experiments. An optimization algorithm is developed to search for the design of experiments that will lead to dose-response models of the highest quality. To evaluate model quality (or uncertainty), which is the basis of design optimization, a bootstrapping method is employed; unlike standard statistical methods, bootstrapping is not subject to restrictive assumptions such as normality or large sample sizes. The design procedure in this paper will help to reduce the experimental cost/time in toxicology studies and alleviate the sustainability concerns regarding the tremendous new materials and chemicals.

  16. Experimental analysis of temperature profiles in ceramic brickwork elements subjected to high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciá, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses heat transfer through a brick element in order to know the thermal behavior of onedimensional brickwork masonry samples exposed to high temperatures. The object of the tests is to build time-temperature curves according to different thermal steps in transient to experimentally determine the temperature profiles in the interior of a wall. Through this study, it is possible to demonstrate absolute moisture of a factory item from 300 °C (variation of temperatures in the interior of the element, avoid the associated phenomenon of evaporation of water during the thermal process as well as to obtain profiles of temperatures that help calculate the cross section of a factory element subjected to high temperatures.En este artículo se analiza la transferencia de calor a través de un elemento de fábrica de ladrillo con el fin de conocer el comportamiento térmico de secciones de fábrica unidimensionales expuestas a altas temperaturas. El objeto de los ensayos es construir curvas tiempo-temperatura en función de diversos escalones térmicos en régimen transitorio para determinar experimentalmente los perfiles de temperatura en el interior de un muro. A través de este estudio es posible evidenciar el contenido de humedad absoluta de un elemento de fábrica a partir de los 300 ºC (variación de las temperaturas en el interior del elemento, evitar el fenómeno asociado de la evaporación del agua durante el proceso térmico así como obtener perfiles de temperaturas que ayuden a calcular la sección eficaz de un elemento de fábrica sometido a altas temperaturas.

  17. Experimental study of moisture uptake of polyurethane foam subjected to a heat sink below 30 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. B.; Chen, J. Y.; Gan, Z. H.; Qiu, L. M.; Zhang, K. H.; Yang, R. P.; Ma, X. J.; Liu, Z. H.

    2014-01-01

    Rigid closed-cell foam is widely used to thermally insulate liquid hydrogen and oxygen tanks of space launch vehicles due to its lightweight, mechanical strength and thermal-insulating performance. Up to now, little information is available on the intrusion of moisture into the foam that subjects one side to liquid hydrogen temperatures and the other side to room temperatures and high relative humidity. A novel cryogenic moisture uptake apparatus has been designed and fabricated to measure the moisture uptake into the polyurethane foam. For safety and convenience, two identical single-stage pulse tube cryocoolers instead of liquid hydrogen are used to cool one side of the foam specimen to the lowest temperature of 26 K. Total of eight specimens in three groups, according to whether there is a butt-joint or weathering period, are tested respectively for both 5 h and 9 h. The additional weight due to moisture uptake of the foam for the 26 K cases is compared to previous measurements at 79 K. The results are instructive for the applications of foam to the insulation of liquid hydrogen tanks in space launch vehicles.

  18. Experimental Tests on the Composite Foam Sandwich Pipes Subjected to Axial Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Zhao, QiLin; Xu, Kang; Zhang, DongDong

    2015-12-01

    Compared to the composite thin-walled tube, the composite foam sandwich pipe has better local flexural rigidity, which can take full advantage of the high strength of composite materials. In this paper, a series of composite foam sandwich pipes with different parameters were designed and manufactured using the prefabricated polyurethane foam core-skin co-curing molding technique with E-glass fabric prepreg. The corresponding axial-load compressive tests were conducted to investigate the influence factors that experimentally determine the axial compressive performances of the tubes. In the tests, the detailed failure process and the corresponding load-displacement characteristics were obtained; the influence rules of the foam core density, surface layer thickness, fiber ply combination and end restraint on the failure modes and ultimate bearing capacity were studied. Results indicated that: (1) the fiber ply combination, surface layer thickness and end restraint have a great influence on the ultimate load bearing capacity; (2) a reasonable fiber ply combination and reliable interfacial adhesion not only optimize the strength but also transform the failure mode from brittle failure to ductile failure, which is vital to the fully utilization of the composite strength of these composite foam sandwich pipes.

  19. Statistics in experimental design, preprocessing, and analysis of proteomics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    High-throughput experiments in proteomics, such as 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry (MS), yield usually high-dimensional data sets of expression values for hundreds or thousands of proteins which are, however, observed on only a relatively small number of biological samples. Statistical methods for the planning and analysis of experiments are important to avoid false conclusions and to receive tenable results. In this chapter, the most frequent experimental designs for proteomics experiments are illustrated. In particular, focus is put on studies for the detection of differentially regulated proteins. Furthermore, issues of sample size planning, statistical analysis of expression levels as well as methods for data preprocessing are covered.

  20. Bayesian Optimal Experimental Design Using Multilevel Monte Carlo

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Issaid, Chaouki

    2015-05-12

    Experimental design can be vital when experiments are resource-exhaustive and time-consuming. In this work, we carry out experimental design in the Bayesian framework. To measure the amount of information that can be extracted from the data in an experiment, we use the expected information gain as the utility function, which specifically is the expected logarithmic ratio between the posterior and prior distributions. Optimizing this utility function enables us to design experiments that yield the most informative data about the model parameters. One of the major difficulties in evaluating the expected information gain is that it naturally involves nested integration over a possibly high dimensional domain. We use the Multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method to accelerate the computation of the nested high dimensional integral. The advantages are twofold. First, MLMC can significantly reduce the cost of the nested integral for a given tolerance, by using an optimal sample distribution among different sample averages of the inner integrals. Second, the MLMC method imposes fewer assumptions, such as the asymptotic concentration of posterior measures, required for instance by the Laplace approximation (LA). We test the MLMC method using two numerical examples. The first example is the design of sensor deployment for a Darcy flow problem governed by a one-dimensional Poisson equation. We place the sensors in the locations where the pressure is measured, and we model the conductivity field as a piecewise constant random vector with two parameters. The second one is chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) core flooding experiment assuming homogeneous permeability. We measure the cumulative oil recovery, from a horizontal core flooded by water, surfactant and polymer, for different injection rates. The model parameters consist of the endpoint relative permeabilities, the residual saturations and the relative permeability exponents for the three phases: water, oil and

  1. Experimental studies of tuned particle damper: Design and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Xi, Yanhui; Chen, Tianning; Ma, Zhihao

    2018-01-01

    To better suppress the structural vibration in the micro vibration and harsh environment, a new type of damper, tuned particle damper (TPD), was designed by combining the advantage of classical dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) and particle damper (PD). An equivalent theoretical model was established to describe the dynamic behavior of a cantilever system treated with TPD. By means of a series of sine sweep tests, the dynamic characteristic of TPD under different excitation intensity was explored and the damping performance of TPD was investigated by comparing with classical DVA and PD with the same mass ratio. Experimental results show that with the increasing of excitation intensity TPD shows two different dynamic characteristics successively, i.e., PD-like and DVA-like. TPD shows a wider suppression frequency band than classical DVA and better practicability than PD in the micro vibration environment. Moreover, to characterize the dynamic characteristic of TPD, a simple evaluation of the equivalent dynamic mass and equivalent dynamic damping of the cantilever system treated with TPD was performed by fitting the experimental data to the presented theoretical model. Finally, based on the rheology behaviors of damping particles reported by the previous research results, an approximate phase diagram which shows the motion states of damping particles in TPD was employed to analyze the dynamic characteristic of TPD and several motion states of damping particles in TPD were presented via a high-speed camera.

  2. Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

    2011-12-31

    This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2013), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This proposal will directly support the technical goals specified in DE-FOA-0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. We will develop novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; we will perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; we will perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and we will demonstrate our new Thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments. The durability of the coating will be examined using the proposed High Temperature/High Pressure Durability Test Rig under real syngas product compositions.

  3. Experimental Verification of Current Shear Design Equations for HSRC Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attaullah Shah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental research on the shear capacity of HSRC (High Strength Reinforced Concrete beams is relatively very limited as compared to the NSRC (Normal Strength Reinforced Concrete beams. Most of the Building Codes determine the shear strength of HSRC with the help of empirical equations based on experimental work of NSRC beams and hence these equations are generally regarded as un-conservative for HSRC beams particularly at low level of longitudinal reinforcement. In this paper, 42 beams have been tested in two sets, such that in 21 beams no transverse reinforcement has been used, whereas in the remaining 21 beams, minimum transverse reinforcement has been used as per ACI-318 (American Concrete Institute provisions. Two values of compressive strength 52 and 61 MPa, three values of longitudinal steel ratio and seven values of shear span to depth ratio have been have been used. The beams were tested under concentrated load at the mid span. The results are compared with the equations proposed by different international building codes like ACI, AASHTO LRFD, EC (Euro Code, Canadian Code and Japanese Code for shear strength of HSRC beams.From comparison, it has been observed that some codes are less conservative for shear design of HSRC beams and further research is required to rationalize these equations.

  4. Simulation-based optimal Bayesian experimental design for nonlinear systems

    KAUST Repository

    Huan, Xun

    2013-01-01

    The optimal selection of experimental conditions is essential to maximizing the value of data for inference and prediction, particularly in situations where experiments are time-consuming and expensive to conduct. We propose a general mathematical framework and an algorithmic approach for optimal experimental design with nonlinear simulation-based models; in particular, we focus on finding sets of experiments that provide the most information about targeted sets of parameters.Our framework employs a Bayesian statistical setting, which provides a foundation for inference from noisy, indirect, and incomplete data, and a natural mechanism for incorporating heterogeneous sources of information. An objective function is constructed from information theoretic measures, reflecting expected information gain from proposed combinations of experiments. Polynomial chaos approximations and a two-stage Monte Carlo sampling method are used to evaluate the expected information gain. Stochastic approximation algorithms are then used to make optimization feasible in computationally intensive and high-dimensional settings. These algorithms are demonstrated on model problems and on nonlinear parameter inference problems arising in detailed combustion kinetics. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  5. Experimental design data for the biosynthesis of citric acid using Central Composite Design method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kola, Anand Kishore; Mekala, Mallaiah; Goli, Venkat Reddy

    2017-06-01

    In the present investigation, we report that statistical design and optimization of significant variables for the microbial production of citric acid from sucrose in presence of filamentous fungi A. niger NCIM 705. Various combinations of experiments were designed with Central Composite Design (CCD) of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for the production of citric acid as a function of six variables. The variables are; initial sucrose concentration, initial pH of medium, fermentation temperature, incubation time, stirrer rotational speed, and oxygen flow rate. From experimental data, a statistical model for this process has been developed. The optimum conditions reported in the present article are initial concentration of sucrose of 163.6 g/L, initial pH of medium 5.26, stirrer rotational speed of 247.78 rpm, incubation time of 8.18 days, fermentation temperature of 30.06 °C and flow rate of oxygen of 1.35 lpm. Under optimum conditions the predicted maximum citric acid is 86.42 g/L. The experimental validation carried out under the optimal values and reported citric acid to be 82.0 g/L. The model is able to represent the experimental data and the agreement between the model and experimental data is good.

  6. Experimental design data for the biosynthesis of citric acid using Central Composite Design method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kishore Kola

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, we report that statistical design and optimization of significant variables for the microbial production of citric acid from sucrose in presence of filamentous fungi A. niger NCIM 705. Various combinations of experiments were designed with Central Composite Design (CCD of Response Surface Methodology (RSM for the production of citric acid as a function of six variables. The variables are; initial sucrose concentration, initial pH of medium, fermentation temperature, incubation time, stirrer rotational speed, and oxygen flow rate. From experimental data, a statistical model for this process has been developed. The optimum conditions reported in the present article are initial concentration of sucrose of 163.6 g/L, initial pH of medium 5.26, stirrer rotational speed of 247.78 rpm, incubation time of 8.18 days, fermentation temperature of 30.06 °C and flow rate of oxygen of 1.35 lpm. Under optimum conditions the predicted maximum citric acid is 86.42 g/L. The experimental validation carried out under the optimal values and reported citric acid to be 82.0 g/L. The model is able to represent the experimental data and the agreement between the model and experimental data is good.

  7. Effects of experimental muscle pain on shoulder-abduction force steadiness and muscle activity in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas Quaade; Rasmussen, Lars; Aagaard, Per

    2007-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the steadiness of shoulder abduction is reduced in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS), which might be related to shoulder pain associated with the SIS. The aim of the present study was to examine the acute effects of experimental shoulder muscle...... pain on shoulder motor function in healthy subjects. The fluctuations in exerted force (force steadiness) and electromyographic (EMG) activity from eight shoulder muscles were determined during sub-maximal isometric and dynamic contractions with the shoulder abductors in nine healthy subjects (27.......7 +/- 4.2 years, mean +/- 1 SD) before, during and after experimental pain induction. Experimental pain was induced by bolus injections of 6% hypertonic saline into the supraspinatus muscle. Experimental muscle pain reduced shoulder-abduction force steadiness on average by 21% during isometric...

  8. Experimental evaluation and design of unfilled and concrete-filled FRP composite piles : Task 4A : design specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The overall goal of this project is the experimental evaluation and design of unfilled and concrete-filled FRP composite piles for load-bearing in bridges. This report covers Task 4A, Design Specifications. : Structural design specifications are base...

  9. The Applied Behavior Analysis Research Paradigm and Single-Subject Designs in Adapted Physical Activity Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegele, Justin A; Hodge, Samuel Russell

    2015-10-01

    There are basic philosophical and paradigmatic assumptions that guide scholarly research endeavors, including the methods used and the types of questions asked. Through this article, kinesiology faculty and students with interests in adapted physical activity are encouraged to understand the basic assumptions of applied behavior analysis (ABA) methodology for conducting, analyzing, and presenting research of high quality in this paradigm. The purposes of this viewpoint paper are to present information fundamental to understanding the assumptions undergirding research methodology in ABA, describe key aspects of single-subject research designs, and discuss common research designs and data-analysis strategies used in single-subject studies.

  10. Quasi-experimental designs in practice-based research settings: design and implementation considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Margaret A; Schillinger, Dean; Shiboski, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Although randomized controlled trials are often a gold standard for determining intervention effects, in the area of practice-based research (PBR), there are many situations in which individual randomization is not possible. Alternative approaches to evaluating interventions have received increased attention, particularly those that can retain elements of randomization such that they can be considered "controlled" trials. Methodological design elements and practical implementation considerations for two quasi-experimental design approaches that have considerable promise in PBR settings--the stepped-wedge design, and a variant of this design, a wait-list cross-over design, are presented along with a case study from a recent PBR intervention for patients with diabetes. PBR-relevant design features include: creation of a cohort over time that collects control data but allows all participants (clusters or patients) to receive the intervention; staggered introduction of clusters; multiple data collection points; and one-way cross-over into the intervention arm. Practical considerations include: randomization versus stratification, training run in phases; and extended time period for overall study completion. Several design features of practice based research studies can be adapted to local circumstances yet retain elements to improve methodological rigor. Studies that utilize these methods, such as the stepped-wedge design and the wait-list cross-over design, can increase the evidence base for controlled studies conducted within the complex environment of PBR.

  11. MicroarrayDesigner: an online search tool and repository for near-optimal microarray experimental designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhatosmanoglu Nilgun

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dual-channel microarray experiments are commonly employed for inference of differential gene expressions across varying organisms and experimental conditions. The design of dual-channel microarray experiments that can help minimize the errors in the resulting inferences has recently received increasing attention. However, a general and scalable search tool and a corresponding database of optimal designs were still missing. Description An efficient and scalable search method for finding near-optimal dual-channel microarray designs, based on a greedy hill-climbing optimization strategy, has been developed. It is empirically shown that this method can successfully and efficiently find near-optimal designs. Additionally, an improved interwoven loop design construction algorithm has been developed to provide an easily computable general class of near-optimal designs. Finally, in order to make the best results readily available to biologists, a continuously evolving catalog of near-optimal designs is provided. Conclusion A new search algorithm and database for near-optimal microarray designs have been developed. The search tool and the database are accessible via the World Wide Web at http://db.cse.ohio-state.edu/MicroarrayDesigner. Source code and binary distributions are available for academic use upon request.

  12. Tabletop Games: Platforms, Experimental Games and Design Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Michael; Forlines, Clifton; Koeffel, Christina; Leitner, Jakob; Shen, Chia

    While the last decade has seen massive improvements in not only the rendering quality, but also the overall performance of console and desktop video games, these improvements have not necessarily led to a greater population of video game players. In addition to continuing these improvements, the video game industry is also constantly searching for new ways to convert non-players into dedicated gamers. Despite the growing popularity of computer-based video games, people still love to play traditional board games, such as Risk, Monopoly, and Trivial Pursuit. Both video and board games have their strengths and weaknesses, and an intriguing conclusion is to merge both worlds. We believe that a tabletop form-factor provides an ideal interface for digital board games. The design and implementation of tabletop games will be influenced by the hardware platforms, form factors, sensing technologies, as well as input techniques and devices that are available and chosen. This chapter is divided into three major sections. In the first section, we describe the most recent tabletop hardware technologies that have been used by tabletop researchers and practitioners. In the second section, we discuss a set of experimental tabletop games. The third section presents ten evaluation heuristics for tabletop game design.

  13. Experimental Reality: Principles for the Design of Augmented Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahlou, Saadi

    The Laboratory of Design for Cognition at EDF R&D (LDC) is a living laboratory, which we created to develop Augmented Environment (AE) for collaborative work, more specifically “cognitive work” (white collars, engineers, office workers). It is a corporate laboratory in a large industry, where natural activity of real users is observed in a continuous manner in various spaces (project space, meeting room, lounge, etc.) The RAO room, an augmented meeting room, is used daily for “normal” meetings; it is also the “mother room” of all augmented meeting rooms in the company, where new systems, services, and devices are tested. The LDC has gathered a unique set of data on the use of AE, and developed various observation and design techniques, described in this chapter. LDC uses novel techniques of digital ethnography, some of which were invented there (SubCam, offsat) and some of which were developed elsewhere and adapted (360° video, WebDiver, etc.). At LDC, some new theories have also been developed to explain behavior and guide innovation: cognitive attractors, experimental reality, and the triple-determination framework.

  14. Experimental investigation of design parameters on dry powder inhaler performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Quynh; Chang, Lusi; Jia, Xinli; Lau, Raymond

    2013-11-30

    The study aims to investigate the impact of various design parameters of a dry powder inhaler on the turbulence intensities generated and the performance of the dry powder inhaler. The flow fields and turbulence intensities in the dry powder inhaler are measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques. In vitro aerosolization and deposition a blend of budesonide and lactose are measured using an Andersen Cascade Impactor. Design parameters such as inhaler grid hole diameter, grid voidage and chamber length are considered. The experimental results reveal that the hole diameter on the grid has negligible impact on the turbulence intensity generated in the chamber. On the other hand, hole diameters smaller than a critical size can lead to performance degradation due to excessive particle-grid collisions. An increase in grid voidage can improve the inhaler performance but the effect diminishes at high grid voidage. An increase in the chamber length can enhance the turbulence intensity generated but also increases the powder adhesion on the inhaler wall. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Numerical and experimental design of coaxial shallow geothermal energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Niranjan

    Geothermal Energy has emerged as one of the front runners in the energy race because of its performance efficiency, abundance and production competitiveness. Today, geothermal energy is used in many regions of the world as a sustainable solution for decreasing dependence on fossil fuels and reducing health hazards. However, projects related to geothermal energy have not received their deserved recognition due to lack of computational tools associated with them and economic misconceptions related to their installation and functioning. This research focuses on numerical and experimental system design analysis of vertical shallow geothermal energy systems. The driving force is the temperature difference between a finite depth beneath the earth and its surface stimulates continuous exchange of thermal energy from sub-surface to the surface (a geothermal gradient is set up). This heat gradient is captured by the circulating refrigerant and thus, tapping the geothermal energy from shallow depths. Traditionally, U-bend systems, which consist of two one-inch pipes with a U-bend connector at the bottom, have been widely used in geothermal applications. Alternative systems include coaxial pipes (pipe-in-pipe) that are the main focus of this research. It has been studied that coaxial pipes have significantly higher thermal performance characteristics than U-bend pipes, with comparative production and installation costs. This makes them a viable design upgrade to the traditional piping systems. Analytical and numerical heat transfer analysis of the coaxial system is carried out with the help of ABAQUS software. It is tested by varying independent parameters such as materials, soil conditions and effect of thermal contact conductance on heat transfer characteristics. With the above information, this research aims at formulating a preliminary theoretical design setup for an experimental study to quantify and compare the heat transfer characteristics of U-bend and coaxial

  16. Design, Evaluation and Experimental Effort Toward Development of a High Strain Composite Wing for Navy Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Joseph; Libeskind, Mark

    1990-01-01

    This design development effort addressed significant technical issues concerning the use and benefits of high strain composite wing structures (Epsilon(sub ult) = 6000 micro-in/in) for future Navy aircraft. These issues were concerned primarily with the structural integrity and durability of the innovative design concepts and manufacturing techniques which permitted a 50 percent increase in design ultimate strain level (while maintaining the same fiber/resin system) as well as damage tolerance and survivability requirements. An extensive test effort consisting of a progressive series of coupon and major element tests was an integral part of this development effort, and culminated in the design, fabrication and test of a major full-scale wing box component. The successful completion of the tests demonstrated the structural integrity, durability and benefits of the design. Low energy impact testing followed by fatigue cycling verified the damage tolerance concepts incorporated within the structure. Finally, live fire ballistic testing confirmed the survivability of the design. The potential benefits of combining newer/emerging composite materials and new or previously developed high strain wing design to maximize structural efficiency and reduce fabrication costs was the subject of subsequent preliminary design and experimental evaluation effort.

  17. System design overview of JAXA small supersonic experimental airplane (NEXST-1)

    OpenAIRE

    Takami, Hikaru; 高見 光

    2007-01-01

    The system of JAXA small supersonic experimental airplane (NEXST-1: National EXperimental Supersonic Transport-1) has been briefly explained. Some design problems that the designers have encountered have also been briefly explained.

  18. Hierarchical Linear Modeling Meta-Analysis of Single-Subject Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Nicholas A.; Lewis, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    The identification of evidence-based practices continues to provoke issues of disagreement across multiple fields. One area of contention is the role of single-subject design (SSD) research in providing scientific evidence. The debate about SSD's utility centers on three issues: sample size, effect size, and serial dependence. One potential…

  19. What Are the Next Steps in Designing an Orthosis for Paraplegic Subjects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Karimi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Although the HGO has better functional performance than other available orthoses, the subjects are more willing to use the RGO. The new design of orthoses must allow easy donning and doffing by the users, have enough stability during walking and standing, and enable the patients to change the alignment of the orthosis to suit their needs.

  20. Usability Testing, User-Centered Design, and LibGuides Subject Guides: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonsteby, Alec; DeJonghe, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Usability testing has become a routine way for many libraries to ensure that their Web presence is user-friendly and accessible. At the same time, popular subject guide creation systems, such as LibGuides, decentralize Web content creation and put authorship into the hands of librarians who may not be trained in user-centered design principles. At…

  1. Single-Subject Designs for Client Groups: Implications for Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagles, Kenneth W.; O'Neill, John

    1977-01-01

    The ethical dilemma of (a) desiring a control group for validity purposes in program evaluation strategies and (b) withholding needed services from eligible clients to achieve such control has limited the credibility of many evaluation efforts. A potential solution is suggested by the use of time-series, single-subject designs. (Author)

  2. A Framework for Control System Design Subject to Average Data-Rate Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Eduardo; Derpich, Milan; Østergaard, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies discrete-time control systems subject to average data-rate limits. We focus on a situation where a noisy linear system has been designed assuming transparent feedback and, due to implementation constraints, a source-coding scheme (with unity signal transfer function) has to be ...

  3. Bone reactions at implants subjected to experimental peri-implantitis and static load. A study in the dog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, K; Berglundh, T; Lindhe, J

    2002-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the present experiment was to study peri-implant tissue reactions to lateral static load at implants subjected to experimental mucositis or peri-implantitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 5 beagle dogs were used. The mandibular premolars were extracted. After 12 weeks, 3 implants were...

  4. Improving Treatment Plan Implementation in Schools: A Meta-Analysis of Single Subject Design Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noell, George H.; Gansle, Kristin A.; Mevers, Joanna Lomas; Knox, R. Maria; Mintz, Joslyn Cynkus; Dahir, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-nine peer-reviewed journal articles that analyzed intervention implementation in schools using single-case experimental designs were meta-analyzed. These studies reported 171 separate data paths and provided 3,991 data points. The meta-analysis was accomplished by fitting data extracted from graphs in mixed linear growth models. This…

  5. Design and experimental study of a multi-modal piezoelectric energy harvester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Xing Yu [School of Energy, Power and Mechanical Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing (China); Oyadiji, S. Olutunde [School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, The University of Manchester, Manchester (United States)

    2017-01-15

    A multi-modal piezoelectric vibration energy harvester is designed in this article. It consists of a cantilevered base beam and some upper and lower layer beams with rigid masses bonded between the beams as spacers. For a four-layer harvester subjected to random base excitations, relocating the mass positions leads to the generation of up to four close resonance frequencies over the frequency range from 10 Hz to 100 Hz with relative large power output. The harvesters are connected with a resistance decade box and the frequency response functions of the voltage and power on resistive loads are determined. The experimental results are validated with the simulation results using the finite element method. On a certain level of power output, the experimental results show that the multi-modal harvesters can generate a frequency band that is more than two times greater than the frequency band produced by a cantilevered beam harvester.

  6. Experimental design strategy a part of an innovative construction industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarten Gjaltema; Rogier Laterveer; Dr Ruben Vrijhoef

    2013-01-01

    From the article: Abstract. This exploratory and conceptual article sets out to research what arguments and possibilities for experimentation in construction exists and if experimentation can contribute towards more innovative construction as a whole. Traditional, -western- construction is very

  7. Experimental Design Strategy As Part of an Innovative Construction Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogier Laterveer

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory and conceptual article sets out to research what arguments and possibilities for experimentation in construction exists and if experimentation can contribute towards more innovative construction as a whole. Traditional, -western- construction is very conservative and regional, often

  8. Phosphate removal from water by fly ash: factorial experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Mevra Yalvac; Yildiz, Ergun

    2006-07-31

    The influence of three variables (phophate concentration, initial pH of solution (pH(0)) and the fly ash dosage) on the removal efficiency of phosphate (% E) and equilibrium pH of solution (pH(eq)) by using fly ash was studied by means of 2(3) full factorial experimental designs. The parameters coded as x(1), x(2) and x(3), consecutively(,) were used. The parameters were investigated at two levels (-1 and 1). The effects of these factors on dependent variables, namely, % E and pH(eq) were investigated. To determine the significance of effects, the analysis of variance with 95% confidence limits was used. It was shown that % E and pH(eq) obtained in this study were found to be 99.6% and 11.16, corresponding to the operating condition of 25 mg l(-1), 2 g l(-1) and 5.5 for the phosphate concentration, fly ash dosage and pH(0), respectively.

  9. Tokamak experimental power reactor conceptual design. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-01

    A conceptual design has been developed for a tokamak Experimental Power Reactor to operate at net electrical power conditions with a plant capacity factor of 50 percent for 10 years. The EPR operates in a pulsed mode at a frequency of approximately 1/min., with an approximate 75 percent duty cycle, is capable of producing approximately 72 MWe and requires 42 MWe. The annual tritium consumption is 16 kg. The EPR vacuum chamber is 6.25 m in major radius and 2.4 m in minor radius, is constructed of 2-cm thick stainless steel, and has 2-cm thick detachable, beryllium-coated coolant panels mounted on the interior. An 0.28 m stainless steel blanket and a shield ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 m surround the vacuum vessel. The coolant is H/sub 2/O. Sixteen niobium-titanium superconducting toroidal-field coils provide a field of 10 T at the coil and 4.47 T at the plasma. Superconducting ohmic-heating and equilibrium-field coils provide 135 V-s to drive the plasma current. Plasma heating is accomplished by 12 neutral beam-injectors, which provide 60 MW. The energy transfer and storage system consists of a central superconducting storage ring, a homopolar energy storage unit, and a variety of inductor-converters.

  10. The influence of expectation on spinal manipulation induced hypoalgesia: an experimental study in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialosky, Joel E; Bishop, Mark D; Robinson, Michael E; Barabas, Josh A; George, Steven Z

    2008-02-11

    The mechanisms thorough which spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) exerts clinical effects are not established. A prior study has suggested a dorsal horn modulated effect; however, the role of subject expectation was not considered. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of subject expectation on hypoalgesia associated with SMT. Sixty healthy subjects agreed to participate and underwent quantitative sensory testing (QST) to their leg and low back. Next, participants were randomly assigned to receive a positive, negative, or neutral expectation instructional set regarding the effects of a specific SMT technique on pain perception. Following the instructional set, all subjects received SMT and underwent repeat QST. No interaction (p = 0.38) between group assignment and pain response was present in the lower extremity following SMT; however, a main effect (p influence of expectation on SMT induced hypoalgesia in the body area to which the expectation is directed.

  11. Single-subject research design: recommendations for levels of evidence and quality rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeiser Logan, Lynne; Hickman, Robbin R; Harris, Susan R; Heriza, Carolyn B

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this article is to present a set of evidence levels, accompanied by 14 quality or rigor questions, to foster a critical review of published single-subject research articles. In developing these guidelines, we reviewed levels of evidence and quality/rigor criteria that are in wide use for group research designs, e.g. randomized controlled trials, such as those developed by the Treatment Outcomes Committee of the American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine. We also reviewed methodological articles on how to conduct and critically evaluate single-subject research designs (SSRDs). We then subjected the quality questions to interrater agreement testing and refined them until acceptable agreement was reached. We recommend that these guidelines be implemented by clinical researchers who plan to conduct single-subject research or who incorporate SSRD studies into systematic reviews, and by clinicians who aim to practise evidence-based medicine and who wish to critically review pediatric single-subject research.

  12. Designing Infographics to support teaching complex science subject: A comparison between static and animated Infographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Hesham Galal

    This thesis explores the proper principles and rules for creating excellent infographics that communicate information successfully and effectively. Not only does this thesis examine the creation of Infographics, it also tries to answer which format, Static or Animated Infographics, is the most effective when used as a teaching-aid framework for complex science subjects, and if compelling Infographics in the preferred format facilitate the learning experience. The methodology includes the creation of infographic using two formats (Static and Animated) of a fairly complex science subject (Phases Of The Moon), which were then tested for their efficacy as a whole, and the two formats were compared in terms of information comprehension and retention. My hypothesis predicts that the creation of an infographic using the animated format would be more effective in communicating a complex science subject (Phases Of The Moon), specifically when using 3D computer animation to visualize the topic. This would also help different types of learners to easily comprehend science subjects. Most of the animated infographics produced nowadays are created for marketing and business purposes and do not implement the analytical design principles required for creating excellent information design. I believe that science learners are still in need of more variety in their methods of learning information, and that infographics can be of great assistance. The results of this thesis study suggests that using properly designed infographics would be of great help in teaching complex science subjects that involve spatial and temporal data. This could facilitate learning science subjects and consequently impact the interest of young learners in STEM.

  13. The Role of Subjective Well-Being in Co-Designing Open-Design Assistive Devices; design case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Couvreur, L.; Dejonghe, W.; Detand, J.; Goossens, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore the role of subjective well-being within the process of making together a personalized assistive device. Through a process of social product adaptation, assistive artifacts become part of occupational therapy and co-evolve with clients. Personal digital fabrication tools

  14. Experimental Design on Laminated Veneer Lumber Fiber Composite: Surface Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekum, U.; Mingmongkol, Y.

    2010-06-01

    Thick laminate veneer lumber(LVL) fibre reinforced composites were constructed from the alternated perpendicularly arrayed of peeled rubber woods. Glass woven was laid in between the layers. Native golden teak veneers were used as faces. In house formulae epoxy was employed as wood adhesive. The hand lay-up laminate was cured at 150° C for 45 mins. The cut specimen was post cured at 80° C for at least 5 hours. The 2k factorial design of experimental(DOE) was used to verify the parameters. Three parameters by mean of silane content in epoxy formulation(A), smoke treatment of rubber wood surface(B) and anti-termite application(C) on the wood surface were analysed. Both low and high levels were further subcategorised into 2 sub-levels. Flexural properties were the main respond obtained. ANOVA analysis of the Pareto chart was engaged. The main effect plot was also testified. The results showed that the interaction between silane quantity and termite treatment is negative effect at high level(AC+). Vice versa, the interaction between silane and smoke treatment was positive significant effect at high level(AB+). According to this research work, the optimal setting to improve the surface adhesion and hence flexural properties enhancement were high level of silane quantity, 15% by weight, high level of smoked wood layers, 8 out of 14 layers, and low anti termite applied wood. The further testes also revealed that the LVL composite had superior properties that the solid woods but slightly inferior in flexibility. The screw withdrawn strength of LVL showed the higher figure than solid wood. It is also better resistance to moisture and termite attack than the rubber wood.

