WorldWideScience

Sample records for subject effective date

  1. 18 CFR 1308.7 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 1308.7... General Matters § 1308.7 Effective date. Subject to § 1308.3(a), this part applies to any TVA contract having an effective date on or after March 1, 1979. ...

  2. 10 CFR 2.807 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective date. 2.807 Section 2.807 Energy NUCLEAR... § 2.807 Effective date. The notice of adoption of a regulation will specify the effective date... relieving from restrictions, will be made not less than thirty (30) days prior to the effective date unless...

  3. 18 CFR 11.7 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 11.7... Dams § 11.7 Effective date. All annual charges imposed under this subpart will be computed beginning on the effective date of the license unless some other date is fixed in the license. ...

  4. 36 CFR 1258.16 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 1258.16... AVAILABILITY AND USE FEES § 1258.16 Effective date. The fees in this part are effective on October 1, 2007. If your order was received by NARA before this effective date, we will charge the fees in effect at the...

  5. 42 CFR 435.914 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective date. 435.914 Section 435.914 Public... Eligibility § 435.914 Effective date. (a) The agency must make eligibility for Medicaid effective no later... during that month. (c) The State plan must specify the date on which eligibility will be made effective...

  6. 40 CFR 62.4626 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Phosphate Fertilizer Plants § 62.4626 Effective date. (a) The effective date of the portion of the plan applicable to phosphate fertilizer plants is July 12, 1982. Fluoride Emissions From Existing Primary Aluminum...

  7. 34 CFR 105.42 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 105.42 Section 105.42 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION § 105.42 Effective date. The effective date of this part is October 9, 1990. ...

  8. 10 CFR 784.13 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective dates. 784.13 Section 784.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PATENT WAIVER REGULATION § 784.13 Effective dates. Waivers shall be effective on the following dates: (a) For advance waivers of identified inventions, i.e., inventions conceived prior to the...

  9. 20 CFR 323.7 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 323.7 Section 323.7 Employees... NONGOVERNMENTAL PLANS FOR UNEMPLOYMENT OR SICKNESS INSURANCE § 323.7 Effective date. (a) This part shall not apply to a plan approved by the Director of Unemployment and Sickness Insurance prior to the effective date...

  10. 38 CFR 8a.3 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 8a.3... INSURANCE § 8a.3 Effective date. (a) Where the grant was approved prior to August 11, 1971, VMLI shall be effective August 11, 1971, if on that date, the eligible veteran was obligated under a mortgage loan, and...

  11. 49 CFR 571.8 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective date. 571.8 Section 571.8 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS General § 571.8 Effective date. (a) Firefighting vehicles. Notwithstanding the effective date provisions of the motor vehicle safety standards in...

  12. 39 CFR 601.101 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 601.101 Section 601.101 Postal... RIGHTS OTHER THAN PATENTS PURCHASING OF PROPERTY AND SERVICES § 601.101 Effective date. These regulations... that date will be governed by the regulations in effect at the time the solicitation was issued. ...

  13. 25 CFR 213.48 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Removal of Restrictions § 213.48 Effective date. The regulations in this part shall become effective and in full force from and after the date of approval (Apr. 27... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 213.48 Section 213.48 Indians BUREAU OF...

  14. 29 CFR 452.137 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective dates. 452.137 Section 452.137 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS... OF 1959 Dates and Scope of Application § 452.137 Effective dates. (a) Section 404 states when the...

  15. 40 CFR 745.81 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective dates. 745.81 Section 745.81... Effective dates. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 24818, May 6, 2010. (a) Training, certification and... Right: Important Lead Hazard Information for Families, Child Care Providers and Schools. After that date...

  16. 33 CFR 239.9 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 239.9 Section 239....9 Effective date. These regulations are applicable to all projects not approved by OCE prior to the date of this regulation. ...

  17. 32 CFR 270.3 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 270.3 Section 270.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS... Effective date. This part is effective on May 15, 1997. ...

  18. 18 CFR 808.19 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 808.19 Section 808.19 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION HEARINGS AND ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS Compliance and Enforcement § 808.19 Effective date. This part shall be effective on...

  19. 18 CFR 807.4 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 807.4 Section 807.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION WATER WITHDRAWAL REGISTRATION § 807.4 Effective date. This part shall be effective on January 1, 2007. ...

  20. 31 CFR 226.7 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 226.7 Section 226.7 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... LOAN DEPOSITARIES § 226.7 Effective date. The provisions of this part become effective November 2, 1978. ...

  1. 29 CFR 697.4 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective dates. 697.4 Section 697.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS INDUSTRIES IN AMERICAN SAMOA § 697.4 Effective dates. The wage rates specified in § 697.2 shall be effective on October...

  2. 32 CFR 242a.8 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 242a.8 Section 242a.8 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS... § 242a.8 Effective date. This part shall become effective on March 12, 1977. ...

  3. 40 CFR 745.339 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 745.339 Section 745.339 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT... Programs § 745.339 Effective date. States and Indian Tribes may seek authorization to administer and...

  4. 10 CFR 1023.102 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective date. 1023.102 Section 1023.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) CONTRACT APPEALS Rules of the Board of Contract Appeals § 1023.102 Effective date. The rules of the Board of Contract Appeals shall apply to all proceedings filed on or after...

  5. 31 CFR 357.1 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 357.1 Section 357.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... AND BILLS HELD IN LEGACY TREASURY DIRECT General Information § 357.1 Effective date. Subpart B of this...

  6. 32 CFR 191.10 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 191.10 Section 191.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS THE DOD CIVILIAN EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY (EEO) PROGRAM § 191.10 Effective date. This part is...

  7. 48 CFR 6301.6 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective date. 6301.6 Section 6301.6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BOARD OF CONTRACT APPEALS BOARD OF CONTRACT APPEALS 6301.6 Effective date. This chapter shall apply to all appeals relating...

  8. 44 CFR 206.17 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective date. 206.17 Section 206.17 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE General § 206.17 Effective date. These...

  9. 40 CFR 745.239 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective dates. 745.239 Section 745.239 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT... § 745.239 Effective dates. This subpart L shall apply in any State or Indian Country that does not have...

  10. 40 CFR 745.102 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective dates. 745.102 Section 745.102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT... dates. The requirements in this subpart take effect in the following manner: (a) For owners of more than...

  11. 42 CFR 489.104 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective dates. 489.104 Section 489.104 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... dates. These provisions apply to services furnished on or after December 1, 1991 payments made under...

  12. 7 CFR 1730.65 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective dates. 1730.65 Section 1730.65 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... dates. (a) All electric program borrowers with an approved electric program loan as of July 8, 2009...

  13. The freshwater reservoir effect in radiocarbon dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    effect on radiocarbon dating in an estuarine environment is examined. Here, freshwater influence causes reservoir ages to vary between 250 and 700 14C years during the period 5400 BC - AD 700. The examples in this study show clearly that the freshwater reservoir effect can seriously corrupt radiocarbon...... for radiocarbon dating of Mesolithic pottery from inland sites of the Ertebølle culture in Northern Germany. The surprisingly old ages of the earliest pottery most probably are caused by a freshwater reservoir effect. In a sediment core from the Limfjord, northern Denmark, the impact of the freshwater reservoir...

  14. 50 CFR 216.201 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Construction and Operation of Offshore Oil and Gas Facilities in the U.S. Beaufort Sea § 216.201 Effective dates. Regulations in this subpart are effective from April 6...

  15. 12 CFR 571.28 - Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application. 571.28 Section 571.28 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 571.28 Effective date, compliance date, and...

  16. 12 CFR 41.28 - Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application. 41.28 Section 41.28 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 41.28 Effective date, compliance date, and prospective...

  17. The freshwater reservoir effect in radiocarbon dating

    OpenAIRE

    Philippsen, Bente

    2012-01-01

    The freshwater reservoir effect can result in too high radiocarbon ages of samples from lakes and rivers, including the bones of people whose subsistence was based on freshwater fish, and pottery in which fish was cooked. In my talk, I will explain the causes and consequences of this effect. Two case studies will show the degree of variability of the freshwater reservoir effect over short and long timescales. Radiocarbon dating of recent water samples, aquatic plants and animals, shows that a...

  18. 24 CFR 100.148 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DISCRIMINATORY CONDUCT UNDER THE FAIR HOUSING ACT Discrimination in Residential Real Estate-Related Transactions... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 100.148 Section 100.148 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development OFFICE OF...

  19. 16 CFR 602.1 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT FAIR AND ACCURATE CREDIT TRANSACTIONS ACT OF 2003 § 602.1 Effective dates. (a)-(b) (c) The applicable provisions of the Fair and... implement the applicable provision of the FACT Act or the applicable provision of the Fair Credit Reporting...

  20. 31 CFR 800.210 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 800.210 Section 800.210 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS, AND...

  1. 45 CFR 1306.2 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 1, 1995, at which time they must comply with the three and one-half hour minimum class time..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START PROGRAM HEAD START STAFFING REQUIREMENTS AND PROGRAM OPTIONS General § 1306.2 Effective dates. (a) Except...

  2. 40 CFR 141.6 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective dates. 141.6 Section 141.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... measuring dalapon, dinoseb, diquat, endothall, endrin, glyphosate, oxamyl, picloram, simazine, benzo(a...

  3. The freshwater reservoir effect in radiocarbon dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    case studies will show the degree of variability of the freshwater reservoir effect over short and long timescales. Radiocarbon dating of recent water samples, aquatic plants and animals, shows that age differences of up to 2000 years can occur within one river. In the Limfjord, freshwater influence......The freshwater reservoir effect can result in too high radiocarbon ages of samples from lakes and rivers, including the bones of people whose subsistence was based on freshwater fish, and pottery in which fish was cooked. In my talk, I will explain the causes and consequences of this effect. Two...... caused reservoir ages to vary between 250 and 700 years during the period 5400 BC - AD 700. Finally, I will discuss the implications of the freshwater reservoir effect for radiocarbon dating of Mesolithic pottery from inland sites of the Ertebølle culture in Northern Germany....

  4. Race and Physical Attractiveness as Criteria for White Subjects' Dating Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Bem P.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments involving "desirability for a date" ratings of black and white stimulus persons who varied in attractiveness indicated white male and female subjects gave appreciable weight to race and attractiveness, but females gave race more weight than attractiveness, while attractiveness was given more weight than race by males. (Author)

  5. Effect of Algerian Varieties Dates on Glycemic, Arterial Blood Pressure and Satiety Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Gourchala Freha, Mihoub Fatma, Derradj Meriem, Henchiri Cherifa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study is to determine the Glycemic Indexes (GIs)of three Algerians varieties of dates in healthy subjects, evaluate the satiety and effect on arterial pressure after their consumption. We have first documented the chemical composition of the dates. 10 healthy subjects consumed the dates (carbohydrates content of 50 g) in order to determine the GIs. The responses of glycaemia were monitored during two hours after the dates taking and compared to the reference glucose. In a r...

  6. 12 CFR 334.28 - Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application. 334.28 Section 334.28 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 334.28 Effective date...

  7. 12 CFR 717.28 - Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application. 717.28 Section 717.28 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 717.28 Effective date...

  8. 26 CFR 1.771-1 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 1.771-1 Section 1.771-1 Internal... TAXES Effective Date for Subchapter K, Chapter 1 of the Code § 1.771-1 Effective date. (a) General rule.... Certain provisions of section 771 apply after specific dates in 1954, as follows: (1) Adoption of taxable...

  9. 46 CFR 151.01-30 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective date. 151.01-30 Section 151.01-30 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES General § 151.01-30 Effective date. (a) The regulations in this... effective ninety (90) days after the date of publication in the Federal Register unless the Commandant shall...

  10. 20 CFR 410.687a - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 410.687a Section 410.687a..., Finality of Decisions, and Representation of Parties § 410.687a Effective date. The provisions of §§ 410... rendered in connection with those claims for which a fee has not been fully paid before this effective date...

  11. 48 CFR 3001.301-71 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective date. 3001.301... Acquisition Regulations 3001.301-71 Effective date. Unless otherwise stated: (a) HSAR changes apply to solicitations issued on or after the effective date of the change; (b) Contracting officers may, at their...

  12. 12 CFR 222.28 - Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application. 222.28 Section 222.28 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Affiliate Marketing § 222.28...

  13. 26 CFR 1.453-10 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 1.453-10 Section 1.453-10...) INCOME TAXES Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.453-10 Effective date. (a) Except... other dispositions of installment obligations occurring after such date. ...

  14. 26 CFR 1.679-7 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates. 1.679-7 Section 1.679-7...) INCOME TAXES Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.679-7 Effective dates. (a) In general... an obligation issued on or before February 6, 1995, is modified after that date, and the modification...

  15. 37 CFR 1.110 - Inventorship and date of invention of the subject matter of individual claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... invention of the subject matter of individual claims. 1.110 Section 1.110 Patents, Trademarks, and... invention of the subject matter of individual claims. When more than one inventor is named in an application... claim in the application or patent. Where appropriate, the invention dates of the subject matter of each...

  16. 38 CFR 21.8280 - Effective date of induction into a vocational training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... induction into a vocational training program. 21.8280 Section 21.8280 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... Vocational Training Program Entrance, Termination, and Resources § 21.8280 Effective date of induction into a vocational training program. Subject to the limitations in § 21.8022, the date an eligible child is inducted...

  17. 26 CFR 1.475(g)-1 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates. 1.475(g)-1 Section 1.475(g)-1...) INCOME TAXES Inventories § 1.475(g)-1 Effective dates. (a)-(b) (c) Section 1.475(a)-3 (concerning... to apply to the security solely because of the effective dates in this paragraph (d) (rather than...

  18. 26 CFR 1.408A-9 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 1.408A-9 Section 1.408A-9...) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.408A-9 Effective date. This section contains the following question and answer providing the effective date of §§ 1.408A-1 through 1.408A-8: Q...

  19. 26 CFR 1.663(c)-6 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates. 1.663(c)-6 Section 1.663(c)-6... Effective dates. Sections 1.663(c)-1 through 1.663(c)-5 are applicable for estates and qualified revocable... date that section 1307 of the Tax Reform Act of 1997 became effective but before December 28, 1999, the...

  20. 26 CFR 1.457-12 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates. 1.457-12 Section 1.457-12...) INCOME TAXES Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.457-12 Effective dates. (a) General effective date. Except as otherwise provided in this section, §§ 1.457-1 through 1.457-11 apply...

  1. 48 CFR 9904.402-63 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective date. 9904.402-63 Section 9904.402-63 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.402-63 Effective date. This Standard is effective as of...

  2. 48 CFR 9904.405-63 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective date. 9904.405-63 Section 9904.405-63 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.405-63 Effective date. This Standard is effective as of...

  3. 48 CFR 9904.401-63 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective date. 9904.401-63 Section 9904.401-63 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.401-63 Effective date. This Standard is effective as of...

  4. 48 CFR 9904.407-63 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective date. 9904.407-63 Section 9904.407-63 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.407-63 Effective date. This Standard is effective as of...

  5. 48 CFR 9904.406-63 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective date. 9904.406-63 Section 9904.406-63 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.406-63 Effective date. This Standard is effective as of...

  6. 48 CFR 9904.403-63 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective date. 9904.403-63 Section 9904.403-63 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.403-63 Effective date. This Standard is effective as of...

  7. 48 CFR 9904.404-63 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective date. 9904.404-63 Section 9904.404-63 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.404-63 Effective date. (a) This Standard is effective...

  8. 26 CFR 1.411(a)-2 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates. 1.411(a)-2 Section 1.411(a)-2...) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.411(a)-2 Effective dates. (a) Plan not... plan is merged or consolidated shall also be considered to be in existence on such date. (d) Existing...

  9. 26 CFR 1.410(a)-2 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates. 1.410(a)-2 Section 1.410(a)-2...) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.410(a)-2 Effective dates. (a) Plans not... plan is merged or consolidated shall also be considered to be in existence on such date. (d) Certain...

  10. 26 CFR 1.414(c)-6 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 1.414(c)-6 Section 1.414(c)-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.414(c)-6 Effective date. (a) General...

  11. 26 CFR 1.441-4 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 1.441-4 Section 1.441-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Accounting Periods § 1.441-4 Effective date. Sections 1.441-0 through 1.441-3 are applicable for...

  12. 26 CFR 1.642(c)-0 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates. 1.642(c)-0 Section 1.642(c)-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(c)-0 Effective dates. The provisions of section...

  13. 26 CFR 301.9000-7 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 301.9000-7 Section 301.9000-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND... Effective date. These regulations are applicable on February 14, 2005. ...

  14. 26 CFR 1.6015-9 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 1.6015-9 Section 1.6015-9 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax Returns Or Statements § 1.6015-9 Effective date. Sections 1.6015-0 through 1.6015-9 are...

  15. 26 CFR 1.684-5 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 1.684-5 Section 1.684-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Miscellaneous § 1.684-5 Effective date. Sections 1.684-1 through 1.684-4 apply to transfers of...

  16. 26 CFR 1.737-5 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates. 1.737-5 Section 1.737-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Distributions by A Partnership § 1.737-5 Effective dates. Sections 1.737-1, 1.737-2, 1.737-3...

  17. 26 CFR 1.383-0 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 1.383-0 Section 1.383-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Insolvency Reorganizations § 1.383-0 Effective date. (a) The regulations under section 383 (other...

  18. 37 CFR 202.4 - Effective date of registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... registration. 202.4 Section 202.4 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES PREREGISTRATION AND REGISTRATION OF CLAIMS TO COPYRIGHT § 202.4 Effective date of registration. The effective date of registration for claims received in the Copyright Office on...

  19. 30 CFR 7.61 - Purpose and effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose and effective date. 7.61 Section 7.61... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Multiple-Shot Blasting Units § 7.61 Purpose and effective date. This subpart establishes the specific requirements for MSHA approval of multiple...

  20. 30 CFR 7.41 - Purpose and effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose and effective date. 7.41 Section 7.41... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Battery Assemblies § 7.41 Purpose and effective date. This subpart establishes the specific requirements for MSHA approval of battery assemblies...

  1. 28 CFR 2.82 - Effective date of parole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date of parole. 2.82 Section 2.82 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS District of Columbia Code: Prisoners and Parolees § 2.82 Effective date of parole. (a) An effectiv...

  2. Phase IV Land Disposal Restrictions Rule - Clarification of Effective Dates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memo to clarify the effective dates for the major provisions of the Phase IV rule. It is supplemental to the final rule preamble at page 28556 (“Effective Dates”) and pages 28634-5 (“State Authority”).

  3. Assessing the effects of Families for Safe Dates, a family-based teen dating abuse prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A; McNaughton Reyes, Heath Luz; Ennett, Susan T; Cance, Jessica D; Bauman, Karl E; Bowling, J Michael

    2012-10-01

    To examine the effects of a family-based teen dating abuse prevention program, Families for Safe Dates, primarily on outcomes related to testing the conceptual underpinnings of the program including (1) factors motivating and facilitating caregiver engagement in teen dating abuse prevention activities, and 2) risk factors for teen dating abuse, and secondarily on dating abuse behaviors. Families were recruited nationwide using listed telephone numbers. Caregivers and teens completed baseline and 3-month follow-up telephone interviews (n = 324). Families randomly allocated to treatment condition received the Families for Safe Dates program including six mailed activity booklets followed-up by health educator telephone calls. There were significant (teen dating abuse prevention activities including caregiver perceived severity of dating abuse, response efficacy for preventing dating abuse, self-efficacy for talking about dating abuse, knowledge of dating abuse, acceptance of dating abuse, communication skills with the teen, and belief in the importance of involvement in their male (but not female) teen's dating. The latter effect was the only one moderated by sex of the teen. The targeted risk factor affected by the program was teen acceptance of dating abuse. Treatment was also significantly associated with less physical dating abuse victimization. Modifications to the program are warranted, but overall, the findings are very favorable for the first family-based teen dating abuse prevention program to be evaluated. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Imputation of the Date of HIV Seroconversion in a Cohort of Seroprevalent Subjects: Implications for Analysis of Late HIV Diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobrino-Vegas, Paz; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Geskus, Ronald; Padilla, Belén; Segura, Ferrán; Rubio, Rafael; del Romero, Jorge; Santos, Jesus; Moreno, Santiago; del Amo, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Since subjects may have been diagnosed before cohort entry, analysis of late HIV diagnosis (LD) is usually restricted to the newly diagnosed. We estimate the magnitude and risk factors of LD in a cohort of seroprevalent individuals by imputing seroconversion dates. Methods. Multicenter

  5. 26 CFR 1.481-5 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates. 1.481-5 Section 1.481-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Adjustments § 1.481-5 Effective dates. Sections 1.481-1, 1.481-2, 1.481-3, and 1.481-4 are...

  6. 26 CFR 301.7430-6 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates. 301.7430-6 Section 301.7430-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND... Effective dates. Sections 301.7430-2 through 301.7430-6, other than §§ 301.7430-2(b)(2), (c)(3)(i)(B), (c)(3...

  7. 26 CFR 1.860-5 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.860-5 Effective date. (a) In general. Section 860 and §§ 1.860-1... real estate investments trusts. Section 859 (as in effect before the enactment of the Revenue Act of 1978) applies to determinations with respect to real estate investment trusts occurring after October 4...

  8. 48 CFR 9904.409-63 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-63 Section 9904.409-63 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.409-63 Effective date. (a) This Standard is effective...

  9. Effects of different planting dates on improving yield of Fritillaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fritillaria imperialis and F. persica were planted during April 2003 and May 2004 growing seasons on the basis of split block design with three replications to investigate the effects of planting dates on various plant parameters and extent of recovery by planting 25% damaged bulbs. The results showed significant effects of ...

  10. Subjective effects of Salvia divinorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgarno, Phil

    2007-06-01

    Salvia divinorum is a hallucinogenic plant native to Mexico, where the Mazatec Indians use it in divinatory rituals as a facilitator for contacting the spirits of the dead. A number of traditions surrounding the ritualistic use of Salvia are still observed. Generally the leaves are chewed for the visionary effects. Salvia has recently been embraced by Western drug cultures, where the traditional methods of ingestion are generally eschewed for the more immediately effective technique of smoking the dried leaves. This article discusses the history and indigenous cultural uses of Salvia before outlining its rediscovery in the 1960s and its subsequent introduction to the Western drug scenes (particularly Britain) since the mid 1990s. Qualitative data from 10 Salvia users were collected by means of email interviews. The participants were asked to provide as in-depth responses as possible. No time or space limit on answers was imposed. Their responses to each question are presented verbatim. The effects of Salvia appear to vary between users and seem sensitive to situational factors. Users who understand something of the ritualistic setting for traditional use would appear to have a fuller experience than those who do not.

  11. Effect of processing of dates into date juice concentrate and appraisal of its quality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, S G; Vijayanand, P; Shubha, L

    2010-03-01

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is widely cultivated in Kutch district of Gujarat and the fruits are harvested at immature stage before the onset of monsoon to prevent spoilage. The immature date fruits with less commercial value were used for processing into date juice concentrate. Immature dates were crushed and treated with 0.1% pectinase enzyme for 120 min to obtain maximum juice. Date juice was found to be rich in reducing sugars (16.1%) and total sugars (18.3%). Juice was pasteurized at 85°C to inactivate the enzyme, cooled and centrifuged at 3000 rpm to get clear juice. The juice was concentrated in a thin film evaporator to a total soluble solids (TSS) of 76°Brix in 2 passes. Chemical composition of date juice during different stages of concentration was determined. Date juice concentrate was packed in low density polyethylene bags of size (22 cm × 14 cm) and frozen in blast freezer at -40°C and stored at -20°C. Storage of date juice concentrate at -20°C for 6 months indicated no significant changes in TSS, acidity, ascorbic acid, total sugars and pH. Hunter colour lightness L, and redness a values of date juice concentrate decreased whereas b values increased during storage. Date juice concentrate was stable during 6 months storage could be reconstituted for preparing ready-to-serve beverages with acceptable sensory quality.

  12. Sowing date and water stress effects on sole and intercropped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sowing date and water stress effects on sole and intercropped maize/pea cultivars under controlled conditions. ... In the first-year study in 2000, intercropping maize with pea was generally more advantageous than when either crop was sown sole. Delaying the time of intercropping of pea by 14 days after sowing maize ...

  13. 78 FR 44559 - Effective Date of Revised Company Registration Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... company registration to the new format. Companies required to file using CIDs are urged to register or... Energy Regulatory Commission Effective Date of Revised Company Registration Requirements AGENCY: Federal... of the Revised Company Registration Requirements. The Commission issued a Notice in the Federal...

  14. 42 CFR 84.1100 - Scope and effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope and effective dates. 84.1100 Section 84.1100 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist...

  15. EFFECT OF DATE OF PLANTING ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    The field experiments were conducted during the 1999 and 2000 cropping seasons at Mbamba area of Yola,. Adamawa State to study the effect of time of planting of groundnut (Arachis Hypogaea). The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and replicated six times. The planting dates ...

  16. Effects of Planting Dates and Nitrogen Fertilizer Application on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Planting Dates and Nitrogen Fertilizer Application on Growth and Yield of Contrasting Genotypes of Maize ( Zea Mays L.)I: Leaf Growth and Its Relationship with ... Leaf extension growth at three leaf insertions (nodes 4, 8, and12) was measured from emergence until two consecutive measurements were the same.

  17. 29 CFR 2584.8477(e)-7 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY UNDER THE FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' RETIREMENT SYSTEM ACT OF 1986 RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR THE ALLOCATION OF FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY § 2584.8477(e)-7 Effective date. This section is...

  18. 24 CFR 3.100 - Purpose and effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose and effective date. 3.100 Section 3.100 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL...

  19. 26 CFR 801.8 - Effective/applicability dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective/applicability dates. 801.8 Section 801.8 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INTERNAL REVENUE PRACTICE BALANCED SYSTEM FOR MEASURING ORGANIZATIONAL AND EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE WITHIN THE INTERNAL...

  20. 36 CFR 218.16 - Applicability and effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability and effective date. 218.16 Section 218.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PREDECISIONAL ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW PROCESSES Predecisional Administrative Review Process for...

  1. Imputation of the Date of HIV Seroconversion in a Cohort of Seroprevalent Subjects: Implications for Analysis of Late HIV Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz Sobrino-Vegas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Since subjects may have been diagnosed before cohort entry, analysis of late HIV diagnosis (LD is usually restricted to the newly diagnosed. We estimate the magnitude and risk factors of LD in a cohort of seroprevalent individuals by imputing seroconversion dates. Methods. Multicenter cohort of HIV-positive subjects who were treatment naive at entry, in Spain, 2004–2008. Multiple-imputation techniques were used. Subjects with times to HIV diagnosis longer than 4.19 years were considered LD. Results. Median time to HIV diagnosis was 2.8 years in the whole cohort of 3,667 subjects. Factors significantly associated with LD were: male sex; Sub-Saharan African, Latin-American origin compared to Spaniards; and older age. In 2,928 newly diagnosed subjects, median time to diagnosis was 3.3 years, and LD was more common in injecting drug users. Conclusions. Estimates of the magnitude and risk factors of LD for the whole cohort differ from those obtained for new HIV diagnoses.

