Sample records for subject entries include



    Groshev A. V.; Shulga A. V.


    Book-entry securities as the subject of theft. The article deals with the questions of legal assessment of crimes, targeted at embezzlement of book-entry securities. The article reports author's position concerning the expediency of creation in Russian criminal law system, the criminal liability for book-entry security taking in articles about theft and property crimes. The plot of the article requires the discussion in terms of recognizing book-entry securities the subject of theft, and crea...

  2. Including subjectivity in the teaching of Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Domont de Serpa Junior


    Full Text Available Current psychopathology studies have often been presented in their descriptive dimension. This perspective is important for teaching because it helps the students to recognize and identify the symptomatology of each psychopathology case. However, subjectivity, the experience of suffering and interpersonal aspects are all lost in this perspective. Coming from another psychopathology tradition - existential anthropology - this paper presents practical psychopathology teaching experience which considers such dimensions as being relevant to the understanding of mental suffering. The features and limitations of such traditions are briefly reviewed to support this teaching experience. Two new modalities of practical teaching, used in the discipline of "Special Psychopathology I" offered by the Department of Psychiatry and Forensic Medicine at the medical school of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro for students of psychology, will be presented according to descriptive case study methodology. With these activities we also expect to change the practice of teaching. Traditionally, interviewing of in-patients by a large group of students who observe passively what is happening is the center of this kind of education. We intend to develop a model of teaching which is closer to the proposal of the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform which views mental illness as a complex phenomenon, always involving the relationship that the subject establishes with the world.

  3. 31 CFR 351.66 - What book-entry Series EE savings bonds are included in the computation? (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What book-entry Series EE savings... DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES EE Book-Entry Series EE Savings Bonds § 351.66 What book-entry Series EE savings bonds are included in the computation? (a) We include all bonds that...

  4. Student Motivation in Science Subjects in Tanzania, Including Students' Voices (United States)

    Mkimbili, Selina Thomas; Ødegaard, Marianne


    Fostering and maintaining students' interest in science is an important aspect of improving science learning. The focus of this paper is to listen to and reflect on students' voices regarding the sources of motivation for science subjects among students in community secondary schools with contextual challenges in Tanzania. We conducted a group-interview study of 46 Form 3 and Form 4 Tanzanian secondary school students. The study findings reveal that the major contextual challenges to student motivation for science in the studied schools are limited resources and students' insufficient competence in the language of instruction. Our results also reveal ways to enhance student motivation for science in schools with contextual challenges; these techniques include the use of questioning techniques and discourse, students' investigations and practical work using locally available materials, study tours, more integration of classroom science into students' daily lives and the use of real-life examples in science teaching. Also we noted that students' contemporary life, culture and familiar language can be utilised as a useful resource in facilitating meaningful learning in science in the school. Students suggested that, to make science interesting to a majority of students in a Tanzanian context, science education needs to be inclusive of students' experiences, culture and contemporary daily lives. Also, science teaching and learning in the classroom need to involve learners' voices.

  5. The Structure and Contents of the English Written Entry Examination as a Major Subject at the Department of Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Светлана Евгеньевна Боброва


    Full Text Available The author of the article has been writing English entry examinations for PFUR for over a decade. In this article she analyses the structure and contents of the English language entry examination for prospective students of Linguistics at the Faculty of Philology. The requirements for the entry written test are set by the State standards of complete secondary education for foreign languages at the level of a major subject. The PFUR entry examination has always been written in accordance with recommendations of the Education and Science Ministry and the Federal Institute of Pedagogical Assessment.

  6. Crying in the park: Autism stigma, school entry and maternal subjectivity


    Lilley, Rozanna


    In this article I focus on the experiences of mothers of children diagnosed with autism as they respond to, and are shaped by, encounters with stigmatising practices at primary school entry. Analysing narratives recorded during interviews with 22 mothers of children diagnosed with autism in Sydney, Australia, I argue that Erving Goffman's theorising around 'courtesy stigma' is inadequate to the task of understanding the felt experiences of these women. I propose the notion of 'attachment stig...

  7. Crying in the park: Autism stigma, school entry and maternal subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozanna Lilley


    Full Text Available In this article I focus on the experiences of mothers of children diagnosed with autism as they respond to, and are shaped by, encounters with stigmatising practices at primary school entry. Analysing narratives recorded during interviews with 22 mothers of children diagnosed with autism in Sydney, Australia, I argue that Erving Goffman's theorising around 'courtesy stigma' is inadequate to the task of understanding the felt experiences of these women. I propose the notion of 'attachment stigma', which more readily does the double work of referring to both the intersubjective mother/child relationship, often intensified and prolonged due to disability, and the role of mothering ideologies in shaping stigmatising responses. Mothers' school exclusion narratives point to the salience of experiences of stigmatisation in the lives of families of children with autism, and to the continuing force of gendered moral rationalities underpinned by punishing notions of 'good' and 'bad' mothering.

  8. 75 FR 60772 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to... (United States)


    ... proposed collection of information, including the validity of the methodology and assumptions used; ( . Current Actions: This submission is being made to extend the expiration...

  9. Effect of A-Level Subject Choice and Entry Tariff on Final Degree and Level 1 Performance in Biosciences (United States)

    King, Nicola C.; Aves, Stephen J.


    Following the publication of the higher education white paper increasing entry tariff and widening participation have become even more important issues for universities. This report examines the relationship between entry tariff and undergraduate achievement in Biosciences at the University of Exeter. We show that, whilst there is a significant…

  10. Subjective Response to Foot-Fall Noise, Including Localization of the Source Position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas; Hwang, Ha Dong; Jeong, Cheol-Ho


    Although an impact noise level is objectively evaluated the same according to current standards, a lightweight floor structure is often subjectively judged more annoying than a heavy homogeneous structure. The hypothesis of the present investigation is that the subjective judgment of impact noise...

  11. Thermal math model analysis of FRSI test article subjected to cold soak and entry environments. [Flexible Reuseable Surface Insulation in Space Shuttle Orbiter (United States)

    Gallegos, J. J.


    A multi-objective test program was conducted at the NASA/JSC Radiant Heat Test Facility in which an aluminum skin/stringer test panel insulated with FRSI (Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation) was subjected to 24 simulated Space Shuttle Orbiter ascent/entry heating cycles with a cold soak in between in the 10th and 20th cycles. A two-dimensional thermal math model was developed and utilized to predict the thermal performance of the FRSI. Results are presented which indicate that the modeling techniques and property values have been proven adequate in predicting peak structure temperatures and entry thermal responses from both an ambient and cold soak condition of an FRSI covered aluminum structure.

  12. Verifying the attenuation of earplugs in situ: method validation on human subjects including individualized numerical simulations. (United States)

    Bockstael, Annelies; Van Renterghem, Timothy; Botteldooren, Dick; D'Haenens, Wendy; Keppler, Hannah; Maes, Leen; Philips, Birgit; Swinnen, Freya; Vinck, Bart


    The microphone in real ear (MIRE) protocol allows the assessment of hearing protector's (HPD) attenuation in situ by measuring the difference between the sound pressure outside and inside the ear canal behind the HPD. Custom-made earplugs have been designed with an inner bore to insert the MIRE probe containing two microphones, the reference microphone measuring the sound pressure outside and the measurement microphone registering the sound pressure behind the HPD. Previous research on a head and torso simulator reveals a distinct difference, henceforth called transfer function, between the sound pressure at the MIRE measurement microphone and the sound pressure of interest at the eardrum. In the current study, similar measurements are carried out on humans with an extra microphone to measure the sound pressure at the eardrum. The resulting transfer functions confirm the global frequency dependency found earlier, but also show substantial variability between the ears with respect to the exact frequency and amplitude of the transfer functions' extrema. In addition, finite-difference time-domain numerical models of an ear canal with earplug are developed for each individual ear by including its specific geometrical parameters. This approach leads to a good resemblance between the simulations and their corresponding measurements.

  13. Reactogenicity and immunogenicity of measles-rubella combined vaccine in school-entry-aged subjects with naturally acquired measles immunity. (United States)

    Kumagai, Takuji; Ihara, Toshiaki; Nakayama, Tetsuo; Nagata, Nobuo; Kamiya, Hitoshi


    The reintroduction of measles-rubella combined (MR) vaccination to Japan raised concerns about adverse events as well as immunogenicity related to booster immunization in subjects with naturally acquired immunity to measles or rubella. The time course of reactogenicity and antibody responses in recipients with pre-existing immunity to measles through natural infection was observed. Eighteen children aged 80-104 months received MR booster vaccination; 16 of them had had previous rubella vaccination. There were virtually no clinical reactions related to booster vaccination, and a highly significant antibody response to rubella antigen, whereas the antibody rise to measles was statistically significant but poor. Vaccination of individuals already immune is not harmful. Booster immunization to rubella for Japanese children is vitally important. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  14. Subjective cognitive complaints included in diagnostic evaluation of dementia helps accurate diagnosis in a mixed memory clinic cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salem, L C; Vogel, Asmus Mejling; Ebstrup, J


    functions were assessed with the Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and Addenbrooke's cognitive examination (ACE), and symptoms of depression were rated with Major Depression Inventory (MDI). All interviews and the diagnostic conclusion were blinded to the SMC score. RESULTS: We found that young patients......OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine the quantity and profile of subjective cognitive complaints in young patients as compared with elderly patients referred to a memory clinic. METHODS: Patients were consecutively recruited from the Copenhagen University Hospital Memory Clinic at Rigshospitalet....... In total, 307 patients and 149 age-matched healthy controls were included. Patients were classified in 4 diagnostic groups: dementia, mild cognitive impairment, affective disorders and no cognitive impairment. Subjective memory was assessed with subjective memory complaints (SMC) scale. Global cognitive...

  15. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo


    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  16. Spelling is just a click away – a user-centered brain-computer interface including auto-calibration and predictive text entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eKaufmann


    Full Text Available Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI based on event-related potentials (ERP allow for selection of characters from a visually presented character-matrix and thus provide a communication channel for users with neurodegenerative disease. Although they have been topic of research for more than 20 years and were multiply proven to be a reliable communication method, BCIs are almost exclusively used in experimental settings, handled by qualified experts. This study investigates if ERP-BCIs can be handled independently by laymen without expert interference, which is inevitable for establishing BCIs in end-user’s daily life situations. Furthermore we compared the classic character-by-character text entry against a predictive text entry (PTE that directly incorporates predictive text into the character matrix. N=19 BCI novices handled a user-centred ERP-BCI application on their own without expert interference. The software individually adjusted classifier weights and control parameters in the background, invisible to the user (auto-calibration. All participants were able to operate the software on their own and to twice correctly spell a sentence with the auto-calibrated classifier (once with PTE, once without. Our PTE increased spelling speed and importantly did not reduce accuracy. In sum, this study demonstrates feasibility of auto-calibrating ERP-BCI use, independently by laymen and the strong benefit of integrating predictive text directly into the character-matrix.

  17. Comorbid subjective health complaints in patients with sciatica: a prospective study including comparison with the general population. (United States)

    Grøvle, Lars; Haugen, Anne J; Ihlebaek, Camilla M; Keller, Anne; Natvig, Bård; Brox, Jens I; Grotle, Margreth


    Chronic nonspecific low back pain is accompanied by high rates of comorbid mental and physical conditions. The aims of this study were to investigate if patients with specific back pain, that is, sciatica caused by lumbar herniation, report higher rates of subjective health complaints (SHCs) than the general population and if there is an association between change in sciatica symptoms and change in SHCs over a 12-month period. A multicenter cohort study of 466 sciatica patients was conducted with follow-up at 3 months and 1 year. Comorbid SHCs were measured by 27 items of the SHC inventory. Odds ratios (ORs) for each SHC were calculated with comparison to a general population sample (n=928) by logistic regression. The SHC number was calculated by summing all complaints present. At baseline, the ORs for reporting SHCs for the sciatica patients were significantly elevated in 15 of the 27 items with a mean (S.D.) SHC number of 7.5 (4.4), compared to 5.2 (4.4) in the general population (Psciatica, the SHC number was reduced to normal levels. Among those with persisting or worsening sciatica, the number increased to a level almost double that of the general population. Compared to the general population, the prevalence of subjective health complaints in sciatica is increased. During follow-up, the number of health complaints increased in patients with persisting or worsening sciatica. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Importance to include the term superficial musculoaponeurotic system in medical subject headings and in the international anatomical nomenclature. (United States)

    Ferreira, Lydia Massako; Locali, Rafael Fagionato; Lapin, Guilherme Abbud Franco; Hochman, Bernardo


    To investigate the relevance of the term superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) and demonstrate that this term is important enough to be added to the MeSH database and listed in International Anatomical Nomenclature. Terms related to SMAS were selected from original articles retrieved from the ISI Web of Science and MEDLINE (PubMed) databases. Groups of terms were created to define a search strategy with high-sensitivity and restricted to scientific periodicals devoted to plastic surgery. This study included articles between January 1996 and May 2009, whose titles, abstracts, and keywords were searched for SMAS-related terms and all occurrences were recorded. A total of 126 original articles were retrieved from the main periodicals related to plastic surgery in the referred databases. Of these articles, 51.6% had SMAS-related terms in the abstract only, and 25.4% had SMAS-related terms in both the title and abstract. The term 'superficial musculoaponeurotic system' was present as a keyword in 19.8% of the articles. The most frequent terms were 'SMAS' (71.4%) and superficial musculoaponeurotic system (62.7%). The term SMAS refers to a structure relevant enough to start a discussion about indexing it as a keyword and as an official term in Terminologia Anatomica: International Anatomical Terminology.

  19. Data Entry Curriculum. (United States)

    Chinatown Manpower Project, Inc., New York, NY.

    This document describes a project that provides full-time training in the microcomputing area of data entry/word processing as well as job-specific English as a second language (ESL) to adults whose first language is Chinese. The project includes a component that develops the trainees' language proficiency in business communications while…

  20. The lifetime prevalence, health services utilization and risk of suicide of bipolar spectrum subjects, including subthreshold categories in the São Paulo ECA study. (United States)

    Moreno, Doris Hupfeld; Andrade, Laura Helena


    Identifying the bipolar (BP) spectrum, including the classic Bipolar I subtype (BP-I), Bipolar II (BP-II) and subthreshold bipolar disorders not meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria has raised growing interest, as these softer expressions of bipolar spectrum have been underdiagnosed in spite of clinical consequences. Data are from the Sao Paulo Epidemiological Catchment Area Study (N=1464). Non-affective controls were compared to BP spectrum groups, based on DSM-IIIR and on the "clinical significance" criteria: Subsyndromal Hypomania (SSH) and Manic Symptoms (MS). The lifetime prevalence of BP subgroups was 8.3% (N=122). All BP-I and -II and around 75% of SSH and MS subjects had a lifetime depressive syndrome. Compared to controls and MS subjects, BP-I, BP-II and SSH groups searched more medical help and mental health services. SSH group displayed higher rates of clinical significance than BP-I subjects, and suicidality was higher in BP groups compared to controls. Even the softer MS group had higher rate of suicide attempts than SSH subjects. This is a cross-sectional study and interviews were conducted by lay personnel. Replication in bigger community samples using a mood spectrum approach is necessary to confirm these findings. However, our findings were very similar to those obtained by other authors. Softer expressions of BP disorders appear in 6.6% of this community sample and have serious clinical consequences, which supports the importance of including these categories in the BP spectrum.

  1. US Ports of Entry (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — HSIP Non-Crossing Ports-of-Entry A Port of Entry is any designated place at which a CBP officer is authorized to accept entries of merchandise to collect duties, and...

  2. Evaluation of P300 components for emotion-loaded visual event-related potential in elderly subjects, including those with dementia. (United States)

    Asaumi, Yasue; Morita, Kiichiro; Nakashima, Youko; Muraoka, Akemi; Uchimura, Naohisa


    In the present study, the P300 component of the emotion-loaded visual event-related potential in response to photographs of babies crying or smiling was measured to evaluate cognitive function in elderly subjects, including those with dementia. The subjects were 48 elderly people who consulted a memory disorder clinic. The visual event-related potential was measured using oddball tasks. Brain waves were recorded from four sites. We analyzed the P300 amplitude and latency. Subjects were divided into three groups (the dementia with Alzheimer's disease group [ADG]; the intermediate group [MG], and the healthy group [HG]) based on the Revised Hasegawa Dementia Scale, Mini-mental State Examination scores and the Clinical Dementia Rating. For all subjects, there was a significant positive correlation between P300 latency and Z-score of voxel-based specific regional analysis for Alzheimer's disease for crying or smiling faces. There was a negative correlation between P300 amplitude and Z-score for the crying face. MG subjects were divided into two groups (high risk: HRMG, low risk: LRMG) based on Z-scores (HRMG ≥ 2.0). The P300 amplitude of ADG was significantly smaller than that of HG, and the P300 latency of ADG was significantly longer than those of other groups for crying or smiling faces. The P300 latency of HRMG was significantly longer than that of LRMG for the smiling face. Furthermore, the P300 latency for the crying face was significantly shorter than that for the smiling face in HG and ADG. These findings suggest that analysis of P300 components of the emotion-loaded visual event-related potential may be a useful neuropsychological index for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and high-risk subjects. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  3. Assessing blood brain barrier dynamics or identifying or measuring selected substances, including ethanol or toxins, in a subject by analyzing Raman spectrum signals (United States)

    Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor)


    A non-invasive method for analyzing the blood-brain barrier includes obtaining a Raman spectrum of a selected portion of the eye and monitoring the Raman spectrum to ascertain a change to the dynamics of the blood brain barrier.Also, non-invasive methods for determining the brain or blood level of an analyte of interest, such as glucose, drugs, alcohol, poisons, and the like, comprises: generating an excitation laser beam at a selected wavelength (e.g., at a wavelength of about 400 to 900 nanometers); focusing the excitation laser beam into the anterior chamber of an eye of the subject so that aqueous humor, vitreous humor, or one or more conjunctiva vessels in the eye is illuminated; detecting (preferably confocally detecting) a Raman spectrum from the illuminated portion of the eye; and then determining the blood level or brain level (intracranial or cerebral spinal fluid level) of an analyte of interest for the subject from the Raman spectrum. In certain embodiments, the detecting step may be followed by the step of subtracting a confounding fluorescence spectrum from the Raman spectrum to produce a difference spectrum; and determining the blood level and/or brain level of the analyte of interest for the subject from that difference spectrum, preferably using linear or nonlinear multivariate analysis such as partial least squares analysis. Apparatus for carrying out the foregoing methods are also disclosed.

  4. Physics-Based Modeling of Meteor Entry and Breakup (United States)

    Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Agrawal, Parul; Allen, Gary A., Jr.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Brandis, Aaron M.; Chen, Yih-Kang; Jaffe, Richard L.; Palmer, Grant E.; Saunders, David A.; Stern, Eric C.; hide


    A new research effort at NASA Ames Research Center has been initiated in Planetary Defense, which integrates the disciplines of planetary science, atmospheric entry physics, and physics-based risk assessment. This paper describes work within the new program and is focused on meteor entry and breakup.Over the last six decades significant effort was expended in the US and in Europe to understand meteor entry including ablation, fragmentation and airburst (if any) for various types of meteors ranging from stony to iron spectral types. These efforts have produced primarily empirical mathematical models based on observations. Weaknesses of these models, apart from their empiricism, are reliance on idealized shapes (spheres, cylinders, etc.) and simplified models for thermal response of meteoritic materials to aerodynamic and radiative heating. Furthermore, the fragmentation and energy release of meteors (airburst) is poorly understood.On the other hand, flight of human-made atmospheric entry capsules is well understood. The capsules and their requisite heatshields are designed and margined to survive entry. However, the highest speed Earth entry for capsules is 13 kms (Stardust). Furthermore, Earth entry capsules have never exceeded diameters of 5 m, nor have their peak aerothermal environments exceeded 0.3 atm and 1 kW/sq cm. The aims of the current work are: (i) to define the aerothermal environments for objects with entry velocities from 13 to 20 kms; (ii) to explore various hypotheses of fragmentation and airburst of stony meteors in the near term; (iii) to explore the possibility of performing relevant ground-based tests to verify candidate hypotheses; and (iv) to quantify the energy released in airbursts. The results of the new simulations will be used to anchor said risk assessment analyses. With these aims in mind, state-of-the-art entry capsule design tools are being extended for meteor entries. We describe: (i) applications of current simulation tools to

  5. Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicle: Aerodynamic and Aerothermal Analysis of Trajectory Environments (United States)

    Trumble, Kerry; Dyakonov, Artem; Fuller, John


    Multi-mission Earth Entry Vehicle (MMEEV) is designed to deliver small payloads from space to Earth's surface by flying an uncontrolled ballistic entry, which ends with ground impact. The included range of entry velocities is from 10 to 16 km/s. The range of ballistic coefficients is from 41.94 to 128.74 kg/m2, which insures a low subsonic terminal velocity on the order of 50 m/sec. The range of entry flight path angles, considered in this analysis is from -5 to -25 degrees. The assessment and parametric characterization of aeroheating and aerodynamic performance of the capsule during entry is the subject of this paper.

  6. Assessment of five different guideline indication criteria for spirometry, including modified GOLD criteria, in order to detect COPD: data from 5,315 subjects in the PLATINO study. (United States)

    Luize, Ana P; Menezes, Ana Maria B; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Muiño, Adriana; López, Maria Victorina; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Lisboa, Carmem; Montes de Oca, Maria; Tálamo, Carlos; Celli, Bartolomé; Nascimento, Oliver A; Gazzotti, Mariana R; Jardim, José R


    Spirometry is the gold standard for diagnosing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although there are a number of different guideline criteria for deciding who should be selected for spirometric screening, to date it is not known which criteria are the best based on sensitivity and specificity. Firstly, to evaluate the proportion of subjects in the PLATINO Study that would be recommended for spirometry testing according to Global initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD)-modified, American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP), National Lung Health Education Program (NLHEP), GOLD and American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) criteria. Secondly, we aimed to compare the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive and negative predictive values, of these five different criteria. Data from the PLATINO study included information on respiratory symptoms, smoking and previous spirometry testing. The GOLD-modified spirometry indication criteria are based on three positive answers out of five questions: the presence of cough, phlegm in the morning, dyspnoea, age over 40 years and smoking status. Data from 5,315 subjects were reviewed. Fewer people had an indication for spirometry (41.3%) according to the GOLD-modified criteria, and more people had an indication for spirometry (80.4%) by the GOLD and ATS/ERS criteria. A low percentage had previously had spirometry performed: GOLD-modified (14.5%); ACCP (13.2%); NLHEP (12.6%); and GOLD and ATS/ERS (12.3%). The GOLD-modified criteria showed the least sensitivity (54.9) and the highest specificity (61.0) for detecting COPD, whereas GOLD and ATS/ERS criteria showed the highest sensitivity (87.9) and the least specificity (20.8). There is a considerable difference in the indication for spirometry according to the five different guideline criteria. The GOLD-modified criteria recruit less people with the greatest sum of sensitivity and specificity.

  7. Should nonalcoholic fatty liver disease be included in the definition of metabolic syndrome? A cross-sectional comparison with Adult Treatment Panel III criteria in nonobese nondiabetic subjects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Musso, Giovanni; Gambino, Roberto; Bo, Simona; Uberti, Barbara; Biroli, Giampaolo; Pagano, Gianfranco; Cassader, Maurizio


    The ability of the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria of metabolic syndrome to identify insulin-resistant subjects at increased cardiovascular risk is suboptimal, especially in the absence of obesity and diabetes...

  8. Preventing re-entry to foster care. (United States)

    Carnochan, Sarah; Rizik-Baer, Daniel; Austin, Michael J


    Re-entry to foster care generally refers to circumstances in which children who have been discharged from foster care to be reunified with their family of origin, adopted, or provided kinship guardianship are returned to foster care. In the context of the federal performance measurement system, re-entry refers specifically to a return to foster care following an unsuccessful reunification. The federal Children and Family Services Review measures re-entry to foster care with a single indicator, called the permanency of reunification indicator, one of four indicators comprising the reunification composite measure. This review focuses on research related to the re-entry indicator, including the characteristics of children, caregivers and families, as well as case and child welfare services that are associated with a higher or lower risk of re-entry to foster care. Promising post-reunification services designed to prevent re-entry to foster care are described.

  9. Prevention of urinary tract infections with vitamin D supplementation 20,000 IU per week for five years. Results from an RCT including 511 subjects. (United States)

    Jorde, Rolf; Sollid, Stina T; Svartberg, Johan; Joakimsen, Ragnar M; Grimnes, Guri; Hutchinson, Moira Y S


    In observational studies vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased risk of infections, whereas the effect of vitamin D supplementation in randomized controlled trials is non-conclusive. Five hundred and eleven subjects with prediabetes were randomized to vitamin D3 (20,000 IU per week) versus placebo for five years. Every sixth month, a questionnaire on respiratory tract infections (RTI) (common cold, bronchitis, influenza) and urinary tract infection (UTI) was filled in. Mean baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level was 60 nmol/L. Two hundred and fifty-six subjects received vitamin D and 255 placebo. One hundred and sixteen subjects in the vitamin D and 111 in the placebo group completed the five-year study. Eighteen subjects in the vitamin D group and 34 subjects in the placebo group reported UTI during the study (p vitamin D on UTI was unrelated to baseline serum 25(OH)D level. Supplementation with vitamin D might prevent UTI, but confirmatory studies are needed.

  10. Entry at Venus (United States)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Smith, Brandon


    This is lecture to be given at the IPPW 2016, as part of the 2 day course on Short Course on Destination Venus: Science, Technology and Mission Architectures. The attached presentation material is intended to be introduction to entry aspects of Venus in-situ robotic missions. The presentation introduces the audience to the aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic aspects as well as the loads, both aero and thermal, generated during entry. The course touches upon the system design aspects such as TPS design and both high and low ballistic coefficient entry system concepts that allow the science payload to be protected from the extreme entry environment and yet meet the mission objectives.

  11. Should nonalcoholic fatty liver disease be included in the definition of metabolic syndrome? A cross-sectional comparison with Adult Treatment Panel III criteria in nonobese nondiabetic subjects. (United States)

    Musso, Giovanni; Gambino, Roberto; Bo, Simona; Uberti, Barbara; Biroli, Giampaolo; Pagano, Gianfranco; Cassader, Maurizio


    The ability of the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria of metabolic syndrome to identify insulin-resistant subjects at increased cardiovascular risk is suboptimal, especially in the absence of obesity and diabetes. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with insulin resistance and is emerging as an independent cardiovascular risk factor. We compared the strength of the associations of ATP III criteria and of NAFLD to insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction in nonobese nondiabetic subjects. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) >2, oxidative stress (nitrotyrosine), soluble adhesion molecules (intracellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and E-selectin), and circulating adipokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, leptin, adiponectin, and resistin) were cross-sectionally correlated to ATP III criteria and to NAFLD in 197 unselected nonobese nondiabetic subjects. NAFLD more accurately predicted insulin resistance than ATP III criteria: sensitivity 73 vs. 38% (P = 0.0001); positive predictive value: 81 vs. 62% (P = 0.035); negative predictive value 87 vs. 74% (P = 0.012); positive likelihood ratio 4.39 vs. 1.64 (P = 0.0001); and negative likelihood ratio 0.14 vs. 0.35 (P = 0.0001). Adding NAFLD to ATP III criteria significantly improved their diagnostic accuracy for insulin resistance. Furthermore, NAFLD independently predicted HOMA-IR, nitrotyrosine, and soluble adhesion molecules on logistic regression analysis; the presence of NAFLD entailed more severe oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction, independent of adiposity or any feature of the metabolic syndrome in insulin-resistant subjects. NAFLD is more tightly associated with insulin resistance and with markers of oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction than with ATP III criteria in nonobese nondiabetic subjects and may help identify individuals with increased cardiometabolic risk in this population.

  12. Including indigestible carbohydrates in the evening meal of healthy subjects improves glucose tolerance, lowers inflammatory markers, and increases satiety after a subsequent standardized breakfast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Anne C; Ostman, Elin M; Holst, Jens Juul


    tolerance and related variables after a subsequent standardized breakfast in healthy subjects (n = 15). At breakfast, blood was sampled for 3 h for analysis of blood glucose, serum insulin, serum FFA, serum triacylglycerides, plasma glucagon, plasma gastric-inhibitory peptide, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1...... (GLP-1), serum interleukin (IL)-6, serum IL-8, and plasma adiponectin. Satiety was subjectively rated after breakfast and the gastric emptying rate (GER) was determined using paracetamol as a marker. Breath hydrogen was measured as an indicator of colonic fermentation. Evening meals with barley kernel......-kernel bread compared with WWB. Breath hydrogen correlated positively with satiety (r = 0.27; P metabolic risk variables at breakfast...

  13. Double entry bookkeeping vs single entry bookkeeping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Andreica


    Full Text Available Abstract: A financial management eficiently begin, primarily, with an accounting record kept in the best possible conditions, this being conditioned on the adoption of a uniform forms, rational, clear and simple accounting. Throughout history, there have been known two forms of accounting: the simple and double entry. Romanian society after 1990 underwent a substantial change in social structure, the sector on which put a great emphasis being private, that of small manufacturers, peddler, freelance, who work independently and authorized or as associative form (family enterprises, various associations (owners, tenants, etc., liberal professions, etc.. They are obliged to keep a simple bookkeeping, because they have no juridical personality. Companies with legal personality are required to keep double entry bookkeeping; therefore, knowledge and border demarcation between the two forms of organisation of accounting is an essential. The material used for this work is mainly represented by the financial and accounting documents, by the analysis of the economic, by legislative updated sources, and as the method was used the comparison method, using hypothetical data, in case of an authorized individual and a legal entity. Based on the chosen material, an authorized individual (who perform single entry accounting system and a juridical entity (who perform double entry accounting system were selected comparative case studies, using hypothetical data, were analysed advantages and disadvantages in term of fiscal, if using two accounting systems, then were highlighted some conclusion that result.

  14. Entry Skills for BSNs. (United States)

    Stull, Mary K.


    Describes the Continuing Education for Consensus on Entry Skills project, designed to bring the expectations of nursing service and nursing education closer on entry-level competencies of new baccalaureate graduates. Discusses teaching and collaboration skills, planning and evaluation of patient care skills, interpersonal relations/communication…

  15. Including indigestible carbohydrates in the evening meal of healthy subjects improves glucose tolerance, lowers inflammatory markers, and increases satiety after a subsequent standardized breakfast. (United States)

    Nilsson, Anne C; Ostman, Elin M; Holst, Jens J; Björck, Inger M E


    Low-glycemic index (GI) foods and foods rich in whole grain are associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We studied the effect of cereal-based bread evening meals (50 g available starch), varying in GI and content of indigestible carbohydrates, on glucose tolerance and related variables after a subsequent standardized breakfast in healthy subjects (n = 15). At breakfast, blood was sampled for 3 h for analysis of blood glucose, serum insulin, serum FFA, serum triacylglycerides, plasma glucagon, plasma gastric-inhibitory peptide, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), serum interleukin (IL)-6, serum IL-8, and plasma adiponectin. Satiety was subjectively rated after breakfast and the gastric emptying rate (GER) was determined using paracetamol as a marker. Breath hydrogen was measured as an indicator of colonic fermentation. Evening meals with barley kernel based bread (ordinary, high-amylose- or beta-glucan-rich genotypes) or an evening meal with white wheat flour bread (WWB) enriched with a mixture of barley fiber and resistant starch improved glucose tolerance at the subsequent breakfast compared with unsupplemented WWB (P carbohydrates of the evening meal may affect glycemic excursions and related metabolic risk variables at breakfast through a mechanism involving colonic fermentation. The results provide evidence for a link between gut microbial metabolism and key factors associated with insulin resistance.

  16. Postprandial effects of test meals including concentrated arabinoxylan and whole grain rye in subjects with the metabolic syndrome: a randomised study. (United States)

    Hartvigsen, M L; Lærke, H N; Overgaard, A; Holst, J J; Bach Knudsen, K E; Hermansen, K


    Prospective studies have shown an inverse relationship between whole grain consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes, where short chain fatty acids (SCFA) may be involved. Our objective was to determine the effect of isolated arabinoxylan alone or in combination with whole grain rye kernels on postprandial glucose, insulin, free fatty acids (FFA), gut hormones, SCFA and appetite in subjects with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Fifteen subjects with MetS participated in this acute, randomised, cross-over study. The test meals each providing 50 g of digestible carbohydrate were as follows: semolina porridge added concentrated arabinoxylan (AX), rye kernels (RK) or concentrated arabinoxylan combined with rye kernels (AXRK) and semolina porridge as control (SE). A standard lunch was served 4 h after the test meals. Blood samples were drawn during a 6-h period, and appetite scores and breath hydrogen were assessed every 30 min. The AXRK meal reduced the acute glucose (P=0.005) and insulin responses (P<0.001) and the feeling of hunger (P=0.005; 0-360 min) compared with the control meal. The AX and AXRK meals increased butyrate and acetate concentrations after 6 h. No significant differences were found for the second meal responses of glucose, insulin, FFA, glucagon-like peptide-1 or ghrelin. Our results indicate a stimulatory effect of arabinoxylan on butyrate and acetate production, however, with no detectable effect on the second meal glucose response. It remains to be tested in a long-term study if a beneficial effect on the glucose response of the isolated arabinoxylan will be related to the SCFA production.

  17. Stoichiometric parameters of HIV-1 entry. (United States)

    Zarr, Melissa; Siliciano, Robert


    During HIV type 1 (HIV-1) entry, trimers of gp120 bind to CD4 and either the CCR5 or CXCR4 coreceptor on the target cell. The stoichiometric parameters associated with HIV-1 entry remain unclear. Important unanswered questions include: how many trimers must attach to CD4 molecules, how many must bind coreceptors, and how many functional gp120 subunits per trimer are required for entry? We performed single round infectivity assays with chimeric viruses and compared the experimental relative infectivity curves with curves generated by mathematical models. Our results indicate that HIV-1 entry requires only a small number of functional spikes (one or two), that Env trimers may function with fewer than three active subunits, and that there is no major difference in the stoichiometric requirements for CCR5 vs. CXCR4 mediated HIV-1 entry into host cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Border Crossing Entry Data (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics for inbound crossings at the U.S.-Canadian and the U.S.-Mexican...

  19. Small Ubiquitin-Like Modifier 4 (SUMO4 Gene M55V Polymorphism and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-analysis Including 6,823 Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-yan Li


    Full Text Available BackgroundMany studies suggest that the small ubiquitin-like modifier 4 (SUMO4 M55V gene polymorphism (rs237025 may be associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. However, due to other conflicting results, a clear consensus is lacking in the matter.Objective and methodsA meta-analysis consisting of 6,823 subjects from 10 studies was conducted to elucidate relationship between the SUMO4 M55V gene polymorphism and T2DM. Depending on the heterogeneity of the data, either a fixed or random-effects model would be used to assess the combined odds ratio (ORs and their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI.ResultsSUMO4 gene M55V polymorphism was significantly associated with T2DM in the whole population under allelic (OR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.10–1.28, P = 1.63 × 10−5, recessive (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.14–2.23, P = 0.006, dominant (OR: 0.815, 95% CI: 0.737–0.901, P = 6.89 × 10−5, homozygous (OR: 1.415, 95% CI: 1.170–1.710, P = 0.0003, heterozygous (OR: 1.191, 95% CI: 1.072–1.323, P = 0.001, and additive genetic models (OR: 1.184, 95% CI: 1.097–1.279, P = 1.63 × 10−5. In our subgroup analysis, a significant association was found again in the Chinese population, but not in Japanese or Iranian population.ConclusionSUMO4 gene M55V polymorphism may correlate with increased T2DM risk. Chinese carriers of the V allele of the SUMO4 gene M55V polymorphism may be predisposed to developing T2DM.

  20. Retrovirus Entry by Endocytosis and Cathepsin Proteases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinao Kubo


    Full Text Available Retroviruses include infectious agents inducing severe diseases in humans and animals. In addition, retroviruses are widely used as tools to transfer genes of interest to target cells. Understanding the entry mechanism of retroviruses contributes to developments of novel therapeutic approaches against retrovirus-induced diseases and efficient exploitation of retroviral vectors. Entry of enveloped viruses into host cell cytoplasm is achieved by fusion between the viral envelope and host cell membranes at either the cell surface or intracellular vesicles. Many animal retroviruses enter host cells through endosomes and require endosome acidification. Ecotropic murine leukemia virus entry requires cathepsin proteases activated by the endosome acidification. CD4-dependent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection is thought to occur via endosomes, but endosome acidification is not necessary for the entry whereas entry of CD4-independent HIVs, which are thought to be prototypes of CD4-dependent viruses, is low pH dependent. There are several controversial results on the retroviral entry pathways. Because endocytosis and endosome acidification are complicatedly controlled by cellular mechanisms, the retrovirus entry pathways may be different in different cell lines.

  1. 19 CFR 151.64 - Extra copy of entry summary. (United States)


    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.64 Extra copy of entry summary. One extra copy of the entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate per clean kilogram shall be filed in addition to the copies otherwise required. ...

  2. 19 CFR 151.63 - Information on entry summary. (United States)


    ... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.63 Information on entry summary. Each entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate per clean... estimated or actual net weight of the wool or hair in its condition as imported, its total estimated clean...

  3. Viral Entry into Cells (United States)

    D'Orsogna, Maria R.


    Successful viral infection of a healthy cell requires complex host-pathogen interactions. In this talk we focus on the dynamics specific to the HIV virus entering a eucaryotic cell. We model viral entry as a stochastic engagement of receptors and coreceptors on the cell surface. We also consider the transport of virus material to the cell nucleus by coupling microtubular motion to the concurrent biochemical transformations that render the viral material competent for nuclear entry. We discuss both mathematical and biological consequences of our model, such as the formulation of an effective integrodifferential boundary condition embodying a memory kernel and optimal timing in maximizing viral probabilities.

  4. Remodeling of Calcium Entry Pathways in Cancer. (United States)

    Villalobos, Carlos; Sobradillo, Diego; Hernández-Morales, Miriam; Núñez, Lucía


    Ca(2+) entry pathways play important roles in control of many cellular functions, including long-term proliferation, migration and cell death. In recent years, it is becoming increasingly clear that, in some types of tumors, remodeling of Ca(2+) entry pathways could contribute to cancer hallmarks such as excessive proliferation, cell migration and invasion as well as resistance to cell death or survival. In this chapter we briefly review findings related to remodeling of Ca(2+) entry pathways in cancer with emphasis on the mechanisms that contribute to increased store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) and store-operated currents (SOCs) in colorectal cancer cells. Finally, since SOCE appears critically involved in colon tumorogenesis, the inhibition of SOCE by aspirin and other NSAIDs and its possible contribution to colon cancer chemoprevention is reviewed.

  5. Lobbying on entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; Volpin, P.


    We develop a model of endogenous lobby formation in which wealth inequality and political accountability undermine entry and financial development. Incumbents seek a low level of effective investor protection to prevent potential entrants from raising capital. They succeed because they can promise

  6. Current Research in Bookkeeping/Accounting and Basic Business Subjects (United States)

    Nanassy, Louis C., Comp.


    Listed are 26 doctoral and masters theses completed during the years 1974-5 involving research in bookkeeping/accounting and basic business subjects. The entries are arranged alphabetically by author and include the title of the study and the name of the associated institution. (MS)

  7. Atmospheric Entry Experiments at IRS (United States)

    Auweter-Kurtz, M.; Endlich, P.; Herdrich, G.; Kurtz, H.; Laux, T.; Löhle, S.; Nazina, N.; Pidan, S.


    Entering the atmosphere of celestial bodies, spacecrafts encounter gases at velocities of several km/s, thereby being subjected to great heat loads. The thermal protection systems and the environment (plasma) have to be investigated by means of computational and ground facility based simulations. For more than a decade, plasma wind tunnels at IRS have been used for the investigation of TPS materials. Nevertheless, ground tests and computer simulations cannot re- place space flights completely. Particularly, entry mission phases encounter challenging problems, such as hypersonic aerothermodynamics. Concerning the TPS, radiation-cooled materials used for reuseable spacecrafts and ablator tech- nologies are of importance. Besides the mentioned technologies, there is the goal to manage guidance navigation, con- trol, landing technology and inflatable technologies such as ballutes that aim to keep vehicles in the atmosphere without landing. The requirement to save mass and energy for planned interplanetary missions such as Mars Society Balloon Mission, Mars Sample Return Mission, Mars Express or Venus Sample Return mission led to the need for manoeuvres like aerocapture, aero-breaking and hyperbolic entries. All three are characterized by very high kinetic vehicle energies to be dissipated by the manoeuvre. In this field flight data are rare. The importance of these manoeuvres and the need to increase the knowledge of required TPS designs and behavior during such mission phases point out the need of flight experiments. As result of the experience within the plasma diagnostic tool development and the plasma wind tunnel data base, flight experiments like the PYrometric RE-entry EXperiment PYREX were developed, fully qualified and successfully flown. Flight experiments such as the entry spectrometer RESPECT and PYREX on HOPE-X are in the conceptual phase. To increase knowledge in the scope of atmospheric manoeuvres and entries, data bases have to be created combining both

  8. Deployable Entry-system Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Deployable Entry-system ProjecT (ADEPT) will develop requirements for the ADEPT flight test.  Prior entry systems used high mass thermal protection...

  9. Entry Decision and Pricing Policies


    Sílvia Jorge; Cesaltina Pires


    We extend the analysis of the impact of firms' pricing policies upon entry to a framework where price competition and differentiated products are present. We consider a model where an incumbent serves two distinct and independent geographical markets and an entrant may enter in one of the markets. Entry under discriminatory pricing is more likely than under uniform pricing when entry is profitable under discriminatory pricing but unprofitable under uniform pricing. Our results show entry unde...

  10. Titan Atmospheric Entry Radiative Heating (United States)

    Brandis, Aaron; Cruden, Brett


    Detailed spectrally and spatially resolved radiance has been measured in the Electric Arc Shock Tube for conditions relevant to Titan entry, varying atmospheric composition, free-stream density (equivalent to altitude) and shock velocity. Permutations in atmospheric composition include 1.1, 2, 5 and 8.6 CH4 by mole with a balance of N2 and 1.5 CH4 0.5 Ar 98 N2 by mole, which is consistent with the current understanding of Titan's atmosphere. The effect of gas impurities identified in previous shock tube studies were also examined by testing in pure N2 and deliberate addition of air to the CH4N2 mixtures. The test campaign measured radiation at velocities from 4.7 kms to 8 kms and free-stream pressures from 0.1 to 0.47 Torr. These conditions cover a range of potential trajectories for flight missions, including a direct ballistic trajectory, a fly by or an extremely high speed entry. Radiances measured in this work are substantially larger compared to that reported both in past EAST test campaigns and other shock tube facilities. Depending on the metric used for comparison, the discrepancy can be as high as an order of magnitude. Potential causes for the discrepancy, such as the effect of oxygen due to Air leakage, gas composition and purity are discussed. The present work provides a new benchmark set of data to replace those published in previous studies.

  11. Paralympic Games sport entries mamual



    This manual is designed to provide National Paralympic Committees (NPCs) with the Paralympic Sport Entries process, relevant policies, and instructions for completing the online registration for athletes participating in the Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games and to assist NPCs in using the online Sport Entries and Qualification (ePEQ) system to complete the entries of their athletes to the Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games.

  12. Advertising and generic market entry. (United States)

    Königbauer, Ingrid


    The effect of purely persuasive advertising on generic market entry and social welfare is analysed. An incumbent has the possibility to invest in advertising which affects the prescribing physician's perceived relative qualities of the brand-name and the generic version of the drug. Advertising creates product differentiation and can induce generic market entry which is deterred without differentiation due to strong Bertrand competition. However, over-investment in advertising can deter generic market entry under certain conditions and reduces welfare as compared to accommodated market entry.

  13. Entry ramps in the Nagel-Schreckenberg model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Monrad; Ruhoff, Peder Thusgaard


    This paper describes a way of including entry ramps in the Nagel-Schreckenberg traffic model. The idea is to place what are called shadow cars on a highway next to cars on entry ramps, which enables the drivers to take ramp cars into account. The model is shown to capture important real...

  14. 27 CFR 20.27 - Right of entry and examination. (United States)


    ... Administrative Provisions Authorities § 20.27 Right of entry and examination. An appropriate TTB officer may... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Right of entry and... spirits, denatured alcohol, specially denatured rum or articles (including any substance for use in the...

  15. Tactile Data Entry for Extravehicular Activity (United States)

    Adams, Richard J.; Olowin, Aaron B.; Hannaford, Blake; Sands, O Scott


    In the task-saturated environment of extravehicular activity (EVA), an astronaut's ability to leverage suit-integrated information systems is limited by a lack of options for data entry. In particular, bulky gloves inhibit the ability to interact with standard computing interfaces such as a mouse or keyboard. This paper presents the results of a preliminary investigation into a system that permits the space suit gloves themselves to be used as data entry devices. Hand motion tracking is combined with simple finger gesture recognition to enable use of a virtual keyboard, while tactile feedback provides touch-based context to the graphical user interface (GUI) and positive confirmation of keystroke events. In human subject trials, conducted with twenty participants using a prototype system, participants entered text significantly faster with tactile feedback than without (p = 0.02). The results support incorporation of vibrotactile information in a future system that will enable full touch typing and general mouse interactions using instrumented EVA gloves.

  16. An Examination of Market Entry Perspectives in Emerging Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin O. Bates


    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this article is to describe the marketing-oriented market entry approaches that businesses are currently using across the three levels of the world economic pyramid (i.e., WEP. These levels are the Top-tier, the Middle-tier, and the Base of the Pyramid-tier (i.e., BoP-tier. Methodology – The literature of the BoP was reviewed, and market entry approaches were itemized across the three WEP levels. Secondly, BoP strategic theorists including Prahalad identified the need for a BoP marketing focus replacing the traditional 4Ps marketing approach (i.e., Product, Price, Place and Promotion with the BoP-specific 4As marketing approach (i.e., Awareness, Affordability, Access and Availability. This 4As marketing approach is discussed. Findings – New marketing-oriented market-entry approaches are proposed for each of the three WEP levels. These approaches are based on where in the WEP the firm currently exists, and where in the WEP the firm desires to refocus market-entry activities; identified approaches include: inter-country expansion, intra-country entry, adjacent market entry, and extended market entry. Secondly, the absence of a clearly articulated marketing strategy for middle-tier markets was observed. Practical implications – This article has two specific applications. First, it summarizes the evolving market entry perspectives to provide a context for future market research in both emerging markets and the pre-emerging BoP markets. Second, the future requirement for an articulated marketing strategy for middle-tier markets is suggested. Originality – This article examined existing market entry approaches across all three levels of the WEP, inclusive of the BoP economic level. The language used to clarify market entry movements was extended, providing a specificity of description not previously found in either the existing market entry or BoP literature.

  17. Keyboard data entry use among osteopathic medical students and residents. (United States)

    Helstrom, Julia M; Langenau, Erik E; Sandella, Jeanne M; Mote, Beth L


    Candidates taking the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination-USA Level 2-Performance Evaluation (COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE) are currently evaluated on their ability to document clinical findings using a handwritten postencounter note. However, keyboard data entry is increasingly used for medical documentation. To determine the use and perception of keyboard data entry among osteopathic medical students and residents in educational and clinical settings. A Web-based survey regarding frequency of and preference for keyboard data entry was distributed to 9801 osteopathic medical students, 17,268 osteopathic residents, and 34 clinical deans of colleges of osteopathic medicine (COMs). In addition, 31 COMs' clinical skills center directors were contacted to participate in a telephone survey about the use of keyboard data entry in their centers. A total of 1711 students, 1198 residents, 14 clinical deans, and 17 clinical skills center directors responded to the surveys. The majority of students (872 [51%]) reported using electronic keyboard data entry at their COM's clinical skills center for postencounter notes. Among respondents, 379 students (23%), 77 residents (9%), and 1 clinical dean reported that electronic keyboard data entry is never or rarely used during clinical rotations. Most trainees (1592 students [93%], 864 residents [94%]) reported that they were either comfortable or very comfortable with typing. Given the option of recording methods for SOAP (subjective, objective, assessment, plan) note findings on the COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE, 7 clinical deans were unsure of their students' preferences, while the remaining favored keyboard data entry (5) over handwriting (2). The majority of student and resident respondents would choose keyboard data entry (1009 [60%] and 511 [55%], respectively). Osteopathic medical students and residents are comfortable with typing; they are exposed to and would prefer using an electronic form of entry for medical

  18. 75 FR 26797 - Cummins Power Generation, Including On-Site Leased Workers of Adecco USA, Inc., Aerotek, Inc... (United States)


    ... of foreign workers into the United States to produce articles at the subject firm with the.... It is the importation of like or directly competitive articles (and not the entry of foreign workers...] Cummins Power Generation, Including On-Site Leased Workers of Adecco USA, Inc., Aerotek, Inc., the Bartech...