  15. Acute, subacute and long-term subjective effects of psilocybin in healthy humans: a pooled analysis of experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studerus, Erich; Kometer, Michael; Hasler, Felix; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2011-11-01

    Psilocybin and related hallucinogenic compounds are increasingly used in human research. However, due to limited information about potential subjective side effects, the controlled medical use of these compounds has remained controversial. We therefore analysed acute, short- and long-term subjective effects of psilocybin in healthy humans by pooling raw data from eight double-blind placebo-controlled experimental studies conducted between 1999 and 2008. The analysis included 110 healthy subjects who had received 1-4 oral doses of psilocybin (45-315 µg/kg body weight). Although psilocybin dose-dependently induced profound changes in mood, perception, thought and self-experience, most subjects described the experience as pleasurable, enriching and non-threatening. Acute adverse drug reactions, characterized by strong dysphoria and/or anxiety/panic, occurred only in the two highest dose conditions in a relatively small proportion of subjects. All acute adverse drug reactions were successfully managed by providing interpersonal support and did not need psychopharmacological intervention. Follow-up questionnaires indicated no subsequent drug abuse, persisting perception disorders, prolonged psychosis or other long-term impairment of functioning in any of our subjects. The results suggest that the administration of moderate doses of psilocybin to healthy, high-functioning and well-prepared subjects in the context of a carefully monitored research environment is associated with an acceptable level of risk.

  16. Alternative computer mouse designs: performance, posture, and subjective evaluations for college students aged 18-25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feathers, David J; Rollings, Kimberly; Hedge, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Students are faced with work demands requiring intense computer use throughout the week, often with cumulative hourly use per day exceeding that of adult workers. Extended daily computer use has been associated with a reported increase of musculoskeletal symptoms for college-aged students. New mouse designs offer alternative movement and postural strategies to potentially mitigate musculoskeletal stress for students. This study investigates the use of alternative computer mouse designs by college-aged students (18-25) through a precision task (point-and-click an on-screen target). Wrist movements, hand posture, and associated subjective user data were collected across innovative mouse designs to understand the physical impact and basic usability issues for this population. Twenty-one (21) healthy, right handed students (11 female; 10 male) were enrolled in this study. Five mouse designs were assessed by investigating hand fit, wrist movements, and subjective accounts of ease of use, perceived control, comfort and aesthetics. Human performance was captured for each mouse design in terms of peak velocity, average movement time, and fastest movement direction using an electrogoniometer as participants performed the ISO 9241 multipoint standard Fitts' task using the Generalized Fitts' Law Model Builder software (GFLMB v.1.1C; [1]) within a zero-error setting (point-and-click task). Hand measurements were taken in both standardized anthropometric positions and adapted hand positions on five alternative mouse designs for a total of seven sets of measurements for each participant. Subjective data was collected through a series of questionnaires that were administered before, during, and after the mouse tasks. Results for human performance, distal upper extremity posture (hand/wrist), and subjective data such as overall preference, ease of use, perceived control, and comfort are given for this population. Wrist extension exceeded 30 degrees for over 50% of the total

  17. The influence of expectation on spinal manipulation induced hypoalgesia: An experimental study in normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barabas Josh A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanisms thorough which spinal manipulative therapy (SMT exerts clinical effects are not established. A prior study has suggested a dorsal horn modulated effect; however, the role of subject expectation was not considered. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of subject expectation on hypoalgesia associated with SMT. Methods Sixty healthy subjects agreed to participate and underwent quantitative sensory testing (QST to their leg and low back. Next, participants were randomly assigned to receive a positive, negative, or neutral expectation instructional set regarding the effects of a specific SMT technique on pain perception. Following the instructional set, all subjects received SMT and underwent repeat QST. Results No interaction (p = 0.38 between group assignment and pain response was present in the lower extremity following SMT; however, a main effect (p Conclusion The current study replicates prior findings of c- fiber mediated hypoalgesia in the lower extremity following SMT and this occurred regardless of expectation. A significant increase in pain perception occurred following SMT in the low back of participants receiving negative expectation suggesting a potential influence of expectation on SMT induced hypoalgesia in the body area to which the expectation is directed.

  18. Counting Blessings in Early Adolescents: An Experimental Study of Gratitude and Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froh, Jeffery J.; Sefick, William J.; Emmons, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    The development and manifestation of gratitude in youth is unclear. We examined the effects of a grateful outlook on subjective well-being and other outcomes of positive psychological functioning in 221 early adolescents. Eleven classes were randomly assigned to either a gratitude, hassles, or control condition. Results indicated that counting…

  19. Experimental and numerical analysis for optimal design parameters ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajneesh Kaushal

    Finally, the relations established are confirmed experimentally to validate the models. The relations thus established are ... Additionally, the present study is among the first attempts to reveal the effect of humidity on the performance of falling film evaporator. .... and accuracies of instruments used. 2.2 Experimental procedure.

  20. 14 CFR 437.85 - Allowable design changes; modification of an experimental permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable design changes; modification of... Conditions of an Experimental Permit § 437.85 Allowable design changes; modification of an experimental permit. (a) The FAA will identify in the experimental permit the type of changes that the permittee may...

  1. Experimental and numerical analysis of aramid fiber laminates with DCPD resin matrix subjected to impact tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocian Miroslaw

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research for innovative composite material solutions for impact absorbers is focused on the analysis of their ability to absorb impact energy. For this purpose, aramid fiber laminate with DCPD resin matrix was prepared. Laminate samples were tested on the drop test and were subjected to ballistic loads. The laminate structure was modeled with ABAQUS software with the objective to optimize and estimate the ability to absorb impact energy in the range of high speeds (350m/s.

  2. Experimental and numerical analysis of aramid fiber laminates with DCPD resin matrix subjected to impact tests

    OpenAIRE

    Bocian Miroslaw; Pach Joanna; Jamroziak Krzysztof; Kosobudzki Mariusz; Polak Slawomir; Pyka Dariusz; Kurzawa Adam; Kurowski Janusz

    2017-01-01

    Research for innovative composite material solutions for impact absorbers is focused on the analysis of their ability to absorb impact energy. For this purpose, aramid fiber laminate with DCPD resin matrix was prepared. Laminate samples were tested on the drop test and were subjected to ballistic loads. The laminate structure was modeled with ABAQUS software with the objective to optimize and estimate the ability to absorb impact energy in the range of high speeds (350m/s).

  3. Numerical and experimental behaviour of adhesive joints subjected to peeling load

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, A.; Senatore, F.; Greco, A.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a numerical model, based on finite element theory, useful to model the stress-strain state for a bonded single lap joint under peeling load has been presented. The numerical FE model has been developed by means of Abaqus® code in order to reproduce some experimental tests. For FE model validation purpose, the numerical results have been compared with the experimental ones and a good correlation has been achieved. In more detail, the adhesive layer has been modeled by means of cohesive elements. Such elements present some numerical difficulties related to the dependence from the own element size. So, a procedure useful to solve such mesh-dependence has been proposed.

  4. Deep Boreholes Seals Subjected to High P, T conditions – Preliminary Experimental Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Norskog, Katherine Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Maner, James Lavada [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-18

    The objective of this planned experimental work is to evaluate physio-chemical processes for ‘seal’ components and materials relevant to deep borehole disposal. These evaluations will encompass multi-laboratory efforts for the development of seals concepts and application of Thermal-Mechanical-Chemical (TMC) modeling work to assess barrier material interactions with subsurface fluids, their stability at high temperatures, and the implications of these processes to the evaluation of thermal limits. Deep borehole experimental work will constrain the Pressure, Temperature (P, T) conditions which “seal” material will experience in deep borehole crystalline rock repositories. The rocks of interest to this study include the silicic (granitic gneiss) end members. The experiments will systematically add components to capture discrete changes in both water and EBS component chemistries.

  5. Extended end-plate connection subjected to monotonic loading: Experimental analysis and FEM simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureşan, Ioana Cristina; Bâlc, Roxana

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of a statically monotonic loaded extended end-plate connection, with preloaded high strength bolts, that was carried out at Laboratory of Faculty of Civil Engineering from Cluj-Napoca. A finite element model using the software package Abaqus [1] was developed in parallel. In order to calibrate the numerical model, the results were analyzed on the basis of moment-rotation curves, stress distribution state and the failure mode of connection. Then, a study was conducted on the numerical model by using a high strength steel (HSS) and changing the stiffness and strength characteristics of some elements. Validation of the numerical modeling was performed against the experimental results and it can be seen that good agreements exist in general.

  6. Experimental Investigation of Subject-Specific On-Body Radio Propagation Channels for Body-Centric Wireless Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Monirujjaman Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, subject-specific narrowband (2.45 GHz and ultra-wideband (3–10.6 GHz on-body radio propagation studies in wireless body area networks (WBANs were performed by characterizing the path loss for eight different human subjects of different shapes and sizes. The body shapes and sizes of the test subjects used in this study are characterised as thin, medium build, fatty, shorter, average height and taller. Experimental investigation was made in an indoor environment using a pair of printed monopoles (for the narrowband case and a pair of tapered slot antennas (for the ultra-wideband (UWB case. Results demonstrated that, due to the different sizes, heights and shapes of the test subjects, the path loss exponent value varies up to maximum of 0.85 for the narrowband on-body case, whereas a maximum variation of the path loss exponent value of 1.15 is noticed for the UWB case. In addition, the subject-specific behaviour of the on-body radio propagation channels was compared between narrowband and UWB systems, and it was deduced that the on-body radio channels are subject-specific for both narrowband and UWB system cases, when the same antennas (same characteristics are used. The effect of the human body shape and size variations on the eight different on-body radio channels is also studied for both the narrowband and UWB cases.

  7. Using CHAINS, a QuickBASIC 4.5 Program, to Teach Single-Subject Experimentation with Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermer, Marshall Lev

    2004-01-01

    Students enrolled in a single-subject design course studied the repeated acquisition of response sequences by using CHAINS, a QuickBASIC 4.5 program, which runs in DOS or Windows. For about 2 months, students examined the learning of such sequences as a function of various treatments. Each week students graphed their data, discussed their…

  8. Canopy arthropod responses to experimental canopy opening and debris deposition in a tropical rainforest subject to hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy D. Schowalter; Michael R. Willig; Steven J. Presley

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed responses of canopy arthropods on seven representative early and late successional overstory and understory tree species to a canopy trimming experiment designed to separate effects of canopy opening and debris pulse (resulting from hurricane disturbance) in a tropical rainforest ecosystem at the Luquillo Experimental Forest Long-Term Ecological Research (...

  9. Artificial Warming of Arctic Meadow under Pollution Stress: Experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moni, Christophe; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Fjelldal, Erling; Brenden, Marius; Kimball, Bruce; Rasse, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Boreal and arctic terrestrial ecosystems are central to the climate change debate, notably because future warming is expected to be disproportionate as compared to world averages. Likewise, greenhouse gas (GHG) release from terrestrial ecosystems exposed to climate warming is expected to be the largest in the arctic. Artic agriculture, in the form of cultivated grasslands, is a unique and economically relevant feature of Northern Norway (e.g. Finnmark Province). In Eastern Finnmark, these agro-ecosystems are under the additional stressor of heavy metal and sulfur pollution generated by metal smelters of NW Russia. Warming and its interaction with heavy metal dynamics will influence meadow productivity, species composition and GHG emissions, as mediated by responses of soil microbial communities. Adaptation and mitigation measurements will be needed. Biochar application, which immobilizes heavy metal, is a promising adaptation method to promote positive growth response in arctic meadows exposed to a warming climate. In the MeadoWarm project we conduct an ecosystem warming experiment combined to biochar adaptation treatments in the heavy-metal polluted meadows of Eastern Finnmark. In summary, the general objective of this study is twofold: 1) to determine the response of arctic agricultural ecosystems under environmental stress to increased temperatures, both in terms of plant growth, soil organisms and GHG emissions, and 2) to determine if biochar application can serve as a positive adaptation (plant growth) and mitigation (GHG emission) strategy for these ecosystems under warming conditions. Here, we present the experimental site and the designed open-field warming facility. The selected site is an arctic meadow located at the Svanhovd Research station less than 10km west from the Russian mining city of Nikel. A splitplot design with 5 replicates for each treatment is used to test the effect of biochar amendment and a 3oC warming on the Arctic meadow. Ten circular

  10. The use of subjective expert opinions in cost optimum design of aerospace structures. [probabilistic failure models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J. M.; Hanagud, S.

    1975-01-01

    The results of two questionnaires sent to engineering experts are statistically analyzed and compared with objective data from Saturn V design and testing. Engineers were asked how likely it was for structural failure to occur at load increments above and below analysts' stress limit predictions. They were requested to estimate the relative probabilities of different failure causes, and of failure at each load increment given a specific cause. Three mathematical models are constructed based on the experts' assessment of causes. The experts' overall assessment of prediction strength fits the Saturn V data better than the models do, but a model test option (T-3) based on the overall assessment gives more design change likelihood to overstrength structures than does an older standard test option. T-3 compares unfavorably with the standard option in a cost optimum structural design problem. The report reflects a need for subjective data when objective data are unavailable.

  11. Global Gene Expression Profiling in Three Tumor Cell Lines Subjected to Experimental Cycling and Chronic Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbryt, Magdalena; Habryka, Anna; Student, Sebastian; Jarząb, Michał; Tyszkiewicz, Tomasz; Lisowska, Katarzyna Marta

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia is one of the most important features of the tumor microenvironment, exerting an adverse effect on tumor aggressiveness and patient prognosis. Two types of hypoxia may occur within the tumor mass, chronic (prolonged) and cycling (transient, intermittent) hypoxia. Cycling hypoxia has been shown to induce aggressive tumor cell phenotype and radioresistance more significantly than chronic hypoxia, though little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. The aim of this study was to delineate the molecular response to both types of hypoxia induced experimentally in tumor cells, with a focus on cycling hypoxia. We analyzed in vitro gene expression profile in three human cancer cell lines (melanoma, ovarian cancer, and prostate cancer) exposed to experimental chronic or transient hypoxia conditions. As expected, the cell-type specific variability in response to hypoxia was significant. However, the expression of 240 probe sets was altered in all 3 cell lines. We found that gene expression profiles induced by both types of hypoxia were qualitatively similar and strongly depend on the cell type. Cycling hypoxia altered the expression of fewer genes than chronic hypoxia (6,132 vs. 8,635 probe sets, FDR adjusted pcycling hypoxia than by prolonged hypoxia, such as IL8, PLAU, and epidermal growth factor (EGF) pathway-related genes (AREG, HBEGF, and EPHA2). These transcripts were, in most cases, validated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Our results indicate that experimental cycling hypoxia exerts similar, although less intense effects, on the examined cancer cell lines than its chronic counterpart. Nonetheless, we identified genes and molecular pathways that seem to be preferentially regulated by cyclic hypoxia. PMID:25122487

  12. Design of Robust AMB Controllers for Rotors Subjected to Varying and Uncertain Seal Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Jonas Skjødt; Santos, Ilmar

    2017-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the design and simulation results of model based controllers for AMB systems, subjectedto uncertain and changing dynamic seal forces. Specifically, a turbocharger with a hole-pattern seal mounted acrossthe balance piston is considered. The dynamic forces of the seal, which...... are dependent on the operational conditions,have a significant effect on the overall system dynamics. Furthermore, these forces are considered uncertain.The nominal and the uncertainty representation of the seal model are established using results from conventionalmodelling approaches, i.e. CFD and Bulkflow......, and experimental results. Three controllers are synthesized: I) AnH∞ controller based on nominal plant representation, II) A µ controller, designed to be robust against uncertaintiesin the dynamic seal model and III) a Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) controller, designed to provide a unifiedperformance over a large...

  13. Experimental knee joint pain during strength training and muscle strength gain in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, T J; Langberg, Henning; Hodges, P W

    2012-01-01

    Knee joint pain and reduced quadriceps strength are cardinal symptoms in many knee pathologies. In people with painful knee pathologies, quadriceps exercise reduces pain, improves physical function, and increases muscle strength. A general assumption is that pain compromises muscle function and t...... and thus may prevent effective rehabilitation. This study evaluated the effects of experimental knee joint pain during quadriceps strength training on muscle strength gain in healthy individuals.......Knee joint pain and reduced quadriceps strength are cardinal symptoms in many knee pathologies. In people with painful knee pathologies, quadriceps exercise reduces pain, improves physical function, and increases muscle strength. A general assumption is that pain compromises muscle function...

  14. Vibration Analysis and Design of a Structure Subjected to Human Walking Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Setareh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Annoying building floor vibrations have become a serious serviceability issue. This is mainly due to decrease in the system mass resulting from the use of higher strength materials; use of computer-assisted design and the Load and Resistance Factor Design Method to optimize the structure based on the strength requirements; fewer partitions and more innovative designs by architects achieving long, column free spans resulting in a reduction in the natural frequency and damping. This paper provides details of the vibration analysis and design of a novel office building. Three-dimensional computer models of the structure were created and various modifications were made to the original structure, designed based on static loads, to reduce the possible excessive floor vibrations when subjected to walking excitations. Tuned mass dampers were also designed as a back-up vibration control system. A series of dynamic tests were conducted on the building floor to identify the dynamic properties of the structure and these were then used to update the original computer model. Finally, various forcing functions representing human walks and the updated computer model of the structure were used to evaluate the accuracy of the walking excitation force models to predict the structural response. Conclusions are made on the validity of each forcing function studied here.

  15. An analytical and experimental investigation of edge delamination in laminates subjected to tension, bending, and torsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wen S.

    1989-01-01

    An integrated two-dimensional finite element was developed to calculate interlaminar stresses and strain energy release rates for the study of delamination in composite laminates subjected to uniaxial tension, bending, and torsion loads. Addressed are the formulation, implementation, and verification of the model. Parametric studies were conducted on the effect of Poisson's ratio mismatch between plies and the stacking sequence on interlaminar stress, and on the effect of delamination opening height and delamination length, due to bending, on strain energy release rate for various laminates. A comparison of strain energy release rates in all-graphite and graphite/glass hybrid laminates is included. The preliminary results of laminates subjected to torsion are also included. Fatigue tension tests were conducted on Mode 1 and mixed mode edge-delamination coupons to establish the relationship between fatigue load vs. onset of delamination cycle. The effect on the fatigue delamination onset of different frequencies (1 and 5 Hz) was investigated for glass, graphite,and their hybrid laminates. Although a 20 percent increase in the static onset-of-delamination strength and a 10 percent increase in ultimate strength resulted from hybridizing the all-graphite laminate with a 90 deg glass ply, the fatigue onset is lower in the hybrid laminate than in the all-graphite laminate.

  16. Effectiveness of the California Tri-Pull Taping method for shoulder subluxation poststroke: a single-subject ABA design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayner, Kate A

    2012-01-01

    I evaluated the effectiveness of the California Tri-Pull Taping method for clients with poststroke inferior shoulder subluxation of the glenohumeral joint. Ten participants were followed for 9 wk using an interrupted time series quasi-experimental single-subject ABA design to examine shoulder pain, activities of daily living (ADL) function, active range of motion, tape comfort, and subluxation. The California Tri-Pull Taping method decreased inferior subluxation significantly from baseline to intervention but not at postintervention. Active range of motion was significantly increased in shoulder flexion and abduction between the baseline and intervention and the intervention and postintervention phases. Functional ADL scores were significant. The taping was reported to be comfortable. No significant difference in pain was found. This intervention is a promising adjunct to the management of the hemiplegic subluxed shoulder that warrants further research. Copyright © 2012 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  17. Efficient Experimental Design Strategies in Toxicology and Bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy E. O'Brien

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Modelling in bioassay often uses linear or nonlinear logistic regression models, and relative potency is often the focus when two or more compounds are to be compared.  Estimation in these settings is typically based on likelihood methods.  Here, we focus on the 3-parameter model representation given in Finney (1978 in which the relative potency is a model parameter.  Using key matrix results and the general equivalence theorem of Kiefer & Wolfowitz (1960, this paper establishes key design properties of the optimal design for relative potency using this model.  We also highlight aspects of subset designs for the relative potency parameter and extend geometric designs to efficient design settings of bioassay.  These latter designs are thus useful for both parameter estimation and checking for goodness-of-fit.  A typical yet insightful example is provided from the field of toxicology to illustrate our findings.

  18. Design and Experimental Study of an Over-Under TBCC Exhaust System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jianwei; Xu, Jinglei; Zhang, Liuhuan

    2014-01-01

    Turbine-based combined-cycle (TBCC) propulsion systems have been a topic of research as a means for more efficient flight at supersonic and hypersonic speeds. The present study focuses on the fundamental physics of the complex flow in the TBCC exhaust system during the transition mode as the turbine exhaust is shut off and the ramjet exhaust is increased. A TBCC exhaust system was designed using methods of characteristics (MOC) and subjected to experimental and computational study. The main objectives of the study were: (1) to identify the interactions between the two exhaust jet streams during the transition mode phase and their effects on the whole flow-field structure; (2) to determine and verify the aerodynamic performance of the over-under TBCC exhaust nozzle; and (3) to validate the simulation ability of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software according to the experimental conditions. Static pressure taps and Schlieren apparatus were employed to obtain the wall pressure distributions and flow-field structures. Steady-state tests were performed with the ramjet nozzle cowl at six different positions at which the turbine flow path were half closed and fully opened, respectively. Methods of CFD were used to simulate the exhaust flow and they complemented the experimental study by providing greater insight into the details of the flow field and a means of verifying the experimental results. Results indicated that the flow structure was complicated because the two exhaust jet streams interacted with each other during the exhaust system mode transition. The exhaust system thrust coefficient varied from 0.9288 to 0.9657 during the process. The CFD simulation results agree well with the experimental data, which demonstrated that the CFD methods were effective in evaluating the aerodynamic performance of the TBCC exhaust system during the mode transition.

  19. The Three-Level Synthesis of Standardized Single-Subject Experimental Data: A Monte Carlo Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeyaert, Mariola; Ugille, Maaike; Ferron, John M; Beretvas, S Natasha; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2013-09-01

    Previous research indicates that three-level modeling is a valid statistical method to make inferences from unstandardized data from a set of single-subject experimental studies, especially when a homogeneous set of at least 30 studies are included ( Moeyaert, Ugille, Ferron, Beretvas, & Van den Noortgate, 2013a ). When single-subject data from multiple studies are combined, however, it often occurs that the dependent variable is measured on a different scale, requiring standardization of the data before combining them over studies. One approach is to divide the dependent variable by the residual standard deviation. In this study we use Monte Carlo methods to evaluate this approach. We examine how well the fixed effects (e.g., immediate treatment effect and treatment effect on the time trend) and the variance components (the between- and within-subject variance) are estimated under a number of realistic conditions. The three-level synthesis of standardized single-subject data is found appropriate for the estimation of the treatment effects, especially when many studies (30 or more) and many measurement occasions within subjects (20 or more) are included and when the studies are rather homogeneous (with small between-study variance). The estimates of the variance components are less accurate.

  20. FFTF reload core nuclear design for increased experimental capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothrock, R.B.; Nelson, J.V.; Dobbin, K.D.; Bennett, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    In anticipation of continued growth in the FTR experimental irradiations program, the enrichments for the next batches of reload driver fuel to be manufactured have been increased to provide a substantially enlarged experimental reactivity allowance. The enrichments for these fuel assemblies, termed ''Cores 3 and 4,'' were selected to meet the following objectives and constraints: (1) maintain a reactor power capability of 400 MW (based on an evaluation of driver fuel centerline melting probability at 15 percent overpower); (2) provide a peak neutron flux of nominally 7 x 10/sup 15/ n/cm/sup 2/-sec, with a minimum acceptable value of 95 percent of this (i.e., 6.65 x 10/sup 15/ n/cm/sup 2/-sec); and (3) provide the maximum experimental reactivity allowance that is consistent with the above constraints.

  1. Dichotic listening training in children with autism spectrum disorder: A single subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denman, Inga; Banajee, Meher; Hurley, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that dichotic listening training has improved auditory and language processing for individuals with large interaural asymmetries on dichotic listening tasks. This training can be a useful treatment for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A single subject, multiple baseline across subjects study was utilized. Three children with ASD, between the ages of 8-12, participated in the study. This training demonstrated improvement in language and auditory processing tasks following completion of up to twelve weeks of auditory training. This study supports the idea that deficit specific, dichotic auditory training can remediate auditory and language deficits for children with ASD. More research is needed, with a group design and controls, in order to generalize these results to the larger ASD population.

  2. Experimental study on lateral strength of wall-slab joint subjected to lateral cyclic load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masrom, Mohd Asha'ari; Mohamad, Mohd Elfie; Hamid, Nor Hayati Abdul; Yusuff, Amer

    2017-10-01

    Tunnel form building has been utilised in building construction since 1960 in Malaysia. This method of construction has been applied extensively in the construction of high rise residential house (multistory building) such as condominium and apartment. Most of the tunnel form buildings have been designed according to British standard (BS) whereby there is no provision for seismic loading. The high-rise tunnel form buildings are vulnerable to seismic loading. The connections between slab and shear walls in the tunnel-form building constitute an essential link in the lateral load resisting mechanism. Malaysia is undergoing a shifting process from BS code to Eurocode (EC) for building construction since the country has realised the safety threats of earthquake. Hence, this study is intended to compare the performance of the interior wall slab joint for a tunnel form structure designed based on Euro and British codes. The experiment included a full scale test of the wall slab joint sub-assemblages under reversible lateral cyclic loading. Two sub-assemblage specimens of the wall slab joint were designed and constructed based on both codes. Each specimen was tested using lateral displacement control (drift control). The specimen designed by using Eurocode was found could survive up to 3.0% drift while BS specimen could last to 1.5% drift. The analysis results indicated that the BS specimen was governed by brittle failure modes with Ductility Class Low (DCL) while the EC specimen behaved in a ductile manner with Ductility Class Medium (DCM). The low ductility recorded in BS specimen was resulted from insufficient reinforcement provided in the BS code specimen. Consequently, the BS specimen could not absorb energy efficiently (low energy dissipation) and further sustain under inelastic deformation.

  3. Critical Zone Experimental Design to Assess Soil Processes and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwart, Steve

    2010-05-01

    experimental design studies soil processes across the temporal evolution of the soil profile, from its formation on bare bedrock, through managed use as productive land to its degradation under longstanding pressures from intensive land use. To understand this conceptual life cycle of soil, we have selected 4 European field sites as Critical Zone Observatories. These are to provide data sets of soil parameters, processes and functions which will be incorporated into the mathematical models. The field sites are 1) the BigLink field station which is located in the chronosequence of the Damma Glacier forefield in alpine Switzerland and is established to study the initial stages of soil development on bedrock; 2) the Lysina Catchment in the Czech Republic which is representative of productive soils managed for intensive forestry, 3) the Fuchsenbigl Field Station in Austria which is an agricultural research site that is representative of productive soils managed as arable land and 4) the Koiliaris Catchment in Crete, Greece which represents degraded Mediterranean region soils, heavily impacted by centuries of intensive grazing and farming, under severe risk of desertification.

  4. Beyond the subjective experience of colour: An experimental case study of grapheme-texture synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banno, Hayaki; Koga, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Saiki, Jun

    2017-07-01

    This study was a case investigation of grapheme-texture synestheste TH, a female who subjectively reported experiencing a visual association between grapheme and colour/texture. First, we validated the existence of a synesthetic association in an objective manner. Involuntarily elicited experience is a major hallmark that is common to different types of synesthetes. Our results indicated interference between physical and synesthetic texture, suggesting the involuntary occurrence of synesthetic textural experience. We analysed the behavioural measures using the EZ diffusion model. The result suggested that TH's synesthetic experience was dissociable from that of briefly trained associative processing of non-synesthetes. Second, we investigated how the synesthetic experience of colour and texture dimensions was bound in the visual representation. We found that the interference effects of colour and texture were not independent. This suggested that in the elicited experience, the colour and texture features construct an integrated representation.

  5. Pet Bottle Design, Correlation Analysis Of Pet Bottle Characteristics Subjective Judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Avramović

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ability to predict consumer’s reaction to particular design solution of the product is very important. Gathering andanalysis of subjective judgments of particular characteristics, based on which the aesthetic of the product is judged,is one of predicting the consumer’s reaction in the future. Knowledge gathered this manner can serve as a referencefor further studies of determining factors for aesthetic results and design quality. There are two opposed opinionsregarding prediction of aesthetic impression. One opinion is that taste of individual cannot be discussed because itis extremely variable and the possibility of meaningful analysis of aesthetic impression is rejected. Other opinionstates that there is a consistent preference of certain aesthetic characteristics despite individual and group differences.Main goal of this paper is to examine the correlation between subjective judgments of certain PET bottlecharacteristics. Analysis showed meaningful correlation between some of the PET bottle characteristics while othercharacteristics showed less correlation. It can be concluded that not all of the characteristics have the same influenceon the aesthetics and design quality of the PET bottle form. Emphasizing the characteristics relative to aesthetics ofthe product can produce better market results, taking in to account that consumer’s buy the product they consider tobe more attractive if other parameters of the product are similar.

  6. Experimental and theoretical analysis of integrated circuit (IC) chips on flexible substrates subjected to bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Yuan, Jianghong; Zhang, Yingchao; Huang, Yonggang; Feng, Xue

    2017-10-01

    The interfacial failure of integrated circuit (IC) chips integrated on flexible substrates under bending deformation has been studied theoretically and experimentally. A compressive buckling test is used to impose the bending deformation onto the interface between the IC chip and the flexible substrate quantitatively, after which the failed interface is investigated using scanning electron microscopy. A theoretical model is established based on the beam theory and a bi-layer interface model, from which an analytical expression of the critical curvature in relation to the interfacial failure is obtained. The relationships between the critical curvature, the material, and the geometric parameters of the device are discussed in detail, providing guidance for future optimization flexible circuits based on IC chips.

  7. Model-based respiratory mechanics to titrate PEEP and monitor disease state for experimental ARDS subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drunen, Erwin J; Chiew, Yeong Shiong; Chase, J Geoffrey; Lambermont, Bernard; Janssen, Nathalie; Desaive, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Modelling the respiratory mechanics of mechanically ventilated (MV) patients can provide useful information to guide MV therapy. Two model-based methods were evaluated based on data from three experimental acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) induced piglets and validated against values available from ventilators. A single compartment lung model with integral-based parameter identification was found to be effective in capturing fundamental respiratory mechanics during inspiration. The trends matched clinical expectation and provided better resolution than clinically derived linear model metrics. An expiration time constant model also captured the same trend in respiratory elastance. However, the assumption of constant resistance and a slightly higher fitting error results in less insight than the single compartment model. Further research is required to confirm its application in titrating to optimal MV settings.

  8. Experimental design for parameter estimation of two time-scale model of photosynthesis and photoinhibition in microalgae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Papáček, Š.; Čelikovský, Sergej; Rehák, Branislav; Štys, D.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 6 (2010), s. 1302-1309 ISSN 0378-4754 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/08/0186 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Photosynthetic factory * Experimental design * Parameter estimation * Two-scale modeling Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 0.812, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/TR/celikovsky-0341543.pdf

  9. Findings in Experimental Psychology as Functioning Principles of Theatrical Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, George

    A gestalt approach to theatrical design seems to provide some ready and stable explanations for a number of issues in the scenic arts. Gestalt serves as the theoretical base for a number of experiments in psychology whose findings appear to delineate the principles of art to be used in scene design. The fundamental notion of gestalt theory…

  10. Model-robust experimental designs for the fractional polynomial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    can give a good a fit to the data and much more plausible behavior between de- sign points than the polynomial models. In this ... often resorted to the theory of optimal designs to get practical designs for those models. However the complexity of these nonlinear ..... on Statistics in Industry and Tech- nology, Dayton, Ohio. 18 ...

  11. The experimental design of the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven L. Sheriff; Shuoqiong. He

    1997-01-01

    The Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP) is an experiment that examines the effects of three forest management practices on the forest community. MOFEP is designed as a randomized complete block design using nine sites divided into three blocks. Treatments of uneven-aged, even-aged, and no-harvest management were randomly assigned to sites within each block...

  12. Profile construction in experimental choice designs for mixed logit models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandor, Z; Wedel, M

    2002-01-01

    A computationally attractive model for the analysis of conjoint choice experiments is the mixed multinomial logit model, a multinomial logit model in which it is assumed that the coefficients follow a (normal) distribution across subjects. This model offers the advantage over the standard

  13. Leveraging the Experimental Method to Inform Solar Cell Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Mary Annette; Ribblett, Jason W.; Hershberger, Heather Nicole

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the underlying logic of experimentation is exemplified within the context of a photoelectrical experiment for students taking a high school engineering, technology, or chemistry class. Students assume the role of photochemists as they plan, fabricate, and experiment with a solar cell made of copper and an aqueous solution of…

  14. Experimental Study about Two-phase Damping Ratio on a Tube Bundle Subjected to Homogeneous Two-phase Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Woo Gun; Dagdan, Banzragch [Hannam Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Two-phase cross flow exists in many shell-and-tube heat exchangers such as condensers, evaporators, and nuclear steam generators. The drag force acting on a tube bundle subjected to air/water flow is evaluated experimentally. The cylinders subjected to two-phase flow are arranged in a normal square array. The ratio of pitch to diameter is 1.35, and the diameter of the cylinder is 18 mm. The drag force along the flow direction on the tube bundles is measured to calculate the drag coefficient and the two-phase damping ratio. The two-phase damping ratios, given by the analytical model for a homogeneous two-phase flow, are compared with experimental results. The correlation factor between the frictional pressure drop and the hydraulic drag coefficient is determined from the experimental results. The factor is used to calculate the drag force analytically. It is found that with an increase in the mass flux, the drag force, and the drag coefficients are close to the results given by the homogeneous model. The result shows that the damping ratio can be calculated using the homogeneous model for bubbly flow of sufficiently large mass flux.