  2. Why to Treat Subjects as Fixed Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, James S.; Estes, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    Adelman, Marquis, Sabatos-DeVito, and Estes (2013) collected word naming latencies from 4 participants who read 2,820 words 50 times each. Their recommendation and practice was that R2 targets set for models should take into account subject idiosyncrasies as replicable patterns, equivalent to a subjects-as-fixed-effects assumption. In light of an…

  3. Effect Size Calculations and Single Subject Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Melissa L.; Smith, Benjamin W.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared visual analyses with five alternative methods for assessing the magnitude of effect with single subject designs. Each method was successful in detecting intervention effect. When rank ordered, each method was consistent in identifying the participants with the largest effect. We recommend the use of the standard mean difference…

  4. The effects of the evidence-based Safe Dates dating abuse prevention program on other youth violence outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A; Reyes, Luz McNaughton; Agnew-Brune, Christine B; Simon, Thomas R; Vagi, Kevin J; Lee, Rosalyn D; Suchindran, Chiravath

    2014-12-01

    In response to recent calls for programs that can prevent multiple types of youth violence, the current study examined whether Safe Dates, an evidence-based dating violence prevention program, was effective in preventing other forms of youth violence. Using data from the original Safe Dates randomized controlled trial, this study examined (1) the effectiveness of Safe Dates in preventing peer violence victimization and perpetration and school weapon carrying 1 year after the intervention phase was completed and (2) moderation of program effects by the sex or race/ethnicity of the adolescent. Ninety percent (n = 1,690) of the eighth and ninth graders who completed baseline questionnaires completed the 1-year follow-up assessment. The sample was 51 % female and 26 % minority (of whom 69 % was black and 31 % was of another minority race/ethnicity). There were no baseline treatment group differences in violence outcomes. Treatment condition was significantly associated with peer violence victimization and school weapon carrying at follow-up; there was 12 % less victimization and 31 % less weapon carrying among those exposed to Safe Dates than those among controls. Treatment condition was significantly associated with perpetration among the minority but not among white adolescents; there was 23 % less violence perpetration among minority adolescents exposed to Safe Dates than that among controls. The observed effect sizes were comparable with those of other universal school-based youth violence prevention programs. Implementing Safe Dates may be an efficient way of preventing multiple types of youth violence.

  5. 76 FR 65999 - Effective Date for Swap Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... latest expiry dates. With respect to provisions covered in the first part of the relief in the July 14... also is proposing to amend the July 14 Order to extend the expiry date of the second part of the relief...

  6. The effects of moms and teens for safe dates: a dating abuse prevention program for adolescents exposed to domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A; Benefield, Thad; Dixon, Kimberly S; Chang, Ling-Yin; Senkomago, Virginia; Ennett, Susan T; Moracco, Kathryn E; Michael Bowling, J

    2015-05-01

    Adolescents exposed to domestic violence are at high risk for dating abuse. This randomized controlled trial evaluated a dating abuse prevention program designed specifically for this risk group. Moms and Teens for Safe Dates consisted of six mailed booklets of dating abuse prevention information and interactive activities. Mothers who had been victims of domestic violence but no longer lived with the abuser delivered the program to their adolescents who had been exposed to the abuse. Mother and adolescent pairs (N = 409) were recruited through community advertising; the adolescents ranged from 12 to 16 years old and 64 % were female. Mothers and adolescents completed baseline and 6-month follow-up telephone interviews. Booklet completion in the treatment group ranged from 80 % for the first to 62 % for the last booklet. The analyses first tested whether program effects on dating abuse varied by four a priori identified moderators (mother's psychological health, the amount of adolescent exposure to domestic violence, and adolescent sex and race/ethnicity). Main effects of the program were examined when there were no differential program effects. Program effects on psychological and physical victimization and psychological and cyber perpetration were moderated by the amount of adolescent exposure to domestic violence; there were significant favorable program effects for adolescents with higher, but not lower levels of exposure to domestic violence. There were no moderated or main effects on sexual violence victimization and perpetration or cyber victimization. The findings suggest that a dating abuse prevention program designed for adolescents exposed to domestic violence can have important positive effects.

  7. Effect of sowing date on water use efficiency of sunflower crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Perniola

    Full Text Available Results of a trial carried out on sunflower in order to evaluate the most appropriate sowing date and irrigation regime for a more efficient water use are reported. Sunflower was sown in 1995-1996 at the usual date (end of April and in advance (end of March. It was subjected to three irrigation regimes: full restoration of consumptive water use, supplementary irrigation at the bud stage and flowering and unirrigated control. During the growing cycle, the following parameters were measured: water use, the main climatic data that can affect growth and evapotranspiration, yield and its components. Despite the lower vapor pressure deficit of the air during the cropping cycle of the first sowing date caused a reduction in the average daily evapotranspiration, the colder temperature regime of this period, by making longer the growing cycle, caused almost the same total water use respect to the usual sowing dates. However, with early sowing, the crop could benefit from the spring rainfall at the initial stages of its cycle that reduced the seasonal irrigation volume, in the case of full irrigation and made available a greater amount of water in the case of unirrigated treatment or with supplementary irrigation. The greater water availability in the stressed treatments also produced higher grain yield in early sowing, so that an interesting interaction between the sowing date and the irrigation regime in terms of water use efficiency was observed. In fact, a significant higher irrigation yield water use efficiency and an interesting yield response was measured in the treatment with supplementary irrigation of the first sowing date. No effect of sowing date, both in terms of yield that of water use efficiency was measured in the treatment irrigated with the full restoration of evapotranspiration.

  8. 48 CFR 9904.410-63 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... business unit may use the method described below for transition from the use of a cost of sales or sales... objectives which were in existence prior to the date on which the business unit must first allocate costs in... objectives which arise under contracts entered into on or after the date on which the business unit must...

  9. PARTIAL REINFORCEMENT (ACQUISITION) EFFECTS WITHIN SUBJECTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AMSEL, A; MACKINNON, J R; RASHOTTE, M E; SURRIDGE, C T

    1964-03-01

    Acquisition performance of 22 rats in a straight alley runway was examined. The animals were subjected to partial reinforcement when the alley was black (B+/-) and continuous reinforcement when it was white (W+). The results indicated (a) higher terminal performance, for partial as against continuous reinforcement conditions, for starting-time and running-time measures, and (b) lower terminal performance under partial conditions for a goal-entry-time measure. These results confirm within subjects an effect previously demonstrated, in the runway, only in between-groups tests, where one group is run under partial reinforcement and a separate group is run under continuous reinforcement in the presence of the same external stimuli. Differences between the runway situation, employing a discrete-trial procedure and performance measures at three points in the response chain, and the Skinner box situation, used in its free-operant mode with a single performance measure, are discussed in relation to the present findings.

  10. 77 FR 39387 - Loan Policies and Operations; Lending and Leasing Limits and Risk Management; Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... 12 CFR Part 614 RIN 3052-AC60 Loan Policies and Operations; Lending and Leasing Limits and Risk Management; Effective Date AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration. ACTION: Notice of effective date. SUMMARY: The... and loan and lease concentration risk mitigation with a delayed effective date. In accordance with 12...

  11. 45 CFR 95.515 - Effective date of a cost allocation plan amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective date of a cost allocation plan amendment... INSURANCE PROGRAMS) Cost Allocation Plans § 95.515 Effective date of a cost allocation plan amendment. As a general rule, the effective date of a cost allocation plan amendment shall be the first day of the...

  12. Mediating effect of Facebook addiction on the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Recep; Satici, Seydi Ahmet; Akin, Ahmet

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the mediating effects of Facebook addiction on the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness. 297 university students (157 women, 140 men; M age = 20.1 yr., SD = 1.3) were administered the Facebook Addiction Scale, the Subjective Vitality Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that Facebook addiction partially mediated the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness.

  13. Subjective effects of Salvia divinorum: LSD- or marijuana-like?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Dawn N; Grubbs, Laura E

    2009-09-01

    Salvia divinorum is a naturally occurring psychedelic considered to be one of the most potent hallucinogens found to date. The few behavioral studies conducted conclude that Salvia's effects may be similar to traditional psychedelics, which is noteworthy because Salvia acts via a unique molecular mechanism as a kappa opioid receptor agonist. One hundred and ninety-three participants, including 34 Salvia users, were asked to fill out a series of questionnaires related to general drug use, personality characteristics, demographics and their experiences with Salvia. Salvia users were found to differ from nonusers on personality characteristics and reported consuming significantly more alcohol than nonusers. In addition, although Salvia users rated their hallucinogenic experiences as similar to those seen in previously published reports, the majority likened their experiences as most similar to marijuana instead of more traditional psychedelics. Low scores on the ARCI LSD subscale confirmed this finding and call into question the reigning theory of LSD-like subjective effects elicited by Salvia.

  14. The effects of shadow removal on across-date settlement type classification of quickbird images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Luus, FPS

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available QuickBird imagery acquired on separate dates may have significant differences in viewing- and illumination geometries, which can negatively impact across-date settlement type classification accuracy. The effect of cast shadows on classification...

  15. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  16. Thermogenic effect of glucose in hypothyroid subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozacz, Agnieszka; Grunt, Paulina; Steczkowska, Marta; Mikulski, Tomasz; Dąbrowski, Jan; Górecka, Monika; Sanocka, Urszula; Ziemba, Andrzej Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    The importance of thyroid hormone, catecholamines, and insulin in modification of the thermogenic effect of glucose (TEG) was examined in 34 healthy and 32 hypothyroid subjects. We calculated the energy expenditure at rest and during oral glucose tolerance test. Blood samples for determinations of glucose, plasma insulin, adrenaline (A), and noradrenaline (NA) were collected. It was found that TEG was lower in hypothyroid than in control group (19.68 ± 3.90 versus 55.40 ± 7.32 kJ, resp., P < 0.0004). Mean values of glucose and insulin areas under the curve were higher in women with hypothyroidism than in control group (286.79 ± 23.65 versus 188.41 ± 15.84 mmol/L·min, P < 0.003 and 7563.27 ± 863.65 versus 4987.72 ± 583.88 mU/L·min, P < 0.03 resp.). Maximal levels of catecholamines after glucose ingestion were higher in hypothyroid patients than in control subjects (Amax-0.69 ± 0.08 versus 0.30 ± 0.07 nmol/L, P < 0.0001, and NAmax-6.42 ± 0.86 versus 2.54 ± 0.30 nmol/L, P < 0.0002). It can be concluded that in hypothyroidism TEG and glucose tolerance are decreased while the adrenergic response to glucose administration is enhanced. Presumably, these changes are related to decreased insulin sensitivity and responsiveness to catecholamine action.

  17. Thermogenic Effect of Glucose in Hypothyroid Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kozacz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of thyroid hormone, catecholamines, and insulin in modification of the thermogenic effect of glucose (TEG was examined in 34 healthy and 32 hypothyroid subjects. We calculated the energy expenditure at rest and during oral glucose tolerance test. Blood samples for determinations of glucose, plasma insulin, adrenaline (A, and noradrenaline (NA were collected. It was found that TEG was lower in hypothyroid than in control group (19.68±3.90 versus 55.40±7.32 kJ, resp., P<0.0004. Mean values of glucose and insulin areas under the curve were higher in women with hypothyroidism than in control group (286.79±23.65 versus 188.41±15.84 mmol/L·min, P<0.003 and 7563.27±863.65 versus 4987.72±583.88 mU/L·min, P<0.03 resp.. Maximal levels of catecholamines after glucose ingestion were higher in hypothyroid patients than in control subjects (Amax—0.69±0.08 versus 0.30±0.07 nmol/L, P<0.0001, and NAmax—6.42±0.86 versus 2.54±0.30 nmol/L, P<0.0002. It can be concluded that in hypothyroidism TEG and glucose tolerance are decreased while the adrenergic response to glucose administration is enhanced. Presumably, these changes are related to decreased insulin sensitivity and responsiveness to catecholamine action.

  18. Interactive Effects of Menarcheal Status and Dating on Dieting and Disordered Eating among Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauffman, Elizabeth; Steinberg, Laurence

    1996-01-01

    Examined effects of three different aspects of heterosocial activity--mixed-sex activities, dating, and physical involvement with boys--on the diet patterns of adolescent girls. Found interaction between dating and menarcheal status in the prediction of dieting and disordered eating, with dating more strongly linked to dieting and disordered…

  19. The effect of predictability on subjective duration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani Pariyadath

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Events can sometimes appear longer or shorter in duration than other events of equal length. For example, in a repeated presentation of auditory or visual stimuli, an unexpected object of equivalent duration appears to last longer. Illusions of duration distortion beg an important question of time representation: when durations dilate or contract, does time in general slow down or speed up during that moment? In other words, what entailments do duration distortions have with respect to other timing judgments? We here show that when a sound or visual flicker is presented in conjunction with an unexpected visual stimulus, neither the pitch of the sound nor the frequency of the flicker is affected by the apparent duration dilation. This demonstrates that subjective time in general is not slowed; instead, duration judgments can be manipulated with no concurrent impact on other temporal judgments. Like spatial vision, time perception appears to be underpinned by a collaboration of separate neural mechanisms that usually work in concert but are separable. We further show that the duration dilation of an unexpected stimulus is not enhanced by increasing its saliency, suggesting that the effect is more closely related to prediction violation than enhanced attention. Finally, duration distortions induced by violations of progressive number sequences implicate the involvement of high-level predictability, suggesting the involvement of areas higher than primary visual cortex. We suggest that duration distortions can be understood in terms of repetition suppression, in which neural responses to repeated stimuli are diminished.

  20. Anti hyperlipidemic and hepatoprotective effects of native date fruit variety "Aseel" (Phoenix dactylifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shadab; Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Jamil, Subia

    2016-11-01

    Diet rich in saturated fats and sugars have been associated with obesity, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia and fatty liver disease. Especially high serum lipid levels are directly connected to the progression of cardiovascular disorders, which are the leading cause of death all over the world. Date palm fruit (Phoenix dactylifera) is known for numerous health benefits however little information is available about in vivo clinical and preclinical benefits, hence antihyperlipidemic and hepatoprotective potential of native date variety Aseel has been assessed in hyperlipidemia induced albino rats. Forty adult male albino rats were divided into five groups with 8 animals in each group. One group was kept as normal control while remaining four groups were fed high fat high sugar diet for 8 weeks; from this one group was reserved as disease control while two groups as treated which received 300 and 600mg/kg of date fruit suspension. The fourth group served as positive control and received standard drug atorvastatin in the dose of 2.1mg/kg. After 14 days serum lipid profile, hepatic profile and fasting blood sugar were determined for all groups. Fasting blood sugar, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL along with cholesterol- HDL and LDL-HDL ratio were significantly decreased at 300 mg/kg without any increase in liver enzymes as observed in positive control group. Animals received 600 mg/kg also revealed significant decline in fasting blood sugar, triglyceride, VLDL and alkaline phosphatase. Hence present results demonstrate ameliorative role of date fruit in hyperlipidemia and fatty liver however more studies are required to gain insight into the possible mechanism of action and confirmation of these effects on human subjects.

  1. 36 CFR 251.102 - Applicability and effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... administration of written instruments authorizing occupancy and use of National Forest System lands made on or... AGRICULTURE LAND USES Appeal of Decisions Relating to Occupancy and Use of National Forest System Lands § 251... authorizing occupancy and use of National Forest System lands shall be subject to appeal under the provisions...

  2. The addition effect of Tunisian date seed fibers on the quality of chocolate spreads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Mohamed Ali; Abbes, Fatma; Mokni, Abir; Blecker, Christophe; Attia, Hamadi; Besbes, Souhail

    2017-04-01

    Novel chocolate spreads were enriched by soluble and insoluble dietary fibers from Tunisian Deglet Nour date seeds at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% levels in the conventional chocolate spread. Defatted Deglet Nour date seeds, date seed soluble fiber concentrate (DSSFC) and date seed insoluble fiber concentrate (DSIFC) were characterized by high levels of dietary fibers (80-90%). Chocolate spread enriched with 5% of DSSFC presented the highest oil binding capacity (304.62%) compared to the control (102%). Whatever the DSIFC and DSSFC incorporation levels, no significant difference was recorded between the firmness, chewiness, and adhesiveness of prepared chocolate spreads compared to the control (p chocolate spreads enriched by DSIFC and DSSFC were accepted by panelists. These results indicated the value of date seeds as new source of dietary fibers to develop chocolate spread and could also improve health benefits and functional properties. Tunisia is considered to be one of the dates-producing countries. The mean annual yield of date fruits is about 200,000 tons. From this, around 20,000 tons of date seeds could be collected. This by-product of date processing industries could be regarded as an excellent source of dietary fiber with interesting technological functionality and many beneficial effects on human health. Then, date seeds could present a value addition by extraction and use of date seed fiber concentrate in chocolate spread formulation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. 77 FR 37283 - General Provisions; Operating and Strategic Business Planning; Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 618 RIN 3052-AC66 General Provisions; Operating and Strategic Business Planning; Effective Date AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration. ACTION: Notice of effective date. SUMMARY: The Farm...

  4. 41 CFR 101-39.102-2 - Effective date of determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification, and Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 101-39.102-2 Effective date of determination. Unless a longer time is... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effective date of...

  5. 30 CFR 14.1 - Purpose, effective date for approval holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose, effective date for approval holders... TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE APPROVAL OF FLAME-RESISTANT CONVEYOR BELTS General Provisions § 14.1 Purpose, effective date for approval holders. This Part...

  6. 10 CFR 431.156 - Energy and water conservation standards and effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy and water conservation standards and effective dates. 431.156 Section 431.156 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM... Standards § 431.156 Energy and water conservation standards and effective dates. Each commercial clothes...

  7. Sunset dates of chemicals subject to final TSCA section 4: test requirements and related section 12(b) actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    This table lists all chemical substances and mixtures that are and/or have been the subject of final TSCA Section 4 test rules and/or TSCA Section 4 enforceable consent agreements/orders (ECAs) issued under the TSCA Existing Chemicals Testing Program.

  8. The effect of varying task difficulty on subjective workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Y.-Y.; Wickens, C. D.; Hart, S. G.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of different difficulty distribution patterns on subjective workload, and the presence of a primacy/recency effect in subjective ratings are examined. Eight subjects performed the perceptual central processing required for response selection and manual target acquisition for response execution. The reaction time, movement time, and the percent of correct pattern matching and arithmetic equations are analyzed. The data reveal that subjective rating is unaffected by different task difficulty and no primacy/recency effects are observed in subjective ratings. It is concluded that subjective workload reflects the experience of an ongoing integration process.

  9. The effect of late pregnancy consumption of date fruit on labour and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kuran, O; Al-Mehaisen, L; Bawadi, H; Beitawi, S; Amarin, Z

    2011-01-01

    We set out to investigate the effect of date fruit (Phoenix dactylifera) consumption on labour parameters and delivery outcomes. Between 1 February 2007 and 31 January 2008 at Jordan University of Science and Technology, a prospective study was carried out on 69 women who consumed six date fruits per day for 4 weeks prior to their estimated date of delivery, compared with 45 women who consumed none. There was no significant difference in gestational age, age and parity between the two groups. The women who consumed date fruit had significantly higher mean cervical dilatation upon admission compared with the non-date fruit consumers (3.52 cm vs 2.02 cm, p fruit consumers (p = 0.024). Use of prostin/oxytocin was significantly lower in women who consumed dates (28%), compared with the non-date fruit consumers (47%) (p = 0.036). The mean latent phase of the first stage of labour was shorter in women who consumed date fruit compared with the non-date fruit consumers (510 min vs 906 min, p = 0.044). It is concluded that the consumption of date fruit in the last 4 weeks before labour significantly reduced the need for induction and augmentation of labour, and produced a more favourable, but non-significant, delivery outcome. The results warrant a randomised controlled trial.

  10. The placebo effect revisited: lessons learned to date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Irving

    2013-04-01

    This article summarizes six lessons that can be learned from over a half century of scientific research on the placebo effect. These lessons are that the placebo response is not the placebo effect, it is meaningless to ask what the magnitude of the placebo effect is, it is easy to be fooled by regression artifacts, expectancy and conditioning are not conflicting processes that can be pitted against each other, some of our questions can be answered by history, and the outcomes of active treatments can be enhanced by attention to placebo components. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Preliminary Report on Practice Dating and Feedback as Treatment for College Dating Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Andrew; Arkowitz, Hal

    1974-01-01

    Fourteen make and 14 female undergraduates who volunteered for a program to increase their dating effectiveness were matched for six dates, each date with a different opposite-sex subject. Heterosexual interaction frequency and subjective measures of comfort increased significantly with treatment. (Author)

  12. The moderating effect of social support from a dating partner on the association between dating violence victimization and adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Seavey, Amanda E; Brasfield, Hope; Febres, Jeniimarie; Fite, Paula J; Stuart, Gregory L

    2015-04-01

    Dating violence victimization is associated with decreased relationship satisfaction and increased mental health symptomatology. Yet, violent dating relationships often remain intact across time, even when the aggression fails to cease. Thus, research is needed to determine the factors that reduce the negative impact of victimization. One factor may be that abusive dating partners are perceived as supportive by their partners, serving to reduce the negative impact of victimization. The current study sought to examine whether perceived support (i.e., perceptions of support) and capitalization support (i.e., perceptions of support for positive events) moderated and reduced the impact of dating violence victimization on decreased relationship satisfaction and increased depressive symptoms. Using a sample of females in dating relationships (N = 253), results provided partial support for our hypotheses. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Effects of sowing dates on grain yield and yield attributes of sorghum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lack of a suitable sowing date has often been identified as the main constraint to sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Moench) cv. ICSV111 (Kapaala) production in Ghana. Field experiments were, therefore, used on-station at the Manga Agricultural Research Station to evaluate the effects of five sowing dates on yield and yield ...

  14. Effect of planting dates on the Yield and Control of major Insect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of planting dates on the yield and control of major insect pests of soybean were studied in the 1995 and 1996 planting seasons at Umudike, Southeastern Nigeria. The incidence of the defoliators, Monolepta duplicata Sahl and Ootheca mutabilis Linnaeus in all the planting dates were earlier (2 weeks after ...

  15. 21 CFR 870.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES General Provisions § 870.3 Effective dates of... (premarket approval) shall not be commercially distributed after the date shown in the regulation classifying... FDA must promulgate a regulation under section 515(b) of the act requiring such approval, except as...

  16. Interpersonal style moderates the effect of dating violence on symptoms of anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalch, Matthew M; Lannert, Brittany K; Hopwood, Christopher J; Levendosky, Alytia A

    2013-11-01

    Over a quarter of young women have experienced some form of violence within a dating relationship. The experience of dating violence is associated with problems in psychological functioning, including symptoms of anxiety and depression. However, not all women who experience dating violence exhibit anxious or depressive symptoms. One factor that may influence symptom expression is interpersonal style. In this study, we examined the main and moderating effects of dimensions of interpersonal style (dominance and warmth) on the association between dating violence and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Warmth exhibited a main effect on anxious and depressive symptoms over and above the effects of dating violence and other life stressors. Dominance moderated the association between dating violence and anxious and depressive symptoms. When levels of dating violence were high, women with higher levels of dominance reported fewer symptoms of anxiety and depression than women with lower dominance. These results indicated that whereas high warmth was associated with fewer symptoms of psychopathology generally, high dominance was a buffer against the effect of dating violence on symptoms more specifically. Directions for future research are discussed.

  17. Effects of different planting dates on improving yield of Fritillaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... 3Dicle University Agricultural Faculty, Department of Plant Protection, 21280, Diyarbakır, Turkey. Accepted 21 October, 2008 ... fore their collection from wild is illegal under Turkish law. Ministry of Agriculture and Rural ..... study reports economic recovery of planting from damaged bulbs and their effect on ...

  18. An Investigation into Effectiveness of Date(Rutab on Postpartum Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Dehghani Firouzabadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Postpartom hemorrhage is one of the most major problems that threaten the mothers' health and is regarded as one of the most important reasons for mortality specially in the developing countries. So far, many studies have been conducted in regard to effectiveness of chemical and herbal medicine on decrease of Postpartom hemorrhage. This study aimed to investigate effectiveness of date (Rutab on postpartum hemorrhage. Methods: This is a clinical trial study in which 94 subjects, having the adequate criteria for the research, were selected in Shahid Sadoughi Hospital. The participants were divided into two groups. In the first group, immediately after placenta delivery infusion, 20 unit oxytocin in 1000 ml 5% dextrose in water with normal salin solution(group 1 were given, whereas in the second group, infusion of 10 unit oxytocin in 1000 ml 5% dextrose in water with normal salin solution associated with 100 gram date ( Rutab were given and the patients were required to have them in 10 minutes. At the same time a plastic and a cotton sheet were widen under the patients. Blood loss was determined by regular weighting of the buttocks that were previously weighted. The difference was calculated before and after weight (1 gram increase in weight was considered to be equivalent to 1ml blood. Data were submitted to SPSS software and then analyzed by T-test, Chi-squre, Mann-whitney. Results: The two groups were homogenous in regard to all the variables. The study results indicated that the bleeding mean was 127/11 ml at the two hour after delivery in the first group and 68/5 ml in the second group. There was a significant difference between postpartum hemorrhages of the two groups Conclusion: Since date(Rutab was more effective than infusion oxytocin on post partum hemorrhage and no side effect was reported for that, it is recommended that its significance will be prposed to related specialist. Moreover, extra investigations are necessitated

  19. Extraction solvent’s effect on biogas production from mixtures of date seed and wastewater sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radeef Wameed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of extraction solvent on biogas production from mixtures of date (Phoenix dactylifera seed and wastewater treatment sludge. Date palm seed is a locally produced waste which is used in different useful purposes. Date seed is rich in proteins, carbohydrates and lipids and have the potential for biogas enhancement. In this study, three extraction solvents, hexane, ethyl acetate and Ethanol:water (1:1, were used on two types of date seeds (locally known as Khalas and Khudari. Date seed powder of size 0.425 – 0.6 mm after extraction was mixed with wastewater treatment sludge at dry date seed/dry sludge solids ratios of 0%, 10%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80%. The study showed a direct relationship between biogas production and ratio of date seeds/wastewater sludge in the mixture. Furthermore, the results confirmed that the quantity of biogas produced from samples containing raw date seed was almost same as the quantity produced from samples containing date seed after extraction. The results revealed that the used extraction solvents had no effect on biogas production

  20. Long-term storage effects-up-date

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    The long-term effects of storing batteries over a period of years prior to their use in a synchronous orbit application are discussed. A previous experiment is discussed where life testing was performed on cells after having stored the battery for a period of three years with the cell shorted and at a temperature on the order of 5-10 C. The test consisted of performing a sequence of 10 simulated eclipse seasons (equivalent in cycling of five years in synchronous orbit). Results of this test indicated very little degradation and change in the physical and chemical conditions of the cell. The program was extended for an additional year (battery was stored for four years) under the same conditions and testing. The results of the four year storage (one exception) indicate that no further change occurred that is significant from the three year test.

  1. Long-lived gamma emitting radionuclides in palm dates and estimates of annual effective doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrefae, Tareq

    2015-05-01

    An investigation of long-lived gamma emitting radionuclides in palm dates was performed. The palm date samples originated from eight countries, namely India, Iran, Jordan, Libya, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, and the United Arab Emirates. Among the samples were the palm date types Sukari, Wanana, Umkhuber, Rashudiya, Libana, Madjool, Gumaizi, Anbar, Braim, Ajwa, Khadri, Munafee, Mabroom, Daglanoor, Sulag, and Khalas. Gamma spectrometry revealed activity concentrations of (AVG ± STD) 0.983 ± 0.457, 0.469 ± 0.229, and 287.078 ± 41.871 Bq kg(-1) dry weight for 226Ra, 228Ra, and 40K, respectively. Annual average effective dose was estimated to be 32 μSv from the consumption of palm dates. Comparing these findings with values reported in the literature, it was concluded that consumption of palm dates is safe for the presence of the investigated radionuclides.