  19. Demographic and academic-related differences between standard-entry and graduate-entry nursing students: a prospective correlational survey. (United States)

    Everett, Bronwyn; Salamonson, Yenna; Trajkovski, Suza; Fernandez, Ritin


    Students who enroll in graduate-entry nursing programs are described as more highly motivated, scoring higher in most learning strategies, and achieving greater academic success than standard-entry nursing students. A prospective correlational design was used to compare the demographic and academic-related characteristics of standard-entry and graduate-entry nursing students in their first year of study. Between 2007 and 2011, students enrolled in the Bachelor of Nursing, Standard Entry and the Bachelor Nursing, Graduate Entry at a large Australian university were surveyed in the first year of their program. Data included English-language usage and time spent in paid work, as well as four dimensions of Pintrich's Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire. Survey data was linked to students' academic grades at the end of the semester. A total of 730 students completed the survey and consented to collection of their academic grades. Graduate-entry students were more likely to be older (28.6 vs. 24.3 years, P groups for use of Extrinsic Goal Orientation as a learning strategy, the graduate-entry students were more likely to identify Peer Learning, Help Seeking and Critical Thinking as strategies for learning than the standard-entry students (P group of students achieved a higher mean GPA (4.8 vs. 4.0, P groups, lower levels of English-language proficiency and increased time spent in paid work were predictors of poorer academic performance. Similar to US-based studies, demographic and academic-related differences were identified between standard-entry and graduate-entry nursing students. However, the study also highlights lower levels of English-language proficiency and increased time spent in paid work negatively impacted academic performance in both groups of nursing students. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Coronaviruses induce entry-independent, continuous macropinocytosis. (United States)

    Freeman, Megan Culler; Peek, Christopher T; Becker, Michelle M; Smith, Everett Clinton; Denison, Mark R


    Macropinocytosis is exploited by many pathogens for entry into cells. Coronaviruses (CoVs) such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV are important human pathogens; however, macropinocytosis during CoV infection has not been investigated. We demonstrate that the CoVs SARS CoV and murine hepatitis virus (MHV) induce macropinocytosis, which occurs late during infection, is continuous, and is not associated with virus entry. MHV-induced macropinocytosis results in vesicle internalization, as well as extended filopodia capable of fusing with distant cells. MHV-induced macropinocytosis requires fusogenic spike protein on the cell surface and is dependent on epidermal growth factor receptor activation. Inhibition of macropinocytosis reduces supernatant viral titers and syncytia but not intracellular virus titers. These results indicate that macropinocytosis likely facilitates CoV infection through enhanced cell-to-cell spreading. Our studies are the first to demonstrate virus use of macropinocytosis for a role other than entry and suggest a much broader potential exploitation of macropinocytosis in virus replication and host interactions. Importance: Coronaviruses (CoVs), including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV, are critical emerging human pathogens. Macropinocytosis is induced by many pathogens to enter host cells, but other functions for macropinocytosis in virus replication are unknown. In this work, we show that CoVs induce a macropinocytosis late in infection that is continuous, independent from cell entry, and associated with increased virus titers and cell fusion. Murine hepatitis virus macropinocytosis requires a fusogenic virus spike protein and signals through the epidermal growth factor receptor and the classical macropinocytosis pathway. These studies demonstrate CoV induction of macropinocytosis for a purpose other than entry and indicate that viruses

  1. HIV: cell binding and entry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilen, Craig B; Tilton, John C; Doms, Robert W


    The first step of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication cycle-binding and entry into the host cell-plays a major role in determining viral tropism and the ability of HIV to degrade the human immune system...

  2. Tactile Data Entry System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Building on our successful Phase I Tactile Data Entry program, Barron Associates proposes development of a Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO) system to permit...

  3. Assessment of the ATV-1 Re-Entry Observation Campaign for Future Re-Entry Missions (United States)

    Lips, T.; Lohle, S.; Marynowsky, T.; Rees, D.; Stenbeak-Nielsen, H. C.; Beks, M. L.; Hatton, J.


    This paper summarizes the midterm results of the currently ongoing ESA study “Assessment of the ATV-1 Reentry Observation Campaign for Future Re-entry Missions”. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the data obtained during a joint ESA/NASA airborne observation campaign of the destructive re-entry of ATV-1 Jules Verne which occurred on September 29, 2008. The presented results are focused on spectroscopic fragment characterization(material identification), frame-by-frame fragment tracking(manual and automatic) for various video recordings, 3D triangulation of the tracked fragments, and fragment propagation until complete demise or ground impact, including the actual size and location of the ATV-1 debris footprint. Fragment propagation analyses comprise also the derivation of aerodynamic fragment properties and potential delta velocities. These parameters are of high importance for the re-entry safety analysis for ATV-2 Johannes Kepler.

  4. Simulation-Based Analysis of Reentry Dynamics for the Sharp Atmospheric Entry Vehicle (United States)

    Tillier, Clemens Emmanuel


    This thesis describes the analysis of the reentry dynamics of a high-performance lifting atmospheric entry vehicle through numerical simulation tools. The vehicle, named SHARP, is currently being developed by the Thermal Protection Materials and Systems branch of NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. The goal of this project is to provide insight into trajectory tradeoffs and vehicle dynamics using simulation tools that are powerful, flexible, user-friendly and inexpensive. Implemented Using MATLAB and SIMULINK, these tools are developed with an eye towards further use in the conceptual design of the SHARP vehicle's trajectory and flight control systems. A trajectory simulator is used to quantify the entry capabilities of the vehicle subject to various operational constraints. Using an aerodynamic database computed by NASA and a model of the earth, the simulator generates the vehicle trajectory in three-dimensional space based on aerodynamic angle inputs. Requirements for entry along the SHARP aerothermal performance constraint are evaluated for different control strategies. Effect of vehicle mass on entry parameters is investigated, and the cross range capability of the vehicle is evaluated. Trajectory results are presented and interpreted. A six degree of freedom simulator builds on the trajectory simulator and provides attitude simulation for future entry controls development. A Newtonian aerodynamic model including control surfaces and a mass model are developed. A visualization tool for interpreting simulation results is described. Control surfaces are roughly sized. A simple controller is developed to fly the vehicle along its aerothermal performance constraint using aerodynamic flaps for control. This end-to-end demonstration proves the suitability of the 6-DOF simulator for future flight control system development. Finally, issues surrounding real-time simulation with hardware in the loop are discussed.

  5. Communications Blackout Predictions for Atmospheric Entry of Mars Science Laboratory (United States)

    Morabito, David D.; Edquist, Karl


    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is expected to be a long-range, long-duration science laboratory rover on the Martian surface. MSL will provide a significant milestone that paves the way for future landed missions to Mars. NASA is studying options to launch MSL as early as 2009. MSL will be the first mission to demonstrate the new technology of 'smart landers', which include precision landing and hazard avoidance in order to -land at scientifically interesting sites that would otherwise be unreachable. There are three elements to the spacecraft; carrier (cruise stage), entry vehicle, and rover. The rover will have an X-band direct-to-Earth (DTE) link as well as a UHF proximity link. There is also a possibility of an X-band proximity link. Given the importance of collecting critical event telemetry data during atmospheric entry, it is important to understand the ability of a signal link to be maintained, especially during the period near peak convective heating. The received telemetry during entry (or played back later) will allow for the performance of the Entry-Descent-Landing technologies to be assessed. These technologies include guided entry for precision landing, hazard avoidance, a new sky-crane landing system and powered descent. MSL will undergo an entry profile that may result in a potential communications blackout caused by ionized plasma for short periods near peak heating. The vehicle will use UHF and possibly X-band during the entry phase. The purpose of this report is to quantify or bound the likelihood of any such blackout at UHF frequencies (401 MHz) and X-band frequencies (8.4 GHz). Two entry trajectory scenarios were evaluated: a stressful entry trajectory to quantify an upper-bound for any possible blackout period, and a nominal likely trajectory to quantify likelihood of blackout for such cases.

  6. Autonomous gliding entry guidance with

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Jie


    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel three-dimensional autonomous entry guidance for relatively high lift-to-drag ratio vehicles satisfying geographic constraints and other path constraints. The guidance is composed of onboard trajectory planning and robust trajectory tracking. For trajectory planning, a longitudinal sub-planner is introduced to generate a feasible drag-versus-energy profile by using the interpolation between upper boundary and lower boundary of entry corridor to get the desired trajectory length. The associated magnitude of the bank angle can be specified by drag profile, while the sign of bank angle is determined by lateral sub-planner. Two-reverse mode is utilized to satisfy waypoint constraints and dynamic heading error corridor is utilized to satisfy no-fly zone constraints. The longitudinal and lateral sub-planners are iteratively employed until all of the path constraints are satisfied. For trajectory tracking, a novel tracking law based on the active disturbance rejection control is introduced. Finally, adaptability tests and Monte Carlo simulations of the entry guidance approach are performed. Results show that the proposed entry guidance approach can adapt to different entry missions and is able to make the vehicle reach the prescribed target point precisely in spite of geographic constraints.

  7. How Dictionary Users Choose Senses in Bilingual Dictionary Entries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: We use modern eye-tracking technology to scrutinize the process of sense and equivalent selection in polysemous bilingual entries. Our study subjects, intermediate and advanced Polish learners of English, consulted 26 Polish-to-English dictionary pages prompted with a sentence translation task. Throughout the ...

  8. Effects of Guidance Techniques and Initial/Entry Career Maturity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    while the fourth group was exposed to a non-specific treatment (drug abuse). The design is a 4 x 2 factorial with fixed effect consisting of initial/entry career behaviour (high & low) and treatment/control groups. Data d erived from the post treatment were subjected to 2-way analysis of variance. The results of the study show ...

  9. Newly designed launch and entry suit (LES) modeled by technician (United States)


    Space shuttle orange launch and entry suit (LES), a partial pressure suit, is modeled by a technician. LES was designed for STS-26, the return to flight mission, and subsequent missions. Included in the crew escape system (CES) package are launch and entry helmet (LEH) with communications carrier (COMM CAP), parachute pack and harness, life raft, life preserver unit (LPU), LES gloves, suit oxygen manifold and valves, boots, and survival gear.

  10. Spacecraft entry into an atmosphere (United States)

    Iaroshevskii, Vasilii A.

    Problems related to the safe entry of spacecraft into the earth or other planetary atmospheres are discussed in a general manner. Attention is given to restrictions imposed on dynamical and thermal overloads, and an analysis is made of the aerodynamic characteristics of space vehicles of different types. Analytical and semianalytical methods for calculating entry trajectories are compared, and the applicability regions of approximate solutions are determined. The discussion also covers reentry trajectory optimization problems and the principal types of perturbations and navigation and control techniques.

  11. Regulation of entry into gametogenesis. (United States)

    van Werven, Folkert J; Amon, Angelika


    Gametogenesis is a fundamental aspect of sexual reproduction in eukaryotes. In the unicellular fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast) and Schizosaccharomyces pombe (fission yeast), where this developmental programme has been extensively studied, entry into gametogenesis requires the convergence of multiple signals on the promoter of a master regulator. Starvation signals and cellular mating-type information promote the transcription of cell fate inducers, which in turn initiate a transcriptional cascade that propels a unique type of cell division, meiosis, and gamete morphogenesis. Here, we will provide an overview of how entry into gametogenesis is initiated in budding and fission yeast and discuss potential conserved features in the germ cell development of higher eukaryotes.

  12. Economics of entry into marriage


    Bowmaker, Simon W.


    This thesis contains three studies on the economics of entry into marriage; a life event that has been shown to have significant implications for the well-being (economic and otherwise) of men, women and their children. The first study examines the effect of family background on the timing of first marriage of 7,853 individuals born in 1970 in Great Britain. Hazard model analysis reveals that high levels of parental resources serve to delay entry into marriage for both males and femal...

  13. 9 CFR 381.208 - Poultry products offered for entry and entered to be handled and transported as domestic; entry... (United States)


    ... Cosmetic Act. (b) Poultry products entered in accordance with this subpart may, subject to the provisions... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry products offered for entry and....208 Section 381.208 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  14. Entry Facilitation by Environmental Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Made, Allard; Schoonbeek, Lambert

    We consider a model of vertical product differentiation where consumers care about the environmental damage their consumption causes. An environmental group is capable of increasing consumers' environmental concern via a costly campaign. We show that the prospect of such a campaign can induce entry

  15. Phoebus: A Hypervelocity Entry Demonstrator (United States)

    Ferracina, L.; Marraffa, L.; Longo, J.


    ESA is today considering various missions, such as Marco Polo R and (Moon of) Mars Sample Return, requiring capsules re-entering the Earth atmosphere at speeds up to 13 km/s.To mature critical high speed re-entry technologies and consequently to speed-up the development and reduce the development cost (and cost uncertainties) for future sample return mission, an in-flight technology demonstrator, named PHOEBUS (Project for a High- speed Of Entry Ballistic multi-User System), is presently under investigation at the European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) of ESA.This paper focuses on the preliminary aerothermodynamics feasibility assessment conducted within the Concurrent Design Facility (CDF) study at ESA-ESTEC for the design of the PHOEBUS re-entry capsule starting from a parametric analysis of the entry phase to enable a preliminary design and a baseline configuration selection and concluded with non- equilibrium reacting flow computations coupled with radiation and transport simulations to estimate the heat flux experience by the TPS at few selected trajectory points.

  16. Forcing Entry into the Nucleus. (United States)

    Lomakin, Alexis; Nader, Guilherme; Piel, Matthieu


    Nuclear pore complexes tightly regulate nucleo-cytoplasmic transport, controlling the nuclear concentration of several transcription factors. In a recent issue of Cell, Elosegui-Artola et al. (2017) show that nuclear deformation modulates the nuclear entry rates of YAP/TAZ via nuclear pore stretching, clarifying how forces affect gene transcription. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Text Entry by Gazing and Smiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Outi Tuisku


    Full Text Available Face Interface is a wearable prototype that combines the use of voluntary gaze direction and facial activations, for pointing and selecting objects on a computer screen, respectively. The aim was to investigate the functionality of the prototype for entering text. First, three on-screen keyboard layout designs were developed and tested (n=10 to find a layout that would be more suitable for text entry with the prototype than traditional QWERTY layout. The task was to enter one word ten times with each of the layouts by pointing letters with gaze and select them by smiling. Subjective ratings showed that a layout with large keys on the edge and small keys near the center of the keyboard was rated as the most enjoyable, clearest, and most functional. Second, using this layout, the aim of the second experiment (n=12 was to compare entering text with Face Interface to entering text with mouse. The results showed that text entry rate for Face Interface was 20 characters per minute (cpm and 27 cpm for the mouse. For Face Interface, keystrokes per character (KSPC value was 1.1 and minimum string distance (MSD error rate was 0.12. These values compare especially well with other similar techniques.

  18. PDBsum: Structural summaries of PDB entries. (United States)

    Laskowski, Roman A; Jabłońska, Jagoda; Pravda, Lukáš; Vařeková, Radka Svobodová; Thornton, Janet M


    PDBsum is a web server providing structural information on the entries in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). The analyses are primarily image-based and include protein secondary structure, protein-ligand and protein-DNA interactions, PROCHECK analyses of structural quality, and many others. The 3D structures can be viewed interactively in RasMol, PyMOL, and a JavaScript viewer called 3Dmol.js. Users can upload their own PDB files and obtain a set of password-protected PDBsum analyses for each. The server is freely accessible to all at: © 2017 The Protein Society.

  19. Text entry rate of access interfaces used by people with physical disabilities: A systematic review. (United States)

    Koester, Heidi Horstmann; Arthanat, Sajay


    This study systematically reviewed the research on assistive technology (AT) access interfaces used for text entry, and conducted a quantitative synthesis of text entry rates (TER) associated with common interfaces. We searched 10 databases and included studies in which: typing speed was reported in words per minute (WPM) or equivalent; the access interface was available for public use; and individuals with physical impairments were in the study population. For quantitative synthesis, we used only the TER reported for individuals with physical impairments. Studies also had to report the sample size, and the average and standard deviation for the TER data. Thirty-nine studies met the criteria for quantitative synthesis. Studies involved seven interface types: standard keyboard typing, on-screen keyboard (OSK) with cursor selection, OSK with scanning selection, automatic speech recognition (ASR), Morse code, brain-computer interface (BCI), and other. ASR, standard keyboard, cursor OSK, and scanning OSK had at least four studies and 30 subjects, with TER averaging 15.4, 12.5, 4.2, and 1.7 WPM, respectively. When combined with measurements of a particular client's text entry performance, the TER from this review can be used within an evidence-based decision-making process for selecting control interfaces.

  20. [The entry of Epstein-Barr virus into B lymphocytes and epithelial cells during infection]. (United States)

    Zuo, Lie-Lian; Zhu, Mei-Juan; Du, Shu-Juan; Lu, Jian-Hong; Li, Gui-Yuan


    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human herpesvirus associated with important human diseases, including infectious mononucleosis syndrome, malignant lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The mechanism of EBV entry into host cells remains a subject of intensive research. After decades of study, researchers have identified several key proteins and different patterns of EBV intrusion into host cells. The viral surface glycoproteins, gp350/220, gp42, gB, gH, and gL, are involved in interactions with the CR2 receptor on the surface of B lymphocytes during viral entry. However, the majority of epithelial cells lack CR2 receptor expression, which makes viral invasion much more complex than in B lymphocytes. Three different models have been proposed to explain how EBV enters epithelial cells: (1) "transfer of infection", mediated by B lymphocytes or Langerhans cells; (2) EBV utilizes its own proteins during the process of fusion with the cell membrane; and (3) progeny virions arising from EBV-infected epithelial cells cross lateral membranes into adjacent epithelial cells. This review will discuss the relevant mechanism of viral entry into B lymphocytes and epithelial cells during EBV infection.

  1. A Study on Re-entry Predictions of Uncontrolled Space Objects for Space Situational Awareness (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Jung; Cho, Sungki; Lee, Deok-Jin; Kim, Siwoo; Jo, Jung Hyun


    The key risk analysis technologies for the re-entry of space objects into Earth’s atmosphere are divided into four categories: cataloguing and databases of the re-entry of space objects, lifetime and re-entry trajectory predictions, break-up models after re-entry and multiple debris distribution predictions, and ground impact probability models. In this study, we focused on re- entry prediction, including orbital lifetime assessments, for space situational awareness systems. Re-entry predictions are very difficult and are affected by various sources of uncertainty. In particular, during uncontrolled re-entry, large spacecraft may break into several pieces of debris, and the surviving fragments can be a significant hazard for persons and properties on the ground. In recent years, specific methods and procedures have been developed to provide clear information for predicting and analyzing the re-entry of space objects and for ground-risk assessments. Representative tools include object reentry survival analysis tool (ORSAT) and debris assessment software (DAS) developed by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), spacecraft atmospheric re-entry and aerothermal break-up (SCARAB) and debris risk assessment and mitigation analysis (DRAMA) developed by European Space Agency (ESA), and semi-analytic tool for end of life analysis (STELA) developed by Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES). In this study, various surveys of existing re-entry space objects are reviewed, and an efficient re-entry prediction technique is suggested based on STELA, the life-cycle analysis tool for satellites, and DRAMA, a re-entry analysis tool. To verify the proposed method, the re-entry of the Tiangong-1 Space Lab, which is expected to re-enter Earth’s atmosphere shortly, was simulated. Eventually, these results will provide a basis for space situational awareness risk analyses of the re-entry of space objects.

  2. Bibliography of Research Involving Female Subjects; A Compilation of Theses and Dissertations in Physical Education, Health, and Recreation. (United States)

    Spirduso, Waneen Wyrick, Ed.

    This bibliography is comprised of theses and dissertations which were written by women or which used women as subjects of investigation. The theses were solicited by the National Association for Girls and Women in Sport (NAGWS) Research Committee from 200 colleges and universities. The entries include papers written during the past 30 years. They…

  3. Airport Barriers to Entry in the US

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dresner M; Windle R; Yao Y


    An examination is conducted on the effects of three airport barriers to entry - slot controls, gate constraints, and gate utilisation during peak operating periods - on both yields and entry in the US airline...

  4. Bi-weekly waterfowl survey data entry (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Data sheet for the entry of bi-weekly waterfowl survey data from the state of Kansas. This Excel file contains the data entry sheet and a chart displaying waterfowl...

  5. Flavivirus Entry Receptors: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Perera-Lecoin


    Full Text Available Flaviviruses enter host cells by endocytosis initiated when the virus particles interact with cell surface receptors. The current model suggests that flaviviruses use at least two different sets of molecules for infectious entry: attachment factors that concentrate and/or recruit viruses on the cell surface and primary receptor(s that bind to virions and direct them to the endocytic pathway. Here, we present the currently available knowledge regarding the flavivirus receptors described so far with specific attention to C-type lectin receptors and the phosphatidylserine receptors, T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM and TYRO3, AXL and MER (TAM. Their role in flavivirus attachment and entry as well as their implication in the virus biology will be discussed in depth.

  6. Fragmentation and ablation during entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.


    This note discusses objects that both fragment and ablate during entry, using the results of previous reports to describe the velocity, pressure, and fragmentation of entering objects. It shows that the mechanisms used there to describe the breakup of non-ablating objects during deceleration remain valid for most ablating objects. It treats coupled fragmentation and ablation during entry, building on earlier models that separately discuss the entry of objects that are hard, whose high heat of ablation permits little erosion, and those who are strong whose strength prevents fragmentation, which are discussed in ``Radiation from Hard Objects,`` ``Deceleration and Radiation of Strong, Hard, Asteroids During Atmospheric Impact,`` and ``Meteor Signature Interpretation.`` This note provides a more detailed treatment of the further breakup and separation of fragments during descent. It replaces the constraint on mass per unit area used earlier to determine the altitude and magnitude of peak power radiation with a detailed analytic solution of deceleration. Model predictions are shown to be in agreement with the key features of numerical calculations of deceleration. The model equations are solved for the altitudes of maximum radiation, which agree with numerical integrations. The model is inverted analytically to infer object size and speed from measurements of peak power and altitude to provide a complete model for the approximate inversion of meteor data.

  7. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing Within...

  8. Predicting the Diversity of Foreign Entry Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashai, Niron; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Benito, Gabriel


    This paper expands entry mode literature by referring to multiple modes exerted in different value chain activities within and across host markets, rather than to a single entry mode at the host market level. Scale of operations and knowledge intensity are argued to affect firms' entry mode...... diversity across value chain activities and host markets. Analyzing a sample of Israeli based firms we show that larger firms exhibit a higher degree of entry mode diversity both across value chain activities and across host markets. Higher levels of knowledge intensity are also associated with more...... diversity in firms' entry modes across both dimensions....

  9. ERDA energy information data base subject thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The technical staff of the ERDA Technical Information Center, during its subject indexing activities, develops and structures a vocabulary that allows consistent machine storage and retrieval of information necessary to the accomplishment of the ERDA mission. This thesaurus incorporates that structured vocabulary. Terms in the thesaurus are listed alphabetically; each alphabetic entry is accompanied by a ''word block'' containing all the terms associated with the entry. (RWR)

  10. ERDA energy information data base: subject thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The technical staff of the ERDA Technical Information Center, as part of its subject indexing activities, develops and structures a vocabulary which allows consistent machine storage and retrieval of information. This thesaurus incorporates that structured vocabulary. Terms in the thesaurus are listed alphabetically; each entry is accompanied by a ''word block'' containing all the terms associated with the entry. There are 15,905 approved terms and 4198 forbidden terms in this edition. (RWR)

  11. The Hera Saturn entry probe mission (United States)

    Mousis, O.; Atkinson, D. H.; Spilker, T.; Venkatapathy, E.; Poncy, J.; Frampton, R.; Coustenis, A.; Reh, K.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Fletcher, L. N.; Hueso, R.; Amato, M. J.; Colaprete, A.; Ferri, F.; Stam, D.; Wurz, P.; Atreya, S.; Aslam, S.; Banfield, D. J.; Calcutt, S.; Fischer, G.; Holland, A.; Keller, C.; Kessler, E.; Leese, M.; Levacher, P.; Morse, A.; Muñoz, O.; Renard, J.-B.; Sheridan, S.; Schmider, F.-X.; Snik, F.; Waite, J. H.; Bird, M.; Cavalié, T.; Deleuil, M.; Fortney, J.; Gautier, D.; Guillot, T.; Lunine, J. I.; Marty, B.; Nixon, C.; Orton, G. S.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.


    The Hera Saturn entry probe mission is proposed as an M-class mission led by ESA with a contribution from NASA. It consists of one atmospheric probe to be sent into the atmosphere of Saturn, and a Carrier-Relay spacecraft. In this concept, the Hera probe is composed of ESA and NASA elements, and the Carrier-Relay Spacecraft is delivered by ESA. The probe is powered by batteries, and the Carrier-Relay Spacecraft is powered by solar panels and batteries. We anticipate two major subsystems to be supplied by the United States, either by direct procurement by ESA or by contribution from NASA: the solar electric power system (including solar arrays and the power management and distribution system), and the probe entry system (including the thermal protection shield and aeroshell). Hera is designed to perform in situ measurements of the chemical and isotopic compositions as well as the dynamics of Saturn's atmosphere using a single probe, with the goal of improving our understanding of the origin, formation, and evolution of Saturn, the giant planets and their satellite systems, with extrapolation to extrasolar planets. Hera's aim is to probe well into the cloud-forming region of the troposphere, below the region accessible to remote sensing, to the locations where certain cosmogenically abundant species are expected to be well mixed. By leading to an improved understanding of the processes by which giant planets formed, including the composition and properties of the local solar nebula at the time and location of giant planet formation, Hera will extend the legacy of the Galileo and Cassini missions by further addressing the creation, formation, and chemical, dynamical, and thermal evolution of the giant planets, the entire solar system including Earth and the other terrestrial planets, and formation of other planetary systems.

  12. BST2/Tetherin enhances entry of human cytomegalovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasinath Viswanathan


    Full Text Available Interferon-induced BST2/Tetherin prevents budding of vpu-deficient HIV-1 by tethering mature viral particles to the plasma membrane. BST2 also inhibits release of other enveloped viruses including Ebola virus and Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV, indicating that BST2 is a broadly acting antiviral host protein. Unexpectedly however, recovery of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV from supernatants of BST2-expressing human fibroblasts was increased rather than decreased. Furthermore, BST2 seemed to enhance viral entry into cells since more virion proteins were released into BST2-expressing cells and subsequent viral gene expression was elevated. A significant increase in viral entry was also observed upon induction of endogenous BST2 during differentiation of the pro-monocytic cell line THP-1. Moreover, treatment of primary human monocytes with siRNA to BST2 reduced HCMV infection, suggesting that BST2 facilitates entry of HCMV into cells expressing high levels of BST2 either constitutively or in response to exogenous stimuli. Since BST2 is present in HCMV particles we propose that HCMV entry is enhanced via a reverse-tethering mechanism with BST2 in the viral envelope interacting with BST2 in the target cell membrane. Our data suggest that HCMV not only counteracts the well-established function of BST2 as inhibitor of viral egress but also employs this anti-viral protein to gain entry into BST2-expressing hematopoietic cells, a process that might play a role in hematogenous dissemination of HCMV.

  13. Visas for entry and stays in the Host States

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit


    1. What is a visa? A visa is an administrative document authorising nationals of countries subject to the visa requirement to transit, enter and stay in a foreign country. The numerous types of visa include in particular: a) Short-stay visas (the Schengen C-type visa), which allows their holders to enter and reside in the Schengen Area1) for a continuous or a non-continuous period not exceeding 3 months within any six-month period with effect from initial entry into the Schengen Area; b) Long-stay visas (D-type visa or national visa for the purposes of taking up employment), which are required for stays of over three months, allowing the holder to obtain a legitimation document (titre de séjour) from the Host States: A “carte de légitimation” issued by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs; A “titre de séjour spécial” issued by the French Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs. Since 5 April 2010...

  14. Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System Modeling, Calibration, and Error Analysis (United States)

    Karlgaard, Christopher D.; VanNorman, John; Siemers, Paul M.; Schoenenberger, Mark; Munk, Michelle M.


    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI)/Mars Entry Atmospheric Data System (MEADS) project installed seven pressure ports through the MSL Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) heatshield to measure heatshield surface pressures during entry. These measured surface pressures are used to generate estimates of atmospheric quantities based on modeled surface pressure distributions. In particular, the quantities to be estimated from the MEADS pressure measurements include the dynamic pressure, angle of attack, and angle of sideslip. This report describes the calibration of the pressure transducers utilized to reconstruct the atmospheric data and associated uncertainty models, pressure modeling and uncertainty analysis, and system performance results. The results indicate that the MEADS pressure measurement system hardware meets the project requirements.

  15. Features of Human Herpesvirus-6A and -6B Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Maeki


    Full Text Available Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6 is a T lymphotropic herpesvirus belonging to the Betaherpesvirinae subfamily. HHV-6 was long classified into variants A and B (HHV-6A and HHV-6B; however, recently, HHV-6A and HHV-6B were reclassified as different species. The process of herpesvirus entry into target cells is complicated, and in the case of HHV-6A and HHV-6B, the detailed mechanism remains to be elucidated, although both viruses are known to enter cells via endocytosis. In this paper, (1 findings about the cellular receptor and its ligand for HHV-6A and HHV-6B are summarized, and (2 a schematic model of HHV-6A’s replication cycle, including its entry, is presented. In addition, (3 reports showing the importance of lipids in both the HHV-6A envelope and target-cell membrane for viral entry are reviewed, and (4 glycoproteins involved in cell fusion are discussed.

  16. Paramyxovirus Fusion and Entry: Multiple Paths to a Common End (United States)

    Chang, Andres; Dutch, Rebecca E.


    The paramyxovirus family contains many common human pathogenic viruses, including measles, mumps, the parainfluenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, and the zoonotic henipaviruses, Hendra and Nipah. While the expression of a type 1 fusion protein and a type 2 attachment protein is common to all paramyxoviruses, there is considerable variation in viral attachment, the activation and triggering of the fusion protein, and the process of viral entry. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the understanding of paramyxovirus F protein-mediated membrane fusion, an essential process in viral infectivity. We also review the role of the other surface glycoproteins in receptor binding and viral entry, and the implications for viral infection. Throughout, we concentrate on the commonalities and differences in fusion triggering and viral entry among the members of the family. Finally, we highlight key unanswered questions and how further studies can identify novel targets for the development of therapeutic treatments against these human pathogens. PMID:22590688

  17. Paramyxovirus Fusion and Entry: Multiple Paths to a Common End

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Dutch


    Full Text Available The paramyxovirus family contains many common human pathogenic viruses, including measles, mumps, the parainfluenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, and the zoonotic henipaviruses, Hendra and Nipah. While the expression of a type 1 fusion protein and a type 2 attachment protein is common to all paramyxoviruses, there is considerable variation in viral attachment, the activation and triggering of the fusion protein, and the process of viral entry. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the understanding of paramyxovirus F protein-mediated membrane fusion, an essential process in viral infectivity. We also review the role of the other surface glycoproteins in receptor binding and viral entry, and the implications for viral infection. Throughout, we concentrate on the commonalities and differences in fusion triggering and viral entry among the members of the family. Finally, we highlight key unanswered questions and how further studies can identify novel targets for the development of therapeutic treatments against these human pathogens.

  18. Outer planet atmospheric entry probes - An overview of technology readiness (United States)

    Vojvodich, N. S.; Reynolds, R. T.; Grant, T. L.; Nachtsheim, P. R.


    Entry probe systems for characterizing, by in situ measurements, the atmospheric properties, chemical composition, and cloud structure of the planets Saturn, Uranus, and Jupiter are examined from the standpoint of unique mission requirements, associated subsystem performance, and degree of commonality of design. Past earth entry vehicles (PAET) and current planetary spacecraft (Pioneer Venus probes and Viking lander) are assessed to identify the extent of potential subsystem inheritance, as well as to establish the significant differences, in both form and function, relative to outer planet requirements. Recent research results are presented and reviewed for the most critical probe technology areas, including: science accommodation, telecommunication, and entry heating and thermal protection. Finally presented is a brief discussion of the use of decision analysis techniques for quantifying various probe heat-shield test alternatives and performance risk.

  19. 77 FR 5681 - Establishment of Global Entry Program (United States)


    ... entry and exit at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol. It uses iris scans to provide quick and secure biometric... to conduct the biometric based background checks and participate in an interview at an enrollment... personally identifiable information (PII), including biometric data and employment history, in GES may be...

  20. 9 CFR 93.806 - Animals refused entry. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animals refused entry. 93.806 Section 93.806 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF...

  1. Field performance of three peanut entries in Oklahoma (United States)

    Peanut entries (Tamrun 96, Tamrun OL02, and TX 994313) were among peanut lines included in four tests in 2006 and 2007. Plots were planted during May and harvested in late September to mid October to attain a growing season of 155 days. Plots were arranged in a complete randomized block design wit...

  2. Risk Assessment for Destructive Re-Entry (United States)

    Lips, T.; Koppenwallner, G.; Bianchi, L.; Klinkrad, H.


    From 2007 to 2008, Hypersonic Technology Göttingen (HTG) worked on a study called Risk Assessment for Destructive Re-entry (RADR). The main purposes of this study were to identify and to quantify the inherent uncertainties of re-entry analysis tools, and to provide possible risk mitigation measures. For these purposes, three basic risk scenarios were specified: a 1-ton-class satellite without propulsion for uncontrolled re-entry, a 6-ton-class satellite with propulsion and the capability to perform a controlled re-entry, and a 1-ton-class launcher upper stage re-entering uncontrolled. Based on the identified uncertainty parameters, variation analyses were conducted for these scenarios with the two ESA tools for re-entry analysis SCARAB (Spacecraft Atmospheric Reentry and Aerothermal Breakup) and SESAM (Spacecraft Entry Survival Analysis Module). This paper describes the major results of the RADR study.

  3. Optometry Australia Entry-level Competency Standards for Optometry 2014. (United States)

    Kiely, Patricia M; Slater, Jared


    Competency standards for entry-level to the profession of optometry in Australia were first developed in 1993, revised in 1997 and 2000, and again in 2008, when therapeutic competency standards were introduced but differentiated from the entry-level competencies. Therapeutic competencies were an additional requirement for the purpose of endorsing optometric registration to allow prescription of medicines for conditions of the eye. Recent changes to educational and registration requirements mean that therapeutic competencies are now required at entry-level. To address this and to ensure the standards reflect current best practice, a full revision of the standards was undertaken. A steering committee oversaw the review of the standards, which involved a literature review, workshops with optometrists and broad consultation with stakeholders, including the Optometry Board of Australia, individual optometrists and employers of optometrists, to identify changes needed. Representatives of the profession from Australia and New Zealand and from academia in Australia were involved. A modified document based on the feedback received was circulated to the State Divisions and the National Board of the then Optometrists Association Australia. The updated standards reflect the state of entry to the optometric profession in 2014; competencies for prescribing of scheduled medicines are included, new material has been added, other areas have been modified. The updated entry-level competency standards were adopted on behalf of the profession by the National Board of the then Optometrists Association Australia in March 2014. Competency standards have been updated so that they continue to be current and useful for the profession, individual optometrists and Australian and New Zealand registration authorities for the purposes of accreditation of optometric programs and assessment of overseas-trained optometrists. This paper details the revision process and presents the 2014 version of

  4. Entry menus in bilingual electronic dictionaries


    Lew, Robert; Tokarek, Patryk


    The study undertakes to assess the efficiency of entry menus in bilingual dictionaries in the electronic format. An experimental dictionary interface is tested for performance in terms of access speed and task success. The task underlying dictionary use is guided Polish-to-English translation, performed under three conditions by 90 Polish learners of English. The first version of the dictionary displays a complete polysemous entry immediately after an entry is selected. In the second version ...

  5. Innate immunity modulation in virus entry. (United States)

    Faure, Mathias; Rabourdin-Combe, Chantal


    Entry into a cell submits viruses to detection by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) leading to an early innate anti-viral response. Several viruses evolved strategies to avoid or subvert PRR recognition at the step of virus entry to promote infection. Whereas viruses mostly escape from soluble PRR detection, endocytic/phagocytic PRRs, such as the mannose receptor or DC-SIGN, are commonly used for virus entry. Moreover, virion-incorporated proteins may also offer viruses a way to dampen anti-viral innate immunity upon virus entry, and entering viruses might usurp autophagy to improve their own infectivity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Retroviral host range extension is coupled with Env-activating mutations resulting in receptor-independent entry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lounková, Anna; Kosla, Jan; Přikryl, David; Štafl, Kryštov; Kučerová, Dana; Svoboda, Jan


    Roč. 114, č. 26 (2017), E5148-E5157 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-22207S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Rous sarcoma virus * retrovirus * virus entry * envelope glycoprotein * receptor-independent entry Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.661, year: 2016

  7. School Entry, Educational Attainment and Quarter of Birth: A Cautionary Tale of LATE. NBER Working Paper No. 15236 (United States)

    Barua, Rashmi; Lang, Kevin


    Partly in response to increased testing and accountability, states and districts have been raising the minimum school entry age, but existing studies show mixed results regarding the effects of entry age. These studies may be severely biased because they violate the monotonicity assumption needed for LATE. We propose an instrument not subject to…

  8. 19 CFR 102.24 - Entry of textile or apparel products. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry of textile or apparel products. 102.24...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES OF ORIGIN Rules of Origin § 102.24 Entry of textile or apparel products. (a) General. Separate shipments of textile or apparel products, including samples, which originate from a...

  9. Gene Therapy Targeting HIV Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuka Didigu


    Full Text Available Despite the unquestionable success of antiretroviral therapy (ART in the treatment of HIV infection, the cost, need for daily adherence, and HIV-associated morbidities that persist despite ART all underscore the need to develop a cure for HIV. The cure achieved following an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT using HIV-resistant cells, and more recently, the report of short-term but sustained, ART-free control of HIV replication following allogeneic HSCT, using HIV susceptible cells, have served to both reignite interest in HIV cure research, and suggest potential mechanisms for a cure. In this review, we highlight some of the obstacles facing HIV cure research today, and explore the roles of gene therapy targeting HIV entry, and allogeneic stem cell transplantation in the development of strategies to cure HIV infection.

  10. Border Crossing/Entry Data - Border Crossing/Entry Data Time Series tool (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The dataset is known as “Border Crossing/Entry Data.” The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics to the...

  11. Protease inhibitors targeting coronavirus and filovirus entry. (United States)

    Zhou, Yanchen; Vedantham, Punitha; Lu, Kai; Agudelo, Juliet; Carrion, Ricardo; Nunneley, Jerritt W; Barnard, Dale; Pöhlmann, Stefan; McKerrow, James H; Renslo, Adam R; Simmons, Graham


    In order to gain entry into cells, diverse viruses, including Ebola virus, SARS-coronavirus and the emerging MERS-coronavirus, depend on activation of their envelope glycoproteins by host cell proteases. The respective enzymes are thus excellent targets for antiviral intervention. In cell culture, activation of Ebola virus, as well as SARS- and MERS-coronavirus can be accomplished by the endosomal cysteine proteases, cathepsin L (CTSL) and cathepsin B (CTSB). In addition, SARS- and MERS-coronavirus can use serine proteases localized at the cell surface, for their activation. However, it is currently unclear which protease(s) facilitate viral spread in the infected host. We report here that the cysteine protease inhibitor K11777, ((2S)-N-[(1E,3S)-1-(benzenesulfonyl)-5-phenylpent-1-en-3-yl]-2-{[(E)-4-methylpiperazine-1-carbonyl]amino}-3-phenylpropanamide) and closely-related vinylsulfones act as broad-spectrum antivirals by targeting cathepsin-mediated cell entry. K11777 is already in advanced stages of development for a number of parasitic diseases, such as Chagas disease, and has proven to be safe and effective in a range of animal models. K11777 inhibition of SARS-CoV and Ebola virus entry was observed in the sub-nanomolar range. In order to assess whether cysteine or serine proteases promote viral spread in the host, we compared the antiviral activity of an optimized K11777-derivative with that of camostat, an inhibitor of TMPRSS2 and related serine proteases. Employing a pathogenic animal model of SARS-CoV infection, we demonstrated that viral spread and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV is driven by serine rather than cysteine proteases and can be effectively prevented by camostat. Camostat has been clinically used to treat chronic pancreatitis, and thus represents an exciting potential therapeutic for respiratory coronavirus infections. Our results indicate that camostat, or similar serine protease inhibitors, might be an effective option for treatment of SARS and

  12. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen


    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  13. Subject thesaurus permuted listing: Energy Data Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raridon, M.H. (ed.)


    This permuted listing, an appendix to the Energy Data Base: Subject Thesaurus (DOE/TIC-7000-R6), has been prepared to alleviate the problems of entry to a large multidisciplinary thesaurus containing both single and multi-word descriptors. It is designed to be used in conjunction with the Subject Thesaurus and is not to be used alone. Each descriptor, whether a single word or multi-word entry, has been permuted and alphabetized by each significant word. The complete descriptor is given at each point.

  14. 19 CFR 147.11 - Entry. (United States)


    ...) TRADE FAIRS Procedure for Importation § 147.11 Entry. (a) Made in name of fair operator. All entries of articles for a fair shall be made at the port in the name of the fair operator which shall be deemed for... exhibition purposes under the Trade Fair Act of 1959. Mark Number Package and contents Quality Invoice value...

  15. Strategic Entry Deterrence Modeling: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Seliverstov


    Full Text Available The prime focus in this article is on key findings concerning theoretical aspects of strategic behavior by incumbents to deter market entry of new firms. The author summarizes main lines of scientific research in the topic which give an insight into the patterns of the incumbent’s impact on the behavior of the entrants, the entry deterrence instruments and the consequences of these actions. Today the free entry markets are considered to be a rare phenomenon. The market entry of new firms is associated with significant entry costs, which allow the incumbents to take advantage of their dominant position and derive positive economic profits. In case of entry threat by potential competitors the incumbents take strategic actions aimed at deterring entry and preserving their dominant position. Among the most efficient strategic actions one can emphasize the erection of additional barriers to entry for the newcomers through producing the limit output and price, investments in sunk assets, capacity expansion and product differentiation. Meanwhile by taking strategic actions the incumbents are not always trying to affect the entrant’s costs and profit directly, they often aim at changing the entrant’s expectations regarding future intentions of the incumbents to preserve dominant position.

  16. 27 CFR 27.184 - Entry documents. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry documents. 27.184 Section 27.184 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Distilled Spirits From Customs Custody Free of Tax for Use of the United States § 27.184 Entry documents...

  17. Disabled graduate-entry medical student experience. (United States)

    Tso, Simon


    This study explored the experiences of graduate-entry medicine degree programme students who were disabled on the disclosure of their disability and the challenging disability issues they encountered during their degree programme. Eight student volunteers with a disability from the University of Warwick graduate-entry medicine degree programme took part in this study. Audio recordings of their semi-structured interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Contributory factors to a reluctance or delay in disclosing disability to the medical school included confidentiality concerns, the potential impact of disclosure on their medical school application outcome and not perceiving their disability had an impact on their ability to function. They disclosed their disability for a range of professional and practical considerations. One participant was investigated and diagnosed with dyslexia following failure in a medical school examination. Disabled medical students encountered challenging issues such as having concerns about their future fitness to practice and employability, repeated disclosure of disability, confidentiality, abuse and difficulties in organising reasonable adjustments. Disabled medical students encounter challenging issues DISCUSSION: Medical school staff should keep an open mind about undiagnosed disability as a potential contributory factor to graduate students' academic underperformance. Participants expressed concerns about the management of their disability information that could potentially be addressed through regular dialogue between the students with a disability and medical school representatives, to define who, when and how other staff members could have access to the students' disability information. Despite the challenges students with a disability encountered during their degree programme, they viewed themselves as individuals who were in a good position to empathise with patients and understand their needs. © 2017 John

  18. Journal entries facilitating preprofessional scientific literacy and mutualistic symbiotic relationships (United States)

    Vander Vliet, Valerie J.

    This study explored journal writing as an alternative assessment to promote the development of pre-professional scientific literacy and mutualistic symbiotic relationships between teaching and learning, instruction and assessment, and students and teachers. The larger context of this study is an action reaction project of the attempted transformation of a traditional first year undergraduate pre-professional biology class to sociocultural constructivist principles. The participants were commuter and residential, full and part-time students ranging in age from 18 to 27 and 18/21 were female. The backgrounds of the students varied considerably, ranging from low to upper middle income, including students of Black and Asian heritage. The setting was a medium-sized Midwestern university. The instructor has twenty years of experience teaching Biology at the college level. The data were analyzed using the constant comparative method and the development of grounded theory. The journal entries were analyzed as to their function and form in relationship to the development of multiple aspects of pre-professional scientific literacy. The perceptions of the students as to the significance of the use of journal entries were also determined through the analysis of their use of journal entries in their portfolios and statements in surveys and portfolios. The analysis revealed that journal entries promoted multiple aspects of pre-professional scientific literacy in both students and the instructor and facilitated the development of mutualistic symbiotic relationships between teaching and learning, instruction and assessment, and students and teachers. The function analysis revealed that the journal entries fulfilled the functions intended for the development of multiple aspects of pre-professional scientific literacy. The complexity of journal writing emerged from the form analysis, which revealed the multiple form elements inherent in journal entries. Students perceived journal

  19. Orion Entry Display Feeder and Interactions with the Entry Monitor System (United States)

    Baird, Darren; Bernatovich, Mike; Gillespie, Ellen; Kadwa, Binaifer; Matthews, Dave; Penny, Wes; Zak, Tim; Grant, Mike; Bihari, Brian


    The Orion spacecraft is designed to return astronauts to a landing within 10 km of the intended landing target from low Earth orbit, lunar direct-entry, and lunar skip-entry trajectories. Al pile the landing is nominally controlled autonomously, the crew can fly precision entries manually in the event of an anomaly. The onboard entry displays will be used by the crew to monitor and manually fly the entry, descent, and landing, while the Entry Monitor System (EMS) will be used to monitor the health and status of the onboard guidance and the trajectory. The entry displays are driven by the entry display feeder, part of the Entry Monitor System (EMS). The entry re-targeting module, also part of the EMS, provides all the data required to generate the capability footprint of the vehicle at any point in the trajectory, which is shown on the Primary Flight Display (PFD). It also provides caution and warning data and recommends the safest possible re-designated landing site when the nominal landing site is no longer within the capability of the vehicle. The PFD and the EMS allow the crew to manually fly an entry trajectory profile from entry interface until parachute deploy having the flexibility to manually steer the vehicle to a selected landing site that best satisfies the priorities of the crew. The entry display feeder provides data from the ENIS and other components of the GNC flight software to the displays at the proper rate and in the proper units. It also performs calculations that are specific to the entry displays and which are not made in any other component of the flight software. In some instances, it performs calculations identical to those performed by the onboard primary guidance algorithm to protect against a guidance system failure. These functions and the interactions between the entry display feeder and the other components of the EMS are described.

  20. Experimental Economics on Firm’s Behavior: Entry Game Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Sukadana


    Full Text Available The paper analyzes subject’s behavior in evolutionary process of entry game. The experiment is designed to analyze the behavior of the subject. The experiment is set in sequential entry games. Process of the game was conducted under asymmetric information, uncertainty, payoff perturbation and random matching. The subjects of the experiment were students of the Universitas Udayana, Bali, Indonesia. Subjects who play as new-entrance firms tend to choose “stay-out” strategy when the uncertainty and the amount of loss increase. Meanwhile, the subjects who play as an incumbent firm, which set to have more information about the game (market rather than the new-entrances, most of the time abuse their position by choose “threat” strategy, which not a credible strategy for some of them. Experimental studies shows that New-entrance tend to weight more on lost when the risk increase (from risk averse setting to risk seeking setting, and tend to choose sure value over a lotteries although the expected value from lotteries is higher or the same. These findings support the reason that Indonesian youngsters tend to choose a job as a PNS or employee of existing firms. The results also support the reason that Indonesian businessman is more willing to open a new business if they have a guarantee for their losses.

  1. Design of a Self Don/Doffing Rear Entry Planetary Suit to Interface with a Suit Port/Lock Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Under Phase 1 of subject SBIR, Air-Lock, Incorporated will design a self donning and doffing Rear Entry Hard Upper Torso (REHUT) that interfaces with a suit port....

  2. 50 CFR 91.22 - Display of contest entries. (United States)


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Display of contest entries. 91.22 Section... Administering the Contest § 91.22 Display of contest entries. The Federal Duck Stamp Office assigns all eligible entries a number as entries are received. That office displays the entries in numerical order at the...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    We have assembled a system using a personal computer workstation equipped with standard office software, an audio system, speech recognition software and an inexpensive radio-based wireless microphone that permits laboratory workers to enter or modify data while performing other work. Speech recognition permits users to enter data while their hands are holding equipment or they are otherwise unable to operate a keyboard. The wireless microphone allows unencumbered movement around the laboratory without a ''tether'' that might interfere with equipment or experimental procedures. To evaluate the potential of voice data entry in a laboratory environment, we developed a prototype relational database that records the disposal of radionuclides and/or hazardous chemicals Current regulations in our laboratory require that each such item being discarded must be inventoried and documents must be prepared that summarize the contents of each container used for disposal. Using voice commands, the user enters items into the database as each is discarded. Subsequently, the program prepares the required documentation.

  4. A Study of Nutrition in Entry-Level Dental Hygiene Education Programs. (United States)

    Johnson, Deborah L; Gurenlian, JoAnn R; Freudenthal, Jacqueline J


    The aims of this study were to document the extent of nutritional content in U.S. dental hygiene program curricula; identify program directors' opinions, perceptions, and barriers to expanding nutritional content; and evaluate if a proposed nutrition curriculum model would be beneficial. This mixed methods study involved quantitative and qualitative aspects. An invitation letter was sent to all 335 directors of entry-level U.S. dental hygiene programs. In response, 55 directors submitted nutrition course syllabi from their programs (16.4% of the total) for the quantitative analysis. In addition, 14 nutrition instructors and ten program directors were interviewed regarding their perceptions and opinions of nutrition education for dental hygiene students. All aspects of the content analysis results revealed that nutrition content in entry-level dental hygiene programs is diverse. Some programs did not include nutrition content, while others provided oral and systemic nutrition intervention subject matter. Some programs offered multiple clinical nutrition applications and patient contact opportunities while most required none. The interview results disclosed a variety of opinions and perceptions of dental hygienists' role in nutrition. Several interviewees viewed dental hygienists' role in nutrition to be an integral part of patient care, while others indicated no role or providing caries prevention counseling only. Although dental hygienists are expected to provide nutrition assessments and interventions, no standards or standardized competencies exist for nutrition in dental hygiene education. A standardized nutrition model could be beneficial for entry-level programs to ensure dental hygienists possess basic knowledge to perform nutrition assessments and intervention to address Healthy People 2020's intervention initiatives.

  5. Motivational interview improves treatment entry in homeless veterans. (United States)

    Wain, R Morgan; Wilbourne, Paula L; Harris, Keith W; Pierson, Heather; Teleki, Jasmine; Burling, Thomas A; Lovett, Steven


    Motivational Interviewing (MI) has successfully been used to facilitate entry and compliance in drug and alcohol treatment programs. Some questions have been raised as to the effectiveness of MI in severely distressed populations. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of MI in a population of homeless, unemployed, and substance dependent veterans who are being wait-listed for entry into a residential treatment program. Seventy-five veterans placed on a wait-list were randomized to receive a single MI or standard (Std) intake interview. Outcomes assessed were entry, and length of stay (LOS). Secondary outcomes assessed included program completion and rates of graduation. Readiness to change and self-efficacy were assessed before and after the interview. Significantly more participants entered the program in the MI group (95%) than in the Std group (71%). Although those in the MI group remained in the program longer, and had higher program completion and graduation rates, these differences were not statistically significant. No significant between-group or within-group differences were found in readiness or self-efficacy. This study demonstrates that a single, easily administered intervention can increase program entry. Also based on the study findings, further research into the question of whether MI can increase program retention, in a severely distressed population, is warranted. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Handling Qualities of a Capsule Spacecraft During Atmospheric Entry (United States)

    Bilimoria, Karl D.; Mueller, Eric R.