  15. Experimental analysis of CO₂ emissions from agricultural soils subjected to five different tillage systems in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buragienė, Sidona; Šarauskis, Egidijus; Romaneckas, Kęstutis; Sasnauskienė, Jurgita; Masilionytė, Laura; Kriaučiūnienė, Zita

    2015-05-01

    Intensive agricultural production strongly influences the global processes that determine climate change. Thus, tillage can play a very important role in climate change. The intensity of soil carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions, which contribute to the greenhouse effect, can vary depending on the following factors: the tillage system used, meteorological conditions (which vary in different regions of the world), soil properties, plant residue characteristics and other factors. The main purpose of this research was to analyse and assess the effects of autumn tillage systems with different intensities on CO₂ emissions from soils during different seasons and under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania. The research was conducted at the Experimental Station of Aleksandras Stulginskis University from 2009 to 2012; and in 2014. The soils at the experimental site were classified as Eutric Endogleyic Planosol (Drainic). The investigations were conducted using five tillage systems with different intensities, typical of the Baltic Region. Deep conventional ploughing was performed at a depth of 230-250 mm, shallow ploughing was conducted at a depth of 120-150 mm, deep loosening was conducted at depths of 250-270 mm, and shallow loosening was conducted at depths of 120-150 mm. The fifth system was a no-tillage system. Overall, autumn tillage resulted in greater CO₂ emissions from the soil over both short- and long-term periods under the climatic conditions of Central Lithuania, regardless of the tillage system applied. The highest soil CO₂ emissions were observed for the conventional deep ploughing tillage system, and the lowest emissions were observed for the no-tillage system. The meteorological conditions greatly influenced the CO₂ emissions from the soil during the spring. Soil CO₂ emissions were enhanced as precipitation and the air and soil temperatures increased. Long-term investigations regarding the dynamics of CO₂ emissions from soils during the maize

  16. Motion Control Design for an Omnidirectional Mobile Robot Subject to Velocity Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ollin Peñaloza-Mejía

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A solution to achieve global asymptotic tracking with bounded velocities in an omnidirectional mobile robot is proposed in this paper. It is motivated by the need of having a useful in-practice motion control scheme, which takes into account the physical limits of the velocities. To this end, a passive nonlinear controller is designed and combined with a tracking controller in a negative feedback connection structure. By using Lyapunov theory and passivity tools, global asymptotic tracking with desired bounded velocities is proved. Simulations and experimental results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposal.

  17. Experimental studies of food choices and palatability responses in European subjects exposed to the Umami taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisle, France; France, Bellisle

    2008-01-01

    In the Western world, consumers have only recently learned to discriminate the Umami taste, although they have enjoyed its contribution to the palatability of traditional dishes for centuries. The flavor enhancing properties of MSG have been scientifically investigated in European subjects. By adding MSG to such foods as soups, their content in sodium can be decreased without altering palatability, thus favoring a net decrease in sodium intake. Consumers presented with a novel food often have to get accustomed to the new taste before they acquire a preference for the food. A study showed that when such novel foods are added with some appropriate amount of MSG, consumers acquire a preference for them more rapidly. In elderly persons, the addition of MSG to nutritionally valuable foods (soups, vegetables, starches) did induce an increase of intake of MSG-added foods. Total meal size, however, was not affected, since the increased intake of MSG-containing foods was followed by a decreased consumption of foods served later in the meal, such as desserts. The same observations were repeated in hospitalized diabetic patients. Again, the patients ingested more healthy MSG-containing foods and less of other foods, with the same total meal energy intake. These two studies suggested that MSG could be used to stimulate appropriate food choices in certain populations.

  18. An Experimental Study of Dynamic Tensile Failure of Rocks Subjected to Hydrostatic Confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bangbiao; Yao, Wei; Xia, Kaiwen

    2016-10-01

    It is critical to understand the dynamic tensile failure of confined rocks in many rock engineering applications, such as underground blasting in mining projects. To simulate the in situ stress state of underground rocks, a modified split Hopkinson pressure bar system is utilized to load Brazilian disc (BD) samples hydrostatically, and then exert dynamic load to the sample by impacting the striker on the incident bar. The pulse shaper technique is used to generate a slowly rising stress wave to facilitate the dynamic force balance in the tests. Five groups of Laurentian granite BD samples (with static BD tensile strength of 12.8 MPa) under the hydrostatic confinement of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 MPa were tested with different loading rates. The result shows that the dynamic tensile strength increases with the hydrostatic confining pressure. It is also observed that under the same hydrostatic pressure, the dynamic tensile strength increases with the loading rate, revealing the so-called rate dependency for engineering materials. Furthermore, the increment of the tensile strength decreases with the hydrostatic confinement, which resembles the static tensile behavior of rock under confining pressure, as reported in the literature. The recovered samples are examined using X-ray micro-computed tomography method and the observed crack pattern is consistent with the experimental result.

  19. Experimental Investigation of Wave Velocity-Permeability Model for Granite Subjected to Different Temperature Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghui Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the change of permeability of rocks before and after heating is of great significance for exploitation of hydrocarbon resources and disposal of nuclear waste. The rock permeability under high temperature cannot be measured with most of the existing methods. In this paper, quality, wave velocity, and permeability of granite specimen from Maluanshan tunnel are measured after high temperature processing. Quality and wave velocity of granite decrease and permeability of granite increases with increasing temperature. Using porosity as the medium, a new wave velocity-permeability model is established with modified wave velocity-porosity formula and Kozeny-Carman formula. Under some given wave velocities and corresponding permeabilities through experiment, the permeabilities at different temperatures and wave velocities can be obtained. By comparing the experimental and the theoretical results, the proposed formulas are verified. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed to examine the effect of particle size, wave velocities in rock matrix, and pore fluid on permeability: permeability increases with increasing particle size, wave velocities in rock matrix, and pore fluid; the higher the rock wave velocity, the lower the effect of wave velocities in rock matrix and pore fluid on permeability.

  20. Lycra garments designed for patients with upper limb spasticity: mechanical effects in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracies, J M; Fitzpatrick, R; Wilson, L; Burke, D; Gandevia, S C

    1997-10-01

    To assess the stretch of pronator muscles produced by a specifically designed upper-limb Lycra garment that could have a better acceptability than rigid splints in treating upper-limb spasticity. Double-blind comparison among three garments. They were designed to produce a supinating, a pronating, and no torsional force, and were individually manufactured and tested in 10 healthy volunteers. Angular position and passive rotational stiffness of the forearm were measured with and without each of the garments immediately after the garment was fitted and every hour for 6 hours. When put on by a trained person, the supinator garment supinated the forearm in all subjects (mean, 17 degrees; p spasticity. The garments, however, must be put on by a trained person and their position adjusted when necessary.

  1. Experimental design with applications in management, engineering and the sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Paul D; Celli, Giovana B

    2018-01-01

    This text introduces and provides instruction on the design and analysis of experiments for a broad audience. Formed by decades of teaching, consulting, and industrial experience in the Design of Experiments field, this new edition contains updated examples, exercises, and situations covering the science and engineering practice. This text minimizes the amount of mathematical detail, while still doing full justice to the mathematical rigor of the presentation and the precision of statements, making the text accessible for those who have little experience with design of experiments and who need some practical advice on using such designs to solve day-to-day problems. Additionally, an intuitive understanding of the principles is always emphasized, with helpful hints throughout.

  2. Interdisciplinary for Social Engagement: Art and Design Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hope Angelique Wells; Lyubava Fartushenko; Andrew Chamberlain

    2015-01-01

    In this ever-changing world with a population of over seven billion, social equality, and environmental sustainability needs new innovative and inclusive solutions. Today, the interdisciplinary practice of art and design has the ability to raise social awareness and engagement in health-related issues. Art and design experiments with combining the traditional art methods with technology and interactive systems to communicate scientific research with problem solving goals. Creative interdiscip...

  3. Tobacco-induced neuronal degeneration via cotinine in rats subjected to experimental spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgic, Ali; Okay, Onder; Helvacioglu, Fatma; Daglioglu, Ergun; Akdag, Rifat; Take, Gulnur; Belen, Deniz

    2013-05-01

    Cigarette smoke contains over 4000 chemicals including well-characterized toxicants and carcinogens, among which is cotinine. Cotinine is the principal metabolite of nicotine that has adverse affects on the microcirculation via vasoconstriction, hypoxia and the wound-healing cascade. Its impact on spinal cord injury (SCI) has not been investigated yet. The aim of the present study is to investigate the cotinine effect on SCI. 48 male Wistar rats were divided into six groups as follows: sham-control, sham-trauma, vehicle-control, vehicle-trauma, cotinine-control, and cotinine-trauma. Initially, a defined concentration of cotinine blood level was maintained by daily intraperitoneal injection of cotinine for 14 days in the cotinine groups. The concentration was similar to the cotinine dose in the blood level of heavy smokers. Only ethyl alcohol was injected in the vehicle groups during the same period. Then, SCI was performed by a Tator clip. The cotinine groups were compared with rats subjected to vehicle and sham groups by immunohistochemical biomarkers such as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and 2,3-cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase (CNP) expressions. Electron microscopic examination was also performed. GFAP-positive cells were noted to be localized around degenerated astrocytes. Marked vacuolization with perivascular and perineural edema was seen in the cotinin consumption groups. These findings showed the inhibition of regeneration after SCI. Similarly, vacuolization within myelin layers was noted in the cotinine groups, which was detected through reduced CNP expression. Cotinine, a main metabolite of nicotine, has harmful effects on SCI via GFAP and CNP expression. The findings of the present study support the hypothesis that tobacco causes neuronal degeneration via cotinine. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Effect of a yoga programme on an individual with Parkinson's disease: a single-subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Emma; Verheyden, Geert; Ashburn, Ann

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effect of eight weekly yoga sessions on balance, mobility and reported quality of life of an individual with Parkinson's disease (PD). Furthermore, to test the methodology in order to inform future research. A 69-year-old female with an 8-year history of PD (Hoehn and Yahr rating two) was selected for the study, which had a single subject ABA design. A 1-week baseline was followed by an 8-week period of weekly 60 min yoga classes and a further 5 weeks of treatment withdrawal. Main outcome measures used were Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up and Go (TUG) and the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39); collected at baseline, before, during and after the intervention and at follow-up. An improvement was noted in the BBS and TUG during the intervention phase; although these changes did not appear to be clinically significant. No change in quality of life as measured by the PDQ-39 was noted. The objective improvements in functional activities during the intervention period were not clinically significant. Subjectively, the participant gained much enjoyment and relaxation from the yoga classes. This study justifies the need for further studies using a larger sample size. Additionally, it will inform the methodological design.

  5. [Design of standard voice sample text for subjective auditory perceptual evaluation of voice disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-rang; Sun, Yan-yan; Xu, Wen

    2010-09-01

    To design a speech voice sample text with all phonemes in Mandarin for subjective auditory perceptual evaluation of voice disorders. The principles for design of a speech voice sample text are: The short text should include the 21 initials and 39 finals, this may cover all the phonemes in Mandarin. Also, the short text should have some meanings. A short text was made out. It had 155 Chinese words, and included 21 initials and 38 finals (the final, ê, was not included because it was rarely used in Mandarin). Also, the text covered 17 light tones and one "Erhua". The constituent ratios of the initials and finals presented in this short text were statistically similar as those in Mandarin according to the method of similarity of the sample and population (r = 0.742, P text were statistically not similar as those in Mandarin (r = 0.731, P > 0.05). A speech voice sample text with all phonemes in Mandarin was made out. The constituent ratios of the initials and finals presented in this short text are similar as those in Mandarin. Its value for subjective auditory perceptual evaluation of voice disorders need further study.

  6. An experimental study of the behavior of liquid jets subjected to thermodynamic subcritical and supercritical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spegar, Timothy Daniel

    As pressures and temperatures have risen in internal combustion engines, liquid fuel injection into an environment exceeding the critical pressure and temperature of the fuel is routine. If the fuel/oxidizer mixture reaches critical conditions, surface tension vanishes while the vapor/liquid density ratio approaches unity, altering the mixing behavior of the fuel and oxidizer from the well-studied behavior of jets injected into environments of more modest pressures and temperatures. To elucidate these issues, an experimental study of n-pentane jet breakup in high pressure and high temperature nitrogen environments was performed. Specifically, n-pentane at 20°C was injected transversely into nitrogen through a plain orifice atomizer at velocities varying from 1.0 m/sec to 6.0 m/sec. The nitrogen temperature and pressure were varied from 20°C to 300°C and 100 psig to 1500 psig, respectively. The experiments were carried out in an optically accessible test chamber and two-dimensional spontaneous Raman imaging was employed to attempt to quantify the degree of jet vaporization. An analysis of the jets' breakup mechanism, continuous length, drag coefficient and wake fuel concentration was conducted to determine if jet behavior at extreme pressures and temperatures could be explained by the characteristic decrease in surface tension and increase in gas/liquid density ratio as the critical point is reached. Though not all results could be explained by the appropriate changes in surface tension and the gas/liquid density ratio, jet behavior at ambient conditions in excess of the liquid critical point was observed to differ from behavior typical of jets injected at relatively low pressures. Furthermore, little variation in wake intensity was seen, but this is conceivable considering the inherent difficulties in spontaneous Raman scattering, most notably, its intrinsic weakness. Suggestions for improving the results of the Raman measurements employed in this investigation

  7. Experimental approach and modelling of the mechanical behaviour of graphite fuel elements subjected to compression pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forquin P.

    2010-06-01

    particulate-graphite and the corresponding standard deviation. The behaviour being non linear before failure, a numerical simulation has been conducted to build the relation between the applied load and the maximum tensile stress. A statistical approach applied to experimental data allows deducing the mean tensile strength (about 2.5 MPa and the scatter of failure stresses (Weibull modulus m = 12.

  8. Experimental Evaluation of Three Designs of Electrodynamic Flexural Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias J. R. Eriksson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Three designs for electrodynamic flexural transducers (EDFT for air-coupled ultrasonics are presented and compared. An all-metal housing was used for robustness, which makes the designs more suitable for industrial applications. The housing is designed such that there is a thin metal plate at the front, with a fundamental flexural vibration mode at ∼50 kHz. By using a flexural resonance mode, good coupling to the load medium was achieved without the use of matching layers. The front radiating plate is actuated electrodynamically by a spiral coil inside the transducer, which produces an induced magnetic field when an AC current is applied to it. The transducers operate without the use of piezoelectric materials, which can simplify manufacturing and prolong the lifetime of the transducers, as well as open up possibilities for high-temperature applications. The results show that different designs perform best for the generation and reception of ultrasound. All three designs produced large acoustic pressure outputs, with a recorded sound pressure level (SPL above 120 dB at a 40 cm distance from the highest output transducer. The sensitivity of the transducers was low, however, with single shot signal-to-noise ratio ( SNR ≃ 15 dB in transmit–receive mode, with transmitter and receiver 40 cm apart.

  9. Randomized block experimental designs can increase the power and reproducibility of laboratory animal experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festing, Michael F W

    2014-01-01

    Randomized block experimental designs have been widely used in agricultural and industrial research for many decades. Usually they are more powerful, have higher external validity, are less subject to bias, and produce more reproducible results than the completely randomized designs typically used in research involving laboratory animals. Reproducibility can be further increased by using time as a blocking factor. These benefits can be achieved at no extra cost. A small experiment investigating the effect of an antioxidant on the activity of a liver enzyme in four inbred mouse strains, which had two replications (blocks) separated by a period of two months, illustrates this approach. The widespread failure to use these designs more widely in research involving laboratory animals has probably led to a substantial waste of animals, money, and scientific resources and slowed down the development of new treatments for human and animal diseases. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. An Experimental Verification of morphology of ibuprofen crystals from CAMD designed solvent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karunanithi, Arunprakash T.; Acquah, Charles; Achenie, Luke E.K.

    2007-01-01

    of crystals formed from solvents, necessitates additional experimental verification steps. In this work we report the experimental verification of crystal morphology for the case study, solvent design for ibuprofen crystallization, presented in Karunanithi et al. [2006. A computer-aided molecular design...

  11. Web-Based Learning Support for Experimental Design in Molecular Biology: A Top-Down Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aegerter-Wilmsen, Tinri; Hartog, Rob; Bisseling, Ton

    2003-01-01

    An important learning goal of a molecular biology curriculum is the attainment of a certain competence level in experimental design. Currently, undergraduate students are confronted with experimental approaches in textbooks, lectures and laboratory courses. However, most students do not reach a satisfactory level of competence in the designing of…

  12. Interdisciplinary for Social Engagement: Art and Design Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope Angelique Wells

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this ever-changing world with a population of over seven billion, social equality, and environmental sustainability needs new innovative and inclusive solutions. Today, the interdisciplinary practice of art and design has the ability to raise social awareness and engagement in health-related issues. Art and design experiments with combining the traditional art methods with technology and interactive systems to communicate scientific research with problem solving goals. Creative interdisciplinary opens many doors to a variety of collaborative efforts in seeking proactive solutions to environmental and social issues.

  13. From cultural to environmental heritage. Design experimentations in ancient settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Monsù Scolaro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The rising awareness of human impacts on the natural environment compels researchers to steadily review the sustainability criteria for the built environment. This evolution clearly influences the research and design experiences reported in this paper, which focus on the reclamation and reuse of the historic urban fabric. These experiments help to imagine a possible future where innovation happens into the core of the city, usually considered a place devoted to tradition, rather than in its outskirts. Unexpected environmental issues consequently come to the fore, that could help in reconsidering prevailing design and building practices as well planning policies.

  14. A unifying experimental design for dissecting tree genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lidan; Zhu, Xuli; Zhang, Qixiang; Wu, Rongling

    2015-08-01

    Linkage mapping and association mapping are adopted as an approach of choice for dissecting complex traits, but each shows a limitation when used alone. We propose an open-pollinated (OP) family design to integrate these two approaches into an organizing framework. The design unifies the strengths of population and quantitative genetic studies for evolutionary inference and high-resolution gene mapping. It particularly suits genome dissection of forest trees given their extant populations that are mostly undomesticated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of chronic ethanol consumption in female rats subjected to experimental sepsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, C.L. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Patologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Aguiar-Nemer, A.S. [Departamento de Nutrição, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Castro-Faria-Neto, H.C. [Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Barros, F.R. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Patologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Rocha, E.M.S. [Departamento de Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Silva-Fonseca, V.A. [Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-12-10

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the interference of ethanol consumption by female rats with cytokines involved in the sepsis process and its correlation with mortality, the main outcome of sepsis. Female Wistar rats in estrus phase were evaluated in three experiments. Experiment 1 (n=40) was performed to determine survival rates. Experiment 2 (n=69) was designed for biochemical analysis, measurement of cytokine and estrogen levels before and after sepsis, and experiment 3 (n=10) was performed to evaluate bacterial growth by colony counts of peritoneal fluid. In all experiments, treated animals were exposed to a 10% ethanol/water solution (v/v) as the single drinking source, while untreated animals were given tap water. After 4 weeks, sepsis was induced in the rats by ip injection of feces. In experiment 1, mortality in ethanol-exposed animals was delayed compared with those that drank water (48 h; P=0.0001). Experiment 2 showed increased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and decreased interleukin-6 (IL-6) and macrophage migration inhibitory factor in septic animals exposed to ethanol compared to septic animals not exposed. Sepsis also increased TNF-α and IL-6 levels in both ethanol- and water-exposed groups. Biochemical analysis showed higher creatinine, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase and decreased glucose levels in septic animals that were exposed to ethanol. In experiment 3, septic animals exposed to ethanol showed decreased numbers of colony-forming units than septic animals exposed to water. These results suggest that ethanol consumption delays the mortality of female rats in estrus phase after sepsis induction. Female characteristics, most probably sex hormones, may be involved in cytokine expression.

  16. Experimental design applied to the optimization and partial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this work was to optimize the medium composition for maximum pectin-methylesterase (PME) production from a newly isolated strain of Penicillium brasilianum by submerged fermentation. A Plackett-Burman design was first used for the screening of most important factors, followed by a 23 full ...

  17. Introduction to Experimental Design: Can You Smell Fear?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmott, Chris J. R.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to design appropriate experiments in order to interrogate a research question is an important skill for any scientist. The present article describes an interactive lecture-based activity centred around a comparison of two contrasting approaches to investigation of the question "Can you smell fear?" A poorly designed…

  18. Design and implementation of a low cost experimental testbed for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Th is study therefore presents an inexpensive WSN test bed designed and constructed from an ESP8266EX Wi - Fi module. An experiment was conducted and results revealed that ESP8266EX based sensor nodes have a wider network coverage compared to the Arduino sensor s based test bed. The proposed test bed ...

  19. Tokamak experimental power reactor conceptual design. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-01

    Volume II contains the following appendices: (1) summary of EPR design parameters, (2) impurity control, (3) plasma computational models, (4) structural support system, (5) materials considerations for the primary energy conversion system, (6) magnetics, (7) neutronics penetration analysis, (8) first wall stress analysis, (9) enrichment of isotopes of hydrogen by cryogenic distillation, and (10) noncircular plasma considerations. (MOW)

  20. Model-robust experimental designs for the fractional polynomial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fractional polynomial response surface models are polynomial models whose powers are restricted to a small predefined set of rational numbers. Very often these models can give a good a fit to the data and much more plausible behavior between design points than the polynomial models. In this paper, we propose a ...

  1. On the construction of experimental designs for a given task by jointly optimizing several quality criteria: Pareto-optimal experimental designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, M S; Sarabia, L A; Ortiz, M C

    2012-11-19

    Experimental designs for a given task should be selected on the base of the problem being solved and of some criteria that measure their quality. There are several such criteria because there are several aspects to be taken into account when making a choice. The most used criteria are probably the so-called alphabetical optimality criteria (for example, the A-, E-, and D-criteria related to the joint estimation of the coefficients, or the I- and G-criteria related to the prediction variance). Selecting a proper design to solve a problem implies finding a balance among these several criteria that measure the performance of the design in different aspects. Technically this is a problem of multi-criteria optimization, which can be tackled from different views. The approach presented here addresses the problem in its real vector nature, so that ad hoc experimental designs are generated with an algorithm based on evolutionary algorithms to find the Pareto-optimal front. There is not theoretical limit to the number of criteria that can be studied and, contrary to other approaches, no just one experimental design is computed but a set of experimental designs all of them with the property of being Pareto-optimal in the criteria needed by the user. Besides, the use of an evolutionary algorithm makes it possible to search in both continuous and discrete domains and avoid the need of having a set of candidate points, usual in exchange algorithms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. DOMAIN-DRIVEN DESIGN APPLICATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR CLIENTS QUEUING SUBJECT AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Oleynik

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with domain-driven design applicability of information systems for client queuing subject areas. The following optimality criteria were put forward for the final implementation: the possibility of automation with a single system both for small institution and a whole network of institutions; advanced graphical interface with support for sensor screens; implementation of multi-users account of orders from clients; flexible application architecture with the ability of future enhancement; ability of integration with a variety of peripherals. The necessity of each criterion definition is shown. For implementability estimation, test information system was designed, automating the queuing system. Unified modeling language UML is used. Description of each class functionality is given and the association with other classes as well. Attention is paid to the design of tree (hierarchical structures and selection procedure of base classes based on the analysis of existing common attributes. For the system implementation, its own development environment SharpArchitect RAD Studio is used, offering MDA approach for implementation of systems based on standardized meta object system. A graphical view of order form developed prototype is presented, composition and structure are described, and notation developed by the author is given simplifying the prototyping process. Approaches to differentiation of access rights for different user roles are shown. Conformity of the received implementation to each selected optimality criterion is determined. Recommendations for further system development are given.

  3. Teaching Earth Sciences as an interdisciplinary subject: Novel module design involving research literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Vincent C. H.

    2010-05-01

    The study of Earth Sciences requires an interdisciplinary approach as it involves understanding scientific knowledge originating from a wide spectrum of research areas. Not only does it include subjects ranging from, for instance, hydrogeology to deep crustal seismology and from climate science to oceanography, but it also has many direct applications in closely related disciplines such as environmental engineering and natural resources management. While research crossing traditional disciplinary boundaries in geosciences is becoming increasingly common, there is only limited integration of interdisciplinary research in the teaching of the subject. Given that the transition from undergraduate education based on subject modules to postgraduate interdisciplinary research is never easy, such integration is a highly desirable pedagogical approach at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. My presentation is based on a recent teaching project involving novel design of an undergraduate course. The course is implemented in order to address the synergy between research and teaching (Tong, 2009). This project has been shown to be effective and successful in teaching geosciences undergraduates at the University of London. The module consists of studying core geophysical principles and linking them directly to a selection of recently published research papers in a wide range of interdisciplinary applications. Research reviewing and reporting techniques are systematically developed, practised and fully integrated into teaching of the core scientific theories. A fully-aligned assignment with a feedback website invites the students to reflect on the scientific knowledge and the study skills related to research literature they have acquired in the course. This teaching project has been recognized by a teaching award (http://www.clpd.bbk.ac.uk/staff/BETA). In this presentation, I will discuss how undergraduate teaching with a focus on research literature in Earth Sciences can

  4. Modifying rainfall patterns in a Mediterranean shrubland: system design, plant responses, and experimental burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Antonio; Ramírez, David A; Resco, Víctor; Velasco, Ángel; Moreno, José M

    2012-11-01

    Global warming is projected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the Mediterranean region, as well as the occurrence of large fires. Understanding the interactions between drought, fire and plant responses is therefore important. In this study, we present an experiment in which rainfall patterns were modified to simulate various levels of drought in a Mediterranean shrubland of central Spain dominated by Cistus ladanifer, Erica arborea and Phillyrea angustifolia. A system composed of automatic rainout shelters with an irrigation facility was used. It was designed to be applied in vegetation 2 m tall, treat relatively large areas (36 m2), and be quickly dismantled to perform experimental burning and reassembled back again. Twenty plots were subjected to four rainfall treatments from early spring: natural rainfall, long-term average rainfall (2 months drought), moderate drought (25% reduction from long-term rainfall, 5 months drought) and severe drought (45% reduction, 7 months drought). The plots were burned in late summer, without interfering with rainfall manipulations. Results indicated that rainfall manipulations caused differences in soil moisture among treatments, leading to reduced water availability and growth of C. ladanifer and E. arborea in the drought treatments. However, P. angustifolia was not affected by the manipulations. Rainout shelters had a negligible impact on plot microenvironment. Experimental burns were of high fire intensity, without differences among treatments. Our system provides a tool to study the combined effects of drought and fire on vegetation, which is important to assess the threats posed by climate change in Mediterranean environments.

  5. Modifying rainfall patterns in a Mediterranean shrubland: system design, plant responses, and experimental burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Antonio; Ramírez, David A.; Resco, Víctor; Velasco, Ángel; Moreno, José M.

    2012-11-01

    Global warming is projected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the Mediterranean region, as well as the occurrence of large fires. Understanding the interactions between drought, fire and plant responses is therefore important. In this study, we present an experiment in which rainfall patterns were modified to simulate various levels of drought in a Mediterranean shrubland of central Spain dominated by Cistus ladanifer, Erica arborea and Phillyrea angustifolia. A system composed of automatic rainout shelters with an irrigation facility was used. It was designed to be applied in vegetation 2 m tall, treat relatively large areas (36 m2), and be quickly dismantled to perform experimental burning and reassembled back again. Twenty plots were subjected to four rainfall treatments from early spring: natural rainfall, long-term average rainfall (2 months drought), moderate drought (25% reduction from long-term rainfall, 5 months drought) and severe drought (45% reduction, 7 months drought). The plots were burned in late summer, without interfering with rainfall manipulations. Results indicated that rainfall manipulations caused differences in soil moisture among treatments, leading to reduced water availability and growth of C. ladanifer and E. arborea in the drought treatments. However, P. angustifolia was not affected by the manipulations. Rainout shelters had a negligible impact on plot microenvironment. Experimental burns were of high fire intensity, without differences among treatments. Our system provides a tool to study the combined effects of drought and fire on vegetation, which is important to assess the threats posed by climate change in Mediterranean environments.

  6. Gunnar Aagaard Andersen: Commercial Design and Experimental Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gether, Vibeke Petersen

    2016-01-01

    Gunnar Aagaard Andersen’s relaxed approach both to art and to commercialised creativity positioned him centrally in the field where the two overlap. Other important players were the brothers Aage and Mads Eg Damgaard, who owned textile factories in Herning, the artistic textile firm Unika Væv...... in Copenhagen and the magazine Mobilia. These enterprises were pioneers within both the commercial–industrial creative field and experimental art from the 1950s. The industrial process, from idea and experiment to production,as well as the expanded field of visual art, was demonstrated in concrete painting...... and total decoration. These developments within the visual arts of the 1950s and 1960s were followed up by Paul Gadegaard, Dieter Roth, Arthur Köpcke and Paul Gernes, as well as by Aagaard Andersen himself....

  7. End-point controller design for an experimental two-link flexible manipulator using convex optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Celia M.; Barratt, Craig H.

    1990-01-01

    Recent results in linear controller design are used to design an end-point controller for an experimental two-link flexible manipulator. A nominal 14-state linear-quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) controller was augmented with a 528-tap finite-impulse-response (FIR) filter designed using convex optimization techniques. The resulting 278-state controller produced improved end-point trajectory tracking and disturbance rejection in simulation and experimentally in real time.

  8. Statistical Approaches in Analysis of Variance: from Random Arrangements to Latin Square Experimental Design

    OpenAIRE

    Radu E. SESTRAŞ; Lorentz JÄNTSCHI; Sorana D. BOLBOACĂ

    2009-01-01

    Background: The choices of experimental design as well as of statisticalanalysis are of huge importance in field experiments. These are necessary tobe correctly in order to obtain the best possible precision of the results. Therandom arrangements, randomized blocks and Latin square designs werereviewed and analyzed from the statistical perspective of error analysis.Material and Method: Random arrangements, randomized block and Latinsquares experimental designs were used as field experiments. ...

  9. The effectiveness of phonological intervention in preschool children: a single-subject design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palle, Nanna; Berntsson, Agneta; Miniscalco, Carmela; Persson, Christina

    2014-04-01

    The purpose was to investigate an intervention model for treating preschool children with phonological processes. Six children, three girls and three boys, between 4y 1m and 5y 7m, with similar developmental phonological disorder (PD) received an individually adjusted intervention including articulatory, phonological, and meta-phonological approaches. A single-subject multiple-baseline design with /f/ and /s/ as target phonemes and velar plosives and /r/ as control phonemes was used. An improved production of the treated phonemes was found in five of the children, while one girl established /f/ but not /s/. The control phonemes remained unchanged for all children. Six to 18 therapy sessions were needed to reach the intervention goal. The study highlights the importance of considering heterogeneity in children with PD.

  10. Effects of aquatic aerobic exercise for a child with cerebral palsy: single-subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retarekar, Runzun; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A; Townsend, Elise L

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of an aquatic aerobic exercise program for a child with cerebral palsy. A 5-year-old girl with spastic diplegia classified at level III on the Gross Motor Function Classification System participated in this single-subject A-B-A design study. The aquatic aerobic exercise intervention was carried out 3 times per week for 12 weeks at an intensity of 50% to 80% of heart rate reserve. The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, Gross Motor Function Measure, and 6-minute walk test were used as outcomes. Statistically significant improvements were found in the participation, activity, and body function components of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health model. Improvements in functional abilities and walking endurance and speed were recorded. These findings suggest that an aquatic aerobic exercise program was effective for this child with cerebral palsy and support the need for additional research in this area.

  11. Experimental design and quality assurance: in situ fluorescence instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conmy, Robyn N.; Del Castillo, Carlos E.; Downing, Bryan D.; Chen, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Both instrument design and capabilities of fluorescence spectroscopy have greatly advanced over the last several decades. Advancements include solid-state excitation sources, integration of fiber optic technology, highly sensitive multichannel detectors, rapid-scan monochromators, sensitive spectral correction techniques, and improve data manipulation software (Christian et al., 1981, Lochmuller and Saavedra, 1986; Cabniss and Shuman, 1987; Lakowicz, 2006; Hudson et al., 2007). The cumulative effect of these improvements have pushed the limits and expanded the application of fluorescence techniques to numerous scientific research fields. One of the more powerful advancements is the ability to obtain in situ fluorescence measurements of natural waters (Moore, 1994). The development of submersible fluorescence instruments has been made possible by component miniaturization and power reduction including advances in light sources technologies (light-emitting diodes, xenon lamps, ultraviolet [UV] lasers) and the compatible integration of new optical instruments with various sampling platforms (Twardowski et at., 2005 and references therein). The development of robust field sensors skirt the need for cumbersome and or time-consuming filtration techniques, the potential artifacts associated with sample storage, and coarse sampling designs by increasing spatiotemporal resolution (Chen, 1999; Robinson and Glenn, 1999). The ability to obtain rapid, high-quality, highly sensitive measurements over steep gradients has revolutionized investigations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) optical properties, thereby enabling researchers to address novel biogeochemical questions regarding colored or chromophoric DOM (CDOM). This chapter is dedicated to the origin, design, calibration, and use of in situ field fluorometers. It will serve as a review of considerations to be accounted for during the operation of fluorescence field sensors and call attention to areas of concern when making

  12. Experimental burn plot trial in the Kruger National Park: history, experimental design and suggestions for data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Biggs

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The experimental burn plot (EBP trial initiated in 1954 is one of few ongoing long-termfire ecology research projects in Africa. The trial aims to assess the impacts of differentfire regimes in the Kruger National Park. Recent studies on the EBPs have raised questions as to the experimental design of the trial, and the appropriate model specificationwhen analysing data. Archival documentation reveals that the original design was modified on several occasions, related to changes in the park's fire policy. These modifications include the addition of extra plots, subdivision of plots and changes in treatmentsover time, and have resulted in a design which is only partially randomised. The representativity of the trial plots has been questioned on account of their relatively small size,the concentration of herbivores on especially the frequently burnt plots, and soil variation between plots. It is suggested that these factors be included as covariates inexplanatory models or that certain plots be excluded from data analysis based on resultsof independent studies of these factors. Suggestions are provided for the specificationof the experimental design when analysing data using Analysis of Variance. It is concluded that there is no practical alternative to treating the trial as a fully randomisedcomplete block design.