  2. A feasibility study to assess the effectiveness of safe dates for teen mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrman, Judith W; Waterhouse, Julie K

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of the adapted Safe Dates curriculum as an intervention for pregnant and/or parenting teens to prevent teen dating violence (TDV). This pre-/posttest, single-sample study provided a means to assess the effectiveness of an adapted Safe Dates curriculum for teen mothers. The adapted Safe Dates curriculum was implemented in three schools designed for the unique needs of teens who are pregnant and/or parenting. The final sample of 41 teen participants, with a mean age of 16.27, completed 80% of the curriculum and two of the three assessments. Most of the teens were pregnant during participation in the curriculum, and six had infants between age 1 and 3 months. The teen mothers completed the pretest, participated in the 10-session adapted Safe Dates curriculum, and completed the posttest at the end of the program and 1 month after program completion. The pre/posttest was adapted from the Safe Dates curriculum-specific evaluation instrument. Senior, undergraduate nursing students were trained in and implemented the curriculum. Participation in the adapted Safe Dates program yielded significant differences in the areas of responses to anger, gender stereotyping, awareness of resources for perpetrators and victims, and psychological violence perpetration. This adapted program may be effective in changing selected outcomes. The implementation of a larger scale, experimental/control group study may demonstrate the program's efficacy at reducing the incidence of TDV among teen mothers. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  3. The Effect of Environmental Change in Single-Subject Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    RD-RI725 779 THE EFFECT 0F ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE IN SINGLE - SUBJECT - i/i EXPERINENTS(U) DESNATICS INC STATE COLLEGE PA U AS K C BURNS ET AL. FEB 83 TR...238-9621 Applied Research in Statistics - Mathematics - Operations Research THE EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE IN SINGLE - SUBJECT EXPERIMENTS by Kevin...necessary to analyze repeated measurements taken on a single subject . In some situations, such an analysis may be carried out under the assumption that

  4. Renal effects of hyperinsulinaemia in subjects with two hypertensive parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, U B; Skøtt, P; Bruun, N E

    1999-01-01

    aged 18-35 years whose parents both had essential hypertension, and 22 age- and sex-matched subjects whose parents were both normotensive. Diabetes or morbid obesity in any subject or parent excluded the family. The 24-h blood pressure was measured. The subjects received an isocaloric diet with a fixed.......04). Compared with the controls, the subjects predisposed to hypertension had a higher 24-h diastolic blood pressure [78 (70, 82) mmHg, compared with 73 (68, 77) mmHg], but a similar insulin sensitivity index ¿10(7)x[313 (225, 427)] compared with 10(7)x[354 (218, 435)] l(2).min(-1).pmol(-1).kg(-1)¿. Thus...... the sodium-retaining effect of insulin was more pronounced in subjects with a strong genetic predisposition to essential hypertension than in subjects with normotensive parents. This effect may contribute to the development of hypertension in subjects with a genetic predisposition to hypertension....

  5. Effect of Dates in Late Pregnancy on the Duration of Labor in Nulliparous Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordi, Masoumeh; Meybodi, Fatemeh Aghaei; Tara, Fatemeh; Fakari, Farzaneh Rashidi; Nemati, Mohsen; Shakeri, Mohammadtaghi

    2017-01-01

    Long-term delivery is an important significant issue which is associated with mortality and fetal and maternal disorders. Based on the previous studies, consumption of dates affects uterine contractions and duration of delivery processes. This study aimed to study the effect of date consumption in late pregnancy on the duration of delivery processes in nulliparous women in 2013. This randomized clinical trial was conducted among 182 nulliparous women 18-35 years who presented to OmAlBanin Hospital in Mashhad in 2013. The comparison has been made between 91 pregnant women who consumed 70-76 g dates daily from the 37th week of pregnancy and 91 pregnant women who did not consume dates. Data collection tool was a questionnaire and a checklist of daily dates' intake. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software and statistical tests - chi-square and Mann-Whitney test, and P value dates in late pregnancy was effective in decreasing length of labor processes and reduced the need of oxytocin for labor acceleration. Thus, it is recommended to consume dates in women without contraindications.

  6. Who Dates? The Effects of Temperament, Puberty, and Parenting on Early Adolescent Experience with Dating : The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanova, Katya; Veenstra, René; Mills, Melinda

    This article focuses on how temperament, pubertal maturation, and perception of parenting behaviors affect the propensity to date in early adolescence (mean age = 13.55). Hypotheses are tested with a representative sample of 2,230 Dutch adolescents, the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey

  7. The Effect of Fenugreek Herbal Tea and Palm Dates on Breast Milk Production and Infant Weight.

    OpenAIRE

    El Sakka, Abeer; Salama, Mostafa; Salama, Kareem

    2014-01-01

    Background: Artificial or natural substances called galactagogues may assist the production of breast milk. Objective: To evaluate the effect of consumption of fenugreek herbal tea or palm dates on breast milk production. Methods: Seventy-five puerperal women were randomly assigned for two weeks to one of three groups: herbal tea with fenugreek (n = 25), palm dates (n = 25) or no galactagogue as control (n = 25).  Maternal milk volume was measured through manual pumping of breasts on the thir...

  8. Effects of Channel Modification on Detection and Dating of Fault Scarps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sare, R.; Hilley, G. E.

    2016-12-01

    Template matching of scarp-like features could potentially generate morphologic age estimates for individual scarps over entire regions, but data noise and scarp modification limits detection of fault scarps by this method. Template functions based on diffusion in the cross-scarp direction may fail to accurately date scarps near channel boundaries. Where channels reduce scarp amplitudes, or where cross-scarp noise is significant, signal-to-noise ratios decrease and the scarp may be poorly resolved. In this contribution, we explore the bias in morphologic age of a complex scarp produced by systematic changes in fault scarp curvature. For example, fault scarps may be modified by encroaching channel banks and mass failure, lateral diffusion of material into a channel, or undercutting parallel to the base of a scarp. We quantify such biases on morphologic age estimates using a block offset model subject to two-dimensional linear diffusion. We carry out a synthetic study of the effects of two-dimensional transport on morphologic age calculated using a profile model, and compare these results to a well- studied and constrained site along the San Andreas Fault at Wallace Creek, CA. This study serves as a first step towards defining regions of high confidence in template matching results based on scarp length, channel geometry, and near-scarp topography.

  9. 77 FR 29271 - Effective Date for the Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 131 RIN 2040-AF41 Effective Date for the Water Quality Standards for the State of... 6, 2012, effective date of the ``Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and... proposal, EPA is requesting comment on extending the effective date for the ``Water Quality Standards for...

  10. Early partner choices of immigrants: The effect of preferences, opportunities and parents on dating a native

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zantvliet, P.I.; Kalmijn, M.; Verbakel, E.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the partner choices of immigrant adolescents who are involved in a romantic relationship. We formulate hypotheses about the effect of immigrants' preferences, parental influence and structural effects of the school and neighbourhood on the likelihood of dating a native partner

  11. 77 FR 75780 - Nondisplacement of Qualified Workers Under Service Contracts; Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... after the effective date of regulations issued by the Federal Acquisition Regulatory Council (FARC) to... (FARC Final Rule). The Department of Labor Final Rule provided that it would not be effective until the FARC issued the FARC Final Rule, and that as a result, the Department of Labor would publish a notice...

  12. Effect of Daytime Exercise on Sleep Eeg and Subjective Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasazawa, Y.; Kawada, T.; Kiryu, Y.

    1997-08-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of daytime physical exercise on the quality of objective and subjective sleep by examining all-night sleep EEGs. The subjects were five male students, aged 19 to 20 years, who were in the habit of performing regular daytime exercise. The sleep polygraphic parameters in this study were sleep stage time as a percentage of total sleep time (%S1, %S2, %S(3+4), %SREM, %MT), time in bed (TIB), sleep time (ST), total sleep time (TST), sleep onset latency (SOL), waking from sleep, sleep efficiency, number of awakenings, number of stage shifts, number of spindles, and percentages of α and δ waves, all of which were determined by an automatic computer analysis system. The OSA questionnaire was used to investigate subjective sleep. The five scales of the OSA used were sleepiness, sleep maintenance, worry, integrated sleep feeling, and sleep initiation. Each sleep parameter was compared in the exercise and the non-exercise groups. Two-way analysis of variance was applied using subject factor and exercise factor. The main effect of the subject was significant in all parameters and the main effect of exercise in %S(3+4), SOL and sleep efficiency, among the objective sleep parameters. The main effects of the subject, except sleepiness, were significant, as was the main effect of exercise on sleep initiation, among the subjective sleep parameters. These findings suggest that daytime exercise shortened sleep latency and prolonged slow-wave sleep, and that the subjects fell asleep more easily on exercise days. There were also significant individual differences in both the objective and subjective sleep parameters.

  13. The Effects of Relationship Education on Adolescent Traditional Gender Role Attitudes and Dating Violence Acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Whittaker

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined change in adolescents’ traditional gender role attitudes and dating violence acceptance following completion of a relationship education program. Using data from a larger study evaluating the effects of relationship education for adolescents, beliefs and attitudes were assessed among a diverse sample of 627 youth. Gender differences in changes from pre- to post-test were also examined. Results of repeated measures MANCOVAs revealed a time X gender interaction effect for change in traditional gender role attitudes following relationship education. A significant decrease in traditional gender role attitudes was found for both boys and girls following relationship education, with a steeper decline in traditional gender role attitudes for boys than girls over time. Although there were no significant changes in dating violence acceptance, change in traditional gender role attitudes was correlated with change in dating violence acceptance, such that moving toward more egalitarian attitudes was associated with a decrease in acceptance of dating aggression/violence. Overall, results suggest that adolescents’ attitudes about gender roles and dating violence are open to change when provided relationship education, and changes in these beliefs are linked. Findings from this study have implications for promoting healthy relationships among youth.

  14. Renal effects of hyperinsulinaemia in subjects with two hypertensive parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, U B; Skøtt, P; Bruun, N E

    1999-01-01

    content of sodium and potassium for 4 days before the study. An isoglycaemic, hyperinsulinaemic clamp with infusion of insulin (40 munits.min(-1).m(-2)) was performed. We measured the renal clearance of diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid, sodium, potassium and lithium both under basal conditions.......04). Compared with the controls, the subjects predisposed to hypertension had a higher 24-h diastolic blood pressure [78 (70, 82) mmHg, compared with 73 (68, 77) mmHg], but a similar insulin sensitivity index ¿10(7)x[313 (225, 427)] compared with 10(7)x[354 (218, 435)] l(2).min(-1).pmol(-1).kg(-1)¿. Thus...... the sodium-retaining effect of insulin was more pronounced in subjects with a strong genetic predisposition to essential hypertension than in subjects with normotensive parents. This effect may contribute to the development of hypertension in subjects with a genetic predisposition to hypertension....

  15. Subjective knowledge and fear appeal effectiveness: implications for message design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Robin L; Roskos-Ewoldsen, David; Carpentier, Francesca Dillman

    2008-01-01

    This research investigates the role of perceived health knowledge on the effectiveness of fear-based persuasive appeals. Undergraduates (N = 263) read a strong fear, weak fear, or efficacy-only message encouraging breast or testicular self-examination. As expected, results indicated that men high in subjective knowledge were less reactant and more persuaded by the efficacy-only message whereas those low in subjective knowledge did not evidence this pattern. Contrary to expectation, women high in subjective knowledge had comparable reactions to each of the 3 messages. Implications for fear appeal theory and message design are discussed.

  16. 10 CFR 431.97 - Energy efficiency standards and their effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy efficiency standards and their effective dates. 431.97 Section 431.97 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Energy Efficiency...

  17. The Effects of Premarital Heterosexual and Homosexual Experience on Dating and Marriage Desirability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John D.; Jacoby, Arthur P.

    1989-01-01

    Surveyed 365 college students to investigate their attitudes toward the effects of past sexual behavior, both heterosexual and homosexual, on one's acceptability as a dating or marriage partner. Results showed that both men and women prefer partners without previous coital or oral heterosexual experience, and both strongly rejected those with any…

  18. 17 CFR 230.430B - Prospectus in a registration statement after effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) The registration statement refers to any unnamed selling security holders in a generic manner by... subsequent form of prospectus is first used or the date and time of the first contract of sale of securities... pursuant to this section will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective...

  19. Effects of sowing date on the growth and yield of maize cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    Effects of harvest and sowing time on the performance of the rotation of winter wheat–summer maize in the North China Plain. Ind. Crop. Prod. 25:239-247. Killi F, Altunbay SG (2005). Seed yield, oil content and yield components of confection and oil seed sunflower cultivars. (Helianthus annuus L) planted on different dates.

  20. 38 CFR 21.282 - Effective date of induction into a rehabilitation program; retroactive induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... induction into a rehabilitation program; retroactive induction. 21.282 Section 21.282 Pensions, Bonuses, and... Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Induction into A Rehabilitation Program § 21.282 Effective date of induction into a rehabilitation program; retroactive induction. (a) Entering...

  1. 26 CFR 31.3121(k)-2 - Waivers of exemption; original effective date changed retroactively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... changed retroactively. 31.3121(k)-2 Section 31.3121(k)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(k)-2 Waivers of exemption; original effective date... which filed a certificate under section 3121(k) after 1955 and before August 29, 1958, may file a...

  2. 77 FR 40032 - Maine Public Service Company; Notice of Initiation of Proceeding and Refund Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Maine Public Service Company; Notice of Initiation of Proceeding and Refund... determine the justness and reasonableness of the proposed formula rate by Maine Public Service Company. Maine Public Service Company, 139 FERC ] 61,262 (2012). The refund effective date in Docket No. EL12-76...

  3. Effect of Graded Levels of Dates Dietary Fiber on Weight Gain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of graded levels of dates dietary fiber on diabetes mellitus induced by streptozotocin (STZ) in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Methodology: Rats were divided into eight groups, among which four groups (Groups 1-4) were normal and the other four groups were ...

  4. Effects of different mowing dates of plant top on tuber yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of different mowing dates of plant top on tuber yield of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L) during 2005 and 2006 growing seasons. The experiment was designed according to the “split plots on randomized complete block” experimental design with three ...

  5. Effect of date of planting on the performance of groundnut ( Arachis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The field experiments were conducted during the 1999 and 2000 cropping seasons at Mbamba area of Yola, Adamawa State to study the effect of time of planting of groundnut (Arachis Hypogaea). The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and replicated six times. The planting dates ...

  6. 38 CFR 3.713 - Effective dates of improved pension elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective dates of improved pension elections. 3.713 Section 3.713 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Concurrent...

  7. Effect of weeding status and tapping date on the yield of gum Arabic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of weeding status and tapping date on the yield of gum Arabic (Acacia Senegal) in Jigawa state, Nigeria. K.J. Ilu, I.A. Yau, M.S. Babura, Bashir B. H. Zahran, Sid Ahmed, O Abdulsalam, H. Ahmed ...

  8. 42 CFR 137.247 - What is the effective date of a retrocession?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the effective date of a retrocession? 137.247 Section 137.247 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Retrocession § 137...

  9. 24 CFR 1720.25 - Effective date of rules and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) FORMAL PROCEDURES AND RULES OF... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date of rules and regulations. 1720.25 Section 1720.25 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  10. 10 CFR 431.77 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy conservation standards and their effective dates. 431.77 Section 431.77 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Energy Conservation Standards...

  11. 75 FR 3163 - Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Program-Basic Entitlement; Effective Date of Induction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 21 RIN 2900-AN13 Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Program--Basic Entitlement; Effective Date of Induction Into a Rehabilitation Program; Cooperation in Initial Evaluation AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This document amends Vocational Rehabilitation...

  12. The Effects of Family Conflict on Adolescents' Dating Behaviors and Attitudes toward Marriage: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanNess-Knolls, Michelle L.; And Others

    This study examined the effects of past and concurrent family conflict on adolescents' attitudes toward marriage and behavior in dating relationships. Participants were 75 adolescents who were part of a 7-year project that began when they were in fifth grade. Over 95 percent of their families were of European-American origin, with diversity in…

  13. 10 CFR 431.306 - Energy conservation standards and their effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy conservation standards and their effective dates. 431.306 Section 431.306 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Walk-in Coolers and Walk-in Freezers Energy Conservation...

  14. 40 CFR 72.69 - Issuance and effective date of acid rain permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Federal Acid Rain Permit Issuance Procedures § 72.69 Issuance and effective date of acid rain permits. (a) After the close of the public comment period, the Administrator will issue or deny an Acid Rain permit. The Administrator will serve a copy of any Acid Rain...

  15. Planting date effects on the nutritive value of fall-grown oat cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall-grown oat (Avena sativa L.) shows potential to fill an important niche as emergency fall forage throughout central Wisconsin. Our objectives were to assess the effects of planting date on the nutritive value of fall-grown oat from four cultivars exhibiting diverse maturation characteristics. Du...

  16. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(9)-8 - Voluntary employees' beneficiary associations; effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Voluntary employees' beneficiary associations...(c)(9)-8 Voluntary employees' beneficiary associations; effective date. (a) General rule. Except as... percent or more of the association's income consist of amounts collected from members and contributed by...

  17. The effects of shade and shearing date on the production of Merino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of shade and shearing date on the production of Merino sheep in the Swartland region of South Africa. S.W.P. Cloete, C.J.C. Muller, A. Durand. Abstract. A total of 497 Merino ewes were allocated to one of four experimental groups for the period 1996 to 1998. The treatments were designed to provide data on the ...

  18. 78 FR 38027 - ISO New England Inc.; Notice of Initiation of Proceeding and Refund Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL13-72-000] ISO New England... III.A.15 of Appendix A of ISO New England Inc.'s existing tariff. Dominion Energy Marketing, Inc. and ISO New England Inc., 143 FERC ] 61,233 (2013). The refund effective date in Docket No. EL13-72-000...

  19. 10 CFR 430.32 - Energy and water conservation standards and their effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy and water conservation standards and their... PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Energy and Water Conservation Standards § 430.32 Energy and water conservation standards and their effective dates. The energy and water (in the case of faucets, showerheads...

  20. Within- and between-subject variability in the reinforcing and subjective effects of nitrous oxide in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D J; Zacny, J P

    2001-09-01

    Within- and between-subject variability in the reinforcing and subjective effects of nitrous oxide (N(2)O) was studied across five sessions. Twelve volunteers with no history of drug dependence sampled 30% N(2)O and 100% oxygen for 10 min each, then chose nine times, once every 5 min, among N(2)O (e.g. "Agent A"), oxygen (e.g. "Agent B"), or "drug-free air." Choice varied across subjects but was stable within subjects. Quantitative differences in subjective effects occurred within and across subjects. Some subjective effects were correlated with choice and/or differed between subjects who were consistent choosers of N(2)O versus those who were not. However, drug liking and euphoria, two face-valid measures of abuse liability, were unrelated to choice. Thus, the present study found individual differences (i.e. between-subject variability) in subjective and reinforcing effects of N(2)O and, in terms of within-subject variability, suggested that subjective effects fluctuate across sessions to a relatively greater extent than do reinforcing effects. The varying degrees of correlation between N(2)O choice and its subjective effects emphasize the need for obtaining multiple measures when characterizing abuse liability of this drug.

  1. Effect of particle size and concentration on the mechanical properties of polyester/date palm seed particulate composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alewo Opuada AMEH

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of cellulosic materials as reinforcement in composites can greatly enhance their properties. The thrust of this study was to investigate the effect of date palm seed particle on the properties of reinforced polyester. Unsaturated polyester resin was reinforced with date palm seed particles of 0.5, 2.0 and 2.8mm particle sizes using variable particle loadings of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25wt%. The composites obtained were subjected to various types of mechanical and physical tests in order to assess their performance. The optimum tensile strength of 16.7619N/mm2 and elastic modulus of 343.8N/mm2 were attained at 15wt% and 10wt% loading (using 0.5mm particles respectively and percent water absorption was found to be least for 0.5mm particle size. The hardness was enhanced to the maximum of 74 HRF (Rockwell Hardness Factor by 2mm particle size at 25wt% loading. Pure unsaturated polyester resin recorded tensile strength of 17.5959N/mm2, elastic modulus of 316.7N/mm2 and hardness of 33.5 HRF. The results indicated that the use of date palm seed particles as reinforcement can enhance the properties of polyester composites.

  2. EFFECT OF POSITIONAL RELEASE TECHNIQUE IN SUBJECTS WITH SUBACUTE TRAPEZITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweety Charles Carvalho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trapezius stretching combined with positional release technique (PRT have found effective in trapezitis, studies are limited to find which technique has shown effective over the other due to lack of control group. The purpose of the study is to find the effect of PRT on pain intensity, functional disability and range of motion in subjects with subacute trapezitis. Method: An experimental study design, selected subjects with subacute trapezitis was randomized into Study and Control group. Total 40 subjects, 20 subjects in each group; data was collected who completed the study. Control group received passive trapezius muscle stretching while Study group received positional release technique with passive trapezius muscle stretching for 8 sessions in 2 weeks. Outcome measurements such as Visual Analogue scale, Neck disability index and cervical Range of motion were measured. Results: There is statistically significant difference (p<0.05 showing improvement in means of VAS, NDI and Range of motion before and after intervention within the groups and there is statistically significant difference when the post-intervention means after 2 weeks of treatment were compared between Study and Control group. Conclusion: It is concluded that the Positional Release Technique with trapezius stretching found to be significantly more added effect than trapezius stretching alone in improving pain, functional disability and cervical movements for subjects with subacute trapezitis.

  3. Whitening effect of alpha-bisabolol in Asian women subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J; Jun, H; Jung, E; Ha, J; Park, D

    2010-08-01

    Although skin pigmentation, which results from the production and distribution of melanin in the epidermis, is the major physiological defence against solar irradiation, hyperpigmentation is a common and distressing problem caused by various inflammatory skin disorders, such as eczema, allergic contact dermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis. We evaluated the effects of a preparation containing alpha-bisabolol on pigmented skin of a group of subjects. The effectiveness of the active compound, alpha-bisabolol, in a base-cream preparation for the treatment of pigmented skin was tested on 28 female subjects as follows: the cream was applied once a day to the back for 8 weeks. These same women also applied a vehicle control cream to the pigmented skin. The results were evaluated by clinical and biophysical test methods. After 8 weeks of treatment of the alpha-bisabolol-containing cream, there was significant lightening effect in the pigmented skin for the majority of the subjects who tested the cream.

  4. The Effects of Polyethylene Mulch and Sowing Date on Early Maturity, Growth and Yield of Okra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tavoosi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effects of plastic bed mulch and sowing date on early maturity, growth and yield of Ahvazi-Okra and obtaining the highest production during the peak price period, an experiment was executed in Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Khuzestan. The experiment was laid out as split plot design in RCBD with four replications. Four sowing dates including Feb. 14, Feb. 24, Mar. 6, and Mar. 16 were considered as main plots and three different kinds of mulch including black plastic, clear plastic and control (without mulch were considered as sub plots. The results showed that the effects of sowing date, kind of mulch, and their interactions on early maturity, early production, total production, germination period, and the number of days to harvest time were significant. The mulch application led to the acceleration of growth stages, and 2.64, 1.53, and 0.9 °C increases respectively in soil temperature at 10cm depth, soil surface temperature and crop canopy temperature, compared to the control treatment. Sowing date did not have significant effect on weeds population. Black plastic mulch could control weeds population effectively. The results demonstrated that the Feb. 14 sowing date together with using clear bed plastic mulch had the highest early production yield (1.9 t/ha, total yield (6.4 t/ha, and the longest crop growth cycle (135 days, the longest fruit production period (70 days and the most number of harvestings (22 times among the other ones.

  5. Effects of Prism Eyeglasses on Objective and Subjective Fixation Disparity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkhard Schroth

    Full Text Available In optometry of binocular vision, the question may arise whether prisms should be included in eyeglasses to compensate an oculomotor and/or sensory imbalance between the two eyes. The corresponding measures of objective and subjective fixation disparity may be reduced by the prisms, or the adaptability of the binocular vergence system may diminish effects of the prisms over time. This study investigates effects of wearing prisms constantly for about 5 weeks in daily life. Two groups of 12 participants received eyeglasses with prisms having either a base-in direction or a base-out direction with an amount up to 8 prism diopters. Prisms were prescribed based on clinical fixation disparity test plates at 6 m. Two dependent variables were used: (1 subjective fixation disparity was indicated by a perceived offset of dichoptic nonius lines that were superimposed on the fusion stimuli and (2 objective fixation disparity was measured with a video based eye tracker relative to monocular calibration. Stimuli were presented at 6 m and included either central or more peripheral fusion stimuli. Repeated measurements were made without the prisms and with the prisms after about 5 weeks of wearing these prisms. Objective and subjective fixation disparity were correlated, but the type of fusion stimulus and the direction of the required prism may play a role. The prisms did not reduce the fixation disparity to zero, but induced significant changes in fixation disparity with large effect sizes. Participants receiving base-out prisms showed hypothesized effects, which were concurrent in both types of fixation disparity. In participants receiving base-in prisms, the individual effects of subjective and objective effects were negatively correlated: the larger the subjective (sensory effect, the smaller the objective (motor effect. This response pattern was related to the vergence adaptability, i.e. the individual fusional vergence reserves.

  6. Effects of Prism Eyeglasses on Objective and Subjective Fixation Disparity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroth, Volkhard; Joos, Roland; Jaschinski, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In optometry of binocular vision, the question may arise whether prisms should be included in eyeglasses to compensate an oculomotor and/or sensory imbalance between the two eyes. The corresponding measures of objective and subjective fixation disparity may be reduced by the prisms, or the adaptability of the binocular vergence system may diminish effects of the prisms over time. This study investigates effects of wearing prisms constantly for about 5 weeks in daily life. Two groups of 12 participants received eyeglasses with prisms having either a base-in direction or a base-out direction with an amount up to 8 prism diopters. Prisms were prescribed based on clinical fixation disparity test plates at 6 m. Two dependent variables were used: (1) subjective fixation disparity was indicated by a perceived offset of dichoptic nonius lines that were superimposed on the fusion stimuli and (2) objective fixation disparity was measured with a video based eye tracker relative to monocular calibration. Stimuli were presented at 6 m and included either central or more peripheral fusion stimuli. Repeated measurements were made without the prisms and with the prisms after about 5 weeks of wearing these prisms. Objective and subjective fixation disparity were correlated, but the type of fusion stimulus and the direction of the required prism may play a role. The prisms did not reduce the fixation disparity to zero, but induced significant changes in fixation disparity with large effect sizes. Participants receiving base-out prisms showed hypothesized effects, which were concurrent in both types of fixation disparity. In participants receiving base-in prisms, the individual effects of subjective and objective effects were negatively correlated: the larger the subjective (sensory) effect, the smaller the objective (motor) effect. This response pattern was related to the vergence adaptability, i.e. the individual fusional vergence reserves. PMID:26431525

  7. Subjective and objective effects of coffee consumption - caffeine or expectations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dömötör, Zs; Szemerszky, R; Köteles, F

    2015-03-01

    Impact of 5 mg/kg caffeine, chance of receiving caffeine (stimulus expectancies), and expectations of effects of caffeine (response expectancies) on objective (heart rate (HR), systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP), measures of heart rate variability (HRV), and reaction time (RT)) and subjective variables were investigated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment with a no-treatment group. Participants were 107 undergraduate university students (mean age 22.3 ± 3.96 years). Consumption of 5 mg/kg caffeine had an impact on participants' SBP, standard deviation of normal heartbeat intervals, HR (decrease), and subjective experience 40 minutes later even after controlling for respective baseline values, stimulus and response expectancies, and habitual caffeine consumption. No effects on DBP, high frequency component of HRV, the ratio of low- and high-frequency, and RT were found. Beyond actual caffeine intake, response expectancy score was also a determinant of subjective experience which refers to a placebo component in the total effect. Actual autonomic (SBP, HR) changes and somatosensory amplification tendency, however, had no significant impact on subjective experience. Placebo reaction plays a role in the subjective changes caused by caffeine consumption but it has no impact on objective variables. Conditional vs deceptive administration of caffeine (i.e. stimulus expectancies) had no impact on any assessed variable.

  8. Direct and indirect effects of neighborhood characteristics on the perpetration of dating violence across adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ling-Yin; Foshee, Vangie A; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Ennett, Susan T; Halpern, Carolyn T

    2015-03-01

    Neighborhood context plays a role in the development of adolescent health risk behaviors, but few studies have investigated the influence of neighborhoods on the perpetration of dating violence. This longitudinal study examined the direct effects of risky neighborhood structural and physical characteristics on trajectories of the perpetration of dating violence, tested whether collective efficacy mediated these relationships, and determined if the effects varied by the sex of the adolescent. Adolescent data are from a multi-wave longitudinal study from grades 8 to 12; neighborhood data were collected from parents' interviews and U.S. Census data. Multilevel growth curve models were conducted with 3,218 students; the sample was 50% male, 41% White, 50% Black, and 9% other race/ethnicity. In models examining risky neighborhood variables one at a time, and controlling for potential individual-level confounders, the sex of the adolescent interacted with economic disadvantage, residential instability, and physical disorder; these risky neighborhood characteristics increased risk for girls' but not boys' perpetrating of dating violence. In full models with all of the risky neighborhood variables, the sex of the adolescent continued to interact with neighborhood economic disadvantage; living in economically disadvantaged neighborhoods increased girls' but not boys' risk for dating violence across all ages. No other risky neighborhood effects were found for boys or girls. Collective efficacy did not mediate the relationships between other neighborhood characteristics and the outcome. These findings suggest that dating violence prevention strategies for girls should consider the contexts in which they live rather than only targeting changes in their individual characteristics.