    A piloted simulation was conducted to study handling qualities for capsule spacecraft entering the Earth s atmosphere. Eight evaluation pilots, including six pilot astronauts, provided Cooper-Harper ratings, workload ratings, and qualitative comments. The simulation began after descending through the atmospheric entry interface point and continued until the drogue parachutes deployed. There were two categories of piloting tasks, both of which required bank angle control. In one task category, the pilot followed a closed-loop bank angle command computed by the backup guidance system to manage g-loads during entry. In the other task category, the pilot used intuitive rules to determine the desired bank angle independently, based on an open-loop schedule of vertical speed, Mach, and total energy specified at several range-to-target gates along the entry trajectory. Pilots were able to accurately track the bank angle guidance commands and steered the capsule toward the recovery site with essentially the same range error as the benchmark autopilot trajectory albeit with substantially higher propellant usage, and the handling qualities for this task were satisfactory. Another key result was that the complex piloting task of atmospheric entry could be performed satisfactorily, even in the presence of large dispersions, by controlling bank angle to follow a simple open-loop schedule.

  7. Novel Approaches to Inhibit HIV Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwuka A. Didigu


    Full Text Available Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV entry into target cells is a multi-step process involving binding of the viral glycoprotein, Env, to its receptor CD4 and a coreceptor—either CCR5 or CXCR4. Understanding the means by which HIV enters cells has led to the identification of genetic polymorphisms, such as the 32 base-pair deletion in the ccr5 gene (ccr5∆32 that confers resistance to infection in homozygous individuals, and has also resulted in the development of entry inhibitors—small molecule antagonists that block infection at the entry step. The recent demonstration of long-term control of HIV infection in a leukemic patient following a hematopoietic stem cell transplant using cells from a ccr5∆32 homozygous donor highlights the important role of the HIV entry in maintaining an established infection and has led to a number of attempts to treat HIV infection by genetically modifying the ccr5 gene. In this review, we describe the HIV entry process and provide an overview of the different classes of approved HIV entry inhibitors while highlighting novel genetic strategies aimed at blocking HIV infection at the level of entry.

  8. Entry Mode and Performance of Nordic Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Jesper


    This study investigates whether the relationship between mode of international market entry and non-location bound international experience is weaker for firms that are large or have a high foreign to total sales ratio, labeled multinational experience. Empirical evidence based on 250 foreign...... market entries made by Norwegian, Danish and Swedish firms suggests that the association between equity mode choice and non-location bound international experience diminishes in the presence of higher levels of multinational experience. Furthermore, firms whose entry mode choice is predicted by the model...

  9. Foreign Entry and Heterogeneous Growth of Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Paul Duo; Jefferson, Gary H.

    We adopt the framework of Schumpeterian creative destruction formalized by Aghion et al. (2009) to analyze the impact of foreign entry on the productivity growth of domestic firms. In the face of foreign entry, domestic firms exhibit heterogeneous patterns of growth depending on their technological...... distance from foreign firms. Domestic firms with smaller technological distance from their foreign counterparts tend to experience faster productivity growth, while firms with larger technological distance tend to lag further behind. We test this hypothesis using a unique firm-level data of Chinese...... manufacturing. Our empirical results confirm that foreign entry indeed generates strong heterogeneous growth patterns among domestic firms....

  10. 34 CFR 303.15 - Include; including. (United States)


    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Include; including. 303.15 Section 303.15 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH...

  11. 77 FR 42484 - Application(s) for Duty-Free Entry of Scientific Instruments (United States)


    ..., and animal and plant cells. Justification for Duty-Free Entry: There are no instruments of the same... including high-temperature superconductors, high-temperature metal alloys, evaporated metal films, silicon...


    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  13. Market entry strategies into the BRIC countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie


    Based on a sample of 177 exporting SMEs, this study investigates what market entry strategy is used by Danish family and non-family businesses. From a resource-based view, three critical internal factors (risk, flexibility and control) affecting the entry mode choice into the BRIC markets...... compared to non-family firms. Furthermore, the Danish exporters regarded China as being the most established of the four BRIC markets which could be seen in their willingness to use high control entry modes in China. Finally, non-family firms are more concerned about higher flexibility and lower control...... when entering the BRIC markets. In contrast, family firms choose high commitment entry modes which involve high risk and low flexibility when entering the BRIC markets. Further implications discuss the suitability of export strategies to BRIC markets for managers of Danish family and non-family firms....

  14. Adaptive Text Entry for Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proschowsky, Morten Smidt

    to improve the models of human motor behaviour. TUP-Key is a variant of TUP, designed for 12 key phone keyboards. It is introduced in the thesis but has not been implemented or evaluated. Both text entry methods support adaptive context-aware language models. YourText is a framework for adaptive context...... for mobile devices and a framework for adaptive context-aware language models. Based on analysis of current text entry methods, the requirements to the new text entry methods are established. Transparent User guided Prediction (TUP) is a text entry method for devices with one dimensional touch input. It can...... be touch sensitive wheels, sliders or similar input devices. The interaction design of TUP is done with a combination of high level task models and low level models of human motor behaviour. Three prototypes of TUP are designed and evaluated by more than 30 users. Observations from the evaluations are used...

  15. Border Crossing/Entry Data - Boarder Crossing (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics for incoming crossings at the U.S.-Canadian and the U.S.-Mexican border at the port level. Data are available...

  16. The Effects of Entry in Bilateral Oligopoly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Dickson


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of entry into the market for a single commodity in which both sellers and buyers are permitted to interact strategically. With the inclusion of an additional seller, the market is quasi-competitive: the price falls and volume of trade increases, as expected. However, contrary to the conventional wisdom, existing sellers’ payoffs may increase. The conditions under which entry by new sellers raises the equilibrium payoffs of existing sellers are derived. These depend in an intuitive way on the elasticity of a strategic analog of demand and the market share of existing sellers, and encompass entirely standard economic environments. Similar results are derived relating to the entry of additional buyers and the effects of entry on both sides of the market are investigated.

  17. Developing Quantitative Models for Auditing Journal Entries


    Argyrou, Argyris


    The thesis examines how the auditing of journal entries can detect and prevent financial statement fraud. Financial statement fraud occurs when an intentional act causes financial statements to be materially misstated. Although it is not a new phenomenon, financial statement fraud has attracted much publicity in the wake of numerous cases of financial malfeasance (e.g. ENRON, WorldCom). Existing literature has provided limited empirical evidence on the link between auditing journal entrie...

  18. Entry modes of European firms in Vietnam


    Daniel Simonet


    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to explore the entry modes of EU firms setting up operations in Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach: we use a case study approach on Haymarket, Cadbury, Creative Education, Fairchild, Aventis and Artemisinin and Farming International using interviews from managerial professionals in Vietnam. Findings: Despite the fact that Vietnam has been opening up for more than 20 years, licensing is the preferred entry mode because of the risks involved in ventur...

  19. Advanced Restricted Area Entry Control System (ARAECS)


    Appleton, Robert; Casillas, Jose; Scales, Gregory; Green, Robert; Niehoff, Mellissa; Fitzgerald, David; Ouellette, David


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Navy requires a capability for effective and efficient entry control for restricted areas that house critical assets. This thesis describes an Advanced Restricted Area Entry Control System (ARAECS) to meet this requirement. System requirements were obtained from existing governing documentation as well as stakeholder inputs. A functional architecture was developed and then modeled using the Imagine That Inc. ExtendSim tool. Factors...

  20. Limit pricing and secret barriers to entry


    Brighi, Luigi; D'Amato, Marcello


    We study a two periods entry game where the incumbent .rm, who has private information about his own production costs, makes a non observable long run investment choice, along with a pricing decision observed by the entrant. The investment choice affects both post-entry competition and first period cost of production, so that the cost of signaling becomes endogenous. The game is solved following Bayes-Nash requirements, the intuitive criterion is used to constrain off-equilibrium beliefs. Whe...

  1. Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour to Understand Students' Subject Choices in Post-Compulsory Education (United States)

    Taylor, Rachel Charlotte


    In recent years, there have been concerns in the UK regarding the uptake of particular subjects in post-compulsory education. Whilst entries for Advanced level (A-level) subjects such as media studies have experienced considerable growth, entries for A-level physics have, until recently, been declining, prompting fears of a skills crisis in future…

  2. Orion Capsule Handling Qualities for Atmospheric Entry (United States)

    Tigges, Michael A.; Bihari, Brian D.; Stephens, John-Paul; Vos, Gordon A.; Bilimoria, Karl D.; Mueller, Eric R.; Law, Howard G.; Johnson, Wyatt; Bailey, Randall E.; Jackson, Bruce


    Two piloted simulations were conducted at NASA's Johnson Space Center using the Cooper-Harper scale to study the handling qualities of the Orion Command Module capsule during atmospheric entry flight. The simulations were conducted using high fidelity 6-DOF simulators for Lunar Return Skip Entry and International Space Station Return Direct Entry flight using bank angle steering commands generated by either the Primary (PredGuid) or Backup (PLM) guidance algorithms. For both evaluations, manual control of bank angle began after descending through Entry Interface into the atmosphere until drogue chutes deployment. Pilots were able to use defined bank management and reversal criteria to accurately track the bank angle commands, and stay within flight performance metrics of landing accuracy, g-loads, and propellant consumption, suggesting that the pilotability of Orion under manual control is both achievable and provides adequate trajectory performance with acceptable levels of pilot effort. Another significant result of these analyses is the applicability of flying a complex entry task under high speed entry flight conditions relevant to the next generation Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle return from Mars and Near Earth Objects.

  3. Evolved atmospheric entry corridor with safety factor (United States)

    Liang, Zixuan; Ren, Zhang; Li, Qingdong


    Atmospheric entry corridors are established in previous research based on the equilibrium glide condition which assumes the flight-path angle to be zero. To get a better understanding of the highly constrained entry flight, an evolved entry corridor that considers the exact flight-path angle is developed in this study. Firstly, the conventional corridor in the altitude vs. velocity plane is extended into a three-dimensional one in the space of altitude, velocity, and flight-path angle. The three-dimensional corridor is generated by a series of constraint boxes. Then, based on a simple mapping method, an evolved two-dimensional entry corridor with safety factor is obtained. The safety factor is defined to describe the flexibility of the flight-path angle for a state within the corridor. Finally, the evolved entry corridor is simulated for the Space Shuttle and the Common Aero Vehicle (CAV) to demonstrate the effectiveness of the corridor generation approach. Compared with the conventional corridor, the evolved corridor is much wider and provides additional information. Therefore, the evolved corridor would benefit more to the entry trajectory design and analysis.

  4. PDGF receptor-α does not promote HCMV entry into epithelial and endothelial cells but increased quantities stimulate entry by an abnormal pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam L Vanarsdall


    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFRα were reported to mediate entry of HCMV, including HCMV lab strain AD169. AD169 cannot assemble gH/gL/UL128-131, a glycoprotein complex that is essential for HCMV entry into biologically important epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and monocyte-macrophages. Given this, it appeared incongruous that EGFR and PDGFRα play widespread roles in HCMV entry. Thus, we investigated whether PDGFRα and EGFR could promote entry of wild type HCMV strain TR. EGFR did not promote HCMV entry into any cell type. PDGFRα-transduction of epithelial and endothelial cells and several non-permissive cells markedly enhanced HCMV TR entry and surprisingly, promoted entry of HCMV mutants lacking gH/gL/UL128-131 into epithelial and endothelial cells. Entry of HCMV was not blocked by a panel of PDGFRα antibodies or the PDGFR ligand in fibroblasts, epithelial, or endothelial cells or by shRNA silencing of PDGFRα in epithelial cells. Moreover, HCMV glycoprotein induced cell-cell fusion was not increased when PDGFRα was expressed in cells. Together these results suggested that HCMV does not interact directly with PDGFRα. Instead, the enhanced entry produced by PDGFRα resulted from a novel entry pathway involving clathrin-independent, dynamin-dependent endocytosis of HCMV followed by low pH-independent fusion. When PDGFRα was expressed in cells, an HCMV lab strain escaped endosomes and tegument proteins reached the nucleus, but without PDGFRα virions were degraded. By contrast, wild type HCMV uses another pathway to enter epithelial cells involving macropinocytosis and low pH-dependent fusion, a pathway that lab strains (lacking gH/gL/UL128-131 cannot follow. Thus, PDGFRα does not act as a receptor for HCMV but increased PDGFRα alters cells, facilitating virus entry by an abnormal pathway. Given that PDGFRα increased infection of some cells to 90%, PDGFRα may be very

  5. Numerical Study of Flow Augmented Thermal Management for Entry and Re-Entry Environments (United States)

    Cheng, Gary C.; Neroorkar, Kshitij D.; Chen, Yen-Sen; Wang, Ten-See; Daso, Endwell O.


    The use of a flow augmented thermal management system for entry and re-entr environments is one method for reducing heat and drag loads. This concept relies on jet penetration from supersonic and hypersonic counterflowing jets that could significantly weaken and disperse the shock-wave system of the spacecraft flow field. The objective of this research effort is to conduct parametric studies of the supersonic flow over a 2.6% scale model of the Apollo capsule, with and without the counterflowing jet, using time-accurate and steady-state computational fluid dynamics simulations. The numerical studies, including different freestream Mach number angle of attack counterflowing jet mass flow rate, and nozzle configurations, were performed to examine their effect on the drag and beat loads and to explore the counternowing jet condition. The numerical results were compared with the test data obtained from transonic blow-down wind-tunnel experiments conducted independently at NASA MSFC.

  6. Parametric Thermal Soak Model for Earth Entry Vehicles (United States)

    Agrawal, Parul; Samareh, Jamshid; Doan, Quy D.


    The analysis and design of an Earth Entry Vehicle (EEV) is multidisciplinary in nature, requiring the application many disciplines. An integrated tool called Multi Mission System Analysis for Planetary Entry Descent and Landing or M-SAPE is being developed as part of Entry Vehicle Technology project under In-Space Technology program. Integration of a multidisciplinary problem is a challenging task. Automation of the execution process and data transfer among disciplines can be accomplished to provide significant benefits. Thermal soak analysis and temperature predictions of various interior components of entry vehicle, including the impact foam and payload container are part of the solution that M-SAPE will offer to spacecraft designers. The present paper focuses on the thermal soak analysis of an entry vehicle design based on the Mars Sample Return entry vehicle geometry and discusses a technical approach to develop parametric models for thermal soak analysis that will be integrated into M-SAPE. One of the main objectives is to be able to identify the important parameters and to develop correlation coefficients so that, for a given trajectory, can estimate the peak payload temperature based on relevant trajectory parameters and vehicle geometry. The models are being developed for two primary thermal protection (TPS) materials: 1) carbon phenolic that was used for Galileo and Pioneer Venus probes and, 2) Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA), TPS material for Mars Science Lab mission. Several representative trajectories were selected from a very large trade space to include in the thermal analysis in order to develop an effective parametric thermal soak model. The selected trajectories covered a wide range of heatload and heatflux combinations. Non-linear, fully transient, thermal finite element simulations were performed for the selected trajectories to generate the temperature histories at the interior of the vehicle. Figure 1 shows the finite element model

  7. Design of a Template for Handwriting Based Hindi Text Entry in Handheld Devices (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Diya; Vasal, Ityam; Yammiyavar, Pradeep

    Mobile phones, in the recent times, have become affordable and accessible to a wider range of users including the hitherto technologically and economically under-represented segments. Indian users are a gigantic consumer base for mobile phones. With Hindi being one of the most widely spoken languages in the country and the primary tool of communication for about a third of its population, an effective solution for Hindi text entry in mobile devices is expected to be immensely useful to the non English speaking users. This paper proposes a mobile phone handwriting based text entry solution for Hindi language, which allows for an easy text entry method, while facilitating better recognition accuracy.

  8. A Study of the Effects of Atmospheric Phenomena on Mars Science Laboratory Entry Performance (United States)

    Cianciolo, Alicia D.; Way, David W.; Powell, Richard W.


    At Earth during entry the shuttle has experienced what has come to be known as potholes in the sky or regions of the atmosphere where the density changes suddenly. Because of the small data set of atmospheric information where the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) parachute deploys, the purpose of this study is to examine the effect similar atmospheric pothole characteristics, should they exist at Mars, would have on MSL entry performance. The study considers the sensitivity of entry design metrics, including altitude and range error at parachute deploy and propellant use, to pothole like density and wind phenomena.

  9. An analysis of atmospheric entry trajectories for manned and unmanned missions to the planet Venus (United States)

    Craig, M. K.; Gonzalez, R. G.


    A unified atmospheric density model is presented for the planet Venus, and this model is compatible with Russian and American data obtained during the 1967 Venus launch opportunity. Trajectory characteristics involved in atmospheric entry are discussed with reference to roll-control modulation and entry corridor. Subsequent to a trajectory-oriented discussion of potential Venus mission characteristics, a parametric analysis of manned and unmanned vehicle entry trajectories into the Venusian atmosphere is presented. A sensitivity analysis with reference to atmospheric density deviations is included to show the dependence of corridor depth on the atmospheric density profile.

  10. Solar photovoltaic basics a study guide for the NABCEP entry level exam

    CERN Document Server

    White, Sean


    Whether or not you are taking the NABCEP Entry Level Exam, learning the material covered in this book is the best investment you can make towards your place in the solar industry.This book explains the science of photovoltaics (PV) in a way that most people can understand using the curriculum which reflects the core modules of the NABCEP Entry Level Exam.Providing complete coverage of the NABCEP syllabus in easily accessible chapters, addressing all of the core objectives that will aid in passing the PV Entry Level Exam including the ten main skill sets:PV Markets and Applications Safety Basic

  11. Obtaining orthotropic elasticity tensor using entries zeroing method. (United States)

    Gierlach, Bartosz; Danek, Tomasz


    A generally anisotropic elasticity tensor obtained from measurements can be represented by a tensor belonging to one of eight material symmetry classes. Knowledge of symmetry class and orientation is helpful for describing physical properties of a medium. For each non-trivial symmetry class except isotropic this problem is nonlinear. A common method of obtaining effective tensor is a choosing its non-trivial symmetry class and minimizing Frobenius norm between measured and effective tensor in the same coordinate system. Global optimization algorithm has to be used to determine the best rotation of a tensor. In this contribution, we propose a new approach to obtain optimal tensor, with the assumption that it is orthotropic (or at least has a similar shape to the orthotropic one). In orthotropic form tensor 24 out of 36 entries are zeros. The idea is to minimize the sum of squared entries which are supposed to be equal to zero through rotation calculated with optimization algorithm - in this case Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. Quaternions were used to parametrize rotations in 3D space to improve computational efficiency. In order to avoid a choice of local minima we apply PSO several times and only if we obtain similar results for the third time we consider it as a correct value and finish computations. To analyze obtained results Monte-Carlo method was used. After thousands of single runs of PSO optimization, we obtained values of quaternion parts and plot them. Points concentrate in several points of the graph following the regular pattern. It suggests the existence of more complex symmetry in the analyzed tensor. Then thousands of realizations of generally anisotropic tensor were generated - each tensor entry was replaced with a random value drawn from normal distribution having a mean equal to measured tensor entry and standard deviation of the measurement. Each of these tensors was subject of PSO based optimization delivering quaternion for optimal

  12. The Adaptable, Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT) (United States)

    Wercinski, Paul


    The initial system-level development of the nano-ADEPT architecture will culminate in the launch of a 0.7 meter deployed diameter ADEPT sounding rocket flight experiment named, SR-1. Launch is planned for August 2017. The test will utilize the NASA Flight Opportunities Program sounding rocket platform provided by UP Aerospace to launch SR-1 to an apogee over 100 km and achieve re-entry conditions with a peak velocity near Mach 3. The SR-1 flight experiment will demonstrate most of the primary end-to-end mission stages including: launch in a stowed configuration, separation and deployment in exo-atmospheric conditions, and passive ballistic re-entry of a 70-degree half-angle faceted cone geometry.

  13. Robust integrated navigation for Mars atmospheric entry with parameter uncertainties (United States)

    Yang, H. F.; Fu, H. M.; Wang, Z. H.; Xiao, Q.; Zhang, Y. B.


    Mars atmospheric entry is a key phase to actualize Mars pinpoint landing. In this phase, parameters including atmospheric density, ballistic coefficient, and lift-to-drag ratio are uncertain because of environmental complexity. Ignoring these uncertainties may probably cause negative effects on the navigation accuracy. Based on the desensitized unscented Kalman filter (DUKF), which obtains the state estimation by minimizing a cost function involving the trace of posterior covariance matrix and the weighted norm of the posterior state estimation error sensitivities, this paper further introduces parameter uncertainties into the radio beacons/inertial measurement unit integrated navigation scheme and establishes a robust integrated navigation for Mars atmospheric entry with parameter uncertainties. Numerical simulation results show that the robust navigation algorithm based on the DUKF effectively reduces the influence of parameter uncertainties and illustrates a better performance than traditional methods.

  14. Is parotid saliva sterile on entry to the oral cavity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Stine A; Bardow, Allan; Eickhardt-Dalbøge, Steffen


    CONCLUSION: The present study indicates that parotid saliva is sterile on entry to the oral cavity. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to investigate if parotid saliva is sterile on entry to the oral cavity and, thus, prior to contamination by oral bacteria. METHOD: Forty healthy volunteers were...... included in sterile parotid saliva collection. Parotid saliva was collected using a sterile Lashley cup, placed over the papilla of the Stensen´s duct, as well as sterile tubes and syringes for collection. All collections were followed by collection of a positive control sample where some of the sterile...... there were no cultivable bacteria, whereas bacteria were cultivated in all positive control samples. In eight of 10 PCR samples no bacterial DNA was detected. The most frequent bacteria in the remaining non-sterile parotid saliva samples and positive control samples were non-haemolytical streptococci...

  15. Macropinocytosis is the entry mechanism of amphotropic murine leukemia virus. (United States)

    Rasmussen, Izabela; Vilhardt, Frederik


    -filled vacuoles (up to 10 μm) following the collapse of cell surface protrusions and membrane scission. We used drugs or the introduction of mutant proteins that affect the actin cytoskeleton and cell surface dynamics to show that macropinocytosis and A-MLV infection are correlated, and we provide both light- and electron-microscopic evidence to show the localization of A-MLV in macropinosomes. Finally, we specifically exclude some other potential entry portals, including caveolae, previously suggested to internalize A-MLV. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Financial Performance of Entry Mode Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie; Hollensen, Svend


    Based on a survey of 170 Danish SMEs the paper examines influences on entry mode choices and the financial outcome of these decisions. The main research objectives are divided into two steps: Step 1: To determine the factors influencing the choice of foreign entry modes by Danish companies. Step ...... and implications are provided for companies willing to invest more into foreign markets in order to achieve a higher degree of control and better financial results.......Based on a survey of 170 Danish SMEs the paper examines influences on entry mode choices and the financial outcome of these decisions. The main research objectives are divided into two steps: Step 1: To determine the factors influencing the choice of foreign entry modes by Danish companies. Step 2......: To determine the relationship between the choice of entry mode and export performance, measured in terms of financial outcome. Drawing from transaction cost theory the authors develop and test a model where different factors affect the level of control chosen by the parent company. This study contributes...

  17. Atmospheric Entry Studies for Venus Missions: 45 Sphere-Cone Rigid Aeroshells and Ballistic Entries (United States)

    Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Spilker, Thomas R.; Allen, Gary A., Jr.; Hwang, Helen H.; Cappuccio, Gelsomina; Moses, Robert W.


    The present study considers direct ballistic entries into the atmosphere of Venus using a 45deg sphere-cone rigid aeroshell, a legacy shape that has been used successfully in the past in the Pioneer Venus Multiprobe Mission. For a number of entry mass and heatshield diameter combinations (i.e., various ballistic coefficients) and entry velocities, the trajectory space in terms of entry flight path angles between skip out and -30deg is explored with a 3DoF trajectory code, TRAJ. From these trajectories, the viable entry flight path angle space is determined through the use of mechanical and thermal performance limits on the thermal protection material and science payload; the thermal protection material of choice is entry-grade carbon phenolic, for which a material thermal response model is available. For mechanical performance, a 200 g limit is placed on the peak deceleration load experienced by the science instruments, and 10 bar is assumed as the pressure limit for entry-grade carbon-phenolic material. For thermal performance, inflection points in the total heat load distribution are used as cut off criteria. Analysis of the results shows the existence of a range of critical ballistic coefficients beyond which the steepest possible entries are determined by the pressure limit of the material rather than the deceleration load limit.

  18. Analytical theories for spacecraft entry into planetary atmospheres and design of planetary probes (United States)

    Saikia, Sarag J.

    This dissertation deals with the development of analytical theories for spacecraft entry into planetary atmospheres and the design of entry spacecraft or probes for planetary science and human exploration missions. Poincare's method of small parameters is used to develop an improved approximate analytical solution for Yaroshevskii's classical planetary entry equation for the ballistic entry of a spacecraft into planetary atmospheres. From this solution, other important expressions are developed including deceleration, stagnation-point heat rate, and stagnation-point integrated heat load. The accuracy of the solution is assessed via numerical integration of the exact equations of motion. The solution is also compared to the classical solutions of Yaroshevskii and Allen and Eggers. The new second-order analytical solution is more accurate than Yaroshevskii's fifth-order solution for a range of shallow (-3 deg) to steep (up to -90 deg) entry flight path angles, thereby extending the range of applicability of the solution as compared to the classical Yaroshevskii solution, which is restricted to an entry flight path of approximately -40 deg. Universal planetary entry equations are used to develop a new analytical theory for ballistic entry of spacecraft for moderate to large initial flight path angles. Chapman's altitude variable is used as the independent variable. Poincare's method of small parameters is used to develop an analytical solution for the velocity and the flight path angle. The new solution is used to formulate key expressions for range, time-of-flight, deceleration, and aerodynamic heating parameters (e.g., stagnation-point heat rate, total stagnation-point heat load, and average heat input). The classical approximate solution of Chapman's entry equation appears as the zero-order term in the new solution. The new solution represents an order of magnitude enhancement in the accuracy compared to existing analytical solutions for moderate to large entry

  19. Entry Systems Modeling (ESM) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cutting edge customer driven research in two areas:Aerosciences, including the completion and delivery of two new aerothermal CFD codes, a first ever validated shock...

  20. Curriculum Differentiation and Social Inequality in Higher Education Entry in Scotland and Ireland (United States)

    Iannelli, Cristina; Smyth, Emer; Klein, Markus


    This paper examines the relative importance of upper secondary subject choice and attainment in explaining social inequalities in access to higher education (HE) in Scotland and Ireland. These two countries differ in the extent of curriculum differentiation, in the degree of standardisation in school examination and in HE entry criteria. In…

  1. Regulation of Entry and the Distortion of Industrial Organization


    Raymond Fisman; Virginia Sarria-Allende


    We study the distortions to industrial organization caused by entry regulation. We take advantage of heterogeneity across industries in their natural barriers and growth opportunities to examine whether some industries are differentially affected by country-level entry regulation. In industries with high natural entry barriers, entry regulation has little impact on the quantity and average size of firms in an industry. By contrast, in industries with low natural entry barriers, countries with...

  2. Two-IMU FDI performance of the sequential probability ratio test during shuttle entry (United States)

    Rich, T. M.


    Performance data for the sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) during shuttle entry are presented. Current modeling constants and failure thresholds are included for the full mission 3B from entry through landing trajectory. Minimum 100 percent detection/isolation failure levels and a discussion of the effects of failure direction are presented. Finally, a limited comparison of failures introduced at trajectory initiation shows that the SPRT algorithm performs slightly worse than the data tracking test.

  3. 19 CFR 141.56 - Single entry summary for multiple transportation entries consigned to the same consignee. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Single entry summary for multiple transportation entries consigned to the same consignee. 141.56 Section 141.56 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER... transportation entries consigned to the same consignee. (a) Requirement. Port directors may accept one entry...

  4. Kinetic factors control efficiencies of cell entry, efficacies of entry inhibitors, and mechanisms of adaptation of human immunodeficiency virus. (United States)

    Platt, Emily J; Durnin, James P; Kabat, David


    assembled viral complexes overcome this barrier per hour, the ensuing steps of entry are rapidly completed within 5 to 10 min. Thus, this barrier limits the overall flow rate at which the attached virions enter cells, but it has no effect on the lag time that precedes this entry flow. Third, a relatively rapid and kinetically dominant process of viral inactivation, which may partly involve endocytosis, competes with infectious viral entry. Our results suggest that the V3 loop of gp120 has a major effect on the rate-limiting coreceptor-dependent conformational change in gp41 and that adaptive viral mutations, including V3 loop mutations, function kinetically by accelerating this inherently slow step in the entry pathway.

  5. Modes and orders of market entry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm


    This paper focuses on the initial questions of how and when to enter a market from the perspective of a firm. By entry mode is meant a firm’s strategy (innovation or imitation) for entering the market in response to environmental changes. Entry order refers to the related issue of market timing...... strategies are more ambiguous. Based on a corporate technology and innovation strategy perspective, the paper reconceptualises and extends existing modes and orders of market entry, and in particular clarifies the ambiguity associated with imitative strategies. Four distinct imitator strategies...... are identified. The paper closes with a brief discussion of limitations, avenues for future research, and implications for managers and affected policymakers....

  6. Constitutive calcium entry and cancer: updated views and insights. (United States)

    Mignen, Olivier; Constantin, Bruno; Potier-Cartereau, Marie; Penna, Aubin; Gautier, Mathieu; Guéguinou, Maxime; Renaudineau, Yves; Shoji, Kenji F; Félix, Romain; Bayet, Elsa; Buscaglia, Paul; Debant, Marjolaine; Chantôme, Aurélie; Vandier, Christophe


    Tight control of basal cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration is essential for cell survival and to fine-tune Ca(2+)-dependent cell functions. A way to control this basal cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration is to regulate membrane Ca(2+) channels including store-operated Ca(2+) channels and secondary messenger-operated channels linked to G-protein-coupled or tyrosine kinase receptor activation. Orai, with or without its reticular STIM partner and Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) proteins, were considered to be the main Ca(2+) channels involved. It is well accepted that, in response to cell stimulation, opening of these Ca(2+) channels contributes to Ca(2+) entry and the transient increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration involved in intracellular signaling. However, in various experimental conditions, Ca(2+) entry and/or Ca(2+) currents can be recorded at rest, without application of any experimental stimulation. This led to the proposition that some plasma membrane Ca(2+) channels are already open/activated in basal condition, contributing therefore to constitutive Ca(2+) entry. This article focuses on direct and indirect observations supporting constitutive activity of channels belonging to the Orai and TRP families and on the mechanisms underlying their basal/constitutive activities.

  7. Lifting Entry & Atmospheric Flight (LEAF) Applications at Solar System Bodies. (United States)

    Lee, G.; Sen, B.; Polidan, R. S.


    Introduction: Northrop Grumman and L'Garde have continued the development of a hypersonic entry, maneuverable platform capable of performing long-duration (months to a year) in situ and remote measurements at any solar system body that possesses an atmosphere. The Lifting Entry & Atmospheric Flight (LEAF) family of vehicles achieve this capability by using a semi-buoyant, ultra-low ballistic coefficient vehicle whose lifting entry allows it to enter the atmosphere without an aeroshell. In this presentation, we discuss the application of the LEAF system at various solar system bodies: Venus, Titan, Mars, and Earth. We present the key differences in platform design as well as operational differences required by the various target environments. The Venus implementation includes propulsive capability to reach higher altitudes during the day and achieves full buoyancy in the "habitable layers" of Venus' atmosphere at night. Titan also offers an attractive operating environment, allowing LEAF designs that can target low, medium, or high altitude operations, also with propulsive capabilities to roam within each altitude regime. The Mars version is a glider that descends gradually, allowing targeted delivery of payloads to the surface. Finally, an Earth version could remain in orbit in a stowed state until activated, allowing rapid response type deployments to any region of the globe.

  8. Robust mitotic entry is ensured by a latching switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Tuck


    Cell cycle events are driven by Cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs and by their counter-acting phosphatases. Activation of the Cdk1:Cyclin B complex during mitotic entry is controlled by the Wee1/Myt1 inhibitory kinases and by Cdc25 activatory phosphatase, which are themselves regulated by Cdk1:Cyclin B within two positive circuits. Impairing these two feedbacks with chemical inhibitors induces a transient entry into M phase referred to as mitotic collapse. The pathology of mitotic collapse reveals that the positive circuits play a significant role in maintaining the M phase state. To better understand the function of these feedback loops during G2/M transition, we propose a simple model for mitotic entry in mammalian cells including spatial control over Greatwall kinase phosphorylation. After parameter calibration, the model is able to recapture the complex and non-intuitive molecular dynamics reported by Potapova et al. (Potapova et al., 2011. Moreover, it predicts the temporal patterns of other mitotic regulators which have not yet been experimentally tested and suggests a general design principle of cell cycle control: latching switches buffer the cellular stresses which accompany cell cycle processes to ensure that the transitions are smooth and robust.

  9. Form, its meaning, and dictionary entries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa


    It is worth stressing that distinguishing between the form and its meaning in comparing the material 6 languages belonging to three different groups of Slavic languages (as is the case in the MONDILEX Project will allow us to avoid numeorus substantiva mistakes and erroneous conclusions. Hence dictionary entries should be verified and made uniform in that respect before they are “digitalized”... Distinction between the form and its meaning in a dictionary entry is fully possible, as shown by works of Z. Saloni (2002 and A.Przepiórkowski (2008.

  10. Stability of Developmental Problems after School Entry of Moderately-Late Preterm and Early Preterm-Born Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornman, Jorijn; de Winter, Andrea F; Kerstjens, Jorien M; Bos, Arend F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the stability of developmental problems in moderately-late preterm-born children compared with early preterm and full term-born children before school entry at age 4 years and 1 year after school entry at age 5 years. STUDY DESIGN: We included 376 early preterm, 688 born

  11. 19 CFR 24.4 - Optional method for payment of estimated import taxes on alcoholic beverages upon entry, or... (United States)


    ... taxes on alcoholic beverages upon entry, or withdrawal from warehouse, for consumption. 24.4 Section 24... estimated import taxes on alcoholic beverages upon entry, or withdrawal from warehouse, for consumption. (a) Application to defer. An importer, including a transferee of alcoholic beverages in a Customs bonded warehouse...

  12. Stability of Developmental Problems after School Entry of Moderately-Late Preterm and Early Preterm-Born Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornman, Jorijn; de Winter, Andrea F.; Kerstjens, Jorien M.; Bos, Arend F.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    Objective To assess the stability of developmental problems in moderately-late preterm-born children compared with early preterm and full term-born children before school entry at age 4 years and 1 year after school entry at age 5 years. Study design We included 376 early preterm, 688 born

  13. On-Board Entry Trajectory Planning Expanded to Sub-orbital Flight (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Shen, Zuojun


    A methodology for on-board planning of sub-orbital entry trajectories is developed. The algorithm is able to generate in a time frame consistent with on-board environment a three-degree-of-freedom (3DOF) feasible entry trajectory, given the boundary conditions and vehicle modeling. This trajectory is then tracked by feedback guidance laws which issue guidance commands. The current trajectory planning algorithm complements the recently developed method for on-board 3DOF entry trajectory generation for orbital missions, and provides full-envelope autonomous adaptive entry guidance capability. The algorithm is validated and verified by extensive high fidelity simulations using a sub-orbital reusable launch vehicle model and difficult mission scenarios including failures and aborts.

  14. Conceptual shape optimization of entry vehicles applied to capsules and winged fuselage vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Dirkx, Dominic


    This book covers the parameterization of entry capsules, including Apollo capsules and planetary probes, and winged entry vehicles such as the Space Shuttle and lifting bodies. The aerodynamic modelling is based on a variety of panel methods that take shadowing into account, and it has been validated with flight and wind tunnel data of Apollo and the Space Shuttle. The shape optimization is combined with constrained trajectory analysis, and the multi-objective approach provides the engineer with a Pareto front of optimal shapes. The method detailed in Conceptual Shape Optimization of Entry Vehicles is straightforward, and the output gives the engineer insight in the effect of shape variations on trajectory performance. All applied models and algorithms used are explained in detail, allowing for reconstructing the design tool to the researcher’s requirements. Conceptual Shape Optimization of Entry Vehicles will be of interest to both researchers and graduate students in the field of aerospace engineering, an...

  15. [Variability of physician judgements in school entry examinations]. (United States)

    Geyer, S; Wedegärtner, F


    Data from school entry examinations were used for studying the variability of judgements between physicians performing the examinations. Two diagnoses were subject to examination: 1) Obesity, because an external criterion was available for this one. The medical classifications were compared with automated classifications using an external criterion. 2) Language anomalies, because these are the most frequent diagnoses. No external criterion had been available, thus differences within the group of examining physicians were considered. Data from all school entry examinations performed in the city of Hannover between 1998 and 2001 were used. Altogether 14 physicians were involved, but due to low case numbers the data of two had to be omitted. The analyses are based on 18,303 datasets. For obesity the agreement rates between physicians' and automatically generated diagnoses were ascertained by calculating sensitivity and specificity. Comparisons of differences between physicians with respect to chances of getting a diagnosis were performed using logistic regression. The sensitivity of classifying body weights above the 75 (th) percentile correctly was 0.64 over all years of observation. The respective sensitivity of classifying children with body weights above the 97 (th) percentile was 0.70. Considerable differences over the four years of observation occurred. For performing logistic regressions, the diagnoses of the physician with the smallest difference from an external criterion were used as standard of comparison. The diagnoses of the physician with the largest difference yielded an OR=0.08. The overall variability within the group of examining physicians was large. With respect to language anomalies, although considerable, the within-group differences were smaller. The largest odds ratio in this case was OR=0.40. Diagnoses from school entry examinations vary according to the physicians involved. Thus the data should not be used for epidemiological studies. In

  16. Continuous Aerodynamic Modelling of Entry Shapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkx, D.; Mooij, E.


    During the conceptual design phase of a re-entry vehicle, the vehicle shape can be varied and its impact on performance evaluated. To this end, the continuous modeling of the aerodynamic characteristics as a function of the shape is useful in exploring the full design space. Local inclination

  17. Female entrepreneurial networks and foreign market entry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Gitte Ohrt


    The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of networks in the 116 foreign market entries (FMEs) of women-owned small businesses. A multiple case study based on semi-structured interviews with eight female entrepreneurs in the Danish fashion design industry. The results show that contrary...

  18. Thinking and Reading for Entry Level Workers. (United States)

    Allentown Literacy Council, PA.

    A pilot project demonstrated that cooperative training programs are effective and cost efficient for small businesses. Common entry-level reading and thinking tasks were identified in a variety of occupational areas. Five growing occupational areas were identified: industrial/machine operator; health care; food preparation; hotel/hospitality; and…

  19. Entry modes of European firms in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Simonet


    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to explore the entry modes of EU firms setting up operations in Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach: we use a case study approach on Haymarket, Cadbury, Creative Education, Fairchild, Aventis and Artemisinin and Farming International using interviews from managerial professionals in Vietnam. Findings: Despite the fact that Vietnam has been opening up for more than 20 years, licensing is the preferred entry mode because of the risks involved in venturing with local firms; that preference signals a low level commitment and a high perception of risk and state interference. In line with Vietnam transition to state - rather than private market - capitalism, a foreign company opting for a joint-venture will do so with a state-owned rather than privately-owned company. The choice of a subsidiary can be explained by the lack of trust in partners and institutions, not by improvement in the socio-political environment. Limitations: In determining the entry mode strategy, the paper focuses on the Uppsala school’s “psychic distance” (e.g. cultural distance, lack of trust rather than on firm-specific advantages (Rugman, 1980; 2006. Key-words: international entry mode; emerging markets; subsidiary; joint-venture; India; Vietnam

  20. Internet portals as portfolios of entry options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; Rossetto, S.


    We investigate the valuation of platform investment, such as a software operating system or an Internet portal WebPage. Platform investment is the creation of an innovative distribution and production infrastructure, which increases access to customers; as a result it reduces entry costs in related

  1. Flavivirus cell entry and membrane fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jolanda M.; Moesker, Bastiaan; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela; Wilschut, Jan

    Flaviviruses, such as dengue virus and West Nile virus, are enveloped viruses that infect cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and fusion from within acidic endosomes. The cell entry process of flaviviruses is mediated by the viral E glycoprotein. This short review will address recent

  2. Radiation and critical shocks in atmospheric entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.


    Sub- and supercritical shock waves are produced during atmospheric entry. The radiation efficiency of the former increases strongly with velocity and altitude; that of the latter increases with altitude, but decreases with supercritical velocities. These efficiencies shift the region of maximum radiation one to two scale heights higher and decrease overall radiation efficiency.

  3. Flavivirus cell entry and membrane fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jolanda M.; Moesker, Bastiaan; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela; Wilschut, Jan


    Flaviviruses, such as dengue virus and West Nile virus, are enveloped viruses that infect cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and fusion from within acidic endosomes. The cell entry process of flaviviruses is mediated by the viral E glycoprotein. This short review will address recent

  4. Correlation Between Entry Requirements and Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the investigator examines the correlation between entry requirements and academic performance of undergraduate students at the University of Buea. The quality of performance on the Cameroon General Certificate Examination at the Advanced Level is the predictor while the criterion is the cumulative grade ...

  5. Foreign entry, cultural barriers and learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.G. Barkema (Harry); J.H.J. Bell (John); J.M.E. Pennings


    textabstractThis paper examines the longevity of foreign entries. Hypotheses are developed on the mode (start-ups vs. acquisitions) and ownership structure (wholly owned vs. joint ventures) in relation to cultural distance. The hypotheses are tested within a framework of organizational learning,

  6. 19 CFR 159.7 - Rewarehouse entries. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rewarehouse entries. 159.7 Section 159.7 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY.... When any of the following types of merchandise are withdrawn from warehouse for transportation to...

  7. Business entry and window of opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, Silke; Kurczewska, Agnieszka


    This paper explores the nascence period - the time between idea generation and business entry -among women entrepreneurs with a graduate degree. To address this research problem and to better understand the specifics of a window of opportunity, we combine selected theories of human and social...

  8. Shuttle Entry Imaging Using Infrared Thermography (United States)

    Horvath, Thomas; Berry, Scott; Alter, Stephen; Blanchard, Robert; Schwartz, Richard; Ross, Martin; Tack, Steve


    During the Columbia Accident Investigation, imaging teams supporting debris shedding analysis were hampered by poor entry image quality and the general lack of information on optical signatures associated with a nominal Shuttle entry. After the accident, recommendations were made to NASA management to develop and maintain a state-of-the-art imagery database for Shuttle engineering performance assessments and to improve entry imaging capability to support anomaly and contingency analysis during a mission. As a result, the Space Shuttle Program sponsored an observation campaign to qualitatively characterize a nominal Shuttle entry over the widest possible Mach number range. The initial objectives focused on an assessment of capability to identify/resolve debris liberated from the Shuttle during entry, characterization of potential anomalous events associated with RCS jet firings and unusual phenomenon associated with the plasma trail. The aeroheating technical community viewed the Space Shuttle Program sponsored activity as an opportunity to influence the observation objectives and incrementally demonstrate key elements of a quantitative spatially resolved temperature measurement capability over a series of flights. One long-term desire of the Shuttle engineering community is to calibrate boundary layer transition prediction methodologies that are presently part of the Shuttle damage assessment process using flight data provided by a controlled Shuttle flight experiment. Quantitative global imaging may offer a complementary method of data collection to more traditional methods such as surface thermocouples. This paper reviews the process used by the engineering community to influence data collection methods and analysis of global infrared images of the Shuttle obtained during hypersonic entry. Emphasis is placed upon airborne imaging assets sponsored by the Shuttle program during Return to Flight. Visual and IR entry imagery were obtained with available airborne

  9. A Choice Prediction Competition for Market Entry Games: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ido Erev


    Full Text Available A choice prediction competition is organized that focuses on decisions from experience in market entry games ( and The competition is based on two experiments: An estimation experiment, and a competition experiment. The two experiments use the same methods and subject pool, and examine games randomly selected from the same distribution. The current introductory paper presents the results of the estimation experiment, and clarifies the descriptive value of several baseline models. The experimental results reveal the robustness of eight behavioral tendencies that were documented in previous studies of market entry games and individual decisions from experience. The best baseline model (I-SAW assumes reliance on small samples of experiences, and strong inertia when the recent results are not surprising. The competition experiment will be run in May 2010 (after the completion of this introduction, but they will not be revealed until September. To participate in the competition, researchers are asked to E-mail the organizers models (implemented in computer programs that read the incentive structure as input, and derive the predicted behavior as an output. The submitted models will be ranked based on their prediction error. The winners of the competition will be invited to publish a paper that describes their model.

  10. Entry into motherhood in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available On the background of the dramatic swings in the Swedish TFR since the mid-1980s we present a first attempt at assessing the impact of labor-market trends on the timing of the first birth based on individual-level register data covering all Swedish women born in 1950 or later. Among our covariates we have each woman's income, partitioned into any income earned from work, any unemployment benefits, and any public support for educational activities. We also have employment trends in her home municipality. The latter variables are included for every relevant year. We find that first-birth rates rose and fell in step with municipal employment levels. The effect is especially strong for young women, and the decline in first birth during the 1990s was concentrated primarily among women aged below 30. First-birth rates increased with a woman's earned income. Unemployed women did not have particularly low first-birth rates, but students did.

  11. Impact of Antibodies and Strain Polymorphisms on Cytomegalovirus Entry and Spread in Fibroblasts and Epithelial Cells. (United States)

    Cui, Xiaohong; Freed, Daniel C; Wang, Dai; Qiu, Ping; Li, Fengsheng; Fu, Tong-Ming; Kauvar, Lawrence M; McVoy, Michael A


    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) entry into fibroblasts differs from entry into epithelial cells. CMV also spreads cell to cell and can induce syncytia. To gain insights into these processes, 27 antibodies targeting epitopes in CMV virion glycoprotein complexes, including glycoprotein B (gB), gH/gL, and the pentamer, were evaluated for their effects on viral entry and spread. No antibodies inhibited CMV spread in fibroblasts, including those with potent neutralizing activity against fibroblast entry, while all antibodies that neutralized epithelial cell entry also inhibited spread in epithelial cells and a correlation existed between the potencies of these two activities. This suggests that exposure of virions to the cell culture medium is obligatory during spread in epithelial cells but not in fibroblasts. In fibroblasts, the formation of syncytiumlike structures was impaired not only by antibodies to gB or gH/gL but also by antibodies to the pentamer, suggesting a potential role for the pentamer in promoting fibroblast fusion. Four antibodies reacted with linear epitopes near the N terminus of gH, exhibited strain specificity, and neutralized both epithelial cell and fibroblast entry. Five other antibodies recognized conformational epitopes in gH/gL and neutralized both fibroblast and epithelial cell entry. That these antibodies were strain specific for neutralizing fibroblast but not epithelial cell entry suggests that polymorphisms external to certain gH/gL epitopes may influence antibody neutralization during fibroblast but not epithelial cell entry. These findings may have implications for elucidating the mechanisms of CMV entry, spread, and antibody evasion and may assist in determining which antibodies may be most efficacious following active immunization or passive administration.IMPORTANCE Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a significant cause of birth defects among newborns infected in utero and morbidity and mortality in transplant and AIDS patients. Monoclonal antibodies

  12. ELECTRA © Launch and Re-Entry Safety Analysis Tool (United States)

    Lazare, B.; Arnal, M. H.; Aussilhou, C.; Blazquez, A.; Chemama, F.


    French Space Operation Act gives as prime objective to National Technical Regulations to protect people, properties, public health and environment. In this frame, an independent technical assessment of French space operation is delegated to CNES. To perform this task and also for his owns operations CNES needs efficient state-of-the-art tools for evaluating risks. The development of the ELECTRA© tool, undertaken in 2007, meets the requirement for precise quantification of the risks involved in launching and re-entry of spacecraft. The ELECTRA© project draws on the proven expertise of CNES technical centers in the field of flight analysis and safety, spaceflight dynamics and the design of spacecraft. The ELECTRA© tool was specifically designed to evaluate the risks involved in the re-entry and return to Earth of all or part of a spacecraft. It will also be used for locating and visualizing nominal or accidental re-entry zones while comparing them with suitable geographic data such as population density, urban areas, and shipping lines, among others. The method chosen for ELECTRA© consists of two main steps: calculating the possible reentry trajectories for each fragment after the spacecraft breaks up; calculating the risks while taking into account the energy of the fragments, the population density and protection afforded by buildings. For launch operations and active re-entry, the risk calculation will be weighted by the probability of instantaneous failure of the spacecraft and integrated for the whole trajectory. ELECTRA©’s development is today at the end of the validation phase, last step before delivery to users. Validation process has been performed in different ways: numerical application way for the risk formulation; benchmarking process for casualty area, level of energy of the fragments entries and level of protection housing module; best practices in space transportation industries concerning dependability evaluation; benchmarking process for

  13. Foreign Entry Modes Under Institutional Pressures: The Impact of Strategic Resource Seeking and Market Seeking Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Portugal Ferreira


    Full Text Available Multinational corporations (MNCs are subject to the various dimensions of the external institutional environments. Institutional theory suggests that MNCs need to conform to the prevailing rules, norms and procedures of the locations where they operate in order to survive and grow. This means that MNCs need to develop the best possible configuration of strategy-structure for their worldwide operations. Previous research has noted that in these conditions firms may simply seek to follow a referent other. However, MNCs’ specific strategy for a focal foreign operation is likely to determine the entry mode for each host country. In certain circumstances it may be whether MNCs are pursuing a market-seeking strategy or a strategic resource seeking strategy that shapes the entry mode in face of the prevailing institutional pressures. We contribute to the understanding of entry modes into foreign markets as a reflection of a strategic choice that is bound by institutional constraints.