  13. Experimental Design for Testing Local Lorentz Invariance Violations in Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Fen; Tan, Yu-Jie; Shao, Cheng-Gang

    2017-09-01

    Local Lorentz invariance is an important component of General Relativity. Testing for Local Lorentz invariance can not only probe the foundation stone of General Relativity but also help to explore the unified theory for General Relativity and quantum mechanics. In this paper, we search the Local Lorentz invariance violation associated with operators of mass dimension d=6 in the pure-gravity sector with short-range gravitational experiments. To enlarge the Local Lorentz invariance violation signal effectively, we design a new experiment in which the constraints of all fourteen violation coefficients may be improved by about one order of magnitude

  14. A single-subject design of ergonomic intervention effectiveness for university employees in a new facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom-Hazel, Debra

    2008-01-01

    As clinicians are searching for evidence to support their practice interventions, it is sometimes hard to find the "real-world" studies that incorporate the complexities of actual practice. Following calls in the public health, nursing and medical literature for clinicians to participate in practice-based evidence, this pilot study explores the effectiveness of a single-subject design for practice-based evidence. Twenty-five "well" university employees participated in an ergonomic intervention over the course of one academic semester that consisted of a 15 min ergonomic intake session, a 45 min group hands-on ergonomic educational session and a 15 min individual ergonomic consult in their offices. Participants were sent postural comfort surveys weekly and their subjective ratings were analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the intervention to decrease their perceived postural discomfort at a computer work station. Twenty-one of the twenty-five participants reported an improvement in postural comfort over the course of the study. This pilot study suggests that further investigation needs to be conducted to determine the effectiveness of hands-on ergonomic education and consultation for well populations working at computer workstations.

  15. Experimental Design of Formulations Utilizing High Dimensional Model Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Genyuan; Bastian, Caleb; Welsh, William; Rabitz, Herschel

    2015-07-23

    Many applications involve formulations or mixtures where large numbers of components are possible to choose from, but a final composition with only a few components is sought. Finding suitable binary or ternary mixtures from all the permissible components often relies on simplex-lattice sampling in traditional design of experiments (DoE), which requires performing a large number of experiments even for just tens of permissible components. The effect rises very rapidly with increasing numbers of components and can readily become impractical. This paper proposes constructing a single model for a mixture containing all permissible components from just a modest number of experiments. Yet the model is capable of satisfactorily predicting the performance for full as well as all possible binary and ternary component mixtures. To achieve this goal, we utilize biased random sampling combined with high dimensional model representation (HDMR) to replace DoE simplex-lattice design. Compared with DoE, the required number of experiments is significantly reduced, especially when the number of permissible components is large. This study is illustrated with a solubility model for solvent mixture screening.

  16. Patient reactions to personalized medicine vignettes: an experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butrick, Morgan; Roter, Debra; Kaphingst, Kimberly; Erby, Lori H; Haywood, Carlton; Beach, Mary Catherine; Levy, Howard P

    2011-05-01

    Translational investigation on personalized medicine is in its infancy. Exploratory studies reveal attitudinal barriers to "race-based medicine" and cautious optimism regarding genetically personalized medicine. This study describes patient responses to hypothetical conventional, race-based, or genetically personalized medicine prescriptions. Three hundred eighty-seven participants (mean age = 47 years; 46% white) recruited from a Baltimore outpatient center were randomized to this vignette-based experimental study. They were asked to imagine a doctor diagnosing a condition and prescribing them one of three medications. The outcomes are emotional response to vignette, belief in vignette medication efficacy, experience of respect, trust in the vignette physician, and adherence intention. Race-based medicine vignettes were appraised more negatively than conventional vignettes across the board (Cohen's d = -0.51-0.57-0.64, P medicine (-0.14-0.15-0.17, P = 0.47), with the exception of reduced adherence intention to genetically personalized medicine (Cohen's d = -0.38-0.41-0.44, P = 0.009). This relative reluctance to take genetically personalized medicine was pronounced for racial minorities (Cohen's d = -0.38-0.31-0.25, P = 0.02) and was related to trust in the vignette physician (change in R = 0.23, P medicine technology, especially among racial minorities, and highlights enhancement of adherence through improved doctor- patient relationships.

  17. Manufacturing cereal bars with high nutritional value through experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Covino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizations responsible for public health throughout the world have been increasingly worrying about how to feed populations encouraging a nutritious and balanced diet in order to decrease the occurrence of chronic diseases, which are constantly related to an inadequate diet. Still, due to matters of modern lifestyle consumers are increasingly seeking convenient products. This being so, cereal bars have been an option when the matter is low calorie fast food which is also source of fiber. This study aimed at developing a cereal bar with high dietary fiber, iron, vitamins A and vitamin E, in order to easily enable adult population achieve the daily recommendation for such nutrients. Eight formulations plus the focal point were conducted through experimental planning; sensory analysis with 110 tasters for each block and texture. Afterwards, we conducted centesimal analysis for all three formulations presenting the best sensory results. After statistical analysis and comparison to the means for products available in the market, it was possible to conclude that the product developed presented great acceptance and fiber level more than twice as much as the means for commercial products.

  18. A projection method for under determined optimal experimental designs

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Quan

    2014-01-09

    A new implementation, based on the Laplace approximation, was developed in (Long, Scavino, Tempone, & Wang 2013) to accelerate the estimation of the post–experimental expected information gains in the model parameters and predictive quantities of interest. A closed–form approximation of the inner integral and the order of the corresponding dominant error term were obtained in the cases where the parameters are determined by the experiment. In this work, we extend that method to the general cases where the model parameters could not be determined completely by the data from the proposed experiments. We carry out the Laplace approximations in the directions orthogonal to the null space of the corresponding Jacobian matrix, so that the information gain (Kullback–Leibler divergence) can be reduced to an integration against the marginal density of the transformed parameters which are not determined by the experiments. Furthermore, the expected information gain can be approximated by an integration over the prior, where the integrand is a function of the projected posterior covariance matrix. To deal with the issue of dimensionality in a complex problem, we use Monte Carlo sampling or sparse quadratures for the integration over the prior probability density function, depending on the regularity of the integrand function. We demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency and robustness of the proposed method via several nonlinear under determined numerical examples.

  19. Design and Experimental Validation of Small Activating RNAs Targeting an Exogenous Promoter in Human Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Edouard A; Buzina, Alla; Moffat, Jason; McMillen, David R

    2017-04-21

    It is increasingly practical to co-opt many native cellular components into use as elements of synthetic biological systems. We present the design and experimental investigation of the first exogenous genetic construct to be successfully targeted by RNA activation, a phenomenon whereby small double-stranded RNAs increase gene expression from sequence-similar promoters by a mechanism thought to be related to that of RNA interference. Our selection of activating RNA candidates was informed by a custom-written computer program designed to choose target sites in the promoter of interest according to a set of empirical optimality criteria drawn from prior research. Activating RNA candidates were assessed for activity against two exogenously derived target promoters, with successful candidates being subjected to further rounds of validation as a precaution against potential off-target effects. A genetic platform was assembled that allowed activating RNA candidates to be simultaneously screened both for positive activity on the target reporter gene and for possible nonspecific effects on cell metabolism. Several candidate sequences were tested to appraise the utility of this platform, with the most successful achieving a moderate activation level with minimal off-target effects.

  20. A modified experimental hut design for studying responses of disease-transmitting mosquitoes to indoor interventions: the Ifakara experimental huts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredros O Okumu

    Full Text Available Differences between individual human houses can confound results of studies aimed at evaluating indoor vector control interventions such as insecticide treated nets (ITNs and indoor residual insecticide spraying (IRS. Specially designed and standardised experimental huts have historically provided a solution to this challenge, with an added advantage that they can be fitted with special interception traps to sample entering or exiting mosquitoes. However, many of these experimental hut designs have a number of limitations, for example: 1 inability to sample mosquitoes on all sides of huts, 2 increased likelihood of live mosquitoes flying out of the huts, leaving mainly dead ones, 3 difficulties of cleaning the huts when a new insecticide is to be tested, and 4 the generally small size of the experimental huts, which can misrepresent actual local house sizes or airflow dynamics in the local houses. Here, we describe a modified experimental hut design - The Ifakara Experimental Huts- and explain how these huts can be used to more realistically monitor behavioural and physiological responses of wild, free-flying disease-transmitting mosquitoes, including the African malaria vectors of the species complexes Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus, to indoor vector control-technologies including ITNs and IRS. Important characteristics of the Ifakara experimental huts include: 1 interception traps fitted onto eave spaces and windows, 2 use of eave baffles (panels that direct mosquito movement to control exit of live mosquitoes through the eave spaces, 3 use of replaceable wall panels and ceilings, which allow safe insecticide disposal and reuse of the huts to test different insecticides in successive periods, 4 the kit format of the huts allowing portability and 5 an improved suite of entomological procedures to maximise data quality.

  1. Constructing experimental designs for discrete-choice experiments: report of the ISPOR Conjoint Analysis Experimental Design Good Research Practices Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed Johnson, F; Lancsar, Emily; Marshall, Deborah; Kilambi, Vikram; Mühlbacher, Axel; Regier, Dean A; Bresnahan, Brian W; Kanninen, Barbara; Bridges, John F P

    2013-01-01

    Stated-preference methods are a class of evaluation techniques for studying the preferences of patients and other stakeholders. While these methods span a variety of techniques, conjoint-analysis methods-and particularly discrete-choice experiments (DCEs)-have become the most frequently applied approach in health care in recent years. Experimental design is an important stage in the development of such methods, but establishing a consensus on standards is hampered by lack of understanding of available techniques and software. This report builds on the previous ISPOR Conjoint Analysis Task Force Report: Conjoint Analysis Applications in Health-A Checklist: A Report of the ISPOR Good Research Practices for Conjoint Analysis Task Force. This report aims to assist researchers specifically in evaluating alternative approaches to experimental design, a difficult and important element of successful DCEs. While this report does not endorse any specific approach, it does provide a guide for choosing an approach that is appropriate for a particular study. In particular, it provides an overview of the role of experimental designs for the successful implementation of the DCE approach in health care studies, and it provides researchers with an introduction to constructing experimental designs on the basis of study objectives and the statistical model researchers have selected for the study. The report outlines the theoretical requirements for designs that identify choice-model preference parameters and summarizes and compares a number of available approaches for constructing experimental designs. The task-force leadership group met via bimonthly teleconferences and in person at ISPOR meetings in the United States and Europe. An international group of experimental-design experts was consulted during this process to discuss existing approaches for experimental design and to review the task force's draft reports. In addition, ISPOR members contributed to developing a consensus

  2. Single-Case Experimental Designs: A Systematic Review of Published Research and Current Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin D.

    2012-01-01

    This article systematically reviews the research design and methodological characteristics of single-case experimental design (SCED) research published in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2010. SCEDs provide researchers with a flexible and viable alternative to group designs with large sample sizes. However, methodological challenges have…

  3. Adequacy of different experimental designs for eucalyptus spacing trials in Portuguese environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula Soares; Margarida Tome

    2000-01-01

    In Portugal, several eucalyptus spacing trials cover a relatively broad range of experimental designs: trials with a non-randomized block design with plots of different size and number of trees per plot; trials based on a non-systematic design in which spacings were randomized resulting in a factorial arrangement with plots of different size and shape and equal number...

  4. Device Design and Test of Fatigue Behaviour of Expansion Anchor Subjected to Tensile Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jinfeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study on the fatigue behaviour of expansion anchor (M16, grade 8.8 for overhead contact system in electrification railways, a set of safe, practical loading device is designed and a fatigue test campaign was carried out at structural laboratory of China Academy of Building Research on expansion anchor embedded in concrete block. The mobile frame of the loading device was designed well by finite-element simulation. According to some fatigue performance test of expansion anchor with different size and form, the device have been assessed experimentally its dependability. The results were found that no fatigue damage phenomenon occurred in all specimens after 2×106 cycles tensile fatigue test in this specific series. It shows that in the condition of medium level or slightly lower maximum stress limit and nominal stress range, expansion bolt has good fatigue resistance. The biggest relative displacement and the residual relative displacement after test (Δδ = δ2-δ1 was also strongly lower than the symbol of the fatigue test failure index of this specific series (0.5mm in the high cycle fatigue regime. The ultimate tension failures mode after fatigue tests in all tested samples take place in the concrete anchorage zone. The reduction range of the ultimate tensile strength properties of the anchorage system was not obvious, and the concrete was seen to be the weakest link of the system.

  5. Single-subject designs as a tool for evidence-based clinical practice: Are they unrecognised and undervalued?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdices, Michael; Tate, Robyn L

    2009-12-01

    One could be forgiven for thinking that the only road to evidence-based clinical practice is the application of results from randomised controlled trials (or systematic reviews of such). By contrast, single-subject designs in the context of evidence-based clinical practice are believed by many to be strange bedfellows. In this paper, we argue that single-subject designs play an important role in evidence-based clinical practice. We survey the contents of Neuropsychological Rehabilitation in relation to single-subject designs and tackle the main criticisms that have been levelled against them. We offer practical guidance for rating the methodological quality of single-subject designs and applying statistical techniques to measure treatment efficacy. These guides are equally applicable to research studies and everyday clinical practice with individual patients.

  6. Batch phenol biodegradation study and application of factorial experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hellal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATTC27853, was investigated for its ability to grow and to degrade phenol as solecarbon source, in aerobic batch culture. The parameters which affect the substrate biodegradation such as the adaptation ofbacteria to phenol, the temperature, and the nature of the bacteria were investigated. The results show that for a range oftemperature of 30 to 40°C, the best degradation of phenol for a concentration of 100mg/l was observed at 30°C. The regenerationof the bacterium which allows the reactivation of its enzymatic activity, shows that the degradation of 100 mg/ l ofsubstrate at 30° C required approximately 50 hours with revivified bacteria, while it only starts after 72 hours for those norevivified. Adapted to increasing concentrations, allows the bacteria to degrade a substrate concentration of about 400mg/l in less than 350 hours.A second part was consisted in the determination of a substrate degradation model using the factorial experiment design,as a function of temperature (30-40°C and of the size of the inoculums (260.88 - 521.76mg/ l. The results were analyzedstatistically using the Student’s t-test, analysis of variance, and F-test. The value of R2 (0.99872 and adjusted R2 (0.9962close to 1.0, verifies the good correlation between the observed and the predicted values, and provides the excellent relationshipbetween the independent variables (factors and the response (the time of the phenol degradation. F-value found above200, indicates that the considered model is statistically significant.

  7. Design and experimental tests of free electron laser wire scanners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Orlandi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available SwissFEL is a x-rays free electron laser (FEL driven by a 5.8 GeV linac under construction at Paul Scherrer Institut. In SwissFEL, wire scanners (WSCs will be complementary to view-screens for emittance measurements and routinely used to monitor the transverse profile of the electron beam during FEL operations. The SwissFEL WSC is composed of an in-vacuum beam-probe—motorized by a stepper motor—and an out-vacuum pick-up of the wire signal. The mechanical stability of the WSC in-vacuum hardware has been characterized on a test bench. In particular, the motor induced vibrations of the wire have been measured and mapped for different motor speeds. Electron-beam tests of the entire WSC setup together with different wire materials have been carried out at the 250 MeV SwissFEL Injector Test Facility (SITF, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH and at FERMI (Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, Italy. In particular, a comparative study of the relative measurement accuracy and the radiation-dose release of Al(99∶Si(1 and tungsten (W wires has been carried out. On the basis of the outcome of the bench and electron-beam tests, the SwissFEL WSC can be qualified as a high resolution and machine-saving diagnostic tool in consideration of the mechanical stability of the scanning wire at the micrometer level and the choice of the wire material ensuring a drastic reduction of the radiation-dose release with respect to conventional metallic wires. The main aspects of the design, laboratory characterization and electron beam tests of the SwissFEL WSCs are presented.

  8. Design and experimental tests of free electron laser wire scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, G. L.; Heimgartner, P.; Ischebeck, R.; Loch, C. Ozkan; Trovati, S.; Valitutti, P.; Schlott, V.; Ferianis, M.; Penco, G.

    2016-09-01

    SwissFEL is a x-rays free electron laser (FEL) driven by a 5.8 GeV linac under construction at Paul Scherrer Institut. In SwissFEL, wire scanners (WSCs) will be complementary to view-screens for emittance measurements and routinely used to monitor the transverse profile of the electron beam during FEL operations. The SwissFEL WSC is composed of an in-vacuum beam-probe—motorized by a stepper motor—and an out-vacuum pick-up of the wire signal. The mechanical stability of the WSC in-vacuum hardware has been characterized on a test bench. In particular, the motor induced vibrations of the wire have been measured and mapped for different motor speeds. Electron-beam tests of the entire WSC setup together with different wire materials have been carried out at the 250 MeV SwissFEL Injector Test Facility (SITF, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH) and at FERMI (Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, Italy). In particular, a comparative study of the relative measurement accuracy and the radiation-dose release of Al (99 )∶Si (1 ) and tungsten (W) wires has been carried out. On the basis of the outcome of the bench and electron-beam tests, the SwissFEL WSC can be qualified as a high resolution and machine-saving diagnostic tool in consideration of the mechanical stability of the scanning wire at the micrometer level and the choice of the wire material ensuring a drastic reduction of the radiation-dose release with respect to conventional metallic wires. The main aspects of the design, laboratory characterization and electron beam tests of the SwissFEL WSCs are presented.

  9. Effect of lingual plates on generating intra-oral pressure during swallowing: an experimental study in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Kazuhiro; Srinivasan, Murali; Barbezat, Cindy; Tamine, Ken-ichi; Ono, Takahiro; Müller, Frauke

    2013-07-01

    Although palatal augmentation prostheses (PAPs) can improve dysphagia, their application is compromised in the absence of maxillary abutment teeth. Experimental lingual plates (ELPs) used for raising the tongue may be employed as alternative to PAPs. Influence of different ELP designs, plateau (P-type) and drop-shaped (D-type), on the intra-oral pressure during swallowing were tested. Eleven healthy dentate volunteers, with a mean age of 35.5±10.5 years, participated in this study. Tongue pressure on the hard palate was measured using an ultra-thin sensor sheet with five measuring points, whilst performing dry, 5-ml and 15-ml water swallows, with and without the ELPs in situ. Additional pressure sensors were installed in the lingual aspects of the ELPs, and on the vestibular aspect of the lower molars for measuring sublingual and oral vestibule pressures, respectively. Each measurement was recorded thrice. A repeated measures ANOVA was employed to verify differences in duration, maximal magnitude and integrated value for the different experimental situations. Tukey's post hoc test was performed for comparison testing. Statistical significance was set at prationale of using ELPs for the treatment of dysphagia; hence a rather biologically designed piezographic lingual plate may be more appropriate.

  10. Effects of variable lighting intensities and colour temperatures on sulphatoxymelatonin and subjective mood in an experimental office workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Georg; Gufler, Veronika; Griesmacher, Andrea; Bartenbach, Christian; Canazei, Markus; Staggl, Siegmund; Schobersberger, Wolfgang

    2008-11-01

    Workplace illumination is of paramount importance in determining the employee's productivity and well-being. Moreover, light exerts non-visual effects with respect to biological rhythms. In this study, we investigated the impact of different lighting conditions (500-1800 lx, 6500 K; 500 lx, 4000 K) on sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6-s) and subjective mood in an experimental office accommodation. Urinary aMT6-s concentrations were significantly decreased at all days of the experiment in both lights. On day 3, differences between aMT6-s concentrations in specimen collected at 05:00 p.m. and at 09:00 a.m. were significantly higher under variable lighting conditions. Analyses of a mood rating inventory revealed a benefit of variable light with respect to the dimensions of "Activity", while "Deactivation" and "Fatigue" were increased in regular light on day 1. "Activity", "Concentration", and "Deactivation" changed in opposite directions when comparing variable with regular illumination on two consecutive days. In conclusion, variable light exerts a potential advantage in indoor office accommodations with respect to subjective mood, although no unequivocal differences in the profile of aMT6-s were found as compared to regular light.

  11. Experimental and computational studies of water drops falling through model oil with surfactant and subjected to an electric field

    CERN Document Server

    Ervik, Åsmund; Munkejord, Svend Tollak; Müller, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    The behaviour of a single sub-millimetre-size water drop falling through a viscous oil while subjected to an electric field is of fundamental importance to industrial applications such as crude oil electrocoalescers. Detailed studies, both experimental and computational, have been performed previously, but an often challenging issue has been the characterization of the fluids. As numerous authors have noted, it is very difficult to have a perfectly clean water-oil system even for very pure model oils, and the presence of trace chemicals may significantly alter the interface behaviour. In this work, we consider a well- characterized water-oil system where controlled amounts of a surface active agent (Span 80) have been added to the oil. This addition dominates any trace contaminants in the oil, such that the interface behaviour can also be well-characterized. We present the results of experiments and corresponding two-phase- flow simulations of a falling water drop covered in surfactant and subjected to a mono...

  12. Delineamento experimental e tamanho de amostra para alface cultivada em hidroponia Experimental design and sample size for hydroponic lettuce crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Schimitz Marodim

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo visa a estabelecer o delineamento experimental e o tamanho de amostra para a cultura da alface (Lactuca sativa em hidroponia, pelo sistema NFT (Nutrient film technique. O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Cultivos Sem Solo/Hidroponia, no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria e baseou-se em dados de massa de plantas. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que, usando estrutura de cultivo de alface em hidroponia sobre bancadas de fibrocimento com seis canais, o delineamento experimental adequado é blocos ao acaso se a unidade experimental for constituída de faixas transversais aos canais das bancadas, e deve ser inteiramente casualizado se a bancada for a unidade experimental; para a variável massa de plantas, o tamanho da amostra é de 40 plantas para uma semi-amplitude do intervalo de confiança em percentagem da média (d igual a 5% e de 7 plantas para um d igual a 20%.This study was carried out to establish the experimental design and sample size for hydroponic lettuce (Lactuca sativa crop under nutrient film technique. The experiment was conducted in the Laboratory of Hydroponic Crops of the Horticulture Department of the Federal University of Santa Maria. The evaluated traits were plant weight. Under hydroponic conditions on concrete bench with six ducts, the most indicated experimental design for lettuce is randomised blocks for duct transversal plots or completely randomised for bench plot. The sample size for plant weight should be 40 and 7 plants, respectively, for a confidence interval of mean percentage (d equal to 5% and 20%.

  13. Design, construction and testing of a radon experimental chamber; Diseno, construccion y pruebas de una camara experimental de radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez B, A.; Balcazar G, M

    1991-10-15

    To carry out studies on the radon behavior under controlled and stable conditions it was designed and constructed a system that consists of two parts: a container of mineral rich in Uranium and an experimentation chamber with radon united one to the other one by a step valve. The container of uranium mineral approximately contains 800 gr of uranium with a law of 0.28%; the radon gas emanated by the mineral is contained tightly by the container. When the valve opens up the radon gas it spreads to the radon experimental chamber; this contains 3 accesses that allow to install different types of detectors. The versatility of the system is exemplified with two experiments: 1. With the radon experimental chamber and an associated spectroscopic system, the radon and two of its decay products are identified. 2. The design of the system allows to couple the mineral container to other experimental geometries to demonstrate this fact it was coupled and proved a new automatic exchanger system of passive detectors of radon. The results of the new automatic exchanger system when it leave to flow the radon freely among the container and the automatic exchanger through a plastic membrane of 15 m. are shown. (Author)

  14. Experimental Design for Evaluating the Safety Benefits of Railroad Advance Warning Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    The report presents the findings and conclusions of a study to develop an experimental design and analysis plan for field testing and evaluation of the accident reduction potential of a proposed new railroad grade crossing advance warning sign. Sever...

  15. Design and Development of a Testing Device for Experimental Measurements of Foundation Slabs on the Subsoil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Čajka, Radim; Křivý, Vít; Sekanina, David

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with technical solutions and construction of a testing stand designed for experimental measurements of deformations and state of stress of foundation structures placed on the subsoil...

  16. Design and experimental tests of a novel neutron spin analyzer for wide angle spin echo spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouquet, Peter; Farago, Bela; Andersen, Ken H.; Bentley, Phillip M.; Pastrello, Gilles; Sutton, Iain; Thaveron, Eric; Thomas, Frederic [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Moskvin, Evgeny [Helmholtzzentrum Berlin, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Pappas, Catherine [Helmholtzzentrum Berlin, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    This paper describes the design and experimental tests of a novel neutron spin analyzer optimized for wide angle spin echo spectrometers. The new design is based on nonremanent magnetic supermirrors, which are magnetized by vertical magnetic fields created by NdFeB high field permanent magnets. The solution presented here gives stable performance at moderate costs in contrast to designs invoking remanent supermirrors. In the experimental part of this paper we demonstrate that the new design performs well in terms of polarization, transmission, and that high quality neutron spin echo spectra can be measured.

  17. Bayesian experimental design of a multichannel interferometer for Wendelstein 7-X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, H; Dinklage, A; Fischer, R; Hirsch, M; Kornejew, P

    2008-10-01

    Bayesian experimental design (BED) is a framework for the optimization of diagnostics basing on probability theory. In this work it is applied to the design of a multichannel interferometer at the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator experiment. BED offers the possibility to compare diverse designs quantitatively, which will be shown for beam-line designs resulting from different plasma configurations. The applicability of this method is discussed with respect to its computational effort.

  18. Web based learning support for experimental design in molecular biology: a top-down approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aegerter-Wilmsen, T.; Hartog, R.; Bisseling, T.

    2003-01-01

    An important learning goal of a molecular biology curriculum is the attainment of a certain competence level in experimental design. Currently, undergraduate students are confronted with experimental approaches in textbooks, lectures and laboratory courses. However, most students do not reach a

  19. Establishing the experimenting society : The historical origin of social experimentation according to the randomized controlled design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dehue, T

    2001-01-01

    This article tl aces the historical origin of social experimentation. It highlights the central role of psychology in establishing the randomized controlled design and its quasi-experimental derivatives. The author investigates the differences in the 19th- and 20th-century meaning of the expression

  20. OTIMIZATION OF TRANSESTERIFICATION DOUBLE STEP PROCESS (TDSP) TO THE PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL THROUGH DOEHLERT EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Ruschel, Carla Felippi Chiella; Ferrão, Marco Flôres; Santos, Francisco Paulo dos; Samios, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    In this work, Doehlert experimental design was used to optimize the Transesterification Double Step Process (TDSP) method of methyl soybean oil biodiesel production which starts with a basic catalysis followed by an acidic catalysis. The conversion values were calculated from NMR spectra. Response surface was used to show the results of the interactions between the variables. This experimental design evaluated variables like catalyst and alcohol amount for the basic catalysis and time and tem...

  1. Myofascial treatment for patients with acetabular labral tears: a single-subject research design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Glenn E; Mortenson, W Ben; Gilbart, Michael K

    2014-08-01

    Single-subject research design using 4 consecutive patients. To assess whether treatment using soft tissue therapy (ART or Active Release Technique), stretching, and strengthening of the hip abductors, hip external rotators, and tensor fascia latae muscles reduces pain and improves self-reported hip function in patients with acetabular labral tears who also have posterolateral hip pain of suspected myofascial origin. Acetabular labral tears cause pain in some but not all patients. Pain commonly presents anteriorly but may also present posteriorly and laterally. The standard of care is arthroscopic repair, which helps many but not all patients. It is possible that these patients may present with extra-articular contributions to their pain, such as myofascial pain, making their clinical presentation more complex. No previous study has assessed soft tissue therapy as a treatment option for this subset of patients. This A-B-A design used repeated measures of the Hip Outcome Score and visual analog scale for pain. Four patients were treated for 6 to 8 weeks, using a combination of soft tissue therapy, stretching, and strengthening for the hip abductors, external rotators, and tensor fascia latae. Data were assessed visually, statistically, and by comparing mean differences before and after intervention. All 4 patients experienced both statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in posterolateral hip pain and hip-related function. Three patients also experienced reduction in anteromedial hip pain. Myofascial hip pain may contribute to hip-related symptoms and disability in patients with acetabular labral tears and posterolateral hip pain. These patients may benefit from soft tissue therapy combined with stretching and strengthening exercises targeting the hip abductors, tensor fascia latae, and hip external rotator muscles. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 4.

  2. A Tutorial on Computing Bayes Factors for Single-Subject Designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Rivka M.; Hartogs, Bregje M. A.; Morey, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    When researchers are interested in the effect of certain interventions on certain individuals, single-subject studies are often performed. In their most simple form, such single-subject studies require that a subject is measured on relevant criterion variables several times before an intervention

  3. Measuring and Advancing Experimental Design Ability in an Introductory Course without Altering Existing Lab Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Ryan A; Robertson, Chuck L; Haygood, Christian S; Herdliksa, Anna M; Herdliska, Heather R; Lloyd, Steven A

    2017-01-01

    Introductory biology courses provide an important opportunity to prepare students for future courses, yet existing cookbook labs, although important in their own way, fail to provide many of the advantages of semester-long research experiences. Engaging, authentic research experiences aid biology students in meeting many learning goals. Therefore, overlaying a research experience onto the existing lab structure allows faculty to overcome barriers involving curricular change. Here we propose a working model for this overlay design in an introductory biology course and detail a means to conduct this lab with minimal increases in student and faculty workloads. Furthermore, we conducted exploratory factor analysis of the Experimental Design Ability Test (EDAT) and uncovered two latent factors which provide valid means to assess this overlay model's ability to increase advanced experimental design abilities. In a pre-test/post-test design, we demonstrate significant increases in both basic and advanced experimental design abilities in an experimental and comparison group. We measured significantly higher gains in advanced experimental design understanding in students in the experimental group. We believe this overlay model and EDAT factor analysis contribute a novel means to conduct and assess the effectiveness of authentic research experiences in an introductory course without major changes to the course curriculum and with minimal increases in faculty and student workloads.

  4. Measuring and Advancing Experimental Design Ability in an Introductory Course without Altering Existing Lab Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan A. Shanks

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introductory biology courses provide an important opportunity to prepare students for future courses, yet existing cookbook labs, although important in their own way, fail to provide many of the advantages of semester-long research experiences. Engaging, authentic research experiences aid biology students in meeting many learning goals. Therefore, overlaying a research experience onto the existing lab structure allows faculty to overcome barriers involving curricular change. Here we propose a working model for this overlay design in an introductory biology course and detail a means to conduct this lab with minimal increases in student and faculty workloads. Furthermore, we conducted exploratory factor analysis of the Experimental Design Ability Test (EDAT and uncovered two latent factors which provide valid means to assess this overlay model’s ability to increase advanced experimental design abilities. In a pre-test/post-test design, we demonstrate significant increases in both basic and advanced experimental design abilities in an experimental and comparison group. We measured significantly higher gains in advanced experimental design understanding in students in the experimental group. We believe this overlay model and EDAT factor analysis contribute a novel means to conduct and assess the effectiveness of authentic research experiences in an introductory course without major changes to the course curriculum and with minimal increases in faculty and student workloads.

  5. Inverse wing design for the scaled supersonic experimental airplane with ensuring design constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Matsushima, Kisa; Iwamiya, Toshiyuki; Zhang, Wanqiu; 松島 紀佐; 岩宮 敏幸; Zhang, Wanqiu

    2007-01-01

    Aerodynamic shape of a wing for NAL (National Aerospace Laboratory)'s first SST (SuperSonic Transport) model has been designed by a supersonic inverse design method. This method handles wing-fuselage configurations and provides wing section's geometry at every span for Navier-Stokes flowfields. The design target is a NLF (Natural Laminar Flow) wing at the speed of M(sub infinity) = 2.0. The original system of the inverse design method has to be modified so that several design constraints can ...

  6. The effect of pilates exercise on trunk and postural stability and throwing velocity in college baseball pitchers: single subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Tony; Howe, Katherine

    2007-02-01

    Baseball pitchers need trunk strength to maximize performance. The Pilates method of exercise is gaining popularity throughout the country as a fitness and rehabilitation method of exercise. However, very few studies exist that examine the effects of the Pilates method of exercise on trunk strength or performance. Using a single subject, multiple baseline across subjects design, this study examines the effects of the Pilates method of exercise on performance of double leg lowering, star excursion balance test, and throwing velocity in college-aged baseball pitchers. A convenience sample of three college baseball pitchers served as the subjects for this single subject design study. For each subject, double leg lowering, star excursion balance test, and throwing speed were measured prior to the introduction of the intervention. When baseline test values showed consistent performance, the intervention was introduced to one subject at a time. Intervention was introduced to the other subjects over a period of 4 weeks as they also demonstrated consistent performance on the baseline tests. Intervention was continued with periodic tests for the remainder of the 10 week trial. Each subject improved in performance on double leg lowering (increased 24.43-32.7%) and star excursion balance test (increased 4.63-17.84%) after introduction of the intervention. Throwing speed improved in two of the three subjects (up to 5.61%). The Pilates method of exercise may contribute to improved performance in double leg lowering, star excursion balance tests, and throwing speed in college baseball pitchers.