  9. Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Contents of Ajwa Date and Their Effect on Lipo-Protein Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaira Khalid

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:Dates (Phoenix dactylifera L. are well knownasbothafood and economic crop formany years worldwidedue to its substantial nutritional, health,and economic benefits besides its appeal and environmental value.However, although Datepitsare rich in phenolic and antioxidant contents,they are generally neglected and treated asawaste product. Ethnobotanicalrecords indicatethepotential of Ajwadates pits and fleshhaving phenolics, antioxidants,and some other nutrients. Objective: The purpose of the study wasto extract the phenolic contents andto determinethe antioxidant scavenging activity of Ajwa date flesh and pits in comparison to local date varieties in three different solvents with three different concentrations,and to observe their effect on the high lipo-protein profile of albino mice.Materials and Methods:Three solvents viz. Methanol, Ethanol,and Acetonewereused at concentrationsof 70%, 80%,and 90%to make nutraceutical extracts.These extracts were characterized for numerous nutritional parameters.Correlationofflavonoid with phenolic, DPPH, ABTS,and other parameters were studied. The above extracted Ajwa flesh and pits extracts were then administrated to high cholesterol induced albino mice under three different treatments (10%, 20% and 30% in four different groups where one group was studied as controlResults:Pits appeared to be the richest source for total phenolsand total flavonoid contents. Such extracts from pits were high in DPPH and ABTS activity compared to that of the flesh in all date cultivars, which were thehighest in Ajwa pits (3932.3 mg GAE/100g, 2956.2 mg QEC/100g, 96.3% and 86.2%respectively. In the comparative analysis of solvents, 80% ethanol extractedthehighest antioxidant activity for both DPPH and ABTS assay in all date varieties and their parts. Behaviourof solvent for polyphenol (Total phenols and total flavonoidsextraction was highly variable so that a single solvent cannot be recommendedfor extraction. Highly

  10. Acute Effects of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Yasmin; Enzler, Florian; Gasser, Peter; Grouzmann, Eric; Preller, Katrin H; Vollenweider, Franz X; Brenneisen, Rudolf; Müller, Felix; Borgwardt, Stefan; Liechti, Matthias E

    2015-10-15

    After no research in humans for >40 years, there is renewed interest in using lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in clinical psychiatric research and practice. There are no modern studies on the subjective and autonomic effects of LSD, and its endocrine effects are unknown. In animals, LSD disrupts prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response, and patients with schizophrenia exhibit similar impairments in PPI. However, no data are available on the effects of LSD on PPI in humans. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study, LSD (200 μg) and placebo were administered to 16 healthy subjects (8 women, 8 men). Outcome measures included psychometric scales; investigator ratings; PPI of the acoustic startle response; and autonomic, endocrine, and adverse effects. Administration of LSD to healthy subjects produced pronounced alterations in waking consciousness that lasted 12 hours. The predominant effects induced by LSD included visual hallucinations, audiovisual synesthesia, and positively experienced derealization and depersonalization phenomena. Subjective well-being, happiness, closeness to others, openness, and trust were increased by LSD. Compared with placebo, LSD decreased PPI. LSD significantly increased blood pressure, heart rate, body temperature, pupil size, plasma cortisol, prolactin, oxytocin, and epinephrine. Adverse effects produced by LSD completely subsided within 72 hours. No severe acute adverse effects were observed. In addition to marked hallucinogenic effects, LSD exerts methylenedioxymethamphetamine-like empathogenic mood effects that may be useful in psychotherapy. LSD altered sensorimotor gating in a human model of psychosis, supporting the use of LSD in translational psychiatric research. In a controlled clinical setting, LSD can be used safely, but it produces significant sympathomimetic stimulation. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer and sowing dates on

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    korosh ehteramian

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the optimal level of nitrogen fertilizer and planting date for cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. planting in Kooshkak region located in Doroodzan Dam Areas which represents a typical semiarid region. This research was carried out in the fall and winter 2000 and using a factorial experiment with two factors based on completely randomized block design with nitrogen fertilizer at three rates (0, 30, and 60 kg N ha-1 and sowing date (Nov. 6th, Dec. 21th, Feb. 6th, and March 6th in four replications. The effects of different nitrogen rates were significant on plant height, number of umbrella per plant and number of seed per umbrella, but it was not significant on number of seeds per plant, 1000-seed weight, biological yield, seed yield and harvest index. The effects of sowing dates were significant on number of seeds per umbrella, number of seeds per plant; 1000-seed weight, biological yield and seed yield; but it was not significant on plant height and harvest index. The interaction of nitrogen rates and sowing dates were significant on plant height, number of umbrella per plant and seed yield, but it was not significant on number of seeds per umbrella, number of seeds per plant, 1000-seed weight, biological yield and harvest index. It was concluded that for obtaining the high cumin yield, application of 30 kg N ha-1 and the late planting date (February 6th and March 6th due to probable winter cold, are recommended for this region.

  12. Effect Size for Single-Subject Design in Phonological Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.; Dickinson, Stephanie L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to document, validate, and corroborate effect size (ES) for single­-subject design in treatment of children with functional phonological disorders; to evaluate potential child-­specific contributing variables relative to ES; and to establish benchmarks for interpretation of ES for the population. Method: Data…

  13. Confidentiality and Professional Affiliation Effects on Subject Ratings of Interviewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, David W.; And Others

    The purpose of this research was to study the effects of different statements regarding confidentiality (absolute; limited; nondirective) on subject impressions of interviewers. In addition, the professional affiliation of the interviewer was manipulated (psychologist, minister/pastoral counselor, social worker) to assess potential influence of…

  14. 29 CFR 697.2 - Industry wage rates and effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Processing 3.26 3.26 3.26 (c) Petroleum Marketing 3.85 3.85 3.85 (d) Shipping and Transportation: (1... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Industry wage rates and effective dates. 697.2 Section 697... of goods for commerce, as these terms are defined in section 3 of the Fair Labor Standards Act of...

  15. Effect of fasting on laryngopharyngeal reflux disease in male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Abdul-latif; Nassar, Jihad; Dowli, Alexander; Al Zaghal, Zeid; Sabri, Alain

    2012-11-01

    To address the effect of fasting on laryngopharyngeal reflux disease (LPRD). A total of 22 male subjects have been recruited for this study. Subjects with vocal fold pathologies, recent history of upper respiratory tract infection or laryngeal manipulation were excluded. Demographic data included age and history of smoking. All subjects were evaluated while fasting for at least 12 h and non-fasting. By non-fasting we mean that they ate and drank during the day at their discretion with no reservation. The abstention from water and or food intake during the non-fasting period extended from few minutes to 3 h. All subjects were evaluated at the same time during the day. The evaluation consisted of a laryngeal examination and the Reflux Symptom Index (RSI). The Reflux Finding Score (RFS) was used to report on the reflux laryngeal findings. Subjects were considered to have LPRD if either the RSI or the RFS were positive (>9 RSI, >7 RFS). There was a non-significant increase in the total prevalence of LPRD while fasting compared to non-fasting (32 vs. 50 % while fasting, p value 0.361). In the RSI, the most common symptoms while non-fasting and fasting were throat clearing (64 vs. 68 %), postnasal drip (45 vs. 59 %) and globus sensation (36 vs. 50 %). The average score of all the three increased significantly while fasting. For the RFS the most common laryngeal findings in the non-fasting group versus the fasting group were erythema (77 vs. 68 %), thick endolaryngeal mucus (77 vs. 77 %) and posterior commissure hypertrophy (55 vs. 64 %). Fasting results in a nonsignificant increase in laryngopharyngeal reflux disease. The increase can be hypothetically explained on the change in eating habits and the known alterations in gastric secretions during Ramadan. Fasting subjects must be alert to the effect of LPRD on their throat and voice in particular.

  16. Electronic cigarettes: abuse liability, topography and subjective effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sarah E; Hoffman, Allison C

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available evidence evaluating the abuse liability, topography, subjective effects, craving and withdrawal suppression associated with e-cigarette use in order to identify information gaps and provide recommendations for future research. Methods Literature searches were conducted between October 2012 and January 2014 using five electronic databases. Studies were included in this review if they were peer-reviewed scientific journal articles evaluating clinical laboratory studies, national surveys or content analyses. Results A total of 15 peer-reviewed articles regarding behavioural use and effects of e-cigarettes published between 2010 and 2014 were included in this review. Abuse liability studies are limited in their generalisability. Topography (consumption behaviour) studies found that, compared with traditional cigarettes, e-cigarette average puff duration was significantly longer, and e-cigarette use required stronger suction. Data on e-cigarette subjective effects (such as anxiety, restlessness, concentration, alertness and satisfaction) and withdrawal suppression are limited and inconsistent. In general, study data should be interpreted with caution, given limitations associated with comparisons of novel and usual products, as well as the possible effects associated with subjects’ previous experience/inexperience with e-cigarettes. Conclusions Currently, very limited information is available on abuse liability, topography and subjective effects of e-cigarettes. Opportunities to examine extended e-cigarette use in a variety of settings with experienced e-cigarette users would help to more fully assess topography as well as behavioural and subjective outcomes. In addition, assessment of ‘real-world’ use, including amount and timing of use and responses to use, would clarify behavioural profiles and potential adverse health effects. PMID:24732159

  17. Caffeine expectancies influence the subjective and behavioral effects of caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Paul T; Juliano, Laura M

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated the independent and interactive effects of caffeine pharmacology and expected effects of caffeine on performance and subjective outcomes. Abstinent coffee drinkers (n = 60) consumed decaffeinated coffee with either 280 mg or 0 mg added caffeine. Caffeine dose was crossed with varying instructions that the coffee would either enhance or impair performance in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Performance, mood, caffeine withdrawal, and negative somatic effects were assessed. Relative to placebo, caffeine improved reaction time and accuracy on the rapid visual information processing task, a measure of vigilance. However, there was a significant dose by expectancy interaction that revealed that among participants given placebo coffee, "impair" instructions produced better performance than "enhance" instructions. Caffeine also improved psychomotor performance as indicated by a finger tapping task with no main effects of expectancy or interactions. Impair instructions produced greater reports of negative somatic effects than enhance instructions, but only when caffeine was administered. Manipulating the expected effects of caffeine altered the behavioral and subjective effects of caffeine. A significant dose by expectancy interaction revealed a somewhat paradoxical outcome in the placebo conditions whereby those told "impair" performed better than those told "enhance." This may reflect compensatory responding as has been observed in similar studies using alcohol (Fillmore et al. Psychopharmacology 115:383-388, 1994). Impair instructions led to greater negative somatic effects only when caffeine was administered supporting the active placebo hypothesis.

  18. Effect of aqueous extract of tops of date palm leaves on blood glucose of diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Mohamed Saleh; Abuzaid, Omar Ibrahim; El-Ashmawy, Ibrahim Mohamed

    2017-09-01

    Present study was carried out to examine the effect of tops of date palm leaves extract on blood glucose of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Forty male Sprague Dawely rats (120-130g) were housed individually and randomly allocated to two main groups; diabetic group (n=30), and normal group (n=10) in the animal lab, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia. An aqueous extracts were prepared from tops of date palm leaves (EDPL) and were orally administered to rats. Later, the determination of glucose, BUN, creatinine, uric acid, ALT, and AST was examined. Pancreas sample were taken for histopathological examination. It was clear that the higher the concentration of EDPL the lower the weight gain (Pdate palm leaves decrease blood glucose level has been denied by the results of this study and this tea may worsen diabetes patient's status.

  19. Effect of harvest date on the nutritional quality and antioxidant capacity in 'Hass' avocado during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Zheng, Yusheng; Khuong, Toan; Lovatt, Carol J

    2012-11-15

    The effect of harvest date on nutritional compounds and antioxidant activity (AOC) in avocado (Persea americana Mill. cv Hass) fruit during storage was determined. The fruits were harvested at seven different dates and ripened at 25 °C following 21 or 35 days of cold storage. The results indicated that the phenolic and glutathione contents were increased and the ascorbic acid content was not significantly different in early harvested fruit (January to March), and the phenolic, ascorbic acid and glutathione contents were increased slightly and then decreased on late harvested fruit (April to June). Similar trends were observed in the changes of AOC. Furthermore, AOC in early harvested fruit after storage for 35 days was much higher than that in late harvested fruit after storage for 21 days. Therefore, avocado can be harvested earlier for economic benefits according to the market and can keep high nutritional value for human health benefits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Labeling and effectiveness testing; sunscreen drug products for over-the-counter human use; delay of compliance dates. Final rule; delay of compliance dates; request for comments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is delaying the compliance dates for the final rule for over-the-counter (OTC) sunscreen drug products that published in the Federal Register of June 17, 2011 (76 FR 35620). The final rule establishes labeling and effectiveness testing for certain OTC sunscreen products containing specified active ingredients and marketed without approved applications. It also amends labeling claims that are not currently supported by data and lifts the previously-published delay of implementation of the Drug Facts labeling requirements for OTC sunscreens. The 2011 final rule's compliance dates are being delayed because information received after publication of the 2011 final rule indicates that full implementation of the 2011 final rule's requirements for all affected products will require an additional 6 months. This final rule is part of FDA's ongoing review of OTC drug products.

  1. Smartphone Restriction and its Effect on Subjective Withdrawal Related Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Aarestad, Sarah Helene; Eide, Tine Almenning

    2017-01-01

    Smartphone overuse is associated with a number of negative consequences for the individual and the environment. In the right end of the distribution of smartphone usage, concepts such as smartphone addiction seem warranted. An area that so far lacks research concerns the effect of smartphone restriction generally and specifically on subjective withdrawal related scores across different degrees of smartphone usage. The present study examined withdrawal related scores on the Smartphone Withdraw...

  2. Effects of Inspiratory and Expiratory Muscle Training in Normal Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Makoto; Kurosawa, Hajime; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2005-01-01

    The present study aimed to clarify the effects of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) and expiratory muscle training (EMT) on ventilatory muscle strength, pulmonary function and responses during exercise testing. Young healthy women were randomly assigned to 3 groups: IMT (n=16); EMT (n=16); or untrained normal controls (NC, n=8). Subjects in the IMT and EMT groups trained for 15 minutes twice daily over 2 weeks at loads of 30% maximal inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength, respectively. V...

  3. 77 FR 39949 - Effective Date for the Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 131 RIN 2040-AF41 Effective Date for the Water Quality Standards for the State of... of the July 6, 2012, effective date of the ``Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes... Information Does this action apply to me? Citizens concerned with water quality in Florida may be interested...

  4. 77 FR 13496 - Effective Date for the Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 131 RIN 2040-AF36 Effective Date for the Water Quality Standards for the State of... of the March 6, 2012 effective date of the ``Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes...? Citizens concerned with water quality in Florida may be interested in this rulemaking. Entities discharging...

  5. 77 FR 59241 - Notice of Effective Date of Modifications to Certain Textile and Apparel Rules of Origin of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... of Effective Date of Modifications to Certain Textile and Apparel Rules of Origin of the Dominican... Representative. ACTION: Notice of Effective Date of Modifications to Certain Textile and Apparel Rules of Origin...''). SUMMARY: Public Law 112-163 modified the rules of origin for certain textile and apparel goods of Parties...

  6. 78 FR 68364 - Payment for Home Health Services and Hospice Care to Non-VA Providers; Delay of Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ...The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) published in the Federal Register on May 6, 2013 (78 FR 26250) a final rule to change the billing methodology for non-VA providers of home health services and hospice care. The preamble of that final rule stated the effective date was November 15, 2013. This document delays that effective date to April 1, 2014.

  7. The effectiveness of hypnotherapy in the treatment of subjective tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Moghtaderi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Tinnitus is an annoying disease cause major problems including insomnia, impaired concentration, and reduced quality of life. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of hypnotherapy in the treatment of subjective tinnitus.Methods: This was a pilot experimental study with pre- and post-test method. 20 people suffered from subjective tinnitus were divided equally in two groups of experimental and control. The two groups were matched according to age and severity of tinnitus. They completed tinnitus clinical questionnaires before and after the test and the severity of their tinnitus was recorded by a number from one to ten. Experimental group went under hypnotherapy for 10 sessions. The control group did not perform any psychological treatment. The gathered data were statistically analyzed using Student's t-test (independent and dependent.Results: There were significant differences between the pre-test and post-test scores of each group and also, between the post-test scores of experimental and control groups (p = 0.001 for all.Conclusion: The results showed that hypnotherapy could effectively reduce the seventy of tinnitus in patients in the experimental group; in other words, the results confirm the effectiveness of medical hypnosis in the treatment of subjective tinnitus.

  8. [Subjective and objective effects of music use during mental effort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liptak, V; Egger, J

    1981-05-15

    The subjective and objective effects of music consumption during intellectual work were assessed by a special questionnaire and the concentration paper-pencil-test (Brickencamp). Three different styles of music (pop-music, classical music and folk-music) were presented in a standardized way. It appeared that pop-music was experienced to be less conscious, less irritable and more pleasant than classical music. Although there was a subjective preference for pop- and folk-music an adequate increase of the concentration-test-scores could not be ascertained. On the contrary a significant discrepancy was found between subjective recorded music-effect and objective measured task-performance. Under the condition of classical music which was least preferred there was a significant greater variance of false responses than under the condition of no music. Nevertheless the total output of the discrimination-task was relatively the highest during classical music. The results are interpreted primarily as an enhanced psycho-physiological activation and a different selective concentration on music-presentation and task-demands. In accordance with empirical findings on psychological and physiological effects of music the results of this study reinforce the statement that also i mental activities music per se does not principally increase or lower the task output.

  9. No Effects of Successful Bidirectional SMR Feedback Training on Objective and Subjective Sleep in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binsch, Olaf; Wilschut, Ellen S; Arns, Martijn; Bottenheft, Charelle; Valk, Pierre J L; Vermetten, Eric H G J M

    2017-10-31

    There is a growing interest in the application of psychophysiological signals in more applied settings. Unidirectional sensory motor rhythm-training (SMR) has demonstrated consistent effects on sleep. In this study the main aim was to analyze to what extent participants could gain voluntary control over sleep-related parameters and secondarily to assess possible influences of this training on sleep metrics. Bidirectional training of SMR as well as heart rate variability (HRV) was used to assess the feasibility of training these parameters as possible brain computer interfaces (BCI) signals, and assess effects normally associated with unidirectional SMR training such as the influence on objective and subjective sleep parameters. Participants (n = 26) received between 11 and 21 training sessions during 7 weeks in which they received feedback on their personalized threshold for either SMR or HRV activity, for both up- and down regulation. During a pre- and post-test a sleep log was kept and participants used a wrist actigraph. Participants were asked to take an afternoon nap on the first day at the testing facility. During napping, sleep spindles were assessed as well as self-reported sleep measures of the nap. Although the training demonstrated successful learning to increase and decrease SMR and HRV activity, no effects were found of bidirectional training on sleep spindles, actigraphy, sleep diaries, and self-reported sleep quality. As such it is concluded that bidirectional SMR and HRV training can be safely used as a BCI and participants were able to improve their control over physiological signals with bidirectional training, whereas the application of bidirectional SMR and HRV training did not lead to significant changes of sleep quality in this healthy population.

  10. Subject reactivity effects and alcohol treatment outcome research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, P R; Maisto, S A

    2000-11-01

    Attributions regarding alcohol treatment research protocols influencing clinical outcomes have persisted for more than 25 years. Although well-designed alcohol treatment outcome studies typically involve frequent, and often comprehensive, research assessment protocols, procedures are seldom in place to control or account for possible subject reactivity to the research protocol. This article presents a theoretical basis for a relationship between research protocols and treatment outcomes. The article reviews the relevant alcohol treatment outcome literature and presents a "weight of evidence" regarding subject reactivity effects and alcohol treatment outcome research assessment protocols. Also, the FRAMES (feedback, responsibility, advice, menu, empathy and self-efficacy) model was coupled with self-regulation theory to provide a theoretical explanation of how research assessment protocols might contribute to clinically relevant behavioral change. Researcher attributions, empirical investigations and theoretical considerations all provide evidence that is consistent with the existence of subject reactivity to research assessment protocols. Recommendations are made regarding interpretation of data collected as part of an alcohol treatment outcome study, control of potential subject reactivity confounding variables and directions for future research.

  11. Study on the Effect of Calcium and Potassium Spray on Date Bunch Fading Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Shekofteh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Date bunch fading disorder has been one of the most important problems, which caused economic damage to date plantation area of Iran. It has been first reported on Mozafti cultivar in Kahnuj area, Kerman province. It has often been observed on soft and mid ripening cultivars such as Mozafti, Mordaseng and Kalote. Furthermore, it usually appears on Mozafti cultivar when fruits change from Khalal to Rutab stage. The most important symptoms of this disorder are sudden wilting of fruits and necrotic strips on the upper surface of the main bunch stalk. Incidence and development of these symptoms increase by high temperature, low relative humidity, and hot and dry wind. Several research studies have been carried out on this disorder so far, but the only research about the effect of nutrition on disorder was performed by Rosta (2003. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of calcium and potassium spray on date bunch fading and some traits of date fruit in Rigan region, Kerman province. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block designs with three replicates in Rigan located in east south of Kerman province, Iran, in 2012. Treatments were: T1: control, T2: spray of calcium nitrate at the concentration of 5 ppm, T3: spray of potassium sulfate at the concentration of 5 ppm, and T4: combined spray of calcium nitrate and potassium sulfate at the concentration of 5 ppm. Treatments were applied at Kimri, Hobabok and Khalal stages. Sampling was performed from 3 date palms (3 bunches from each date palm were selected randomly at the second date harvest. Totally, the traits of 200 fruits were measured in each date palm. The traits measured in the present study were: fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit weight, stone weight, stone diameter, and bunch fading percentage. Results and Discussions: According to the data of variance analysis, treatments had a significant effect on wet fruit

  12. Disentangling the effects of date, individual, and territory quality on the seasonal decline in fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärt, Tomas; Knape, Jonas; Low, Matthew; Öberg, Meit; Arlt, Debora

    2017-08-01

    The seasonal timing of reproduction is a major fitness factor in many organisms. Commonly, individual fitness declines with time in the breeding season. We investigated three suggested but rarely tested hypotheses for this seasonal fitness decline: (1) time per se (date hypothesis), (2) late breeders are of lower quality than early ones (individual quality hypothesis), and (3) late breeders are breeding at poorer territories than early breeders (territory quality hypothesis). We used Bayesian variance component analyses to examine reproductive output (breeding success, number fledged, and number of recruits) from repeated observations of female Northern Wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) and individual territories from a 20-yr population study. The major part of the observed seasonal decline in reproductive output seemed to be driven by date-related effects, whereas female age and territory type (i.e., known indicators of temporary quality) contributed to a smaller degree. Other, persistent effects linked to individual and territory identity did not show any clear patterns on the seasonal decline in reproductive output. To better disentangle the quality effects (persistent and temporary) of individual and territory from effects caused by the deterioration of the environment we suggest a protocol combining experimental manipulation of breeding time with a variance-covariance partitioning method used here. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  13. Alcohol’s Effects on Perceptions of a Potential Date Rape*

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABBEY, ANTONIA; BUCK, PHILIP O.; ZAWACKI, TINA; SAENZ, CHRISTOPHER

    2015-01-01

    Objective The effects of alcohol consumption, alcohol expectancy set and self-reported alcohol expectancies on college students’ perceptions of a potential date rape situation were examined. It was hypothesized that the effects of alcohol consumption on perceptions of the likelihood of forced sex would be mediated by cognitive factors and perceived sexual arousal. Method 90 female and 90 male college students were randomly assigned to drink alcohol, a placebo beverage, or a nonalcoholic beverage. Participants read a story about a couple that had been drinking together at a party. The story ended with the woman saying “no” to sexual intercourse and the man exerting verbal pressure. Results Participants’ alcohol consumption during the study, self-reported alcohol expectancies, attitudes about casual sex and usual drinking on dates had significant effects on their perceptions of the story. Participants’ alcohol expectancy set and gender did not have significant effects on perceptions of the likelihood that the male character would force the female character to have sex. Conclusions Intoxicated participants perceived the woman in the vignette as being more sexually aroused and the man in the vignette as behaving more appropriately, and both of these variables were negatively related to ratings of how likely it was that forced sex would occur. These findings highlight the importance of mediating cues in intoxicated decision making. PMID:14572189

  14. Predicting date rape perceptions: the effects of gender, gender role attitudes, and victim resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Katherine A; McCloskey, Kathy A

    2013-08-01

    The effects of participant gender and victim resistance on date rape perceptions have been inconsistent. Participant gender role attitudes may contribute to these inconsistencies. We found women with traditional gender role attitudes were least likely to agree that the perpetrator was guilty of rape. Participants were less convinced of the perpetrator's guilt when the victim resisted verbally than when she resisted verbally and physically, and participants with traditional gender role attitudes were less convinced of the negative impact on the victim when she resisted verbally than when she resisted verbally and physically. Perhaps previous inconsistencies resulted from varying proportions of men and women with traditional versus liberal gender role attitudes in the samples.

  15. The Effects of Objective and Subjective Socioeconomic Status on Subjective Well-Being among Rural-to-Urban Migrants in China: The Moderating Role of Subjective Social Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Silin; Hou, Jiawei; Sun, Ling; Dou, Donghui; Liu, Xia; Zhang, Hongchuan

    2017-01-01

    Although previous investigations have agreed that Chinese rural-to-urban migrants' socioeconomic status (SES) increases with their migration, the association between SES and subjective well-being is uncertain. To address this research gap, the present study proposed that the association between objective SES and subjective well-being is mediated by subjective SES. This model was tested with a sample of 432 Chinese rural-to-urban migrants. The results indicate a significant association between objective SES and subjective well-being and a partial mediating effect of subjective SES. Furthermore, subjective social mobility, which is one's expectation about the possibility to move upward in the social hierarchy, was found to moderate both the direct path from objective SES to subjective well-being and the indirect path from subjective SES to subjective well-being. These findings suggest that Chinese rural-to-urban migrants gained in subjective well-being not only because of direct financial achievement but also because of their perceptions and beliefs about their relative social status.