  14. International Energy: Subject Thesaurus. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutkowski, R.W. [ed.


    The Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) is a consortium of member countries around the globe that share their energy research and technology information through ETDE`s database. The Exchange was established in 1987 under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) and serves all ETDE member countries. The Exchange also collaborates with other entities as appropriate.The International Energy:Subject Thesaurus [ETDE/PUB--2(Rev.2)] contains the standard vocabulary of indexing terms (descriptors) developed and structured to build and maintain energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the U.S. DOE Office of Scientific and technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and (2) the International Atomic Energy Agency`s International Nuclear Information System (INIS) staff representing the more than 100 countries and organizations t hat record and index information for the international nuclear information community. Because all ETDE member countries are also members of INIS, the contents of INIS`s database are included in ETDE`s database. Indexing terminology is therefore cooperatively standardized for use in both information systems. This structured vocabulary reflects the scope of international energy research and technology programs. The terminology of this thesaurus aids in subject searching on commercial systems, such as the online products offered by Knight-Ridder Information Services and STN International and the CD-ROM products offered by Silver Platter and Knight-Ridder. This thesaurus can also be used with the in-house systems provided by some ETDE member countries. Descriptors are added to the thesaurus as needed (i.e., when a document contains a concept for which there is no adequate term or terms in the thesaurus). More than 28,000 entries appear in this document, which replaced International

  15. Space Shuttle and Hypersonic Entry (United States)

    Campbell, Charles H.; Gerstenmaier, William H.


    Fifty years of human spaceflight have been characterized by the aerospace operations of the Soyuz, of the Space Shuttle and, more recently, of the Shenzhou. The lessons learned of this past half decade are important and very significant. Particularly interesting is the scenario that is downstream from the retiring of the Space Shuttle. A number of initiatives are, in fact, emerging from in the aftermath of the decision to terminate the Shuttle program. What is more and more evident is that a new era is approaching: the era of the commercial usage and of the commercial exploitation of space. It is probably fair to say, that this is the likely one of the new frontiers of expansion of the world economy. To make a comparison, in the last 30 years our economies have been characterized by the digital technologies, with examples ranging from computers, to cellular phones, to the satellites themselves. Similarly, the next 30 years are likely to be characterized by an exponential increase of usage of extra atmospheric resources, as a result of more economic and efficient way to access space, with aerospace transportation becoming accessible to commercial investments. We are witnessing the first steps of the transportation of future generation that will drastically decrease travel time on our Planet, and significantly enlarge travel envelope including at least the low Earth orbits. The Steve Jobs or the Bill Gates of the past few decades are being replaced by the aggressive and enthusiastic energy of new entrepreneurs. It is also interesting to note that we are now focusing on the aerospace band, that lies on top of the aeronautical shell, and below the low Earth orbits. It would be a mistake to consider this as a known envelope based on the evidences of the flights of Soyuz, Shuttle and Shenzhou. Actually, our comprehension of the possible hypersonic flight regimes is bounded within really limited envelopes. The achievement of a full understanding of the hypersonic flight

  16. Market Entry Strategies : Case: McDonald's entry on the Russian market


    Karataev, Oleg


    The thesis considers the entry strategy and development of the company McDonald's into international markets. The theoretical aspects of the entry strategy of the company into the international markets. Analyzes the key features of the development of McDonald's in Russia. Investigated the prospects of the company in international markets. In theoretic part there was regarded some important aspects of international strategic management, such as: strategic alternatives, elements and levels o...

  17. Overview of Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) (United States)

    Driver, David M.; Ellerby, Donald T.; Gasch, Matthew J.; Mahzari, Milad; Milos, Frank S.; Nishioka, Owen S.; Stackpoole, Margaret M.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Young, Zion W.; Gage, Peter J.; hide


    The Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) projects objective is to mature a 3-D Woven Thermal Protection System (TPS) to Technical Readiness Level (TRL) 6 to support future NASA missions to destinations such as Venus and Saturn. The scope of the project, status of which will be discussed, encompasses development of manufacturing and integration processes, fabrication of a prototype 1m diameter engineering test unit (ETU) that will undergo a series of structural tests, characterizing material aerothermal performance including development of a material response model, and structural testing and analysis to develop tools to support design and establish system capability.

  18. Entry Location and Entry Timing (ELET Decision Model for International Construction Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Maznah Mat Isa


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model for entry location (EL and entry timing (ET decisions to guide construction firms in accessing targeted international markets.  Neglecting to properly choose the right combination of the entry location and entry timing (ELET decisions can lead to poor performance of the firms’ international ventures.  The sampling frame was from the Malaysian construction firms that have undertaken and completed projects abroad.  Survey questionnaires sent to 115 firms registered with Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB Malaysia, operating in more than 50 countries, achieved a 39.1 per cent response rate. Based on a comprehensive statistical analysis of survey data it was found that the mutually inclusive significant factors that influenced the firms’ ELET decisions were: the firm’s ability to assess market signals and opportunities, international experience, financial capacity, competencies and capabilities (project management, specialist expertise and technology, resources (level of knowledge based on research and development, experience in similar works, financial support from the home country banks, technical complexities of projects and availability of funds for projects.  Hence, the present research builds on and extends the literature on the ELET decisions in a more integrated way. Keywords: Entry location, entry timing, resource-based view, international markets, Malaysian construction firms.

  19. Stakeholder identification of advanced technology opportunities at international ports of entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, S.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Policy and Planning Dept.; Icerman, L. [Icerman and Associates, Santa Fe, NM (United States)


    As part of the Advanced Technologies for International and Intermodal Ports of Entry (ATIPE) Project, a diverse group of stakeholders was engaged to help identify problems experienced at inland international border crossings, particularly those at the US-Mexican border. The fundamental issue at international ports of entry is reducing transit time through the required documentation and inspection processes. Examples of other issues or problems, typically manifested as time delays at border crossings, repeatedly mentioned by stakeholders include: (1) lack of document standardization; (2) failure to standardize inspection processes; (3) inadequate information and communications systems; (4) manual fee and tariff collection; (5) inconsistency of processes and procedures; and (6) suboptimal cooperation among governmental agencies. Most of these issues can be addressed to some extent by the development of advanced technologies with the objective of allowing ports of entry to become more efficient while being more effective. Three categories of technologies were unambiguously of high priority to port of entry stakeholders: (1) automated documentation; (2) systems integration; and (3) vehicle and cargo tracking. Together, these technologies represent many of the technical components necessary for pre-clearance of freight approaching international ports of entry. Integration of vehicle and cargo tracking systems with port of entry information and communications systems, as well as existing industry legacy systems, should further enable border crossings to be accomplished consistently with optimal processing times.

  20. Timing is everything: Fine-tuned molecular machines orchestrate paramyxovirus entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, Sayantan, E-mail: [Department of Molecular Biosciences, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208-3500 (United States); Jardetzky, Theodore S. [Department of Structural Biology and Program in Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Lamb, Robert A., E-mail: [Department of Molecular Biosciences, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208-3500 (United States); Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208-3500 (United States)


    The Paramyxoviridae include some of the great and ubiquitous disease-causing viruses of humans and animals. In most paramyxoviruses, two viral membrane glycoproteins, fusion protein (F) and receptor binding protein (HN, H or G) mediate a concerted process of recognition of host cell surface molecules followed by fusion of viral and cellular membranes, resulting in viral nucleocapsid entry into the cytoplasm. The interactions between the F and HN, H or G viral glycoproteins and host molecules are critical in determining host range, virulence and spread of these viruses. Recently, atomic structures, together with biochemical and biophysical studies, have provided major insights into how these two viral glycoproteins successfully interact with host receptors on cellular membranes and initiate the membrane fusion process to gain entry into cells. These studies highlight the conserved core mechanisms of paramyxovirus entry that provide the fundamental basis for rational anti-viral drug design and vaccine development. - Highlights: • New structural and functional insights into paramyxovirus entry mechanisms. • Current data on paramyxovirus glycoproteins suggest a core conserved entry mechanism. • Diverse mechanisms preventing premature fusion activation exist in these viruses. • Precise spacio-temporal interplay between paramyxovirus glycoproteins initiate entry.

  1. Adaptive Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ADEPT Project is developing a mechanically deployable low-ballistic coefficient aeroshell entry system to perform entry descent landing (EDL) functions for...

  2. Design and Simulation Tools for Planetary Atmospheric Entry Vehicles Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Atmospheric entry is one of the most critical phases of flight during planetary exploration missions. During the design of an entry vehicle, experimental and...

  3. Optical modulator including grapene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang


    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  4. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness (United States)

    ... Who Knows What? (log-in required) Select Page Visual Impairment, Including Blindness Mar 31, 2017 Links updated, ... doesn’t wear his glasses. Back to top Visual Impairments in Children Vision is one of our ...

  5. Checking Questionable Entry of Personally Identifiable Information Encrypted by One-Way Hash Transformation. (United States)

    Chen, Xianlai; Fann, Yang C; McAuliffe, Matthew; Vismer, David; Yang, Rong


    As one of the several effective solutions for personal privacy protection, a global unique identifier (GUID) is linked with hash codes that are generated from combinations of personally identifiable information (PII) by a one-way hash algorithm. On the GUID server, no PII is permitted to be stored, and only GUID and hash codes are allowed. The quality of PII entry is critical to the GUID system. The goal of our study was to explore a method of checking questionable entry of PII in this context without using or sending any portion of PII while registering a subject. According to the principle of GUID system, all possible combination patterns of PII fields were analyzed and used to generate hash codes, which were stored on the GUID server. Based on the matching rules of the GUID system, an error-checking algorithm was developed using set theory to check PII entry errors. We selected 200,000 simulated individuals with randomly-planted errors to evaluate the proposed algorithm. These errors were placed in the required PII fields or optional PII fields. The performance of the proposed algorithm was also tested in the registering system of study subjects. There are 127,700 error-planted subjects, of which 114,464 (89.64%) can still be identified as the previous one and remaining 13,236 (10.36%, 13,236/127,700) are discriminated as new subjects. As expected, 100% of nonidentified subjects had errors within the required PII fields. The possibility that a subject is identified is related to the count and the type of incorrect PII field. For all identified subjects, their errors can be found by the proposed algorithm. The scope of questionable PII fields is also associated with the count and the type of the incorrect PII field. The best situation is to precisely find the exact incorrect PII fields, and the worst situation is to shrink the questionable scope only to a set of 13 PII fields. In the application, the proposed algorithm can give a hint of questionable PII entry

  6. Concepts of papillomavirus entry into host cells. (United States)

    Day, Patricia M; Schelhaas, Mario


    Papillomaviruses enter basal cells of stratified epithelia. Assembly of new virions occurs in infected cells during terminal differentiation. This unique biology is reflected in the mechanism of entry. Extracellularly, the interaction of nonenveloped capsids with several host cell proteins, after binding, results in discrete conformational changes. Asynchronous internalization occurs over several hours by an endocytic mechanism related to, but distinct from macropinocytosis. Intracellular trafficking leads virions through the endosomal system, and from late endosomes to the trans-Golgi-network, before nuclear delivery. Here, we discuss the existing data with the aim to synthesize an integrated model of the stepwise process of entry, thereby highlighting key open questions. Additionally, we relate data from experiments with cultured cells to in vivo results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Aurora A, mitotic entry, and spindle bipolarity (United States)

    Liu, Quentin; Ruderman, Joan V.


    The kinase Aurora-A (Aur-A), which is enriched at centrosomes, is required for centrosome maturation and accurate chromosome segregation, and recent work implicates centrosomes as sites where the earliest activation of cyclin B1-cdc2 occurs. Here, we have used Xenopus egg extracts to investigate Aur-A's contribution to cell cycle progression and spindle morphology in the presence or absence of centrosomes. We find that addition of active Aur-A accelerates cdc2 activation and mitotic entry. Depletion of endogenous Aur-A or addition of inactive Aur-A, which lead to monopolar spindles, delays but does not block mitotic entry. These effects on timing and spindle structure do not require the presence of centrosomes or chromosomes. The catalytic domain alone of Aur-A is sufficient to restore spindle bipolarity; additional N-terminal sequences function in mitotic timing. PMID:16581905

  8. Filter for interpretation of fragmentation during entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.


    Objects that fragment cascade and decelerate abruptly, producing short, bright, signatures which can be used to estimate object diameter and speed. Other objects can be incorporated into a generalized fragmentation filter. This note summarizes the results of previous reports on the prediction and inversion of signatures from objects that radiate, ablate, and fragment during entry and uses them to produce models for the parameters of entering objects.

  9. Entry Mistakes, Entrepreneurial Boldness and Optimism


    Brocas, Isabelle; Carrillo, Juan D


    We analyze the investment decision of a population of time inconsistent entrepreneurs who overweight current payoffs relative to future returns. We show that, in order to avoid inefficient procrastination, agents may find it optimal to keep optimistic priors about their chances of success and 'blindly invest'. This explains entrepreneurial boldness and entry mistakes (or an excessive level of investment in the economy) without assuming the existence of boundedly rational, 'intrinsically optim...

  10. Subjects, Models, Languages, Transformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Bézivin, J.; Heckel, R.


    Discussions about model-driven approaches tend to be hampered by terminological confusion. This is at least partially caused by a lack of formal precision in defining the basic concepts, including that of "model" and "thing being modelled" - which we call subject in this paper. We propose a minimal

  11. Barron's SAT subject test

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, MA, Robert


    Includes one diagnostic test and three complete tests, all questions answered and explained, self-assessment guides, and subject reviews. Also features test strategies, QR codes to short instructional videos, and a detailed appendix with equations, physical constants, and a basic math review.

  12. The Glycoproteins of All Filovirus Species Use the Same Host Factors for Entry into Bat and Human Cells but Entry Efficiency Is Species Dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Hoffmann

    Full Text Available Ebola and marburgviruses, members of the family Filoviridae, can cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans. The ongoing Ebola virus (EBOV disease epidemic in Western Africa claimed more than 11,300 lives and was associated with secondary cases outside Africa, demonstrating that filoviruses pose a global health threat. Bats constitute an important natural reservoir of filoviruses, including viruses of the recently identified Cuevavirus genus within the Filoviridae family. However, the interactions of filoviruses with bat cells are incompletely understood. Here, we investigated whether filoviruses employ different strategies to enter human and bat cells. For this, we examined host cell entry driven by glycoproteins (GP from all filovirus species into cell lines of human and fruit bat origin. We show that all GPs were able to mediate entry into human and most fruit bat cell lines with roughly comparable efficiency. In contrast, the efficiency of entry into the cell line EidNi/41 derived from a straw-colored fruit bat varied markedly between the GPs of different filovirus species. Furthermore, inhibition studies demonstrated that filoviruses employ the same host cell factors for entry into human, non-human primate and fruit bat cell lines, including cysteine proteases, two pore channels and NPC1 (Niemann-Pick C1 molecule. Finally, processing of GP by furin and the presence of the mucin-like domain in GP were dispensable for entry into both human and bat cell lines. Collectively, these results show that filoviruses rely on the same host cell factors for entry into human and fruit bat cells, although the efficiency of the usage of these factors might differ between filovirus species.

  13. High temperature properties of ceramic fibers and insulations for thermal protection of atmospheric entry and hypersonic cruise vehicles (United States)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A.; Pitts, William C.; Araujo, Myrian; Zimmerman, R. S.


    Multilayer insulations (MIs) which will operate in the 500 to 1000 C temperature range are being considered for possible applications on aerospace vehicles subject to convective and radiative heating during atmospheric entry. The insulations described consist of ceramic fibers, insulations, and metal foils quilted together with ceramic thread. As these types of insulations have highly anisotropic properties, the total heat transfer characteristics must be determined. Data are presented on the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of four types of MIs and are compared to the baseline Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation currently used on the Space Shuttle Orbiter. In addition, the high temperature properties of the fibers used in these MIs are discussed. The fibers investigated included silica and three types of aluminoborosilicate (ABS). Static tension tests were performed at temperatures up to 1200 C and the ultimate strain, tensile strength, and tensile modulus of single fibers were determined.

  14. Dynamics in car ownership: the role of entry into parenthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oakil, A.T.M.; Manting, D.; Nijland, H.


    This study investigates the impact of entry into parenthood on changes in car ownership. If entry into parenthood affects changes in car ownership, then delay or offset of entry into parenthood might also be an important explanation of recent car travel trends of young adults. This study analysed

  15. 31 CFR 337.6 - Conversions to book-entry. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conversions to book-entry. 337.6... HOUSING ADMINISTRATION DEBENTURES Certificated Debentures § 337.6 Conversions to book-entry. Upon implementation of the book-entry debenture system, to be announced in advance by separate public notice, all new...

  16. 19 CFR 12.11 - Requirements for entry and release. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for entry and release. 12.11 Section 12.11 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... of arrival for any type of entry except rewarehouse and informal mail entries. Such notice shall be...

  17. Subjective evaluation of psychosocial well-being in children and youths with overweight or obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Hamann, Sophie Amalie; Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark


    PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of a multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment programme on subjective evaluations of psychosocial well-being and quality of life. METHODS: This longitudinal observational study included 1291 children, adolescents and young adults, 6-22 years of age......, with overweight or obesity. At entry and after 2-82 months of obesity treatment, the patients evaluated the following domains of psychosocial well-being on a visual analogue scale: quality of life, mood, appetite, bullying, motivation for weight loss and body image satisfaction. The degree of overweight.......0001). Improvements were observed in the domains of quality of life, mood, appetite, bullying and body image satisfaction (p

  18. Listening to Include (United States)

    Veck, Wayne


    This paper attempts to make important connections between listening and inclusive education and the refusal to listen and exclusion. Two lines of argument are advanced. First, if educators and learners are to include each other within their educational institutions as unique individuals, then they will need to listen attentively to each other.…

  19. Research and development for Onboard Navigation (ONAV) ground based expert/trainer system: ONAV entry knowledge requirements specification update (United States)

    Bochsler, Daniel C.


    A revised version of expert knowledge for the onboard navigation (ONAV) entry system is given. Included is some brief background information together with information describing the knowledge that the system does contain.

  20. 19 CFR 149.6 - Entry and entry summary documentation and Importer Security Filing submitted via a single... (United States)


    ... Security Filing submitted via a single electronic transmission. 149.6 Section 149.6 Customs Duties U.S... submitted via a single electronic transmission. If the Importer Security Filing is filed pursuant to § 149.2 of this part via the same electronic transmission as entry or entry/entry summary documentation...

  1. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.


    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  2. Radiative property data for Venusian entry: A compendium (United States)

    Jones, J. J.; Boughner, R. E.; Haggard, K. V.; Nealy, J. E.; Schryer, D. R.; Zoby, E. V.


    A compilation of experimental and calculated data on the radiative properties of species important in Venusian entry is presented. Molecular band systems, atomic lines, free-bound continua, and free-free continua are considered for the principal radiating species of shock-heated carbon dioxide. Data pertinent to the species in the ablation layer are included. The Venus atmosphere so closely approximates pure carbon dioxide (CO2) that the inviscid layer radiation is due almost entirely to thermally excited CO2. Data are included on the violet band system of the cyanogen radical CN. Recommendations are made as to best property values for radiative heating calculations. A review of the basic equations and the relationships of the various emission-absorption gas properties is included.

  3. Exporting Complex Digital Products: Motives and Entry Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten

    When the product is digital, it will most often be distributed directly to the customer through the Internet, and therefore the entry modes, considered in this paper, are different flavors of the entry mode called direct export: Virtual export channel are generally understood as the entry mode...... for digital product providers. However other types of entry modes like what wee call direct digital export with F2F-sales, direct digital export with F2F-support and virtual sales subsidiary are entry modes that respond to a higher degree of pre- and after-sales complexity....

  4. Exporting Complex Digital Products: Motives and Entry Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten


    When the product is digital, it will most often be distributed directly to the customer through the Internet, and therefore, the entry modes, considered in this paper, are different flavors of the entry mode called direct export: virtual export channel is generally understood as the entry mode...... for digital product providers. However, other types of entry modes like what we call direct digital export with F2F-sales, direct digital export with F2F-support, and virtual sales subsidiary are entry modes that respond to a higher degree of pre- and postsales complexity....

  5. Competitive Dynamics of Market Entry: Scale and Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. UPSON


    Full Text Available Market entry is the essence of strategy and is largely viewed as a dichotomous event: entry or no entry. What has not been acknowledged is the uniqueness of each market entry. Our study highlights the scale of market entry in the context of multipoint competition. We assert that entry scale varies based on the risk of market incumbent retaliation. Theory suggests that when risk associated with retaliation are low, firms enter with large scale and when associated risks are high, firms enter with low scale. Further, survival is viewed as dependent on following theory. We argue and find supporting evidence that firms behave in the opposite manner and do so to their own benefit, thereby revealing a unique discrepancy between theory and practice among 75 product market entries by 27 firms.

  6. Thermal decomposition of MgCO3 during the atmospheric entry of micrometeoroids (United States)

    Micca Longo, G.; Longo, S.


    In this paper, a first study of the atmospheric entry of carbonate micrometeoroids, in an astrobiological perspective, is performed. Therefore an entry model, which includes two-dimensional dynamics, non-isothermal atmosphere, ablation and radiation losses, is build and benchmarked to literature data for silicate micrometeoroids. A thermal decomposition model of initially pure magnesium carbonate is proposed, and it includes thermal energy, mass loss and the effect of changing composition as the carbonate grain is gradually converted into oxide. Several scenarios are obtained by changing the initial speed, entry angle and grain diameter, producing a systematic comparison of silicate and carbonate grain. The results of the composite model show that the thermal behaviour of magnesium carbonate is markedly different from that of the corresponding silicate, much lower equilibration temperatures being reached in the first stages of the entry. At the same time, the model shows that the limit of a thermal protection scenario, based on magnesium carbonate, is the very high decomposition speed even at moderate temperatures, which results in the total loss of carbon already at about 100 km altitude. The present results show that, although decomposition and associated cooling are important effects in the entry process of carbonate grains, the specific scenario of pure MgCO3 micrograin does not allow complex organic matter delivery to the lower atmosphere. This suggests us to consider less volatile carbonates for further studies.

  7. Practical guidelines for modelling post-entry spread in invasion ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel Parry


    Full Text Available In this article we review a variety of methods to enable understanding and modelling the spread of a pest or pathogen post-entry. Building upon our experience of multidisciplinary research in this area, we propose practical guidelines and a framework for model development, to help with the application of mathematical modelling in the field of invasion ecology for post-entry spread. We evaluate the pros and cons of a range of methods, including references to examples of the methods in practice. We also show how issues of data deficiency and uncertainty can be addressed. The aim is to provide guidance to the reader on the most suitable elements to include in a model of post-entry dispersal in a risk assessment, under differing circumstances. We identify both the strengths and weaknesses of different methods and their application as part of a holistic, multidisciplinary approach to biosecurity research.

  8. CD81-receptor associations--impact for hepatitis C virus entry and antiviral therapies. (United States)

    Zona, Laetitia; Tawar, Rajiv G; Zeisel, Mirjam B; Xiao, Fei; Schuster, Catherine; Lupberger, Joachim; Baumert, Thomas F


    Tetraspanins are integral transmembrane proteins organized in microdomains displaying specific and direct interactions with other tetraspanins and molecular partners. Among them, CD81 has been implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. CD81 also plays a crucial role in pathogen entry into host cells, including hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry into hepatocytes. HCV is a major cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV entry into hepatocytes is a complex process that requires the coordinated interaction of viral and host factors for the initiation of infection, including CD81, scavenger receptor BI, claudin-1, occludin, membrane-bound host cell kinases, Niemann-Pick C1 Like 1, Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (HRas), CD63 and transferrin receptor 1. Furthermore, recent data in HCV model systems have demonstrated that targeting critical components of tetraspanins and associated cell membrane proteins open new avenues to prevent and treat viral infection.

  9. An entry-level MS degree in clinical laboratory science: is it time? (United States)

    Beck, Susan J; Doig, Kathy


    The study was undertaken to address the following questions: 1) Does the scope of practice of the clinical laboratory scientist require an entry-level master's (MS) degree? 2) How would a change to an entry-level MS degree in clinical laboratory science (CLS) affect educational programs, the practice field, and students? and 3) Based on this study, what recommendations can be made to CLS educators? Surveys were developed to assess the opinions of educators, managers, and practitioners on the need for an entry-level MS degree in CLS. Surveys were also sent to students to assess their interest in an entry-level MS degree and their perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of this type of program. Surveys sent to educators included questions addressing the effect of a change to an entry-level MS degree in CLS on enrollment and program viability. Managers were asked questions concerning job expectations and compensation for graduates with an entry-level MS degree and practitioners were asked about their interest in this type of program. The sample for the survey included 280 directors of National Accrediting Agency for Clinical Laboratory Sciences (NAACLS) educational programs, 600 managers randomly selected from the Clinical Laboratory Management Association (CLMA) mailing list, 600 practitioners randomly selected from the American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science (ASCLS) mailing list, and 1400 CLS students selected by program directors. Educators, managers, and practitioners were asked to read 12 statements related to educational preparation for entry into CLS and indicate their level of agreement on a five point scale. Mean responses to these questions were compared for educators, managers, and practitioners, for educators in hospital-based and university-based programs, and for managers with BS and advanced degrees. Responses to demographic and other forced-choice type questions related to entry-level MS programs were counted and reported. Response

  10. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina


    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...... people regard as a prerequisite for participating in local community politics. Based on a fieldwork in two villages of Panchthar district in eastern Nepal, this article explores how these changes strengthen or weaken women’s political agency and how this is reflected in their participation in community...

  11. Multiple cationic amphiphiles induce a Niemann-Pick C phenotype and inhibit Ebola virus entry and infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J Shoemaker

    Full Text Available Ebola virus (EBOV is an enveloped RNA virus that causes hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates. Infection requires internalization from the cell surface and trafficking to a late endocytic compartment, where viral fusion occurs, providing a conduit for the viral genome to enter the cytoplasm and initiate replication. In a concurrent study, we identified clomiphene as a potent inhibitor of EBOV entry. Here, we screened eleven inhibitors that target the same biosynthetic pathway as clomiphene. From this screen we identified six compounds, including U18666A, that block EBOV infection (IC(50 1.6 to 8.0 µM at a late stage of entry. Intriguingly, all six are cationic amphiphiles that share additional chemical features. U18666A induces phenotypes, including cholesterol accumulation in endosomes, associated with defects in Niemann-Pick C1 protein (NPC1, a late endosomal and lysosomal protein required for EBOV entry. We tested and found that all six EBOV entry inhibitors from our screen induced cholesterol accumulation. We further showed that higher concentrations of cationic amphiphiles are required to inhibit EBOV entry into cells that overexpress NPC1 than parental cells, supporting the contention that they inhibit EBOV entry in an NPC1-dependent manner. A previously reported inhibitor, compound 3.47, inhibits EBOV entry by blocking binding of the EBOV glycoprotein to NPC1. None of the cationic amphiphiles tested had this effect. Hence, multiple cationic amphiphiles (including several FDA approved agents inhibit EBOV entry in an NPC1-dependent fashion, but by a mechanism distinct from that of compound 3.47. Our findings suggest that there are minimally two ways of perturbing NPC1-dependent pathways that can block EBOV entry, increasing the attractiveness of NPC1 as an anti-filoviral therapeutic target.

  12. The effect of an ergonomic intervention on musculoskeletal, psychosocial and visual strain of VDT entry work: organization and methodology of the international study. (United States)

    Dainoff, Marvin J; Aarås, Arne; Horgen, Gunnar; Konarska, Maria; Larsen, Stig; Thoresen, Magne; Cohen, Barbara G F


    This special issue of the International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics (JOSE) reports the results from an extensive multinational and multidisciplinary collaborative investigation of the impacts on visual display terminal (VDT) work of musculoskeletal, visual, ergonomic, and psychosocial factors. For brevity, this effort has been referred to as the MEPS project (musculoskeletal--eyestrain--psychosocial--stress). This paper lays out the basic methodological structure of the study. The study was conducted in 4 countries utilizing VDT data entry workers as the primary subject population. A battery of objective and subject assessment measures, including muscle load, visual function, physical and visual strain, postural, ergonomic and psychosocial factors, were assessed at 3 different points in time. A pre-test was given prior to an ergonomic intervention. Two post-tests were given 1 month and 1 year after the ergonomic intervention.

  13. Quantitative membrane proteomics reveals a role for tetraspanin enriched microdomains during entry of human cytomegalovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasinath Viswanathan

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV depends on and modulates multiple host cell membrane proteins during each stage of the viral life cycle. To gain a global view of the impact of HCMV-infection on membrane proteins, we analyzed HCMV-induced changes in the abundance of membrane proteins in fibroblasts using stable isotope labeling with amino acids (SILAC, membrane fractionation and protein identification by two-dimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. This systematic approach revealed that CD81, CD44, CD98, caveolin-1 and catenin delta-1 were down-regulated during infection whereas GRP-78 was up-regulated. Since CD81 downregulation was also observed during infection with UV-inactivated virus we hypothesized that this tetraspanin is part of the viral entry process. Interestingly, additional members of the tetraspanin family, CD9 and CD151, were also downregulated during HCMV-entry. Since tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEM cluster host cell membrane proteins including known CMV receptors such as integrins, we studied whether TEMs are required for viral entry. When TEMs were disrupted with the cholesterol chelator methyl-β-cylcodextrin, viral entry was inhibited and this inhibition correlated with reduced surface levels of CD81, CD9 and CD151, whereas integrin levels remained unchanged. Furthermore, simultaneous siRNA-mediated knockdown of multiple tetraspanins inhibited viral entry whereas individual knockdown had little effect suggesting essential, but redundant roles for individual tetraspanins during entry. Taken together, our data suggest that TEM act as platforms for receptors utilized by HCMV for entry into cells.

  14. The campaigning soldier: Vitellius’ entry into Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Fear


    Full Text Available Tacitus’ account of Vitellius’ triumphal entry into Rome is used by the author to underline his disapproval of this emperor. However the historian’s description of the Vitellian army has often been seen as positive and in sharp contrast to that given to the emperor himself. This article attempts to show that on close inspection Tacitus’ account is equally hostile to the emperor’s troops and that his disapproval is reinforced by his dwelling upon the colour of their uniforms and the varied associations this would have had in the Roman mind.

  15. Radon entry into a simple test structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.E.; Søgaard-Hansen, J.; Majborn, B.


    in the cylinder and in selected locations in the soil. In this paper, the test structure is described, and initial results concerning the transport of soil gas and radon under steady-state conditions are reported. It is found that the soil in the vicinity of the structure is partially depleted with respect......A simple test structure for studies of radon entry into houses has been constructed at a field site at Riso National Laboratory. It consists of a 40 1, stainless-steel cylinder placed in a 0.52 m deep quadratic excavation with a side length of 2.4 m. The excavation is lined with an airtight...

  16. Graduate entry medicine: selection criteria and student performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen Bodger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Graduate entry medicine raises new questions about the suitability of students with different backgrounds. We examine this, and the broader issue of effectiveness of selection and assessment procedures. METHODS: The data included background characteristics, academic record, interview score and performance in pre-clinical modular assessment for two years intake of graduate entry medical students. Exploratory factor analysis is a powerful method for reducing a large number of measures to a smaller group of underlying factors. It was used here to identify patterns within and between the selection and performance data. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Basic background characteristics were of little importance in predicting exam success. However, easily interpreted components were detected within variables comprising the 'selection' and 'assessment' criteria. Three selection components were identified ('Academic', 'GAMSAT', 'Interview' and four assessment components ('General Exam', 'Oncology', 'OSCE', 'Family Case Study'. There was a striking lack of relationships between most selection and performance factors. Only 'General Exam' and 'Academic' showed a correlation (Pearson's r = 0.55, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: This study raises questions about methods of student selection and their effectiveness in predicting performance and assessing suitability for a medical career. Admissions tests and most exams only confirmed previous academic achievement, while interview scores were not correlated with any consequent assessment.

  17. Graduate entry medicine: selection criteria and student performance. (United States)

    Bodger, Owen; Byrne, Aidan; Evans, Philip A; Rees, Sarah; Jones, Gwen; Cowell, Claire; Gravenor, Mike B; Williams, Rhys


    Graduate entry medicine raises new questions about the suitability of students with different backgrounds. We examine this, and the broader issue of effectiveness of selection and assessment procedures. The data included background characteristics, academic record, interview score and performance in pre-clinical modular assessment for two years intake of graduate entry medical students. Exploratory factor analysis is a powerful method for reducing a large number of measures to a smaller group of underlying factors. It was used here to identify patterns within and between the selection and performance data. Basic background characteristics were of little importance in predicting exam success. However, easily interpreted components were detected within variables comprising the 'selection' and 'assessment' criteria. Three selection components were identified ('Academic', 'GAMSAT', 'Interview') and four assessment components ('General Exam', 'Oncology', 'OSCE', 'Family Case Study'). There was a striking lack of relationships between most selection and performance factors. Only 'General Exam' and 'Academic' showed a correlation (Pearson's r = 0.55, pperformance and assessing suitability for a medical career. Admissions tests and most exams only confirmed previous academic achievement, while interview scores were not correlated with any consequent assessment.

  18. Inhibition of enterovirus 71 entry by transcription factor XBP1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jheng, Jia-Rong; Lin, Chiou-Yan [Department of Biochemistry and Research Center for Emerging Viral Infections, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa First Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Horng, Jim-Tong, E-mail: [Department of Biochemistry and Research Center for Emerging Viral Infections, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa First Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Lau, Kean Seng [Department of Biochemistry and Research Center for Emerging Viral Infections, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa First Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IRE1 was activated but no XBP1 splicing was detected during enterovirus 71 infection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XBP1 was subject to translational shutoff by enterovirus 71-induced eIF4G cleavage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The uptake of UV-irradiated virus was decreased in XBP1-overexpressing cells. -- Abstract: Inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) plays an important role in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), or unfolded protein, stress response by activating its downstream transcription factor X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1). We demonstrated previously that enterovirus 71 (EV71) upregulated XBP1 mRNA levels but did not activate spliced XBP1 (XBP1s) mRNA or its downstream target genes, EDEM and chaperones. In this study, we investigated further this regulatory mechanism and found that IRE1 was phosphorylated and activated after EV71 infection, whereas its downstream XBP1s protein level decreased. We also found that XBP1s was not cleaved directly by 2A{sup pro}, but that cleavage of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G by the EV71 2A{sup pro} protein may contribute to the decrease in XBP1s expression. Knockdown of XBP1 increased viral protein expression, and the synthesis of EV71 viral protein and the production of EV71 viral particles were inhibited in XBP1-overexpressing RD cells. When incubated with replication-deficient and UV-irradiated EV71, XBP1-overexpressing RD cells exhibited reduced viral RNA levels, suggesting that the inhibition of XBP1s by viral infection may underlie viral entry, which is required for viral replication. Our findings are the first indication of the ability of XBP1 to inhibit viral entry, possibly via its transcriptional activity in regulating molecules in the endocytic machinery.

  19. Recommended radiative property data for Venusian entry calculations (United States)

    Jones, J. J.; Boughner, R. E.; Haggard, K. V.; Nealy, J. E.; Schryer, D. R.; Zoby, E. V.


    A compilation of experimental and calculated data on the radiative properties species important in Venusian entry is presented. Molecular band systems, atomic lines, free-bound, and free-free continua are considered for the principal radiating species of shock heated carbon dioxide. A limited amount of data pertinent to the species in the ablation layer is also included. The assumption is made that the Venus atmosphere so closely approximates pure CO2 that the inviscid layer radiation is due almost entirely to thermally excited CO2. The only exception is the inclusion of data on the Violet band system of CN. Recommendations are made as to best property values for radiative heating calculations. A review of the basic equations and the relationships of the various emission-absorption gas porperties is also included.

  20. Passive Stability on an Entry Vehicle to Enhance Crew Survival (United States)

    Deger, Daniel J.; Hoffman, David; Crull, Tim; Cuthbert, Peter; Liama, Eduardo; Madsen, Chris; Stuart, Phil; Bryant, Lee


    The most desirable crew survival feature for an entry vehicle is probably a full coverage escape system. With full coverage escape, crew survival is maintained for a wide range of failures by the allowing the crew to escape from the failed vehicle and performing the entry to touchdown flight phase in an alternative system. However, there are considerable challenges in providing a separate entry capability, and for some programs, requiring full coverage escape could result in program cancellation. An alternative means of providing for crew survival if the flight control system fails is to design a return vehicle that can enter without active attitude control. A study was performed to assess the feasibility of performing a totally passive entry. Lift over drag has a major impact on performing a passive entry, so a parametric of three typical lift over drag concepts was performed. First an assessment of historical entry vehicles was completed. Second an assessment of end of mission entry trajectories and entry trajectories initiated from ascent abort profiles were made. Trajectories for a wide array of pitch, yaw, and roll rates were made. Third, six-degree-of freedom analyses of the entry were performed. FOP a truly passive return, the entry vehicle must trim in only the heat shield forward orientation. An assessment of the effect of center of gravity placement to achieve this orientation was made.

  1. Structural correlates of rotavirus cell entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliaa H Abdelhakim


    Full Text Available Cell entry by non-enveloped viruses requires translocation into the cytosol of a macromolecular complex--for double-strand RNA viruses, a complete subviral particle. We have used live-cell fluorescence imaging to follow rotavirus entry and penetration into the cytosol of its ∼ 700 Å inner capsid particle ("double-layered particle", DLP. We label with distinct fluorescent tags the DLP and each of the two outer-layer proteins and track the fates of each species as the particles bind and enter BSC-1 cells. Virions attach to their glycolipid receptors in the host cell membrane and rapidly become inaccessible to externally added agents; most particles that release their DLP into the cytosol have done so by ∼ 10 minutes, as detected by rapid diffusional motion of the DLP away from residual outer-layer proteins. Electron microscopy shows images of particles at various stages of engulfment into tightly fitting membrane invaginations, consistent with the interpretation that rotavirus particles drive their own uptake. Electron cryotomography of membrane-bound virions also shows closely wrapped membrane. Combined with high resolution structural information about the viral components, these observations suggest a molecular model for membrane disruption and DLP penetration.

  2. Extraterrestrial Regolith Derived Atmospheric Entry Heat Shields (United States)

    Hogue, Michael D.; Mueller, Robert P.; Sibille, Laurent; Hintze, Paul E.; Rasky, Daniel J.


    High-mass planetary surface access is one of NASAs technical challenges involving entry, descent and landing (EDL). During the entry and descent phase, frictional interaction with the planetary atmosphere causes a heat build-up to occur on the spacecraft, which will rapidly destroy it if a heat shield is not used. However, the heat shield incurs a mass penalty because it must be launched from Earth with the spacecraft, thus consuming a lot of precious propellant. This NASA Innovative Advanced Concept (NIAC) project investigated an approach to provide heat shield protection to spacecraft after launch and prior to each EDL thus potentially realizing significant launch mass savings. Heat shields fabricated in situ can provide a thermal-protection system for spacecraft that routinely enter a planetary atmosphere. By fabricating the heat shield with space resources from materials available on moons and asteroids, it is possible to avoid launching the heat-shield mass from Earth. Regolith has extremely good insulating properties and the silicates it contains can be used in the fabrication and molding of thermal-protection materials. In this paper, we will describe three types of in situ fabrication methods for heat shields and the testing performed to determine feasibility of this approach.

  3. Essays on international market entry : Strategic alliance governance and product segment entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eapen, A.


    This dissertation consists of three empirical studies on the entry and evolution of foreign firms in a new market. The common thread through these three essays is a focus on the scope of the foreign firm in a host country, and on how this scope is shaped by local firms and environments. The first

  4. NTCP and Beyond: Opening the Door to Unveil Hepatitis B Virus Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Watashi


    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection, affecting approximately 240 million people worldwide, is a major public health problem that elevates the risk of developing liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Given that current anti-HBV drugs are limited to interferon-based regimens and nucleos(tide analogs, the development of new anti-HBV agents is urgently needed. The viral entry process is generally an attractive target implicated in antiviral strategies. Using primary cells from humans and Tupaia belangeri, as well as HepaRG cells, important determinants of viral entry have been achieved. Recently, sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP was identified as an HBV entry receptor and enabled the establishment of a susceptible cell line that can efficiently support HBV infection. This finding will allow a deeper understanding of the requirements for efficient HBV infection, including the elucidation of the molecular entry mechanism. In addition, pharmacological studies suggest that NTCP is able to serve as a therapeutic target. This article summarizes our current knowledge on the mechanisms of HBV entry and the role of NTCP in this process.

  5. Assessment of the Reconstructed Aerodynamics of the Mars Science Laboratory Entry Vehicle (United States)

    Schoenenberger, Mark; Van Norman, John W.; Dyakonov, Artem A.; Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Way, David W.; Kutty, Prasad


    On August 5, 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory entry vehicle successfully entered Mars atmosphere, flying a guided entry until parachute deploy. The Curiosity rover landed safely in Gale crater upon completion of the Entry Descent and Landing sequence. This paper compares the aerodynamics of the entry capsule extracted from onboard flight data, including Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) accelerometer and rate gyro information, and heatshield surface pressure measurements. From the onboard data, static force and moment data has been extracted. This data is compared to preflight predictions. The information collected by MSL represents the most complete set of information collected during Mars entry to date. It allows the separation of aerodynamic performance from atmospheric conditions. The comparisons show the MSL aerodynamic characteristics have been identified and resolved to an accuracy better than the aerodynamic database uncertainties used in preflight simulations. A number of small anomalies have been identified and are discussed. This data will help revise aerodynamic databases for future missions and will guide computational fluid dynamics (CFD) development to improved prediction codes.

  6. A Rigid Mid-Lift-to-Drag Ratio Approach to Human Mars Entry, Descent, and Landing (United States)

    Cerimele, Christopher J.; Robertson, Edward A.; Sostaric, Ronald R.; Campbell, Charles H.; Robinson, Phil; Matz, Daniel A.; Johnson, Breanna J.; Stachowiak, Susan J.; Garcia, Joseph A.; Bowles, Jeffrey V.; hide


    Current NASA Human Mars architectures require delivery of approximately 20 metric tons of cargo to the surface in a single landing. A proposed vehicle type for performing the entry, descent, and landing at Mars associated with this architecture is a rigid, enclosed, elongated lifting body shape that provides a higher lift-to-drag ratio (L/D) than a typical entry capsule, but lower than a typical winged entry vehicle (such as the Space Shuttle Orbiter). A rigid Mid-L/D shape has advantages for large mass Mars EDL, including loads management, range capability during entry, and human spaceflight heritage. Previous large mass Mars studies have focused more on symmetric and/or circular cross-section Mid-L/D shapes such as the ellipsled. More recent work has shown performance advantages for non-circular cross section shapes. This paper will describe efforts to design a rigid Mid-L/D entry vehicle for Mars which shows mass and performance improvements over previous Mid-L/D studies. The proposed concept, work to date and evolution, forward path, and suggested future strategy are described.

  7. (4R,6S)-2-Dihydromenisdaurilide is a Butenolide that Efficiently Inhibits Hepatitis C Virus Entry. (United States)

    Chung, Chueh-Yao; Liu, Ching-Hsuan; Wang, Guey-Horng; Jassey, Alagie; Li, Chia-Lin; Chen, Lei; Yen, Ming-Hong; Lin, Chun-Ching; Lin, Liang-Tzung


    Without a vaccine, hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains a significant threat, putting 170-300 million carriers worldwide at risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although the direct-acting antivirals targeting HCV replication have revolutionized the treatment of hepatitis C, several obstacles persist, including resistance development, potential side-effects, and the prohibitive cost that limits their availability. Furthermore, treatment of HCV re-infection in liver transplantation remains a significant challenge. Developing novel antivirals that target viral entry could help expand the scope of HCV therapeutics and treatment strategies. Herein, we report (4R,6S)-2-dihydromenisdaurilide (DHMD), a natural butenolide, as an efficient inhibitor of HCV entry. Specifically, DHMD potently inhibited HCV infection at non-cytotoxic concentration. Examination on the viral life cycle demonstrated that DHMD selectively targeted the early steps of infection while leaving viral replication/translation and assembly/release unaffected. Furthermore, DHMD did not induce an antiviral interferon response. Mechanistic dissection of HCV entry revealed that DHMD could inactivate cell-free virus, abrogate viral attachment, and inhibit viral entry/fusion, with the most pronounced effect observed against the viral adsorption phase as validated using ELISA and confocal microscopy. Due to its potency, DHMD may be of value for further development as an entry inhibitor against HCV, particularly for application in transplant setting.

  8. Study and Development of a Sub-Orbital Re-Entry Demonstrator (United States)

    Savino, R.

    The Italian and European Space Agencies are supporting a research programme, developed in Campania region by a cluster of industries, research institutes and universities, on a low-cost re-entry capsule, able to return payloads from the ISS to Earth and/or to perform short-duration scientific missions in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The ballistic capsule is characterized by a deployable, disposable "umbrella-like" heat shield that allows relatively small dimensions at launch and a sufficient exposed surface area in re-entry conditions, reducing the ballistic coefficient and leading to acceptable heat fluxes, mechanical loads and final descent velocity. ESA is supporting a preliminary study to develop a flight demonstrator of the capsule to be embarked as a secondary payload onboard a sub-orbital sounding rocket. The deployable thermal protection system concept may be applied to future science and robotic exploration mission requiring planetary entry and, possibly also to missions in the framework of Human Space flight, requiring planetary entry or re-entry. The technology offers also an interesting potential for aerobraking, aerocapture and for de-orbiting. This paper summarizes the results of these activities, which are being more and more refined as the work proceeds, including the definition and analysis of the mission scenario, the aerodynamic, aerothermodynamic, mechanical and structural analyses and the technical definition of avionics, instrumentation and main subsystems.

  9. Climate Change Modeling Methodology Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server


    The Earth's average temperature has risen by 1.4°F over the past century, and computer models project that it will rise much more over the next hundred years, with significant impacts on weather, climate, and human society. Many climate scientists attribute these increases to the buildup of greenhouse gases produced by the burning of fossil fuels and to the anthropogenic production of short-lived climate pollutants. Climate Change Modeling Methodologies: Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology provides readers with an introduction to the tools and analysis techniques used by climate change scientists to interpret the role of these forcing agents on climate.  Readers will also gain a deeper understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of these models and how to test and assess them.  The contributions include a glossary of key terms and a concise definition of the subject for each topic, as well as recommendations for sources of more detailed information. Features au...

  10. Labeled line drawing of launch and entry suit identifies various components (United States)


    Line drawings illustrate the front and back of the space shuttle launch and entry suit (LES) and labels identify various components. LES was designed for STS-26, the return to flight mission, and subsequent missions. Included in the crew escape system (CES) package are launch and entry helmet (LEH) with communications carrier (COMM CAP), parachute pack and harness, life preserver unit (LPU), life raft unit (LRU), LES gloves, suit oxygen manifold and valves, boots, and survival gear. Details of larger components are also identified.

  11. Numerical modelling of radon-222 entry into houses: An outline of techniques and results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.E.


    diffusive and advective transport of radon. Models of different complexity have been used. The simpler ones are finite-difference models with one or two spatial dimensions. The more complex models allow for full three-dimensional and time dependency. Advanced features include: soil heterogeneity, anisotropy......, fractures, moisture, non-uniform soil temperature, non-Darcy flow of gas, and flow caused by changes in the atmospheric pressure. Numerical models can be used to estimate the importance of specific factors for radon entry. Models are also helpful when results obtained in special laboratory or test structure....... As an illustrative example, radon entry is calculated for a standard slab-on-grade house....

  12. Thermostructural design of a carbon-carbon heatshield for a Jovian entry (United States)

    White, M. J.; Heightland, C. N.; Dirling, R. B., Jr.


    The thermostructural response of three candidate carbon-carbon composites for the Jovian entry probe heatshield was investigated. The analysis for the three materials, Sandia Felt, Carbitex 700, and SAI 4-D weave carbon-carbon was conducted using a dual finite element approach which involved heat conduction as well as the structural response. A receding boundary due to ablation and inertial loads encountered by the probe were included. Severe cracking, circumferential and radial, and interlaminar shear failure was observed during the radiative heating pulse for the Sandia Felt and Carbitex 700 materials, respectively. The 4-D weave material showed no failures over the entire entry.

  13. 78 FR 76152 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to... (United States)


    ... methodology and assumptions used; (3) Enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be... CFR 10.61, 19 CFR 18.11, 19 CFR 18.20 and 19 CFR 18.25, and can be found at

  14. Preliminary Assessment of the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Simulation (United States)

    Way, David W.


    On August 5, 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, successfully landed inside Gale Crater. This landing was only the seventh successful landing and fourth rover to be delivered to Mars. Weighing nearly one metric ton, Curiosity is the largest and most complex rover ever sent to investigate another planet. Safely landing such a large payload required an innovative Entry, Descent, and Landing system, which included the first guided entry at Mars, the largest supersonic parachute ever flown at Mars, and a novel and untested Sky Crane landing system. A complete, end-to-end, six degree-of-freedom, multibody computer simulation of the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing sequence was developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. In-flight data gathered during the successful landing is compared to pre-flight statistical distributions, predicted by the simulation. These comparisons provide insight into both the accuracy of the simulation and the overall performance of the vehicle.

  15. Assessment of the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Simulation (United States)

    Way, David W.; Davis, J. L.; Shidner, Jeremy D.


    On August 5, 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, successfully landed inside Gale Crater. This landing was only the seventh successful landing and fourth rover to be delivered to Mars. Weighing nearly one metric ton, Curiosity is the largest and most complex rover ever sent to investigate another planet. Safely landing such a large payload required an innovative Entry, Descent, and Landing system, which included the first guided entry at Mars, the largest supersonic parachute ever flown at Mars, and a novel and untested Sky Crane landing system. A complete, end-to-end, six degree-of-freedom, multi-body computer simulation of the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing sequence was developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. In-flight data gathered during the successful landing is compared to pre-flight statistical distributions, predicted by the simulation. These comparisons provide insight into both the accuracy of the simulation and the overall performance of the vehicle.

  16. Preschool Participation and BMI at Kindergarten Entry: The Case for Early Behavioral Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan E. McGrady


    Full Text Available Preschool years (ages 3–5 are a critical period in growth and development. Emerging studies suggest that preschool attendance may be linked to future weight, and perhaps obesity. This study examined relationships between public preschool attendance, demographic variables, and weight at kindergarten entry. Participants included 2,400 children entering kindergarten in 2006. Height and weight were used to calculate a child's BMI category based on CDC norms. At kindergarten entry, 17% of participants were overweight, and 18% were obese. Children attending a public preschool were at an increased risk for overweight (OR=1.06 and obesity (OR=1.34 at kindergarten entry, χ2(2=6.81, P=.03 relative to children who did not attend preschool. No significant trends relationships between demographics and weight status were found, but demographic variables are summarized descriptively. Policy and clinical implications are provided.