  7. Optimization of fast disintegration tablets using pullulan as diluent by central composite experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipil Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to apply central composite experimental design to investigate main and interaction effect of formulation parameters in optimizing novel fast disintegration tablets formulation using pullulan as diluents. Face centered central composite experimental design was employed to optimize fast disintegration tablet formulation. The variables studied were concentration of diluents (pullulan, X1, superdisintigrant (sodium starch glycolate, X2, and direct compression aid (spray dried lactose, X3. Tablets were characterized for weight variation, thickness, disintegration time (Y1 and hardness (Y2. Good correlation between the predicted values and experimental data of the optimized formulation methodology in optimizing fast disintegrating tablets using pullulan as a diluent.

  8. Optimization of fast disintegration tablets using pullulan as diluent by central composite experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dipil; Chauhan, Musharraf; Patel, Ravi; Patel, Jayvadan

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this work was to apply central composite experimental design to investigate main and interaction effect of formulation parameters in optimizing novel fast disintegration tablets formulation using pullulan as diluents. Face centered central composite experimental design was employed to optimize fast disintegration tablet formulation. The variables studied were concentration of diluents (pullulan, X(1)), superdisintigrant (sodium starch glycolate, X(2)), and direct compression aid (spray dried lactose, X(3)). Tablets were characterized for weight variation, thickness, disintegration time (Y(1)) and hardness (Y(2)). Good correlation between the predicted values and experimental data of the optimized formulation methodology in optimizing fast disintegrating tablets using pullulan as a diluent.

  9. An efficient approach to bioconversion kinetic model generation based on automated microscale experimentation integrated with model driven experimental design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, B. H.; Micheletti, M.; Baganz, F.

    2009-01-01

    design. It incorporates a model driven approach to the experimental design that minimises the number of experiments to be performed, while still generating accurate values of kinetic parameters. The approach has been illustrated with the transketolase mediated asymmetric synthesis of L......Reliable models of enzyme kinetics are required for the effective design of bioconversion processes. Kinetic expressions of the enzyme-catalysed reaction rate however, are frequently complex and establishing accurate values of kinetic parameters normally requires a large number of experiments....... These can be both time consuming and expensive when working with the types of non-natural chiral intermediates important in pharmaceutical syntheses. This paper presents ail automated microscale approach to the rapid and cost effective generation of reliable kinetic models useful for bioconversion process...

  10. Design and experimentation of an empirical multistructure framework for accurate, sharp and reliable hydrological ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiller, G.; Anctil, F.; Roy, R.

    2017-09-01

    This paper outlines the design and experimentation of an Empirical Multistructure Framework (EMF) for lumped conceptual hydrological modeling. This concept is inspired from modular frameworks, empirical model development, and multimodel applications, and encompasses the overproduce and select paradigm. The EMF concept aims to reduce subjectivity in conceptual hydrological modeling practice and includes model selection in the optimisation steps, reducing initial assumptions on the prior perception of the dominant rainfall-runoff transformation processes. EMF generates thousands of new modeling options from, for now, twelve parent models that share their functional components and parameters. Optimisation resorts to ensemble calibration, ranking and selection of individual child time series based on optimal bias and reliability trade-offs, as well as accuracy and sharpness improvement of the ensemble. Results on 37 snow-dominated Canadian catchments and 20 climatically-diversified American catchments reveal the excellent potential of the EMF in generating new individual model alternatives, with high respective performance values, that may be pooled efficiently into ensembles of seven to sixty constitutive members, with low bias and high accuracy, sharpness, and reliability. A group of 1446 new models is highlighted to offer good potential on other catchments or applications, based on their individual and collective interests. An analysis of the preferred functional components reveals the importance of the production and total flow elements. Overall, results from this research confirm the added value of ensemble and flexible approaches for hydrological applications, especially in uncertain contexts, and open up new modeling possibilities.

  11. Application of Iterative Robust Model-based Optimal Experimental Design for the Calibration of Biocatalytic Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Daele, Timothy; Gernaey, Krist V.; Ringborg, Rolf Hoffmeyer

    2017-01-01

    The aim of model calibration is to estimate unique parameter values from available experimental data, here applied to a biocatalytic process. The traditional approach of first gathering data followed by performing a model calibration is inefficient, since the information gathered during...... experimentation is not actively used to optimise the experimental design. By applying an iterative robust model-based optimal experimental design, the limited amount of data collected is used to design additional informative experiments. The algorithm is used here to calibrate the initial reaction rate of an ω......-transaminase catalysed reaction in a more accurate way. The parameter confidence region estimated from the Fisher Information Matrix is compared with the likelihood confidence region, which is a more accurate, but also a computationally more expensive method. As a result, an important deviation between both approaches...

  12. Experimental and Theoretical Progress of Linear Collider Final Focus Design and ATF2 Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Seryi, Andrei; Zimmermann, Frank; Kubo, Kiyoshi; Kuroda, Shigeru; Okugi, Toshiyuki; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Urakawa, Junji; White, Glen; Woodley, Mark; Angal-Kalinin, Deepa

    2014-01-01

    In this brief overview we will reflect on the process of the design of the linear collider (LC) final focus (FF) optics, and will also describe the theoretical and experimental efforts on design and practical realisation of a prototype of the LC FF optics implemented in the ATF2 facility at KEK, Japan, presently being commissioned and operated.

  13. Overview of design development of FCC-hh Experimental Interaction Regions

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2082479; Abelleira, Jose; Cruz Alaniz, Emilia; Van Riesen-Haupt, Leon; Benedikt, Michael; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Buffat, Xavier; Burkhardt, Helmut; Cerutti, Francesco; Langner, Andy Sven; Martin, Roman; Riegler, Werner; Schulte, Daniel; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; Appleby, Robert Barrie; Rafique, Haroon; Barranco Garcia, Javier; Pieloni, Tatiana; Boscolo, Manuela; Collamati, Francesco; Nevay, Laurence James; Hofer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The experimental interaction region (EIR) is one of the key areas that define the performance of the Future Circular Collider. In this overview we will describe the status and the evolution of the design of EIR of FCC-hh, focusing on design of the optics, energy deposition in EIR elements, beam-beam effects and machine detector interface issues.

  14. Visualizing Experimental Designs for Balanced ANOVA Models using Lisp-Stat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip W. Iversen

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure, or Hasse, diagram described by Taylor and Hilton (1981, American Statistician provides a visual display of the relationships between factors for balanced complete experimental designs. Using the Hasse diagram, rules exist for determining the appropriate linear model, ANOVA table, expected means squares, and F-tests in the case of balanced designs. This procedure has been implemented in Lisp-Stat using a software representation of the experimental design. The user can interact with the Hasse diagram to add, change, or delete factors and see the effect on the proposed analysis. The system has potential uses in teaching and consulting.

  15. Wind refrigeration : design and results of an experimental facility; Refrigeracion eolica: Diseno y resultados de una instalacion experimental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran, R. G.; Talero, A.

    2004-07-01

    This article describes the experimental setup used to obtain design parameters for a wind driven refrigeration equipment. The system compressor is directly coupled to the wind mill and will provide refrigeration to a community located in La Guajira in northern Colombia. The testing on the experimental installation assessed the refrigeration capacity that could be provided by an open type commercial compressor coupled to the wind mill axis. Power and torque requirements have been evaluated for different wind mill rotational speeds. An assessment of the local conditions relating to wind speed, frequency and preferred direction for the installation site has been made based on measurements by the Meteorological National Institute and independent data from other sources. (Author)

  16. Experimental validation of wavelet based solution for dynamic response of railway track subjected to a moving train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziol, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    New approaches allowing effective analysis of railway structures dynamic behaviour are needed for appropriate modelling and understanding of phenomena associated with train transportation. The literature highlights the fact that nonlinear assumptions are of importance in dynamic analysis of railway tracks. This paper presents wavelet based semi-analytical solution for the infinite Euler-Bernoulli beam resting on a nonlinear foundation and subjected to a set of moving forces, being representation of railway track with moving train, along with its preliminary experimental validation. It is shown that this model, although very simplified, with an assumption of viscous damping of foundation, can be considered as a good enough approximation of realistic structures behaviour. The steady-state response of the beam is obtained by applying the Galilean co-ordinate system and the Adomian's decomposition method combined with coiflet based approximation, leading to analytical estimation of transverse displacements. The applied approach, using parameters taken from real measurements carried out on the Polish Railways network for fast train Pendolino EMU-250, shows ability of the proposed method to analyse parametrically dynamic systems associated with transportation. The obtained results are in accordance with measurement data in wide range of physical parameters, which can be treated as a validation of the developed wavelet based approach. The conducted investigation is supplemented by several numerical examples.

  17. Pen needle design influences ease of insertion, pain, and skin trauma in subjects with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Præstmark, Kezia A; Jensen, Morten L; Berg Madsen, Nils

    2016-01-01

    of insertion, pain and skin trauma. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: 30 subjects with injection-treated type 2 diabetes and body mass index 25-35 kg/m(2) were included in the single-blinded study. Each subject received abdominal insertions with 18 different types of needles. All needles were tested twice per...... was dependent of SBP increase. CONCLUSIONS: The shape and design of a needle and the needle tip affect ease of insertion, pain and skin trauma. Relations are seen across different data acquisition methods and across species, enabling needle performance testing outside of clinical trials. TRIAL REGISTRATION...

  18. Cooperative Experimental System Development - cooperative techniques beyound initial design and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Kyng, Morten; Mogensen, Preben Holst

    1995-01-01

    , however, not limited to this development context, it may be applied for in-house or contract development as well. In system development, particularly in cooperative and experimental system development, we argue that it is necessary to analytically separate the abstract concerns, e.g. analysis, design......This chapter represents a step towards the establishment of a new system development approach, called Cooperative Experimental System Development (CESD). CESD seeks to overcome a number of limitations in existing approaches: specification oriented methods usually assume that system design can...... be based solely on observation and detached reflection; prototyping methods often have a narrow focus on the technical construction of various kinds of prototypes; Participatory Design techniques—including the Scandinavian Cooperative Design (CD) approaches—seldom go beyond the early analysis/design...

  19. Experimental Modelling of the Breakdown Voltage of Air Using Design of Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REZOUGA, M.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Many experimental and numerical studies were devoted to the electric discharge of air, and some mathematical models were proposed for the critical breakdown voltage. As this latter depends on several parameters, it is difficult to find a formula, theoretical or experimental, which considers many factors. The aim of this paper is to model the critical breakdown voltage in a "Sphere-Sphere� electrodes system by using the methodology of experimental designs. Several factors were considered, such as geometrical factors (inter-electrodes interval, diameter of the electrodes and climatic factors (temperature, humidity. Two factorial centred faces experimental designs (CCF were carried out, a first one for the geometrical factors and a second one for the climatic factors. The obtained results made it possible to propose mathematical models and to study the interactions between the various factors.

  20. Gestalt Theory in Visual Screen Design — A New Look at an old subject

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, D.; Dooley, L.; Tuovinen, J. E

    2002-01-01

    Although often presented as a single basis for educational visual screen design, Gestalt theory is not a single small set of visual principles uniformly applied by all designers. In fact, it appears that instructional visual design literature often deals with only a small set of Gestalt laws. In this project Gestalt literature was consulted to distil the most relevant Gestalt laws for educational visual screen design. Eleven laws were identified. They deal with balance/symmetry, continuation,...

  1. DESIGNING CROSS SUBJECT COMMUNICATIONS AS THE CONDITION FOR DEVELOPING SOCIAL SKILLS IN TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ivanovna Lygina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will present the results of a pedagogical experiment aimed at studying the level of social skills in university professors. Planning cross subject communications in an academic subject with consideration of the previous and associated knowledge and skills of students in the educational programme formed the basis of the pedagogical experiment. Problems have occurred when university professors are faced with elaborating cross subject communications. It was discovered that the problems professors had were connected to their responsiveness and to the various strategies they applied while working within small groups. We will analyze the results, provide recommendations and show the change in the level of the professors’ social skills during elaboration of  cross subject communications.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-21

  2. Experimental measurement and numerical analysis on resonant characteristics of piezoelectric disks with partial electrode designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Chih; Ma, Chien-Ching

    2004-08-01

    Three experimental techniques are used in this study to access the influence of the electrode arrangement on the resonant characteristics of piezoceramic disks. These methods, including the amplitude-fluctuation electronic speckle pattern interferometry (AF-ESPI), laser Doppler vibrometer-dynamic signal analyzer (LDV-DSA), and impedance analysis, are based on the measurement of full-field displacement, pointwise displacement, and electric impedance, respectively. In this study, one full electrode design and three nonsymmetrical partial electrode designs of piezoelectric disks are investigated. Because the clear fringe patterns measured by the AF-ESPI method will be shown only at resonant frequencies, both the resonant frequencies and the corresponding vibration mode shapes are successfully obtained at the same time for out-of-plane and in-plane motions. The second experimental method is the impedance analysis, which is used to measure the resonant and antiresonant frequencies. In addition to these experimental methods, LDV-DSA is used to determine the resonant frequencies of the vibration mode with out-of-plane motion. From the experimental results, the dependence of electrode design on the vibration frequencies and mode shapes is addressed. Numerical computations based on the finite element method are presented, and the results are compared with the experimental measurements. The effect of different designs of electrode is more significant in the in-plane modes than that in the out-of-plane modes.

  3. Development of the Neuron Assessment for Measuring Biology Students’ Use of Experimental Design Concepts and Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Annwesa P.; Anderson, Trevor R.; Pelaez, Nancy J.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers, instructors, and funding bodies in biology education are unanimous about the importance of developing students’ competence in experimental design. Despite this, only limited measures are available for assessing such competence development, especially in the areas of molecular and cellular biology. Also, existing assessments do not measure how well students use standard symbolism to visualize biological experiments. We propose an assessment-design process that 1) provides background knowledge and questions for developers of new “experimentation assessments,” 2) elicits practices of representing experiments with conventional symbol systems, 3) determines how well the assessment reveals expert knowledge, and 4) determines how well the instrument exposes student knowledge and difficulties. To illustrate this process, we developed the Neuron Assessment and coded responses from a scientist and four undergraduate students using the Rubric for Experimental Design and the Concept-Reasoning Mode of representation (CRM) model. Some students demonstrated sound knowledge of concepts and representations. Other students demonstrated difficulty with depicting treatment and control group data or variability in experimental outcomes. Our process, which incorporates an authentic research situation that discriminates levels of visualization and experimentation abilities, shows potential for informing assessment design in other disciplines. PMID:27146159

  4. Design of Experimental Data Publishing Software for Neutral Beam Injector on EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Hu, Chundong; Sheng, Peng; Zhao, Yuanzhe; Zhang, Xiaodan; Wu, Deyun

    2015-02-01

    Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) is one of the most effective means for plasma heating. Experimental Data Publishing Software (EDPS) is developed to publish experimental data to get the NBI system under remote monitoring. In this paper, the architecture and implementation of EDPS including the design of the communication module and web page display module are presented. EDPS is developed based on the Browser/Server (B/S) model, and works under the Linux operating system. Using the data source and communication mechanism of the NBI Control System (NBICS), EDPS publishes experimental data on the Internet.

  5. Experimental study on energy absorption of foam filled kraft paper honeycomb subjected to quasi-static uniform compression loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Kadir, N.; Aminanda, Y.; Ibrahim, M. S.; Mokhtar, H.

    2016-10-01

    A statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of factor and to obtain the optimum configuration of Kraft paper honeycomb. The factors considered in this study include density of paper, thickness of paper and cell size of honeycomb. Based on three level factorial design, two-factor interaction model (2FI) was developed to correlate the factors with specific energy absorption and specific compression strength. From the analysis of variance (ANOVA), the most influential factor on responses and the optimum configuration was identified. After that, Kraft paper honeycomb with optimum configuration is used to fabricate foam-filled paper honeycomb with five different densities of polyurethane foam as filler (31.8, 32.7, 44.5, 45.7, 52 kg/m3). The foam-filled paper honeycomb is subjected to quasi-static compression loading. Failure mechanism of the foam-filled honeycomb was identified, analyzed and compared with the unfilled paper honeycomb. The peak force and energy absorption capability of foam-filled paper honeycomb are increased up to 32% and 30%, respectively, compared to the summation of individual components.

  6. Experimental Investigations of Decentralised Control Design for The Stabilisation of Rotor-Gas Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theisen, Lukas Roy Svane; Galeazzi, Roberto; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    directions. Hardening and softening P-lead controllers are designed based on the models experimentally identified, and salient features of both controllers are discussed. Both controllers are implemented and validated on the physical test rig. Experimental results confirm the validity of the proposed......-Box identification for the design of stabilising controllers, capable of enabling the active lubrication of the journal. The root locus analysis shows that two different control solutions are feasible for the dampening of the first two eigenfrequencies of the rotor-gas bearing in the horizontal and vertical...

  7. Experimental designs for evaluation of genetic variability and selection of ancient grapevine varieties: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, E; St Aubyn, A; Martins, A

    2010-06-01

    Classical methodologies for grapevine selection used in the vine-growing world are generally based on comparisons among a small number of clones. This does not take advantage of the entire genetic variability within ancient varieties, and therefore limits selection challenges. Using the general principles of plant breeding and of quantitative genetics, we propose new breeding strategies, focussed on conservation and quantification of genetic variability by performing a cycle of mass genotypic selection prior to clonal selection. To exploit a sufficiently large amount of genetic variability, initial selection trials must be generally very large. The use of experimental designs adequate for those field trials has been intensively recommended for numerous species. However, their use in initial trials of grapevines has not been studied. With the aim of identifying the most suitable experimental designs for quantification of genetic variability and selection of ancient varieties, a study was carried out to assess through simulation the comparative efficiency of various experimental designs (randomized complete block design, alpha design and row-column (RC) design). The results indicated a greater efficiency for alpha and RC designs, enabling more precise estimates of genotypic variance, greater precision in the prediction of genetic gain and consequently greater efficiency in genotypic mass selection.

  8. Conceptual design of superconducting magnet systems for the Argonne Tokamak Experimental Power Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.T.; Turner, L.R.; Mills, F.E.; DeMichele, D.W.; Smelser, P.; Kim, S.H.

    1976-01-01

    As an integral effort in the Argonne Tokamak Experimental Power Reactor Conceptual Design, the conceptual design of a 10-tesla, pure-tension superconducting toroidal-field (TF) coil system has been developed in sufficient detail to define a realistic design for the TF coil system that could be built based upon the current state of technology with minimum technological extrapolations. A conceptual design study on the superconducting ohmic-heating (OH) coils and the superconducting equilibrium-field (EF) coils were also completed. These conceptual designs are developed in sufficient detail with clear information on high current ac conductor design, cooling, venting provision, coil structural support and zero loss poloidal coil cryostat design. Also investigated is the EF penetration into the blanket and shield.

  9. Experimental evaluation of the buckling phenomena in the new joint design for upper deck structure of a bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solazzi L.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the experimental mechanical analysis of a new design of a joint for a main components of a upper deck of a road bridge. These components are subject to the compression state stress induced by the weight and the load acting on the road. Each upper deck of a bridge (positioned on each side of the bridge is composed by four tubular structures that must be joint each together. The joint must to take in to account many aspects, for example that the length of each component is not the same (because, obviously, there is a mechanical tolerance. This phenomena induce different compression stress on each component and so is very important non only the critical buckling load but also the post buckling behaviour of the structure. It is very important that if a single tubular structure reaches the critical load of instability, it still has load capacity . This is to avoid that, in the case where a column reaches the instability, the entire load acting on a column increase the load on the remaining three. For this purpose many different geometrical solutions have been designed (elaborated by fem analyses and successively tested experimentally. This work reports the main experimental results on the best joint solution and how this increase the load capacity and the displacement respect to the solution without this flange.

  10. An Evaluation of the Stimulus Equivalence Paradigm to Teach Single-Subject Design to Distance Education Students via Blackboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Brooke D.; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the degree to which instruction based on stimulus equivalence procedures could be used to teach single-subject design methodology to graduate-level professionals through a Web-based course management system known as Blackboard (see http://www.blackboard.com). Specifically, we used the stimulus…

  11. Social Skills Interventions for Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Description of Single-Subject Design Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Jennifer M.; Butler, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    Social skill development is one of the primary areas of intervention for young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The purpose of this article was to conduct a retrospective review of social skills intervention research for preschool children with ASD. A review of 17 single-subject design studies from twelve journals (1999-2006) was…

  12. Design and Subject Characteristics in the Federally-Funded Citalopram Trial in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scahill, Lawrence; McCracken, James T.; Bearss, Karen; Robinson, Fay; Hollander, Eric; King, Bryan; Bregman, Joel; Sikich, Lin; Dukes, Kimberly; Sullivan, Lisa; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Donnelly, Craig; Kim, Young-Shin; Ritz, Louise; Hirtz, Deborah; Wagner, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The Studies to Advance Autism Research and Treatment Network conducted a randomized trial with citalopram in children with Pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). We present the rationale, design and sample characteristics of the citalopram trial. Subjects (128 boys, 21 girls) had a mean age of 9.3 (plus or minus 3.12) years; 132 (88.6%) were…

  13. Designing a light fabric metamaterial being highly macroscopically tough under directional extension: first experimental evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    dell'Isola, Francesco; Lekszycki, Tomasz; Pawlikowski, Marek; Grygoruk, Roman; Greco, Leopoldo

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we study a metamaterial constructed with an isotropic material organized following a geometric structure which we call pantographic lattice. This relatively complex fabric was studied using a continuous model (which we call pantographic sheet) by Rivlin and Pipkin and includes two families of flexible fibers connected by internal pivots which are, in the reference configuration, orthogonal. A rectangular specimen having one side three times longer than the other is cut at 45° with respect to the fibers in reference configuration, and it is subjected to large-deformation plane-extension bias tests imposing a relative displacement of shorter sides. The continuum model used, the presented numerical models and the extraordinary advancements of the technology of 3D printing allowed for the design of some first experiments, whose preliminary results are shown and seem to be rather promising. Experimental evidence shows three distinct deformation regimes. In the first regime, the equilibrium total deformation energy depends quadratically on the relative displacement of terminal specimen sides: Applied resultant force depends linearly on relative displacement. In the second regime, the applied force varies nonlinearly on relative displacement, but the behavior remains elastic. In the third regime, damage phenomena start to occur until total failure, but the exerted resultant force continues to be increasing and reaches a value up to several times larger than the maximum shown in the linear regime before failure actually occurs. Moreover, the total energy needed to reach structural failure is larger than the maximum stored elastic energy. Finally, the volume occupied by the material in the fabric is a small fraction of the total volume, so that the ratio weight/resistance to extension is very advantageous. The results seem to require a refinement of the used theoretical and numerical methods to transform the presented concept into a promising technological

  14. Quantification of pore size distribution using diffusion NMR: experimental design and physical insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Yaniv; Nevo, Uri

    2014-04-28

    Pulsed field gradient (PFG) diffusion NMR experiments are sensitive to restricted diffusion within porous media and can thus reveal essential microstructural information about the confining geometry. Optimal design methods of inverse problems are designed to select preferred experimental settings to improve parameter estimation quality. However, in pore size distribution (PSD) estimation using NMR methods as in other ill-posed problems, optimal design strategies and criteria are scarce. We formulate here a new optimization framework for ill-posed problems. This framework is suitable for optimizing PFG experiments for probing geometries that are solvable by the Multiple Correlation Function approach. The framework is based on a heuristic methodology designed to select experimental sets which balance between lowering the inherent ill-posedness and increasing the NMR signal intensity. This method also selects favorable discrete pore sizes used for PSD estimation. Numerical simulations performed demonstrate that using this framework greatly improves the sensitivity of PFG experimental sets to the pores' sizes. The optimization also sheds light on significant features of the preferred experimental sets. Increasing the gradient strength and varying multiple experimental parameters is found to be preferable for reducing the ill-posedness. We further evaluate the amount of pore size information that can be obtained by wisely selecting the duration of the diffusion and mixing times. Finally, we discuss the ramification of using single PFG or double PFG sequences for PSD estimation. In conclusion, the above optimization method can serve as a useful tool for experimenters interested in quantifying PSDs of different specimens. Moreover, the applicability of the suggested optimization framework extends far beyond the field of PSD estimation in diffusion NMR, and reaches design of sampling schemes of other ill-posed problems.

  15. Educational Game Design. Bridging the gab between computer based learning and experimental learning environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristine

    2007-01-01

    Considering the rapidly growing amount of digital educational materials only few of them bridge the gab between experimental learning environments and computer based learning environments (Gardner, 1991). Observations from two cases in primary school and lower secondary school in the subject...... of home economics shows that problems in computer based learning occurs when the basis of the learning process changes from being hands-on experimental with the subject to being experienced through or with a computer. Some of the central problems in home economics are to force abstraction from...... with a prototype of a MOO storyline. The aim of the MOO storyline is to challenge the potential of dialogue, user involvement, and learning responsibility and to use the children?s natural curiosity and motivation for game playing, especially when digital games involves other children. The paper proposes a model...

  16. Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Web Opening Dimension on the Behavior of R/C Hybrid Deep T-Beam Subjected to Pure Torsion

    OpenAIRE

    Lisantono, Ade; Besari, Mohamad Sahari; Suhud, Ridwan; Biemo W Soemardi

    2004-01-01

    . An experimental study was conducted to investigate the effect of web opening dimension on the behavior of reinforced concrete hybrid deep T-beam subjected to pure torsion. Four reinforced concrete hybrid deep T-beams were tested under pure torsion, where the three beams with different dimension of circular web opening and the other beam without opening as a reference beam. The testing program and experimental results are presented. The results show that dimension of circular web opening wit...

  17. Predicting the ballistic strength of aramid fiber composites by implementing full factorial experimental design

    OpenAIRE

    Dimeski, Dimko; Srebrenkoska, Vineta

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to predict the ballistic strength of hard aramid fiber/phenolic ballistic composites by implementing the full factorial experimental design. When designing ballistic composites two major factors are the most important: the ballistic strength and the weight of the protection. The ultimate target is to achieve the required ballistic strength with the lowest possible weight of protection. The hard ballistic aramid/phenolic composites were made by open mold...

  18. Experimental Analyses for The Mechanical Behavior of Pressed All-Ceramic Molar Crowns with Anatomical Design

    OpenAIRE

    Porojan Liliana; Porojan Sorin; Rusu Lucian; Boloş Adrian; Savencu Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Ceramic restorations show considerable variation in strength and structural reliability regarding to the type of material, and design characteristics. The fracture of ceramics occurs with little or no plastic deformation, with cracks propagated in an unstable manner under applied tensile stresses. The aim of the study was to assess experimental analyses of pressed monolithic ceramic crowns with anatomical design used in the posterior areas in order to understand their mechanical behavior befo...

  19. Experimental Design and Validation of an Accelerated Random Vibration Fatigue Testing Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Jiang(Center for Statistical and Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua City, Zhejiang Province 321004, China); Gun Jin Yun; Li Zhao; Junyong Tao

    2015-01-01

    Novel accelerated random vibration fatigue test methodology and strategy are proposed, which can generate a design of the experimental test plan significantly reducing the test time and the sample size. Based on theoretical analysis and fatigue damage model, several groups of random vibration fatigue tests were designed and conducted with the aim of investigating effects of both Gaussian and non-Gaussian random excitation on the vibration fatigue. First, stress responses at a weak point of a ...

  20. Experimental Design for Hanford Low-Activity Waste Glasses with High Waste Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cooley, Scott K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Crum, Jarrod V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-24

    This report discusses the development of an experimental design for the initial phase of the Hanford low-activity waste (LAW) enhanced glass study. This report is based on a manuscript written for an applied statistics journal. Appendices A, B, and E include additional information relevant to the LAW enhanced glass experimental design that is not included in the journal manuscript. The glass composition experimental region is defined by single-component constraints (SCCs), linear multiple-component constraints (MCCs), and a nonlinear MCC involving 15 LAW glass components. Traditional methods and software for designing constrained mixture experiments with SCCs and linear MCCs are not directly applicable because of the nonlinear MCC. A modification of existing methodology to account for the nonlinear MCC was developed and is described in this report. One of the glass components, SO3, has a solubility limit in glass that depends on the composition of the balance of the glass. A goal was to design the experiment so that SO3 would not exceed its predicted solubility limit for any of the experimental glasses. The SO3 solubility limit had previously been modeled by a partial quadratic mixture model expressed in the relative proportions of the 14 other components. The partial quadratic mixture model was used to construct a nonlinear MCC in terms of all 15 components. In addition, there were SCCs and linear MCCs. This report describes how a layered design was generated to (i) account for the SCCs, linear MCCs, and nonlinear MCC and (ii) meet the goals of the study. A layered design consists of points on an outer layer, and inner layer, and a center point. There were 18 outer-layer glasses chosen using optimal experimental design software to augment 147 existing glass compositions that were within the LAW glass composition experimental region. Then 13 inner-layer glasses were chosen with the software to augment the existing and outer

  1. A Controlled Single Subject Research Design Utilizing a Sensory Motor Intervention System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowden, Joey

    The study investigated and recorded changes in selected psychomotor skills of an 11-year old gifted male with severe motoric problems identified as dysgraphia. A pre-post test design using videotape evaluation recordings was employed to determine changes in psychomotor performance, and a rating scale was designed to establish baseline and…

  2. Design of mechanically stabilized earth wall connections and end of walls subjected to seismic loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The 4th Edition of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications requires all states to design for a 1,000- : year return period earthquake, as opposed to earlier editions 500-year return period. In response to this : requirement, the Colorado Depa...

  3. On strength design using free material subjected to multiple load cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pauli; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2013-01-01

    Multiple load cases and the consideration of strength is a reality that most structural designs are exposed to. Improved possibility to produce specific materials, say by fiber lay-up, put focus on research on free material optimization. A formulation for such design problems together with a prac......Multiple load cases and the consideration of strength is a reality that most structural designs are exposed to. Improved possibility to produce specific materials, say by fiber lay-up, put focus on research on free material optimization. A formulation for such design problems together...... with a practical recursive design procedure is presented and illustrated with examples. The presented finite element analysis involve many elements as well as many load cases. Separating the local amount of material from a description with unit trace for the local anisotropy, gives the free materials formulation...

  4. A Tutorial on Computing Bayes Factors for Single-Subject Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Rivka M; Hartogs, Bregje M A; Morey, Richard D

    2015-11-01

    When researchers are interested in the effect of certain interventions on certain individuals, single-subject studies are often performed. In their most simple form, such single-subject studies require that a subject is measured on relevant criterion variables several times before an intervention and several times during or after the intervention. Scores from the two phases are then compared in order to investigate the intervention effect. Since observed scores typically consist of a mixture of true scores and random measurement error, simply looking at the difference in scores can be misleading. Hence, de Vries & Morey (2013) developed models and hypothesis tests for single-subject data, quantifying the evidence in data for the size and presence of an intervention effect. In this paper we give a non-technical overview of the models and hypothesis tests and show how they can be applied on real data using the BayesSingleSub R package, with the aid of an empirical data set. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Creating Single-Subject Design Graphs in Microsoft Excel[TM] 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark R.; Jackson, James W.; Small, Stacey L.; Horner-King, Mollie J.; Mui Ker Lik, Nicholas; Garcia, Yors; Rosales, Rocio

    2009-01-01

    Over 10 years have passed since the publication of Carr and Burkholder's (1998) technical article on how to construct single-subject graphs using Microsoft Excel. Over the course of the past decade, the Excel program has undergone a series of revisions that make the Carr and Burkholder paper somewhat difficult to follow with newer versions. The…

  6. The Structure of Subject Matter Content and Its Instructional Design Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigeluth, Charles M.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Four types of fundamental structures are briefly described and illustrated: the learning hierarchy, the procedural hierarchy, the taxonomy, and the model. Then a theoretical framework is presented for classifying types of subject matter content, and some implications of these content classifications are discussed. (VT)

  7. Within-Subject Comparison of Changes in a Pretest-Posttest Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Christian; Mullensiefen, Daniel; Bargmann, Jens

    2010-01-01

    The authors propose a method to compare the influence of a treatment on different properties within subjects. The properties are measured by several Likert-type-scaled items. The results show that many existing approaches, such as repeated measurement analysis of variance on sum and mean scores, a linear partial credit model, and a graded response…

  8. Subject Design and Factors Affecting Achievement in Mathematics for Biomedical Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnie, Steven; Morphett, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Reports such as Bio2010 emphasize the importance of integrating mathematical modelling skills into undergraduate biology and life science programmes, to ensure students have the skills and knowledge needed for biological research in the twenty-first century. One way to do this is by developing a dedicated mathematics subject to teach modelling and…

  9. A Meta-Analysis of Single Subject Design Writing Intervention Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Leslie Ann; Graham, Steve

    2008-01-01

    There is considerable concern that students do not develop the writing skills needed for school, occupational, or personal success. A frequent explanation for this is that schools do not do a good job of teaching this complex skill. A recent meta-analysis of true- and quasi-experimental writing intervention research (S. Graham & D. Perin,…

  10. Subjectivity in Design Education: The Perception of the City through Personal Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    Our mental maps related to the cities are limited by our personal perception and fragmented in the process. There are many inner and outer effects that shape our mental maps, and as a result the fragmented whole refers to the total city image in our minds. To represent this image, an experimental study has been conducted with a group of students.…

  11. Whither Instructional Design and Teacher Training? The Need for Experimental Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropper, George L.

    2015-01-01

    This article takes a contrarian position: an "instructional design" or "teacher training" model, because of the sheer number of its interconnected parameters, is too complex to assess or to compare with other models. Models may not be the way to go just yet. This article recommends instead prior experimental research on limited…

  12. The Impact of the Hawthorne Effect in Experimental Designs in Educational Research. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Desmond L.