  16. Healthy subjects with a family history of alcoholism show increased stimulative subjective effects of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderpalm Gordh, Anna H V; Söderpalm, Bo

    2011-08-01

    Research has shown that subjects with a family history positive (FHP) of alcoholism are at increased risk for alcoholism and that this group reacts differently to alcohol than family history negative (FHN) subjects. These different levels of sensitivity may make FHP persons more likely to consume alcohol. Here, we tested the hypothesis that subjects FHP for type 1 alcoholism (according to Cloninger) are more sensitive than control subjects to the stimulative, properties of alcohol following a single moderate dose of alcohol. Fifty-one healthy men and women (22 FHP and 29 FHN) participated in 2 laboratory sessions, in which they consumed a beverage containing ethanol (0.6 g/kg in juice) or placebo (juice alone) in a randomized order. Primary dependent measures were self-report questionnaires of mood states. Subjects with family history of type 1 alcoholism showed increased stimulative responses and an elevated positive mood state after ethanol compared to controls. At this moderate dose, ethanol increased stimulative subjective responses in individuals who were "family history positive." This enhanced sensitivity could motivate to exaggerated drinking and thereby increase the risk for developing alcoholism. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  17. Effectiveness of "shifting boundaries" teen dating violence prevention program for subgroups of middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bruce G; Mumford, Elizabeth A; Stein, Nan D

    2015-02-01

    We examine whether the Shifting Boundaries (SB) intervention, a primary intervention to prevent youth dating violence and sexual harassment (DV/H), is differentially effective for girls compared with boys or for youth with a history of DV/H experiences. We randomly assigned SB to 30 public middle schools in New York City, enrolling 117 sixth and seventh grade classes to receive a classroom, building, combined, or neither intervention. The SB classroom intervention included six sessions emphasizing the laws/consequences of DV/H, establishing boundaries and safe relationships. The SB schoolwide/building intervention included the use of school-based restraining orders, greater faculty/security presence in unsafe "hot spots" mapped by students, and posters to increase DV/H awareness and reporting. Student surveys were implemented at baseline, immediately after intervention, and 6 months after intervention. At 6 months after intervention, the SB building-level intervention was associated with significant reductions in the frequency of sexual harassment (SH) perpetration and victimization; the prevalence and frequency of sexual dating violence victimization; and the frequency of total dating violence victimization and perpetration. We also had one anomalous finding that the interventions were associated with an increase in the prevalence of SH victimization. These results were consistent for girls and boys, and those with or without a history of DV/H, with the one exception for those exposed to the SB building condition who had earlier reported perpetrating SH had a significantly lower frequency of perpetrating SH at the follow-up than those without such a history. SB can provide effective universal prevention of middle school DV/H experiences, regardless of students' prior exposure histories, and for boys and girls. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. ["Debris" public policies and exclusion. Their effects on subjective constitution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugino, Aída

    2013-01-01

    The following paper formulates a critical and conceptual analysis based on a territorial experience. It is enshrined in the field of mental health, understood as the collection of practices and problems aiming at addressing subjectivity, that is, they are inseparable from social and health practices. Some of the causes and effects of exclusion in subjective constitution become problems when institutional, group, community and individual interventions -always of a singular nature- take place. The existing relationship between public policies and population appears in the very core of an intervention or consultation; we, as professionals, are a part of it. People living in conditions of poverty often feel alien to traditional healthcare settings and they end up excluding such facilities from their resources. We will work on childhood and adolescence, as they are constituent stages in history, and the ways in which such history develops in situations with social exclusion. Some of such ways are paco (cocaine paste), violence, conflict with the law or ignorance of it. These are singular ways, but they involve a common and recurring mark related to rejection, neglect and subjective de-structuring. This is what I will refer to as debris hereafter. Lastly, the reconstruction of a Social Other and an approach based on the bond will be emphasized. This will also allow for a social bond, and the building of a care mechanism, which through transference may accommodate an individual who could make certain requests.

  19. The Effects of Viewing R-Rated Movie Scenes That Objectify Women on Perceptions of Date Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milburn, Michael A.; Mather, Roxanne; Conrad, Sheree D.

    2000-01-01

    Tested the effects of viewing R-rated films on perceptions of female responsibility for and enjoyment of date or stranger rape. Participants viewed nonviolent scenes objectifying and degrading women sexually or animated film scenes. They read a fictitious magazine account of a date or stranger rape. The study showed that males who viewed the…

  20. Effect of planting dates and nitrogen rates on yield and yield components of black cumin (Nigella Sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamed javadi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of planting dates and nitrogen rates on yield and yield components of black cumin (Nigella sativa L. a field experiment was conducted in spring 2006 in the Azad University of Birjand. The experiment was done as split plot based on compeletely randomized block design with 3 replications. Four planting dates (21 March, 4, 21 April, 5 May were used as main plot and 3 levels of nitrogen (40, 80 and 120 kg/ha were as sub plot. The results showed that the planting dates effect was significant on traits such as plant height, number of main branches, number of follicles per plant, biological yield and grain yield. As, maximum plant height, number of follicles per plant and biological yield were observed in first planting date and maximum number of main branches and grain yield were observed in first and second planting dates. Planting dates had no significant effects on number of follicles in main branches, number of seed per follicles, weight of 1000 seeds and harvest index. Nitrogen rates and interaction between planting dates and nitrogen rates had no significant effect on the traits. According to the results of this experiment 40 kg/ha nitrogen is enough for black cumin. Also, planting dates in 21 March and 4 April were recognised better because of high yield production.

  1. Language in Online Dating Texts: Trait Identification, Homophily, and their Effect on Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox Hamilton, Nicola; Fullwood, Chris; Kirwan, Grainne

    2015-01-01

    Research has indicated that online daters may pick up on language cues connected to personality traits in online dating profile texts, and act upon those cues. This research seeks to investigate the level of accuracy of detection of personality in dating profile texts, and the extent to which perceived or actual similarity of personality has an effect on attractiveness of the author. An online survey was conducted collecting the Ten Item Personality Inventory (TIPI) for each participant and text author, a peer-report TIPI score by participants for each text author, and an attractiveness rating on a Likert scale for each author. Participants correctly identified Extraversion, though the effect size was small. Contrary to the hypotheses, participants preferred texts when written by an author with a personality they perceived as dissimilar to their own, specifically in Openness and Conscientiousness, and no relationship was found between actual similarity of personality and attractiveness. Online daters may choose partners with complementary or desirable traits rather than similar traits, or other factors in attraction may be more salient in the initial stages of determining attraction.

  2. Interaction Effects of Planting Date and Weed Competition on Yield and Yield Components of Three white Bean Cultivars in Semirom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yadavi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Unsuitable planting and weed competition are the most important factors that greatly reduce the yield of bean. In order to study the effect of planting date on yield and yield components of three white bean cultivars in weed infest and weed free condition a factorial experiment with randomized complete block design and three replications was carried out at Semirom in 2009. The treatments were planting date (May10, May 25 and June 9 and white bean cultivars (Shekofa, Pak and Daneshkade and two levels of weed infestation (weedy and weed free. Results showed that planting date, weed competition and cultivars had significant effects on yield and yield components of white bean. The 30-day delay in planting date reduced the number of pods per plant, seeds per pod, 100 seed weight and biological yield of white bean cultivars, 22.5, 18, 20.1 and 22.5 percent respectively. Also weed competition, reduced the number of seeds per pod, 100 seed weight and biological yield respectively by 13.5, 5.7 and 27.1 percent. Result of planting date and weed competition interaction effects indicated that the weed competition decreased grain yield (53% in third planting date more than others and delay in planting date was companion with increasing weed density and dry weight in flowering stage of bean. Also Shekofa cultivar had highest grain yield (3379 kg/ha at the first planting date and weed free condition.

  3. Effects of Cognitive Distortions on the Link Between Dating Violence Exposure and Substance Problems in Clinically Hospitalized Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Adam Bryant; Williams, Caitlin; Day, Catherine; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether cognitive distortions (e.g., cognitive errors; negative views of self, world, and future) influence the association between dating violence and problematic substance use behaviors in a sample of psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. Participants included 155 adolescents, aged 13-17 years, who had initiated dating. Adolescents completed measures of dating violence, substance-related problems (alcohol and marijuana), and cognitive distortions. Logistic regressions were conducted to examine the direct and interactive effects of dating violence exposure and cognitive distortions on likelihood of recent problematic substance use. Results suggested a main effect of dating violence on problematic alcohol and other drug use as well as an interactive effect of dating violence and cognitive distortions. Specifically, the relationship between dating violence and odds of substance-related problems was higher among those with greater (vs. fewer) cognitive distortions. Study results suggest the need for careful screening of cognitive distortions among adolescent dating violence victims, particularly those in mental health treatment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Effects of lithium on oxidative stress parameters in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairova, Rushaniya; Pawar, Rohit; Salvadore, Giacomo; Juruena, Mario F; de Sousa, Rafael T; Soeiro-de-Souza, Márcio G; Salvador, Mirian; Zarate, Carlos A; Gattaz, Wagner F; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo

    2012-03-01

    Increased neuronal oxidative stress (OxS) induces deleterious effects on signal transduction, structural plasticity and cellular resilience, mainly by inducing lipid peroxidation in membranes, proteins and genes. Major markers of OxS levels include the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase. Lithium has been shown to prevent and/or reverse DNA damage, free-radical formation and lipid peroxidation in diverse models. This study evaluates OxS parameters in healthy volunteers prior to and following lithium treatment. Healthy volunteers were treated with lithium in therapeutic doses for 2-4 weeks. Treatment with lithium in healthy volunteers selectively altered SOD levels in all subjects. Furthermore, a significant decrease in the SOD/CAT ratio was observed following lithium treatment, which was associated with decreased OxS by lowering hydrogen peroxide levels. This reduction in the SOD/CAT ratio may lead to lower OxS, indicated primarily by a decrease in the concentration of cell hydrogen peroxide. Overall, the present findings indicate a potential role for the antioxidant effects of lithium in healthy subjects, supporting its neuroprotective profile in bipolar disorder (BD) and, possibly, in neurodegenerative processes.

  5. Quinoa in Morocco - effect of sowing dates on development and yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, A.; Choukr-Allah, R.; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2014-01-01

    of sowing date on quinoa performance in a series of experiments conducted for adaptation of quinoa. The experiment took place in Agadir, with a test of 10 sowing dates, each 15 days from 1st November to 15th March. Sowing dates affected the growth and productivity due to differences in temperature...

  6. Effects of Planting Date, Time and Methods of Weed Control on Weed Density and Biomass in Cumin Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ghorbani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Two field experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the effect of planting date, method and date of weed control on weed density and biomass in the experimental research field, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during 2006 and 2007. Treatments included planting date (30 December, 20 January and 30 February, weeding date (first true leaf, start of branching and beginning of flowering stages and weed control methods (hand weeding, fire treatment and control. The results showed that there were significant differences in the number of weeds between different sowing dates, weeding dates and control methods. The highest mean density and biomass of weeds were obtained on the planting date, 30 February, and when weed was controlled at the first leaf appearance stage with fire treatment. The most appropriate time for weed control was at the beginning of cumin flowering. Fire treatment reduced weed growth in the first half of growing season. However, hand weeding significantly reduced weed density and biomass in the second half of cumin growing season. The first planting date caused the lowest mean weed biomass and the highest cumin yield compared to later planting dates. Hand weeding treatment contained lower mean weed density and biomass compared to fire treatment, however, cumin yield was lower in hand weeding plots than fire treatment. Keywords: Cultural control, Cuminum cyminum, Fire, Hand weeding, Control time

  7. A latent transition model of the effects of a teen dating violence prevention initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jason; Miller, Shari; Cutbush, Stacey; Gibbs, Deborah; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Jones, Sarah

    2015-02-01

    Patterns of physical and psychological teen dating violence (TDV) perpetration, victimization, and related behaviors were examined with data from the evaluation of the Start Strong: Building Healthy Teen Relationships initiative, a dating violence primary prevention program targeting middle school students. Latent class and latent transition models were used to estimate distinct patterns of TDV and related behaviors of bullying and sexual harassment in seventh grade students at baseline and to estimate transition probabilities from one pattern of behavior to another at the 1-year follow-up. Intervention effects were estimated by conditioning transitions on exposure to Start Strong. Latent class analyses suggested four classes best captured patterns of these interrelated behaviors. Classes were characterized by elevated perpetration and victimization on most behaviors (the multiproblem class), bullying perpetration/victimization and sexual harassment victimization (the bully-harassment victimization class), bullying perpetration/victimization and psychological TDV victimization (bully-psychological victimization), and experience of bully victimization (bully victimization). Latent transition models indicated greater stability of class membership in the comparison group. Intervention students were less likely to transition to the most problematic pattern and more likely to transition to the least problem class. Although Start Strong has not been found to significantly change TDV, alternative evaluation models may find important differences. Latent transition analysis models suggest positive intervention impact, especially for the transitions at the most and the least positive end of the spectrum. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Study of Temporal Effects on Subjective Video Quality of Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bampis, Christos George; Zhi Li; Moorthy, Anush Krishna; Katsavounidis, Ioannis; Aaron, Anne; Bovik, Alan Conrad

    2017-11-01

    HTTP adaptive streaming is being increasingly deployed by network content providers, such as Netflix and YouTube. By dividing video content into data chunks encoded at different bitrates, a client is able to request the appropriate bitrate for the segment to be played next based on the estimated network conditions. However, this can introduce a number of impairments, including compression artifacts and rebuffering events, which can severely impact an end-user's quality of experience (QoE). We have recently created a new video quality database, which simulates a typical video streaming application, using long video sequences and interesting Netflix content. Going beyond previous efforts, the new database contains highly diverse and contemporary content, and it includes the subjective opinions of a sizable number of human subjects regarding the effects on QoE of both rebuffering and compression distortions. We observed that rebuffering is always obvious and unpleasant to subjects, while bitrate changes may be less obvious due to content-related dependencies. Transient bitrate drops were preferable over rebuffering only on low complexity video content, while consistently low bitrates were poorly tolerated. We evaluated different objective video quality assessment algorithms on our database and found that objective video quality models are unreliable for QoE prediction on videos suffering from both rebuffering events and bitrate changes. This implies the need for more general QoE models that take into account objective quality models, rebuffering-aware information, and memory. The publicly available video content as well as metadata for all of the videos in the new database can be found at http://live.ece.utexas.edu/research/LIVE_NFLXStudy/nflx_index.html.

  9. Dating Techniques

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Absolute dating technique (such as stylistic affiliation, association with datable deposits, amino acid study of protein in pigments, and direct radiocarbon dating of the organic fraction of pigments or desert varnish).

  10. Radiocarbon Dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, B A

    2007-12-20

    Radiocarbon dating can be used to determine the age of objects that contain components that were once alive. In the case of human remains, a radiocarbon date can distinguish between a crime scene and an archeological site. Documents, museum artifacts and art objects can be dated to determine if their age is correct for the historical context. A radiocarbon date does not confirm authenticity, but it can help identify a forgery.

  11. Effect of sowing date and plant density on grain and flower yield of Pot Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad javad seghatol eslami

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L. is a medicinal herb whose dried flower heads are used to heal wounds. In order to study the effects of sowing dates and plant density on grain and flower yield of pot marigold, an experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Center of Islamic Azad University, Birjand Branch in 2005. Three sowing dates (30 March, 14 April and 30 April and three plant densities (plant distances on row were 10, 20 and 30 centimeters were compared in a split- plot experiment based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Seed and flower yields were significantly different at planting dates and plant densities. Sowing date had significant effects on flower and seed harvest index. The latest sowing dates had the highest flower and seed harvest index. Plant density had not significant effect on flower harvest index, but the effect on seed harvest index, was significant. In total our result showed that the first sowing date with 25 plants/m2 had the highest grain and flower yield. Keywords: Marigold, sowing date, plant density, medicinal plant.

  12. Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stader, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Dating violence is a form of student-on-student victimization and is a serious school safety issue. Research indicates that at a minimum, 10 percent of high school students are victims of dating violence in one form or another. Among female high school students that date, some data indicate that as many as 30 percent may be victims of dating…

  13. Identification of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR in Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Subjected to Drought and Salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    V Patankar, Himanshu; M Assaha, Dekoum V; Al-Yahyai, Rashid; Sunkar, Ramanjulu; Yaish, Mahmoud W

    2016-01-01

    Date palm is an important crop plant in the arid and semi-arid regions supporting human population in the Middle East and North Africa. These areas have been largely affected by drought and salinity due to insufficient rainfall and improper irrigation practices. Date palm is a relatively salt- and drought-tolerant plant and more recently efforts have been directed to identifying genes and pathways that confer stress tolerance in this species. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a promising technique for the analysis of stress-induced differential gene expression, which involves the use of stable reference genes for normalizing gene expression. In an attempt to find the best reference genes for date palm's drought and salinity research, we evaluated the stability of 12 most commonly used reference genes using the geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper statistical algorithms and the comparative ΔCT method. The comprehensive results revealed that HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN (HSP), UBIQUITIN (UBQ) and YTH domain-containing family protein (YT521) were stable in drought-stressed leaves whereas GLYCERALDEHYDE-3-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE (GAPDH), ACTIN and TUBULIN were stable in drought-stressed roots. On the other hand, SMALL SUBUNIT RIBOSOMAL RNA (25S), YT521 and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S); and UBQ, ACTIN and ELONGATION FACTOR 1-ALPHA (eEF1a) were stable in leaves and roots, respectively, under salt stress. The stability of these reference genes was verified by using the abiotic stress-responsive CYTOSOLIC Cu/Zn SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE (Cyt-Cu/Zn SOD), an ABA RECEPTOR, and a PROLINE TRANSPORTER 2 (PRO) genes. A combination of top 2 or 3 stable reference genes were found to be suitable for normalization of the target gene expression and will facilitate gene expression analysis studies aimed at identifying functional genes associated with drought and salinity tolerance in date palm.

  14. Direct comparison of the acute subjective, emotional, autonomic, and endocrine effects of MDMA, methylphenidate, and modafinil in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolder, Patrick C; Müller, Felix; Schmid, Yasmin; Borgwardt, Stefan J; Liechti, Matthias E

    2017-05-27

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is used recreationally and investigated as an adjunct to psychotherapy. Methylphenidate and modafinil are psychostimulants that are used to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy, respectively, but they are also misused as cognitive enhancers. Little is known about differences in the acute effects of equally cardiostimulant doses of these stimulant-type substances compared directly within the same subjects. We investigated the acute autonomic, subjective, endocrine, and emotional effects of single doses of MDMA (125 mg), methylphenidate (60 mg), modafinil (600 mg), and placebo in a double-blind, cross-over study in 24 healthy participants. Acute drug effects were tested using psychometric scales, the Facial Emotion Recognition Task (FERT), and the Sexual Arousal and Desire Inventory (SADI). All active drugs produced comparable hemodynamic and adverse effects. MDMA produced greater increases in pupil dilation, subjective good drug effects, drug liking, happiness, trust, well-being, and alterations in consciousness than methylphenidate or modafinil. Only MDMA reduced subjective anxiety and impaired fear recognition and led to misclassifications of emotions as happy on the FERT. On the SADI, only MDMA produced sexual arousal-like effects. Only MDMA produced marked increases in cortisol, prolactin, and oxytocin. In contrast to MDMA, methylphenidate increased subjective anxiety, and methylphenidate and modafinil increased misclassifications of emotions as angry on the FERT. Modafinil had no significant subjective drug effects but significant sympathomimetic and adverse effects. MDMA induced subjective, emotional, sexual, and endocrine effects that were clearly distinct from those of methylphenidate and modafinil at the doses used.

  15. Interstellar Reddening Effect on the Age Dating of Population II Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ortolani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The age measurement of the stellar halo component of the Galaxy is based mainly on the comparison of the main sequence turn-off luminosity of the globular cluster (GC stars with theoretical isochrones. The standard procedure includes a vertical shift, in order to account for the distance and extinction to the cluster, and a horizontal one, to compensate the reddening. However, the photometry is typically performed with broad-band filters where the shape of the stellar spectra introduces a shift of the effective wavelength response of the system, dependent on the effective temperature (or color index of the star. The result is an increasing distortion—actually a rotation and a progressive compression with the temperature—of the color-magnitude diagrams relatively to the standard unreddened isochrones, with increasing reddening. This effect is usually negligible for reddening E ( B - V on the order of or smaller than 0.15, but it can be quite relevant at larger extinction values. While the ratio of the absorption to the reddening is widely discussed in the literature, the importance of the latter effect is often overlooked. In this contribution, we present isochron simulations and discuss the expected effects on age dating of high-reddening globular clusters.

  16. Effect of Subject Control and Graduated Exposure on Snake Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepner, Alain; Cauthen, Nelson R.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of two of the variables in Leitenberg's graduated exposure technique for treating phobias, graduated exposure and subject control of the exposure time, was investigated using 15 snake-phobic subjects. Subjective fear significantly decreased from pretesting to posttesting. (Author)

  17. Vascular Effects of Obestatin in Lean and Obese Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinzari, Francesca; Veneziani, Augusto; Mores, Nadia; Barini, Angela; Di Daniele, Nicola; Cardillo, Carmine; Tesauro, Manfredi

    2017-05-01

    Obese patients have impaired vasodilator reactivity and increased endothelin 1 (ET-1)-mediated vasoconstriction, two abnormalities contributing to vascular dysfunction. Obestatin, a product of the ghrelin gene, in addition to favorable effects on glucose and lipid metabolism, has shown nitric oxide (NO)-dependent vasodilator properties in experimental models. Given these premises, we compared the effects of exogenous obestatin on forearm flow in lean and obese subjects and assessed its influence on ET-1-dependent vasoconstrictor tone in obesity. In both lean and obese participants, infusion of escalating doses of obestatin resulted in a progressive increase in blood flow from baseline (both P obestatin in both groups (both P 0.05) during obestatin. Circulating obestatin levels were not different between lean and obese participants (P = 0.41). Our findings indicate that obestatin causes NO-dependent vasodilation in the human circulation. This effect is preserved in obesity, where it is accompanied by reduced ET-1-mediated vasoconstriction. These latter observations make obestatin a promising target for vascular prevention in obesity and diabetes. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  18. Proximal and time-varying effects of cigarette, alcohol, marijuana and other hard drug use on adolescent dating aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton Reyes, H Luz; Foshee, Vangie A; Bauer, Daniel J; Ennett, Susan T

    2014-04-01

    Although numerous studies have established a link between substance use and adult partner violence, little research has examined the relationship during adolescence and most extant research has not examined multiple substance use types. The current study used hierarchical growth modeling to simultaneously examine proximal (between-person) and time-varying (within-person) relations between cigarette, alcohol, marijuana and hard drug use and physical dating aggression across grades 8 through 12 while controlling for demographic covariates and shared risk factors. Proximal effects of marijuana use on dating aggression were found for girls and proximal effects of hard drug use on dating aggression were found for boys. Time-varying effects were found for alcohol for both boys and girls and for hard drug use for boys only. Overall, findings suggest that alcohol, marijuana and hard drug use predict whether and when adolescents engage in dating aggression and should be targeted by prevention interventions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Effects of sample mass and macrofossil type on radiocarbon dating of arctic and boreal lake sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oswald, W W; Anderson, P M; Brown, T A; Brubaker, L B; Hu, F S; Lozhkin, A V; Tinner, W; Kaltenrieder, P

    2006-05-29

    Dating lake sediments by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) {sup 14}C analysis of plant macrofossils overcomes one of the main problems associated with dating bulk sediment samples, the presence of old organic matter. Even so, many AMS dates from arctic and boreal sites appear to misrepresent the age of the sediment. To understand the nature of these apparent dating anomalies better, we conducted a series of {sup 14}C dating experiments using samples from Alaskan and Siberian lake-sediment cores. First, to test whether our analytical procedures introduced a sample-mass bias, we obtained {sup 14}C dates for different-sized pieces of single woody macrofossils. In these sample-mass experiments, sized statistically equivalent ages were found for samples as small as 0.05 mg C. Second, to assess whether macrofossil type influenced dating results, we conducted sample-type experiments in which {sup 14}C dates were obtained for different macrofossil types sieved from the same depth in the sediment. We dated materials from multiple levels in sediment cores from Upper Capsule Lake (North Slope, northern Alaska) and Grizzly Lake (Copper River Basin, southern Alaska), and from single depths in other records from northern Alaska. In several of the experiments there were significant discrepancies between dates for different plant tissues, and in most cases wood and charcoal were older than other macrofossil types, usually by several hundred years. This pattern suggests that {sup 14}C dates for woody macrofossils may misrepresent the age of the sediment by centuries, perhaps due to their longer terrestrial residence time and the potential in-built age of long-lived plants. This study identifies why some {sup 14}C dates appear to be inconsistent with the overall age-depth trend of a lake-sediment record, and it may guide the selection of {sup 14}C samples in future studies.

  20. Effects of High-Dose Capsaicin on TMD Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, B.K.; Fillingim, R.B.; Lee, S.; Brao, R.; Price, D.D.; Neubert, J.K.

    2016-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) is a complex musculoskeletal disorder that presents with pain, limited jaw opening, and abnormal noises in the temporomandibular joint. Despite the significant impact that TMD has in terms of suffering and financial burden, relatively few new treatments have emerged; therefore, development of novel treatments to treat TMD pain remains a high priority. The rationale of this study was to use a double-blind, vehicle-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the effects of a high-concentration (8%) capsaicin cream on TMD. This is based on the hypothesis that targeting TRP vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1) for pain control may provide a novel method for pain relief in TMD patients. TRPV1 is primarily expressed on a population of nociceptive-specific neurons and provides a candidate target for the development of pain treatments. Capsaicin is the primary agonist for TRPV1 and has been used previously in relatively low doses (0.025% to 0.075%) as a therapeutic for a variety of pain disorders, including postherpetic neuralgia and osteoarthritis; however, analgesic efficacy remains equivocal. TMD and healthy control subjects were assigned to either an active capsaicin or vehicle control group. The treatments were applied for 2 h and then removed. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) was completed prior to drug application (baseline), 2 h after drug application, and 1 wk later. Perceived pain intensity was measured using a visual analog scale (VAS) following capsaicin or vehicle cream application. Significantly lower pain was reported in the week after application in the capsaicin-treated TMD subjects. For QST measures, there was a decreased thermal pain threshold 2 h after capsaicin application for both the control and TMD groups, but this resolved within a week. Capsaicin had no effect on pressure pain threshold or mechanical sensitivity in both TMD and healthy individuals. This study demonstrates that 8% topical capsaicin therapy is a

  1. Integrated effect of crop sowing date and herbicide stress on fitness of Bromus diandrus Roth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addy L. García

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bromus diandrus Roth is a common weed species that has increased in no-tillage dry-land cereal fields in NE Spain because of the limited control options. The fitness response of plants with different emergence times (ETs and its influence on demography has huge implications in weed management. With this subject, three ETs (F1, F2 and F3 of B. diandrus were established through three crop-sowing dates (D1, Oct.; D2, Nov.; D3, Dec. for each of the three years in a barley-wheat-wheat rotation. In barley, the herbicides applied were not specific for B. diandrus, whereas in wheat the specific herbicide mesosulfuron-methyl plus iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium was applied. Plant density after treatments and fitness characteristics were estimated for each weed ET. Weed density decreased for later ETs and fitness was density-dependent, showing significantly higher values when a non-specific herbicide was applied, except in number of caryopses per spikelet. The increasing fitness shown by plants with later ETs and the linear relationships of vegetative biomass vs reproductive biomass and fecundity were disrupted by the herbicide mesosulfuron-methyl plus iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium. Plants that had survived this herbicide when wheat was growing had lower values for all the characteristics analysed. After three seasons, as a consequence of decreasing seed recruitment, a practical depletion of the B. diandrus population was achieved in F2 and F3 (<2.8 and <1 plants/m2, respectively but not in F1 (60.5 plants/m2. This study shows the importance of delayed crop sowing to optimize the control of B. diandrus in cereal fields with no tillage.

  2. Integrated effect of crop sowing date and herbicide stress on fitness of Bromus diandrus Roth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García, A.L.; Royo-Esnal, A.; Torra, J.; Recasens, J.

    2015-07-01

    Bromus diandrus Roth is a common weed species that has increased in no-tillage dry-land cereal fields in NE Spain because of the limited control options. The fitness response of plants with different emergence times (ETs) and its influence on demography has huge implications in weed management. With this subject, three ETs (F1, F2 and F3) of B. diandrus were established through three crop-sowing dates (D1, Oct.; D2, Nov.; D3, Dec.) for each of the three years in a barley-wheat-wheat rotation. In barley, the herbicides applied were not specific for B. diandrus, whereas in wheat the specific herbicide mesosulfuron-methyl plus iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium was applied. Plant density after treatments and fitness characteristics were estimated for each weed ET. Weed density decreased for later ETs and fitness was density-dependent, showing significantly higher values when a non-specific herbicide was applied, except in number of caryopses per spikelet. The increasing fitness shown by plants with later ETs and the linear relationships of vegetative biomass vs reproductive biomass and fecundity were disrupted by the herbicide mesosulfuron-methyl plus iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium. Plants that had survived this herbicide when wheat was growing had lower values for all the characteristics analysed. After three seasons, as a consequence of decreasing seed recruitment, a practical depletion of the B. diandrus population was achieved in F2 and F3 (<2.8 and <1 plants/m2, respectively) but not in F1 (60.5 plants/m2). This study shows the importance of delayed crop sowing to optimize the control of B. diandrus in cereal fields with no tillage. (Author)

  3. The effect of closing date on the performance of beef weaners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Digitaria eriantha spp. eriantha and Acroceras macrum foggage, closed off at three different dates (end of December, end of January and end of February), was evaluated for use as winter grazing for the overwintering of weaner steers in the Sour Sandveld of KwaZulu-Natal. Delaying the closing date led to an improvement ...