  17. Improving the Quality of Evidence-Based Writing Entries in Electronic Portfolios (United States)

    Denton, David W.


    The problem investigated in this study was whether entries written to an electronic portfolio by preservice teachers improved in quality after an intervention was deployed. The study also compared portfolio metadata to writing quality scores to determine whether there was a relationship. Participants included a convenience sample of 11…

  18. Educating Nursing Students with Disabilities: Replacing Essential Functions with Technical Standards for Program Entry Criteria (United States)

    Matt, Susan B.; Maheady, Donna; Fleming, Susan E.


    Across the globe, students with disabilities have been increasing in prevalence in higher education settings. In the twenty-first century the struggle to include individuals with disabilities into nursing schools and workplaces continues in different parts of the world. Historically, entry criteria in nursing schools have been based on essential…

  19. 78 FR 76614 - Resolution of Systemically Important Financial Institutions: The Single Point of Entry Strategy (United States)


    ... stakeholders, the FDIC has been developing what has become known as the Single Point of Entry (SPOE) strategy... highlighted deficiencies in existing U.S. financial institution resolution regime as well the complexity of... include detailed project plans, with specified timeframes, to make NewCo (or NewCos) resolvable in...

  20. Orthopoxvirus species and strain differences in cell entry. (United States)

    Bengali, Zain; Satheshkumar, P S; Moss, Bernard


    Vaccinia virus (VACV) enters cells by a low pH endosomal route or by direct fusion with the plasma membrane. We previously found differences in entry properties of several VACV strains: entry of WR was enhanced by low pH, reduced by bafilomycin A1 and relatively unaffected by heparin, whereas entry of IHD-J, Copenhagen and Elstree were oppositely affected. Since binding and entry modes may have been selected by specific conditions of in vitro propagation, we now examined the properties of three distinct, recently isolated cowpox viruses and a monkeypox virus as well as additional VACV and cowpox virus strains. The recent isolates were more similar to WR than to other VACV strains, underscoring the biological importance of endosomal entry by orthopoxviruses. Sequence comparisons, gene deletions and gene swapping experiments indicated that viral determinants, other than or in addition to the A26 and A25 "fusion-suppressor" proteins, impact entry properties. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Orthopoxvirus species and strain differences in cell entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengali, Zain; Satheshkumar, P.S. [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-3210 (United States); Moss, Bernard, E-mail: [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-3210 (United States)


    Vaccinia virus (VACV) enters cells by a low pH endosomal route or by direct fusion with the plasma membrane. We previously found differences in entry properties of several VACV strains: entry of WR was enhanced by low pH, reduced by bafilomycin A1 and relatively unaffected by heparin, whereas entry of IHD-J, Copenhagen and Elstree were oppositely affected. Since binding and entry modes may have been selected by specific conditions of in vitro propagation, we now examined the properties of three distinct, recently isolated cowpox viruses and a monkeypox virus as well as additional VACV and cowpox virus strains. The recent isolates were more similar to WR than to other VACV strains, underscoring the biological importance of endosomal entry by orthopoxviruses. Sequence comparisons, gene deletions and gene swapping experiments indicated that viral determinants, other than or in addition to the A26 and A25 'fusion-suppressor' proteins, impact entry properties.

  2. Mid-L/D Lifting Body Entry Demise Analysis (United States)

    Ling, Lisa


    The mid-lift-to-drag ratio (mid-L/D) lifting body is a fully autonomous spacecraft under design at NASA for enabling a rapid return of scientific payloads from the International Space Station (ISS). For contingency planning and risk assessment for the Earth-return trajectory, an entry demise analysis was performed to examine three potential failure scenarios: (1) nominal entry interface conditions with loss of control, (2) controlled entry at maximum flight path angle, and (3) controlled entry at minimum flight path angle. The objectives of the analysis were to predict the spacecraft breakup sequence and timeline, determine debris survival, and calculate the debris dispersion footprint. Sensitivity analysis was also performed to determine the effect of the initial pitch rate on the spacecraft stability and breakup during the entry. This report describes the mid-L/D lifting body and presents the results of the entry demise and sensitivity analyses.

  3. This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CPIS04), Stream, Lagoon or Other Waste Waster (not including tailwater recovery) as an Irrigation Source (LWWIS) on agricultural land by county (nri_is04) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CPIS04), Stream,...

  4. Temporal analysis of hepatitis C virus cell entry with occludin directed blocking antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Sourisseau


    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is a major cause of liver disease worldwide. A better understanding of its life cycle, including the process of host cell entry, is important for the development of HCV therapies and model systems. Based on the requirement for numerous host factors, including the two tight junction proteins claudin-1 (CLDN1 and occludin (OCLN, HCV cell entry has been proposed to be a multi-step process. The lack of OCLN-specific inhibitors has prevented a comprehensive analysis of this process. To study the role of OCLN in HCV cell entry, we created OCLN mutants whose HCV cell entry activities could be inhibited by antibodies. These mutants were expressed in polarized HepG2 cells engineered to support the complete HCV life cycle by CD81 and miR-122 expression and synchronized infection assays were performed to define the kinetics of HCV cell entry. During these studies, OCLN utilization differences between HCV isolates were observed, supporting a model that HCV directly interacts with OCLN. In HepG2 cells, both HCV cell entry and tight junction formation were impaired by OCLN silencing and restored by expression of antibody regulatable OCLN mutant. Synchronized infection assays showed that glycosaminoglycans and SR-BI mediated host cell binding, while CD81, CLDN1 and OCLN all acted sequentially at a post-binding stage prior to endosomal acidification. These results fit a model where the tight junction region is the last to be encountered by the virion prior to internalization.

  5. An Automated Evaluation Metric for Chinese Text Entry


    Jiang, Mike Tian-Jian; Zhan, James; Lin, Jaimie; Lin, Jerry; Hsu, Wen-Lien


    In this paper, we propose an automated evaluation metric for text entry. We also consider possible improvements to existing text entry evaluation metrics, such as the minimum string distance error rate, keystrokes per character, cost per correction, and a unified approach proposed by MacKenzie, so they can accommodate the special characteristics of Chinese text. Current methods lack an integrated concern about both typing speed and accuracy for Chinese text entry evaluation. Our goal is to re...

  6. Methodological aspects of journaling a dynamic adjusting entry model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Kašparovská


    Full Text Available This paper expands the discussion of the importance and function of adjusting entries for loan receivables. Discussion of the cyclical development of adjusting entries, their negative impact on the business cycle and potential solutions has intensified during the financial crisis. These discussions are still ongoing and continue to be relevant to members of the professional public, banking regulators and representatives of international accounting institutions. The objective of this paper is to evaluate a method of journaling dynamic adjusting entries under current accounting law. It also expresses the authors’ opinions on the potential for consistently implementing basic accounting principles in journaling adjusting entries for loan receivables under a dynamic model.

  7. Ubiquitin in Influenza Virus Entry and Innate Immunity. (United States)

    Rudnicka, Alina; Yamauchi, Yohei


    Viruses are obligatory cellular parasites. Their mission is to enter a host cell, to transfer the viral genome, and to replicate progeny whilst diverting cellular immunity. The role of ubiquitin is to regulate fundamental cellular processes such as endocytosis, protein degradation, and immune signaling. Many viruses including influenza A virus (IAV) usurp ubiquitination and ubiquitin-like modifications to establish infection. In this focused review, we discuss how ubiquitin and unanchored ubiquitin regulate IAV host cell entry, and how histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), a cytoplasmic deacetylase with ubiquitin-binding activity, mediates IAV capsid uncoating. We also discuss the roles of ubiquitin in innate immunity and its implications in the IAV life cycle.

  8. Passive Earth Entry Vehicle Landing Test (United States)

    Kellas, Sotiris


    Two full-scale passive Earth Entry Vehicles (EEV) with realistic structure, surrogate sample container, and surrogate Thermal Protection System (TPS) were built at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and tested at the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR). The main test objective was to demonstrate structural integrity and investigate possible impact response deviations of the realistic vehicle as compared to rigid penetrometer responses. With the exception of the surrogate TPS and minor structural differences in the back shell construction, the two test vehicles were identical in geometry and both utilized the Integrated Composite Stiffener Structure (ICoSS) structural concept in the forward shell. The ICoSS concept is a lightweight and highly adaptable composite concept developed at NASA LaRC specifically for entry vehicle TPS carrier structures. The instrumented test vehicles were released from a helicopter approximately 400 m above ground. The drop height was selected such that at least 98% of the vehicles terminal velocity would be achieved. While drop tests of spherical penetrometers and a low fidelity aerodynamic EEV model were conducted at UTTR in 1998 and 2000, this was the first time a passive EEV with flight-like structure, surrogate TPS, and sample container was tested at UTTR for the purpose of complete structural system validation. Test results showed that at a landing vertical speed of approximately 30 m/s, the test vehicle maintained structural integrity and enough rigidity to penetrate the sandy clay surface thus attenuating the landing load, as measured at the vehicle CG, to less than 600 g. This measured deceleration was found to be in family with rigid penetrometer test data from the 1998 and 2000 test campaigns. Design implications of vehicle structure/soil interaction with respect to sample container and sample survivability are briefly discussed.

  9. Parvoviral host range and cell entry mechanisms. (United States)

    Cotmore, Susan F; Tattersall, Peter


    Parvoviruses elaborate rugged nonenveloped icosahedral capsids of approximately 260 A in diameter that comprise just 60 copies of a common core structural polypeptide. While serving as exceptionally durable shells, capable of protecting the single-stranded DNA genome from environmental extremes, the capsid also undergoes sequential conformational changes that allow it to translocate the genome from its initial host cell nucleus all the way into the nucleus of its subsequent host. Lacking a duplex transcription template, the virus must then wait for its host to enter S-phase before it can initiate transcription and usurp the cell's synthetic pathways. Here we review cell entry mechanisms used by parvoviruses. We explore two apparently distinct modes of host cell specificity, first that used by Minute virus of mice, where subtle glycan-specific interactions between host receptors and residues surrounding twofold symmetry axes on the virion surface mediate differentiated cell type target specificity, while the second involves novel protein interactions with the canine transferrin receptor that allow a mutant of the feline leukopenia serotype, Canine parvovirus, to bind to and infect dog cells. We then discuss conformational shifts in the virion that accompany cell entry, causing exposure of a capsid-tethered phospholipase A2 enzymatic core that acts as an endosomolytic agent to mediate virion translocation across the lipid bilayer into the cell cytoplasm. Finally, we discuss virion delivery into the nucleus, and consider the nature of transcriptionally silent DNA species that, escaping detection by the cell, might allow unhampered progress into S-phase and hence unleash the parvoviral Trojan horse.

  10. Quality of data entry using single entry, double entry and automated forms processing--an example based on a study of patient-reported outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksel Paulsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The clinical and scientific usage of patient-reported outcome measures is increasing in the health services. Often paper forms are used. Manual double entry of data is defined as the definitive gold standard for transferring data to an electronic format, but the process is laborious. Automated forms processing may be an alternative, but further validation is warranted. METHODS: 200 patients were randomly selected from a cohort of 5777 patients who had previously answered two different questionnaires. The questionnaires were scanned using an automated forms processing technique, as well as processed by single and double manual data entry, using the EpiData Entry data entry program. The main outcome measure was the proportion of correctly entered numbers at question, form and study level. RESULTS: Manual double-key data entry (error proportion per 1000 fields = 0.046 (95% CI: 0.001-0.258 performed better than single-key data entry (error proportion per 1000 fields = 0.370 (95% CI: 0.160-0.729, (p = 0.020. There was no statistical difference between Optical Mark Recognition (error proportion per 1000 fields = 0.046 (95% CI: 0.001-0.258 and double-key data entry (p = 1.000. With the Intelligent Character Recognition method, there was no statistical difference compared to single-key data entry (error proportion per 1000 fields = 6.734 (95% CI: 0.817-24.113, (p = 0.656, as well as double-key data entry (error proportion per 1000 fields = 3.367 (95% CI: 0.085-18.616, (p = 0.319. CONCLUSIONS: Automated forms processing is a valid alternative to double manual data entry for highly structured forms containing only check boxes, numerical codes and no dates. Automated forms processing can be superior to single manual data entry through a data entry program, depending on the method chosen.

  11. Application of the FADS system on the Re-entry Module (United States)

    Zhen, Huang


    The aerodynamic model for Flush Air Data Sensing System (FADS) is built based on the surface pressure distribution obtained through the pressure orifices laid on specific positions of the surface,and the flight parameters,such as angle of attack,angle of side-slip,Mach number,free-stream static pressure and dynamic pressure are inferred from the aerodynamic model.The flush air data sensing system (FADS) has been used on several flight tests of aircraft and re-entry vehicle,such as,X-15,space shuttle,F-14,X-33,X-43A and so on. This paper discusses the application of the FADS on the re-entry module with blunt body to obtain high-precision aerodynamic parameters.First of all,a basic theory and operating principle of the FADS is shown.Then,the applications of the FADS on typical aircrafts and re-entry vehicles are described.Thirdly,the application mode on the re-entry module with blunt body is discussed in detail,including aerodynamic simulation,pressure distribution,trajectory reconstruction and the hardware shoule be used,such as flush air data sensing system(FADS),inertial navigation system (INS),data acquisition system,data storage system.Finally,ablunt module re-entry flight test from low earth orbit (LEO) is planned to obtain aerodynamic parameters and amend the aerodynamic model with this FADS system data.The results show that FADS system can be applied widely in re-entry module with blunt bodies.

  12. Sensitivity of Asteroid Impact Risk to Uncertainty in Asteroid Properties and Entry Parameters (United States)

    Wheeler, Lorien; Mathias, Donovan; Dotson, Jessie L.; NASA Asteroid Threat Assessment Project


    A central challenge in assessing the threat posed by asteroids striking Earth is the large amount of uncertainty inherent throughout all aspects of the problem. Many asteroid properties are not well characterized and can range widely from strong, dense, monolithic irons to loosely bound, highly porous rubble piles. Even for an object of known properties, the specific entry velocity, angle, and impact location can swing the potential consequence from no damage to causing millions of casualties. Due to the extreme rarity of large asteroid strikes, there are also large uncertainties in how different types of asteroids will interact with the atmosphere during entry, how readily they may break up or ablate, and how much surface damage will be caused by the resulting airbursts or impacts.In this work, we use our Probabilistic Asteroid Impact Risk (PAIR) model to investigate the sensitivity of asteroid impact damage to uncertainties in key asteroid properties, entry parameters, or modeling assumptions. The PAIR model combines physics-based analytic models of asteroid entry and damage in a probabilistic Monte Carlo framework to assess the risk posed by a wide range of potential impacts. The model samples from uncertainty distributions of asteroid properties and entry parameters to generate millions of specific impact cases, and models the atmospheric entry and damage for each case, including blast overpressure, thermal radiation, tsunami inundation, and global effects. To assess the risk sensitivity, we alternately fix and vary the different input parameters and compare the effect on the resulting range of damage produced. The goal of these studies is to help guide future efforts in asteroid characterization and model refinement by determining which properties most significantly affect the potential risk.



    Kaplan, Tugba


    Firms, whichhave to compete with global firms in domestic market, try to internationalizefor gaining competitive advantage. The aim of this study is to recommend a conceptual framework to explain thedynamics of internationalization process of leader and follower firms thatinternationalize from an emerging country. In this study, author tries tofigure out the determinants of entrymode decisions of follower firms. In addition, bandwagon effect of leaders'entry mode strategies on followers&...

  14. Study Results on Knowledge Requirements for Entry-Level Airport Operations and Management Personnel (United States)

    Quilty, Stephen M.


    This paper identifies important topical knowledge areas required of individuals employed in airport operations and management positions. A total of 116 airport managers and airfield operations personnel responded to a survey that sought to identify the importance of various subject matter for entry level airport operations personnel. The results from this study add to the body of research on aviation management curriculum development and can be used to better develop university curriculum and supplemental training focused on airport management and operations. Recommendations are made for specialized airport courses within aviation management programs. Further, this study identifies for job seekers or individuals employed in entry level positions those knowledge requirements deemed important by airport managers and operations personnel at different sized airports.

  15. [Subjective cognition in schizophrenia]. (United States)

    Potvin, S; Aubin, G; Stip, E


    Given the extent, magnitude and functional significance of the neurocognitive deficits of schizophrenia, growing attention has been paid recently to patients' self-awareness of their own deficits. Thus far, the literature has shown either that patients fail to recognize their cognitive deficits or that the association between subjective and objective cognition is weak in schizophrenia. The reasons for this lack of consistency remain unexplained but may have to do, among others, with the influence of potential confounding clinical variables and the choice of the scale used to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits. In the current study, we sought to examine the relationships between subjective and objective cognitive performance in schizophrenia, while controlling for the influence of sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Eighty-two patients with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (DSM-IV criteria) were recruited. Patients' subjective cognitive complaints were evaluated with the Subjective Scale to Investigate Cognition in Schizophrenia (SSTICS), the most frequently used scale to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Neurocognition was evaluated with working memory, planning and visual learning tasks taken from Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery. The Stroop Color-Word test was also administered. Psychiatric symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. The relationships between subjective and objective cognition were evaluated with multivariate hierarchic linear regression analyses, taking into consideration potential confounders such as sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Finally, a factor analysis of the SSTICS was performed. For the SSTICS total score, the regression analysis produced a model including two predictors, namely visual learning and Stoop interference performance, explaining a moderate portion of the variance

  16. New influenza A Virus Entry Inhibitors Derived from the Viral Fusion Peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjiao Wu

    Full Text Available Influenza A viral (IAV fusion peptides are known for their important role in viral-cell fusion process and membrane destabilization potential which are compatible with those of antimicrobial peptides. Thus, by replacing the negatively or neutrally charged residues of FPs with positively charged lysines, we synthesized several potent antimicrobial peptides derived from the fusogenic peptides (FPs of hemagglutinin glycoproteins (HAs of IAV. The biological screening identified that in addition to the potent antibacterial activities, these positively charged fusion peptides (pFPs effectively inhibited the replication of influenza A viruses including oseltamivir-resistant strain. By employing pseudovirus-based entry inhibition assays including H5N1 influenza A virus (IAV, and VSV-G, the mechanism study indicated that the antiviral activity may be associated with the interactions between the HA2 subunit and pFP, of which, the nascent pFP exerted a strong effect to interrupt the conformational changes of HA2, thereby blocking the entry of viruses into host cells. In addition to providing new peptide "entry blockers", these data also demonstrate a useful strategy in designing potent antibacterial agents, as well as effective viral entry inhibitors. It would be meaningful in treatment of bacterial co-infection during influenza pandemic periods, as well as in our current war against those emerging pathogenic microorganisms such as IAV and HIV.

  17. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in ADHD Diagnosis by Kindergarten Entry (United States)

    Morgan, Paul L.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Farkas, George; Maczuga, Steve


    Background: Whether and to what extent racial/ethnic disparities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis occur by kindergarten entry is currently unknown. We investigated risk factors associated with an ADHD diagnosis by kindergarten entry generally, and specifically whether racial/ethnic disparities in ADHD diagnosis occur by…

  18. 19 CFR 147.44 - Entry for another fair. (United States)


    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Disposition of Articles Entered for Fairs § 147.44 Entry for another fair. Articles entered for a fair which are to be entered for another fair under the provisions of this part... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry for another fair. 147.44 Section 147.44...

  19. Entry, Pricing, and Product Design in an Initially Monopolized Market (United States)

    Davis, Steven J.; Murphy, Kevin M.; Topel, Robert H.


    We analyze entry, pricing, and product design in a model with differentiated products. Market equilibrium can be "separating," with multiple sellers and a sorting of heterogeneous consumers across goods, or "exclusionary," with one seller serving all customer types. Entry into an initially monopolized market can occur because of cost reductions or…

  20. 19 CFR 146.63 - Entry for consumption. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry for consumption. 146.63 Section 146.63... TREASURY (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES Transfer of Merchandise From a Zone § 146.63 Entry for consumption... status may be entered for consumption from a zone. (b) Zone-restricted merchandise. Merchandise in a zone...

  1. Strategic advantage and the optimal exercise of entry options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; Rossetto, S.


    We investigate the timing and the valuation of strategic investment aimed at enhancing entry opportunities in related market segments. As demand is uncertain, entry options should be exercised at the optimal time, trading off the market share gain against the option to wait until more information is

  2. Cadaveric study for ideal dorsal pedicle screw entry point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sonone


    Conclusion: We conclude that the ideal pedicle entry point described here should be considered by surgeons during thoracic pedicle screw instrumentation. The notch at the base of the superior articular process will always remain constant and therefore an important anatomical landmark in guiding the screw toward the entry of the pedicle.

  3. 15 CFR 2011.204 - Entry of specialty sugars. (United States)


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Entry of specialty sugars. 2011.204... UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE ALLOCATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTA ON IMPORTED SUGARS, SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.204 Entry of specialty sugars. An importer or the importer's agent must...

  4. 18 CFR 33.5 - Proposed accounting entries. (United States)


    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proposed accounting... § 33.5 Proposed accounting entries. If the applicant is required to maintain its books of account in... present proposed accounting entries showing the effect of the transaction with sufficient detail to...

  5. 19 CFR 10.1 - Domestic products; requirements on entry. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Domestic products; requirements on entry. 10.1 Section 10.1 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Articles Exported and Returned § 10.1 Domestic products; requirements on entry. (a) Except as otherwise...

  6. 7 CFR 1205.525 - Entry of gin code number. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Entry of gin code number. 1205.525 Section 1205.525... Cotton Board Rules and Regulations Warehouse Receipts § 1205.525 Entry of gin code number. The warehouse that first receives a bale for storage after ginning shall enter the gin code number of the gin at...

  7. The Language Functioning of Youth at Entry to Residential Treatment (United States)

    Trout, Alexandra L.; Huscroft-D'Angelo, Jacqueline; DeSalvo, Catherine; Gehringer, Robert


    Although much is known about the behavioral and educational characteristics of youth at entry to residential care, little is known about youth language performance. Given the impact of language deficits on outcomes, this study assessed the specific language skills of 70 adolescents at entry to a residential treatment setting. Results revealed…

  8. 27 CFR 478.23 - Right of entry and examination. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Right of entry and... Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions § 478.23 Right of entry and examination. (a) Except as provided in... of a criminal investigation of a person or persons other than the licensee, (2) For insuring...

  9. Foreign Bank Entry and Credit Allocation in Emerging Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; Havrylchyk, O.; Jurzyk, E.; Kozak, S.


    We employ a unique data set containing bank-specific information to explore how foreign bank entry determines credit allocation in emerging markets. We investigate the impact of the mode of foreign entry (greenfield or takeover) on banks’ portfolio allocation to borrowers with different degrees of

  10. 19 CFR 142.3 - Entry documentation required. (United States)


    ... § 141.61(a)(1) of this chapter. (2) Evidence of the right to make entry. Evidence of the right to make entry, as set forth in § 141.11 of this chapter. (3) Commercial invoice. A commercial invoice, except that in those instances listed in § 141.83(d) of this chapter where a commercial invoice is not...

  11. Attitudes towards statistics of graduate entry medical students: the role of prior learning experiences. (United States)

    Hannigan, Ailish; Hegarty, Avril C; McGrath, Deirdre


    While statistics is increasingly taught as part of the medical curriculum, it can be an unpopular subject and feedback from students indicates that some find it more difficult than other subjects. Understanding attitudes towards statistics on entry to graduate entry medical programmes is particularly important, given that many students may have been exposed to quantitative courses in their previous degree and hence bring preconceptions of their ability and interest to their medical education programme. The aim of this study therefore is to explore, for the first time, attitudes towards statistics of graduate entry medical students from a variety of backgrounds and focus on understanding the role of prior learning experiences. 121 first year graduate entry medical students completed the Survey of Attitudes toward Statistics instrument together with information on demographics and prior learning experiences. Students tended to appreciate the relevance of statistics in their professional life and be prepared to put effort into learning statistics. They had neutral to positive attitudes about their interest in statistics and their intellectual knowledge and skills when applied to it. Their feelings towards statistics were slightly less positive e.g. feelings of insecurity, stress, fear and frustration and they tended to view statistics as difficult. Even though 85% of students had taken a quantitative course in the past, only 24% of students described it as likely that they would take any course in statistics if the choice was theirs. How well students felt they had performed in mathematics in the past was a strong predictor of many of the components of attitudes. The teaching of statistics to medical students should start with addressing the association between students' past experiences in mathematics and their attitudes towards statistics and encouraging students to recognise the difference between the two disciplines. Addressing these issues may reduce students

  12. McGraw Hill encyclopedia of science and technology. An international reference work in fifteen volumes including an index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This extensively revised and updated 5th Edition features contributions by 3000 distinguished experts - including 16 Nobel Prize winners - working with an international advisory board and 60 consulting editors. Thorough coverage is devoted to 75 separate disciplines in science and technology, from acoustics and biochemistry through fluid mechanics and geophysics to thermodynamics and vertebrate zoology. Detailed entries examine not only the physical and natural sciences, but also all engineering disciplines, discussing both the basic and the most recent theories, concepts, terminology, discoveries, materials, methods, and techniques. All of the new developments and technical advances that have occurred during the last five years - in each of the 75 disciplines - have been added to the encyclopedia and are explored in depth. Completely new material deals with such timely and newsworthy subjects as genetic engineering, artificial intelligence, nuclear medicine, desertification, psycholinguistics, industrial robots, and immunoassay. Also covered in extensive entries are such current topics as video disk recording, metallic glasses, acoustic levitation, magnetic bubble memory, gluons, and computerized tomography. The encyclopedia includes more than 15,000 photographs, drawings, maps, charts, and diagrams, shown in full-color, two-color, or black-and-white reproductions.

  13. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya


    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  14. Mars Sample Return Using Commercial Capabilities: Propulsive Entry, Descent, and Landing of a Capsule Form Vehicle (United States)

    Gonzales, Andrew A.; Lemke, Lawrence G.; Huynh, Loc C.


    This paper describes a critical portion of the work that has been done at NASA, Ames Research Center regarding the use of the commercially developed Dragon capsule as a delivery vehicle for the elements of a high priority Mars Sample Return mission. The objective of the investigation was to determine entry and landed mass capabilities that cover anticipated mission conditions. The "Red Dragon", Mars configuration, uses supersonic retro-propulsion, with no required parachute system, to perform Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) maneuvers. The propulsive system proposed for use is the same system that will perform an abort, if necessary, for a human rated version of the Dragon capsule. Standard trajectory analysis tools are applied to publically available information about Dragon and other legacy capsule forms in order to perform the investigation. Trajectory simulation parameters include entry velocity, flight path angle, lift to drag Ratio (L/D), landing site elevation, atmosphere density, and total entry mass, in addition engineering assumptions for the performance of the propulsion system are stated. Mass estimates for major elements of the overall proposed architecture are coupled to this EDL analysis to close the overall architecture. Three synodic launch opportunities, beginning with the 2022 opportunity, define the arrival conditions. Results state the relations between the analysis parameters as well as sensitivities to those parameters. The EDL performance envelope includes landing altitudes between 0 and -4 km referenced to the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter datum as well as minimum and maximum atmosphere density. Total entry masses between 7 and 10 mt are considered with architecture closure occurring between 9.0 and 10 mt. Propellant mass fractions for each major phase of the EDL - Entry, Terminal Descent, and Hazard Avoidance - have been derived. An assessment of the effect of the entry conditions on the Thermal Protection System (TPS) currently in use for

  15. Comparison of single-entry and double-entry two-step couple screening for cystic fibrosis carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    tenKate, LP; Verheij, JBGM; Wildhagen, MF; Hilderink, HBM; Kooij, L; Verzijl, JG; Habbema, JDF


    Both single-entry two-step (SETS) couple screening and double-entry two-step (DETS) couple screening have been recommended as methods to screen for cystic fibrosis gene carriers. In this paper we compare the expected results from both types of screening. In general, DETS results in a higher

  16. Induced charge effects on electrokinetic entry flow (United States)

    Prabhakaran, Rama Aravind; Zhou, Yilong; Zhao, Cunlu; Hu, Guoqing; Song, Yongxin; Wang, Junsheng; Yang, Chun; Xuan, Xiangchun


    Electrokinetic flow, due to a nearly plug-like velocity profile, is the preferred mode for transport of fluids (by electroosmosis) and species (by electrophoresis if charged) in microfluidic devices. Thus far there have been numerous studies on electrokinetic flow within a variety of microchannel structures. However, the fluid and species behaviors at the interface of the inlet reservoir (i.e., the well that supplies the fluid and species) and microchannel are still largely unexplored. This work presents a fundamental investigation of the induced charge effects on electrokinetic entry flow due to the polarization of dielectric corners at the inlet reservoir-microchannel junction. We use small tracing particles suspended in a low ionic concentration fluid to visualize the electrokinetic flow pattern in the absence of Joule heating effects. Particles are found to get trapped and concentrated inside a pair of counter-rotating fluid circulations near the corners of the channel entrance. We also develop a depth-averaged numerical model to understand the induced charge on the corner surfaces and simulate the resultant induced charge electroosmosis (ICEO) in the horizontal plane of the microchannel. The particle streaklines predicted from this model are compared with the experimental images of tracing particles, which shows a significantly better agreement than those from a regular two-dimensional model. This study indicates the strong influences of the top/bottom walls on ICEO in shallow microchannels, which have been neglected in previous two-dimensional models.

  17. Molecular and Cellular Aspects of Rhabdovirus Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Gaudin


    Full Text Available Rhabdoviruses enter the cell via the endocytic pathway and subsequently fuse with a cellular membrane within the acidic environment of the endosome. Both receptor recognition and membrane fusion are mediated by a single transmembrane viral glycoprotein (G. Fusion is triggered via a low-pH induced structural rearrangement. G is an atypical fusion protein as there is a pH-dependent equilibrium between its pre- and post-fusion conformations. The elucidation of the atomic structures of these two conformations for the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV G has revealed that it is different from the previously characterized class I and class II fusion proteins. In this review, the pre- and post-fusion VSV G structures are presented in detail demonstrating that G combines the features of the class I and class II fusion proteins. In addition to these similarities, these G structures also reveal some particularities that expand our understanding of the working of fusion machineries. Combined with data from recent studies that revealed the cellular aspects of the initial stages of rhabdovirus infection, all these data give an integrated view of the entry pathway of rhabdoviruses into their host cell.

  18. Intracellular Route of Canine Parvovirus Entry (United States)

    Vihinen-Ranta, Maija; Kalela, Anne; Mäkinen, Päivi; Kakkola, Laura; Marjomäki, Varpu; Vuento, Matti


    The present study was designed to investigate the endocytic pathway involved in canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. Reduced temperature (18°C) or the microtubule-depolymerizing drug nocodazole was found to inhibit productive infection of canine A72 cells by CPV and caused CPV to be retained in cytoplasmic vesicles as indicated by immunofluorescence microscopy. Consistent with previously published results, these data indicate that CPV enters a host cell via an endocytic route and further suggest that microtubule-dependent delivery of CPV to late endosomes is required for productive infection. Cytoplasmic microinjection of CPV particles was used to circumvent the endocytosis and membrane fusion steps in the entry process. Microinjection experiments showed that CPV particles which were injected directly into the cytoplasm, thus avoiding the endocytic pathway, were unable to initiate progeny virus production. CPV treated at pH 5.0 prior to microinjection was unable to initiate virus production, showing that factors of the endocytic route other than low pH are necessary for the initiation of infection by CPV. PMID:9420290

  19. Inflatable Emergency Atmospheric-Entry Vehicles (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Hall, Jeffrey; Wu, Jiunn Jeng


    In response to the loss of seven astronauts in the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster, large, lightweight, inflatable atmospheric- entry vehicles have been proposed as means of emergency descent and landing for persons who must abandon a spacecraft that is about to reenter the atmosphere and has been determined to be unable to land safely. Such a vehicle would act as an atmospheric decelerator at supersonic speed in the upper atmosphere, and a smaller, central astronaut pod could then separate at lower altitudes and parachute separately to Earth. Astronaut-rescue systems that have been considered previously have been massive, and the cost of designing them has exceeded the cost of fabrication of a space shuttle. In contrast, an inflatable emergency-landing vehicle according to the proposal would have a mass between 100 and 200 kg, could be stored in a volume of approximately 0.2 to 0.4 cu m, and could likely be designed and built much less expensively. When fully inflated, the escape vehicle behaves as a large balloon parachute, or ballute. Due to very low mass-per-surface area, a large radius, and a large coefficient of drag, ballutes decelerate at much higher altitudes and with much lower heating rates than the space shuttle. Although the space shuttle atmospheric reentry results in surface temperatures of about 1,600 C, ballutes can be designed for maximum temperatures below 600 C. This allows ballutes to be fabricated with lightweight ZYLON(Registered TradeMark) or polybenzoxazole (PBO), or equivalent.

  20. Swiss Army Pathogen: The Salmonella Entry Toolkit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Hume


    Full Text Available Salmonella causes disease in humans and animals ranging from mild self-limiting gastroenteritis to potentially life-threatening typhoid fever. Salmonellosis remains a considerable cause of morbidity and mortality globally, and hence imposes a huge socio-economic burden worldwide. A key property of all pathogenic Salmonella strains is the ability to invade non-phagocytic host cells. The major determinant of this invasiveness is a Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS, a molecular syringe that injects virulence effector proteins directly into target host cells. These effectors cooperatively manipulate multiple host cell signaling pathways to drive pathogen internalization. Salmonella does not only rely on these injected effectors, but also uses several other T3SS-independent mechanisms to gain entry into host cells. This review summarizes our current understanding of the methods used by Salmonella for cell invasion, with a focus on the host signaling networks that must be coordinately exploited for the pathogen to achieve its goal.

  1. Experience at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility with the use of alloy Inconel 718 as an enclosure for a beam degrader and as a proton beam entry window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, W.F.; Ferguson, P.D.; Brown, R.D.; Cedillo, C.M.; Zimmerman, E.


    Operation of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) began in 1972 and continues at present. An injector delivers protons to a 0.8 kin long linear accelerator which produces a particle energy of 800 MeV; the protons are then transported to a variety of experimental areas. The proton beam is transported in a vacuum tube, controlled and bent by electromagnets. The highest intensity beam, at a maximum level of 1 mA, is delivered to the experimental area designated as Area A. At the end of the experimental area, the beam is transported through an interface between beamline vacuum and one atmosphere air pressure. This interface is made of metal and is generally referred to as a beam entry window. At LAMPF, after the beam has exited the vacuum tube, it becomes incident on a number of experiments or ``targets.`` These include capsules for radiation damage studies, a beam ``degrader`` for the long-term neutrino experiment, and as many nine targets in the Isotope Production (IP) stringer system used to produce medically significant isotopes. Following the IP system is a beam stop used for the purpose its name implies. The beam stop also contains a beam entry window, whose purpose is to separate the 250 psig water cooling environment from I atmosphere of air. The beam entry window, the beam degrader, and the beam stop window are made of alloy Inconel 718, have endured a lengthy irradiation service time at LAMPF, and are the subject of this report.

  2. Tannic Acid Inhibits Hepatitis C Virus Entry into Huh7.5 Cells. (United States)

    Liu, Shuanghu; Chen, Ren; Hagedorn, Curt H


    Chronic infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. Although antiviral therapy has dramatically improved recently, a number of patients remain untreated and some do not clear infection with treatment. Viral entry is an essential step in initiating and maintaining chronic HCV infections. One dramatic example of this is the nearly 100% infection of newly transplanted livers in patients with chronic hepatitis C. HCV entry inhibitors could play a critical role in preventing HCV infection of newly transplanted livers. Tannic acid, a polymer of gallic acid and glucose molecules, is a plant-derived polyphenol that defends some plants from insects and microbial infections. It has been shown to have a variety of biological effects, including antiviral activity, and is used as a flavoring agent in foods and beverages. In this study, we demonstrate that tannic acid is a potent inhibitor of HCV entry into Huh7.5 cells at low concentrations (IC50 5.8 μM). It also blocks cell-to-cell spread in infectious HCV cell cultures, but does not inhibit HCV replication following infection. Moreover, experimental results indicate that tannic acid inhibits an early step of viral entry, such as the docking of HCV at the cell surface. Gallic acid, tannic acid's structural component, did not show any anti-HCV activity including inhibition of HCV entry or replication at concentrations up to 25 μM. It is possible the tannin structure is related on the effect on HCV inhibition. Tannic acid, which is widely distributed in plants and foods, has HCV antiviral activity in cell culture at low micromolar concentrations, may provide a relative inexpensive adjuvant to direct-acting HCV antivirals and warrants future investigation.

  3. The Microtubule Inhibitor Podofilox Inhibits an Early Entry Step of Human Cytomegalovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Cohen


    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus is a ubiquitous β-herpesvirus that infects many different cell types through an initial binding to cell surface receptors followed by a fusion event at the cell membrane or endocytic vesicle. A recent high-throughput screen to identify compounds that block a step prior to viral gene expression identified podofilox as a potent and nontoxic inhibitor. Time-of-addition studies in combination with quantitative-PCR analysis demonstrated that podofilox limits an early step of virus entry at the cell surface. Podofilox was also able to drastically reduce infection by herpes simplex 1, an α-herpesvirus with a very similar entry process to CMV. Podofilox caused a reduced maximal plateau inhibition of infection by viruses with single step binding processes prior to fusion-like Newcastle disease virus, Sendai virus, and influenza A virus or viruses that enter via endocytosis like vesicular stomatitis virus and a clinical-like strain of CMV. These results indicate that microtubules appear to be participating in the post-binding step of virus entry including the pre- and post-penetration events. Modulation of the plasma membrane is required to promote virus entry for herpesviruses, and that podofilox, unlike colchicine or nocodazole, is able to preferentially target microtubule networks at the plasma membrane.

  4. Approaches for Identification of HIV-1 Entry Inhibitors Targeting gp41 Pocket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim K. Debnath


    Full Text Available The hydrophobic pocket in the HIV-1 gp41 N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR domain plays an important role in viral fusion and entry into the host cell, and serves as an attractive target for development of HIV-1 fusion/entry inhibitors. The peptide anti-HIV drug targeting gp41 NHR, T-20 (generic name: enfuvirtide; brand name: Fuzeon, was approved by the U.S. FDA in 2003 as the first HIV fusion/entry inhibitor for treatment of HIV/AIDS patients who fail to respond to the current antiretroviral drugs. However, because T20 lacks the pocket-binding domain (PBD, it exhibits low anti-HIV-1 activity and short half-life. Therefore, several next-generation HIV fusion inhibitory peptides with PBD have been developed. They possess longer half-life and more potent antiviral activity against a broad spectrum of HIV-1 strains, including the T-20-resistant variants. Nonetheless, the clinical application of these peptides is still limited by the lack of oral availability and the high cost of production. Thus, development of small molecule compounds targeting the gp41 pocket with oral availability has been promoted. This review describes the main approaches for identification of HIV fusion/entry inhibitors targeting the gp41 pocket and summarizes the latest progress in developing these inhibitors as a new class of anti-HIV drugs.

  5. Study on Mini Re-Entry System Using Deployable Membrane Aeroshell (United States)

    Koyama, Masashi; Suzuki, Kojiro; Imamura, Osamu; Yamada, Kazuhiko

    An aeroshell made from membrane material have an advantage of reduction in the aerodynamic heating, because its small mass and large area enable us to make the low-ballistic-coefficient flight, in which the vehicle decelerates at very high altitude with low atmospheric density. In this paper, we propose a new concept of mini re-entry system for small satellites. This vehicle is called "FEATHER" (Flexible Expanded Aeroshell with Tiny payload Harness for Entry and Recovery). "FEATHER" is a novel re-entry and recovery system, featuring the autonomous aeroshell deployment, the low-ballistic-coefficient re-entry with less severe aerodynamicc heating and so on. FEATHER is composed of the membrane aeroshell made from the high-temperature cloth called ZYLON®, an outer frame made of Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) and a payload. When the aeroshell receives the aerodynamic heating, the temperature of SMA frame rises and restores the circular shape as memorized beforehand. Then the membrane aeroshell is automatically deployed. Therefore the vehicle can achieve the low-ballistic-coefficient flight with a drastic reduction in the aerodynamic heating without any additional sensors, controllers and actuators. The preliminary studies made on FEATHER system so far including the hypersonic wind tunnel experiments are presented in this paper.

  6. Role of TIM-4 in exosome-dependent entry of HIV-1 into human immune cells. (United States)

    Sims, Brian; Farrow, Anitra L; Williams, Sparkle D; Bansal, Anju; Krendelchtchikov, Alexandre; Gu, Linlin; Matthews, Qiana L


    Exosomes, 30-200 nm nanostructures secreted from donor cells and internalized by recipient cells, can play an important role in the cellular entry of some viruses. These microvesicles are actively secreted into various body fluids, including blood, urine, saliva, cerebrospinal fluid, and breast milk. We successfully isolated exosomes from human breast milk and plasma. The size and concentration of purified exosomes were measured by nanoparticle tracking, while Western blotting confirmed the presence of the exosomal-associated proteins CD9 and CD63, clathrin, and T cell immunoglobulin and mucin proteins (TIMs). Through viral infection assays, we determined that HIV-1 utilizes an exosome-dependent mechanism for entry into human immune cells. The virus contains high amounts of phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) and may bind PtdSer receptors, such as TIMs. This mechanism is supported by our findings that exosomes from multiple sources increased HIV-1 entry into T cells and macrophages, and viral entry was potently blocked with anti-TIM-4 antibodies.

  7. The oncogene c-Myc coordinates regulation of metabolic networks to enable rapid cell cycle entry. (United States)

    Morrish, Fionnuala; Neretti, Nicola; Sedivy, John M; Hockenbery, David M


    The c-myc proto-oncogene is rapidly activated by serum and regulates genes involved in metabolism and cell cycle progression. This gene is thereby uniquely poised to coordinate both the metabolic and cell cycle regulatory events required for cell cycle entry. However, this function of Myc has not been evaluated. Using a rat fibroblast model of isogenic cell lines, myc(-/-), myc(+/-), myc(+/+) and myc(-/-) cells with an inducible c-myc transgene (mycER), we show that the Myc protein programs cells to utilize both oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis to drive cell cycle progression. We demonstrate this coordinate regulation of metabolic networks is essential, as specific inhibitors of these pathways block Myc-induced proliferation. Metabolic events temporally correlated with cell cycle entry include increased oxygen consumption, mitochondrial function, pyruvate and lactate production, and ATP generation. Treatment of normal cells with inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation recapitulates the myc(-/-) phenotype, resulting in impaired cell cycle entry and reduced metabolism. Combined with a kinetic expression profiling analysis of genes linked to mitochondrial function, our study indicates that Myc's ability to coordinately regulate the mitochondrial metabolic network transcriptome is required for rapid cell cycle entry. This function of Myc may underlie the pervasive presence of Myc in many human cancers.

  8. Influence of distal entry tears in acute type B aortic dissection after thoracic endovascular aortic repair. (United States)

    Zhu, Chenmou; Huang, Bin; Zhao, Jichun; Ma, Yukui; Yuan, Ding; Yang, Yi; Xiong, Fei; Wang, Tiehao


    This study evaluated the clinical influence of distal entry tears in acute type B aortic dissection (ATBAD) after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). From August 2009 to December 2014, the clinical outcomes of 130 patients who underwent TEVAR for ATBAD were retrospectively analyzed. According to whether distal entry tears existed after TEVAR, patients were divided into group A (n = 25, absence of distal entry tears) and group B (n = 105, presence of distal entry tears). We evaluated clinical outcomes, including mortality and morbidity in early and late follow-up, as well as aortic remolding. Late aortic events were defined as aortic dissection-related events occurring >30 days from the initial TEVAR procedures, which consisted of endoleak, retrograde type A aortic dissection, aortic enlargement, late rupture, repeat dissection, and stent-induced new entry tear. The study comprised 130 patients (114 men [87.7%] and 16 women [12.3%)] with a mean age of 53.71 years. The 30-day mortality was 3.1%, and early morbidity included type I endoleak, 3.1%, organ failure, 3.8%; stroke, 3.1%; spinal cord ischemia, 0%; and early rupture 1.5%. The overall survival rate by Kaplan-Meier analysis at 1, 3, and 5 years was 93.8%, 89.5%, and 79.2%, respectively. There were no significant differences in early morbidity and 30-day mortality and late survival between group A and group B. However, group A had a significantly lower rate of late aortic events than group B (P = .028 by log-rank test). Meanwhile, group A had better aortic remolding than group B in complete thrombosis of the thoracic aorta at 12 months postoperatively (100% vs 83.5%; P = .029). This study demonstrated that TEVAR for ATBAD had low perioperative morbidity and mortality and satisfactory midterm outcome. Distal entry tears increase the occurrence of late aortic events and inhibit aortic remolding but do not have a significantly negative effect on late survival. Repairing all entry tears to restore

  9. Subjective memory complaints and personality traits in normal elderly subjects. (United States)

    Hänninen, T; Reinikainen, K J; Helkala, E L; Koivisto, K; Mykkänen, L; Laakso, M; Pyörälä, K; Riekkinen, P J


    To evaluate the relationship between objectively measured memory functions and subjective complaints of memory disturbance and whether subjective complaints are affected by some personality traits or affective states. Cross-sectional two-group comparison. The city of Kuopio in Eastern Finland, considered representative of the urban elderly population of Finland. Originally 403 subjects aged 67-78 years from the random sample and then two matched study groups initially including eighteen subjects but only ten in the final analysis. Screening and follow-up examinations of subjects with and without subjective memory complaints: (1) Memory functions: Benton's visual retention test and the paired-associated learning subtest of Wechsler Memory Scale. (2) Memory complaints: Memory Complaint Questionnaire. (3) Personality traits and affective state: Two subscales from Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and Geriatric Depression Scale. Complaints of memory loss did not correlate with the actual memory performance in the tests. However, those subjects who most emphatically complained of memory disturbance had greater tendencies toward somatic complaining, higher feelings of anxiety about their physical health, and more negative feelings of their own competence and capabilities than those who did not complain of memory deterioration associated with aging. The study suggests that subjective feelings of memory impairment are more closely associated with personality traits than with actual memory performance in normal elderly people.

  10. Angle of Attack Modulation for Mars Entry Terminal State Optimization (United States)

    Lafleur, Jarret M.; Cerimele, Christopher J.


    From the perspective of atmospheric entry, descent, and landing (EDL), one of the most foreboding destinations in the solar system is Mars due in part to its exceedingly thin atmosphere. To benchmark best possible scenarios for evaluation of potential Mars EDL system designs, a study is conducted to optimize the entry-to-terminal-state portion of EDL for a variety of entry velocities and vehicle masses, focusing on the identification of potential benefits of enabling angle of attack modulation. The terminal state is envisioned as one appropriate for the initiation of terminal descent via parachute or other means. A particle swarm optimizer varies entry flight path angle, ten bank profile points, and ten angle of attack profile points to find maximum-final-altitude trajectories for a 10 30 m ellipsled at 180 different combinations of values for entry mass, entry velocity, terminal Mach number, and minimum allowable altitude. Parametric plots of maximum achievable altitude are shown, as are examples of optimized trajectories. It is shown that appreciable terminal state altitude gains (2.5-4.0 km) over pure bank angle control may be possible if angle of attack modulation is enabled for Mars entry vehicles. Gains of this magnitude could prove to be enabling for missions requiring high-altitude landing sites. Conclusions are also drawn regarding trends in the bank and angle of attack profiles that produce the optimal trajectories in this study, and directions for future work are identified.

  11. The effects of foreign banks entry in emerging market economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Florida Veljanoska


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of foreign bank entry in emerging markets. We developed a picture of a multinational bank in an emerging markets by combining statistics from several sources, in order to explore broad range of effects that brings foreign bank entry in the developing countries. Some impacts of foreign bank entry have been thoroughly studied, while others are hardly mention. Entry of foreign bank brings large benefits to host country’s financial system and economies at large. This paper is studying those benefits very carefully, by analyzing the impact of foreign bank entry on economy, government, monetary policy, large enterprises, small and medium size enterprises, domestic bank etc. But, we also consider the fact that at the same time, foreign investment in the financial sector, rises some concerns, and therefore we analyze the negative effects as well. At the end we must admit that although there are some negative consequences from foreign bank entry in emerging markets, the benefits that arise from foreign banks penetration are much more, and this trend of foreign bank entry has brought new positive economic impulse in developing world.

  12. Atmospheric structure from Phoenix atmospheric entry data (United States)

    Catling, D. C.


    The atmospheric structure at the time of landing of NASA's Phoenix probe has been derived from measurements of the aerodynamic drag of the spacecraft during atmospheric entry and descent. The result provides the first atmospheric structure in Mars' polar environment obtained from in situ measurements. Phoenix was equipped with an inertial measurement unit (IMU) that used accelerometers for linear acceleration measurement in three Cartesian axes and ring-laser gyroscopes to measure the three- dimensional orientation of the probe (Taylor et al., 2008). The temperature structure of the atmosphere along the flight path was calculated via a four-step process: (i) integrating forward the IMU data to obtain the time history of the spacecraft velocity vector relative to the atmosphere as a function of altitude; (ii) calculating atmospheric density from drag, with iteration for aerodynamic coefficient dependence on density; (iii) integrating the hydrostatic equation to derive the vertical pressure; and (iv) calculating atmospheric temperature from the equation of state. Initial profile reconstruction shows reasonable agreement with predictions in the middle atmosphere for the given season and time of day (landing occurred at 16h 33min 37sec in local solar time expressed as a 24-hour clock). However, the derived lower atmospheric structure below ~0.1 mbar is generally warmer than predicted. A possible explanation could be a shallower vertical distribution of dust that usually assumed. References: P. A. Taylor, D. C. Catling, M. Daly, C. S. Dickinson, H. O. Gunnlaugsson, A-M. Harri, C. F. Lange, Temperature, pressure and wind instrumentation on the Phoenix meteorological package, J. Geophys. Res., 113, EA0A10, doi:10.1029/2007JE003015, 2008.