    Project objectives included (1) establishing a body of knowledge concerning the role of the Hawthorne effect in experimental designs in educational research, (2) assessing the influence of the Hawthorne effect on educational experiments conducted under varying conditions of control, (3) identifying the major components comprising the effect, and…

  13. Sensitivity-based approach to optimal experimental design in a receptor trafficking and down regulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Fergal; Waterfall, Joshua; Gutenkunst, Ryan; Brown, Kevin; Myers, Christopher; Sethna, James

    2006-03-01

    We apply the ideas of optimal experimental design to systems biology models: minimizing a design criterion based on the average variance of predictions, we suggest new experiments that need to be performed to optimally test a given biological hypothesis. The estimated variance in predictions is derived from the sensitivities of protein and chemical species in the model to changes in reaction rates. The sensitivities also allow us to determine which interactions in the biological network dominate the system behavior. To test the design principles, we have developed a differential equation model incorporating the processes of endocytosis, recycling and degradation of activated epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor in a mammalian cell line. Recent experimental work has discovered mutant proteins that cause receptor accumulation and a prolonged growth signal. Our model is optimized to fit this mutant experimental data and wild type data for a variety of experimental conditions. Of biological interest is the effect on surface and internalized receptor levels after the overexpression or inactivation of regulator proteins in the network: the optimal design method allows us to fine tune the conditions to best predict the behavior of these unknown components of the system.

  14. 76 FR 28715 - Endangered and Threatened Species: Designation of a Nonessential Experimental Population for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... species O. mykiss. The common names of the non-anadromous, or resident, form are rainbow trout and redband... species of Pacific salmonid. These fish can be anadromous or freshwater residents, and under some... Species: Designation of a Nonessential Experimental Population for Middle Columbia River Steelhead Above...

  15. Guided-Inquiry Labs Using Bean Beetles for Teaching the Scientific Method & Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlueter, Mark A.; D'Costa, Allison R.

    2013-01-01

    Guided-inquiry lab activities with bean beetles ("Callosobruchus maculatus") teach students how to develop hypotheses, design experiments, identify experimental variables, collect and interpret data, and formulate conclusions. These activities provide students with real hands-on experiences and skills that reinforce their understanding of the…

  16. Combined application of mixture experimental design and artificial neural networks in the solid dispersion development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medarević, Djordje P; Kleinebudde, Peter; Djuriš, Jelena; Djurić, Zorica; Ibrić, Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    This study for the first time demonstrates combined application of mixture experimental design and artificial neural networks (ANNs) in the solid dispersions (SDs) development. Ternary carbamazepine-Soluplus®-poloxamer 188 SDs were prepared by solvent casting method to improve carbamazepine dissolution rate. The influence of the composition of prepared SDs on carbamazepine dissolution rate was evaluated using d-optimal mixture experimental design and multilayer perceptron ANNs. Physicochemical characterization proved the presence of the most stable carbamazepine polymorph III within the SD matrix. Ternary carbamazepine-Soluplus®-poloxamer 188 SDs significantly improved carbamazepine dissolution rate compared to pure drug. Models developed by ANNs and mixture experimental design well described the relationship between proportions of SD components and percentage of carbamazepine released after 10 (Q10) and 20 (Q20) min, wherein ANN model exhibit better predictability on test data set. Proportions of carbamazepine and poloxamer 188 exhibited the highest influence on carbamazepine release rate. The highest carbamazepine release rate was observed for SDs with the lowest proportions of carbamazepine and the highest proportions of poloxamer 188. ANNs and mixture experimental design can be used as powerful data modeling tools in the systematic development of SDs. Taking into account advantages and disadvantages of both techniques, their combined application should be encouraged.

  17. Optimization of the synthesis of 1-allyloxy-2-hydroxy-propyl-starch through statistical experimental design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbrechts, A.M.L.; Vermonden, T.; Bogaert, P.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Visser, G.M.; Boeriu, C.G.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis of 1-allyloxy-2-hydroxy-propyl starches was studied using a statistical experimental design approach. The etherification of two different granular maize starches with allyl glycidyl ether (AGE) in a heterogeneous alkaline suspension was investigated. The optimal reaction conditions

  18. Digital learning material for experimental design and model building in molecular biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aegerter-Wilmsen, T.

    2005-01-01

    Designing experimental approaches is a major cognitive skill in molecular biology research, and building models, including quantitative ones, is a cognitive skill which is rapidly gaining importance. Since molecular biology education at university level is aimed at educating future researchers, we

  19. Building upon the Experimental Design in Media Violence Research: The Importance of Including Receiver Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, W. James; Tomasello, Tami K.

    2003-01-01

    Argues that the inclusion of viewer interpretation variables in experimental design and analysis procedures can greatly increase the methodology's ability to explain variance. Focuses attention on the between-group differences, while an analysis of how individual participants interpret the cues in the stimulus material focused attention on the…

  20. Guided Inquiry in a Biochemistry Laboratory Course Improves Experimental Design Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodey, Nina M.; Talgar, Cigdem P.

    2016-01-01

    Many biochemistry laboratory courses expose students to laboratory techniques through pre-determined experiments in which students follow stepwise protocols provided by the instructor. This approach fails to provide students with sufficient opportunities to practice experimental design and critical thinking. Ten inquiry modules were created for a…

  1. A Course on Experimental Design for Different University Specialties: Experiences and Changes over a Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Luaces, Victor; Velazquez, Blanca; Dee, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    We analyse the origin and development of an Experimental Design course which has been taught in several faculties of the Universidad de la Republica and other institutions in Uruguay, over a 10-year period. At the end of the course, students were assessed by carrying out individual work projects on real-life problems, which was innovative for…

  2. Experimental design applied to the formulation of lipsticks with particular features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanotti, F; Masiello, S; Bader, S; Guarneri, M; Vojnovic, D

    1998-08-01

    In our work a non-classical experimental design was applied to obtain lipsticks endowed with particular characteristics. Our aim was to formulate lipsticks that leave a brilliant and shiny colour application and have a transparent look. The emollient substances and the waxes (consistency factors) were identified as the main variables of the system. A two phase experimental strategy was thought out: the optimal quantities of consistency factors were selected using a Doehlert experimental matrix, whereas the correct mixtures of emollients were determined using a Scheffé simplex-centroid design. These two design were combined and a set of 49 experiments was obtained. The experiments carried out allowed the definition of a zone of two phases in which the objectives were attained: the correct types and appropriate quantities of emollients and waxes were determined. To find a possible correlation between some mixtures and the lipsticks' sensorial behaviour, differential scanning calorimetry was used. These results, in addition to those obtained using the experimental design allowed us to select the best lipstick formula. (c) Rapid Science Ltd. 1998.

  3. Assessing longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) restoration after southern pine beetle kill using a compact experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.-P. Berrill; C.M. Dagley

    2010-01-01

    A compact experimental design and analysis is presented of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) survival and growth in a restoration project in the Piedmont region of Georgia, USA. Longleaf pine seedlings were planted after salvage logging and broadcast burning in areas of catastrophic southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) attacks on even-aged mixed pine-hardwood...

  4. Experimental Aeroelastic Models Design and Wind Tunnel Testing for Correlation with New Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Several examples of experimental model designs, wind tunnel tests and correlation with new theory are presented in this paper. The goal is not only to evaluate a new theory, new computational method or new aeroelastic phonomenon, but also to provide new insights into nonlinear aeroelastic phenomena, flutter, limit cycle oscillation (LCO and gust response.

  5. Thermodynamic model using experimental loss factors for dielectric elastomer actuator design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucking Bigué, J.-P.; Chouinard, P.; Denninger, M.; Proulx, S.; Plante, J.-S.

    2010-04-01

    Dielectric Elastomer Actuators (DEAs) are a promising actuation technology for mobile robotics due to their high forceto- weight ratio, their potential for high efficiencies, and their low cost. The preliminary design of such actuators requires a quick and precise assessment of actuator energy conversion performance. To do so, this paper proposes a simple thermodynamic model using experimentally acquired loss factors that predict actuator mechanical work, energy consumption, and efficiency when operating under constant voltage and constant charge modes. Mechanical and electrical loss factors for both VHB 4905 (acrylic) and Nusil's CF19-2186 (silicone) are obtained by mapping the performances of cone-shaped DEAs over a broad range of actuator speeds, capacitance ratios, and applied voltages. Extensive experimental results reveal the main performance trends to follow for preliminary actuator design, which are explained by the proposed model. For the tested conditions, the maximum experimental brake efficiencies are ~35% and ~25% for VHB and CF19-2186 respectively.

  6. Tailored skills training for practitioners to enhance assessment of prognostic factors for persistent and disabling back pain: four quasi-experimental single-subject studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmelmaier, Ingrid; Denison, Eva; Lindberg, Per; Åsenlöf, Pernilla

    2012-07-01

    The well-known gap between guidelines and behaviour in clinical practice calls for effective behaviour change interventions. One example showing this gap is physiotherapists' insufficient assessment of psychosocial prognostic factors in back pain (i.e., yellow flags). The present study aimed to evaluate an educational model by performing a tailored skills training intervention for caregivers and studying changes over time in physiotherapists' assessment of prognostic factors in telephone consultations. A quasi-experimental single-subject design over 36 weeks was used, with repeated measurements during baseline, intervention, and postintervention phases. Four physiotherapists in primary health care audiorecorded a total of 63 consultations with patients. The tailored intervention included individual goal setting, skills training, and feedback on performance. The primary outcome was the number of assessed prognostic factors (0-10). Changes were seen in all four participants. The amount of assessed prognostic factors increased from between 0 and 2 at baseline to between 6 and 10 at postintervention. Time spent on assessment of psychosocial factors increased, and time spent on discussions about biomedical pain symptoms decreased. Knowledge and biopsychosocial attitudes toward back pain were congruent with guidelines at inclusion and did not change markedly during the intervention. Self-efficacy for assessment of cognitive and emotional prognostic factors increased during the study phases. The results suggest that a tailored skills training intervention using behaviour change techniques, such as individual goal setting, skills training, and feedback on performance, is effective in producing change in specific clinical behaviours in physiotherapists.

  7. Design procedure for Bridge Foundations Subject to Liquefaction-Induced Lateral Spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    The response of piled bridge foundations to liquefaction-induced lateral soil deformation is an important design consideration in seismically active regions. Recent research and case history data suggest that three-dimensional deformation of the appr...

  8. Design, Simulation and Experimental Investigation of a Solar System Based on PV Panels and PVT Collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Buonomano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents numerical and experimental analyses aimed at evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of photovoltaic/thermal (PVT collectors. An experimental setup was purposely designed and constructed in order to compare the electrical performance of a PVT solar field with the one achieved by an identical solar field consisting of conventional photovoltaic (PV panels. The experimental analysis also aims at evaluating the potential advantages of PVT vs. PV in terms of enhancement of electrical efficiency and thermal energy production. The installed experimental set-up includes four flat polycrystalline silicon PV panels and four flat unglazed polycrystalline silicon PVT collectors. The total electrical power and area of the solar field are 2 kWe and 13 m2, respectively. The experimental set-up is currently installed at the company AV Project Ltd., located in Avellino (Italy. This study also analyzes the system from a numerical point of view, including a thermo-economic dynamic simulation model for the design and the assessment of energy performance and economic profitability of the solar systems consisting of glazed PVT and PV collectors. The experimental setup was modelled and partly simulated in TRNSYS environment. The simulation model was useful to analyze efficiencies and temperatures reached by such solar technologies, by taking into account the reference technology of PVTs (consisting of glazed collectors as well as to compare the numerical data obtained by dynamic simulations with the gathered experimental results for the PV technology. The numerical analysis shows that the PVT global efficiency is about 26%. Conversely, from the experimental point of view, the average thermal efficiency of PVT collectors is around 13% and the electrical efficiencies of both technologies are almost coincident and equal to 15%.

  9. Experimental Study on Subjective Evaluation for Visual Information by Event-Related Potential: Evaluation of Food and its Appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoshi Tanaka

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating subjective judgment for visual information by event-related potential (ERP quantitatively was studied. Pictures of food were displayed as visual information. And P300 component of the ERP was focused. The P300 is related to cognition and/or judgment, and has the latency in the range from 250 to 500 ms. As a fundamental study, the ERP was measured when subjectively judging food and its appearance by three-grade scale with the opinion “like”, “favorite” and “more favorite”. Sushi and cooked rice were selected as typical foods. And bottles which had almost the same shape without labels, but the colors were different, were used for an opinion test of the food appearance. Five pictures for each food were chosen by subjects before measurements. And no food which the subjects disliked was chosen because almost the same P300 amplitude appeared in both cases where the subjects judged as “like” and “dislike”. In results, the P300 amplitude by each subject's opinion was different, and the P300 area (surrounded by ERP waveform from the latency 250 to 500 ms became larger when the subjects judged as “more favorite”. These results indicate the feasibility of quantitative evaluation of subjective judgment by the ERP.

  10. Designing oversight for nanomedicine research in human subjects: systematic analysis of exceptional oversight for emerging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Susan M.; Jones, Cortney M.

    2011-04-01

    The basic procedures and rules for oversight of U.S. human subjects research have been in place since 1981. Certain types of human subjects research, however, have provoked creation of additional mechanisms and rules beyond the Department of Health & Human Services (DHHS) Common Rule and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) equivalent. Now another emerging domain of human subjects research—nanomedicine—is prompting calls for extra oversight. However, in 30 years of overseeing research on human beings, we have yet to specify what makes a domain of scientific research warrant extra oversight. This failure to systematically evaluate the need for extra measures, the type of extra measures appropriate for different challenges, and the usefulness of those measures hampers efforts to respond appropriately to emerging science such as nanomedicine. This article evaluates the history of extra oversight, extracting lessons for oversight of nanomedicine research in human beings. We argue that a confluence of factors supports the need for extra oversight, including heightened uncertainty regarding risks, fast-evolving science yielding complex and increasingly active materials, likelihood of research on vulnerable participants including cancer patients, and potential risks to others beyond the research participant. We suggest the essential elements of the extra oversight needed.

  11. Designing Oversight for Nanomedicine Research in Human Subjects: Systematic Analysis of Exceptional Oversight for Emerging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Susan M.; Jones, Cortney

    2012-01-01

    The basic procedures and rules for oversight of U.S. human subjects research have been in place since 1981. Certain types of human subjects research, however, have provoked creation of additional mechanisms and rules beyond the Department of Health & Human Services (DHHS) Common Rule and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) equivalent. Now another emerging domain of human subjects research—nanomedicine—is prompting calls for extra oversight. However, in 30 years of overseeing research on human beings, we have yet to specify what makes a domain of scientific research warrant extra oversight. This failure to systematically evaluate the need for extra measures, the type of extra measures appropriate for different challenges, and the usefulness of those measures hampers efforts to respond appropriately to emerging science such as nanomedicine. This article evaluates the history of extra oversight, extracting lessons for oversight of nanomedicine research in human beings. We argue that a confluence of factors supports the need for extra oversight, including heightened uncertainty regarding risks, fast-evolving science yielding complex and increasingly active materials, likelihood of research on vulnerable participants including cancer patients, and potential risks to others beyond the research participant. We suggest the essential elements of the extra oversight needed. PMID:23226969

  12. Fertilizer Response Curves for Commercial Southern Forest Species Defined with an Un-Replicated Experimental Design.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Mark; Aubrey, Doug; Coyle, David, R.; Daniels, Richard, F.

    2005-11-01

    There has been recent interest in use of non-replicated regression experimental designs in forestry, as the need for replication in experimental design is burdensome on limited research budgets. We wanted to determine the interacting effects of soil moisture and nutrient availability on the production of various southeastern forest trees (two clones of Populus deltoides, open pollinated Platanus occidentalis, Liquidambar styraciflua and Pinus taeda). Additionally, we required an understanding of the fertilizer response curve. To accomplish both objectives we developed a composite design that includes a core ANOVA approach to consider treatment interactions, with the addition of non-replicated regression plots receiving a range of fertilizer levels for the primary irrigation treatment.

  13. Experimental validation of systematically designed acoustic hyperbolic meta material slab exhibiting negative refraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Rasmus Ellebæk; Sigmund, Ole

    2016-01-01

    This Letter reports on the experimental validation of a two-dimensional acoustic hyperbolic metamaterial slab optimized to exhibit negative refractive behavior. The slab was designed using a topology optimization based systematic design method allowing for tailoring the refractive behavior....... The experimental results confirm the predicted refractive capability as well as the predicted transmission at an interface. The study simultaneously provides an estimate of the attenuation inside the slab stemming from the boundary layer effects—insight which can be utilized in the further design...... of the metamaterial slabs. The capability of tailoring the refractive behavior opens possibilities for different applications. For instance, a slab exhibiting zero refraction across a wide angular range is capable of funneling acoustic energy through it, while a material exhibiting the negative refractive behavior...

  14. Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) Task Loading Model (TLM) experimental and software detailed design report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staveland, Lowell

    1994-01-01

    This is the experimental and software detailed design report for the prototype task loading model (TLM) developed as part of the man-machine integration design and analysis system (MIDAS), as implemented and tested in phase 6 of the Army-NASA Aircrew/Aircraft Integration (A3I) Program. The A3I program is an exploratory development effort to advance the capabilities and use of computational representations of human performance and behavior in the design, synthesis, and analysis of manned systems. The MIDAS TLM computationally models the demands designs impose on operators to aide engineers in the conceptual design of aircraft crewstations. This report describes TLM and the results of a series of experiments which were run this phase to test its capabilities as a predictive task demand modeling tool. Specifically, it includes discussions of: the inputs and outputs of TLM, the theories underlying it, the results of the test experiments, the use of the TLM as both stand alone tool and part of a complete human operator simulation, and a brief introduction to the TLM software design.

  15. Design and Evaluation of Composite Fuselage Panels Subjected to Combined Loading Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambur, Damodar R.; Rouse, Marshall

    1998-01-01

    Methodologies used in industry for designing transport aircraft composite fuselage structures are discussed. Several aspects of the design methodologies are based on assumptions from metallic fuselage technology which requires that full-scale structures be tested with the actual loading conditions to validate the designs. Composite panels which represent crown and side regions of a fuselage structure are designed using this approach and tested in biaxial tension. Descriptions of the state-of-the-art test facilities used for this structural evaluation are presented. These facilities include a pressure-box test machine and a D-box test fixture in a combined loads test machine which are part of a Combined Loads Test System (COLTS). Nonlinear analysis results for a reference shell and a stiffened composite panel tested in the pressure-box test machine with and without damage are presented. The analytical and test results are compared to assess the ability of the pressure-box test machine to simulate a shell stress state with and without damage. A combined loads test machine for testing aircraft primary structures is described. This test machine includes a D-box test fixture to accommodate curved stiffened panels and the design features of this test fixture are presented. Finite element analysis results for a curved panel to be tested in the D-box test fixture are also discussed.

  16. Design and evaluation guidelines for Department of Energy facilities subjected to natural phenomena hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, R.P. (Structural Mechanics Consulting, Inc., Yorba Linda, CA (USA)); Short, S.A. (ABB Impell Corp., Mission Viejo, CA (USA)); McDonald, J.R. (Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (USA)); McCann, M.W. Jr. (Benjamin (J.R.) and Associates, Inc., Mountain View, CA (USA)); Murray, R.C. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Hill, J.R. (USDOE Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and He

    1990-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and the DOE Natural Phenomena Hazards Panel have developed uniform design and evaluation guidelines for protection against natural phenomena hazards at DOE sites throughout the United States. The goal of the guidelines is to assure that DOE facilities can withstand the effects of natural phenomena such as earthquakes, extreme winds, tornadoes, and flooding. The guidelines apply to both new facilities (design) and existing facilities (evaluation, modification, and upgrading). The intended audience is primarily the civil/structural or mechanical engineers conducting the design or evaluation of DOE facilities. The likelihood of occurrence of natural phenomena hazards at each DOE site has been evaluated by the DOE Natural Phenomena Hazard Program. Probabilistic hazard models are available for earthquake, extreme wind/tornado, and flood. Alternatively, site organizations are encouraged to develop site-specific hazard models utilizing the most recent information and techniques available. In this document, performance goals and natural hazard levels are expressed in probabilistic terms, and design and evaluation procedures are presented in deterministic terms. Design/evaluation procedures conform closely to common standard practices so that the procedures will be easily understood by most engineers. Performance goals are expressed in terms of structure or equipment damage to the extent that: (1) the facility cannot function; (2) the facility would need to be replaced; or (3) personnel are endangered. 82 refs., 12 figs., 18 tabs.

  17. An experimental school prototype: Integrating 3rs (reduce, reuse & recycle concept into architectural design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Seng Yeap

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors conducted a design project to examine the use of school as an ecological learning hub for children. Specifically, this study explores the ecological innovations that transform physical environment into three-dimensional textbooks for environmental education. A series of design workshops were carried out to gain interdisciplinary input for ecological school design. The findings suggest to integrate the concept of 3Rs (Reduce, Reuse & Recycle into the physical environment. As a result, an experimental school prototype is developed. It represents a series of recommendations that are rendered by novel ideas through the amalgamation of architecture, ecology and education. These findings promote the development of sustainable and interactive learning spaces through cross-disciplinary investigations in school architecture. Designers and practitioners interested in educational facilities design would find this article useful.

  18. Entropy-Based Experimental Design for Optimal Model Discrimination in the Geosciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Nowak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Choosing between competing models lies at the heart of scientific work, and is a frequent motivation for experimentation. Optimal experimental design (OD methods maximize the benefit of experiments towards a specified goal. We advance and demonstrate an OD approach to maximize the information gained towards model selection. We make use of so-called model choice indicators, which are random variables with an expected value equal to Bayesian model weights. Their uncertainty can be measured with Shannon entropy. Since the experimental data are still random variables in the planning phase of an experiment, we use mutual information (the expected reduction in Shannon entropy to quantify the information gained from a proposed experimental design. For implementation, we use the Preposterior Data Impact Assessor framework (PreDIA, because it is free of the lower-order approximations of mutual information often found in the geosciences. In comparison to other studies in statistics, our framework is not restricted to sequential design or to discrete-valued data, and it can handle measurement errors. As an application example, we optimize an experiment about the transport of contaminants in clay, featuring the problem of choosing between competing isotherms to describe sorption. We compare the results of optimizing towards maximum model discrimination with an alternative OD approach that minimizes the overall predictive uncertainty under model choice uncertainty.

  19. Application of iterative robust model-based optimal experimental design for the calibration of biocatalytic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Daele, Timothy; Gernaey, Krist V; Ringborg, Rolf H; Börner, Tim; Heintz, Søren; Van Hauwermeiren, Daan; Grey, Carl; Krühne, Ulrich; Adlercreutz, Patrick; Nopens, Ingmar

    2017-09-01

    The aim of model calibration is to estimate unique parameter values from available experimental data, here applied to a biocatalytic process. The traditional approach of first gathering data followed by performing a model calibration is inefficient, since the information gathered during experimentation is not actively used to optimize the experimental design. By applying an iterative robust model-based optimal experimental design, the limited amount of data collected is used to design additional informative experiments. The algorithm is used here to calibrate the initial reaction rate of an ω-transaminase catalyzed reaction in a more accurate way. The parameter confidence region estimated from the Fisher Information Matrix is compared with the likelihood confidence region, which is not only more accurate but also a computationally more expensive method. As a result, an important deviation between both approaches is found, confirming that linearization methods should be applied with care for nonlinear models. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:1278-1293, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  20. Optimization of Protease Production from Aspergillus Oryzae Sp. Using Box-Behnken Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Srinu Babu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Protease production by Aspergillus oryzae was optimized in shake-flask cultures using Box-Behnken experimental design. An empirical model was developed through response surface methodology to describe the relationship between tested variable (peptone, glucose, soyabeanmeal and pH. Maximum enzyme activity was attained with Peptone at 4 g∕L; temperature at 30 °C glucose at 6 g∕L; 30 °C and pH at 10. Experimental verification of the model showed a validation of 95%, which is more than 3-fold increase compare to the basal medium.

  1. A Comparison of Different Teaching Designs of "Acids and Bases" Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ültay, Neslihan; Çalik, Muammer

    2016-01-01

    Inability to link the acid-base concepts with daily life phenomena (as contexts) highlights the need for further research on the context-based acid-base chemistry. In this vein, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different teaching designs (REACT strategy, 5Es learning model and traditional (existing) instruction) relevant with…

  2. Effects of an Indicated Prevention Program for Preschoolers: A Single-Subject Design Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    ?tefan, Catrinel A.; Miclea, Mircea

    2015-01-01

    This study intended to assess the effectiveness of a multifocused indicated prevention program implemented in a community setting. The study was conducted on three (n?=?3) preschool children with low levels of social-emotional competencies and high rates of externalizing problems. Using a multiple baseline design, observational data were gathered…

  3. "That Tricky Subject": The Integration of Contextual Studies in Pre-Degree Art and Design Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rintoul, Jenny; James, David

    2017-01-01

    Contextual studies (CS), "theory", "visual culture" or "art history" (amongst other labels) refer to a regular and often compulsory feature in art and design education. However, this takes many forms and can sit in a variety of relationships with the practical elements of such courses. This article is based on mixed…

  4. Hybrid neural network model for the design of beam subjected to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MS received 25 September 2006; revised 8 March 2007. Abstract. There is no direct method for design of beams. In general the dimensions of the beam and reinforcement are initially assumed and then the interaction formula is used to verify the suitability of chosen dimensions. This approach necessitates few trials for ...

  5. Confidence intervals in within-subject designs: A simpler solution to Loftus and Masson's method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Cousineau

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Within-subject ANOVAs are a powerful tool to analyze data because the variance associated to differences between the participants is removed from the analysis. Hence, small differences, when present for most of the participants, can be significant even when the participants are very different from one another. Yet, graphs showing standard error or confidence interval bars are misleading since these bars include the between-subject variability. Loftus and Masson (1994 noticed this fact and proposed an alternate method to compute the error bars. However, i their approach requires that the ANOVA be performed first, which is paradoxical since a graph is an aid to decide whether to perform analyses or not; ii their method provides a single error bar for all the conditions, masking information such as the heterogeneity of variances across conditions; iii the method proposed is difficult to implement in commonly-used graphing software. Here we propose a simpler alternative and show how it can be implemented in SPSS.

  6. Overview of the TIBER 2 (Thermal Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor) design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, C. D.; Logan, B. G.

    1987-10-01

    The TIBER 2 Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor design is the result of efforts by numerous people and institutions, including many fusion laboratories, universities, and industries. While subsystems will be covered extensively in other reports, this overview will attempt to place the work in perspective. Major features of the design are compact size, low cost, and steady-state operation. These are achieved through plasma shaping and innovative features such as radiation tolerant magnets and optimized shielding. While TIBER 2 can operate in a pulsed mode, steady-state is preferred for nuclear testing. Current drive is achieved by a combination of lower hybrid and neutral beams. In addition, 10 MW of ECR is added for disruption control and current drive profiling. The TIBER 2 design has been the US option in preparation for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Other equivalent national designs are the NET in Europe, the FER in Japan and the OTR in the USSR. These designs will help set the basis for the new international design effort.

  7. Optimal experimental designs for estimating Henry's law constants via the method of phase ratio variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapelner, Adam; Krieger, Abba; Blanford, William J

    2016-10-14

    When measuring Henry's law constants (kH) using the phase ratio variation (PRV) method via headspace gas chromatography (GC), the value of kH of the compound under investigation is calculated from the ratio of the slope to the intercept of a linear regression of the inverse GC response versus the ratio of gas to liquid volumes of a series of vials drawn from the same parent solution. Thus, an experimenter collects measurements consisting of the independent variable (the gas/liquid volume ratio) and dependent variable (the GC-1 peak area). A review of the literature found that the common design is a simple uniform spacing of liquid volumes. We present an optimal experimental design which estimates kH with minimum error and provides multiple means for building confidence intervals for such estimates. We illustrate performance improvements of our design with an example measuring the kH for Naphthalene in aqueous solution as well as simulations on previous studies. Our designs are most applicable after a trial run defines the linear GC response and the linear phase ratio to the GC-1 region (where the PRV method is suitable) after which a practitioner can collect measurements in bulk. The designs can be easily computed using our open source software optDesignSlopeInt, an R package on CRAN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Experimental and numerical analyses of PCC overlays on PCC slabs-on-grade subjected to climatic loading

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Seong-Min; Kim Nelson, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    ... of bonded Portland cement concrete (PCC) overlays on PCC slabs-on-grade. Delamination is often due to an inadequacy in one (or more) pavement design variables: the pavement design, the Portland cement materials and mix design, the climatic conditions at the time of construction, and the methods of construction. This led the Federal Highway Ad...

  9. Experimental Design of Electrocoagulation and Magnetic Technology for Enhancing Suspended Solids Removal from Synthetic Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh Faiqun Ni'am

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Design of experiments (DOE is one of the statistical method that is used as a tool to enhance and improve experimental quality. The changes to the variables of a process or system is supposed to give the optimal result (response and quite satisfactory. Experimental design can defined as a test or series of test series by varying the input variables (factors of a process that can known to cause changes in output (response. This paper presents the results of experimental design of wastewater treatment by electrocoagulation (EC technique. A combined magnet and electrocoagulation (EC technology were designed to increase settling velocity and to enhance suspended solid removal efficiencies from wastewater samples. In this experiment, a synthetic wastewater samples were prepared by mixing 700 mg of the milk powder in one litre of water and treated by using an acidic buffer solution. The monopolar iron (Fe plate anodes and cathodes were employed as electrodes. Direct current was varied in a range of between 0.5 and 1.1 A, and flowrate in a range of between 1.00 to 3.50 mL/s. One permanent magnets namely AlNiCo with a magnetic strength of 0.16T was used in this experiment. The results show that the magnetic field and the flowrate have major influences on suspended solids removal. The efficiency removals of suspended solids, turbidity and COD removal efficiencies at optimum conditions were found to be more than 85%, 95%, and 75%, respectively.

  10. Intuitive web-based experimental design for high-throughput biomedical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Andreas; Kenar, Erhan; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Nahnsen, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Big data bioinformatics aims at drawing biological conclusions from huge and complex biological datasets. Added value from the analysis of big data, however, is only possible if the data is accompanied by accurate metadata annotation. Particularly in high-throughput experiments intelligent approaches are needed to keep track of the experimental design, including the conditions that are studied as well as information that might be interesting for failure analysis or further experiments in the future. In addition to the management of this information, means for an integrated design and interfaces for structured data annotation are urgently needed by researchers. Here, we propose a factor-based experimental design approach that enables scientists to easily create large-scale experiments with the help of a web-based system. We present a novel implementation of a web-based interface allowing the collection of arbitrary metadata. To exchange and edit information we provide a spreadsheet-based, humanly readable format. Subsequently, sample sheets with identifiers and metainformation for data generation facilities can be created. Data files created after measurement of the samples can be uploaded to a datastore, where they are automatically linked to the previously created experimental design model.

  11. A Bayesian active learning strategy for sequential experimental design in systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Edouard; Lajaunie, Christian; Vert, Jean-Philippe

    2014-09-26

    BackgroundDynamical models used in systems biology involve unknown kinetic parameters. Setting these parameters is a bottleneck in many modeling projects. This motivates the estimation of these parameters from empirical data. However, this estimation problem has its own difficulties, the most important one being strong ill-conditionedness. In this context, optimizing experiments to be conducted in order to better estimate a system¿s parameters provides a promising direction to alleviate the difficulty of the task.ResultsBorrowing ideas from Bayesian experimental design and active learning, we propose a new strategy for optimal experimental design in the context of kinetic parameter estimation in systems biology. We describe algorithmic choices that allow to implement this method in a computationally tractable way and make it fully automatic. Based on simulation, we show that it outperforms alternative baseline strategies, and demonstrate the benefit to consider multiple posterior modes of the likelihood landscape, as opposed to traditional schemes based on local and Gaussian approximations.ConclusionThis analysis demonstrates that our new, fully automatic Bayesian optimal experimental design strategy has the potential to support the design of experiments for kinetic parameter estimation in systems biology.

  12. Intuitive Web-Based Experimental Design for High-Throughput Biomedical Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Big data bioinformatics aims at drawing biological conclusions from huge and complex biological datasets. Added value from the analysis of big data, however, is only possible if the data is accompanied by accurate metadata annotation. Particularly in high-throughput experiments intelligent approaches are needed to keep track of the experimental design, including the conditions that are studied as well as information that might be interesting for failure analysis or further experiments in the future. In addition to the management of this information, means for an integrated design and interfaces for structured data annotation are urgently needed by researchers. Here, we propose a factor-based experimental design approach that enables scientists to easily create large-scale experiments with the help of a web-based system. We present a novel implementation of a web-based interface allowing the collection of arbitrary metadata. To exchange and edit information we provide a spreadsheet-based, humanly readable format. Subsequently, sample sheets with identifiers and metainformation for data generation facilities can be created. Data files created after measurement of the samples can be uploaded to a datastore, where they are automatically linked to the previously created experimental design model.