  4. The effects of maternal calving date and calving interval on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    kg for heifer pre-breeding weight. It is recommended that date of calving and actual weaning weight of calves should be considered when evaluating the reproductive and productive performance of breeding cows. Keywords: calving date, calving interval, growth rate, beef cows. *. Author to whom correspondence should be ...

  5. Effect of planting date on growth and grain yield of fonio millet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seven planting times (from early July to mid August with 7-day interval) were laid out in a randomized complete block design. In general, plant growth and grain yield were significantly better for the early July sowing dates compared to other sowing dates. However, tillering capacity and grain size were not influenced by the ...

  6. date extended

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C A L AN DER OF EVENTS. Date of issue of bid document : 2016 September 21. Extended Due date and Time for Receipt of Tender : Up to 2016 October 17, Time 13:00 Hrs. Date and Time of opening of bid : 2016 October 17, Time 15:00 Hrs. Cost of Bid Document : Rs. 100/- only (Non-refundable). Earnest Money Deposit ...

  7. The Effects of Alcohol, Emotion Regulation, and Emotional Arousal on the Dating Aggression Intentions of Men and Women

    OpenAIRE

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Fromme, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Verbal and physical dating aggression is prevalent among college-aged men and women, especially a pattern of mutual aggression in which both partners engage in aggression. Alcohol intoxication and anger arousal have both been implicated in the occurrence of aggression, and the ability to regulate one’s emotions may interact with both alcohol intoxication and emotional arousal to predict dating aggression. The current study is the first known experimental investigation to examine the effects o...

  8. Parental warmth amplifies the negative effect of parental hostility on dating violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L; Lei, Man-Kit; Hancock, Donna L; Fincham, Frank D

    2012-09-01

    Past research has documented the positive association between parental hostility and offspring involvement in intimate partner violence. Researchers, practitioners, and parents typically adopt the standpoint that parental warmth may counter these negative lessons. However, Straus and colleagues argue that parents foster IPV to the extent that they teach their child that verbal and physical aggression are a normal and legitimate component of loving relationships. A strict interpretation of social learning theory would suggest that these lessons are more, not less, likely to occur when parental hostility is interspersed with displays of affection. The present study tests this idea using data from 2,088 undergraduate students from a large university in the Southeast. Consistent with Straus' arguments, findings suggest that, rather than attenuating the negative effects of hostility, supportive interactions seem to amplify the probability that offspring will emulate aggressive behaviors in their own romantic relationships. The same is true for the effects of harsh parenting for women. It seems that the best way parents can avoid contributing to their child's chances of being in a violent dating relationship is to eschew family interaction involving verbal and physical aggression.

  9. Effect of multi axis vibration and subject postures on sketching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sedentary activities such as reading, writing, sketching, etc. are affected due to the train vibrations. Therefore, the present study investigates the extent of perceived difficulty and distortion in a sketching task by seated subjects in two postures under low frequency, multi axial random vibrations. Thirty male voluntary subjects ...

  10. Effect of sowing date on yield and quality of high moisture ear and grain production for maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Svečnjak

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available High moisture ear and grain production of maize (Zea mays L. hasadvantages in comparison with dry grain production because longer maturity hybrids might be grown and there are no grain drying costs. A two year study was carried out at the Faculty of Agriculture experimental field Maksimir to evaluate the effect of delayed sowing dates on yield and quality of high moisture ear and grain production when compared to optimum sowing date. Maize hybrids belonging to the maturity groups FAO 200 (PR39K38 and 300 (PR38P05 were sown at optimum (early May and two delayed sowing dates (middle May and early June and grown under intensive cropping system.When compared to optimum sowing date, grain and ear yield significantly decreased with delayed sowing dates despite the fact that grown hybrids reached physiological maturity before the first autumn frosts. These yield reductions at delayed sowing dates were mainly associated with fewer grains per ear, and partly due to lighter 1000-grain weights. Both hybrids resulted in similar ear yield; however, a longer maturity hybrid (PR38P05 had larger grain yields than a shorter-maturity hybrid (PR39K38 because the latter hadsignificantly smaller shelling index (82,1 % than the former one (87,0 %. Sowing date and growing conditions showed no significant effect on grain protein and oil contents. Hybrids also had similar grain protein content, whereas PR38P05 had absolutely small, but significantly higher grain oil content than PR39K38. Thus, delayed sowing of the maize hybrids of FAO 200 - 300 maturity groups might occur into early June with no effect on grain quality, but with significant yield losses when compared to optimum sowing date.

  11. Tolerable hearing-aid delays: IV. effects on subjective disturbance during speech production by hearing-impaired subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Michael A; Moore, Brian C J

    2005-04-01

    We assessed the effects of time delay in a hearing aid on subjective disturbance and reading rates while the user of the aid was speaking, using hearing-impaired subjects and real-time processing. The time delay was constant across frequency. A digital signal processor was programmed as a four-channel, fast-acting, wide-dynamic-range compression hearing aid. One of four delays could be selected on the aid to produce a total delay of 13, 21, 30, or 40 msec between microphone and receiver. Twenty-five subjects, mostly with near-symmetric hearing impairment of cochlear origin, were fitted bilaterally with behind-the-ear aids connected to the processor. The aids were programmed with insertion gains prescribed by the CAMEQ loudness equalization procedure for each subject and ear. Subjects were asked to read aloud from scripts: speech production rates were measured and subjective ratings of the disturbance of the delay were obtained. Subjects required some training to recognize the effects of the delay to rate it consistently. Subjective disturbance increased progressively with increasing delay and was a nonmonotonic function of low-frequency hearing loss. Subjects with mild or severe low-frequency hearing loss were generally less disturbed by the delay than those with moderate loss. Disturbance ratings tended to decrease over successive tests. Word production rates were not significantly affected by delay over the range of delays tested. The results follow a pattern similar to those presented in , obtained using a simulation of hearing loss and normally hearing subjects, except for the nonmonotonic variation of disturbance with low-frequency hearing loss. We hypothesize that disturbance is maximal when the levels in the ear canal of the low-frequency components are similar for the unaided and aided sounds. A rating of 3, which is probably just acceptable, was obtained for delays ranging from 14 to 30 msec, depending on the hearing loss. Some acclimatization to the

  12. Extraction, partial purification and characterization of amylase from parthenocarpic date (Phoenix dactylifera): effect on cake quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Abed, Hanen; Khemakhem, Bassem; Fendri, Imen; Chakroun, Mouna; Triki, Mehdi; Drira, Noureddine; Mejdoub, Hafedh

    2017-08-01

    Phoenix dactylifera L. plays an important role in social, economic and ecological Tunisian sectors. Some date palms produce parthenocarpic fruit named Sish. The objective of the present study was to extract biomolecules from parthenocarpic fruit by producing value-added products from the fruits. The extraction of amylolytic activity from parthenocarpic fruit (AmyPF) was optimized using Box-Behnken design (BBD). Partial purification of about 250-fold with an activity yield of 47% was achieved. The amylase exhibited a specific activity of 80 U mg-1 protein. The optimum pH and temperature for enzyme activity were 5 and 55 °C respectively. The enzyme was highly active over a wide range of pH (5-10), and significant stabilization was observed at 60 °C. The purified enzyme belongs to the exo type of amylases. Given the economic and industrial relevance of amylases used in the food industry, three different concentrations of AmyPF (0.007, 0.014 and 0.018 U g-1 ) were incorporated into a cake formulation, resulting in a decrease in density, moisture retention and water activity and an increase in hardness. The beneficial effect of AmyPF on the technological characteristics of cakes was confirmed by sensory evaluation. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Effect of potassium nitrate on antioxidants production of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) in vitro

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aldaej, Mohammed I; Alturki, Saleh M; Shehata, Wael F; Ghazzawy, Hesham S

    2014-01-01

    .... The main aim of this study was to determine the role of potassium nitrate (KNO3) in the formation of antioxidants from explants collected from date palm cultivars in Al-Ahsa Oasis, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA...

  14. First versus Second Trimester Ultrasound: The Effect on Pregnancy Dating and Perinatal Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughey, Aaron B.; Nicholson, James M; Washington, A. Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of first trimester obstetric ultrasound (OBUS) on the measurement of the effect of complications ascribed to postterm pregnancies. Study Design We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all term, singleton pregnancies delivered at our institution who had an OBUS at ≤24 weeks of gestation. Those women who underwent an OBUS at ≤12 weeks of gestation (OBUS12) were compared to those who had an OBUS at 13–24 weeks of gestation (OBUS13–24). The primary outcome measures were the rates of postterm pregnancies greater than 41 or 42 weeks’ gestation. Secondary outcomes were the differences between the postterm and term gestations in maternal and neonatal outcomes. Results In the OBUS12 group, the rate of postterm pregnancy ≥42 weeks was lower (2.7%) as compared to the OBUS13–24 group (3.7%, p=0.022). With regards to reaching 41 weeks of gestation, the OBUS12 group was again lower (18.2%) as compared to the OBUS13–24 group (22.1%, ppostterm inductions at ≥42 weeks in the OBUS12 group (1.8%) as compared to the OBUS13–24 group (2.6%, p=0.017). When comparing perinatal outcomes between those women who reached 41 weeks of gestation and those prior to 41 weeks of gestation, the OBUS12 group demonstrated greater differences between these two groups. Conclusion Our findings suggest that earlier obstetric ultrasound, which leads to better pregnancy dating, reduces the rate of estimated postterm pregnancies. This may, in turn, reduce unnecessary intervention and lead to better identification of postterm pregnancies at greater risk of complications. PMID:18538160

  15. First- vs second-trimester ultrasound: the effect on pregnancy dating and perinatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughey, Aaron B; Nicholson, James M; Washington, A Eugene

    2008-06-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the effect of first-trimester obstetric ultrasound (OBUS) on the measurement of the effect of complications ascribed to postterm pregnancies. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all term, singleton pregnancies delivered at our institution who had an OBUS at a gestation of 24 weeks or less. Those women who underwent an OBUS at a gestation of 12 weeks or less (OBUS12) were compared with those who had an OBUS at 13-24 weeks of gestation (OBUS13-24). The primary outcome measures were the rates of postterm pregnancies greater than 41 or 42 weeks' gestation. Secondary outcomes were the differences between the postterm and term gestations in maternal and neonatal outcomes. In the OBUS12 group, the rate of postterm pregnancy 42 weeks or longer was lower (2.7%) as compared with the OBUS13-24 group (3.7%, P = .022). With regard to reaching 41 weeks of gestation, the OBUS12 group was again lower (18.2%) as compared with the OBUS13-24 group (22.1%, P postterm inductions at 42 weeks or longer in the OBUS12 group (1.8%) as compared with the OBUS13-24 group (2.6%, P = .017). When comparing perinatal outcomes between those women who reached 41 weeks of gestation and those prior to 41 weeks of gestation, the OBUS12 group demonstrated greater differences between these 2 groups. Our findings suggest that earlier obstetric ultrasound, which leads to better pregnancy dating, reduces the rate of estimated postterm pregnancies. This may, in turn, reduce unnecessary intervention and lead to better identification of postterm pregnancies at greater risk of complications.

  16. Examining long-term effects of Cuídate-a sexual risk reduction program in Mexican youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarruel, Antonia M; Zhou, Yan; Gallegos, Esther C; Ronis, David L

    2010-05-01

    To examine the effectiveness of a safer sex program (Cuídate) on sexual behavior, use of condoms, and use of other contraceptives among Mexican youth 48 months after the intervention. A total of 708 or 85% of those who participated in the original randomized control study (n = 829) were assessed in the 48-month follow-up. Each participant completed a questionnaire on sexual behavior. Findings indicated that adolescents who participated in the Cuídate program were more likely to be older at first sex (odds ratio [OR], 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41-2.12; P sexual partners were not significant. Gender did not moderate any intervention effects. Social desirability moderated the effect of the intervention on age at first sex. Results demonstrate the efficacy of Cuídate among Mexican adolescents. Future research, policy, and practice efforts should be directed at sustaining safe sex practices across adolescents' developmental and relationship trajectory.

  17. True Love: Effectiveness of a School-Based Program to Reduce Dating Violence Among Adolescents in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Rubi, Sandra G; Saavedra-Avendano, Biani; Piras, Claudia; Van Buren, S Janae; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio

    2017-10-01

    Dating violence is a significant problem in Mexico. National survey data estimated 76 % of Mexican youth have been victims of psychological aggression in their relationships; 15.5 % have experienced physical violence; and 16.5 % of women have been the victims of sexual violence. Female adolescents perpetrate physical violence more frequently than males, while perpetration between genders of other types of violence is unclear. Furthermore, poor, marginalized youth are at a higher risk for experiencing dating violence. "Amor… pero del Bueno" (True Love) was piloted in two urban, low-income high schools in Mexico City to prevent dating violence. The intervention consisted of school-level and individual-level components delivered over 16 weeks covering topics on gender roles, dating violence, sexual rights, and strategies for coping with dating violence. The short-term impact was assessed quasi-experimentally, using matching techniques and fixed-effects models. A sample of 885 students (381 students exposed to the classroom-based curriculum of the individual-level component (SCC, IL-1) and 540 exposed only to the school climate component (SCC)) was evaluated for the following: changes in dating violence behaviors (psychological, physical and sexual), beliefs related to gender norms, knowledge, and skills for preventing dating violence. We found a 58 % (p < 0.05) and 55 % (p < 0.05) reduction in the prevalence of perpetrated and experienced psychological violence, respectively, among SCC, IL-1 males compared to males exposed only to the SCC component. We also found a significant reduction in beliefs and attitudes justifying sexism and violence in dating relationships among SCC, IL-1 females (6 %; p < 0.05) and males (7 %; p < 0.05).

  18. Effects of sowing dates and different fertilizers on yield, yield components, and oil percentage of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    parviz rezvani moghadam

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of sowing dates and different fertilizers on yield, yield components, and oil percentage of castor bean, an experiment was conducted at Experimental station, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran in years 2004-2005. The experimental treatments comprised all combinations of four sowing dates (11 April, 25 April, 8 May and 22 May and three different fertilizers (cow manure (30 tons/ha, compost (30 tons/ha, chemical fertilizers (100 kg/ha N and 250 kg/ha of super phosphate and no fertilizer as control. Different characteristics such as plant height, main inflorescence height, number of inflorescence per plant, number of secondary stems per plant, number of capsules per plant, number of grain per plant, grain weight per plant, 100 seed weight, grain yield, oil percentage and oil yield were recorded. A factorial arrangement based on a randomized complete block design with three replications was used. The results showed by delaying sowing date grain yield, seed oil percentage and oil yield were decreased, but there was no significant differences between 25 April, 8 May and 22 May sowing dates. Harvest index and 100 seed weight did not affect by neither sowing dates nor fertilizer treatments. The highest number of branches per plant, number of fertile inflorescences per plant, number of fertile capsules per plant, number of grain per plant, grain weight per plant and biological yield were obtained at 8 May sowing date on chemical fertilizer. Percentage of seed oil, grain yield and oil yield was higher at the first sowing date (11 April in compost and chemical fertilizer treatments. Keywords: Castor bean, sowing date, fertilizer, grain yield, oil percentage.

  19. The Effects of Training and Subject Reproducibility During Vertical Impact Acceleration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallagher, Hilary; Pellettiere, Joseph; Doczy, Erica

    2005-01-01

    .... There is little data, however, describing the effects of subject training on human response. There are also questions regarding the effect of subject reproducibility and how it might affect data variability...

  20. Effect of Pollen, Pit Powder, and Gemmule Extract of Date Palm on Male Infertility: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Tuğba; Akdevelioğlu, Yasemin

    2017-10-31

    Pollen, pit powder, and gemmule extract of the date palm are rich in flavonoids. Antioxidant characteristics of the flavonoids have a significant effect on prevention and treatment of infertility. The aim of the present study was to review studies investigating the effects of pollen, pit powder, and gemmule extract of the date palm on male infertility. Articles that were published about the topic between 2005 and 2016 were reviewed from different databases in Turkish and English. The search engines used included PubMed, Science Direct, Clinical Key, Google Scholar, Springer, Dergipark, Ulakbim, and Akademik Dizin. The studies found that pollen, pit powder, and gemmule extract of the date palm created positive changes in hormone levels that have a role in male fertility and increased sperm motility and quality, spermatogenesis, and weights of testes and epididymis. Date palm pollen, pit powder, and gemmule extract have a high antioxidant capacity because of phenolic formations in the composition. Such characteristics have a positive effect on prevention and treatment of male infertility. Furthermore, gonadotropic and steroidal compounds within date palm pollen play a role in treatment of male infertility. The limited number of studies conducted on this topic indicates that more research is needed.

  1. Effects of dates pulp extract and palm sap (Phoenix dactylifera L.) on gastrointestinal transit activity in healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souli, Abdellaziz; Sebai, Hichem; Rtibi, Kaïs; Chehimi, Latifa; Sakly, Mohsen; Amri, Mohamed; El-Benna, Jamel

    2014-07-01

    The current study was performed to measure the chemical composition and the effects of dates pulp extract and palm sap on gastrointestinal transit (GIT) activity in healthy adult rats. In this respect, male Wistar rats fasted for 24 hours were used and received per orally (p.o.) sodium chloride (NaCl) (0,9%) (control group) or various doses of dates pulp extract (150 and 300 mg/kg, body weight [b.w.]) and palm sap (0.4 and 4 mL/kg, b.w.). Two other groups of rats (batch tests) received, respectively, clonidine (an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist, 1 mg/kg, b.w.) and yohimbine (an alpha-2 adrenergic antagonist, 2mg/kg, b.w.). Chemical analysis showed that the dates pulp extract is more rich in sugars and minerals, especially potassium and sucrose, as compared with palm sap composition. On the other hand, in vivo study showed that the aqueous dates pulp extract significantly, and dose dependently, increased the GIT activity while the palm sap slightly increased it. Moreover, a converse effect has been observed using clonidine (decreased 68%) and yohimbine (increased 33%) on the GIT activity. These findings suggest that dates pulp extract and palm sap have a stimulating effect on GIT activity in rats and confirm their use in traditional Tunisian medicine for the treatment of constipation.

  2. Aroma compounds in Ontario Vidal and Riesling icewines. I. Effects of harvest date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Amy J; Reynolds, Andrew G

    2015-10-01

    Icewine is a sweet dessert wine made from pressing grapes naturally frozen on the vines. It is likely that freeze/thaw cycles endured by icewine grapes change their chemical and sensory profiles due to climatic events. Our objective was to determine the influence of harvest date on icewine must and wine basic chemical variables and aroma compounds. Riesling and Vidal icewines were made from grapes picked between December 2004 and February 2005; Harvest 1 (H1): 19 December; Harvest 2: 29 December; Harvest 3 (H3): 18 January; and Harvest 4 (H4): 11 February (Vidal only). Icewine musts differed in titratable acidity and pH (Vidal only). All basic wine chemical analytes differed across harvest dates. All aroma compounds differed in Vidal and Riesling wines. Highest concentrations for most aroma compounds were in the last harvest date; 16 of 24 for Vidal and 17 of 23 for Riesling. The latest harvest date had highest ethyl isobutyrate, ethyl 3-methylbutyrate, 1-hexanol, 1-octen-3-ol, 1-octanol, cis-rose oxide, nerol oxide, ethyl benzoate, ethyl phenylacetate, γ-nonalactone and β-damascenone. H1 had highest ethyl butyrate, ethyl hexanoate, linalool, 4-vinylguaiacol and ethyl octanoate. Based on odor activity values, the most odor-potent compounds were β-damascenone, cis-rose oxide, 1-octen-3-ol, ethyl octanoate, ethyl hexanoate, and 4-vinylguaiacol across harvest dates. PCA found most aroma compounds associated with the last harvest date, 4-vinylguaicol excepted, which was associated with H1. Harvest date was considered a discriminating dimension using canonical variant analysis for volatile compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Online dating

    OpenAIRE

    Pilecká, Jarmila

    2014-01-01

    The usage of online dating sides has increased in last few decades. This kind of meeting potential new partner is specific in many ways. Especially in communication, ways of selection and initiation of the relationship online. The reduction of information is another phenomenon in this kind of interaction as a result of creating impression. This contains lying and deception in self-presentation on online dating sides as well. Analysis of data suggests, that men tell lies more than women. They ...

  4. Quantifying hemodynamic refractory bold effects in normal subjects at the single-subject level using an inverse logit fitting procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descamps, Benedicte; Vandemaele, Pieter; Reyngoudt, Harmen; Deblaere, Karel; Leybaert, Luc; Paemeleire, Koen; Achten, Eric

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate whether hemodynamic refractory effects provoked by repeated visual stimulation can be detected and quantified at the single-subject level using a recently described hemodynamic response function (HRF) fitting algorithm. Hemodynamic refractory effects were induced with an easily applicable functional MRI (fMRI) paradigm. A fitting method with inverse logit (IL) functions was applied to quantify net HRFs at the single-subject level with three interstimulus intervals (ISI; 1, 2, and 6 s). The model yielded amplitude, latencies, and width for each HRF. HRF fitting was possible in 44 of 51 healthy volunteers, with excellent goodness-of-fit (R(2) = 0.9745 ± 0.0241). Refractory effects were most pronounced for the 1-s ISI (P < 0.001) and had nearly disappeared for the 6-s ISI. Quantifying refractory effects in individuals was possible in 86.3% of normal subjects using the IL fitting algorithm. This setup may be suitable to explore such effects in individual patients. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The spectrum of subjective effects of antipsychotic medication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, HA; Knegtering, R; Wiersma, D; van den Bosch, RJ

    2003-01-01

    Background: This study examined the spectrum of subjective experiences which patients attribute to the use of antipsychotic medication. Methods: We collected interview data and answers to structured questions based on a comprehensive checklist in 77 patients using various types of classical or

  6. Settlement-date Accounting for Equity Share Options - Conceptual Validity and Numerical Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peder Fredslund

    that the expenses resulting from settlement-date accounting for equity share option awards are significantly higher on average than the expenses resulting from grant-date accounting. And they show that the cost of equity, the share price volatility and the lifetime of the equity share options are important......This paper demonstrates that settlement-date accounting for equity share options can be seen as an accounting method which implements a shareholder focused residually rewarded partners' equity view. This equity view represents a simple, natural extension of the shareholder proprietary view....... It implicates an equity and income sharing model for accounting which is characterized by specification of both shareholders' and non-shareholders' parts of total equity and income. When using this equity and income sharing model, the remeasurements of equity share option obligations made by settlement...

  7. Effect of planting date and spacing on growth and yield of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) under irrigated conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dalain, Saddam Aref; Abdel-Ghani, Adel H; Al-Dala'een, Jawad A; Thalaen, Haditha A

    2012-12-01

    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) plant is a medicinal aromatic herb and belongs to Apiaceae family. It has a rich nutritional value and has many medicinal usages. Very limited information is available in the literature about fennel cultivation and production practices. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the effect of planting date and plant spacing and their interactive effects on yield, yield components and growth of Fennel under irrigation. Three planting dates (Oct. 1st, Nov. 1st and Dec. 1st) and four plant spacings (10, 20, 30 and 40 cm with constant row width, 60 cm) were used. Fruit yield was significantly (p<0.05) influenced by plant spacing and planting date and their interaction. Early planting significantly increased the fruit yield combined with higher number of branches per plant, number of umbrella per plant, number of fruit per plant and plant height. The percentage of increases in Oct. 1st were 34.4 and 32.2% in fruit and biological yield respectively compared with Dec. 1st. Harvest index and thousand fruit weight was not significantly affected by planting date. Increase plant spacing to 30 cm led to more than 15% increase in fruit and biological yield. The early planting date with 30 cm plant spacing resulted in higher fruit (4136 kg ha(-1)) and biological yield (10,114 kg ha(-1)).

  8. Effect of irradiation on the pH for 11 commercial salad dressings near expiration date

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Fabbri, Adriana D.T.; Hirashima, Fabiana K.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Sabato, Susy F., E-mail: jusagretti@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The demand for salad dressings has evolved significantly in recent years and has become a frequent option in the meal. The pH values for salad dressings are low, precisely because they are emulsions acidified by adding ingredients, such as, acetic acid and / or citric acid and preservatives like benzoic acid and / or sorbic those provide an environment unfavorable to the growth of many microorganisms. However, the deterioration of such products occur as a result of growth of lactobacilli, bacilli, yeasts, once damaged, can present loss of taste and dark spots on the surface as an indication of yeast colony formation. Whereas, the positive effects of gamma irradiation on food, such as improved safety and stability of food products on shelves, the pH is a key factor for assessing not only the conservation, but also to the quality. The aim of this study was to reassess the effects of radiation on the pH of 9 varieties of commercial salad dressing after 6 months of storage, near the expiration of samples validity. The samples were acquired on the market of Sao Paulo and subjected to low doses of radiation at irradiator Multipurpose IPEN / CNEN-SP. The irradiated samples were compared to control. Statistical analyzes were performed using the program Graph Pad 5 and adopting a significance level of 5% (p <0.05). (author)

  9. Hepatic effects of dietary weight loss in morbidly obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Gluud, C; Franzmann, Magnus

    1991-01-01

    This prospective study was carried out in order to evaluate the influence on liver morphology and function of a very-low-calorie formula diet. Fourty-one morbidly obese, non-alcoholic subjects had liver biopsy performed before and after a median weight loss of 34 kg. Fatty change improved (p less...... than 0.001), but 24% of the patients developed slight portal inflammation (p = 0.039) or slight portal fibrosis (p = 0.063). Patients developing portal fibrosis had a higher degree of fatty change at entry (p = 0.029), a more pronounced reduction of fatty change (p = 0.014) and a faster weight loss (p...... = 0.026). Liver biochemistry, which was of no individual diagnostic value, improved. It is concluded that morbidly obese subjects with a high degree of hepatic fatty change are at risk of developing portal inflammation and fibrosis when undergoing very fast dietary weight reductions....

  10. Study of associative effects of date palm leaves mixed with Aristida ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The description of the fermentation profile of in vitro gas production showed that Sandoval model was poor and not appropriate for the characteristic varieties of arid and semi-arid areas in Algeria and the multiple regression models revealed a good linear regression for both mixtures. Keywords: Date palm leaves, forage, ...

  11. The Effect of Potato Ridge Height and Harvest Date on Tuber Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rymuza Katarzyna

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A potato experiment was conducted from 2004 to 2006 at the Zawady Experimental Farm. The farm is part of the University of Natural Sciences and Humanities in Siedlce, Poland. Tuber infection and injury by diseases and pathogens of three potato cultivars were assessed according to the potato ridge height and harvest date. The weight of mechanically injured tubers was also determined depending on the potato ridge height and harvest date. The weight of potato tubers infected by fungal and bacterial diseases was influenced by the cultivar, growing season, harvest date, and ridge height. Potatoes grown to their standard height and height ridges, were significantly less infected by diseases at the first harvest date. The weight of tubers in which the tubers were injured by soil pests, was affected by the cultivar and ridge height. Potatoes cultivated in a ridge which was 20 cm high, had tubers with significantly less mechanical injuries compared with a low (16 cm ridge and high (24 cm ridge.

  12. The effects of maternal calving date and calving interval on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to investigate the growth performance of calves born to dams with different calving dates and calving intervals. Early calving dams produced calves with the lowest birth weights, the highest actual weaning weights and the highest pre-breeding heifer weights. The higher weaning weights of early ...

  13. A study on the effects of exchange rate and foreign policies on Iranians dates export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Khalighi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was studying the impact of exchange rate on date export as one of the most important and greatest foreign currency income earned horticultural products in agriculture sector in Iran. Selected time period in this study was chosen between 1991 and 2011. For this purpose, ordinary least squares (OLS method has used to estimate the relationships between the value of date export and the variables taken from stationary tests. Library research method has used for the analysis. In this regard, required data have collected from various scientific and research resources. The results indicated that, exchange rate is a crucial factor for dates export and also for exporters. In addition, other factors specially government policies have been placed in export model. In this field, short-term outsourcing foreign policy has decreased the export value. Results also showed that, applying exchange rate unification policy without an appropriate exchange rate to encourage exporters has negative impact on dates export. Therefore, by applying exchange rate stabilization policy, according to inflation in the country, the potential exporters’ income has reduced and production costs have increased alternately.