  13. Modulation of Calcium Entry by Mitochondria. (United States)

    Fonteriz, Rosalba; Matesanz-Isabel, Jessica; Arias-Del-Val, Jessica; Alvarez-Illera, Pilar; Montero, Mayte; Alvarez, Javier


    The role of mitochondria in intracellular Ca(2+) signaling relies mainly in its capacity to take up Ca(2+) from the cytosol and thus modulate the cytosolic [Ca(2+)]. Because of the low Ca(2+)-affinity of the mitochondrial Ca(2+)-uptake system, this organelle appears specially adapted to take up Ca(2+) from local high-Ca(2+) microdomains and not from the bulk cytosol. Mitochondria would then act as local Ca(2+) buffers in cellular regions where high-Ca(2+) microdomains form, that is, mainly close to the cytosolic mouth of Ca(2+) channels, both in the plasma membrane and in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). One of the first targets proposed already in the 1990s to be regulated in this way by mitochondria were the store-operated Ca(2+) channels (SOCE). Mitochondria, by taking up Ca(2+) from the region around the cytosolic mouth of the SOCE channels, would prevent its slow Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation, thus keeping them active for longer. Since then, evidence for this mechanism has accumulated mainly in immunitary cells, where mitochondria actually move towards the immune synapse during T cell activation. However, in many other cell types the available data indicate that the close apposition between plasma and ER membranes occurring during SOCE activation precludes mitochondria from getting close to the Ca(2+)-entry sites. Alternative pathways for mitochondrial modulation of SOCE, both Ca(2+)-dependent and Ca(2+)-independent, have also been proposed, but further work will be required to elucidate the actual mechanisms at work. Hopefully, the recent knowledge of the molecular nature of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter will allow soon more precise studies on this matter.

  14. Heart rate and pulmonary function while wearing the launch-entry crew escape suit (LES) during + Gx acceleration and simulated Shuttle launch (United States)

    Krutz, Robert W., Jr.; Bagian, James P.; Burton, Russell R.; Meeker, Larry J.


    Space shuttle crewmembers have been equipped with a launch-entry crew escape system (LES) since the Challenger accident in 1986. Some crewmembers, wearing the new pressure suit, have reported breathing difficulties and increased effort to achieve the desired range of motion. This study was conducted to quantify the reported increased physical workloads and breathing difficulty associated with wearing the LES. Both veteran astronauts and centrifuge panel members were exposed to various + Gx profiles (including simulated shuttle launch) + Gx on the USAF School of Aerospace Medicine (USAFSAM) human-use centrifuge. Maximum heart rate data showed no increased workload associated with arm and head movement in the LES when compared to the flight suit/helmet ensemble (LEH). However, the LES did impose a significant increase in breathing difficulty beginning at +2.5 Gx which was demonstrated by a decrease in forced vital capacity and subjected questionnaries.

  15. Comparable stocks, boundedly rational stock markets and IPO entry rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Chok

    Full Text Available In this study, we examine how initial public offerings (IPO entry rates are affected when stock markets are boundedly rational and IPO firms infer information from their counterparts in the market. We hypothesize a curvilinear relationship between the number of comparable stocks and initial public offerings (IPO entry rates into the NASDAQ Stock Exchange. Furthermore, we argue that trading volume and changes in stock returns partially mediates the relationship between the number of comparable stocks and IPO entry rates. The statistical evidence provides strong support for the hypotheses.

  16. Foster care re-entry: Exploring the role of foster care characteristics, in-home child welfare services and cross-sector services. (United States)

    Lee, Sangmoo; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Drake, Brett


    This study seeks to advance our understanding of how modifiable and non-modifiable factors may impact the likelihood of re-entry into foster care. Children who entered foster care for the first time following at least one report of maltreatment and were then reunified were followed from exit to re-entry, age 18 or the end of the study period using longitudinal administrative data. Risk of re-entry was explored according to a range of modifiable and non-modifiable case and service characteristics. Children removed from homes with parents who had multiple risk factors (e.g., no high school diploma, mental health diagnosis, criminal record, or teen parents) or were receiving AFDC prior to entry were more likely to re-enter. The receipt of in-home child welfare services during or after foster care was associated with reduced risk of re-entry. Having the longest placement with a relative was associated with decreased risk of re-entry. In conclusion, both modifiable and non-modifiable factors are associated with re-entry into foster care. Among modifiable factors, services appear to have a particularly strong relationship to re-entry. Our data also suggest that in-home child welfare services provided during and after foster care may be associated with improved long-term permanency after return home. Given the continued import of caregiver risk factors even among reunified families, services provided to support reunification should include attention to caregiver needs outside parenting.

  17. Foster care re-entry: Exploring the role of foster care characteristics, in-home child welfare services and cross-sector services☆ (United States)

    Lee, Sangmoo; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Drake, Brett


    This study seeks to advance our understanding of how modifiable and non-modifiable factors may impact the likelihood of re-entry into foster care. Children who entered foster care for the first time following at least one report of maltreatment and were then reunified were followed from exit to re-entry, age 18 or the end of the study period using longitudinal administrative data. Risk of re-entry was explored according to a range of modifiable and non-modifiable case and service characteristics. Children removed from homes with parents who had multiple risk factors (e.g., no high school diploma, mental health diagnosis, criminal record, or teen parents) or were receiving AFDC prior to entry were more likely to re-enter. The receipt of in-home child welfare services during or after foster care was associated with reduced risk of re-entry. Having the longest placement with a relative was associated with decreased risk of re-entry. In conclusion, both modifiable and non-modifiable factors are associated with re-entry into foster care. Among modifiable factors, services appear to have a particularly strong relationship to re-entry. Our data also suggest that in-home child welfare services provided during and after foster care may be associated with improved long-term permanency after return home. Given the continued import of caregiver risk factors even among reunified families, services provided to support reunification should include attention to caregiver needs outside parenting. PMID:23729947

  18. RITD - Adapting Mars Entry, Descent and Landing System for Earth (United States)

    Heilimo, Jyri; Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergey; Koryanov, Vsevolod; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Haukka, Harri; Finchenko, Valery; Martynov, Maxim; Ostresko, Boris; Ponomarenko, Andrey; Kazakovtsev, Viktor; Martin, Susanna; Siili, Tero


    A new generation of inflatable Entry, Descent and Landing System (EDLS) for Mars has been developed. It is used in both the initial atmospheric entry and atmospheric descent before the semi-hard impact of the penetrator into Martian surface. The EDLS applicability to Earth's atmosphere is studied by the EU/RITD [1] project. Project focuses to the analysis and tests of the transonic behaviour of this compact and light weight payload entry system at the Earth re-entry. 1. EDLS for Earth The dynamical stability of the craft is analysed, concentrating on the most critical part of the atmospheric re-entry, the transonic phase. In Martian atmosphere the MetNet vehicle stability during the transonic phase is understood. However, in the more dense Earth's atmosphere, the transonic phase is shorter and turbulence more violent. Therefore, the EDLS has to be sufficiently dynamically stable to overcome the forces tending to deflect the craft from its nominal trajectory and attitude. The preliminary design of the inflatable EDLS for Earth will be commenced once the scaling of the re-entry system and the dynamical stability analysis have been performed. The RITD-project concentrates on mission and applications achievable with the current MetNet-type (i.e. 'Mini-1' category) of lander, and on requirements posed by other type Earth re-entry concepts. 2. Entry Angle Determination for Mini-1 - lander For successful Earth landing, the suitable re-entry angle and velocity with specific descent vehicle (DV) mass and heat flux parameters need to be determined. These key parameters in determining the Earth re-entry for DV are: qmax (kW/m2): maximal specific heat flux, Q (MJ/m2): specific integral heat flux to DV front shield, m (kg): descent vehicle (DV) mass, V (m/s): re-entry velocity and Θ (deg.): flight-path angle at Earth re-entry For Earth re-entry, the calculation results in the optimal value of entry velocity for MetNet ('Mini-1' category) -type lander, with mass of 22kg, being




    Acquisition performance of 22 rats in a straight alley runway was examined. The animals were subjected to partial reinforcement when the alley was black (B+/-) and continuous reinforcement when it was white (W+). The results indicated (a) higher terminal performance, for partial as against continuous reinforcement conditions, for starting-time and running-time measures, and (b) lower terminal performance under partial conditions for a goal-entry-time measure. These results confirm within subjects an effect previously demonstrated, in the runway, only in between-groups tests, where one group is run under partial reinforcement and a separate group is run under continuous reinforcement in the presence of the same external stimuli. Differences between the runway situation, employing a discrete-trial procedure and performance measures at three points in the response chain, and the Skinner box situation, used in its free-operant mode with a single performance measure, are discussed in relation to the present findings.

  20. 46 CFR 289.2 - Vessels included. (United States)


    ... CONSTRUCTION-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS, OPERATING-DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY VESSELS AND OF VESSELS SOLD OR ADJUSTED UNDER THE MERCHANT SHIP SALES ACT 1946 § 289.2 Vessels included. Vessels subject to the provisions of this part are: (a) All vessels which may in the future be constructed or sold with construction...

  1. Activities associated with injuries in initial entry training. (United States)

    Knapik, Joseph J; Graham, Bria S; Rieger, Jennifer; Steelman, Ryan; Pendergrass, Timothy


    Previous studies have not reported activities associated with injuries in initial entry training (IET) because these data were seldom available in medical records and not contained in electronic databases. This investigation obtained activities associated with outpatient encounters in IET recorded by primary medical care providers at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. Data were entered into a standard database that included fields for diagnosis and activity associated with the injury. Fifty percent of the new injury encounters (i.e., exclusive of follow-ups) were not associated with a specific event but were reported as having a gradual onset. Other activities included physical training (16%), road marching (15%), confidence/obstacle courses (5%), and barracks activities (3%). Risks per unit of training time were estimated at 13, 62, and 97 injuries per hour for physical training, road marching, and the confidence/obstacle courses, respectively. The most frequently recorded diagnoses were joint pain (27%), strains (15%), blisters (14%), sprains (13%), and tendonitis (12%). The types of injuries and their anatomical locations were similar to those reported in other IET investigations, although blister-related encounters were higher. This investigation identifies activities with the highest risk of injury in IET and those that should be targeted for injury prevention efforts. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  2. Generation of VSV pseudotypes using recombinant ΔG-VSV for studies on virus entry, identification of entry inhibitors, and immune responses to vaccines. (United States)

    Whitt, Michael A


    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a prototypic enveloped animal virus that has been used extensively to study virus entry, replication and assembly due to its broad host range and robust replication properties in a wide variety of mammalian and insect cells. Studies on VSV assembly led to the creation of a recombinant VSV in which the glycoprotein (G) gene was deleted. This recombinant (rVSV-ΔG) has been used to produce VSV pseudotypes containing the envelope glycoproteins of heterologous viruses, including viruses that require high-level biocontainment; however, because the infectivity of rVSV-ΔG pseudotypes is restricted to a single round of replication the analysis can be performed using biosafety level 2 (BSL-2) containment. As such, rVSV-ΔG pseudotypes have facilitated the analysis of virus entry for numerous viral pathogens without the need for specialized containment facilities. The pseudotypes also provide a robust platform to screen libraries for entry inhibitors and to evaluate the neutralizing antibody responses following vaccination. This manuscript describes methods to produce and titer rVSV-ΔG pseudotypes. Procedures to generate rVSV-ΔG stocks and to quantify virus infectivity are also described. These protocols should allow any laboratory knowledgeable in general virological and cell culture techniques to produce successfully replication-restricted rVSV-ΔG pseudotypes for subsequent analysis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Barriers to migrant entry to occupations in Australia. (United States)

    Iredale, R


    In 1986, 21.3% of the population of Australia had been born overseas; currently, foreign born workers comprise 25% of the labor force. The level of skilled immigration has continued to increase throughout the 1980s. In the past, most English-speaking migrants gained recognition of their overseas qualifications, but about half of those from non-English speaking countries have never been able to return to their pre-migration occupations. Beginning with the medical field, occupational regulating gradually grew with state autonomy being a marked feature. Australia has 1 of the most highly regulated labor markets in the world, with hundreds of bodies to determine entry criteria. The Council of Overseas Professional Qualifications, established in 1969, guides selection and tests professionals both overseas and already resident in Australia. The Tradesmen's Rights Regulation Act recognizes acceptable tradesmen. Aside from these 2 bodies, the majority of qualifications are assessed at the state or local level. Problems skilled immigrants have encountered in attempting to gain recognition of their overseas qualifications include 1) preference for locally trained workers or discrimination against non-British/non-Australian qualifications; 2) lack of adequate information about assessment procedures; 3) inadequate use of interpreting and translating services; 4) language difficulties in tests; and 5) frequent assessment only on formal qualifications, with skills and experience not being evaluated. The 2 basic models for assessing occupational suitability are the valuation of qualifications approach and the valuation of skills approach. To illustrate the operation of various models of assessment, the author discusses these occupations: medicine, nursing, engineering, computing, and electrical trades. The major factors that are essential for an overall strategy of change include 1) less occupational regulation in the labor market; 2) national registration and licensing systems

  4. GPK-2 re-entry and deepening -- a technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, J.; Gerard, A.; Barla, R.; Socomine, S.A.


    Between mid February to end of May 1999 (in 104 days) the well GPK2 at the Soultz HDR site was successfully re-entered and deepened from 3876 m to a final depth of 5084 m and fully completed. Re-entry included the pulling of the existing 321 1 m long internal 9 5/8-inch by 7-inch casing string, fishing of a submersible pump and some 150 m of 2 3/8-inch tubing, sealing of a major loss zone and opening of a 6 1/4-inch well section in granite (3211-3876 m) to 8 1/2-inch hole size. The well was extended to 5048 m in 8 1/2'' hole size and again completed with a floating 9 5/8-inch by 7-inch casing string. The casing shoe is at 4431 m. A bottom hole core was taken in the depth range 5048-5051 m. The core recovery was app. 40%. A pilot hole in 6 1/4-inch was drilled from 5051-5084 m for in situ stress measurements using the hydraulic fracturing technique. The re-entry and deepening of the well GPK2 was accompanied by several technical developments. New casing packer elements based on inflatable metal shells were developed in a close cooperation between SOCOMINE and MeSy GmbH (patent pending). These packer elements were successfully integrated into the completion of the well. The full weight of the casing string is supported by these elements which are filled with and imbedded in cement. High temperature cementing strategies (up to 170-190 C) for the complex saline fluids encountered in Soultz (High Magnesium Resistant Cements) were developed in a cooperation between Schlumberger Dowell (Vechta), SOCOMINE, SII of Houston, Ruhr-University Bochum, BGR Hannover and IFP Paris. The development of several high temperature logging tools (200 C range, 6-arm caliper, PTF probe) was initiated with CSMA (Cornwall) during the preparation of the deepening of GPK2. Initial scientific investigations included borehole logging (NGS, CLIPER, ARI, UBI, TEMPERATURE), geological investigations (cuttings, core) and seismic monitoring while drilling. During the first temperature log

  5. Arcjet Testing of Woven Carbon Cloth for Use on Adaptive Deployable Entry Placement Technology (United States)

    Arnold, James O.; laub, Bernard; Chen, Yih-Kang; Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Bittner, M. E.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj


    This paper describes arcjet testing and analysis that has successfully demonstrated the viability of three dimensional woven carbon cloth for dual use in the Adaptive Deployable Entry Placement Technology (ADEPT). ADEPT is an umbrella-like entry system that is folded for stowage in the launch vehicle s shroud and deployed in space prior to reaching the atmospheric interface. A key feature of the ADEPT concept is its lower ballistic coefficient for delivery of a given payload than those for conventional, rigid body entry systems. The benefits that accrue from the lower ballistic coefficient include factor of ten reductions of deceleration forces and entry heating. The former enables consideration of new classes of scientific instruments for solar system exploration while the latter enables the design of a more efficient thermal protection system. The carbon cloth now base lined for ADEPT has a dual use in that it serves as ADEPT s thermal protection system and as the "skin" that transfers aerodynamic deceleration loads to its umbrella-like substructure. The arcjet testing described in this paper was conducted for some of the higher heating conditions for a future Venus mission using the ADEPT concept, thereby showing that the carbon cloth can perform in a relevant entry environment. The ADEPT project considered the carbon cloth to be mission enabling and was carrying it as a major risk during Fiscal Year 2012. The testing and analysis reported here played a major role in retiring that risk and is highly significant to the success and possible adoption of ADEPT for future NASA missions. Finally, this paper also describes a preliminary engineering level code, based on the arcjet data, that can be used to estimate cloth thickness for future missions using ADEPT and to predict carbon cloth performance in future arcjet tests.

  6. Optimization of a Hot Structure Aeroshell and Nose Cap for Mars Atmospheric Entry (United States)

    Langston, Sarah L.; Lang, Christapher G.; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Daryabeigi, Kamran


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is preparing to send humans beyond Low Earth Orbit and eventually to the surface of Mars. As part of the Evolvable Mars Campaign, different vehicle configurations are being designed and considered for delivering large payloads to the surface of Mars. Weight and packing volume are driving factors in the vehicle design, and the thermal protection system (TPS) for planetary entry is a technology area which can offer potential weight and volume savings. The feasibility and potential benefits of a ceramic matrix composite hot structure concept for different vehicle configurations are explored in this paper, including the nose cap for a Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) and an aeroshell for a mid lift-to-drag (Mid L/D) concept. The TPS of a planetary entry vehicle is a critical component required to survive the severe aerodynamic heating environment during atmospheric en- try. The current state-of-the-art is an ablative material to protect the vehicle from the heat load. The ablator is bonded to an underlying structure, which carries the mechanical loads associated with entry. The alternative hot structure design utilizes an advanced carbon-carbon material system on the outer surface of the vehicle, which is exposed to the severe heating and acts as a load carrying structure. The preliminary design using the hot structure concept and the ablative concept is determined for the spherical nose cap of the HIAD entry vehicle and the aeroshell of the Mid L/D entry vehicle. The results of the study indicate that the use of hot structures for both vehicle concepts leads to a feasible design with potential weight and volume savings benefits over current state-of-the-art TPS technology that could enable future missions.

  7. Ebolavirus delta-peptide immunoadhesins inhibit marburgvirus and ebolavirus cell entry. (United States)

    Radoshitzky, Sheli R; Warfield, Kelly L; Chi, Xiaoli; Dong, Lian; Kota, Krishna; Bradfute, Steven B; Gearhart, Jacqueline D; Retterer, Cary; Kranzusch, Philip J; Misasi, John N; Hogenbirk, Marc A; Wahl-Jensen, Victoria; Volchkov, Viktor E; Cunningham, James M; Jahrling, Peter B; Aman, M Javad; Bavari, Sina; Farzan, Michael; Kuhn, Jens H


    With the exception of Reston and Lloviu viruses, filoviruses (marburgviruses, ebolaviruses, and "cuevaviruses") cause severe viral hemorrhagic fevers in humans. Filoviruses use a class I fusion protein, GP(1,2), to bind to an unknown, but shared, cell surface receptor to initiate virus-cell fusion. In addition to GP(1,2), ebolaviruses and cuevaviruses, but not marburgviruses, express two secreted glycoproteins, soluble GP (sGP) and small soluble GP (ssGP). All three glycoproteins have identical N termini that include the receptor-binding region (RBR) but differ in their C termini. We evaluated the effect of the secreted ebolavirus glycoproteins on marburgvirus and ebolavirus cell entry, using Fc-tagged recombinant proteins. Neither sGP-Fc nor ssGP-Fc bound to filovirus-permissive cells or inhibited GP(1,2)-mediated cell entry of pseudotyped retroviruses. Surprisingly, several Fc-tagged Δ-peptides, which are small C-terminal cleavage products of sGP secreted by ebolavirus-infected cells, inhibited entry of retroviruses pseudotyped with Marburg virus GP(1,2), as well as Marburg virus and Ebola virus infection in a dose-dependent manner and at low molarity despite absence of sequence similarity to filovirus RBRs. Fc-tagged Δ-peptides from three ebolaviruses (Ebola virus, Sudan virus, and Taï Forest virus) inhibited GP(1,2)-mediated entry and infection of viruses comparably to or better than the Fc-tagged RBRs, whereas the Δ-peptide-Fc of an ebolavirus nonpathogenic for humans (Reston virus) and that of an ebolavirus with lower lethality for humans (Bundibugyo virus) had little effect. These data indicate that Δ-peptides are functional components of ebolavirus proteomes. They join cathepsins and integrins as novel modulators of filovirus cell entry, might play important roles in pathogenesis, and could be exploited for the synthesis of powerful new antivirals.

  8. Differential virulence mechanisms of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) include host entry and virus replication kinetics (United States)

    Penaranda, M.M.D.; Purcell, M.K.; Kurath, G.


    Host specificity is a phenomenon exhibited by all viruses. For the fish rhabdovirus infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), differential specificity of virus strains from the U and M genogroups has been established both in the field and in experimental challenges. In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), M IHNV strains are consistently more prevalent and more virulent than U IHNV. The basis of the differential ability of these two IHNV genogroups to cause disease in rainbow trout was investigated in live infection challenges with representative U and M IHNV strains. When IHNV was delivered by intraperitoneal injection, the mortality caused by U IHNV increased, indicating that the low virulence of U IHNV is partly due to inefficiency in entering the trout host. Analyses of in vivo replication showed that U IHNV consistently had lower prevalence and lower viral load than M IHNV during the course of infection. In analyses of the host immune response, M IHNV-infected fish consistently had higher and longer expression of innate immune-related genes such as Mx-1. This suggests that the higher virulence of M IHNV is not due to suppression of the immune response in rainbow trout. Taken together, the results support a kinetics hypothesis wherein faster replication enables M IHNV to rapidly achieve a threshold level of virus necessary to override the strong host innate immune response. ?? 2009 SGM.

  9. Supply Network Planning for New Product Market Entry in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Reinholdt Nyhuus; Grunow, Martin


    industry, reimbursement negotiations have to be carried out before a drug can be marketed. These negotiations both necessitate time phasing market entries and introduce a series of uncertainties e.g. varying allowed price and awarded subsidy. Also if the label is not approved for marketing, all packaged...... uncertainty and the risk of a forced label change and includes solution robustness. While considering limited shelf life of the drug, the supply of packaging material and outsourcing, the objective of our model is to reduce supply chain cost including lost peak sales from delayed market entry.......It is well known, that the pharmaceutical industry is struggling with increasing cost and length of R&D projects. Earnings of a drug drop drastically after patent expiration. Thus, the industry spends much effort on reducing Time-to-Market. In the literature, no attention is given to supply chain...

  10. Mini-Series on the Entry Level Debate. (United States)

    Fagan, Thomas K., Ed.; And Others


    Eight essays regarding the debate over establishment of the doctoral degree as a requirement for entry-level school psychologists are presented. Critical issues facing the National Association of School Psychologists and the American Psychological Association are considered. (TJH)

  11. Orion Entry Performance-Based Center-of-Gravity Box (United States)

    Rea, Jeremy R.


    The Orion capsule has many performance requirements for its atmospheric entry trajectory. Requirements on landing accuracy, maximum heating rate, total heat load, propellant usage, and sensed acceleration must all be satised. It is desired to define a methodology to translate the many performance requirements for an atmospheric entry trajectory into language easily understood by vehicle designers in terms of an allowable center-of-gravity box. This is possible by noting that most entry performance parameters for a capsule vehicle are mainly determined by the lift-to-drag ratio of the vehicle. However, the lift-to- drag ratio should be considered a probabilistic quantity rather than deterministic, where variations in the lift-to-drag are caused by both aerodynamic and center-of-gravity un- certainties. This paper discusses the technique used by the Orion program to define the allowable dispersions in center-of-gravity to achieve the desired entry performance while accounting for aerodynamic uncertainty.

  12. Forecast and capacity planning for Nogales' ports of entry : [summary]. (United States)


    This document provides the final report of the activities performed under the project : Nogales POEs Traffic Study: Forecast and Capacity Planning for Nogales Ports of Entry : sponsored by the Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) under Gran...

  13. 19 CFR 122.26 - Entry and clearance. (United States)


    ... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.26 Entry and clearance. Private aircraft, as defined... information as set forth in § 122.22(c), and grants electronic clearance via electronic mail or telephone. ...

  14. Entry and Exit Dynamics of Nascent Business Owners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Carneiro, Anabela; Varum, Celeste


    This paper reports a comprehensive study on the dynamics of nascent business owners using a unique longitudinal matched employer–employee dataset. We follow over 157,000 individuals who leave paid employment and become business owners during the period 1992–2007. The contributions of this paper...... are twofold. First, we analyze both entry and exit, identifying and characterizing different profiles of individuals leaving paid employment to become business owners, and distinguishing exits by dissolution from exits by ownership transfer. Second, we provide new evidence on how particular experiences...... in the labor market and entry modes shape the post-entry dynamics of nascent business owners. By differentiating between different entry and exit routes, this paper provides new evidence on different human capital patterns among nascent business owners and on key determinants of entrepreneurial survival. Our...

  15. The state-of-the-art port of entry workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godfrey, B.


    The increased demand for freight movements through international ports of entry and the signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) have increased freight traffic at border ports of entry. The State-of-the-Art Port of Entry Workshop initiated a dialogue among technologists and stakeholders to explore the potential uses of technology at border crossings and to set development priorities. International ports of entry are both information and labor intensive, and there are many promising technologies that could be used to provide timely information and optimize inspection resources. Participants universally held that integration of technologies and operations is critical to improving port services. A series of Next Steps was developed to address stakeholder issues and national priorities, such as the National Transportation Policy and National Drug Policy. This report documents the views of the various stakeholders and technologists present at the workshop and outlines future directions of study.

  16. AIRLINE COMPETITION: Barriers to Entry Continue in Some Domestic Markets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... Airline deregulation has led to lower fares and better service for most air travelers largely because of increased competition spurred by the entry of new airlines into the industry and established...

  17. 40 CFR 89.506 - Right of entry and access. (United States)


    ... conduct activities related to entry and access as authorized in this section only upon the consent of the... manufacturer is responsible for locating its foreign testing and manufacturing facilities in jurisdictions...

  18. Advanced Metal Rubber Sensors for Hypersonic Decelerator Entry Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NanoSonic proposes to design and develop light-weight, low-modulus, and durable Metal Rubber™ sensors for aeroelastic analysis of Hypersonic Decelerator Entry...

  19. Multidisciplinary Design Under Uncertainty for Entry Vehicles Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The physical difficulty of designing entry vehicles originates from the large degree of coupling between the various disciplines involved in the design. Every...

  20. The choice of foreign entry modes in a control perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie; Hollensen, Svend

    depending on the control that the company has over its activities abroad. The paper examines selected factors that influence the ‘entry modes’ of Danish SMEs in different strategic settings. Results show that the most deciding factor for the choice of high control entry mode (subsidiary) was the factor...... turnover. The factors: personal networks and the interruption of the international activities were the most significant factors for the choice of intermediate mode (joint ventures and strategic alliances).......The aim of this article is to investigate the choice of entry modes for international markets in a control perspective. A survey from The Confederation of Danish Industry with 234 Danish small- and medium sized enterprises served as a data base. The entry modes are categorized into three groups...

  1. Mexican Immigration and the Port-of-Entry School. (United States)

    Baca, Reynaldo; And Others


    Results of immigrant student census data are used to describe school entry patterns and educational backgrounds of Mexican immigrant students. Interviews with recently arrived immigrant parents reveal educational and occupational expectations. Research and policy implications are discussed. (MW)

  2. 7 CFR 319.41-5 - Condition of entry. (United States)


    ... be made safe by sterilization or other treatment, the entire shipment may be refused entry. (b) When... safeguards and by routing prescribed by the inspector to an approved port where facilities for sterilization...

  3. Atopic asthmatic subjects but not atopic subjects without ... (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Asthma is a known risk factor for acute ozone-associated respiratory disease. Ozone causes an immediate decrease in lung function and increased airway inflammation. The role of atopy and asthma in modulation of ozone-induced inflammation has not been determined. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether atopic status modulates ozone response phenotypes in human subjects. METHODS: Fifty volunteers (25 healthy volunteers, 14 atopic nonasthmatic subjects, and 11 atopic asthmatic subjects not requiring maintenance therapy) underwent a 0.4-ppm ozone exposure protocol. Ozone response was determined based on changes in lung function and induced sputum composition, including airway inflammatory cell concentration, cell-surface markers, and cytokine and hyaluronic acid concentrations. RESULTS: All cohorts experienced similar decreases in lung function after ozone. Atopic and atopic asthmatic subjects had increased sputum neutrophil numbers and IL-8 levels after ozone exposure; values did not significantly change in healthy volunteers. After ozone exposure, atopic asthmatic subjects had significantly increased sputum IL-6 and IL-1beta levels and airway macrophage Toll-like receptor 4, Fc(epsilon)RI, and CD23 expression; values in healthy volunteers and atopic nonasthmatic subjects showed no significant change. Atopic asthmatic subjects had significantly decreased IL-10 levels at baseline compared with healthy volunteers; IL-10 levels did not significa

  4. Principles of safe abdominal entry in laparoscopic gynecologic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongrak Thepsuwan


    Full Text Available Laparoscopic gynecologic surgery has been widely used with a range of benefits. However, there are complications that are related to the abdominal entry process. Serious complications are gastrointestinal tract and major blood vessel injuries. This review introduces the recent available literature to prevent and eliminate the laparoscopic entry complications. The open entry technique is associated with a significant reduction of failed entry, compared to the closed entry technique; however there is no difference in the incidence of visceral or vascular injury. Laparoscopic entry by the left upper abdomen (i.e., Palmer's point or the middle upper abdomen (i.e., the Lee-Huang point could be considered in patients with suspected periumbilical adhesions or a history of umbilical hernia, or after three failed attempts of insufflation at the umbilicus. The Lee-Huang point has its own benefit for the operative laparoscopy in large pelvic pathologies and gynecology malignancy cases. The angle of Veress needle insertion varies from 45° in nonobese women to 90° in extraordinarily obese women. The high intra-peritoneal pressure entries, which range from 20 mmHg to 25 mmHg, minimize the risk of vascular injury. Therefore, this will not adversely affect the cardiopulmonary function in healthy women. The Veress intraperitoneal pressure (<10 mmHg is a reliable indicator of correct intraperitoneal placement of the Veress needle. The elevation of anterior abdominal wall for placement of a Veress needle increases the risks of failed entry and shows no advantage in regard to vascular or visceral complications. Surgeons should continue to increase their knowledge of anatomy, their training, and their experience to decrease laparoscopic complications.

  5. Can Small Entry Barriers Have Large Effects on Competition?


    Seabright, Paul


    One of the main aims of the deregulation of previously heavily regulated markets is to diminish artificial barriers to entry. But in oligopolistic markets, the mechanisms whereby potential competition can discipline the behaviour of incumbent firms are not very well understood, especially since pricing responses to entry can typically be very rapid. This paper develops a model in which potential competition has no direct effect upon the pricing behaviour of incumbents, but affects the extent ...

  6. The entry price threshold in EU agriculture: deterrent or barrier?


    Santeramo, Fabio Gaetano; Cioffi, Antonio


    The paper investigates the effects of the entry price scheme for fresh fruit and vegetables. The analysis is conducted on the European prices of tomatoes, lemons and apples for some of the main competing countries on the European domestic markets: Morocco, Argentina, Turkey and China. The econometric analysis is based on testing and estimating a switching vector autoregressive model with endogenous threshold entry price level. The model shows the isolation effects and the accumulation of Sta...

  7. Modeling global franchising in emerging markets: An entry mode analysis


    Baena Graciá, Verónica


    Emerging markets are some of the fastest-growing economies in the world because of their substantial economic transformation. Nevertheless, little is known about the factors influencing choices of foreign entry mode into those markets. In an attempt to expand knowledge of this topic, this article presents an empirical assessment of the relationship between a set of variables and the four possible entry modes franchisors can adopt: direct franchising, master franchising, joint venture, and dir...

  8. Predictors of student success in entry-level science courses (United States)

    Singh, Mamta K.

    Although the educational evaluation process is useful and valuable and is supported by the Higher Education Act, a strong research base for program evaluation of college entry-level science courses is still lacking. Studies in science disciplines such as, biology, chemistry, and physics have addressed various affective and demographic factors and their relationships to student achievement. However, the literature contains little information that specifically addresses student biology content knowledge skills (basics and higher order thinking skills) and identifies factors that affect students' success in entry-level college science courses. These gate-keeping courses require detailed evaluation if the goal of an institution is to increase students' performance and success in these courses. These factors are, in fact, a stepping stone for increasing the number of graduates in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) majors. The present study measured students' biology content knowledge and investigated students' performance and success in college biology, chemistry, and physics entry-level courses. Seven variables---gender, ethnicity, high school Grade Point Average (GPA), high school science, college major, school financial aid support, and work hours were used as independent variables and course final performance as a dichotomous dependent variable. The sample comprised voluntary student participants in entry-level science courses. The study attempted to explore eight research questions. Content knowledge assessments, demographic information analysis, multiple regression analysis, and binary logistic regression analysis were used to address research questions. The results suggested that high school GPA was a consistently good predictor of students' performance and success in entry-level science courses. Additionally, high school chemistry was a significant predictor variable for student success in entry-level biology and chemistry courses

  9. Institutions, resources, and entry strategies in emerging economies


    Klaus E Meyer; Estrin, Saul; Bhaumik, Sumon; Peng, Mike W.


    We investigate the impact of market-supporting institutions on business strategies by analyzing the entry strategies of foreign investors entering emerging economies. We apply and advance the institutions-based view of strategy by integrating it with resource-based considerations. In particular, we show how resource-seeking strategies are pursued using different entry modes in different institutional contexts. Alternative modes of entry— greenfield, acquisition, and joint venture (JV)—allo...

  10. Stagnation Point Radiative Heating Relations for Venus Entry (United States)

    Tauber, Michael E.; Palmer, Grant E.; Prabhu, Dinesh K.


    Improved analytic expressions for calculating the stagnation point radiative heating during entry into the atmosphere of Venus have been developed. These analytic expressions can be incorporated into entry trajectory simulation codes. Together with analytical expressions for convective heating at the stagnation point, the time-integrated total heat load at the stagnation point is used in determining the thickness of protective material required, and hence the mass of the fore body heatshield of uniform thickness.

  11. Entry of Wal-Mart Supercenters and Supermarkets’ Profit Margins


    Xiaoou Liu; Rigoberto A. Lopez


    This article quantifies the impact of Wal-Mart Supercenters on supermarkets’ profitability via a two-stage dynamic entry game, using method of simulated moments and milk scanner data from Dallas/Fort Worth supermarkets. The empirical findings show that the entry of Wal-Mart Supercenters accounts for about an average 50% decrease in milk profit margins for incumbent supermarkets. Effects of scale are found to be more significant for Wal-Mart Supercenters than for incumbent supermarkets, granti...

  12. The rules of the game in graduate entry nursing: a longitudinal case study


    Stacey, Gemma; Pollock, Kristian; Crawford, Paul


    Background Graduate Entry Nursing programmes are pre-registration nursing curricula designed for candidates who already have a health related degree. The programmes aim to attract highly motivated individuals who have a commitment to nursing and hold the cognitive abilities associated with studying in higher education including critical thinking styles and capability to study independently. These attributes are termed within the literature as “graduateness”. They are viewed by some as adv...

  13. The structure of an entry in the National corpus of Tuvan language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengi V. Ondar


    Full Text Available Contemporary information technologies and mathematical modelling has made creating corpora of natural languages significantly easier. A corpus is an information and reference system based on a collection of digitally processed texts. A corpus includes various written and oral texts in the given language, a set of dictionaries and markup – information on the properties of the text. It is the presence of the markup which distinguishes a corpus from an electronic library. At the moment, national corpora are being set up for many languages of the Russian Federation, including those of the Turkic peoples. Faculty members, postgraduate and undergraduate students at Tuvan State University and Siberian Federal University are working on the National corpus of Tuvan language. This article describes the structure of a dictionary entry in the National corpus of Tuvan language. The corpus database comprises the following tables: MAIN – the headword table, RUS, ENG, GER — translations of the headword into three languages, MORPHOLOGY — the table containing morphological data on the headword. The database is built in Microsoft Office Access. Working with the corpus dictionary includes the following functions: adding, editing and removing an entry, entry search (with transcription, setting and visualizing morphological features of a headword. The project allows us to view the corpus dictionary as a multi-structure entity with a complex hierarchical structure and a dictionary entry as its key component. The corpus dictionary we developed can be used for studying Tuvan language in its pronunciation, orthography and word analysis, as well as for searching for words and collocations in the texts included into the corpus.

  14. Analysis of Spectral Variation in Background Gamma Radiation at U.S. Ports of Entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homolka, Kaylee Lynn [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    This project exists to improve the ability to detect nuclear material crossing the borders. The purpose of my portion of this project was to analyze spectral variations of backgrounds measured by radiation portal monitor detectors at ports of entry using available data to determine whether or not the measured background variation includes changes in the spectral shape in addition to changes in the gross counts.

  15. Influence of route of entry on toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the cricket (Acheta domesticus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, B.T.


    In the present study, acute and chronic toxicities of five PAHs (naphthalene, anthracene, benz(a)anthracene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene) and an oxygenated PAH derivative (anthrone) were determined in a terrestrial insect, Acheta domesticus (L.), with emphasis on the influence of route of entry on toxicity. Hexamethylphosphoric triamide (hempa) was included in the chronic tests since this chemosterilant is a useful reference compound for investigations of reproductive effects of chemicals in insects.

  16. Variation in clinical coding lists in UK general practice: a barrier to consistent data entry?


    Tracy Waize; Sobanna Anandarajah; Neil Dhoul; Simon de Lusignan


    Background Routinely collected general practice computer data are used for quality improvement; poor data quality including inconsistent coding can reduce their usefulness. Objective To document the diversity of data entry systems currently in use in UK general practice and highlight possible implications for data quality. Method General practice volunteers provided screen shots of the clinical coding screen they would use to code a diagnosis or problem title in the clinical consultatio...

  17. Acceptions of the "death"entry in language dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Camara Siqueira


    Full Text Available Language dictionaries present the meaning of an entry in a way not restricted to linguistic information, since we also have interdisciplinary and contextual aspects that dialogue with socio-cultural issues in which the entry is inserted. Considering the potential character of the study of contextual meanings, the “death” entry was chosen to carry out a comparative analysis among language dictionaries. The choice was motivated by the recurrence of this entry in ancient and contemporary dictionaries, and the fact of its having a concept that allows various historical, social and ideological discussions. The goal is to reveal the different nuances of the “death” entry in language dictionaries, observing four main aspects: etymology, diachrony, synonymic construction and meaning of “death” in school dictionaries. Based on lexicographical studies of classical authors, we did a comparative analysis of meanings of “death” in different types of language dictionaries. We found that in each group dictionary we may find traces of ideological choices in the construction of the contextual meaning of the “death” entry.

  18. Using analytic network process for evaluating mobile text entry methods. (United States)

    Ocampo, Lanndon A; Seva, Rosemary R


    This paper highlights a preference evaluation methodology for text entry methods in a touch keyboard smartphone using analytic network process (ANP). Evaluation of text entry methods in literature mainly considers speed and accuracy. This study presents an alternative means for selecting text entry method that considers user preference. A case study was carried out with a group of experts who were asked to develop a selection decision model of five text entry methods. The decision problem is flexible enough to reflect interdependencies of decision elements that are necessary in describing real-life conditions. Results showed that QWERTY method is more preferred than other text entry methods while arrangement of keys is the most preferred criterion in characterizing a sound method. Sensitivity analysis using simulation of normally distributed random numbers under fairly large perturbation reported the foregoing results reliable enough to reflect robust judgment. The main contribution of this paper is the introduction of a multi-criteria decision approach in the preference evaluation of text entry methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Store-operated calcium entry and increased endothelial cell permeability. (United States)

    Norwood, N; Moore, T M; Dean, D A; Bhattacharjee, R; Li, M; Stevens, T


    We hypothesized that myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) links calcium release to activation of store-operated calcium entry, which is important for control of the endothelial cell barrier. Acute inhibition of MLCK caused calcium release from inositol trisphosphate-sensitive calcium stores and prevented subsequent activation of store-operated calcium entry by thapsigargin, suggesting that MLCK serves as an important mechanism linking store depletion to activation of membrane calcium channels. Moreover, in voltage-clamped single rat pulmonary artery endothelial cells, thapsigargin activated an inward calcium current that was abolished by MLCK inhibition. F-actin disruption activated a calcium current, and F-actin stabilization eliminated the thapsigargin-induced current. Thapsigargin increased endothelial cell permeability in the presence, but not in the absence, of extracellular calcium, indicating the importance of calcium entry in decreasing barrier function. Although MLCK inhibition prevented thapsigargin from stimulating calcium entry, it did not prevent thapsigargin from increasing permeability. Rather, inhibition of MLCK activity increased permeability that was especially prominent in low extracellular calcium. In conclusion, MLCK links store depletion to activation of a store-operated calcium entry channel. However, inhibition of calcium entry by MLCK is not sufficient to prevent thapsigargin from increasing endothelial cell permeability.

  20. Effects ok ikea's entry into a furniture production cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Eiriz


    Full Text Available The entry of a multinational into a cluster, a geographic agglomeration in a given place or region of predominantly small and medium enterprises specialized in a given industry or related industries, impacts the incumbent in the cluster. Aiming to identify the main effects of a multinational entry on the firms’ strategy in a cluster, it was analyzed the entry of IKEA, a Swedish multinational, into the cluster of furniture production in Paços de Ferreira and Paredes, in Portugal. In this study, the data collection technique to access primary data was a survey. The sample has small enterprises, which is similar to the structure of firms in the studied cluster. Results show that more than half the sample thinks that the entry of the multinational had not affected them. However, the firms that acknowledge a significant impact, assess that impact as negative. The competitiveness factors that have improved more significantly after IKEA’s entry were new product development and exporting strategies. The main responses of incumbent firms to the multinational entry were internationalization and the development of generic strategies of differentiation and focus based on differentiation.

  1. Exploiting Herpes Simplex Virus Entry for Novel Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Shukla


    Full Text Available Herpes Simplex virus (HSV is associated with a variety of diseases such as genital herpes and numerous ocular diseases. At the global level, high prevalence of individuals who are seropositive for HSV, combined with its inconspicuous infection, remains a cause for major concern. At the molecular level, HSV entry into a host cell involves multiple steps, primarily the interaction of viral glycoproteins with various cell surface receptors, many of which have alternate substitutes. The molecular complexity of the virus to enter a cell is also enhanced by the existence of different modes of viral entry. The availability of many entry receptors, along with a variety of entry mechanisms, has resulted in a virus that is capable of infecting virtually all cell types. While HSV uses a wide repertoire of viral and host factors in establishing infection, current therapeutics aimed against the virus are not as diversified. In this particular review, we will focus on the initial entry of the virus into the cell, while highlighting potential novel therapeutics that can control this process. Virus entry is a decisive step and effective therapeutics can translate to less virus replication, reduced cell death, and detrimental symptoms.

  2. The effect of drinking goals at treatment entry on longitudinal alcohol use patterns among adults with alcohol dependence. (United States)

    Mowbray, Orion; Krentzman, Amy R; Bradley, Jaclyn C; Cranford, James A; Robinson, Elizabeth A R; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew


    Drinking goals at treatment entry are a promising, yet under-studied mechanism of change in alcohol use following treatment. It is not known who, upon treatment entry, is likely to desire abstinence as a drinking goal and whether desiring abstinence as a drinking goal influences alcohol use following treatment. Data from a 2.5-year longitudinal study of alcohol-dependent adults from 3 treatment sites is examined in a secondary data analysis. At treatment entry, participants reported sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, as well as whether they desired abstinence as a drinking goal or not. At each subsequent wave, participants reported their alcohol use. Bivariate analyses showed that individuals from a VA outpatient treatment site, men, and racial or ethnic minorities were most likely to desire abstinence as a drinking goal at treatment entry. Multi-level mixed effects regression models indicated that individuals who at baseline desired abstinence as a drinking goal sustained higher percentage of days abstinent and higher percentage of days since last drink 2.5 years following treatment entry, compared to individuals who did not desire abstinence. Understanding who is most likely to desire the specific drinking goal of abstinence can assist clinicians in anticipating client response to goal setting. Furthermore, by understanding the benefits and risks associated with drinking goals, clinicians can focus attention to individuals who desire a more risk-laden goal, including goals of non-abstinence, and tailor interventions, including motivational interviewing techniques, to support effective goals. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan


    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  4. Wikipedia Entries as a Source of CAR Navigation Landmarks (United States)

    Binski, N.; Zhang, L.; Dalyot, S.


    Car navigation system devices provide today with an easy and simple solution to the basic concept of reaching a destination. Although these systems usually achieve this goal, they still deliver a limited and poor sequence of instructions that do not consider the human nature of using landmarks during wayfinding. This research paper addresses the concept of enriching navigation route instructions by adding supplementary route information in the form of landmarks. We aim at using a contributed source of landmarks information, which is easy to access, available, show high update rate, and have a large scale of information. For this, Wikipedia was chosen, since it represents the world's largest free encyclopaedia that includes information about many spatial entities. A survey and classification of available landmarks is implemented, coupled with ranking algorithms based on the entries' categories and attributes. These are aimed at retrieving the most relevant landmark information required that are valuable for the enrichment of a specific navigation route. The paper will present this methodology, together with examples and results, showing the feasibility of using this concept and its potential of enriching navigation processes.

  5. Crossing the boundary: numerical investigation of water entry conditions (United States)

    Angelidis, Dionysios; Sotiropoulos, Fotis


    Several engineering and scientific applications involve water impact problems. To accurately capture the dynamics of the cavity formation and the water ejected as a body hits the water, the formidable range of temporal and spatial scales should accurately be resolved with affordable computational cost. We have enhanced the potential of the two-phase flow version of the immersed-boundary adaptive mesh refinement flow solver, developed by our group, to perform high-fidelity two-phase flow calculations on locally refined grids. We employ a level-set method and tackle the computational challenges arise during the explicit solution of a mass-conserving reinitialization equation. In contrast to conventional approaches, we propose a convergence criterion which enables the number of iterations to be self-adjusted based on the values of the distance function. The efficiency of our method is demonstrated by performing two-phase flow calculations including the high-speed water entry of a V-shaped wedge. Our results are found to be in good agreement with experimental measurements and enable us to gain insight into the instability that arises on the onset of the closure phase of the cavity. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation (CBET-1509071).

  6. Henipavirus Mediated Membrane Fusion, Virus Entry and Targeted Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar B. Nikolov


    Full Text Available The Paramyxoviridae genus Henipavirus is presently represented by the type species Hendra and Nipah viruses which are both recently emerged zoonotic viral pathogens responsible for repeated outbreaks associated with high morbidity and mortality in Australia, Southeast Asia, India and Bangladesh. These enveloped viruses bind and enter host target cells through the coordinated activities of their attachment (G and class I fusion (F envelope glycoproteins. The henipavirus G glycoprotein interacts with host cellular B class ephrins, triggering conformational alterations in G that lead to the activation of the F glycoprotein, which facilitates the membrane fusion process. Using the recently published structures of HeV-G and NiV-G and other paramyxovirus glycoproteins, we review the features of the henipavirus envelope glycoproteins that appear essential for mediating the viral fusion process, including receptor binding, G-F interaction, F activation, with an emphasis on G and the mutations that disrupt viral infectivity. Finally, recent candidate therapeutics for henipavirus-mediated disease are summarized in light of their ability to inhibit HeV and NiV entry by targeting their G and F glycoproteins.

  7. Novel heparan sulfate-binding peptides for blocking herpesvirus entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranay Dogra

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infection can lead to congenital hearing loss and mental retardation. Upon immune suppression, reactivation of latent HCMV or primary infection increases morbidity in cancer, transplantation, and late stage AIDS patients. Current treatments include nucleoside analogues, which have significant toxicities limiting their usefulness. In this study we screened a panel of synthetic heparin-binding peptides for their ability to prevent CMV infection in vitro. A peptide designated, p5+14 exhibited ~ 90% reduction in murine CMV (MCMV infection. Because negatively charged, cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs, serve as the attachment receptor during the adsorption phase of the CMV infection cycle, we hypothesized that p5+14 effectively competes for CMV adsorption to the cell surface resulting in the reduction in infection. Positively charged Lys residues were required for peptide binding to cell-surface HSPGs and reducing viral infection. We show that this inhibition was not due to a direct neutralizing effect on the virus itself and that the peptide blocked adsorption of the virus. The peptide also inhibited infection of other herpesviruses: HCMV and herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 in vitro, demonstrating it has broad-spectrum antiviral activity. Therefore, this peptide may offer an adjunct therapy for the treatment of herpes viral infections and other viruses that use HSPGs for entry.

  8. The Curious Case of Arenavirus Entry, and Its Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne York


    Full Text Available Arenaviruses comprise a diverse family of enveloped negative-strand RNA viruses that are endemic to specific rodent hosts worldwide. Several arenaviruses cause severe hemorrhagic fevers in humans, including Junín and Machupo viruses in South America and Lassa fever virus in western Africa. Arenavirus entry into the host cell is mediated by the envelope glycoprotein complex, GPC. The virion is endocytosed on binding to a cell-surface receptor, and membrane fusion is initiated in response to physiological acidification of the endosome. As with other class I virus fusion proteins, GPC-mediated membrane fusion is promoted through a regulated sequence of conformational changes leading to formation of the classical postfusion trimer-of-hairpins structure. GPC is, however, unique among the class I fusion proteins in that the mature complex retains a stable signal peptide (SSP as a third subunit, in addition to the canonical receptor-binding and fusion proteins. We will review the curious properties of the tripartite GPC complex and describe evidence that SSP interacts with the fusion subunit to modulate pH-induced activation of membrane fusion. This unusual solution to maintaining the metastable prefusion state of GPC on the virion and activating the class I fusion cascade at acidic pH provides novel targets for antiviral intervention.


    Brandes, Alina; Schwarzkopf, Larissa; Rogowski, Wolf H


    This study assesses the use of routinely collected claims data for managed entry agreements (MEA) in the illustrative context of German statutory health insurance (SHI) funds. Based on a nonsystematic literature review, the data needs of different MEA were identified. A value-based typology to classify MEA on the basis of these data needs was developed. The typology is oriented toward health outcomes and utilization and costs, key components of a new technology's value. For each MEA type, the suitability of claims data in establishing evidence of the novel technology's value in routine care was systematically assessed. Assessment criteria were data availability, completeness, timeliness, confidentiality, reliability, and validity. Claims data are better suited to MEA addressing uncertainty regarding the utilization and costs of a novel technology in routine care. In schemes where safety aspects or clinical effectiveness are assessed, the role of claims data is limited because clinical information is not included in sufficient detail. The suitability of claims data depends on the source of uncertainty and, in consequence, the outcome measures chosen in the agreements. In all schemes, the validity of claims data should be judged with caution as data are collected for billing purposes. This framework may support manufacturers and payers in selecting the most suitable contract type and agreeing on contract conditions. More research is necessary to validate these results and to address remaining medical, economic, legal, and ethical questions of using claims data for MEA.