  13. Use of music during physical therapy intervention for an infant with Erb's palsy: a single-subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahlin, Mary; Cech, Donna; Rheault, Wendy; Stoecker, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Evidence supporting the use of music during pediatric physical therapy intervention is limited. The purpose of this single-subject design was to evaluate the effects of music on patient progress, the amount of crying during therapy, and parent satisfaction with physical therapy services. The subject was an infant girl with Erb's palsy who participated in this study from age 8 months to age 20 months. An A-B-A withdrawal single-subject design was used. The patient's progress was assessed by using the T.I.M.E. The amount of crying was documented in the Crying Log. A parent satisfaction questionnaire was administered three times over the course of the study. The subject's progress in the music intervention period increased on three of five primary subtests of the T.I.M.E. The amount of crying decreased and parent satisfaction increased when music was played during therapy. Music may be used by pediatric physical therapists to decrease the patient's crying, increase parent satisfaction, and possibly to increase the child's rate of progress. Further research conducted with a group of infants and toddlers may help generalize these findings to a wider patient population.

  14. Assessment of precast beam-column using capacity demand response spectrum subject to design basis earthquake and maximum considered earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Kay Dora Abd.; Tukiar, Mohd Azuan; Hamid, Nor Hayati Abdul

    2017-08-01

    Malaysia is surrounded by the tectonic feature of the Sumatera area which consists of two seismically active inter-plate boundaries, namely the Indo-Australian and the Eurasian Plates on the west and the Philippine Plates on the east. Hence, Malaysia experiences tremors from far distant earthquake occurring in Banda Aceh, Nias Island, Padang and other parts of Sumatera Indonesia. In order to predict the safety of precast buildings in Malaysia under near field ground motion the response spectrum analysis could be used for dealing with future earthquake whose specific nature is unknown. This paper aimed to develop of capacity demand response spectrum subject to Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) and Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) in order to assess the performance of precast beam column joint. From the capacity-demand response spectrum analysis, it can be concluded that the precast beam-column joints would not survive when subjected to earthquake excitation with surface-wave magnitude, Mw, of more than 5.5 Scale Richter (Type 1 spectra). This means that the beam-column joint which was designed using the current code of practice (BS8110) would be severely damaged when subjected to high earthquake excitation. The capacity-demand response spectrum analysis also shows that the precast beam-column joints in the prototype studied would be severely damaged when subjected to Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) with PGA=0.22g having a surface-wave magnitude of more than 5.5 Scale Richter, or Type 1 spectra.

  15. A better alternative to stratified permuted block design for subject randomization in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenle

    2014-12-30

    Stratified permuted block randomization has been the dominant covariate-adaptive randomization procedure in clinical trials for several decades. Its high probability of deterministic assignment and low capacity of covariate balancing have been well recognized. The popularity of this sub-optimal method is largely due to its simplicity in implementation and the lack of better alternatives. Proposed in this paper is a two-stage covariate-adaptive randomization procedure that uses the block urn design or the big stick design in stage one to restrict the treatment imbalance within each covariate stratum, and uses the biased-coin minimization method in stage two to control imbalances in the distribution of additional covariates that are not included in the stratification algorithm. Analytical and simulation results show that the new randomization procedure significantly reduces the probability of deterministic assignments, and improve the covariate balancing capacity when compared to the traditional stratified permuted block randomization. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Radiation field control at the latest BWR plants -- design principle, operational experience and future subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Shunsuke [Energy Research Lab., Ibaraki (Japan); Ohsumi, Katsumi; Takashima, Yoshie [Hitachi Works, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    Improvements of operational procedures to control water chemistry, e.g., nickel/iron control, as well as application of hardware improvements for reducing radioactive corrosion products resulted in an extremely low occupational exposure of less than 0.5 man.Sv/yr without any serious impact on the radwaste system, for BWR plants involved in the Japanese Improvement and Standardization Program. Recently, {sup 60}C radioactively in the reactor water has been increasing due to less crud fixation on the two smooth surfaces of new type high performance fuels and to the pH drop caused by chromium oxide anions released from stainless steel structures and pipings. This increase must be limited by changes in water chemistry, e.g., applications of modified nickel/iron ratio control and weak alkali control. Controlled water chemistry to optimize three points, the plant radiation level and integrities of fuel and structural materials, is the primary future subject for BWR water chemistry.

  17. Observer Design for One-Sided Lipschitz Nonlinear Systems Subject to Measurement Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohaira Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel nonlinear observer-design approach to one-sided Lipschitz nonlinear systems in the presence of output delays. The crux of the approach is to overcome the practical consequences of time delays, encountered due to distant sensor position and time lag in measurement, for estimation of physical and engineering nonlinear system states. A Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional is employed, the time derivative of which is solved using Jensen’s inequality, one-sided Lipschitz condition, and quadratic inner-boundedness, and, accordingly, design conditions for delay-range-dependent nonlinear observer for delayed one-sided Lipschitz systems are derived. Further, novel solutions to the problems of delay-dependent observer synthesis of one-sided Lipschitz models and delay-range-dependent state estimation of linear and Lipschitz nonlinear systems are deduced from the present delay-range-dependent technique. An observer formulation methodology for retrieval of one-sided Lipschitz nonlinear-system states, which is robust against L2 norm-bounded perturbations, is devised. The resultant design conditions, in contrast to the conventional procedures, can be solved via less conservative linear matrix inequality- (LMI- based routines that succeed by virtue of additional LMI variables, meaningful transformations, and cone complementary linearization algorithm. Numerical examples are worked out to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed observer-synthesis approach for delayed one-sided Lipschitz systems.

  18. An experimental design for assessing the genetic diversity of colonial waterbirds from the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIORPAC Mitica

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The extensive wetland complex of the Danube Delta provides internationally important stopover sites and breeding sites for millions of migratory birds. Worldwide, natural wetlands are facing an accelerated decline due to the increased urbanization and conversion of open spaces to agriculture. The Danube Delta is no exception, being subject to anthropogenic factors that affect this wildlife hotspot, in spite of considerable conservation efforts. Despite numerous studies focused on Danube Delta waterbird particularities, knowledge of them is limited and highly fragmented. To provide a framework for assessing colonial waterbird populations from the Danube Delta, we developed a comprehensive experimental design to answer existing questions regarding genetic diversity, genetic discontinuities and the degree of genetic differentiation. This paper describes a study which overlaps landscape genetics principles and a small genetic survey in order to provide a feasible framework for studying colonial waterbirds from the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve

  19. Engineering at SLAC: Designing and constructing experimental devices for the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource - Final Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djang, Austin [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-22

    Thanks to the versatility of the beam lines at SSRL, research there is varied and benefits multiple fields. Each experiment requires a particular set of experiment equipment, which in turns requires its own particular assembly. As such, new engineering challenges arise from each new experiment. My role as an engineering intern has been to help solve these challenges, by designing and assembling experimental devices. My first project was to design a heated sample holder, which will be used to investigate the effect of temperature on a sample's x-ray diffraction pattern. My second project was to help set up an imaging test, which involved designing a cooled grating holder and assembling multiple positioning stages. My third project was designing a 3D-printed pencil holder for the SSRL workstations.

  20. Design and analysis of a high pressure and high temperature sulfuric acid experimental system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung-Deok, E-mail: sdhong1@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chan-Soo; Kim, Yong-Wan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Dong-Un; Park, Goon-Cherl [Seoul National University, San56-1, Sillim-Dong, Kwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    We discuss the design and analysis of a small scale sulfuric acid experimental system that can simulate a part of the hydrogen production module. Because nuclear hydrogen coupled components such as a SO{sub 3} decomposer and a sulfuric acid evaporator should be tested under high pressure and high temperature operating conditions, we developed the sulfuric acid loop to satisfy design specifications of 900 Degree-Sign C in temperature and 1.0 MPa in pressure. The components for the sulfuric acid loop were specially designed using a combination of materials with good corrosion resistance; a ceramic and Hastelloy-C276. The design feature of the loop was tested for performance in a 10 h sulfuric acid experiment and optimized using Aspen+ code simulation.

  1. Experimental Design and Data Analysis of In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ying; Lin, Hui-Min

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to provide researchers who conduct in vivo fluorescence imaging studies with guidance in statistical aspects in the experimental design and data analysis of such studies. In the first half of this chapter, we introduce the key statistical components for designing a sound in vivo experiment. Particular emphasis is placed on the issues and designs that pertain to fluorescence imaging studies. Examples representing several popular types of fluorescence imaging experiments are provided as case studies to demonstrate how to appropriately design such studies. In the second half of this chapter, we explain the fundamental statistical concepts and methods used in the data analysis of typical in vivo experiments. We also provide specific examples in in vivo imaging studies to illustrate the key steps of analysis procedure.

  2. A Sino-Finnish initiative for experimental teaching practices using the Design Factory pedagogical platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Tua A.; Nordström, Katrina M.; Clavert, Maria

    2013-10-01

    The paper presents a Sino-Finnish teaching initiative, including the design and experiences of a series of pedagogical workshops implemented at the Aalto-Tongji Design Factory (DF), Shanghai, China, and the experimentation plans collected from the 54 attending professors and teachers. The workshops aimed to encourage trying out interdisciplinary hands-on teaching, and enable teachers to implement their ideas for teaching development utilising the DF pedagogical platform. The majority of the participants planned teaching experimentations aiming at enhancing student understanding of curricula through various group exercises utilising concrete artefacts, but found their implementation within established practices quite challenging, highlighting the challenges of transforming strategic collaboration into grass-root activity. However, the workshops ignited widespread interest in a continuum of collaboration in teaching development, and the DF has since acted as a hub for the implementation of subsequent internationalisation efforts of the two universities, including establishing a dual-degree programme.

  3. Increased performance in a bottom-up designed robot by experimentally guided redesign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jørgen Christian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Using a bottom-up, model-free approach when building robots is often seen as a less scientific way, compared to a top-down model-based approach, because the results are not easily generalizable to other systems. The authors, however, hypothesize that this problem may be addressed by using...... solid experimental methods. The purpose of this paper is to show how well-known experimental methods from bio-mechanics are used to measure and locate weaknesses in a bottom-up, model-free implementation of a quadruped walker and come up with a better solution. Design/methodology/approach – To study...... the bottom-up, mode-free approach, the authors used the robotic construction kit, LocoKit. This construction kit allows researchers to construct legged robots, without having a mathematical model beforehand. The authors used no specific mathematical model to design the robot, but instead used intuition...

  4. Self-healing in segmented metallized film capacitors: Experimental and theoretical investigations for engineering design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belko, V. O.; Emelyanov, O. A.

    2016-01-01

    A significant increase in the efficiency of modern metallized film capacitors has been achieved by the application of special segmented nanometer-thick electrodes. The proper design of the electrode segmentation guarantees the best efficiency of the capacitor's self-healing (SH) ability. Meanwhile, the reported theoretical and experimental results have not led to the commonly accepted model of the SH process, since the experimental SH dissipated energy value is several times higher than the calculated one. In this paper, we show that the difference is caused by the heat outflow into polymer film. Based on this, a mathematical model of the metallized electrode destruction is developed. These insights in turn are leading to a better understanding of the SH development. The adequacy of the model is confirmed by both the experiments and the numerical calculations. A procedure of optimal segmented electrode design is offered.

  5. Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Mufflers with Comments on Engine-Exhaust Muffler Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Don D , Jr; Stokes, George M; Moore, Dewey; Stevens, George L , Jr

    1954-01-01

    Equations are presented for the attenuation characteristics of single-chamber and multiple-chamber mufflers of both the expansion-chamber and resonator types, for tuned side-branch tubes, and for the combination of an expansion chamber with a resonator. Experimental curves of attenuation plotted against frequency are presented for 77 different mufflers with a reflection-free tailpipe termination. The experiments were made at room temperature without flow; the sound source was a loud-speaker. A method is given for including the tailpipe reflections in the calculations. Experimental attenuation curves are presented for four different muffler-tailpipe combinations, and the results are compared with the theory. The application of the theory to the design of engine-exhaust mufflers is discussed, and charts are included for the assistance of the designer.

  6. Towards an optimal experimental design for N2O model calibration during biological nitrogen removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domingo Felez, Carlos; Valverde Pérez, Borja; Plósz, Benedek G.

    Process models describing nitrous oxide (N2O) production during biological nitrogen removal allow for the development of mitigation strategies of this potent greenhouse gas. N2O is an intermediate of nitrogen removal, hence its prediction is negatively affected by the uncertainty associated to its...... substrates. Improving experimental designs for model calibration reduces prediction uncertainties. Moreover, the individual analysis of autotrophic and heterotrophic contribution to the total NO and N2O pool was assessed for already proposed model structures under different experimental scenarios....... The results show the need for information-rich experiemental designs to assess the predicting capabilities of N2O models. This work represents a step further in understanding the N2O production and emissions associated to conventional wastewater treatment. Moreovere, it will facilitate the development...

  7. The Impact of Diagnostic Code Misclassification on Optimizing the Experimental Design of Genetic Association Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Schrodi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic codes within electronic health record systems can vary widely in accuracy. It has been noted that the number of instances of a particular diagnostic code monotonically increases with the accuracy of disease phenotype classification. As a growing number of health system databases become linked with genomic data, it is critically important to understand the effect of this misclassification on the power of genetic association studies. Here, I investigate the impact of this diagnostic code misclassification on the power of genetic association studies with the aim to better inform experimental designs using health informatics data. The trade-off between (i reduced misclassification rates from utilizing additional instances of a diagnostic code per individual and (ii the resulting smaller sample size is explored, and general rules are presented to improve experimental designs.

  8. Experimental design and analysis for accelerated degradation tests with Li-ion cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doughty, Daniel Harvey; Thomas, Edward Victor; Jungst, Rudolph George; Roth, Emanuel Peter

    2003-08-01

    This document describes a general protocol (involving both experimental and data analytic aspects) that is designed to be a roadmap for rapidly obtaining a useful assessment of the average lifetime (at some specified use conditions) that might be expected from cells of a particular design. The proposed experimental protocol involves a series of accelerated degradation experiments. Through the acquisition of degradation data over time specified by the experimental protocol, an unambiguous assessment of the effects of accelerating factors (e.g., temperature and state of charge) on various measures of the health of a cell (e.g., power fade and capacity fade) will result. In order to assess cell lifetime, it is necessary to develop a model that accurately predicts degradation over a range of the experimental factors. In general, it is difficult to specify an appropriate model form without some preliminary analysis of the data. Nevertheless, assuming that the aging phenomenon relates to a chemical reaction with simple first-order rate kinetics, a data analysis protocol is also provided to construct a useful model that relates performance degradation to the levels of the accelerating factors. This model can then be used to make an accurate assessment of the average cell lifetime. The proposed experimental and data analysis protocols are illustrated with a case study involving the effects of accelerated aging on the power output from Gen-2 cells. For this case study, inadequacies of the simple first-order kinetics model were observed. However, a more complex model allowing for the effects of two concurrent mechanisms provided an accurate representation of the experimental data.

  9. Design of Passive Acoustic Wave Shaping Devices and Their Experimental Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Rasmus Ellebæk; Sigmund, Ole; Fernandez Grande, Efren

    We discuss a topology optimization based approach for designing passive acoustic wave shaping devices and demonstrate its application to; directional sound emission [1], sound focusing and wave splitting. Optimized devices, numerical and experimental results are presented and benchmarked against...... by the Helmholtz equation. An exterior 2D model domain is used and an array of point sources is considered as sound emitters. The optimization goal is to identify a distribution of solid material in a design sub-domain which produces a desired spatial sound feld pattern across a frequency band of interest...

  10. An Effective Experimental Optimization Method for Wireless Power Transfer System Design Using Frequency Domain Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangyeong Jeong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an experimental optimization method for a wireless power transfer (WPT system. The power transfer characteristics of a WPT system with arbitrary loads and various types of coupling and compensation networks can be extracted by frequency domain measurements. The various performance parameters of the WPT system, such as input real/imaginary/apparent power, power factor, efficiency, output power and voltage gain, can be accurately extracted in a frequency domain by a single passive measurement. Subsequently, the design parameters can be efficiently tuned by separating the overall design steps into two parts. The extracted performance parameters of the WPT system were validated with time-domain experiments.

  11. Design, Analysis, Prototyping, and Experimental Evaluation of an Efficient Double Coil Magnetorheological Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoliang Hu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A double coil magnetorheological (MR valve with an outer annular resistance gap was designed and prototyped. The finite element modeling and analysis of double coil MR valve were carried out using ANSYS/Emag software, and the optimal magnetic field distribution and magnetic flux density of the double coil MR valve were achieved. The mechanism of the pressure drop was studied by building a mathematical model of pressure drop in the double coil MR valve. The proposed double coil MR valve was prototyped and its performance was experimentally evaluated. The new MR valve design has improved the efficiency of double coil MR valve significantly.

  12. Performance of Different Experimental Absorber Designs in Absorption Heat Pump Cycle Technologies: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Ibarra-Bahena

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The absorber is a major component of absorption cycle systems, and its performance directly impacts the overall size and energy supplies of these devices. Absorption cooling and heating cycles have different absorber design requirements: in absorption cooling systems, the absorber works close to ambient temperature, therefore, the mass transfer is the most important phenomenon in order to reduce the generator size; on the other hand, in heat transformer absorption systems, is important to recover the heat delivered by exothermic reactions produced in the absorber. In this paper a review of the main experimental results of different absorber designs reported in absorption heat pump cycles is presented.

  13. Optimizing laboratory animal stress paradigms: The H-H* experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Major advances in behavioral neuroscience have been facilitated by the development of consistent and highly reproducible experimental paradigms that have been widely adopted. In contrast, many different experimental approaches have been employed to expose laboratory mice and rats to acute versus chronic intermittent stress. An argument is advanced in this review that more consistent approaches to the design of chronic intermittent stress experiments would provide greater reproducibility of results across laboratories and greater reliability relating to various neural, endocrine, immune, genetic, and behavioral adaptations. As an example, the H-H* experimental design incorporates control, homotypic (H), and heterotypic (H*) groups and allows for comparisons across groups, where each animal is exposed to the same stressor, but that stressor has vastly different biological and behavioral effects depending upon each animal's prior stress history. Implementation of the H-H* experimental paradigm makes possible a delineation of transcriptional changes and neural, endocrine, and immune pathways that are activated in precisely defined stressor contexts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Life on rock. Scaling down biological weathering in a new experimental design at Biosphere-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharescu, D. G.; Dontsova, K.; Burghelea, C. I.; Chorover, J.; Maier, R.; Perdrial, J. N.

    2012-12-01

    Biological colonization and weathering of bedrock on Earth is a major driver of landscape and ecosystem development, its effects reaching out into other major systems such climate and geochemical cycles of elements. In order to understand how microbe-plant-mycorrhizae communities interact with bedrock in the first phases of mineral weathering we developed a novel experimental design in the Desert Biome at Biosphere-2, University of Arizona (U.S.A). This presentation will focus on the development of the experimental setup. Briefly, six enclosed modules were designed to hold 288 experimental columns that will accommodate 4 rock types and 6 biological treatments. Each module is developed on 3 levels. A lower volume, able to withstand the weight of both, rock material and the rest of the structure, accommodates the sampling elements. A middle volume, houses the experimental columns in a dark chamber. A clear, upper section forms the habitat exposed to sunlight. This volume is completely sealed form exterior and it allows a complete control of its air and water parameters. All modules are connected in parallel with a double air purification system that delivers a permanent air flow. This setup is expected to provide a model experiment, able to test important processes in the interaction rock-life at grain-to- molecular scale.

  15. Advanced Laboratory at Texas State University: Error Analysis, Experimental Design, and Research Experience for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventrice, Carl

    2009-04-01

    Physics is an experimental science. In other words, all physical laws are based on experimentally observable phenomena. Therefore, it is important that all physics students have an understanding of the limitations of certain experimental techniques and the associated errors associated with a particular measurement. The students in the Advanced Laboratory class at Texas State perform three detailed laboratory experiments during the semester and give an oral presentation at the end of the semester on a scientific topic of their choosing. The laboratory reports are written in the format of a ``Physical Review'' journal article. The experiments are chosen to give the students a detailed background in error analysis and experimental design. For instance, the first experiment performed in the spring 2009 semester is entitled Measurement of the local acceleration due to gravity in the RFM Technology and Physics Building. The goal of this experiment is to design and construct an instrument that is to be used to measure the local gravitational field in the Physics Building to an accuracy of ±0.005 m/s^2. In addition, at least one of the experiments chosen each semester involves the use of the research facilities within the physics department (e.g., microfabrication clean room, surface science lab, thin films lab, etc.), which gives the students experience working in a research environment.

  16. Optimization Of Freeze-Dried Starter For Yogurt By Full Factorial Experimental Design

    OpenAIRE

    Chen He; Niu Jinfeng; Shu Guowei; Wan Hongchang

    2015-01-01

    With the rapidly development of fermented milk product, it is significant for enhancing the performance of starter culture. This paper not only investigated the influence of anti-freeze factors and freeze-drying protective agents on viable count, freeze-drying survival rate and yield of Lactobacillus bulgaricus (LB) and Streptococcus thermophilus (ST), but also optimized the bacteria proportion of freeze-dried starter culture for yogurt by full factorial experimental design. The results showe...

  17. Design and Implementation of a Control System for Testing an Experimental Electrical Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Bermejo, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    The Research Institute of Vehicle Engines and Automotive Engineering (IVK) at the University of Stuttgart is developing an experimental electric vehicle. With that vehicle different research topics in the scope of e-mobility will be investigated. Some of these topics are range prediction and optimization issues, adapted control of inverter and electric motor, as well as, different battery charging techniques. The aim of this master thesis is to design and to implement the contr...

  18. Design of an experimental setup for hydro-kinetic energy conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Grabbe, Mårten; Yuen, Katarina; Goude, Anders; Lalander, Emilia; Leijon, Mats

    2009-01-01

    A hydro-kinetic energy project has been underway in Sweden since 2000, and an in-stream prototype setup for experiments at a site in a Swedish river is now in progress. The system comprises a vertical axis turbine and a directly driven permanent magnet generator. Methods and choices used in designing the system are described here. The turbine and generator are evaluated based on measurements and CFD simulations of conditions at the site for the experimental setup.

  19. Chemometrics in analytical chemistry-part I: history, experimental design and data analysis tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brereton, Richard G; Jansen, Jeroen; Lopes, João; Marini, Federico; Pomerantsev, Alexey; Rodionova, Oxana; Roger, Jean Michel; Walczak, Beata; Tauler, Romà

    2017-10-01

    Chemometrics has achieved major recognition and progress in the analytical chemistry field. In the first part of this tutorial, major achievements and contributions of chemometrics to some of the more important stages of the analytical process, like experimental design, sampling, and data analysis (including data pretreatment and fusion), are summarised. The tutorial is intended to give a general updated overview of the chemometrics field to further contribute to its dissemination and promotion in analytical chemistry.

  20. Bicycle saddle pressure: effects of trunk position and saddle design on healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpes, Felipe Pivetta; Dagnese, Frederico; Kleinpaul, Julio Francisco; Martins, Elisandro de Assis; Mota, Carlos Bolli

    2009-01-01

    There is a common belief that seat pressure during cycling can compress specific neurovascular tissues over the perineum leading to genital pathologies. This topic has seldom been discussed for women. The present study was conducted to verify the effect of trunk position and saddle design on saddle pressure in both men and women. Recreational cyclists (11 men and 11 women) were evaluated while seated on a bicycle. Saddle pressure was measured with F-scan insoles adapted for two saddle models (with and without a hole), and two trunk positions (upright and forwards). Pressure values were compared between trunk positions and saddles employing ANOVA. There were no statistical differences comparing saddle pressure between the two trunk positions for women. For men a statistical difference between the trunk positions for the saddle with a hole was found. Thus, the trunk forwards shift seems to affect the values of saddle pressure only for men using the 'holed' saddle. Saddle pressure for men was influenced by saddle design and trunk position only. This result indicates that the masculine anatomy may influence saddle pressure during bicycle. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Numerical and experimental hydrodynamic analysis of suction cup bio-logging tag designs for marine mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Mark; Shorter, Alex; Howle, Laurens; Johnson, Mark; Moore, Michael

    2012-11-01

    The improvement and miniaturization of sensing technologies has made bio-logging tags, utilized for the study of marine mammal behavior, more practical. These sophisticated sensing packages require a housing which protects the electronics from the environment and provides a means of attachment to the animal. The hydrodynamic forces on these housings can inadvertently remove the tag or adversely affect the behavior or energetics of the animal. A modification to the original design of a suction cup bio-logging tag housing was desired to minimize the adverse forces. In this work, hydrodynamic loading of two suction cup tag designs, original and modified designs, were analyzed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models and validated experimentally. Overall, the simulation and experimental results demonstrated that a tag housing that minimized geometric disruptions to the flow reduced drag forces, and that a tag housing with a small frontal cross-sectional area close to the attachment surface reduced lift forces. Preliminary results from experimental work with a common dolphin cadaver indicates that the suction cups used to attach the tags to the animal provide sufficient attachment force to resist failure at predicted drag and lift forces in 10 m/s flow.

  2. Italy-Japan international project-based learning for developing human resources using design of welfare equipment as a subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafusa, A; Komeda, T; Ito, K; Zobel, P Beomonte

    2015-08-01

    Project-based learning (PBL) is effective for developing human resources of young students. The design of welfare equipment, such as wheelchairs and gait assistive devices, is taken as the subject in this study because these devices must be fit to their environment, users, and method of use; students must consider the circumstances of each country concerned. The program commenced in 2012 at L'Aquila, Italy, and the Shibaura Institute of Technology, Japan and has been continuing for three years. Students were divided into four groups and discussions were held on how to adapt the equipment to the user and environment. After discussion, they designed and simulated a model of the equipment using CAD. Finally, they presented their designs to each other. Through the program, students had fruitful discussions, exchanged ideas from different cultures, and learned from each other. Furthermore, friendships among the students were nurtured. It is believed that the objective of the program was satisfactorily accomplished.

  3. An evaluation of the stimulus equivalence paradigm to teach single-subject design to distance education students via Blackboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Brooke D; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the degree to which instruction based on stimulus equivalence procedures could be used to teach single-subject design methodology to graduate-level professionals through a Web-based course management system known as Blackboard (see http://www.blackboard.com). Specifically, we used the stimulus equivalence paradigm to teach relations among the names, definitions, graphical representations of the designs, and two practical scenarios of when it would be appropriate to implement each design. Most participants demonstrated the emergence of untaught relations, and some participants showed generalization to novel vignettes and graphs. Relations largely were not maintained at follow-up but were retaught.

  4. Optimization Design of Structures Subjected to Transient Loads Using First and Second Derivatives of Dynamic Displacement and Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qimao Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper developed an effective optimization method, i.e., gradient-Hessian matrix-based method or second order method, of frame structures subjected to the transient loads. An algorithm of first and second derivatives of dynamic displacement and stress with respect to design variables is formulated based on the Newmark method. The inequality time-dependent constraint problem is converted into a sequence of appropriately formed time-independent unconstrained problems using the integral interior point penalty function method. The gradient and Hessian matrixes of the integral interior point penalty functions are also computed. Then the Marquardt's method is employed to solve unconstrained problems. The numerical results show that the optimal design method proposed in this paper can obtain the local optimum design of frame structures and sometimes is more efficient than the augmented Lagrange multiplier method.

  5. Advanced computational tools for PEM fuel cell design. Part 2. Detailed experimental validation and parametric study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, P. C.; Kumar, S.; Djilali, N.

    This paper reports on the systematic experimental validation of a comprehensive 3D CFD-based computational model presented and documented in Part 1. Simulations for unit cells with straight channels, similar to the Ballard Mk902 hardware, are performed and analyzed in conjunction with detailed current mapping measurements and water mass distributions in the membrane-electrode assembly. The experiments were designed to display sensitivity of the cell over a range of operating parameters including current density, humidification, and coolant temperature, making the data particularly well suited for systematic validation. Based on the validation and analysis of the predictions, values of model parameters, including the electro-osmotic drag coefficient, capillary diffusion coefficient, and catalyst specific surface area are determined adjusted to fit experimental data of current density and MEA water content. The predicted net water flux out of the anode (normalized by the total water generated) increases as anode humidification water flow rate is increased, in agreement with experimental results. A modification of the constitutive equation for the capillary diffusivity of water in the porous electrodes that attempts to incorporate the experimentally observed immobile (or irreducible) saturation yields a better fit of the predicted MEA water mass with experimental data. The specific surface area parameter used in the catalyst layer model is found to be effective in tuning the simulations to predict the correct cell voltage over a range of stoichiometries.

  6. Density profile and cholesterol concentration of serum lipoproteins in experimental animals and human subjects on hypercholesterolaemic diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beynen, A.C.; Terpstra, A.H.M.

    1984-01-01

    1. 1. The density profile of Sudan black stained serum lipoproteins was studied in human subjects and various animal species on diets supplemented with cholesterol. 2. 2. In the animals studied (rabbits, calves, mice, chickens, rats and guinea-pigs), the feeding of cholesterol resulted in an

  7. Experimental Testing of Monopiles in Sand Subjected to One-Way Long-Term Cyclic Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2013-01-01

    In the offshore wind turbine industry the most widely used foundation type is the monopile. Due to the wave and wind forces the monopile is subjected to a strong cyclic loading with varying amplitude, maximum loading level, and varying loading period. In this paper the soil–pile interaction...

  8. Experimental design for efficient identification of gene regulatory networks using sparse Bayesian models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuda Koji

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying large gene regulatory networks is an important task, while the acquisition of data through perturbation experiments (e.g., gene switches, RNAi, heterozygotes is expensive. It is thus desirable to use an identification method that effectively incorporates available prior knowledge – such as sparse connectivity – and that allows to design experiments such that maximal information is gained from each one. Results Our main contributions are twofold: a method for consistent inference of network structure is provided, incorporating prior knowledge about sparse connectivity. The algorithm is time efficient and robust to violations of model assumptions. Moreover, we show how to use it for optimal experimental design, reducing the number of required experiments substantially. We employ sparse linear models, and show how to perform full Bayesian inference for these. We not only estimate a single maximum likelihood network, but compute a posterior distribution over networks, using a novel variant of the expectation propagation method. The representation of uncertainty enables us to do effective experimental design in a standard statistical setting: experiments are selected such that the experiments are maximally informative. Conclusion Few methods have addressed the design issue so far. Compared to the most well-known one, our method is more transparent, and is shown to perform qualitatively superior. In the former, hard and unrealistic constraints have to be placed on the network structure for mere computational tractability, while such are not required in our method. We demonstrate reconstruction and optimal experimental design capabilities on tasks generated from realistic non-linear network simulators. The methods described in the paper are available as a Matlab package at http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de/sparselinearmodel.

  9. An Experimental Study on the Effects of Stereotype Awareness on the Subjective Grading of Undergraduate College Essays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikesell-Redding, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Racial equality is promoted on nearly every academic campus across America; however, research has shown that educators express racial bias in various ways. The purpose of this experimental research was to determine the extent of racial bias among White, undergraduate professors, an area lacking previous research. The study tested whether a…

  10. Design of passive directional acoustic devices using Topology Optimization - from method to experimental validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Rasmus E; Fernandez-Grande, Efren

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents a topology optimization based method for designing acoustic focusing devices, capable of tailoring the sound emission pattern of one or several sources, across a chosen frequency band. The method is demonstrated numerically considering devices optimized for directional sound emission in two dimensions and is experimentally validated using three dimensional prints of the optimized designs. The emitted fields exhibit a level difference of at least 15 dB on axis relative to the off-axis directions, over frequency bands of approximately an octave. It is demonstrated to be possible to design focusing devices of dimensions comparable to the acoustic wavelength, a frequency range which is typically problematic, as well as devices operating at higher frequencies. The classical parabolic reflector is used as a benchmark. The devices designed using the proposed method are shown to outperform the latter in terms of directivity and maximum side-lobe level over nearly an octave band. A set of frequencies are considered simultaneously in the design formulation and performance robustness toward uniform spatial production errors in the designed devices is assured by including perturbations of the geometry in the design formulation.

  11. Effect of glenoid implant design on glenohumeral stability: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sins, Lauranne; Tétreault, Patrice; Petit, Yvan; Nuño, Natalia; Billuart, Fabien; Hagemeister, Nicola

    2012-10-01

    Though several glenoid implants were developed over the past years, a high rate of glenoid loosening remains. This complication is linked to the glenohumeral stability, defined as humeral head translation. In an intact shoulder, this concept is ensured by all active and passive elements, particularly the labrum. Two features of a glenoid implant can be adjusted to improve the stability, or, in other words, to decrease the translations: the first is the mismatch, defined as the difference of curvature between the prosthetic head and glenoid; the second is the shape of the glenoid component. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the performance of 2 glenoid components (Ceraver, Roissy, France): (1) a standard design and (2) a design named "labrum design" with a superior part simulating the anatomic labrum. An experimental device was developed to evaluate forces and kinematics. The device simulated active, dynamic and continuous abduction of an entire arm. It reproduced the Scapulo-Humeral Rhythm. The labrum design was installed first. To evaluate the effect of mismatch on the glenohumeral stability, 3 humeral heads were tested, corresponding to the ones recommended by the company. The experiment was repeated for the standard design. The results obtained show a general decrease of the prosthetic head translation with the labrum design compared to the standard design. No noticeable effect of mismatch was found. A proof of concept of the interest of the artificial labrum was provided since it improved the glenohumeral stability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Experimental design and Bayesian networks for enhancement of delta-endotoxin production by Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennouri, Karim; Ayed, Rayda Ben; Hassen, Hanen Ben; Mazzarello, Maura; Ottaviani, Ennio

    2015-12-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a Gram-positive bacterium. The entomopathogenic activity of Bt is related to the existence of the crystal consisting of protoxins, also called delta-endotoxins. In order to optimize and explain the production of delta-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki, we studied seven medium components: soybean meal, starch, KH₂PO₄, K₂HPO₄, FeSO₄, MnSO₄, and MgSO₄and their relationships with the concentration of delta-endotoxins using an experimental design (Plackett-Burman design) and Bayesian networks modelling. The effects of the ingredients of the culture medium on delta-endotoxins production were estimated. The developed model showed that different medium components are important for the Bacillus thuringiensis fermentation. The most important factors influenced the production of delta-endotoxins are FeSO₄, K2HPO₄, starch and soybean meal. Indeed, it was found that soybean meal, K₂HPO₄, KH₂PO₄and starch also showed positive effect on the delta-endotoxins production. However, FeSO4 and MnSO4 expressed opposite effect. The developed model, based on Bayesian techniques, can automatically learn emerging models in data to serve in the prediction of delta-endotoxins concentrations. The constructed model in the present study implies that experimental design (Plackett-Burman design) joined with Bayesian networks method could be used for identification of effect variables on delta-endotoxins variation.