  14. Maize–planting date interaction and effect of Bt maize on European ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of planting date and transgenic maize on maize yield following stalk injury by European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner). Transgenic and non-transgenic maize hybrids with short- and full-season maturity were planted in late April, mid-May and early June from 2006 to ...

  15. Effects of sowing date and nutsedge removal time on plant growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Productivity can be increased to a considerate extent through the improvement of management practices alone, particularly sowing time with appropriate weed control. The objective of this study was to identify the growth and yield performance of tef as affected by cultural manipulation of date of sowing and weed removal ...

  16. Effects of Sexual Experience on Dating Desirability and Marriage Desirability: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istvan, Joseph; Griffitt, William

    1980-01-01

    Inexperienced men and both inexperienced and moderately experienced women rated highly experienced opposite-sex peers as less desirable dates and marriage partners. Moderately and highly experienced men and highly experienced women tended to rate all opposite-sex peers similarly along these same dimensions. (Author)

  17. Sugar and energy cane date of planting effects on cane, sucrose, and fiber yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy cane is believed to have more vigor than sugar cane because energy cane contains a higher percentage of alleles from Saccharum spontaneum relative to Saccharum officinarum. This research was conducted to determine if planting date affects yields of both sugar and energy canes. Three sugar can...

  18. Effects of sowing date on the growth and yield of maize cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 11(61), pp. 12450-12453, 31 ... the field can be created by planting at different dates in a season, so that the plant ... technique (ANOVA). Treatment means were compared for significance using Duncan's multiple range test at 5% level of probability (Steel and Torrie, 1980). RESULTS.

  19. Effect of sowing dates and seed treatments on yield, some yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 63.1 - 180.3 kg/da and 20.1 - 27.3%, respectively. 100 seed weight, harvest index and seed yield were significantly affected from sowing dates and seed treatments. On the other hand, protein content was highly affected from late sowing and gibberellic acid (GA3) treatments. It was concluded that early sowing along with ...

  20. Effect of sowing date on grain quality of sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amongst the varieties, Seredo and Agany contained high tannins while Beer and Dhet contained less tannins. Iron and zinc content in sorghum showed higher values for 29th June sowing date both in Bor and Arek. The study showed that Beer and Dhet varieties have good quality grains that can be used to improve human ...

  1. Effect of Sunn Hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) Cutting Date and Planting Density on Weed Suppression in Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field study was conducted in 2008 and 2009 at the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit in Griffin, GA to investigate weed suppression by sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L). The objectives were to: 1) evaluate the effects of apical meristem removal (AMR) at three dates [5, 6, and 7 wks...

  2. The effect of lime pre-treatments of date palm leaves on delignification and in vitro rumen degradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghorbani, M.; Ahmadi, F.; Rajaee Rad, A.; Zamiri, M.J.; Cone, J.W.; Polikarpov, I.

    2017-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of lime pre-treatment on the chemical composition and in vitro rumen degradability of date palm leaves (DPL). Lime pre-treatments, with or without oxygen supply, were applied for 1, 2 and 3 weeks at 25 and 40 °C. Lime was neutralized by the

  3. Effects of shallow water table, salinity and frequency of irrigation water on the date palm water use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askri, Brahim; Ahmed, Abdelkader T.; Abichou, Tarek; Bouhlila, Rachida

    2014-05-01

    In southern Tunisia oases, waterlogging, salinity, and water shortage represent serious threats to the sustainability of irrigated agriculture. Understanding the interaction between these problems and their effects on root water uptake is fundamental for suggesting possible options of improving land and water productivity. In this study, HYDRUS-1D model was used in a plot of farmland located in the Fatnassa oasis to investigate the effects of waterlogging, salinity, and water shortage on the date palm water use. The model was calibrated and validated using experimental data of sap flow density of a date palm, soil hydraulic properties, water table depth, and amount of irrigation water. The comparison between predicted and observed data for date palm transpiration rates was acceptable indicating that the model could well estimate water consumption of this tree crop. Scenario simulations were performed with different water table depths, and salinities and frequencies of irrigation water. The results show that the impacts of water table depth and irrigation frequency vary according to the season. In summer, high irrigation frequency and shallow groundwater are needed to maintain high water content and low salinity of the root-zone and therefore to increase the date palm transpiration rates. However, these factors have no significant effect in winter. The results also reveal that irrigation water salinity has no significant effect under shallow saline groundwater.

  4. Differential Gender Effects of Exposure to Rap Music on African American Adolescents' Acceptance of Teen Dating Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Assessed the effects of exposure to nonviolent rap videos on black adolescents' perceptions of teen dating violence. Results from 60 black adolescents and teenagers indicate a significant interaction between gender and video exposure: male acceptance of the use of violence was not a function of viewing the videos, whereas video-viewing females…

  5. 31 CFR 538.506 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. 538.506 Section 538.506 Money and Finance: Treasury....506 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. (a) Pre... of Sudanese origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Sudan, importations under the pre...

  6. 78 FR 19098 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program; Delay of Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... L. Carlson, Ph.D., Administrator, Office of Foreign Labor Certification, ETA, U.S. Department of... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR..., Labor. ACTION: Final rule; delay of effective date. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor is delaying the...

  7. 77 FR 60040 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program; Delay of Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ..., Office of Foreign Labor Certification, ETA, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue NW., Room C... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR..., Labor. ACTION: Final rule; delay of effective date. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (Department) is...

  8. 76 FR 82115 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program; Delay of Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    .... Carlson, Ph.D., Administrator, Office of Foreign Labor Certification, ETA, U.S. Department of Labor, 200... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR..., Labor. ACTION: Final rule; delay of effective date. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (Department) is...

  9. 78 FR 53643 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program; Delay of Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ...., Administrator, Office of Foreign Labor Certification, ETA, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue NW... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR..., Labor. ACTION: Final rule; indefinite delay of effective date. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor...

  10. Xenocrysts and antecrysts and their effect on the precision of 40Ar/39Ar dates of explosive volcanic eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, V.; Mark, D.; Blockley, S.; Weh, A.

    2010-12-01

    Evolved melts that fuel large explosive eruptions encounter, and are often generated through melting, crystal-rich parts of the magmatic system that fed previous eruptions. This results in many antecrysts being incorporated into the magma prior to eruption. In addition, many xenocrysts are entrained during eruption through conduit excavation. Combining all these crystal populations produces 40Ar/39Ar dates with wide-ranges, such as those that are often reported in the literature. In order to gain very precise dates of volcanic events it is thus necessary to assess whether antecrysts and xenocrysts effect the precision of the dates, and establish ways to reduce these components. Here we use the deposits of the ~11 ka Ulleung-Oki eruption from the alkaline volcanic island of Ulleung, situated 130 km east of the Korean peninsula. The eruption deposits are widely dispersed and found in the Suigetsu lake sequence from central Japan. A precise date of the tephra would help with construction of the terrestrial radiocarbon calibration curve that spans back to the limit of radiocarbon dating (~50 ka). The new calibration model is currently being constructed using varve chronology (annual layer counting) and >600 14C determinations of terrestrial macrofossils*. However, the annual layers stop shortly after the 2 cm-thick Ulleung-Oki tephra. Precise dates of this volcanic event using a method that is independent of radiocarbon dating, would help validate the chronology of the core, and test the validity of the radiocarbon calibration curve. The tephra in the core has been correlated to proximal deposits using major and trace element composition (determined using an electron microprobe and LA-ICPMS) of the glass shards that comprise the distal ash. The proximal Ulleung-Oki eruption deposits are sandine-rich with crystals that range from ~80 microns to a few millimetres in size. These are likely to be a mixture of phenocrysts, antecrysts and xenocrysts. In order to get a very

  11. Effects of Dates Pulp Extract and Palm Sap (Phoenix dactylifera L.) on Gastrointestinal Transit Activity in Healthy Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Souli, Abdellaziz; Sebai, Hichem; Rtibi, Kaïs; Chehimi, Latifa; Sakly, Mohsen; Amri, Mohamed; El-Benna, Jamel

    2014-01-01

    The current study was performed to measure the chemical composition and the effects of dates pulp extract and palm sap on gastrointestinal transit (GIT) activity in healthy adult rats. In this respect, male Wistar rats fasted for 24 hours were used and received per orally (p.o.) sodium chloride (NaCl) (0,9%) (control group) or various doses of dates pulp extract (150 and 300 mg/kg, body weight [b.w.]) and palm sap (0.4 and 4 mL/kg, b.w.). Two other groups of rats (batch tests) received, respe...

  12. Evaluation of date kernel oils and their effects on wheat flour characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsakr, A. S.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Date kernels constitute about 13% of the whole date fruit, and cotain moderate amounts of oils with relatively high caloric values. Agwa soft and Aprimi dry date kernel oils were used in this work. Results showed that Aprimi date kernel oils have high levels of both caproic acid and stearic acid of 23.04 and 18.40% respectively, while Agwa kernel oils have high levels of caprylic acid and capric acid of 22.31 and 12.20%. Moreover Agwa oils achieved higher amounts of unsaponifiable matters, sterols and tocopherols. The addition of soft and dry date kernel oils did not improve the wheat flour strength but raised its resistance to extensibility.

    Las pepitas de dátiles constituyen alrededor del 13% del fruto entero, y contienen cantidades moderadas de aceite con valores calóricos relativamente altos. En este trabajo se han utilizado aceites de pepitas de dátiles Agwa blandas y Aprimi secas. Los resultados mostraron que los aceites de pepitas de dátiles Aprimi tienen altos niveles de ácidos caproico y esteárico, 23’04 y 18'40% respectivamente, mientras que los aceites de pepitas Agwa tienen niveles altos de ácidos caprílico y cáprico, 22'31 y 12'20%. Por otra parte los aceites Agwa alcanzaron valores elevados de materia insaponificable, esteroles y tocoferoles. La adición de aceites de pepitas de dátiles secas y blandas no mejoró el poder de la harina de trigo pero incrementó su resistencia a la extensibilidad.

  13. Planting Date and Seeding Rate Effects on Sunn Hemp Biomass and Nitrogen Production for a Winter Cover Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kipling S. Balkcom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L. is a tropical legume that produces plant biomass and nitrogen (N quickly. Our objectives were to assess the growth of a new sunn hemp cultivar breed to produce seed in a temperate climate and determine the residual N effect on a rye (Secale cereale L. cover crop in east-central Alabama from 2007 to 2009. Plant populations, plant height, stem diameter, biomass production, and N content were determined for two sunn hemp planting dates, following corn (Zea mays L. and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. harvest, across different seeding rates (17, 34, 50, and 67 kg/ha. Rye biomass was measured the following spring. Sunn hemp biomass production was inconsistent across planting dates, but did relate to growing degree accumulation. Nitrogen concentrations were inversely related to biomass production, and subsequent N contents corresponded to biomass levels. Neither planting date nor seeding rate affected rye biomass production, but rye biomass averaged over both planting dates following wheat/sunn hemp averaged 43% and 33% greater than rye following fallow. Rye biomass following corn/sunn hemp was equivalent to fallow plots. Early planting dates are recommended for sunn hemp with seeding rates between 17 and 34 kg/ha to maximize biomass and N production.

  14. The effect of dust on the chemical and microbiological qualities of the date palm fruits from Bushehr-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Delkhah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The date palm cultivation has a long history in Bushehr province. Throughout the recent decade the dusts, in addition to direct harmful effects on humans, have adverse effects on health of the population living in this area. The infestation of pests in the southern province of Bushehr has groves. Due to the importance of dates in this area, the total ash and acid insoluble ash as indexes for assessing of chemical pollution and also, mold and yeast as indicators for microbial contamination were evaluated. Recently in a number of dates packaging industries, washing the products after the harvest is done. In current study, the effects of rinsing to decrease the dust pollution on date palm along with, the time effect on the quality and durability of washed and un-washed dates were investigated. Materials and Methods: Overall, 48 washed and un-washed dates were sampled from traditional and technologically advanced packaging industries, equally, and were confirmed according to ISIRI methods. Results: The Averages of total and acid insoluble ashes in washed date samples were:1.05±0.14 and 3.32±0.32%, and for un-washed samples were 1.36±0.27 and 4.59±1.64 percent, respectively. In all date samples were presented the yeast, however, their means were lower than the maximum limit (1×104 CFU. Also, all date samples were moldy. The Mean percentage of total ash samples in un-rinsed and rinsed dates were approximately, 1.84 and 1.33 times more than the maximum permissible limit, respectively. The mean of acid insoluble ash in all samples (100%, and 98% of total ash were higher than acceptable levels (p<0.05. The results revealed that the average percentage difference between the two groups were transpicuous, while this difference was not significant (p=0.13. Under the similar conditions, the average amount of yeast in washed date samples, were significantly different (p<0.05 and more than un-wash samples. The Mold levels in un-rinsed and

  15. Effect of various levels of date palm kernel on growth performance of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hamza Tareen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was the assessment of various levels of date palm kernel (DPK on the growth performance of broilers. Materials and Methods: A 250-day-old broiler chicks were randomly selected and categorized into five groups (50 chicks/group contained A (control, B, C, D and E fed with 0%, 1%, 2%, 3% and 4% levels of DPK in balanced ration, respectively, for 6 weeks. Feed and water intake were recorded daily in the morning and evening. The data for feed intake, water intake, live body weight, and feed conversion ratio (FCR were recorded from all birds regularly. The carcass weight and percentage obtained via six slaughtered birds were randomly selected from each group. Finally, economic aspects of the rations evaluated. Results: The most feed intakes of broilers were recorded in Group A (3915.1 g that was significantly higher than Groups D and E. The highest water intake was in Group E (9067.78 ml that was significantly higher than Group A and control group. Live body weight was highest in Group E (979.85 g than Groups B, C, and control group. The best growth weights were determined significantly in Groups D (1921.96 g and E (1935.95 g. The lowest FCRs were indicated significantly in Groups D (1.97 g/g and E (1.92 g/g than Groups B and A. The highest carcass weights were recorded in Groups D (1214.01 g and E (1230.88 g that were significantly more than other groups. Dressing percentages in Groups D (61.76% and E (62.17% were higher than other groups (p<0.05. The net profits (Rs. in Groups A, B, C, D and E were indicated 27.01, 32.77, 36.78, 43.47 and 44.51 per broiler, respectively. Conclusion: It was concluded that the high levels of DPK (3-4% significantly decreased broiler feed intake and increased water intake, live body weight, growth weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, net profit per bird and also had positive effects on growth of broilers.

  16. Historical profiles of PCB in dated sediment cores suggest recent lake contamination through the "halo effect".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naffrechoux, Emmanuel; Cottin, Nathalie; Pignol, Cécile; Arnaud, Fabien; Jenny, Jean-Philippe; Perga, Marie-Elodie

    2015-02-03

    We investigated the major sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and interpreted the environmental fate processes of these persistent organic pollutants in the past and current PCB contamination of three large, urbanized, French peri-alpine lakes. Dated sediment cores were analyzed in order to reconstruct and compare the historical contamination in all three lakes. Stratigraphic changes of PCB contents and fluxes were considered as revealing the temporal dynamics of PCB deposition to the lakes and the distribution of the seven indicator congeners (further referred to as PCBi) as an indicator of the main contamination origin and pathway. Although located within a single PCB industrial production region, concentration profiles for the three lakes differed in timing, peak concentration magnitudes, and in the PCBi congeners compositions. PCBi fluxes to the sediment and the magnitude of the temporal changes were generally much lower in Lake Annecy (0.05-2 ng·cm(-2)·yr(-1)) as compared to Lakes Geneva (0.05-5 ng·cm(-2)·yr(-1)) and Bourget (5-290 ng·cm(-2)·yr(-1)). For all three lakes, the paramount contamination occurred in the early 1970s. In Lakes Annecy and Bourget, PCB fluxes have declined and plateaued at 0.5 and 8 ng·cm(-2)·yr(-1), respectively, since the early 1990s. In Lake Geneva, PCB fluxes have further decreased by the end of the XX(th) century and are now very low. For the most contaminated lake (Lake Bourget), the high PCBi flux (5-290 ng·cm(-2)·yr(-1)) and the predominance of heavy congeners for most of the time period are consistent with a huge local input to the lake. This still high rate of Lake Bourget is explained by transport of suspended solids from one of its affluents, polluted by an industrial point source. Intermediate historical levels and PCBi distribution over time for Lake Geneva suggest a mixed contamination (urban point sources and distant atmospheric transport), while atmospheric deposition to Lake Annecy explains its lowest

  17. The effect of cultivar, sowing date and transplant location in field on bolting of Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Bolting reduces the quality and commercial yield of Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.) in production. However, seed production is directly dependent on flower induction and bolting. The Welsh onion belongs to the green plant vernalisation type, specific seedling characteristics and sufficient accumulated time at low temperature are indispensible for the completion of its vernalisation process. Only if these conditions for vernalisation are fulfilled, the plants will bolt in the following year. The present investigation evaluated the effects of cultivar, sowing date and transplant location in field on the bolting of Welsh onion at the Horticultural Farm of the College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shannxi Province, China in two succeeding production years: 2010–2011 and 2011–2012. A strip split plot layout within a randomised complete block design with three replications was used. Results The results revealed that all three factors (cultivar, sowing date and transplant location) and their interaction had significant effects on the initiation and final rate of bolting observed by 30 April. The earliest bolting date (14 February, 2011 and 15 February, 2012) and the highest bolting rate (100% in 2011 and 62% in 2012) occurred when the JinGuan cultivar was sown on 20 August and transplanted in a plastic tunnel, whereas the latest date and lowest rate (no bolting observed until 30 April) of bolting occurred when the XiaHei cultivar was sown on 29 September and transplanted in an open field. Conclusions These results suggest that we can control bolting in Welsh onion production by choosing an appropriate cultivar, sowing date and transplant location. Choosing a late bolting cultivar, such as cultivar XiaHei, sowing around October, and transplanting in the open field can significantly delay bolting, while a sowing date in late August should be selected for seed production, and the seedlings should be transplanted in a plastic tunnel to

  18. Effects of neurofeedback therapy in healthy young subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan, Sümeyra; Berberoglu, Bercim; Canan, Sinan; Dane, Şenol

    2016-12-01

    Neurofeedback refers to a form of operant conditioning of electrical brain activity, in which desirable brain activity is rewarded and undesirable brain activity is inhibited. The research team aimed to examine the efficacy of neurofeedback therapy on electroencephalogram (EEG) for heart rate, electrocardiogram (ECG) and galvanic skin resistance (GSR) parameters in a healthy young male population. Forty healthy young male subjects aged between 18 to 30 years participated in this study. Neurofeedback application of one session was made with bipolar electrodes placed on T3 and T4 (temporal 3 and 4) regions and with reference electrode placed on PF1 (prefrontal 1). Electroencephalogram (EEG), electrocardiogram (ECG) and galvanic skin resistance (GSR) were assessed during Othmer neurofeedback application of one session to regulate slow wave activity for forty minutes thorough the session. Data assessed before neurofeedback application for 5 minutes and during neurofeedback application of 30 minutes and after neurofeedback application for 5 minutes throughout the session of 40 minutes. Means for each 5 minutes, that is to say, a total 8 data points for each subjects over 40 minutes, were assessed. Galvanic skin resistance increased and heart rate decreased after neurofeedback therapy. Beta activity in EEG increased and alfa activity decreased after neurofeedback therapy. These results suggest that neurofeedback can be used to restore sympathovagal imbalances. Also, it may be accepted as a preventive therapy for psychological and neurological problems.

  19. Direct Dating

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For example, rock engravings and paintings are partially covered with lichens which are slow – growing, long – ranging and increase in diameter at a constant rate. The technique depends upon development of a specific lichen growth curve by measuring lichen thallus diameters on dated rock surfaces. This can then be ...

  20. The Effects of Alcohol, Emotion Regulation, and Emotional Arousal on the Dating Aggression Intentions of Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Fromme, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Verbal and physical dating aggression is prevalent among college-aged men and women, especially a pattern of mutual aggression in which both partners engage in aggression. Alcohol intoxication and anger arousal have both been implicated in the occurrence of aggression, and the ability to regulate one’s emotions may interact with both alcohol intoxication and emotional arousal to predict dating aggression. The current study is the first known experimental investigation to examine the effects of alcohol intoxication, alcohol expectancies, emotion regulation, and emotional arousal on dating aggression. Participants were randomized to receive alcohol (n=48), placebo (n=48), or no alcohol (n=48). Intoxicated men and women expressed more verbal and physical aggression intentions than those in the no alcohol condition, and individuals in the placebo condition did not significantly differ from those in the alcohol and no alcohol conditions. These results suggest that the pharmacological effects of alcohol were important to the occurrence of dating aggression, whereas the effects of expectancy are less clear. Among those less able to engage in cognitive reappraisal, individuals who consumed alcohol or believed they consumed alcohol expressed more verbal and physical aggression intentions than those who received no alcohol. Those with higher arousal who were better able to suppress their emotions expressed fewer verbal and physical aggression intentions than those with lower arousal. In addition to reducing alcohol consumption, interventions to prevent dating aggression might incorporate emotion regulation skills, with a focus on understanding the circumstances in which cognitive reappraisal and emotion suppression are relatively more effective. PMID:23586449

  1. The effects of alcohol, emotion regulation, and emotional arousal on the dating aggression intentions of men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Fromme, Kim

    2014-03-01

    Verbal and physical dating aggression is prevalent among college-aged men and women, especially a pattern of mutual aggression in which both partners engage in aggression. Alcohol intoxication and anger arousal have been implicated in the occurrence of aggression, and the ability to regulate one's emotions may interact with both alcohol intoxication and emotional arousal to predict dating aggression. The current study is the first known experimental investigation to examine the effects of alcohol intoxication, alcohol expectancies, emotion regulation, and emotional arousal on dating aggression. Participants were randomized to receive alcohol (n = 48), placebo (n = 48), or no alcohol (n = 48). Intoxicated men and women expressed more verbal and physical aggression intentions than those in the no-alcohol condition, and individuals in the placebo condition did not significantly differ from those in the alcohol and no-alcohol conditions. These results suggest that the pharmacological effects of alcohol were important to the occurrence of dating aggression, whereas the effects of expectancy are less clear. Among those less able to engage in cognitive reappraisal, individuals who consumed or believed they consumed alcohol expressed more verbal and physical aggression intentions than those who received no alcohol. Those with higher arousal who were better able to suppress their emotions expressed fewer verbal and physical aggression intentions than those with lower arousal. In addition to reducing alcohol consumption, interventions for dating aggression might incorporate emotion regulation skills, with a focus on understanding the circumstances in which cognitive reappraisal and emotion suppression are relatively more effective. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. The Effect Of Normocephalic Foetal Skull On Foetal Dating Using Biparietal Diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugwu AC

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the desirability or otherwise of mathematically correcting every normal foetal head shape to an ideal shape prior to dating using the biparietal diameter (BPD. Transabdominal Sonography was performed in 118 pregnant women in their second- and third- trimesters. The BPDs and fronto-occipital diameters (FODs were measured. A study of 100 foetuses with normal head shapes was used to derive in this environment, a regression equation for an area corrected BPD (BPDa: BPDa = - 2. 853 + 0.483 (BPD + FOD. The BPDa of 18 foetuses with normal head shapes, were computed with this equation. Z test was performed to compare the mean BPD and Mean BPDa. Z statistic showed no significant difference (p>0.5 between BPDa and BPD in this group of foetuses with normal head shapes. There is no need to mathematically correct normocephalic foetal head shapes to ideal shapes before dating using the BPDs

  3. Effect of storage duration on some physical properties of date palm (cv. Stamaran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisa Hazbavi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of the date fruits are processed traditionally in Iran. It becomes imperative to characterize the fruits with a view of understanding the properties that may affect the design of machines to handle their processing. The objectives of this study were to find the basic physical properties of date fruit at different storage time. Some physical properties of the Iranian Stamaran date variety were measured at the tamr stage of maturity for pitted dates during 6 months storage (25 °C of temperature and 75% of humidity. The results showed that length of the samples decreased by 8.31% from 39.21 to 35.95 mm, and no significant change for width and thickness. Mean mass and volume of the fruit did not change significantly. The projected area along length (PL did not change significantly, but projected areas along width (PW and along thickness (PT decreased by 4.26% from 647.41 to 619.8, and 8.32% from 666.89 to 611.43 mm2, respectively. The fruit density, bulk density, porosity and sphericity did not change significantly. The geometric mean diameter and surface area decreased by 5.01%, from 25.53 to 24.25 mm, and 9.57%, from 2049.3 to 1853.1 mm2, respectively. The mean coefficients of static friction increased significantly from 0.36 to 0.38, 0.33 to 0.35 and 0.42 to 0.45 on steel, galvanized iron, and plywood, respectively.

  4. Effects of attractiveness and status in dating desire in homosexual and heterosexual men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Thao; van den Berg, Judith E M; Engels, Rutger C M E; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna

    2012-06-01

    The present study examined partner preferences of homosexual and heterosexual men and woman, focusing on attractiveness and status. Homosexual (N=591 men; M age=28.87 years, SD=10.21; N=249 women; M age=33.36 years, SD=13.12) and heterosexual participants (N=346 men; M age=39.74 years, SD=14.26; N=400 women; M age=35.93 years, SD=13.72) rated the importance of attractiveness and social status of potential partners and then, in a vignette test, expressed their desire to date hypothetical potential partners based on photographs that varied in attractiveness and status-related profiles. With ratings, heterosexual men valued attractiveness the most, followed by homosexual men, heterosexual women, and homosexual women. Heterosexual women rated social status as most important. When status profiles were manipulated and accompanied with photographs of faces, the pattern of differences between homosexuals and heterosexuals supported the self-reported results. Overall, homosexual men and women have similar mate preferences to heterosexual men and women by showing more dating desire for attractive and high social status persons. Compared to attractiveness, status played a smaller role in dating desire.

  5. Experimental studies on effect of Date Seed Ash (DSA) on strength properties of cement sand mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunarani, G. I.; Chakkravarthy, S. P.

    2017-07-01

    The need for alternative material for the cement is arising and being compromised by many engineering researchers. However, the growing demand and surging prices of raw materials challenges the constructional field. India, being one of the largest agricultural economy, produces a quantitative volume of agro-waste that is being dumped. In the conventional concrete production, coarse aggregate (CA) plays an important filler material. The initial study on date seed as a replacement for CA was not successful. This study primarily focuses on Date seed ash as a replacement material for ordinary Portland cement. OPC was replaced by Date Palm Seed Ash (DPSA) in the ratio up to 10% in terms of 2% interval. The main objective of this paper was to study the variation of strength properties of mortar by DPSA in specified ratio along with curing period of 3,7,14 and 28 days. The stress strain behavior has indicated a significant improvement. The overall results indicated the increase in replacing ratio, decreases the strength properties. However the physical, chemical and mechanical properties increased gradually in strength in minimal ratio.

  6. The effects of aging on sleep architecture in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorffner, Georg; Vitr, Martin; Anderer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents normative data on healthy sleep, as measured by polysomnography (PSG), from "supernormal" subjects across the age range from 20 to about 90 years. The data originates from the SIESTA project database established in the late 1990s. While that data has been published and used in research in many ways, the novelty of the current analysis is (a) the focus on normative data following the latest sleep staging standard (AASM 2012), and (b) the results after narrowing down the data set by excluding outliers due to disturbed sleep pattern that can occur in a sleep lab and are thus not examples of "normal" sleep. Results demonstrate interesting dependencies of sleep architecture on age, in particular a reduction in total sleep time and changes in sleep stage distributions toward lighter sleep, which differ in detail between the two genders.

  7. Effect of planting date and crop density of autumn wheat (Triticum aestivum L. on density and biomass of weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ghorbani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Weeds in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. fields have always been a big problem in Iran and worldwide and must be managed by non-chemical especially cultural methods. A field experiment as factorial based on a randomized complete block design with four replications in a 1000 m2 field in Research Farm of Shirvan College of Agriculture was conducted during 2007-2008. Treatments included wheat densities of 400, 600 and 800 plants.m-2and planting dates of 1st of Nov., 20th of Nov., and 1st of Dec 2007. The results represented that the presence of Rapistrum rogusum, Phalaris spp., Descurainia sophia, Alopecurus myosurides and Hordeum murinum dominance. Delay in planting of wheat increased relative density of weeds. The lowest relative frequency of weeds was observed in planting date of 1st of November. Increase in crop density significantly decreased weed biomass, while it showed little effect on weed density trend. Effect of planting date was also significant on weed biomass. The highest weed biomass occurred in the planting date of Dec. the 1st. In conclusion, delay in planting of wheat create more chance and space for weed establishment, and therefore planting dense (600 plants.m-2 and early in season of wheat is recommended for lower weed damage.