  10. Requirements on Atmospheric Entry of Small Probes for Several Planets: Venus, Saturn, Neptune and Uranus in Preparation for the Future ESA Cosmic Vision Missions (United States)

    Tomuta, D.; Rebuffat, D.; Larranaga, J.; Erd, C.; Bavdaz, M.; Falkner, P.


    In preparation for the ESA Cosmic Vision new call for medium class missions, a set of entry probes for inner and outer planets have been preliminary investigated by ESA using its Concurrent Design Facility. These Entry Probe missions are hypothetically assumed for launching time 2020-2035. A preliminary design of the probes arrived at a mass of about 300kg. In the following, the study is focused on the entry conditions for each of the planets Venus, Saturn, Neptune and Uranus with the aim to define the conditions for the Entry and Descent System (EDS) and its required technologies. For Venus case, two scenarios where considered: one where the entry probe is released during a typical gravity assist by a large interplanetary mission and another scenario featuring a stand alone mission targeted to Venus. During the entry in Venus atmosphere (mainly composed of CO2 (96.5%) and N2 (3.5%)), the probes are subjected to maximum heat fluxes of 60MW/m2, which is highly demanding in both scenarios. For the outer planet missions, only flyby scenarios with a targeted release of the probe were considered. The entry probes for the outer planets are subjected to heat fluxes above 100MW/m2, which is even more challenging the Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) and therefore requiring the use of special high temperature protection technology to prevent the destruction during the entry. ESA efforts for future missions are directed towards the development of an European Light Ablative Material (ELAM), though used in PEP study only for the Back Cover of the Entry Module. The TPS as well as both radiative and convective heat fluxes need simulations and verification by means of ground facility experiments. Based on the lessons learned from previous mission studies (mission to a near-Earth objects c.f. Marco Polo, Deimos Sample return), an Atmospheric Mars Sample Return is now under study. For sample return missions on return to Earth, a passive re-entry capsule delivering the sample

  11. Virus entry. Lassa virus entry requires a trigger-induced receptor switch. (United States)

    Jae, Lucas T; Raaben, Matthijs; Herbert, Andrew S; Kuehne, Ana I; Wirchnianski, Ariel S; Soh, Timothy K; Stubbs, Sarah H; Janssen, Hans; Damme, Markus; Saftig, Paul; Whelan, Sean P; Dye, John M; Brummelkamp, Thijn R


    Lassa virus spreads from a rodent to humans and can lead to lethal hemorrhagic fever. Despite its broad tropism, chicken cells were reported 30 years ago to resist infection. We found that Lassa virus readily engaged its cell-surface receptor α-dystroglycan in avian cells, but virus entry in susceptible species involved a pH-dependent switch to an intracellular receptor, the lysosome-resident protein LAMP1. Iterative haploid screens revealed that the sialyltransferase ST3GAL4 was required for the interaction of the virus glycoprotein with LAMP1. A single glycosylated residue in LAMP1, present in susceptible species but absent in birds, was essential for interaction with the Lassa virus envelope protein and subsequent infection. The resistance of Lamp1-deficient mice to Lassa virus highlights the relevance of this receptor switch in vivo. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Quality of data entry using single entry, double entry and automated forms processing--an example based on a study of patient-reported outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Aksel; Overgaard, Søren; Lauritsen, Jens Martin


    The clinical and scientific usage of patient-reported outcome measures is increasing in the health services. Often paper forms are used. Manual double entry of data is defined as the definitive gold standard for transferring data to an electronic format, but the process is laborious. Automated...

  13. Improving laboratory data entry quality using Six Sigma. (United States)

    Elbireer, Ali; Le Chasseur, Julie; Jackson, Brooks


    The Uganda Makerere University provides clinical laboratory support to over 70 clients in Uganda. With increased volume, manual data entry errors have steadily increased, prompting laboratory managers to employ the Six Sigma method to evaluate and reduce their problems. The purpose of this paper is to describe how laboratory data entry quality was improved by using Six Sigma. The Six Sigma Quality Improvement (QI) project team followed a sequence of steps, starting with defining project goals, measuring data entry errors to assess current performance, analyzing data and determining data-entry error root causes. Finally the team implemented changes and control measures to address the root causes and to maintain improvements. Establishing the Six Sigma project required considerable resources and maintaining the gains requires additional personnel time and dedicated resources. After initiating the Six Sigma project, there was a 60.5 percent reduction in data entry errors from 423 errors a month (i.e. 4.34 Six Sigma) in the first month, down to an average 166 errors/month (i.e. 4.65 Six Sigma) over 12 months. The team estimated the average cost of identifying and fixing a data entry error to be $16.25 per error. Thus, reducing errors by an average of 257 errors per month over one year has saved the laboratory an estimated $50,115 a year. The Six Sigma QI project provides a replicable framework for Ugandan laboratory staff and other resource-limited organizations to promote quality environment. Laboratory staff can deliver excellent care at a lower cost, by applying QI principles. This innovative QI method of reducing data entry errors in medical laboratories may improve the clinical workflow processes and make cost savings across the health care continuum.

  14. Chemically Modified Human Serum Albumin Potently Blocks Entry of Ebola Pseudoviruses and Viruslike Particles (United States)

    Li, Haoyang; Yu, Fei; Xia, Shuai; Yu, Yufeng; Wang, Qian; Lv, Ming; Wang, Yan


    ABSTRACT Ebola virus (EBOV), the causative pathogen of the deadly Ebola virus disease (EVD), can be transmitted via contact with EVD patients, including sexual contact with EVD survivors. At present, no licensed vaccine or therapeutic is available. In this study, we compared eight anhydride-modified proteins for their entry-inhibitory activity against the pseudovirus (PsV) carrying the envelope glycoprotein (GP) of the EBOV Zaire or Sudan species (Zaire PsV and Sudan PsV, respectively). We found that 3-hydroxyphthalic anhydride-modified human serum albumin (HP-HSA) was the most effective in inhibiting the entry of both Zaire PsV and Sudan PsV, with the 50% effective concentration being at the nanomolar level and with HP-HSA being more potent than EBOV-neutralizing antibody MIL77-2 (4G7, a component antibody of the ZMapp drug cocktail). The combination of HP-HSA and MIL77-2 exhibited a synergistic effect. HP-HSA had no obvious in vitro or in vivo toxicity. The EBOV PsV entry-inhibitory activity of HP-HSA remained intact after storage at 45°C for 8 weeks, suggesting that HP-HSA has the potential for worldwide use, including tropical regions in African countries, as either a therapeutic to treat EBOV infection or a prophylactic microbicide to prevent the sexual transmission of EBOV. PMID:28167539

  15. The origins of I-type spherules and the atmospheric entry of iron micrometeoroids (United States)

    Genge, Matthew J.


    The Earth's extraterrestrial dust flux includes a wide variety of dust particles that include FeNi metallic grains. During their atmospheric entry iron micrometeoroids melt and oxidize to form cosmic spherules termed I-type spherules. These particles are chemically resistant and readily collected by magnetic separation and are thus the most likely micrometeorites to be recovered from modern and ancient sediments. Understanding their behavior during atmospheric entry is crucial in constraining their abundance relative to other particle types and the nature of the zodiacal dust population at 1 AU. This article presents numerical simulations of the atmospheric entry heating of iron meteoroids to investigate the abundance and nature of these materials. The results indicate that iron micrometeoroids experience peak temperatures 300-800 K higher than silicate particles explaining the rarity of unmelted iron particles which can only be present at sizes of iron oxide leads to greater survival of iron particles compared with silicates, which enhances their abundance among micrometeorites by a factor of 2. The abundance of I-types is shown to be broadly consistent with the abundance and size of metal in ordinary chondrites and the current day flux of ordinary chondrite-derived MMs arriving at Earth. Furthermore, carbonaceous asteroids and cometary dust are suggested to make negligible contributions to the I-type spherule flux. Events involving such objects, therefore, cannot be recognized from I-type spherule abundances in the geological record.

  16. Direct-to-Earth Communications with Mars Science Laboratory During Entry, Descent, and Landing (United States)

    Soriano, Melissa; Finley, Susan; Fort, David; Schratz, Brian; Ilott, Peter; Mukai, Ryan; Estabrook, Polly; Oudrhiri, Kamal; Kahan, Daniel; Satorius, Edgar


    Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) undergoes extreme heating and acceleration during Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) on Mars. Unknown dynamics lead to large Doppler shifts, making communication challenging. During EDL, a special form of Multiple Frequency Shift Keying (MFSK) communication is used for Direct-To-Earth (DTE) communication. The X-band signal is received by the Deep Space Network (DSN) at the Canberra Deep Space Communication complex, then down-converted, digitized, and recorded by open-loop Radio Science Receivers (RSR), and decoded in real-time by the EDL Data Analysis (EDA) System. The EDA uses lock states with configurable Fast Fourier Transforms to acquire and track the signal. RSR configuration and channel allocation is shown. Testing prior to EDL is discussed including software simulations, test bed runs with MSL flight hardware, and the in-flight end-to-end test. EDA configuration parameters and signal dynamics during pre-entry, entry, and parachute deployment are analyzed. RSR and EDA performance during MSL EDL is evaluated, including performance using a single 70-meter DSN antenna and an array of two 34-meter DSN antennas as a back up to the 70-meter antenna.

  17. Clinical and Pulmonary Function Markers of Respiratory Exacerbation Risk in Subjects With Quadriplegic Cerebral Palsy. (United States)

    Vianello, Andrea; Carraro, Elena; Pipitone, Emanuela; Marchese-Ragona, Rosario; Arcaro, Giovanna; Ferraro, Marco; Paladini, Luciana; Martinuzzi, Andrea


    Although respiratory exacerbations are common in patients with quadriplegic cerebral palsy (CP), little is known about the factors that are related to increased exacerbation risk. This study aimed to identify the clinical and pulmonary function variables signaling risk of exacerbation in this type of patient. Thirty-one children and young adults with quadriplegic CP underwent a comprehensive history, physical examination, and pulmonary function test, including arterial blood gas analysis, airway resistance using the interrupter technique, and home overnight SpO2 monitoring. Subjects were divided into 2 groups depending on the number of respiratory exacerbations reported during the year before study entry: frequent exacerbators (ie, ≥ 2 exacerbations) and infrequent exacerbators (ie, < 2 exacerbations). The frequent exacerbators were more likely to require hospitalization due to respiratory disorders compared with the infrequent exacerbators (13/14 vs 9/17, P = .02). Respiratory exacerbation was found to be associated with diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux (adjusted odds ratio of 23.95 for subjects with confirmed diagnosis, P = .02) and higher PaCO2 levels (adjusted odds ratio of 12.60 for every 5-mm Hg increase in PaCO2 , P = .05). Subjects with PaCO2 ≥ 35 mm Hg showed an exacerbation odds ratio of 15.2 (95% CI 1.5-152.5, P = .01). Gastroesophageal reflux and increased PaCO2 can be considered simple, clinically useful markers of increased exacerbation risk in young subjects with quadriplegic CP. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  18. Structure of unliganded HSV gD reveals a mechanism for receptor-mediated activation of virus entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummenacher, Claude; Supekar, Vinit M.; Whitbeck, J. Charles; Lazear, Eric; Connolly, Sarah A.; Eisenberg, Roselyn J.; Cohen, Gary H.; Wiley, Don C.; Carfi, Andrea (UPENN); (IRBM); (CHLMM)


    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry into cells requires binding of the envelope glycoprotein D (gD) to one of several cell surface receptors. The 50 C-terminal residues of the gD ectodomain are essential for virus entry, but not for receptor binding. We have determined the structure of an unliganded gD molecule that includes these C-terminal residues. The structure reveals that the C-terminus is anchored near the N-terminal region and masks receptor-binding sites. Locking the C-terminus in the position observed in the crystals by an intramolecular disulfide bond abolished receptor binding and virus entry, demonstrating that this region of gD moves upon receptor binding. Similarly, a point mutant that would destabilize the C-terminus structure was nonfunctional for entry, despite increased affinity for receptors. We propose that a controlled displacement of the gD C-terminus upon receptor binding is an essential feature of HSV entry, ensuring the timely activation of membrane fusion.

  19. 50 CFR 26.27 - Exception for entry on designated routes of travel. (United States)


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exception for entry on designated routes of travel. 26.27 Section 26.27 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PUBLIC ENTRY AND USE Public Entry § 26.27 Exception for entry on designated...

  20. 19 CFR 144.12 - Contents of entry summary; estimated duties. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contents of entry summary; estimated duties. 144... Procedures for Warehouse Entry § 144.12 Contents of entry summary; estimated duties. The entry summary, Customs Form 7501, shall show the value, classification, and rate of duty as approved by the port director...

  1. 19 CFR 144.42 - Combined entry for rewarehouse and withdrawal for consumption. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Combined entry for rewarehouse and withdrawal for consumption. 144.42 Section 144.42 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... applicable to this type of entry, with the following exceptions: (1) Form of entry. A combined entry for...

  2. The Subjective Dimension of Nazism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Föllmer, M.


    The present historiographical review discusses the subjective dimension of Nazism, an ideology and regime that needed translation into self-definitions, gender roles, and bodily practices to implant itself in German society and mobilize it for racial war. These studies include biographies of some of

  3. Entry, Descent, and Landing Communications for the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory (United States)

    Abilleira, Fernando; Shidner, Jeremy D.


    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), established as the most advanced rover to land on the surface of Mars to date, launched on November 26th, 2011 and arrived to the Martian Gale Crater during the night of August 5th, 2012 (PDT). MSL will investigate whether the landing region was ever suitable to support carbon-based life, and examine rocks, soil, and the atmosphere with a sophisticated suite of tools. This paper addresses the flight system requirement by which the vehicle transmitted indications of the following events using both X-band tones and UHF telemetry to allow identification of probable root causes should a mission anomaly have occurred: Heat-Rejection System (HRS) venting, completion of the cruise stage separation, turn to entry attitude, atmospheric deceleration, bank angle reversal commanded, parachute deployment, heatshield separation, radar ground acquisition, powered descent initiation, rover separation from the descent stage, and rover release. During Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL), the flight system transmitted a UHF telemetry stream adequate to determine the state of the spacecraft (including the presence of faults) at 8 kbps initiating from cruise stage separation through at least one minute after positive indication of rover release on the surface of Mars. The flight system also transmitted X-band semaphore tones from Entry to Landing plus one minute although since MSL was occulted, as predicted, by Mars as seen from the Earth, Direct-To-Earth (DTE) communications were interrupted at approximately is approx. 5 min after Entry ( approximately 130 prior to Landing). The primary data return paths were through the Deep Space Network (DSN) for DTE and the existing Mars network of orbiting assets for UHF, which included the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and Mars Express (MEX) elements. These orbiters recorded the telemetry data stream and returned it back to Earth via the DSN. The paper also discusses the total power

  4. Ribcage compressibility in living subjects. (United States)

    Lee, M; Hill, S; Scullin, J


    The purpose of this study was to examine the responses of normal living subjects to the application of anteroposterior forces to the ribcage. Seventeen subjects aged between 25 and 37 years were tested during slow oscillatory loading while breath-holding at the end of a normal expiration. The mean stiffness coefficient was found to be 9.4 N mm(-1) (SD 2.9) and the mean gradient of the force-strain relation was 1888 N (SD 646). Comparison with previously published cadaver data indicates that the embalmed cadaver ribcage stiffness is in the order of three times stiffer than living subjects, while fresh cadavers showed comparable stiffness to living subjects. A number of studies have used models to predict and understand the behaviour of the thoracic spine. Validation of the behaviour of models which include the thoracic spine and ribcage depends on comparison of model response predictions with observed responses of human subjects. The present study provides data on the anteroposterior compressibility of the ribcage of living subjects which may be suitable for use in model validation studies. Copyright © 1994. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. International Energy: Subject Thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raridon, M.H. (ed.)


    The International Energy Subject Thesaurus contains the standard vocabulary to indexing terms (descriptors) developed and structured to build and maintain energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and (2) the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) staff representing the more than ninety countries and organizations recording and indexing information for the international nuclear information community. ETDE member countries are also members of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). Nuclear information indexed and recorded for INIS by these ETDE member countries is also included in the ETDE Energy Data Base, and indexing terminology is therefore cooperatively standardized for use in both information systems. This structured vocabulary reflects the scope of international energy research, development, and technological programs and encompasses terminology derived not only from the basic sciences but also from the areas of energy resources, conservation, safety, environmental impact, and regulation.

  6. The Design Process of Physical Security as Applied to a U.S. Border Point of Entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G.G.


    This paper describes the design process of physical security as applied to a U.S. Border Port of Entry (PoE). Included in this paper are descriptions of the elements that compose U.S. border security. The physical security design will describe the various elements that make up the process as well as the considerations that must be taken into account when dealing with system integration of those elements. The distinctions between preventing unlawful entry and exit of illegal contraband will be emphasized.

  7. Roles of Engineering Correlations in Hypersonic Entry Boundary Layer Transition Prediction (United States)

    Campbell, Charles H.; King, Rudolph A.; Kergerise, Michael A.; Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J.


    Efforts to design and operate hypersonic entry vehicles are constrained by many considerations that involve all aspects of an entry vehicle system. One of the more significant physical phenomenon that affect entry trajectory and thermal protection system design is the occurrence of boundary layer transition from a laminar to turbulent state. During the Space Shuttle Return To Flight activity following the loss of Columbia and her crew of seven, NASA's entry aerothermodynamics community implemented an engineering correlation based framework for the prediction of boundary layer transition on the Orbiter. The methodology for this implementation relies upon the framework of correlation techniques that have been in use for several decades. What makes the Orbiter boundary layer transition correlation implementation unique is that a statistically significant data set was acquired in multiple ground test facilities, flight data exists to assist in establishing a better correlation and the framework was founded upon state of the art chemical nonequilibrium Navier Stokes flow field simulations. The basic tenets that guided the formulation and implementation of the Orbiter Return To Flight boundary layer transition prediction capability will be reviewed as a recommended format for future empirical correlation efforts. The validity of this approach has since been demonstrated by very favorable comparison of recent entry flight testing performed with the Orbiter Discovery, which will be graphically summarized. These flight data can provide a means to validate discrete protuberance engineering correlation approaches as well as high fidelity prediction methods to higher confidence. The results of these Orbiter engineering and flight test activities only serve to reinforce the essential role that engineering correlations currently exercise in the design and operation of entry vehicles. The framework of information-related to the Orbiter empirical boundary layer transition

  8. Bovine parvovirus uses clathrin-mediated endocytosis for cell entry. (United States)

    Dudleenamjil, Enkhmart; Lin, Chin-Yo; Dredge, Devin; Murray, Byron K; Robison, Richard A; Johnson, F Brent


    Entry events of bovine parvovirus (BPV) were studied. Transmission electron micrographs of infected cells showed virus particles in cytoplasmic vesicles. Chemical inhibitors that block certain aspects of the cellular machinery were employed to assess viral dependency upon those cellular processes. Chlorpromazine, ammonium chloride, chloroquine and bafilamicin A1 were used to inhibit acidification of endosomes and clathrin-associated endocytosis. Nystatin was used as an inhibitor of the caveolae pathway. Cytochalasin D and ML-7 were used to inhibit actin and myosin functions, respectively. Nocodazole and colchicine were employed to inhibit microtubule activity. Virus entry was assessed by measuring viral transcription using real-time PCR, synthesis of capsid protein and assembly of infectious progeny virus in the presence of inhibitor blockage. The results indicated that BPV entry into embryonic bovine trachael cells utilizes endocytosis in clathrin-coated vesicles, is dependent upon acidification, and appears to be associated with actin and microtubule dependency. Evidence for viral entry through caveolae was not obtained. These findings provide a fuller understanding of the early cell-entry events of the replication cycle for members of the genus Bocavirus.

  9. Trading Robustness Requirements in Mars Entry Trajectory Design (United States)

    Lafleur, Jarret M.


    One of the most important metrics characterizing an atmospheric entry trajectory in preliminary design is the size of its predicted landing ellipse. Often, requirements for this ellipse are set early in design and significantly influence both the expected scientific return from a particular mission and the cost of development. Requirements typically specify a certain probability level (6-level) for the prescribed ellipse, and frequently this latter requirement is taken at 36. However, searches for the justification of 36 as a robustness requirement suggest it is an empirical rule of thumb borrowed from non-aerospace fields. This paper presents an investigation into the sensitivity of trajectory performance to varying robustness (6-level) requirements. The treatment of robustness as a distinct objective is discussed, and an analysis framework is presented involving the manipulation of design variables to effect trades between performance and robustness objectives. The scenario for which this method is illustrated is the ballistic entry of an MSL-class Mars entry vehicle. Here, the design variable is entry flight path angle, and objectives are parachute deploy altitude performance and error ellipse robustness. Resulting plots show the sensitivities between these objectives and trends in the entry flight path angles required to design to these objectives. Relevance to the trajectory designer is discussed, as are potential steps for further development and use of this type of analysis.

  10. A Gestalt approach to Gram-negative entry. (United States)

    Silver, Lynn L


    A major obstacle confronting the discovery and development of new antibacterial agents to combat resistant Gram-negative (GN) organisms is the lack of a rational process for endowing compounds with properties that allow (or promote) entry into the bacterial cytoplasm. The major permeability difference between GN and Gram-positive (GP) bacteria is the GN outer membrane (OM) which is a permeability barrier itself and potentiates efflux pumps that expel compounds. Based on the fact that OM-permeable and efflux-deleted GNs are sensitive to many anti-GP drugs, recent efforts to approach the GN entry problem have focused on ways of avoiding efflux and transiting or compromising the OM, with the tacit assumption that this could allow entry of compounds into the GN cytoplasm. But bypassing the OM and efflux obstacles does not take into account the additional requirement of penetrating the cytoplasmic membrane (CM) whose sieving properties appear to be orthogonal to that of the OM. That is, tailoring compounds to transit the OM may well compromise their ability to enter the cytoplasm. Thus, a Gestalt approach to understanding the chemical requirements for GN entry seems a useful adjunct. This might consist of characterizing compounds which reach the cytoplasm, grouping (or binning) by routes of entry and formulating chemical 'rules' for those bins. This will require acquisition of data on large numbers of compounds, using non-activity-dependent methods of measuring accumulation in the cytoplasm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dopamine Receptor Activation Increases HIV Entry into Primary Human Macrophages (United States)

    Gaskill, Peter J.; Yano, Hideaki H.; Kalpana, Ganjam V.; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Berman, Joan W.


    Macrophages are the primary cell type infected with HIV in the central nervous system, and infection of these cells is a major component in the development of neuropathogenesis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Within the brains of drug abusers, macrophages are exposed to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that mediates the addictive and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. In this study we examined the effects of dopamine on HIV entry into primary human macrophages. Exposure to dopamine during infection increased the entry of R5 tropic HIV into macrophages, irrespective of the concentration of the viral inoculum. The entry pathway affected was CCR5 dependent, as antagonizing CCR5 with the small molecule inhibitor TAK779 completely blocked entry. The effect was dose-dependent and had a steep threshold, only occurring above 108 M dopamine. The dopamine-mediated increase in entry required dopamine receptor activation, as it was abrogated by the pan-dopamine receptor antagonist flupenthixol, and could be mediated through both subtypes of dopamine receptors. These findings indicate that the effects of dopamine on macrophages may have a significant impact on HIV pathogenesis. They also suggest that drug-induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which drugs of abuse with distinct modes of action exacerbate neuroinflammation and contribute to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in infected drug abusers. PMID:25268786

  12. Structural and mechanistic studies of measles virus illuminate paramyxovirus entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K Plemper


    Full Text Available Measles virus (MeV, a member of the paramyxovirus family of enveloped RNA viruses and one of the most infectious viral pathogens identified, accounts for major pediatric morbidity and mortality worldwide although coordinated efforts to achieve global measles control are in place. Target cell entry is mediated by two viral envelope glycoproteins, the attachment (H and fusion (F proteins, which form a complex that achieves merger of the envelope with target cell membranes. Despite continually expanding knowledge of the entry strategies employed by enveloped viruses, our molecular insight into the organization of functional paramyxovirus fusion complexes and the mechanisms by which the receptor binding by the attachment protein triggers the required conformational rearrangements of the fusion protein remain incomplete. Recently reported crystal structures of the MeV attachment protein in complex with its cellular receptors CD46 or SLAM and newly developed functional assays have now illuminated some of the fundamental principles that govern cell entry by this archetype member of the paramyxovirus family. Here, we review these advances in our molecular understanding of MeV entry in the context of diverse entry strategies employed by other members of the paramyxovirus family.

  13. Natural Window of Opportunity? Low-Income Parents’ Responses to Their Children’s Impending Kindergarten Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Weiland


    Full Text Available Parental investments in the activities and materials that drive learning are central to young children’s school readiness and life success. Little is known, however, about how parents adjust these investments in response to outside pressures, including their children’s impending entry into kindergarten. In the present study, we employ two analytical strategies (multilevel residualized change and regression discontinuity within national data from the Head Start Impact Study to examine whether parents of children facing an impending entry to kindergarten invest more time and materials in their children’s language and literacy skill development compared with parents of otherwise similar children who are not yet facing formal school entry. Results suggest that low-income parents react to the impending kindergarten transition by increasing their provision of parent–child language and literacy activities (d = .15 but not related materials. We discuss the implications of our findings for the timing of parenting interventions.

  14. The Design Process of Physical Security as Applied to a U.S. Border Port of Entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G.G.


    This paper details the application of a standard physical security system design process to a US Border Port of Entry (PoE) for vehicle entry/exit. The physical security design methodology is described as well as the physical security similarities to facilities currently at a US Border PoE for vehicles. The physical security design process description includes the various elements that make up the methodologies well as the considerations that must be taken into account when dealing with system integration of those elements. The distinctions between preventing unlawful entry/exit of illegal contraband and personnel are described. The potential to enhance the functions of drug/contraband detection in the Pre-Primary Inspection area through the application of emerging technologies are also addressed.

  15. Advanced Restricted Area Entry Control System (Araecs) (United States)


    Table 19. Technology Readiness Level Maturity Assessment 2. Biometric Modalities a. Iris Recognition (1) Overview. The Iris is the colored part of derived from measurement of a part of a person’s anatomy. Examples of physiological biometrics include fingerprint, hand, face, iris and retina. A... biometrics that can be used with a smart identification card include: fingerprint, hand geometry, facial recognition, iris and retina scan, and voice and

  16. Reliable and efficient injury assessment for free-fall lifeboat occupants during water entry: Correlation study between lifeboat acceleration indicators and simulated human injury responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, E. van; Uittenbogaard, J.; Reinholdtsen, S.A.; Fouques, S.; Sauder, T.


    The evacuation of personnel from an offshore installation in severe weather conditions is generally ensured by free-fall lifeboats. During the water entry phase of the launch, the lifeboat may be subject to large acceleration loads that may cause harmful acceleration-induced loads on the occupants.

  17. The method of adaptation under the parameters of the subject of the information interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Инесса Анатольевна Воробьёва


    Full Text Available To ensure the effectiveness of settings (adaptation created software and hardware on the particular subject of the method was developed for adaptation under the parameters of the subject of information interaction in the form of a set of operations to build a network dialog procedures on the basis of accounting for entry-level qualification of the subject, assessment of the current level of skills and operational restructuring of the network in accordance with the assessment of his level.

  18. The Unified State Examination and the Determinants of Academic Achievement: Does Investment in Pre-Entry Coaching Matter? (United States)

    Prakhov, Ilya


    This article examines the relationship between pre-entry coaching (both in terms of money and effort) and the achievement of Russian high school graduates as measured by the results of the Unified State Examination (USE). Using a data set of students from the 16 biggest Russian cities, which includes information on USE results, family background,…

  19. Delayed College Entry and the Socioeconomic Gap: Examining the Roles of Student Plans, Family Income, Parental Education, and Parental Occupation (United States)

    Wells, Ryan S.; Lynch, Cassie M.


    This study investigates delayed college entry, including how college enrollment differs based on students' plans while in high school. Results confirm that low-SES students are repeatedly disadvantaged in the college transition, but add complexity concerning the influences of family income, parental education, and parental occupational status.…

  20. 76 FR 37136 - Post-Summary Corrections to Entry Summaries Filed in ACE Pursuant to the ESAR IV Test (United States)


    ...) components. A chronological listing of Federal Register publications detailing ACE test developments is set.... For more information on prior disclosures see CBP's Informed Compliance Publication entitled ``The ABC... for both ACS and ACE entry summaries. ACE Portal Reports will be enhanced to include improvements to...

  1. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions, and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must...

  2. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.


    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must ...

  3. Subjective meaning: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen-Huitink, Janneke; van Wijbergen-Huitink, Janneke; Meier, Cécile

    This introductory chapter traces some of the considerations on the basis of which relativistic approaches to subjective meaning became en vogue. In doing so, the chapter provides an overview of the relevant linguistic and philosophical issues when developing a treatment of subjectivity. In addition,

  4. Subjective safety in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    The term ‘subjective safety in traffic’ refers to people feeling unsafe in traffic or, more generally, to anxiety regarding being unsafe in traffic for oneself and/or others. Subjective safety in traffic can lead to road users limiting their mobility and social activities, which is one of the

  5. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)


    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  6. Confined space entry program for the Westinghouse Hanford Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornell, T.M.


    To comply with anticipated OSHA regulatory requirements concerning Permit-Required Confined Spaces, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) created a Confined Spaces Task Team. The primary focus of the task team was to prepare a formal Confined Space Entry (CSE) Program that would ensure full compliance with the anticipated OSHA requirements. A comprehensive training plan was also prepared and submitted for approval as soon as the new CSE Program was approved and released for implementation. On January 14, 1993, OSHA released their final ruling which contained several further changes, requiring the WHC Confined Space Entry Program and Training Plan to be revised. The revised training manual and lessons learned in establishing a Confined Space Entry Program are presented.

  7. Disambiguating bilingual nominal entries against WordNet

    CERN Document Server

    Rigau, G; Rigau, German; Agirre, Eneko


    This paper explores the acquisition of conceptual knowledge from bilingual dictionaries (French/English, Spanish/English and English/Spanish) using a pre-existing broad coverage Lexical Knowledge Base (LKB) WordNet. Bilingual nominal entries are disambiguated agains WordNet, therefore linking the bilingual dictionaries to WordNet yielding a multilingual LKB (MLKB). The resulting MLKB has the same structure as WordNet, but some nodes are attached additionally to disambiguated vocabulary of other languages. Two different, complementary approaches are explored. In one of the approaches each entry of the dictionary is taken in turn, exploiting the information in the entry itself. The inferential capability for disambiguating the translation is given by Semantic Density over WordNet. In the other approach, the bilingual dictionary was merged with WordNet, exploiting mainly synonymy relations. Each of the approaches was used in a different dictionary. Both approaches attain high levels of precision on their own, sh...

  8. Clinical nurse specialist leadership in computerized provider order entry design. (United States)

    Roggow, Darla J; Solie, Carol J; Tracy, Mary Fran; Gjere, Niki


    The purpose of this clinical project was to design and implement a computerized provider order entry system. Well-designed clinical computer systems can advance best practice and quality decision making, leading to improvements in patient and organizational outcomes. An Orders Design Group composed of clinical nurse specialists (CNSs), staff nurses, and information management personnel was formed. CNSs used competencies in the system sphere to lead the integration of the needs of patients, nurses, and organizations into new technologies. CNSs facilitated implementation of a collaboratively designed interdisciplinary computerized order entry process. Evaluation of the design and implementation process demonstrated greater success with the order entry system under the leadership of CNSs than past initiatives where CNSs were not in leadership roles. CNS competencies in designing and implementing innovative system-level solutions are key to clinical information systems design.

  9. Towards a Market Entry Framework for Digital Payment Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazan, Erol; Damsgaard, Jan


    This study presents a framework to understand and explain the design and configuration of digital payment platforms and how these platforms create conditions for market entries. By embracing the theoretical lens of platform envelopment, we employed a multiple and comparative-case study...... in a European setting by using our framework as an analytical lens to assess market-entry conditions. We found that digital payment platforms have acquired market entry capabilities, which is achieved through strategic platform design (i.e., platform development and service distribution) and technology design...... (i.e., issuing evolutionary and revolutionary payment instruments). The studied cases reveal that digital platforms leverage payment services as a mean to bridge and converge core and adjacent platform markets. In so doing, platform envelopment strengthens firms’ market position in their respective...

  10. Mars Atmospheric Entry Integrated Navigation with Partial Intermittent Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-shan Lou


    Full Text Available Signal degradation suffered by the vehicle is a combination brownout and blackout during Mars atmospheric entry. The communications brownout means that signal fades and blackout means that the signal is lost completely. The communications brownout and blackout periods are analyzed and predicted with an altitude and velocity profiles. In the brownout period, the range measurements between the vehicle and the orbiters are modeled as intermittent measurements with the radio signal arrival probabilities, which are distributed as a Rayleigh distribution of the electron number density around the entry vehicle. A new integrated navigation strategy during the Mars atmospheric entry phase is proposed to consider the probabilities of the radio measurements in the communications brownout and blackout periods under the IMU/beacon scenario based on the information filter with intermittent measurements. Numerical navigation simulations are designed to show the performance of the proposed navigation strategy under the integrated navigation scenario.

  11. Energy Data Base: Subject Thesaurus permutated listing. Revision 6, Appendix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redford, J.S. (ed.)


    The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, in its role of managing scientific and technical information in support of DOE programs, develops and maintains a standardized vocabulary for indexing this information. This permutated listing, an appendix to the Energy Data Base: Subject Thesaurus (DOE/TIC-7000-R6), has been prepared to alleviate the problems of entry to a large multidisciplinary thesaurus containing both single and multiword descriptors. It is designed to be used in conjunction with the Subject Thesaurus and is not to be used alone.

  12. The role of digital data entry in participatory environmental monitoring. (United States)

    Brammer, Jeremy R; Brunet, Nicolas D; Burton, A Cole; Cuerrier, Alain; Danielsen, Finn; Dewan, Kanwaljeet; Herrmann, Thora Martina; Jackson, Micha V; Kennett, Rod; Larocque, Guillaume; Mulrennan, Monica; Pratihast, Arun Kumar; Saint-Arnaud, Marie; Scott, Colin; Humphries, Murray M


    Many argue that monitoring conducted exclusively by scientists is insufficient to address ongoing environmental challenges. One solution entails the use of mobile digital devices in participatory monitoring (PM) programs. But how digital data entry affects programs with varying levels of stakeholder participation, from nonscientists collecting field data to nonscientists administering every step of a monitoring program, remains unclear. We reviewed the successes, in terms of management interventions and sustainability, of 107 monitoring programs described in the literature (hereafter programs) and compared these with case studies from our PM experiences in Australia, Canada, Ethiopia, Ghana, Greenland, and Vietnam (hereafter cases). Our literature review showed that participatory programs were less likely to use digital devices, and 2 of our 3 more participatory cases were also slow to adopt digital data entry. Programs that were participatory and used digital devices were more likely to report management actions, which was consistent with cases in Ethiopia, Greenland, and Australia. Programs engaging volunteers were more frequently reported as ongoing, but those involving digital data entry were less often sustained when data collectors were volunteers. For the Vietnamese and Canadian cases, sustainability was undermined by a mismatch in stakeholder objectives. In the Ghanaian case, complex field protocols diminished monitoring sustainability. Innovative technologies attract interest, but the foundation of effective participatory adaptive monitoring depends more on collaboratively defined questions, objectives, conceptual models, and monitoring approaches. When this foundation is built through effective partnerships, digital data entry can enable the collection of more data of higher quality. Without this foundation, or when implemented ineffectively or unnecessarily, digital data entry can be an additional expense that distracts from core monitoring objectives

  13. BeppoSAX equatorial uncontrolled re-entry (United States)

    Portelli, C.

    The X-ray astronomy satellite BeppoSAX (Satellite per Astronomia X, "Beppo" in honor of Giuseppe Occhialini), is a project of the Italian Space Agency (ASI) with participation of the Netherlands Agency for Aerospace Programs (NIVR). BeppoSAX was launched by an Atlas G Centaur directly into a circular 600 km- orbit at 3.9 degrees inclination on April 30th, 1996. The satellite is a three axis stabilized spacecraft with a total mass of about 1400 kg. The current (May 1, 2002) flight altitude is about 470 km and its uncontrolled re-entry is predicted late in 2002, or in 2003, with a 26 kg of hydrazine on board that could not be vented or used for controlled re-entry due to gyro's package total failure. Due to the relatively high mass of BeppoSAX, it has to be expected that parts of the satellite will survive the re-entry into the earth atmosphere. The Italian Space Agency has committed a study to HTG for the analysis of the destructive phase of the uncontrolled atmospheric re-entry by means of a dedicated European software tool (SCARAB). The expected outputs will be used in order to determine how much of the spacecraft and how many fragments parts of it will reach the ground on the equatorial earth zone. This paper will address the peculiarities of the spacecraft initial status, its risks at end of life and the SCARAB modelling as well as its 6D flight dynamics re-entry analysis results also in terms of the destruction history tree. Consideration will be made on the ground dispersion and casualt y area due to the very restricted equatorial zone impacted. References B. Fritsche, H. Klinkrad, A. Kashkovsky, E.Grinberg; Spacecraft Disintegration during uncontrolled atmospheric entry ; IAA-99-IAA.6.7.02; 50t h IAC 4-8 Oct. 1999

  14. Access, entry and researcher-participant position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louw, Arnt Vestergaard


    the school introduces and initiates the programme? What kinds of effects does this have on the motivation of the students? How do the terms and professional language of the profession work on the individual students in including and excluding ways? These specific descriptions of classroom pedagogy, inspired...

  15. Provider order entry with integrated decision support: from academia to industry. (United States)

    Giuse, D A


    To describe the evolution of a provider order entry system with integrated decision support, from a research prototype to full implementation at one academic center, and finally to a commercial product. Describe the institutional environment and planning process in which the system originated. Highlight the historical evolution of the provider entry system, and analyze its system architecture and functionality. Describe the requirements for successful design and deployment both within a single health care organization and as part of a commercial product line. Over a period of eight years the system evolved from a research prototype to a fully integrated order entry system in routine use on most inpatient units of a large academic medical center. Around 12,000 orders are entered every day into the computer system; 70% of those are entered directly by the responsible physician. The system embeds best-of-care practice guidelines, and is used to reduce resource utilization by limiting unnecessary testing and suggesting more effective or less costly therapeutic replacements. The system was recently acquired by a large HIS software vendor and is being rapidly implemented at numerous customer sites. Large-scale development or deployment of complex health information systems requires considerable organizational agreement and resources, as well as close attention to iterative system design that explicitly includes constant feedback from the user community. The transformation of such a system from a single-site success to a widely deployed product requires convergence of resources and needs.

  16. Impact Foam Testing for Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicle Applications (United States)

    Glaab, Louis J.; Agrawal, Paul; Hawbaker, James


    Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicles (MMEEVs) are blunt-body vehicles designed with the purpose of transporting payloads from outer space to the surface of the Earth. To achieve high-reliability and minimum weight, MMEEVs avoid use of limited-reliability systems, such as parachutes and retro-rockets, instead using built-in impact attenuators to absorb energy remaining at impact to meet landing loads requirements. The Multi-Mission Systems Analysis for Planetary Entry (M-SAPE) parametric design tool is used to facilitate the design of MMEEVs and develop the trade space. Testing was conducted to characterize the material properties of several candidate impact foam attenuators to enhance M-SAPE analysis. In the current effort, two different Rohacell foams were tested to determine their thermal conductivity in support of MMEEV design applications. These applications include thermal insulation during atmospheric entry, impact attenuation, and post-impact thermal insulation in support of thermal soak analysis. Results indicate that for these closed-cell foams, the effect of impact is limited on thermal conductivity due to the venting of the virgin material gas and subsequent ambient air replacement. Results also indicate that the effect of foam temperature is significant compared to data suggested by manufacturer's specifications.

  17. Atmospheric entry of Mars-return nuclear-powered vehicles due to accidental termination of operations (United States)

    Menees, Gene P.; Park, Chul


    The entry of nuclear reactors into Earth's atmosphere resulting from an accidental or inadvertent abort of a space vehicle powered by nuclear-thermal rockets is investigated. The study is made for a typical piloted Mars mission vehicle incapacitated by an accident or malfunction during the Earth-arrival phase of the Mars-return journey due to simultaneous, multiple failures of its component systems. A single accident/abort scenario resulting in three entry possibilities is considered for a nominal hyperbolic in-bound approach velocity of 8 km/sec. The most severe case involving a direct entry is then analyzed over a broad range of approach velocities extending to 12 km/sec to include sprint-type missions. The results indicate that the severe surface heating, stagnation pressures, and g-loads are greater than 150 kW/sq cm, 300 atm, and 800-g, respectively. The wall heat transfer rate exceeds the value that can be accommodated by a carbon heatshield through radiation equilibrium prior to sublimation at 5500 K. These conditions are beyond our previous experience in crew safety, structural design, and thermal protection.

  18. Trypanosoma cruzi uses macropinocytosis as an additional entry pathway into mammalian host cell. (United States)

    Barrias, E S; Reignault, L C; De Souza, W; Carvalho, T M U


    Several intracellular pathogens are internalized by host cells via multiple endocytic pathways. It is no different with Trypanosoma cruzi. Evidences indicate that T. cruzi entry may occur by endocytosis/phagocytosis or by an active manner. Although macropinocytosis is largely considered an endocytic process where cells internalize only large amounts of solutes, several pathogens use this pathway to enter into host cells. To investigate whether T. cruzi entry into peritoneal macrophages and LLC-MK2 epithelial cells can be also mediated through a macropinocytosis-like process, we used several experimental strategies presently available to characterize macropinocytosis such as the use of different inhibitors. These macropinocytosis' inhibitors blocked internalization of T. cruzi by host cells. To further support this, immunofluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used. Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed that after treatment, parasites remained attached to the external side of host cell plasma membrane. Proteins such as Rabankyrin 5, tyrosine kinases, Pak1 and actin microfilaments, which participate in macropinosome formation, were localized at T. cruzi entry sites. We also observed co-localization between the parasite and an endocytic fluid phase marker. All together, these results indicate that T. cruzi is able to use multiple mechanisms of penetration into host cell, including macropinocytosis. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. The Eukaryotic Promoter Database, EPD: new entry types and links to gene expression data. (United States)

    Praz, Viviane; Périer, Rouaïda; Bonnard, Claude; Bucher, Philipp


    The Eukaryotic Promoter Database (EPD) is an annotated, non-redundant collection of eukaryotic Pol II promoters, for which the transcription start site has been determined experimentally. Access to promoter sequences is provided by pointers to positions in nucleotide sequence entries. The annotation part of an entry includes a description of the initiation site mapping data, exhaustive cross-references to the EMBL nucleotide sequence database, SWISS-PROT, TRANSFAC and other databases, as well as bibliographic references. EPD is structured in a way that facilitates dynamic extraction of biologically meaningful promoter subsets for comparative sequence analysis. World Wide Web-based interfaces have been developed which enable the user to view EPD entries in different formats, to select and extract promoter sequences according to a variety of criteria, and to navigate to related databases exploiting different cross-references. The EPD web site also features yearly updated base frequency matrices for major eukaryotic promoter elements. EPD can be accessed at

  20. Ebola virus entry requires the cholesterol transporter Niemann-Pick C1. (United States)

    Carette, Jan E; Raaben, Matthijs; Wong, Anthony C; Herbert, Andrew S; Obernosterer, Gregor; Mulherkar, Nirupama; Kuehne, Ana I; Kranzusch, Philip J; Griffin, April M; Ruthel, Gordon; Dal Cin, Paola; Dye, John M; Whelan, Sean P; Chandran, Kartik; Brummelkamp, Thijn R


    Infections by the Ebola and Marburg filoviruses cause a rapidly fatal haemorrhagic fever in humans for which no approved antivirals are available. Filovirus entry is mediated by the viral spike glycoprotein (GP), which attaches viral particles to the cell surface, delivers them to endosomes and catalyses fusion between viral and endosomal membranes. Additional host factors in the endosomal compartment are probably required for viral membrane fusion; however, despite considerable efforts, these critical host factors have defied molecular identification. Here we describe a genome-wide haploid genetic screen in human cells to identify host factors required for Ebola virus entry. Our screen uncovered 67 mutations disrupting all six members of the homotypic fusion and vacuole protein-sorting (HOPS) multisubunit tethering complex, which is involved in the fusion of endosomes to lysosomes, and 39 independent mutations that disrupt the endo/lysosomal cholesterol transporter protein Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1). Cells defective for the HOPS complex or NPC1 function, including primary fibroblasts derived from human Niemann-Pick type C1 disease patients, are resistant to infection by Ebola virus and Marburg virus, but remain fully susceptible to a suite of unrelated viruses. We show that membrane fusion mediated by filovirus glycoproteins and viral escape from the vesicular compartment require the NPC1 protein, independent of its known function in cholesterol transport. Our findings uncover unique features of the entry pathway used by filoviruses and indicate potential antiviral strategies to combat these deadly agents.

  1. Uptake of meningococcal vaccine in Arizona schoolchildren after implementation of school-entry immunization requirements. (United States)

    Simpson, Jennifer E; Hills, Rebecca A; Allwes, Deborah; Rasmussen, Lisa


    Meningitis and bacteremia due to Neisseria meningitidis are rare but potentially deadly diseases that can be prevented with immunization. Beginning in 2008, Arizona school immunization requirements were amended to include immunization of children aged 11 years or older with meningococcal vaccine before entering the sixth grade. We describe patterns in meningococcal vaccine uptake surrounding these school-entry requirement changes in Arizona. We used immunization records from the Arizona State Immunization Information System (ASIIS) to compare immunization rates in 11- and 12-year-olds. We used principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis to identify and analyze demographic variables reported by the 2010 U.S. Census. Adolescent meningococcal immunization rates in Arizona increased after implementation of statewide school-entry immunization requirements. The increase in meningococcal vaccination rates among 11- and 12-year-olds from 2007 to 2008 was statistically significant (pschool-entry requirement change (odds ratio range = 5.57 to 12.81, page, fewer high school graduates, and a higher proportion of Native Americans. This analysis suggests that implementation of school immunization requirements resulted in increased meningococcal vaccination rates in Arizona, with degree of response varying by demographic profile. ASIIS was useful for assessing changes in immunization rates over time. Further study is required to identify methods to control for population overestimates in registry data.

  2. Lifting Entry & Atmospheric Flight (LEAF) System Concept Applications at Solar System Bodies With an Atmosphere (United States)

    Lee, Greg; Polidan, Ronald; Ross, Floyd; Sokol, Daniel; Warwick, Steve


    Northrop Grumman and L’Garde have continued the development of a hypersonic entry, semi-buoyant, maneuverable platform capable of performing long-duration (months to a year) in situ and remote measurements at any solar system body that possesses an atmosphere.The Lifting Entry & Atmospheric Flight (LEAF) family of vehicles achieves this capability by using a semi-buoyant, ultra-low ballistic coefficient vehicle whose lifting entry allows it to enter the atmosphere without an aeroshell. The mass savings realized by eliminating the heavy aeroshell allows significantly more payload to be accommodated by the platform for additional science collection and return.In this presentation, we discuss the application of the LEAF system at various solar system bodies: Venus, Titan, Mars, and Earth. We present the key differences in platform design as well as operational differences required by the various target environments. The Venus implementation includes propulsive capability to reach higher altitudes during the day and achieves full buoyancy in the mid-cloud layer of Venus’ atmosphere at night.Titan also offers an attractive operating environment, allowing LEAF designs that can target low or medium altitude operations, also with propulsive capabilities to roam within each altitude regime. The Mars version is a glider that descends gradually, allowing targeted delivery of payloads to the surface or high resolution surface imaging. Finally, an Earth version could remain in orbit in a stowed state until activated, allowing rapid response type deployments to any region of the globe.

  3. Challenges to Computational Aerothermodynamic Simulation and Validation for Planetary Entry Vehicle Analysis (United States)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.; Johnston, Christopher O.; Kleb, Bil


    Challenges to computational aerothermodynamic (CA) simulation and validation of hypersonic flow over planetary entry vehicles are discussed. Entry, descent, and landing (EDL) of high mass to Mars is a significant driver of new simulation requirements. These requirements include simulation of large deployable, flexible structures and interactions with reaction control system (RCS) and retro-thruster jets. Simulation of radiation and ablation coupled to the flow solver continues to be a high priority for planetary entry analyses, especially for return to Earth and outer planet missions. Three research areas addressing these challenges are emphasized. The first addresses the need to obtain accurate heating on unstructured tetrahedral grid systems to take advantage of flexibility in grid generation and grid adaptation. A multi-dimensional inviscid flux reconstruction algorithm is defined that is oriented with local flow topology as opposed to grid. The second addresses coupling of radiation and ablation to the hypersonic flow solver--flight- and ground-based data are used to provide limited validation of these multi-physics simulations. The third addresses the challenges of retro-propulsion simulation and the criticality of grid adaptation in this application. The evolution of CA to become a tool for innovation of EDL systems requires a successful resolution of these challenges.