  13. Managing Model Data Introduced Uncertainties in Simulator Predictions for Generation IV Systems via Optimum Experimental Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turinsky, Paul J [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Abdel-Khalik, Hany S [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Stover, Tracy E [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2011-03-01

    An optimization technique has been developed to select optimized experimental design specifications to produce data specifically designed to be assimilated to optimize a given reactor concept. Data from the optimized experiment is assimilated to generate posteriori uncertainties on the reactor concept’s core attributes from which the design responses are computed. The reactor concept is then optimized with the new data to realize cost savings by reducing margin. The optimization problem iterates until an optimal experiment is found to maximize the savings. A new generation of innovative nuclear reactor designs, in particular fast neutron spectrum recycle reactors, are being considered for the application of closing the nuclear fuel cycle in the future. Safe and economical design of these reactors will require uncertainty reduction in basic nuclear data which are input to the reactor design. These data uncertainty propagate to design responses which in turn require the reactor designer to incorporate additional safety margin into the design, which often increases the cost of the reactor. Therefore basic nuclear data needs to be improved and this is accomplished through experimentation. Considering the high cost of nuclear experiments, it is desired to have an optimized experiment which will provide the data needed for uncertainty reduction such that a reactor design concept can meet its target accuracies or to allow savings to be realized by reducing the margin required due to uncertainty propagated from basic nuclear data. However, this optimization is coupled to the reactor design itself because with improved data the reactor concept can be re-optimized itself. It is thus desired to find the experiment that gives the best optimized reactor design. Methods are first established to model both the reactor concept and the experiment and to efficiently propagate the basic nuclear data uncertainty through these models to outputs. The representativity of the experiment

  14. Protocol for an experimental investigation of the roles of oxytocin and social support in neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and subjective responses to stress across age and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Block Jason

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substantial empirical evidence has demonstrated that individuals who are socially isolated or have few positive social connections seem to age at a faster rate and have more chronic diseases. Oxytocin is a neurohypophyseal hormone hypothesized to coordinate both the causes and effects of positive social interactions, and may be involved in positive physiological adaptations such as buffering the deleterious effects of stress and promoting resilience. The proposed research will examine whether and how oxytocin influences responses to stress in humans and will consider effects in relation to those of social support. Methods/Design Experimental research will be used to determine whether exogenously administered oxytocin (intranasal influences psychological and physiological outcomes under conditions of stress across gender and age in adulthood. Hypotheses to be tested are: 1 Oxytocin ameliorates the deleterious neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and subjective effects of stress; 2 Oxytocin and social support have similar and additive stress-buffering effects; 3 Oxytocin effects are stronger in women versus men; and 4 Oxytocin effects are similar across a range of adult ages. Hypotheses will be tested with a placebo-controlled, double-blind study using a sample of healthy men and women recruited from the community. Participants are randomly assigned to receive either oxytocin or placebo. They undergo a social stress manipulation with and without social support (randomly assigned, and outcome measures are obtained at multiple times during the procedure. Discussion Understanding the determinants of healthy aging is a major public health priority and identifying effective measures to prevent or delay the onset of chronic diseases is an important goal. Experimental research on oxytocin, social relationships, and health in adulthood will contribute to the scientific knowledge base for maximizing active life and health expectancy. At

  15. LOGICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN FOR PHENOL DEGRADATION USING IMMOBILIZED ACINETOBACTER SP. CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amro Abd Al Fattah Amara

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenol degradation processes were conducted through a series of enzymatic reactions effects and is affect by different components of the microbial metabolic flux. Using different optimization strategies like mutagenesis could lead to a successful optimization but also lead to lost of some important microbial features or to release a new virulence or unexpected characters. Plackett-Burman closes much gab between optimization, safety, time, cost, Man/hr, the complexity of the metabolic flux etc. Using Plackett-Burman experimental design lead to map the points affect in the optimization process by well understanding their request from nutrient and the best environmental condition required. In this study nine variables include pH (X1, oC (X2, glucose (X3, yeast extract (X4, meat extract (X5, NH4NO3 (X6, K-salt (X7, Mg-salt (X8 and trace element (X9 are optimized during phenol degradation by Acinetobacter sp., using Plackett-Burman design method. Plackett-Burman included 16 experiments, each was used in two levels, [-1] low and high [+1]. According to Blackett-Burman design experiments the maximum degradation rate was 31.25 mg/l/h. Logical and statistical analysis of the data lead to select pH, Temperature and Meat extract as three factors affecting on phenol degradation rate. These three variables have been used in Box-Behnken experimental design for further optimization. Meat extract, which is not statistically recommended for optimization has been used while it can substitute trace element, which is statistically significant. Glucose, which is statistically significant, did not included while it has a negative effect and gave the best result at 0 g/l amount. Glucose has been completely omitted from the media.  pH, temperature and meat extract were used in fifteen experiments each was used in three levels, –1, 0, and +1 according to Box-Behnken design. Microsoft Excel 2002 solver tool was used to optimize the model created from Box-Behnken. The

  16. Multi-objective experimental design for (13)C-based metabolic flux analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvin, Jeroen; Cajot, Simon; D'Huys, Pieter-Jan; Ampofo-Asiama, Jerry; Anné, Jozef; Van Impe, Jan; Geeraerd, Annemie; Bernaerts, Kristel

    2015-10-01

    (13)C-based metabolic flux analysis is an excellent technique to resolve fluxes in the central carbon metabolism but costs can be significant when using specialized tracers. This work presents a framework for cost-effective design of (13)C-tracer experiments, illustrated on two different networks. Linear and non-linear optimal input mixtures are computed for networks for Streptomyces lividans and a carcinoma cell line. If only glucose tracers are considered as labeled substrate for a carcinoma cell line or S. lividans, the best parameter estimation accuracy is obtained by mixtures containing high amounts of 1,2-(13)C2 glucose combined with uniformly labeled glucose. Experimental designs are evaluated based on a linear (D-criterion) and non-linear approach (S-criterion). Both approaches generate almost the same input mixture, however, the linear approach is favored due to its low computational effort. The high amount of 1,2-(13)C2 glucose in the optimal designs coincides with a high experimental cost, which is further enhanced when labeling is introduced in glutamine and aspartate tracers. Multi-objective optimization gives the possibility to assess experimental quality and cost at the same time and can reveal excellent compromise experiments. For example, the combination of 100% 1,2-(13)C2 glucose with 100% position one labeled glutamine and the combination of 100% 1,2-(13)C2 glucose with 100% uniformly labeled glutamine perform equally well for the carcinoma cell line, but the first mixture offers a decrease in cost of $ 120 per ml-scale cell culture experiment. We demonstrated the validity of a multi-objective linear approach to perform optimal experimental designs for the non-linear problem of (13)C-metabolic flux analysis. Tools and a workflow are provided to perform multi-objective design. The effortless calculation of the D-criterion can be exploited to perform high-throughput screening of possible (13)C-tracers, while the illustrated benefit of multi

  17. On the optimal experimental design for heat and moisture parameter estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Julien; Mendes, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    In the context of estimating material properties of porous walls based on in-site measurements and identification method, this paper presents the concept of Optimal Experiment Design (OED). It aims at searching the best experimental conditions in terms of quantity and position of sensors and boundary conditions imposed to the material. These optimal conditions ensure to provide the maximum accuracy of the identification method and thus the estimated parameters. The search of the OED is done by using the Fisher information matrix and a priori knowledge of the parameters. The methodology is applied for two case studies. The first one deals with purely conductive heat transfer. The concept of optimal experiment design is detailed and verified with 100 inverse problems for different experiment designs. The second case study combines a strong coupling between heat and moisture transfer through a porous building material. The methodology presented is based on a scientific formalism for efficient planning of experim...

  18. Experimental Validation of Topology Optimization for RF MEMS Capacitive Switch Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippine, Mandy Axelle; Zareie, Hosein; Sigmund, Ole

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present 30 distinct RF MEMS capacitive switch designs that are the product of topology optimizations that control key mechanical properties such as stiffness, response to intrinsic stress gradients, and temperature sensitivity. The designs were evaluated with high......-accuracy simulations prior to micro-fabrication. We built and tested more than 170 switches, including at least five per distinct design. Experimental results confirm that the finite element models are accurate and that the switches behave as intended by the different optimizations. Extensive testing results include...... actuation and release voltages as a function of temperature, switching times, capacitance ratios, fitted S-parameters, and profile measurements during actuation and over temperature. $\\hfill{[2013\\hbox{-}0203]}$...

  19. A Hierarchical Modeling Approach to Data Analysis and Study Design in a Multi-Site Experimental fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bo; Konstorum, Anna; Duong, Thao; Tieu, Kinh H.; Wells, William M.; Brown, Gregory G.; Stern, Hal S.; Shahbaba, Babak

    2013-01-01

    We propose a hierarchical Bayesian model for analyzing multi-site experimental fMRI studies. Our method takes the hierarchical structure of the data (subjects are nested within sites, and there are multiple observations per subject) into account and allows for modeling between-site variation. Using posterior predictive model checking and model…

  20. Experimental investigation of biodynamic human body models subjected to whole-body vibration during a vehicle ride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, Yener; Hacioglu, Yuksel; Ortes, Faruk; Karabulut, Derya; Arslan, Yunus Ziya

    2018-02-06

    In this study, responses of biodynamic human body models to whole-body vibration during a vehicle ride were investigated. Accelerations were acquired from three different body parts, such as the head, upper torso and lower torso, of 10 seated passengers during a car ride while two different road conditions were considered. The same multipurpose vehicle was used during all experiments. Additionally, by two widely used biodynamic models in the literature, a set of simulations were run to obtain theoretical accelerations of the models and were compared with those obtained experimentally. To sustain a quantified comparison between experimental and theoretical approaches, the root mean square acceleration and acceleration spectral density were calculated. Time and frequency responses of the models demonstrated that neither of the models showed the best prediction performance of the human body behaviour in all cases, indicating that further models are required for better prediction of the human body responses.

  1. Shallow Habitat Air Dive (SHAD-I): Psychological Screening of Divers as Subjects for Long Duration Saturation Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-05-31

    interest in diving, etc. I. Inadequate Ego Structure (Lack of self confidence, introverted , passive, etc.) No response 8 8 13 8 6...and recent memory were unchanged from pre- experimental data. No motor abnormalities were observed. In short, there were no differ- ences of any...which of the following activities or hobbles have you been so Inter- ested that you have devoted considerable time and energy to them? a. Music

  2. Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests at SLAC (FACET) Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amann, J.; Bane, K.; /SLAC

    2009-10-30

    This Conceptual Design Report (CDR) describes the design of FACET. It will be updated to stay current with the developing design of the facility. This CDR begins as the baseline conceptual design and will evolve into an 'as-built' manual for the completed facility. The Executive Summary, Chapter 1, gives an introduction to the FACET project and describes the salient features of its design. Chapter 2 gives an overview of FACET. It describes the general parameters of the machine and the basic approaches to implementation. The FACET project does not include the implementation of specific scientific experiments either for plasma wake-field acceleration for other applications. Nonetheless, enough work has been done to define potential experiments to assure that the facility can meet the requirements of the experimental community. Chapter 3, Scientific Case, describes the planned plasma wakefield and other experiments. Chapter 4, Technical Description of FACET, describes the parameters and design of all technical systems of FACET. FACET uses the first two thirds of the existing SLAC linac to accelerate the beam to about 20GeV, and compress it with the aid of two chicanes, located in Sector 10 and Sector 20. The Sector 20 area will include a focusing system, the generic experimental area and the beam dump. Chapter 5, Management of Scientific Program, describes the management of the scientific program at FACET. Chapter 6, Environment, Safety and Health and Quality Assurance, describes the existing programs at SLAC and their application to the FACET project. It includes a preliminary analysis of safety hazards and the planned mitigation. Chapter 7, Work Breakdown Structure, describes the structure used for developing the cost estimates, which will also be used to manage the project. The chapter defines the scope of work of each element down to level 3.

  3. Design Considerations and Experimental Verification of a Rail Brake Armature Based on Linear Induction Motor Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yasuaki; Kashiwagi, Takayuki; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Sasakawa, Takashi; Fujii, Nobuo

    This paper describes the design considerations and experimental verification of an LIM rail brake armature. In order to generate power and maximize the braking force density despite the limited area between the armature and the rail and the limited space available for installation, we studied a design method that is suitable for designing an LIM rail brake armature; we considered adoption of a ring winding structure. To examine the validity of the proposed design method, we developed a prototype ring winding armature for the rail brakes and examined its electromagnetic characteristics in a dynamic test system with roller rigs. By repeating various tests, we confirmed that unnecessary magnetic field components, which were expected to be present under high speed running condition or when a ring winding armature was used, were not present. Further, the necessary magnetic field component and braking force attained the desired values. These studies have helped us to develop a basic design method that is suitable for designing the LIM rail brake armatures.

  4. Experimental investigation of shaping disturbance observer design for motion control of precision mechatronic stages with resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Hu, Chuxiong; Zhu, Yu; Wang, Ze; Zhang, Ming

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, shaping disturbance observer (SDOB) is investigated for precision mechatronic stages with middle-frequency zero/pole type resonance to achieve good motion control performance in practical manufacturing situations. Compared with traditional standard disturbance observer (DOB), in SDOB a pole-zero cancellation based shaping filter is cascaded to the mechatronic stage plant to meet the challenge of motion control performance deterioration caused by actual resonance. Noting that pole-zero cancellation is inevitably imperfect and the controller may even consequently become unstable in practice, frequency domain stability analysis is conducted to find out how each parameter of the shaping filter affects the control stability. Moreover, the robust design criterion of the shaping filter, and the design procedure of SDOB, are both proposed to guide the actual design and facilitate practical implementation. The SDOB with the proposed design criterion is applied to a linear motor driven stage and a voice motor driven stage, respectively. Experimental results consistently validate the effectiveness nature of the proposed SDOB scheme in practical mechatronics motion applications. The proposed SDOB design actually could be an effective unit in the controller design for motion stages of mechanical manufacture equipments.

  5. Multi-objective optimal experimental designs for event-related fMRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Ming-Hung; Mandal, Abhyuday; Lazar, Nicole; Stufken, John

    2009-02-01

    In this article, we propose an efficient approach to find optimal experimental designs for event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (ER-fMRI). We consider multiple objectives, including estimating the hemodynamic response function (HRF), detecting activation, circumventing psychological confounds and fulfilling customized requirements. Taking into account these goals, we formulate a family of multi-objective design criteria and develop a genetic-algorithm-based technique to search for optimal designs. Our proposed technique incorporates existing knowledge about the performance of fMRI designs, and its usefulness is shown through simulations. Although our approach also works for other linear combinations of parameters, we primarily focus on the case when the interest lies either in the individual stimulus effects or in pairwise contrasts between stimulus types. Under either of these popular cases, our algorithm outperforms the previous approaches. We also find designs yielding higher estimation efficiencies than m-sequences. When the underlying model is with white noise and a constant nuisance parameter, the stimulus frequencies of the designs we obtained are in good agreement with the optimal stimulus frequencies derived by Liu and Frank, 2004, NeuroImage 21: 387-400. In addition, our approach is built upon a rigorous model formulation.

  6. Study Design Rigor in Animal-Experimental Research Published in Anesthesia Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerauf, Janine M; Moss, Angela F; Fernandez-Bustamante, Ana; Bartels, Karsten

    2018-01-01

    Lack of reproducibility of preclinical studies has been identified as an impediment for translation of basic mechanistic research into effective clinical therapies. Indeed, the National Institutes of Health has revised its grant application process to require more rigorous study design, including sample size calculations, blinding procedures, and randomization steps. We hypothesized that the reporting of such metrics of study design rigor has increased over time for animal-experimental research published in anesthesia journals. PubMed was searched for animal-experimental studies published in 2005, 2010, and 2015 in primarily English-language anesthesia journals. A total of 1466 publications were graded on the performance of sample size estimation, randomization, and blinding. Cochran-Armitage test was used to assess linear trends over time for the primary outcome of whether or not a metric was reported. Interrater agreement for each of the 3 metrics (power, randomization, and blinding) was assessed using the weighted κ coefficient in a 10% random sample of articles rerated by a second investigator blinded to the ratings of the first investigator. A total of 1466 manuscripts were analyzed. Reporting for all 3 metrics of experimental design rigor increased over time (2005 to 2010 to 2015): for power analysis, from 5% (27/516), to 12% (59/485), to 17% (77/465); for randomization, from 41% (213/516), to 50% (243/485), to 54% (253/465); and for blinding, from 26% (135/516), to 38% (186/485), to 47% (217/465). The weighted κ coefficients and 98.3% confidence interval indicate almost perfect agreement between the 2 raters beyond that which occurs by chance alone (power, 0.93 [0.85, 1.0], randomization, 0.91 [0.85, 0.98], and blinding, 0.90 [0.84, 0.96]). Our hypothesis that reported metrics of rigor in animal-experimental studies in anesthesia journals have increased during the past decade was confirmed. More consistent reporting, or explicit justification for absence

  7. Introducing Third-Year Chemistry Students to the Planning and Design of an Experimental Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Jeffrey G.; Phillips, David Norman; van Bronswijk, Wilhelm

    1997-10-01

    The design and planning of an experimental program is often an important aspect of the job description of recent graduate employees in chemical industry and time should therefore be devoted to this activity in an undergraduate course. This paper describes a pencil and paper activity which involves the design and planning of an experimental programme which may lead to the solution of the problem. These skills are an essential pre-requisite to any experimental activity. We provide the students with a list of problems similar to those that a new graduate could encounter on commencing employment in chemical industry. They are real problems, which the Inorganic Chemistry staff of the School have been previously asked to solve for local industry. A staff member acts as the "client", and the students is the "consultant". The aim is that by a series of interviews between the client and the consultant, the students can refine a vague problem statement into a quantitative statement, and then from this develop a proposal to investigate the problem in order to confirm the cause. This proposal is submitted to the client for assessment. The students are expected to arrange one meeting with the supervisor in each week. This activity is highly commended by the School of Applied Chemistry's Advisory Board, which is primarily comprised of industrial chemists.

  8. Experimental and Sampling Design for the INL-2 Sample Collection Operational Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Matzke, Brett D.

    2009-02-16

    This report describes the experimental and sampling design developed to assess sampling approaches and methods for detecting contamination in a building and clearing the building for use after decontamination. An Idaho National Laboratory (INL) building will be contaminated with BG (Bacillus globigii, renamed Bacillus atrophaeus), a simulant for Bacillus anthracis (BA). The contamination, sampling, decontamination, and re-sampling will occur per the experimental and sampling design. This INL-2 Sample Collection Operational Test is being planned by the Validated Sampling Plan Working Group (VSPWG). The primary objectives are: 1) Evaluate judgmental and probabilistic sampling for characterization as well as probabilistic and combined (judgment and probabilistic) sampling approaches for clearance, 2) Conduct these evaluations for gradient contamination (from low or moderate down to absent or undetectable) for different initial concentrations of the contaminant, 3) Explore judgment composite sampling approaches to reduce sample numbers, 4) Collect baseline data to serve as an indication of the actual levels of contamination in the tests. A combined judgmental and random (CJR) approach uses Bayesian methodology to combine judgmental and probabilistic samples to make clearance statements of the form "X% confidence that at least Y% of an area does not contain detectable contamination” (X%/Y% clearance statements). The INL-2 experimental design has five test events, which 1) vary the floor of the INL building on which the contaminant will be released, 2) provide for varying the amount of contaminant released to obtain desired concentration gradients, and 3) investigate overt as well as covert release of contaminants. Desirable contaminant gradients would have moderate to low concentrations of contaminant in rooms near the release point, with concentrations down to zero in other rooms. Such gradients would provide a range of contamination levels to challenge the sampling

  9. Character Education Through the Constructivist Design of Islamic Education Subject at Elementary School Pembangunan Jaya II in Gedangan Sidoarjo

    OpenAIRE

    Evi Fatimatur Rusydiyah

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study are (1) to determine  the meaning of character education in the elementary school of Pembangunan Jaya II of Gedangan Sidoarjo, (2) to identify how the planning of character education through  constructivist  design on the Islamic  education subjects in the elementary school  of  Pembangunan Jaya II of Gedangan Sidoarjo.  Observation, in-depth interviews and documentation analysis were used in this study. The finding showed that:  (1) elementary school Pembangunan J...

  10. An innovative approach for planning and execution of pre-experimental runs for Design of Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arsalan Farooq

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the study of the pre-experimental planning phase of the Design of Experiments (DoE in order to improve the final product quality. The pre-experimental planning phase includes a clear identification of the problem statement, selection of control factors and their respective levels and ranges. To improve production quality based on the DoE a new approach for the pre-experimental planning phase, called Non-Conformity Matrix (NCM, is presented. This article also addresses the key steps of the pre-experimental runs considering a consumer goods manufacturing process. Results of the application for an industrial case show that this methodology can support a clear definition of the problem and also a correct identification of the factor ranges in particular situations. The proposed new approach allows modeling the entire manufacturing system holistically and correctly defining the factor ranges and respective levels for a more effective application of DoE. This new approach can be a useful resource for both research and industrial practitioners who are dedicated to large DoE projects with unknown factor interactions, when the operational levels and ranges are not completely defined.

  11. Documentário: um outro campo experimental no estudo dos processos de subjetivação Documentary: another experimental field in the study of subjective processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna De Marco

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo traz os problemas colocados para a pesquisa ao propor fazer um mapa audiovisual das configurações subjetivas em processo nas comunidades rurais de Massaroca, Juazeiro, Bahia, finalizando-o em um documentário. Foi feito um estudo bibliográfico e fílmico, particularmente sobre documentário nacional, de modo a adquirir as ferramentas conceituais e instrumentais próprias à linguagem audiovisual. Esse estudo e o trabalho de filmagem, montagem e edição problematizaram o modo de produção do documentário em questões que foram sistematizadas em três pontos: os processos de subjetivação na produção fílmica; o filme enquanto realidade ou ficção; o documentário como uma outra perspectiva metodológica. O documentário no qual a pesquisa estará se apresentando trará em imagens e sons fragmentos dos territórios existenciais das comunidades estudadas, nos quais a tensão existente entre o excesso e a escassez de água é processada, parcialmente, em linguagem; práticas produtivas, econômicas, políticas e éticas; manifestações culturais; religiosidade; afetividade; modos de cognição e percepção, etc.This article brings the problems discussed in the research, which aim at the creation of an audiovisual map of the subjective configurations that are taking place in the rural communities of Massaroca - a district of the city of Juazeiro, Bahia - and produce a documentary with this material. Bibliographic and cinematographic studies mainly about the Brazilian documentaries have been done in order to acquire conceptual and practical tools related to the audiovisual language. This study and the filming works and edition analyzed the documentary production method in three main points: the subjective processes in the cinematographic production; the film as reality or fiction; the documentary as another methodological perspective.

  12. Experimental Investigation for Behavior of Reinforced Hybrid Concrete Corbel-Column System Subjected to Un-Symmetrical Vertical Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Ali

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, shear and flexural behavior of reinforced hybrid concrete corbel-column system was experimentally investigated. Fourteen hybrid and homogenous concrete corbel-column systemssubjected to un-symmetrical loading were constructed and tested within two test groups (A, B. The experimental program included several variables such as: type of hybrid concrete;high strength concrete(HSC or steel fiber reinforced concrete(SFRC, shear span to depth ratio (a/d, area of hybridization in corbel - column system.Experimental results showed significant effects of concrete hybridization on structural shear and flexural behavior including: ultimate strength, cracking loads, cracking patterns, failure modes, and ductility. Hybridization process ingroup (A included casting the corbel with HSC or SFRC instated of normal strength concrete (NSC. In shear behavior corbels (a/d= 0.37, this process led to increase the shear capacity of corbel by (26%, 38% and shear cracking loads by (20%, 120% respectively. Furthermore, in flexural behavior corbels (a/d= 0.74 shear capacity increased by (19%, 42%, flexural cracking loads increased by (29%, 143% for HSC and SFRC corbels respectively. In group (B hybridization process included increasing the hybrid area of corbel-column system in group (A to represent a distributed region (D-region or decreasing it to represent hybrid corbel. In both cases shear capacity of corbel increased with a range of (10 to 41 % for specimens hybridized monolithically with HSC, while it increased with a range of (19 to 44 % for specimens hybridized monolithically with SFRC; compared with homogenous NSC specimens having same (a/d ratio.

  13. Optimization Method of a Low Cost, High Performance Ceramic Proppant by Orthogonal Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Tian, Y. M.; Wang, K. Y.; Li, G.; Zou, X. W.; Chai, Y. S.

    2017-09-01

    This study focused on optimization method of a ceramic proppant material with both low cost and high performance that met the requirements of Chinese Petroleum and Gas Industry Standard (SY/T 5108-2006). The orthogonal experimental design of L9(34) was employed to study the significance sequence of three factors, including weight ratio of white clay to bauxite, dolomite content and sintering temperature. For the crush resistance, both the range analysis and variance analysis reflected the optimally experimental condition was weight ratio of white clay to bauxite=3/7, dolomite content=3 wt.%, temperature=1350°C. For the bulk density, the most important factor was the sintering temperature, followed by the dolomite content, and then the ratio of white clay to bauxite.

  14. Sampling flies or sampling flaws? Experimental design and inference strength in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, J-P; Schoenly, Kenneth G; Moreau, G

    2012-01-01

    Forensic entomology is an inferential science because postmortem interval estimates are based on the extrapolation of results obtained in field or laboratory settings. Although enormous gains in scientific understanding and methodological practice have been made in forensic entomology over the last few decades, a majority of the field studies we reviewed do not meet the standards for inference, which are 1) adequate replication, 2) independence of experimental units, and 3) experimental conditions that capture a representative range of natural variability. Using a mock case-study approach, we identify design flaws in field and lab experiments and suggest methodological solutions for increasing inference strength that can inform future casework. Suggestions for improving data reporting in future field studies are also proposed.

  15. Control System Design for Active Lubrication with Theoretical and Experimental Examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Ilmar; Scalabrin, A.

    2003-01-01

    This work focuses on the theoretical and experimental behavior of rigid rotors controlled by tilting-pad journal bearings with active oil injection. Initially the mathematical model of the active bearing is presented: The equations that describe the dynamics of hydraulic actuators are introduced...... into the equations of the lubricant, resulting in a new form of the Reynolds equation for active lubrication. The global model of the system is obtained by coupling the equation of motion of the rigid rotor with the stiffness and damping of the active oil film. This global model is then used to design the control...... system of the active bearing based on root locus curves. The active system stability is analyzed by calculating its eigenvalues and frequency response curves. The theoretical and experimental results show that this kind of bearing can significantly reduce the vibration level of rotating machinery....

  16. Flexible Design and Operation of Multi-Stage Flash (MSF Desalination Process Subject to Variable Fouling and Variable Freshwater Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Alforjani Said

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This work describes how the design and operation parameters of the Multi-Stage Flash (MSF desalination process are optimised when the process is subject to variation in seawater temperature, fouling and freshwater demand throughout the day. A simple polynomial based dynamic seawater temperature and variable freshwater demand correlations are developed based on actual data which are incorporated in the MSF mathematical model using gPROMS models builder 3.0.3. In addition, a fouling model based on stage temperature is considered. The fouling and the effect of noncondensable gases are incorporated into the calculation of overall heat transfer co-efficient for condensers. Finally, an optimisation problem is developed where the total daily operating cost of the MSF process is minimised by optimising the design (no of stages and the operating (seawater rejected flowrate and brine recycle flowrate parameters.

  17. Computational simulations of frictional losses in pipe networks confirmed in experimental apparatusses designed by honors students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlman, Nicholas A.; Hynes, Eric; Kutz, April

    2015-11-01

    Lectures in introductory fluid mechanics at NIU are a combination of students with standard enrollment and students seeking honors credit for an enriching experience. Most honors students dread the additional homework problems or an extra paper assigned by the instructor. During the past three years, honors students of my class have instead collaborated to design wet-lab experiments for their peers to predict variable volume flow rates of open reservoirs driven by gravity. Rather than learn extra, the honors students learn the Bernoulli head-loss equation earlier to design appropriate systems for an experimental wet lab. Prior designs incorporated minor loss features such as sudden contraction or multiple unions and valves. The honors students from Spring 2015 expanded the repertoire of available options by developing large scale set-ups with multiple pipe networks that could be combined together to test the flexibility of the student team's computational programs. The engagement of bridging the theory with practice was appreciated by all of the students such that multiple teams were able to predict performance within 4% accuracy. The challenges, schedules, and cost estimates of incorporating the experimental lab into an introductory fluid mechanics course will be reported.

  18. Experimental research of the synthetic jet generator designs based on actuation of diaphragm with piezoelectric actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimasauskiene, R.; Matejka, M.; Ostachowicz, W.; Kurowski, M.; Malinowski, P.; Wandowski, T.; Rimasauskas, M.

    2015-01-01

    Experimental analyses of four own developed synthetic jet generator designs were presented in this paper. The main task of this work was to find the most appropriate design of the synthetic jet generator. Dynamic characteristics of the synthetic jet generator's diaphragm with piezoelectric material were measured using non-contact measuring equipment laser vibrometer Polytec®PSV 400. Temperatures of the piezoelectric diaphragms working in resonance frequency were measured with Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor. Experimental analysis of the synthetic jet generator amplitude-frequency characteristics were performed using CTA (hot wire anemometer) measuring techniques. Piezoelectric diaphragm in diameter of 27 mm was excited by sinusoidal voltage signal and it was fixed tightly inside the chamber of the synthetic jet generator. The number of the synthetic jet generator orifices (1 or 3) and volume of cavity (height of cavity vary from 0.5 mm to 1.5 mm) were changed. The highest value of the synthetic jet velocity 25 m/s was obtained with synthetic jet generator which has cavity 0.5 mm and 1 orifice (resonance frequency of the piezoelectric diaphragm 2.8 kHz). It can be concluded that this type of the design is preferred in order to get the peak velocity of the synthetic jet.

  19. Optimization of Conversion Treatment on Austenitic Stainless Steel Using Experimental Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. El Hajjaji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conversion coating is commonly used as treatment to improve the adherence of ceramics films. The conversion coating properties depend on the structure of alloy as well as on the treatment parameters. These conversion coatings must be characterized by strong interfacial adhesion, high roughness, and high real surface area, which were measured by an electrochemical method. The influence of all the elaboration factors (temperature, time, and bath composition: sulphuric acid, thiosulphate as accelerator, propargyl alcohol as inhibitor, and surface state and also the interactions between these factors were evaluated, using statistical experimental design. The specific surface area and optical factor (α correspond to the quantitative responses. The evaluation showed, by using a designed experimental procedure, that the most important factor was “surface state.” Sanded surface allows the formation of conversion coating with high real surface area. A further aim was to optimise two parameters: treatment time and temperature using Doehlert shell design and simplex method. The growth of the conversion coating is also influenced by treatment time and temperature. With such optimized conditions, the real surface area of conversion coating obtained was about 235 m2/m2.

  20. Experimental Investigation of a Point Design Optimized Arrow Wing HSCT Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narducci, Robert P.; Sundaram, P.; Agrawal, Shreekant; Cheung, S.; Arslan, A. E.; Martin, G. L.

    1999-01-01

    The M2.4-7A Arrow Wing HSCT configuration was optimized for straight and level cruise at a Mach number of 2.4 and a lift coefficient of 0.10. A quasi-Newton optimization scheme maximized the lift-to-drag ratio (by minimizing drag-to-lift) using Euler solutions from FL067 to estimate the lift and drag forces. A 1.675% wind-tunnel model of the Opt5 HSCT configuration was built to validate the design methodology. Experimental data gathered at the NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) section #2 facility verified CFL3D Euler and Navier-Stokes predictions of the Opt5 performance at the design point. In turn, CFL3D confirmed the improvement in the lift-to-drag ratio obtained during the optimization, thus validating the design procedure. A data base at off-design conditions was obtained during three wind-tunnel tests. The entry into NASA Langley UPWT section #2 obtained data at a free stream Mach number, M(sub infinity), of 2.55 as well as the design Mach number, M(sub infinity)=2.4. Data from a Mach number range of 1.8 to 2.4 was taken at UPWT section #1. Transonic and low supersonic Mach numbers, M(sub infinity)=0.6 to 1.2, was gathered at the NASA Langley 16 ft. Transonic Wind Tunnel (TWT). In addition to good agreement between CFD and experimental data, highlights from the wind-tunnel tests include a trip dot study suggesting a linear relationship between trip dot drag and Mach number, an aeroelastic study that measured the outboard wing deflection and twist, and a flap scheduling study that identifies the possibility of only one leading-edge and trailing-edge flap setting for transonic cruise and another for low supersonic acceleration.