  4. The graduate entry generation: a qualitative study exploring the factors influencing the career expectations and aspirations of a graduating cohort of graduate entry dental students in one London institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Nairn HF


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dentistry in the UK has a number of new graduate-entry programmes. The aim of the study was to explore the motivation, career expectations and experiences of final year students who chose to pursue a dental career through the graduate entry programme route in one institution; and to explore if, and how, their intended career expectations and aspirations were informed by this choice. Method In-depth interviews of 14 graduate entry students in their final year of study. Data were transcribed verbatim and analysed using framework analysis. Results There were three categories of factors influencing students' choice to study dentistry through graduate entry: 'push', 'pull' and 'mediating'. Mediating factors related to students' personal concerns and circumstances, whereas push and pull factors related to features of their previous and future careers and wider social factors. Routes to Graduate Entry study comprised: 'early career changers', 'established career changers' and those pursuing 'routes to specialisation'. These routes also influenced the students' practice of dentistry, as students integrated skills in their dental studies, and encountered new challenges. Factors which students believed would influence their future careers included: vocational training; opportunities for specialisation or developing special interests and policy-related issues, together with wider professional and social concerns. The graduate entry programme was considered 'hard work' but a quick route to a professional career which had much to offer. Students' felt more could have been made of their pre-dental studies and/or experience during the programme. Factors perceived as influencing students' future contribution to dentistry included personal and social influences. Overall there was strong support for the values of the NHS and 'giving back' to the system in their future career. Conclusion Graduate entry students appear to be motivated to enter

  5. The graduate entry generation: a qualitative study exploring the factors influencing the career expectations and aspirations of a graduating cohort of graduate entry dental students in one London institution. (United States)

    Newton, Paul; Cabot, Lyndon; Wilson, Nairn H F; Gallagher, Jennifer E


    Dentistry in the UK has a number of new graduate-entry programmes. The aim of the study was to explore the motivation, career expectations and experiences of final year students who chose to pursue a dental career through the graduate entry programme route in one institution; and to explore if, and how, their intended career expectations and aspirations were informed by this choice. In-depth interviews of 14 graduate entry students in their final year of study. Data were transcribed verbatim and analysed using framework analysis. There were three categories of factors influencing students' choice to study dentistry through graduate entry: 'push', 'pull' and 'mediating'. Mediating factors related to students' personal concerns and circumstances, whereas push and pull factors related to features of their previous and future careers and wider social factors. Routes to Graduate Entry study comprised: 'early career changers', 'established career changers' and those pursuing 'routes to specialisation'. These routes also influenced the students' practice of dentistry, as students integrated skills in their dental studies, and encountered new challenges.Factors which students believed would influence their future careers included: vocational training; opportunities for specialisation or developing special interests and policy-related issues, together with wider professional and social concerns.The graduate entry programme was considered 'hard work' but a quick route to a professional career which had much to offer. Students' felt more could have been made of their pre-dental studies and/or experience during the programme. Factors perceived as influencing students' future contribution to dentistry included personal and social influences. Overall there was strong support for the values of the NHS and 'giving back' to the system in their future career. Graduate entry students appear to be motivated to enter dentistry by a range of factors which suit their preferences and

  6. The graduate entry generation: a qualitative study exploring the factors influencing the career expectations and aspirations of a graduating cohort of graduate entry dental students in one London institution (United States)


    Background Dentistry in the UK has a number of new graduate-entry programmes. The aim of the study was to explore the motivation, career expectations and experiences of final year students who chose to pursue a dental career through the graduate entry programme route in one institution; and to explore if, and how, their intended career expectations and aspirations were informed by this choice. Method In-depth interviews of 14 graduate entry students in their final year of study. Data were transcribed verbatim and analysed using framework analysis. Results There were three categories of factors influencing students' choice to study dentistry through graduate entry: 'push', 'pull' and 'mediating'. Mediating factors related to students' personal concerns and circumstances, whereas push and pull factors related to features of their previous and future careers and wider social factors. Routes to Graduate Entry study comprised: 'early career changers', 'established career changers' and those pursuing 'routes to specialisation'. These routes also influenced the students' practice of dentistry, as students integrated skills in their dental studies, and encountered new challenges. Factors which students believed would influence their future careers included: vocational training; opportunities for specialisation or developing special interests and policy-related issues, together with wider professional and social concerns. The graduate entry programme was considered 'hard work' but a quick route to a professional career which had much to offer. Students' felt more could have been made of their pre-dental studies and/or experience during the programme. Factors perceived as influencing students' future contribution to dentistry included personal and social influences. Overall there was strong support for the values of the NHS and 'giving back' to the system in their future career. Conclusion Graduate entry students appear to be motivated to enter dentistry by a range of

  7. White spot syndrome virus entry is dependent on multiple endocytic routes and strongly facilitated by Cq-GABARAP in a CME-dependent manner (United States)

    Chen, Rong-yuan; Shen, Kai-li; Chen, Zhen; Fan, Wei-wei; Xie, Xiao-lu; Meng, Chuang; Chang, Xue-jiao; Zheng, Li-bing; Jeswin, Joseph; Li, Cheng-hua; Wang, Ke-jian; Liu, Hai-peng


    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a lethal pathogen of shrimp and many other crustaceans, including crayfish. However, the molecular mechanism underlying its cellular entry remains elusive due to the lack of shrimp cell lines for viral propagation. Crayfish hematopoietic tissue (Hpt) cell culture was recently established as a good model for WSSV infection study. Here, we showed that multiple endocytic routes, including clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), macropinocytosis and caveolae-mediated endocytosis, were indispensably employed for the viral entry into Hpt cell of the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus. Intriguingly, cellular autophagic activity was positively correlated with efficient viral entry, in which a key autophagy-related protein, γ-aminobutyric acid receptor-associated protein (Cq-GABARAP), that not only localized but also co-localized with WSSV on the Hpt cell membrane, strongly facilitated WSSV entry by binding to the viral envelope VP28 in a CME-dependent manner that was negatively regulated by Cq-Rac1. Furthermore, cytoskeletal components, including Cq-β-tubulin and Cq-β-actin, bound to both recombinant rCq-GABARAP and WSSV envelope proteins, which likely led to viral entry promotion via cooperation with rCq-GABARAP. Even under conditions that promoted viral entry, rCq-GABARAP significantly reduced viral replication at an early stage of infection, which was probably caused by the formation of WSSV aggregates in the cytoplasm. PMID:27385304

  8. Minimum wages as a barrier to entry: Evidence from Germany


    Bachmann, Ronald; Bauer, Thomas K.; Kröger, Hanna


    This study analyses employers' support for the introduction of industry-specific minimum wages as a cost-raising strategy in order to deter market entry. Using a unique data set consisting of 800 firms in the German service sector, we find some evidence that high-productivity employers support minimum wages. We further show that minimum wage support is higher in industries and regions with low barriers to entry. This is particularly the case in East Germany, where the perceived threat of low-...

  9. Best Entry Points for Structured Document Retrieval - Part I: Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reid, Jane; Lalmas, Mounia; Finesilver, Karen


    Structured document retrieval makes use of document components as the basis of the retrieval process, rather than complete documents. The inherent relationships between these components make it vital to support users' natural browsing behaviour in order to offer effective and efficient access...... to structured documents. This paper examines the concept of best entry points, which are document components from which the user can browse to obtain optimal access to relevant document components. In particular this paper investigates the basic characteristics of best entry points....

  10. Partial Acquistion as an Entry Mode in Transition Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian; Meyer, Klaus E.


    Multinational enterprises often acquire stakes in an existing enterprise when entering emerging economies. This paper examines the determinants of entry mode choices with a special focus on these partial acquisitions, which have received little attention in the scholarly literature. We show...... that partial acquisitions have features that are distinct from other modes with respect to the transfer of resources to the subsidiary and the determinants of entry mode choice. Recent research suggests that a buyer prefers partial acquisitions, when a seller possesses asymmetric information advantages...

  11. Overserving and Allowed Entry of Obviously Alcohol-Intoxicated Spectators at Sporting Events. (United States)

    Elgán, Tobias H; Durbeej, Natalie; Holder, Harold D; Gripenberg, Johanna


    Alcohol intoxication among spectators at sporting events and related problems, such as violence, are of great concern in many countries around the world. However, knowledge is scarce about whether or not alcohol is served to obviously intoxicated spectators at licensed premises inside and outside the sporting arenas, and if obviously intoxicated spectators are allowed entrance to these events. The objective of this study was therefore to examine the occurrences of overserving at licensed premises inside and outside arenas, and of allowed entry of obviously intoxicated spectators into arenas. An observational study assessing the rate of denied alcohol service and denied entry to arenas of trained professional actors portraying a standardized scene of obvious alcohol intoxication (i.e., pseudo-patrons) was conducted. The scene was developed by an expert panel, and each attempt was monitored by an observer. The settings were 2 arenas hosting matches in the Swedish Premier Football League in the largest city in Sweden and 1 arena in the second largest city, including entrances and licensed premises inside and outside the arenas. The rates of denied alcohol service were 66.9% at licensed premises outside the arenas (n = 151) and 24.9% at premises inside the arenas (n = 237). The rate of denied entry to the arenas (n = 102) was 10.8%. Overserving and allowed entry of obviously alcohol-intoxicated spectators are problematic at sporting events in Sweden and may contribute to high overall intoxication levels among spectators. The differences in server intervention rates indicate that serving staff at licensed premises inside the arenas and entrance staff are not likely to have been trained in responsible beverage service. This result underscores the need for server training among staff at the arenas. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  12. Aerodynamic Interactions of Propulsive Deceleration and Reaction Control System Jets on Mars-Entry Aeroshells (United States)

    Alkandry, Hicham

    Future missions to Mars, including sample-return and human-exploration missions, may require alternative entry, descent, and landing technologies in order to perform pinpoint landing of heavy vehicles. Two such alternatives are propulsive deceleration (PD) and reaction control systems (RCS). PD can slow the vehicle during Mars atmospheric descent by directing thrusters into the incoming freestream. RCS can provide vehicle control and steering by inducing moments using thrusters on the hack of the entry capsule. The use of these PD and RCS jets, however, involves complex flow interactions that are still not well understood. The fluid interactions induced by PD and RCS jets for Mars-entry vehicles in hypersonic freestream conditions are investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The effects of central and peripheral PD configurations using both sonic and supersonic jets at various thrust conditions are examined in this dissertation. The RCS jet is directed either parallel or transverse to the freestream flow at different thrust conditions in order to examine the effects of the thruster orientation with respect to the center of gravity of the aeroshell. The physical accuracy of the computational method is also assessed by comparing the numerical results with available experimental data. The central PD configuration decreases the drag force acting on the entry capsule due to a shielding effect that prevents mass and momentum in the hypersonic freestream from reaching the aeroshell. The peripheral PD configuration also decreases the drag force by obstructing the flow around the aeroshell and creating low surface pressure regions downstream of the PD nozzles. The Mach number of the PD jets, however, does not have a significant effect on the induced fluid interactions. The reaction control system also alters the flowfield, surface, and aerodynamic properties of the aeroshell, while the jet orientation can have a significant effect on the control effectiveness

  13. Unifying Subjectivity and Objectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Chandrasekaran


    Full Text Available The contribution of modern science to the progress of civilization is immeasurable. Even its tendency toward exclusive concentration on the objective world has had salutary effects of great value. Modern science has wiped away much that was merely superstitious or speculative. Its rejection of unfounded opinions and prejudices has helped the thinking mind question conventional beliefs, shed preferences and prejudices, and challenge established authority. But modern systems thinking inherited from natural science is the suppression of the subjective dimension of reality. Many complex systems are an attempt to define and represent all subjective experience in physical terms. The modern man has a bias towards objectivity. The powerful influence of sense impressions on his mind and thinking makes him ignore the subjective experience and consider only objective facts as a valid, legitimate and representation of reality. Observing objective factors that are physical is easier than observing subjective factors that are subtle. The mechanistic view of reality has led to the rejection of the role of the individual in social development as insignificant. The individuals determine the development of society. Their social power has its roots both in subjective factors and objective factors. Economy, politics, society, and culture are inseparable dimensions of a single integrated reality. Subject and object constitute an integrated whole. The mind sees them as separate and independent. Or it views one as completely subordinate to the other. Unbiased approach to the study of all human experiences may prove that subject and object are interdependent dimensions or elements of reality.

  14. Energy data base: subject thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redford, J.S. (ed.)


    The technical staff of the DOE Technical Information Center, during its subject indexing activities, develops and structures a vocabulary that allows consistent machine storage and retrieval of information necessary to the accomplishment of the DOE mission. This thesaurus incorporates that structured vocabulary. The terminology of this thesaurus is used for the subject control of information announced in DOE Energy Research Abstracts, Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis, and various update journals and bulletins in specialized areas. This terminology also facilitates subject searching of the DOE Energy Data Base on the DOE/RECON on-line retrieval system and on other commercial retrieval systems. The rapid expansion of the DOE's activities will result in a commitant thesaurus expansion as information relating to new activities is indexed. Only the terms used in the indexing of documents at the Technical Information Center to date are included. (JSR)

  15. Titan Lifting Entry & Atmospheric Flight (T-LEAF) Science Mission (United States)

    Lee, G.; Sen, B.; Ross, F.; Sokol, D.


    Northrop Grumman has been developing the Titan Lifting Entry & Atmospheric Flight (T-LEAF) sky rover to roam the lower atmosphere and observe at close quarters the lakes and plains of Saturn's ocean moon, Titan. T-LEAF also supports surface exploration and science by providing precision delivery of in-situ instruments to the surface of Titan. T-LEAF is a highly maneuverable sky rover and its aerodynamic shape (i.e., a flying wing) does not restrict it to following prevailing wind patterns on Titan, but allows mission operators to chart its course. This freedom of mobility allows T-LEAF to follow the shorelines of Titan's methane lakes, for example, or to target very specific surface locations. We will present a straw man concept of T-LEAF, including size, mass, power, on-board science payloads and measurement, and surface science dropsonde deployment CONOPS. We will discuss the various science instruments and their vehicle level impacts, such as meteorological and electric field sensors, acoustic sensors for measuring shallow depths, multi-spectral imagers, high definition cameras and surface science dropsondes. The stability of T-LEAF and its long residence time on Titan will provide for time to perform a large aerial survey of select prime surface targets deployment of dropsondes at selected locations surface measurements that are coordinated with on-board remote measurements communication relay capabilities to orbiter (or Earth). In this context, we will specifically focus upon key factors impacting the design and performance of T-LEAF science: science payload accommodation, constraints and opportunities characteristics of flight, payload deployment and measurement CONOPS in the Titan atmosphere. This presentation will show how these factors provide constraints as well as enable opportunities for novel long duration scientific studies of Titan's surface.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh


    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  17. Boronic acid-modified lipid nanocapsules: a novel platform for the highly efficient inhibition of hepatitis C viral entry (United States)

    Khanal, Manakamana; Barras, Alexandre; Vausselin, Thibaut; Fénéant, Lucie; Boukherroub, Rabah; Siriwardena, Aloysius; Dubuisson, Jean; Szunerits, Sabine


    The search for viral entry inhibitors that selectively target viral envelope glycoproteins has attracted increasing interest in recent years. Amongst the handful of molecules reported to show activity as hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry inhibitors are a variety of glycan-binding proteins including the lectins, cyanovirin-N (CV-N) and griffithsin. We recently demonstrated that boronic acid-modified nanoparticles are able to reduce HCV entry through a similar mechanism to that of lectins. A major obstacle to any further development of these nanostructures as viral entry inhibitors is their only moderate maximal inhibition potential. In the present study, we report that lipid nanocapsules (LNCs), surface-functionalized with amphiphilic boronic acid (BA) through their post-insertion into the semi-rigid shell of the LNCs, are indeed far superior as HCV entry inhibitors when compared with previously reported nanostructures. These 2nd generation particles (BA-LNCs) are shown to prevent HCV infection in the micromolar range (IC50 = 5.4 μM of BA moieties), whereas the corresponding BA monomers show no significant effects even at the highest analyzed concentration (20 μM). The new BA-LNCs are the most promising boronolectin-based HCV entry inhibitors reported to date and are thus observed to show great promise in the development of a pseudolectin-based therapeutic agent.The search for viral entry inhibitors that selectively target viral envelope glycoproteins has attracted increasing interest in recent years. Amongst the handful of molecules reported to show activity as hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry inhibitors are a variety of glycan-binding proteins including the lectins, cyanovirin-N (CV-N) and griffithsin. We recently demonstrated that boronic acid-modified nanoparticles are able to reduce HCV entry through a similar mechanism to that of lectins. A major obstacle to any further development of these nanostructures as viral entry inhibitors is their only moderate maximal

  18. Airborne re-entry observation experiment SLIT: UV spectroscopy during STARDUST and ATV1 re-entry (United States)

    Löhle, Stefan; Wernitz, Ricarda; Herdrich, Georg; Fertig, Markus; Röser, Hans-Peter; Ritter, Heiko


    Emission spectra during re-entry have been measured in 2006 for the STARDUST capsule and in 2008 for the ATV1 "Jules Verne" re-entry. This paper summarizes the approach to design the airborne UV spectroscopic setup and its modifications with respect to the missions. For the STARDUST mission, results of data analysis of data presented in 2008 are given while for the ATV1 observation first spectra of the main disruption are exemplary presented. The surface radiation during the STARDUST re-entry is used to estimate convective and radiative heat flux using different analytical models. A first look at the spectroscopic footprint of ATV1 shows that during the first explosive event, a severe break-up of the main ATV1 structure occurs. However, a correlation with an explosion of fuel could not be observed.

  19. Subjectivity and severe psychiatric disorders. (United States)

    Strauss, John


    To have a complete human science in the mental health field it is essential to give adequate attention to both the objective and the subjective data related to people with psychiatric disorders. The tendency in the past has been to ignore or discount one or the other of these data sources. Subjective data are particularly neglected, sometimes considered (only) part of the "art" of medicine since the usual methodologies of the physical sciences in themselves are not adequate to reflect the nature, elusiveness, and complexity of human subjective experience. The complete experience of hallucinated voices, for instance, often includes not only the voices themselves but also terrible anguish and terrifying inability to concentrate. But even such descriptors fall unnecessarily short of reflecting the data of the experience, thus leaving research, theory, and treatment with incomplete information. To represent adequately the subjective data it is essential to recognize that besides the usual discursive knowledge and methods of traditional physical science, a second kind of knowledge and method is required to reflect the depth of human experience. To accomplish this, we must employ approaches to narrative and the arts that are uniquely capable of capturing the nature of these experiences. Only by attending seriously in our research, training, theory, and practice to the unique nature of subjective data is it possible to have a true human science for our field.

  20. [Reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement]. (United States)

    Grein, H-J; Schmidt, O; Ritsche, A


    Reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement is limited by various factors. The main factors affecting reproducibility include the characteristics of the measurement method and of the subject and the examiner. This article presents the results of a study on this topic, focusing on the reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement in healthy eyes. The results of previous studies are not all presented in the same way by the respective authors and cannot be fully standardized without consulting the original scientific data. To the extent that they are comparable, the results of our study largely correspond largely with those of previous investigations: During repeated subjective refraction measurement, 95% of the deviation from the mean value was approximately ±0.2 D to ±0.65 D for the spherical equivalent and cylindrical power. The reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement in healthy eyes is limited, even under ideal conditions. Correct assessment of refraction results is only feasible after identifying individual variability. Several measurements are required. Refraction cannot be measured without a tolerance range. The English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink (under supplemental).

  1. The Data Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter


    This article considers whether it is fortunate that data protection rules, as a starting point, apply to all physical persons as data subjects, or whether it would be better to differentiate between kinds of persons on grounds of their ability to act as a data subject. In order to protect all...... persons, it is argued that a principle of care should be part of data protection law....

  2. Electron tomography of the contact between T cells and SIV/HIV-1: implications for viral entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Sougrat


    Full Text Available The envelope glycoproteins of primate lentiviruses, including human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV, are heterodimers of a transmembrane glycoprotein (usually gp41, and a surface glycoprotein (gp120, which binds CD4 on target cells to initiate viral entry. We have used electron tomography to determine the three-dimensional architectures of purified SIV virions in isolation and in contact with CD4+ target cells. The trimeric viral envelope glycoprotein surface spikes are heterogeneous in appearance and typically approximately 120 A long and approximately 120 A wide at the distal end. Docking of SIV or HIV-1 on the T cell surface occurs via a neck-shaped contact region that is approximately 400 A wide and consistently consists of a closely spaced cluster of five to seven rod-shaped features, each approximately 100 A long and approximately 100 A wide. This distinctive structure is not observed when viruses are incubated with T lymphocytes in the presence of anti-CD4 antibodies, the CCR5 antagonist TAK779, or the peptide entry inhibitor SIVmac251 C34. For virions bound to cells, few trimers were observed away from this cluster at the virion-cell interface, even in cases where virus preparations showing as many as 70 envelope glycoprotein trimers per virus particle were used. This contact zone, which we term the "entry claw", provides a spatial context to understand the molecular mechanisms of viral entry. Determination of the molecular composition and structure of the entry claw may facilitate the identification of improved drugs for the inhibition of HIV-1 entry.

  3. Repetitive natriuresis and blood pressure. Long-term calcium entry blockade with isradipine. (United States)

    Krusell, L R; Jespersen, L T; Schmitz, A; Thomsen, K; Pedersen, O L


    The long-term effects (3.5 months) of a new calcium entry blocker of the 1-4-dihydropyridine class, isradipine (PN 200-110), on renal hemodynamics and excretional parameters were investigated in 10 essential hypertensive subjects (World Health Organization Classes I and II). Blood pressure and renal vascular resistance fell significantly (p less than 0.001), and a slight increase in glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow was seen (p less than 0.05). Output of fluid from the proximal tubules, measured as clearance of lithium and uric acid, increased significantly (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.05, respectively), and a compensatory increase in absolute reabsorption of sodium beyond the proximal tubular level accompanied by an increase in clearance of potassium was noted. A 40% increase in the resultant clearance of sodium (p less than 0.01) and an increase in diuresis (p less than 0.05) followed the morning dose of isradipine after 3.5 months of treatment. Changes in blood pressure were significantly correlated with changes in absolute proximal reabsorption of sodium (r = 0.81), excretion of sodium (r = -0.64), and diuresis (r = -0.80). Thus, the natriuretic properties of calcium entry blockers may be more important for the long-term antihypertensive effect than the vasodilator effect per se. A model for renal sodium handling following treatment with calcium entry blockers was proposed. Although a causal relationship is not implied, isradipine induced a sustained, repetitive postdose effect on proximal fluid output, net natriuresis, and diuresis, that was intimately related to the long-term blood pressure-regulating response.

  4. Subjective response to foot-fall noise, including localization of the source position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas; Hwang, Ha Dong; Jeong, Cheol-Ho


    annoyance, using simulated binaural room impulse responses, with sources being a moving point source or a non-moving surface source, and rooms being a room with a reverberation time of 0.5 s or an anechoic room. The paper concludes that no strong effect of the source localization on the annoyance can...

  5. Aciduric microbial taxa including Scardovia wiggsiae and Bifidobacterium spp. in caries and caries free subjects. (United States)

    Henne, Karsten; Rheinberg, Anke; Melzer-Krick, Beate; Conrads, Georg


    Actinobacteria came into focus of being potential caries-associated pathogens and could, together with the established Streptococcus mutans and lactobacilli thus function as caries indicator species. Here we analyzed the role and diagnostic predictive value of the acidogenic-aciduric species Scardovia wiggsiae and Bifidobacterium dentium together with S. mutans, lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in biofilm of non-cavitated (n = 20) and cavitated (n = 6) caries lesions versus controls (n = 30). For the genus Bifidobacterium and for B. dentium new sets of primers were designed. Based on real-time quantitative PCR and confirmed by DNA sequencing we found a higher prevalence (61.5%) of S. wiggsiae in caries lesions than in controls (40%). However, among the controls we found three individuals with both the highest absolute and relative S. wiggsiae numbers. Testing for S. mutans revealed the same prevalence as S. wiggsiae in caries lesions (61.5%) but in controls its prevalence was only 10%. B. dentium was never found in healthy plaque but in 30.8% of clinical cases, with the highest numbers in cavitated lesions. The Bifidobacterium-genus specific PCR had less discriminative power as more control samples were positive. We calculated the relative abundances and applied receiver operating characteristic analyses. The top results of specificity (93% and 87%) and sensitivity (100% and 88%) were found when the constraint set was "Lactobacillus relative abundance ≥0.02%" and "two aciduric species with a relative abundance of each ≥0.007%". Combinatory measurement of several aciduric taxa may be useful to reveal caries activity or even to predict caries progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Voice, Post-Structural Representation and the Subjectivity of "Included" Students (United States)

    Whitburn, Ben


    Aligned with the broader movement from structuralism to the post-structuralisms [Lather, P. 2013. "Methodology-21: What Do We Do in the Afterward?" "International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education" 26 (6): 634-645; St. Pierre, E. A. 2009. "Afterword: Decentering Voice in Qualitative Inquiry." In "Voice…

  7. [Can men be included in the population subjected to puerperal psychosis? A case report]. (United States)

    Colombel, M; Rebillard, C; Nathou, C; Dollfus, S


    Puerperal psychosis (PP) is a psychiatric disorder that occurs in 1 out of 1000 pregnancies. Well known since antiquity, its symptoms have often been described in mothers, but few studies have successfully investigated a related disorder in fathers. The characteristic of this pathology is more related to its appearance than to its semiological description which is why its nosographic place is always discussed. The objective here is to focus on the definition of PP and to suggest an entity for both genders. Our case report focused on the clinical description of an eighteen-year-old man suffering from an acute psychosis episode that occurred around the birth of his first child. Delusion followed a sudden decline in mood that lasted for a short period of time during the course of the third trimester of his wife's pregnancy. The delirium was rich with auditory and cenesthesic hallucinations, pregnancy and birth denial, feeling movements and hearing voices in his stomach. The symptoms disappeared after one month of treatment via an antipsychotic drug, risperidone. We can confirm that the symptomatic description of the disorder in this patient fits the classical descriptions of PP. Two elements make the PP different from other acute psychoses: the context of pregnancy and delirium focused on the child which can lead to a child murder. The absence of a framework precisely defining the PP does not improve its prevention and can lead to legal attitudes rather than medical care. Men suffering from acute psychosis in a context of pregnancy are submitted to the same risks as women. It is necessary to emphasize descriptions of PP in men to redefine the disease and consider that this entity involves both men and women. Copyright © 2016 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. A score including ADAM17 substrates correlates to recurring cardiovascular event in subjects with atherosclerosis. (United States)

    Rizza, Stefano; Copetti, Massimiliano; Cardellini, Marina; Menghini, Rossella; Pecchioli, Chiara; Luzi, Alessio; Di Cola, Giovanni; Porzio, Ottavia; Ippoliti, Arnaldo; Romeo, Franco; Pellegrini, Fabio; Federici, Massimo


    Atherosclerosis disease is a leading cause for mortality and morbidity. The narrowing/rupture of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque is accountable for acute cardiovascular events. However, despite of an intensive research, a reliable clinical method which may disclose a vulnerable patient is still unavailable. We tested the association of ADAM17 (A Disintegrin and Metallo Protease Domain 17) circulating substrates (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sIL6R and sTNFR1) with a second major cardiovascular events [MACEs] (cardiovascular death, peripheral artery surgeries, non-fatal myocardial infarction and non-fatal stroke) in 298 patients belonging to the Vascular Diabetes (AVD) study. To evaluate ADAM17 activity we create ADAM17 score through a RECPAM model. Finally we tested the discrimination ability and the reclassification of clinical models. At follow-up (mean 47 months, range 1-118 months), 55 MACEs occurred (14 nonfatal MI, 14 nonfatal strokes, 17 peripheral artery procedures and 10 cardiovascular deaths) (incidence = 7.8% person-years). An increased risk for incident events was observed among the high ADAM17 score individuals both in univariable (HR 19.20, 95% CI 15.82-63.36, p atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes in Cerebral Hemodynamics during Complex Motor Learning by Character Entry into Touch-Screen Terminals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Sagari

    Full Text Available Studies of cerebral hemodynamics during motor learning have mostly focused on neurorehabilitation interventions and their effectiveness. However, only a few imaging studies of motor learning and the underlying complex cognitive processes have been performed.We measured cerebral hemodynamics using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS in relation to acquisition patterns of motor skills in healthy subjects using character entry into a touch-screen terminal. Twenty healthy, right-handed subjects who had no previous experience with character entry using a touch-screen terminal participated in this study. They were asked to enter the characters of a randomly formed Japanese syllabary into the touch-screen terminal. All subjects performed the task with their right thumb for 15 s alternating with 25 s of rest for 30 repetitions. Performance was calculated by subtracting the number of incorrect answers from the number of correct answers, and gains in motor skills were evaluated according to the changes in performance across cycles. Behavioral and oxygenated hemoglobin concentration changes across task cycles were analyzed using Spearman's rank correlations.Performance correlated positively with task cycle, thus confirming motor learning. Hemodynamic activation over the left sensorimotor cortex (SMC showed a positive correlation with task cycle, whereas activations over the right prefrontal cortex (PFC and supplementary motor area (SMA showed negative correlations.We suggest that increases in finger momentum with motor learning are reflected in the activity of the left SMC. We further speculate that the right PFC and SMA were activated during the early phases of motor learning, and that this activity was attenuated with learning progress.

  10. 7 CFR 322.21 - Post-entry handling. (United States)


    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... or parasites of bees, or of undesirable species or strains of honeybees. We will use the following... systems, contain the restricted organisms, parasites and pathogens, and prevent the entry of other...

  11. Parachute triggering algorithms for re-entry vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ording, B.E.; Sudars, M.; Brouwer, G.F.

    Most re-entry vehicles utilize a Descent and Landing System (DLS) for a safe descent through the lowest part of the atmosphere. It usually requires deployment in a certain suitable range of flight conditions, which has to be estimated by limited means of navigation. This paper presents a comparison

  12. 76 FR 13703 - New Origin Entry Separation & Containerization Standards (United States)


    ...'' information in L604 or L603. There is no minimum load threshold for this separation. Periodicals Local Surface... for Periodicals piece processing based on the origin entry point. Prepare container (pallet) placards... a container price applicable to Periodicals bundles placed directly on mixed ADC pallets or...

  13. The role of digital data entry in participatory environmental monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brammer, Jeremy R.; Brunet, Nicolas D.; Burton, A.C.; Cuerrier, Alain; Danielsen, Finn; Dewan, Kanwaljeet; Herrmann, Thora Martina; Jackson, Micha V.; Kennett, Rod; Larocque, Guillaume; Mulrennan, Monica; Pratihast, Arun Kumar; Saint-Arnaud, Marie; Scott, Colin; Humphries, Murray M.


    Many argue that monitoring conducted exclusively by scientists is insufficient to address ongoing environmental challenges. One solution entails the use of mobile digital devices in participatory monitoring (PM) programs. But how digital data entry affects programs with varying levels of

  14. 7 CFR 322.11 - Ports of entry. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ports of entry. 322.11 Section 322.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult...

  15. 7 CFR 322.19 - Inspection; refusal of entry. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection; refusal of entry. 322.19 Section 322.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of...

  16. 7 CFR 322.35 - Ports of entry. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ports of entry. 322.35 Section 322.35 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation and Transit of...

  17. 7 CFR 322.10 - Inspection; refusal of entry. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection; refusal of entry. 322.10 Section 322.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of...

  18. 7 CFR 322.20 - Ports of entry. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ports of entry. 322.20 Section 322.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Restricted...

  19. 7 CFR 322.34 - Inspection; refusal of entry. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection; refusal of entry. 322.34 Section 322.34 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation and...

  20. 50 CFR 660.512 - Limited entry fishery. (United States)


    ... of a vessel with more than 5 mt of CPS finfish on board in the CPS Limited Entry Zone, other than... permit for a vessel will be issued only if that vessel landed 100 mt of CPS finfish from January 1, 1993...) and implementing regulations at 15 CFR part 904, subpart D, apply. (f) Initial issuance. (1) The SFD...

  1. The Association of Kindergarten Entry Age with Early Literacy Outcomes (United States)

    Huang, Francis L.; Invernizzi, Marcia A.


    The authors investigated whether age at kindergarten entry was associated with early literacy achievement gaps and if these gaps persisted over time. Using the kindergarten age eligibility cutoff date, they created 2 groups of students who represented the oldest and youngest children in a cohort of students in high-poverty, low-performing schools.…

  2. Graduate entry students' early perceptions of their future nursing careers. (United States)

    McKenna, Lisa; Brooks, Ingrid


    Graduate entry nursing programs designed for individuals with prior degrees in other disciplines are becoming increasingly popular internationally. They provide entry into nursing for people with unique skill-sets. Yet, little is known about why these individuals choose career change into nursing and what they expect from their new careers. This component of a larger study sought to explore graduate entry nursing students' short and longer term career intentions on commencement of their courses. A cross-sectional survey was used. Descriptive frequencies were used to analyse demographic data, while summative content analysis was used with the open-ended questions. Participants were drawn from eight cohorts of commencing students from enrolled in one graduate entry masters program in Australia between 2009 and 2015. Content analysis identified three main categories: professional role, work location, and work context. Longer term responses were categorised under four categories: professional role, work location, work context and personal and professional goals. Many students had clear directions about their future nursing careers. On graduation, many envisioned working in advanced roles or in clinical specialty areas, primarily in hospital settings. However, in the longer term, there was diversity among with many envisaging work outside traditional hospital settings, and some in other health disciplines. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mentor Relationships for Entry-Level Men in Student Affairs (United States)

    Calhoun, Daniel W.; Taub, Deborah J.


    This qualitative study examined the experiences of entry-level men in student affairs, with particular focus on the function of mentors and role models. Through semistructured interviews and a focus group, 22 participants shared their thoughts and experiences regarding mentorship. Results indicated mentorship to be instrumental in recruitment and…

  4. Forecast and capacity planning for Nogales' ports of entry. (United States)


    This report documents the findings and the activities performed under ADOT grant JPA 08024T. The overall purpose of this study was to forecast the number of border crossings by mode of traffic at the NogalesMariposa and DeConcini Ports of Entry...

  5. Methods and Devices: An Alternative Instrument for Making Entry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femoral shaft fractures are common in children and are increasingly being treated with elastic intramedullary nail. We outline an instrument we have used successfully to make an entry point for placement of elastic nail. Keywords: Elastic nailing, Fracture shaft femur, Technique ...

  6. Leadership: Industry Needs for Entry-Level Engineering Positions (United States)

    Hartmann, Beth Lin; Jahren, Charles T.


    This paper presents the results of a study that sought to identify what companies mean by the word "leadership" when used a job descriptions for entry-level, full-time engineering positions. Seven years of job posting data was analyzed to first understand the frequency and use of the word "leadership" in job descriptions. Using…

  7. The Entrepreneurial Process: An International Analysis of Entry and Exit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W. van der Zwan (Peter)


    textabstractThis thesis deals with the entrepreneurial process from an international perspective. The first part explores which people decide to enter entrepreneurship. A distinction is made between two modes of entrepreneurial entry: taking over an existing firm and starting a new firm. The second

  8. Age at school entry and intergenerational educational mobility


    Philipp C. Bauer; Riphahn, Regina T.


    We use Swiss data to test whether intergenerational educational mobility is affected by the age at which children first enter (primary) school. Early age at school entry significantly affects mobility and reduces the relative advantage of children of better educated parents.

  9. How Dictionary Users Choose Senses in Bilingual Dictionary Entries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Throughout the task, an eye-tracking device unobtrusively recorded their gaze patterns, which are analyzed and discussed. Both successful and unsuccessful searches are examined. Also, we assess the potential of eye-tracking technology in the study of dictionary use. Keywords: eye tracking, bilingual dictionary, entry ...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1849-01 - Right of entry. (United States)


    ... Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Right of entry. 86.1849-01 Section 86.1849-01 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...

  11. Voices of Women at Entry Level Positions of Educational Administration. (United States)

    Hackney, Catherine Eggleston


    This paper examines the effects of organizational culture on women's professional lives. It focuses on women in entry-level positions in educational administration and explores the interaction of organizational attitudes and expectations with the participants' personalities, epistemological positions, work needs, performance self-esteem, and sense…

  12. Application of an Aesthetic Evaluation Model to Data Entry Screens. (United States)

    Ngo, D. C. L.; Byrne, J. G.


    Describes a new model for quantitatively assessing screen formats. Results of applying the model to data entry screens support the use of the model. Also described is a critiquing mechanism embedded in a user interface design environment as a demonstration of this approach. (Author/AEF)

  13. On satellite umbra/penumbra entry and exit positions


    Neta, Beny; Vellado, David


    The problem of computing Earth satellite entry and exit positions through the Earth's umbra and penumbra, for satellites in elliptical orbits, is solved without the use of a quartic equation. A condition for existence of a solution is given. This problem is related to perturbation force resulting from solar radiation pressure.

  14. Cygnus Code Simulation of Magnetoshell Aerocapture and Entry System (United States)

    Shimazu, Akihisa; Kirtley, David; Barnes, Dan; Slough, John


    A Magnetoshell Aerocapture and Entry System (MAC) is a novel concept for planetary atmospheric entry, which enables both manned and planetary deep space orbiter space missions that are difficult with present day technologies. The MAC uses a low-beta dipole plasma magnetoshell to produce a drag effect on the spacecraft through the collisional interactions between the entry atmospheric neutrals and the confined plasma in the magnetoshell, creating a dynamic and controllable plasma parachute for entry. To understand the performance and the behavior of the MAC, the Cygnus 2D Hall MHD code is used for this study. The Cygnus code is a 2D Hall MHD code with coupled external circuits, which has been originally developed for studying FRC formation, translation, merging, and compression. In this study, the Cygnus code is modified to support the MAC geometry with a simplified plasma-neutral model that accounts for electron-impact ionization, radiative recombination, and resonant charge exchange to simulate the collisional interaction processes for the MAC.

  15. From nascent to actual entrepreneurship: the effect of entry barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van Stel (André); D. Storey (David); A.R.M. Wennekers (Sander); A.R. Thurik (Roy)


    textabstractThis exploratory study focuses on the conversion from nascent to actual entrepreneurship and the role of entry barriers in this process. Using data for a sample of countries participating in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor between 2002 and 2004, we estimate a twoequation model

  16. Essays on Empirical Industrial Organization : Entry and Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Machado, Roxana


    The dissertation contains three essays on empirical industrial organization devoted to studying firms' strategic interaction in different settings. The first essay develops an entry model to address an important matter in the area of urban economics: the development of cities. In particular, it

  17. A new approach to orientation: professional entry into practice. (United States)

    Bowers, Bendi; Bennett, Sandra S; Schneider, Sharon K; Brunner, Barbie W


    With a strong emphasis on the overall recruitment and retention of staff, the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Clinical Programs Staff Education Department, developed a new orientation program: "Professional Entry Into Practice." This article provides the model to review current orientation processes and to revise and evaluate new orientation processes.

  18. Candidate Medical Countermeasures Targeting Ebola Virus Cell Entry (United States)


    vesiculoviruses in vitro [96]. 261 The pharmacokinetic profile of K11777 in rodents, dogs , and nonhuman primates is suggestive 262 of its safety in humans [97...2123-2131 (2014). 600 89. Wolf MC, Freiberg AN, Zhang T et al. A broad-spectrum antiviral targeting entry of 601 enveloped viruses. Proc. Natl. Acad

  19. Oblique water entry of a three dimensional body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scolan Yves-Marie


    Full Text Available The problem of the oblique water entry of a three dimensional body is considered. Wagner theory is the theoretical framework. Applications are discussed for an elliptic paraboloid entering an initially flat free surface. A dedicated experimental campaign yields a data base for comparisons. In the present analysis, pressure, force and dynamics of the wetted surface expansion are assessed.

  20. Late entry to antenatal care in New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubin George


    Full Text Available Abstract Aims This study aimed to assess the prevalence of women who entered antenatal care (ANC late and to identify factors related to the late entry to ANC in New South Wales (NSW in 2004. Methods The NSW Midwives Data Collection contained data of 85,034 women who gave birth in 2004. Data were downloaded using SAS and transferred to STATA 8.0. Entering ANC after 12 weeks of gestation was classified as late. The Andersen Health Seeking Behaviour Model was used for selection and analyses of related factors. Regression and hierarchical analyses were used to identify significant factors and their relative contributions to the variation of pregnancy duration at entry to ANC. Results 41% of women commenced ANC after 12 weeks of gestation. Inequality existed between groups of women with predisposing characteristics and enabling resources contributed more to the variation in pregnancy duration at entry to ANC than needs. The groups of women with highest risk were teenagers, migrants from developing countries, women living in Western Sydney, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, women with three or more previous pregnancies and heavy smokers. The high risk groups with largest number of women were migrants from developing countries and women living in Western Sydney. Conclusion A large number of women in NSW entered ANC late in their pregnancies. Efforts to increase early entry to ANC should be targeted on identified high risk groups of women.

  1. Cones of Games arising from Market Entry Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brânzei, R.; Tijs, S.H.; Timmer, J.B.


    Market entry situations are modelled, where an entrepreneur has to decide for a collection of markets which market to enter and which not. The entrepreneur can improve his prior information by making use of a group of informants, each of them knowing the situation in one or more markets. For such a

  2. Entry Level Systems Analysts: What Does the Industry Want?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Grant


    Full Text Available This study investigates the skill sets necessary for entry level systems analysts. Towards this end, the study combines two sources of data, namely, a content analysis of 200 systems analysts’ online job advertisements and a survey of 20 senior Information Systems (IS professionals. Based on Chi-square tests, the results reveal that most employers prefer entry level systems analysts with an undergraduate Computer Science degree. Furthermore, most of the employers prefer entry level systems analysts to have some years of experience as well as industry certifications. The results also reveal that there is a higher preference for entry level systems analysts who have non-technical and people skills (e.g., problem solving and oral communication. The empirical results from this study will inform IS educators as they develop future systems analysts. Additionally, the results will be useful to the aspiring systems analysts who need to make sure that they have the necessary job skills before graduating and entering the labor market.

  3. The University of Sydney Library Catalogue Data Entry System. (United States)

    Jacob, M. E. L.; And Others


    This report is a description of the history, development, and present state of the University of Sydney Library Catalog Data Entry System. The system has been designed for use on an IBM System 360/20 using assembler programing language. While its primary objective is the generation of machine-readable catalogs, a byproduct of the system has been…

  4. Rift Valley Fever Virus Glycoproteins, Key to Entry and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, S.M.


    In this thesis we have focussed on the RVFV Gn and Gc glycoproteins, the keys for virus entry and virus control. RVFV is an emerging virus that has already spread across the African continent and to the Arabian Peninsula. Outbreaks of RVFV are characterized by abortion storms and high mortality,

  5. 46 CFR 14.305 - Entries in continuous discharge book. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Entries in continuous discharge book. 14.305 Section 14.305 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN SHIPMENT... discharge book. If the merchant mariner holds a continuous discharge book, the master or individual in...

  6. Essential Entry-Level Skills for Systems Analysts (United States)

    Banerjee, Sarbani; Lin, William


    In this study, the authors provide some details about a variety of entry-level skills that are vitally important to systems analysts. They gathered the data from information technology practitioners, who related their experiences with real-world systems development projects. Such empirical evidence may be useful to faculty as they decide which…

  7. Parachute triggering algorithms for re-entry vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ording, B.E.; Sudars, M.; Brouwer, G.F.


    Most re-entry vehicles utilize a Descent and Landing System (DLS) for a safe descent through the lowest part of the atmosphere. It usually requires deployment in a certain suitable range of flight conditions, which has to be estimated by limited means of navigation. This paper presents a comparison

  8. Does competitive entry structurally change key marketing metrics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornelis, Marcel; Dekimpe, Marnik G.; Leeflang, Peter S. H.

    To what extent does competitive entry create a structural change in key marketing metrics? New players mayjust be a temporal nuisance to incumbents, but could also fundamentally change the latter's performance evolution, or induce them to permanently alter their spending levels and/or pricing

  9. Integrated alarm annunciation and entry control systems -- Survey results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clever, J.J.; Arakaki, L.H.; Monaco, F.M.; Juarros, L.E.; Quintana, G.R.


    This report provides the results and analyses of a detailed survey undertaken in Summer 1993 to address integrated intrusion detection alarm annunciation and entry control system issues. This survey was undertaken as a first attempt toward beginning to answer questions about integrated systems and commercial capabilities to meet or partially meet US Department of Energy (DOE) site needs.

  10. 19 CFR 147.43 - Entry under the Customs laws. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry under the Customs laws. 147.43 Section 147.43 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF... the Customs laws. (a) Payment of duties and taxes. Any applicable duties and internal revenue taxes on...

  11. Risk Factors for Mosquito House Entry in the Lao PDR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiscox, A.F.; Khammanithong, P.; Kaul, S.; Sananikhom, P.; Luthi, R.; Hill, N.; Brey, P.T.; Lindsay, S.W.


    Background Construction of the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project and flooding of a 450 km2 area of mountain plateau in south-central Lao PDR resulted in the resettlement of 6,300 people to newly built homes. We examined whether new houses would have altered risk of house entry by mosquitoes compared

  12. Largest Two Entries in a Row and Column

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 2. Largest Two Entries in a Row and Column. R B Bapat. Classroom Volume 5 Issue 2 February 2000 pp 68-71. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Author Affiliations.

  13. Widening Participation and Contextual Entry Policy in Accounting and Finance (United States)

    Rowbottom, N.


    The paper examines the performance of accounting and finance students entering university via a "widening participation" scheme that seeks to attract students who have been historically under-represented in higher education. Focus is placed on the policy of providing contextual entry offers that recognise that academic qualifications be…

  14. Data link relay design. [space probe with entry at Uranus (United States)

    Parsons, P.


    The data link for the Ames baseline probe as applied to the MJU spacecraft specifically with an entry at Uranus is analyzed. A frequency analysis, a trajectory analysis, and a discussion of the effects on the spacecraft design by the data link are presented. The possibilities of a two-way link are considered.

  15. SME's perceptions regarding strategic and structural entry barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutz, Clemens; Kemp, Ron; Dijkstra, S. Gerhard


    Abstract Extant literature discusses a large number of different entry barriers that may hamper market efficiency or entrepreneurial activity. In practice several of these barriers cohere and stem from the same root. Factor analysis is used to identify the underlying dimensions of these barriers. 7

  16. Love me tender: new entry in popular music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, J.; Chiu, M.M.; Wijnberg, N.


    The purpose of this paper is to investigate new entry as a process of organizational change against the background of the digital revolution in the music industry. The study analyzes questionnaire data gathered from 131 companies active in the Dutch music industry that collectively engaged in 215

  17. Pilot's Guide to an Airline Career, Including Sample Pre-Employment Tests. (United States)

    Traylor, W.L.

    Occupational information for persons considering a career as an airline pilot includes a detailed description of the pilot's duties and material concerning preparation for occupational entry and determining the relative merits of available jobs. The book consists of four parts: Part I, The Job, provides an overview of a pilot's duties in his daily…

  18. Nasal-associated lymphoid tissue and olfactory epithelium as portals of entry for Burkholderia pseudomallei in murine melioidosis. (United States)

    Owen, Suzzanne J; Batzloff, Michael; Chehrehasa, Fatemeh; Meedeniya, Adrian; Casart, Yveth; Logue, Carie-Anne; Hirst, Robert G; Peak, Ian R; Mackay-Sim, Alan; Beacham, Ifor R


    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is generally considered to be acquired via inhalation of dust or water droplets from the environment. In this study, we show that infection of the nasal mucosa is potentially an important portal of entry in melioidosis. After intranasal inoculation of mice, infection was monitored by bioluminescence imaging and by immunohistological analysis of coronal sections. The bacterial loads in organ and tissue specimens were also monitored. Bioluminescence imaging showed colonization and replication in the nasal cavity, including the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT). Analysis of coronal sections and immunofluorescence microscopy further demonstrated the presence of infection in the respiratory epithelium and the olfactory epithelium (including associated nerve bundles), as well as in the NALT. Of significance, the olfactory epithelium and the brain were rapidly infected before bacteria were detected in blood, and a capsule-deficient mutant infected the brain without significantly infecting blood. These data suggest that the olfactory nerve is the route of entry into the brain and that this route of entry may be paralleled in cases of human neurologic melioidosis. This study focuses attention on the upper respiratory tract as a portal of entry, specifically focusing on NALT as a route for the development of systemic infection via the bloodstream and on the olfactory epithelium as a direct route to the brain.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusuf ZEKIRI


    Full Text Available Organizations that operate in international markets need to make the most important decisions in order to select a best mode of entry into foreign markets. This paper attempts to clarify some of the issues arising in international market selection. A firm must assess before entering a particular market the motives and  potential factors that play a significant role during the process of decision making for market selection. An overview of the current methodologies for market selection based on the literature on international marketing is provided. Therefore, the main objective of the paper is to outline and discuss the relevant issues and challenges from a theoretical viewpoint related with the possible entry modes into international and global markets. This paper concentrates on secondary sources of research regarding the internationalisation of businesses.  According to the previous literature, scholars have already found out some of determinants influencing the efficiency of foreign entry, such as: economic factors, political risk, legal factors, cultural factor, international experience, etc. A model can be outlined from the theoretical viewpoints about the advantages and disadvantage of each foreign market entry strategy discussed. One of the fundamental steps that need to be taken prior to beginning international marketing is the environmental analysis. There are uncontrollable forces which are external forces upon which the management has no direct control, although it can exert an influence. Internal forces are controllable forces upon which the management administers to adapt to changes in the uncontrollable forces. The conclusion will provide a short summary of identified key elements that need to be considered by management in choosing international markets and their foreign market entry modes.

  20. A novel small molecule inhibitor of hepatitis C virus entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl J Baldick

    Full Text Available Small molecule inhibitors of hepatitis C virus (HCV are being developed to complement or replace treatments with pegylated interferons and ribavirin, which have poor response rates and significant side effects. Resistance to these inhibitors emerges rapidly in the clinic, suggesting that successful therapy will involve combination therapy with multiple inhibitors of different targets. The entry process of HCV into hepatocytes represents another series of potential targets for therapeutic intervention, involving viral structural proteins that have not been extensively explored due to experimental limitations. To discover HCV entry inhibitors, we utilized HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpp incorporating E1-E2 envelope proteins from a genotype 1b clinical isolate. Screening of a small molecule library identified a potent HCV-specific triazine inhibitor, EI-1. A series of HCVpp with E1-E2 sequences from various HCV isolates was used to show activity against all genotype 1a and 1b HCVpp tested, with median EC50 values of 0.134 and 0.027 µM, respectively. Time-of-addition experiments demonstrated a block in HCVpp entry, downstream of initial attachment to the cell surface, and prior to or concomitant with bafilomycin inhibition of endosomal acidification. EI-1 was equally active against cell-culture adapted HCV (HCVcc, blocking both cell-free entry and cell-to-cell transmission of virus. HCVcc with high-level resistance to EI-1 was selected by sequential passage in the presence of inhibitor, and resistance was shown to be conferred by changes to residue 719 in the carboxy-terminal transmembrane anchor region of E2, implicating this envelope protein in EI-1 susceptibility. Combinations of EI-1 with interferon, or inhibitors of NS3 or NS5A, resulted in additive to synergistic activity. These results suggest that inhibitors of HCV entry could be added to replication inhibitors and interferons already in development.