  8. Effect of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) cutting date and planting density on weed suppression in Georgia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, J Bradley; Chase, Carlene; Treadwell, Danielle; Koenig, Rosie; Cho, Alyssa; Morales-Payan, Jose Pable; Murphy, Tim; Antonious, George F

    2015-01-01

    A field study was conducted in 2008 and 2009 at the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit in Griffin, GA, to investigate weed suppression by sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L). The objectives were to (1) evaluate the effects of apical meristem removal (AMR) at three dates [5, 6, and 7 wks after planting (WAP) on May 14, 2008 and May 21, 2009] and (2) assess the impact of seeding rates (11, 28, and 45 kg ha(-1)) on weed biomass reduction. Weed species were identified at 4, 8, and 12 wks after sunn hemp planting. Sunn hemp cutting date had no significant effect on weed suppression in 2008 but significant differences for grass weeds at 4, 8, and 12 WAP and for yellow nutsedge at 8 and 12 WAP did occur when compared to the control in 2009. In comparison to the sunn hemp-free control plot in 2009, all three seeding rates had reduced grass weed dry weights at 4, 8, and 12 WAP. The total mass of yellow nutsedge when grown with sunn hemp was reduced compared to the total mass of yellow nutsedge grown in the weedy check for all seeding rates at 8 and 12 WAP. Lower grass weed biomass was observed by 12 WAP for cutting dates and seeding rates during 2008 and 2009. Sunn hemp cutting date and seeding rate reduced branch numbers in both years. The reduction in sunn hemp seeding rates revealed a decrease in weed populations.

  9. The Effect of Planting Date on the Growth and Yield of Indigo (Indigofera tinctoria L. in Shahrood Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ansori

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A suitable planting date is an important management tool to determine the best match between phenological stages of plant growth with the environmental factors affecting them. Indigo is known for the natural blue colors obtained from the leaflets and branches of this herb. In addition to indigo dyes, it has been used medicinally to purify the liver, reduce inflammation and fever and to alleviate pain. Determining the proper sowing time for the sowing indigo plant is highly important that should be based on the climate of each region separately. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of sowing date on growth and biological yield of indigo plant in Shahrood region. Materials and Methods This experiment was carried out on randomized complete block design with three replications in the experimental field of the University of Shahrood, Iran, in 2011. Treatments were three planting dates (18 June, 3 and 18 July. Plant density was 50 plants per square meter. The distance between the plants on and between the rows was 10 and 20 cm, respectively. Sampling was conducted in six-stages (every 15 days randomly in 0.25 m2. Equation 1 was used to calculate the growth rate. CGR = (Equation 1 Y = (Equation 2 In this equation, W1: dry weight in the first sampling, W2: dry weight in the second sampling, SA: sampling area (m-2, t1: first sampling time, t2: is the second sampling time. To do this, three parameters sigmoid function [Eq. 2], were fitted to dry matter accumulation variation during the season (Equation 2: In the equation 2: Y is the cumulative dry matter content at any time (x of growing season, b: is the slope of increasing and xo is the time (in degree days of reaching to 50% dry matter accumulation. Gaussian function parameter [Eq. 3] was fitted to the crop growth rate data variation: Y = (Equation 3 GDD (Equation 4 In equation 3: Y value is crop growth rate at any time (x of growing season, b: is the slope of

  10. Effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on platelet function in healthy subjects and subjects with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Bradley J; Morel-Kopp, Marie-Christine; Chen, Walter; Tofler, Geoffrey H; Ward, Christopher M

    2013-02-01

    Hyperactivation and aggregation of platelets play a major role in thrombosis and hemostasis. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on platelet function. Light transmission aggregometry and flow cytometric analyses of platelet activation and platelet-leukocyte aggregates were determined at baseline and after 4 weeks of omega-3 (docosahexaenoic acid 520 mg and eicosapentaenoic acid 120 mg) supplementation. In total, 40 healthy subjects and 16 patients with a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) completed the study. In healthy subjects, omega-3 PUFA significantly reduced adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced (maximum amplitude, 77.0% ± 3.2% vs. 71.6% ± 3.4%, p = 0.036; maximum slope, 86.3 ± 1.8 vs. 80.7 ± 2.1, p = 0.014) and adrenaline-induced platelet aggregation (maximum slope, 42.8 ± 2.7 vs. 37.4 ± 3.0, p = 0.013; lag time, 00:21 ± 00:02 vs. 00:31 ± 00:03 s, p = 0.002). Omega-3 PUFA also reduced P-selectin expression (40.5% ± 2.9% vs. 34.4% ± 2.4%, p = 0.049) on platelets and platelet-monocyte aggregates (38.5% ± 2.6% vs. 31.4% ± 2.5%, p = 0.022) after activation with ADP 0.5 µM. There were fewer changes in platelet aggregation and activation found in subjects with CVD. Nevertheless, there was a reduction in the slope of arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation (13.21 ± 6.41 vs. 4.88 ± 3.01, p = 0.009) and increased lag time for U46619 (00:16 ± 00:00 vs. 00:29 ± 00:07 s, p = 0.018) induced platelet aggregation. Thus, 4-week supplementation of 640 mg omega-3 PUFA reduced measures of platelet aggregation and activation in healthy subjects but effects were less evident in patients with existing CVD. Our findings support the recommendation that the omega-3 PUFA dose be higher in CVD than among healthy subjects. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. DATINK pilot study: an effective methodology for ballpoint pen ink dating in questioned documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Román, I; Bartolomé, L; Alonso, M L; Alonso, R M; Ezcurra, M

    2015-09-10

    Establishing the approximate age of an ink entry from a questioned document is often a complicated task and a controversial issue in forensic sciences. Among the existing approaches, the analysis of solvents in ballpoint inks may be a useful parameter for determining the age of ink on paper. In recent years, several ink dating methods have been proposed. These methods have been based on the analysis of common ink solvents using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) as the analytical platform. Despite these recent methods, several questions remain. The aim of this work was to develop an ink dating methodology (DATINK) for documents written by ballpoint pens based on the disappearance of volatile solvents from the ink entry. Multiple solid-phase microextraction (MHS-SPME) coupled to GC/MS was used to measure the solvents from ink entries made with four BIC(®) ballpoint pens. The β parameter, the remaining fraction of the analyte in the system after one equilibration, corresponding to the successive extractions was considered for modelling a mathematical equation for later ink age dating. Preliminary tests of DATINK method showed that it was possible to detect the presence of ink solvents on documents up to the studied five years. The analyses of different real samples of known age were analyzed in terms of β values, which provided a mean relative error of 21%. The proposed use of β parameter for estimating the absolute age of ballpoint ink entries has shown promising results with a standard deviation of β ranging from 0.002 to 0.004. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of Drought Stress and Planting Date Effects Applied on Original Plant, on its Seed Electrical Conductivity Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hi Atarod

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess drought stress and planting date effects applied on original plant, on the electrical conductivity rate of the subsequent seeds, this research was performed in two parts at the Research Field and Laboratory during spring 2008. The field experiment was performed as a completely randomized block design (CRBD with 20 treatments and three replications. Treatments included the seeds of five cultivars of canola, two planting dates and two levels of irrigation, which in previous year (2006-2007 had been cultivated as a factorial split plot based on CRBD. In the field experiment the characteristics measured including: Final Emergence Percentage (FEP, Mean Time of Emerging (MTE, Mean Daily Emerging (MDE, Daily Emerging Speed (DES, and at the laboratory Electrical Conductivity (EC of the seed leakages was measured. Results indicated that there is no correlation between FEP and EC and so EC test cannot be used for predication the number of emerging plants in the field. In the results of variance analysis laboratory, the cultivar of Modena due to high level of EC had the lowest quality and other cultivars had no significant difference. The interaction between the time of exertion the stress × canola cultivars two cultivars, Opera and Modena had the lowest and the highest in after cutting off the irrigation during stem elongation and in normal irrigation, Sarigol had the lowest EC. The interaction between planting date × Canola cultivars, Modena cultivar in planting date two had highest EC and other cultivars had no significant difference with each other. Based on variance analysis field data planting date and drought stress had no significant effect on measured characteristics.

  13. Effectiveness of dietary supplements in spinal cord injury subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Opazo, Angela; Cuitiño, Pilar; Salas, Inés

    2017-04-01

    Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) consume more dietary supplements than the general population. However, there is limited information regarding the clinical effectiveness of dietary supplements in SCI population. To systematically review the effectiveness of dietary supplements for the prevention or treatment of health-related conditions associated with SCI. Randomized or non-randomized controlled clinical trials were selected, comparing the effect of any dose and form of a dietary supplement (defined by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act), with either no treatment, placebo, or other medication. Data Sources included the Cochrane Database, DARE, LILACS, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, OTSeeker, PEDro, PsycINFO, SpeechBITE, ScienceDirect, Scopus, clinicaltrials.gov, Google Scholar, and OpenGrey. Two reviewers independently classified articles from January 1970 through October 2015, and 18 articles were selected. Due to the heterogeneity of outcome measures across studies, a meta-analysis was not conducted. However, high-quality evidence showed that cranberry supplementation is not effective for prevention of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in SCI. Moderate-quality evidence supported a beneficial effect of vitamin D, alpha-lipoic acid, and omega-3 supplementation, although replication of results is needed. There were conflicting results for the effect of creatine supplementation on improvement of motor outcomes. Low-quality evidence does not permit assessment of the effectiveness of melatonin, whey protein, vitamin C, and Chinese herb in SCI. There is sufficient data suggesting that cranberry supplementation is ineffective for prevention of UTIs in individuals with SCI. There is insufficient data to support or refute the use of any other dietary supplement in individuals with SCI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Subject of research on effects of tourism on population development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devedžić Mirjana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of tourism in the context of economic and demographic recovery of certain regions has created an image of tourism as a development catalyst. Thus strategies of revitalization in depopulated and passive regions often consider tourism as an activity that can speed up the development and successfully valorize existing natural, cultural and demographic potentials. This "key" is used mainly in the absence of other development resources since tourism valorizes issues that other industries ignore (landscape features, ethnical heritage, authentic folk architecture, etc. In addition it is more difficult to recommend the right forms of tourism to be developed in depopulated regions, as well as to estimate the resulting economic and demographic effects. To this end, there are success stories, but there is also evidence of non-rational initiatives and projects that were never completed. This paper attempts to discover the most logical links between population development and tourism development, based on some important characteristics of population development. The characteristics used are overall population increase, population migrations, population structures and changes in households. They were selected because they best reflect not only direct, but also indirect multiplicative effects of tourism. Along with the theoretical and methodological background, the research is also supported by selected examples, interviews, and demographic analyzes. The effects are not universal. They depend on the region, the kind of tourism and the degree of its development, the demographic situation as it is, and the research approach, since global and local effects need not necessarily be unidirectional. Population increase initiated by tourism development is achieved due to the migration component, but the effects are most obvious at the level of tourist regions and their tourist centers. One can also note counter processes in some places that have tourist

  15. Using simulation models to investigate the cumulative effects of sowing rate, sowing date and cultivar choice on weed competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Izzadora K S; Storkey, Jonathan

    2017-05-01

    With the increasing pressure on crop production from the evolution of herbicide resistance, farmers are increasingly adopting Integrated Weed Management (IWM) strategies to augment their weed control. These include measures to increase the competitiveness of the crop canopy such as increased sowing rate and the use of more competitive cultivars. While there are data on the relative impact of these non-chemical weed control methods assessed in isolation, there is uncertainty about their combined contribution, which may be hindering their adoption. In this article, the INTERCOM simulation model of crop/weed competition was used to examine the combined impact of crop density, sowing date and cultivar choice on the outcomes of competition between wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) and Alopecurus myosuroides . Alopecurus myosuroides is a problematic weed of cereal crops in North-Western Europe and the primary target for IWM in the UK because it has evolved resistance to a range of herbicides. The model was parameterised for two cultivars with contrasting competitive ability, and simulations run across 10 years at different crop densities and two sowing dates. The results suggest that sowing date, sowing density and cultivar choice largely work in a complementary fashion, allowing enhanced competitive ability against weeds when used in combination. However, the relative benefit of choosing a more competitive cultivar decreases at later sowing dates and higher crop densities. Modeling approaches could be further employed to examine the effectiveness of IWM, reducing the need for more expensive and cumbersome long-term in situ experimentation.

  16. Drug Pricing Program Ceiling Price and Manufacturer Civil Monetary Penalties Regulation. Final rule; further delay of effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-29

    The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) administers section 340B of the Public Health Service Act (PHSA), known as the "340B Drug Pricing Program" or the "340B Program." HRSA published a final rule on January 5, 2017, that set forth the calculation of the ceiling price and application of civil monetary penalties. The final rule applied to all drug manufacturers that are required to make their drugs available to covered entities under the 340B Program. On August 21, 2017, HHS solicited comments on further delaying the effective date of the January 5, 2017, final rule to July 1, 2018 (82 FR 39553). HHS proposed this action to allow a more deliberate process of considering alternative and supplemental regulatory provisions and to allow for sufficient time for additional rulemaking. After consideration of the comments received on the proposed rule, HHS is delaying the effective date of the January 5, 2017, final rule, to July 1, 2018.

  17. Effect Size Measure and Analysis of Single Subject Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness, 2013

    2013-01-01

    One of the vexing problems in the analysis of SSD is in the assessment of the effect of intervention. Serial dependence notwithstanding, the linear model approach that has been advanced involves, in general, the fitting of regression lines (or curves) to the set of observations within each phase of the design and comparing the parameters of these…

  18. Page 1 Subject Index Large amplitude Effects of transverse shear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effects of transverse shear and rotatory inertia on large amplitude vibration of composite plates and shells 367. Loss of coolant accident. Safety of nuclear power plants 263. Markov chains. Computer-aided reliability analysis of fault- tolerant systems 209. Metal matrix composites. Recent research and development, future ...

  19. The effects of possible contamination on the radiocarbon dating of the Dead Sea Scrolls I: Castor oil

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, KL; van der Plicht, J; Cryer, FH; Doudna, G; Cross, FM; Strugnell, J; Rasmussen, Kaare L.; Cryer, Frederick H.; Cross, Frank M.

    2001-01-01

    Some fragments of the Dead Sea Scroll manuscripts were contaminated with castor oil in the late 1950s. We have conducted experiments in order to establish if the AAA pretreatment cleaning procedures conducted on Dead Sea Scroll manuscript samples in the last two dating series (Bonani et al. 1992; Jull et al. 1995) were effective in removing oil contamination. Our experiments show that not all oil contamination can be expected to have been removed by the acid-alkaline-acid (AAA) pretreatment, ...

  20. Tc Generator Development: Up-to-Date Tc Recovery Technologies for Increasing the Effectiveness of Mo Utilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Van So Le

    2014-01-01

    A review on the Mo sources available today and on the Tc generators developed up to date for increasing the effectiveness of Mo utilisation is performed in the format of detailed description of the features and technical performance of the technological groups of the Mo production and Tc recovery. The latest results of the endeavour in this field are also surveyed in regard of the technical solution for overcoming the shortage of Mo supply. The technological topics are grouped and discussed i...

  1. Antihyperglycemic effects of stevioside in type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Søren; Jeppesen, Per B; Holst, Jens Juul

    2004-01-01

    Stevioside is present in the plant Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (SrB). Extracts of SrB have been used for the treatment of diabetes in, for example, Brazil, although a positive effect on glucose metabolism has not been unequivocally demonstrated. We studied the acute effects of stevioside in type 2...... diabetic patients. We hypothesize that supplementation with stevioside to a test meal causes a reduction in postprandial blood glucose. Twelve type 2 diabetic patients were included in an acute, paired cross-over study. A standard test meal was supplemented with either 1 g of stevioside or 1 g of maize...... starch (control). Blood samples were drawn at 30 minutes before and for 240 minutes after ingestion of the test meal. Compared to control, stevioside reduced the incremental area under the glucose response curve by 18% (P =.013). The insulinogenic index (AUC(i,insulin)/AUC(i,glucose)) was increased...

  2. Antihyperglycemic effects of stevioside in type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Søren; Jeppesen, Per B; Holst, Jens J; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2004-01-01

    Stevioside is present in the plant Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (SrB). Extracts of SrB have been used for the treatment of diabetes in, for example, Brazil, although a positive effect on glucose metabolism has not been unequivocally demonstrated. We studied the acute effects of stevioside in type 2 diabetic patients. We hypothesize that supplementation with stevioside to a test meal causes a reduction in postprandial blood glucose. Twelve type 2 diabetic patients were included in an acute, paired cross-over study. A standard test meal was supplemented with either 1 g of stevioside or 1 g of maize starch (control). Blood samples were drawn at 30 minutes before and for 240 minutes after ingestion of the test meal. Compared to control, stevioside reduced the incremental area under the glucose response curve by 18% (P =.013). The insulinogenic index (AUC(i,insulin)/AUC(i,glucose)) was increased by approximately 40% by stevioside compared to control (P diabetic patients, indicating beneficial effects on the glucose metabolism. Stevioside may be advantageous in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  3. The Effect of Different Attentional Focus Instructions during Finger Movement Tasks in Healthy Subjects: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Rossettini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available External focus of attention (EFA and internal focus of attention (IFA represent commonly used strategies to instruct subjects during exercise. Several studies showed EFA to be more effective than IFA to improve motor performance and learning. To date the role of these strategies on motor performance during finger movement was less studied. The objective of the study was to investigate motor performance, patient’s preference induced by IFA and EFA, and the focus during control condition. Ten healthy right-handed participants performed a finger movement task in control, EFA, and IFA conditions (counterbalanced. Errors, patient’s preference, and type of attentional focus spontaneously adopted during the control condition were recorded. EFA determined less error (p<0.01 compared to control and IFA. Participants preferred EFA against IFA and control condition. In the control group 10% of subjects adopted a purely EFA, 70% of subjects adopted a purely IFA, and 20% of subjects adopted a mixture of the two foci. Our results confirm that EFA is more effective than IFA and control in finger movement task. Due its clinical relevance, the interaction between attention and finger movement should be further investigated.

  4. 340B Drug Pricing Program Ceiling Price and Manufacturer Civil Monetary Penalties Regulation. Final rule; further delay of effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-19

    The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) administers section 340B of the Public Health Service Act (PHSA), referred to as the "340B Drug Pricing Program" or the "340B Program." HRSA published a final rule on January 5, 2017, that set forth the calculation of the ceiling price and application of civil monetary penalties. The final rule applied to all drug manufacturers that are required to make their drugs available to covered entities under the 340B Program. In accordance with a January 20, 2017, memorandum from the Assistant to the President and Chief of Staff, entitled "Regulatory Freeze Pending Review," HRSA issued an interim final rule that delayed the effective date of the final rule published in the Federal Register (82 FR 1210, (January 5, 2017)) to May 22, 2017. HHS invited commenters to provide their views on whether a longer delay of the effective date to October 1, 2017, would be more appropriate. After consideration of the comments received on the interim final rule, HHS is delaying the effective date of the January 5, 2017 final rule, to October 1, 2017.

  5. Effect of planting date and density on yield and yield components of Medicinal plant pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh choopan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of planting date and planting density on quantitative traits of medicinal plant, Schneider squash (Cucurbita pepo L., an experiment was conducted at research field of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, in year 2012. A split plot arrangement based on Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications was used. Treatments consisted of three planting date levels (1 May, 11 May and 21 May and two density levels (2.5 and 4 Plants per m-2 which were allocated to main plots and sub plots, respectively. At the end of the growing season, the seed yield, fruit yield, number of fruits (per ha-1, number of seed (per m-2, number of seed per fruit, seed weight per fruit, 1000- seed weight and harvest index were measured. Results showed that the second planting date (11 May results in highest amount of the quantitative study traits. The density of 2.5 plants per m-2, compared to the density of 4 plants per m-2, could result in highest yield and yield components. The interactions of planting date and density were not significant in terms of fruit and seed yield but among the other yield components, significantly affect the number of seed (per m-2, the number of seed per fruit and the seed weight per fruit at the probability level of 5%. Overall this study showed that the optimum planting date and suitable density can play an important role in increasing fruit and seed yield of the pumpkin plant, considering the usefulness of this plant in the food, cosmetics, and medicinal industry.

  6. EFFECTIVENESS OF A NEW BALANCE TRAINING PROGRAM ON ROCKER BOARD IN SITTING IN STROKE SUBJECTS A PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandesh Rayamajhi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stroke has been considered to be the most common cause of neurological disability with very high prevalence rate. The recovery of independence following stroke is a complex process requiring the reacquisition of many skills. Since controlling the body’s position in space is essential part of functional skills, restoration of balance is a critical part of the recovery of ability after stroke. Most of the work done regarding balance training in stroke subjects has focused on task-oriented activities and training under varied sensory input and found them to be effective. Studies have also compared the effect of stable and unstable surfaces on balance in stroke subjects and found that balance training on unstable surfaces is more effective in improving static and dynamic balance. There has not been any study till date investigating the effectiveness of balance training program on rocker board which is specific for stroke subjects who have difficulty in standing. Since balance training on rocker board in sitting has proved to be effective in improving balance in subjects with spinal cord injury who have difficulty in standing, there is a need to find out if similar balance training program on rocker board in sitting is also effective for improving balance of stroke subjects. Method: A Pilot study was performed on 10 stroke subjects selected through purposive sampling. Subjects were divided into two groups by randomization as control (CG and experimental group (EG. EG received balance training on a rocker board along with conventional physiotherapy program. The CG received only conventional physiotherapy program. Results: Post-intervention Berg balance scale score of EG and the CG was statistically significant (p < 0.05 in both the groups as compared to pre-treatment depicted through Wilcoxon signed rank analysis within the groups. Greater improvement was observed in the EG compared to the CG post-treatment, analysed through Mann

  7. Effects of dating errors on nonparametric trend analyses of speleothem time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mudelsee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental problem in paleoclimatology is to take fully into account the various error sources when examining proxy records with quantitative methods of statistical time series analysis. Records from dated climate archives such as speleothems add extra uncertainty from the age determination to the other sources that consist in measurement and proxy errors. This paper examines three stalagmite time series of oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O from two caves in western Germany, the series AH-1 from the Atta Cave and the series Bu1 and Bu4 from the Bunker Cave. These records carry regional information about past changes in winter precipitation and temperature. U/Th and radiocarbon dating reveals that they cover the later part of the Holocene, the past 8.6 thousand years (ka. We analyse centennial- to millennial-scale climate trends by means of nonparametric Gasser–Müller kernel regression. Error bands around fitted trend curves are determined by combining (1 block bootstrap resampling to preserve noise properties (shape, autocorrelation of the δ18O residuals and (2 timescale simulations (models StalAge and iscam. The timescale error influences on centennial- to millennial-scale trend estimation are not excessively large. We find a "mid-Holocene climate double-swing", from warm to cold to warm winter conditions (6.5 ka to 6.0 ka to 5.1 ka, with warm–cold amplitudes of around 0.5‰ δ18O; this finding is documented by all three records with high confidence. We also quantify the Medieval Warm Period (MWP, the Little Ice Age (LIA and the current warmth. Our analyses cannot unequivocally support the conclusion that current regional winter climate is warmer than that during the MWP.

  8. Effects of different dates of transplanting on rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) yield and its components as second crop after rice in Ghilan (Rasht) conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad javad Golmohammadi; Majid Nahvi

    2016-01-01

    An experiment conducted to study the effects of transplanting dates on rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) yield and its components as second crop after rice in Agriculture Faculty of Ghlilan University. This research was conducted in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 3 replications on the PF (sarigol) cultivar. Treatments consisted various dates of transplanting in cluding 1st November, 21st November, 11st December and 31st December. The results showed that the effect of different date...

  9. Effect of solvents extraction on phytochemical components and biological activities of Tunisian date seeds (var. Korkobbi and Arechti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouri, Amira; Chahdoura, Hassiba; El Arem, Amira; Omri Hichri, Amel; Ben Hassin, Rihab; Achour, Lotfi

    2017-05-04

    The interest in natural antioxidants, especially polyphenols, is growing more and more thanks to their positive contribution to human health. Thus, the prevention from the harmful action of oxidative stress which has been involved in many diseases such as cancer, inflammation diabetes, and cardiovascular illness. Recent research proved the bioactive compounds richness of date seeds which could be a good biological matrix of natural antioxidants. Unfortunately, an important quantity of Tunisian dates seed is discarded yearly. In this study, different solvents extraction (water, methanol, absolute acetone and aqueous acetone 80%) were used and the evaluation of its effect on phytochemical level, in vitro antioxidant activities, in vitro hyperglycemia key enzymes inhibition and in vivo anti-inflammatory proprieties were established for Tunisian date seeds. The result revealed that the polar solvent exhibited the highest amount of bioactive compounds. The correlation between polyphenol compounds and the antioxidant potentiality explains the powerful effect of used polar solvents on inflammation, TBARS and hyperglycemia inhibition. Furthermore, it showed its higher capacity to scavenge radicals. Therefore, this big waste of Tunisian seeds could be used as cheap source of natural antioxidant compounds which are considered as a health challenge for the poor countries.

  10. Subjective qualities of memories associated with the picture superiority effect in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huron, Caroline; Danion, Jean-Marie; Rizzo, Lydia; Killofer, Valérie; Damiens, Annabelle

    2003-02-01

    Patients with schizophrenia (n = 24) matched with 24 normal subjects were presented with both words and pictures. On a recognition memory task, they were asked to give remember, know, or guess responses to items that were recognized on the basis of conscious recollection, familiarity, or guessing, respectively. Compared with normal subjects, patients exhibited a lower picture superiority effect selectively related to remember responses. Unlike normal subjects, they did not exhibit any word superiority effect in relation to guess responses; this explains why the overall picture superiority effect appeared to be intact. These results emphasize the need to take into account the subjective states of awareness when analyzing memory impairments in schizophrenia.

  11. The Comparison of Ginkgo biloba and Cinnarizine effectiveness in tinnitus intensity of patients with subjective tinnitus

    OpenAIRE

    Hamidreza Khazraei; Nasim khodami; Soroush Amani; Mina Shahtoosi; Alireza Khodami

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: Subjective Tinnitus is one of the common problems in the world whose prevalence is estimated to be 7-20 percent in the community. In the present study, effectiveness of Ginkgo biloba with that of cinnarizine on subjective tinnitus were compared and assessed in order to determine the effective dose of Ginko on .patients. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial study conducted on 61 patients with subjective tinnitus who had been referred or had come to Shahrekord ENT c...

  12. Nonlocal Intuition: Replication and Paired-subjects Enhancement Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Maryam; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the results of a study of repeat entrepreneurs in Tehran, Iran, in which nonlocal intuition was investigated in a replication and extension of experiment using measures of heart rate variability (HRV). Nonlocal intuition is the perception of information about a distant or future event by the body's psychophysiological systems, which is not based on reason or memories of prior experience. This study follows up on the McCraty, Radin, and Bradley studies, which found evidence of nonlocal intuition. We used Radin's experimental protocol, with the addition of HRV measures as in the McCraty studies involving computer administration of a random sequence of calm and emotional pictures as the stimulus, and conducted two experiments on mutually exclusive samples—the first on a group of single participants (N=15) and the second on a group of co-participant pairs (N=30)—to investigate the question of the “amplification” of intuition effects by social connection. Each experiment was conducted over 45 trials while heart rate rhythm activity was recorded continuously. Results, using random permutation analysis, a statistically conservative procedure, show significant pre-stimulus results—that is, for the period before the computer had randomly selected the picture stimulus—for both experiments. Moreover, while significant separation between the emotional and calm HRV curves was observed in the single-participant experiment, an even larger separation was apparent for the experiment on co-participant pairs; the difference between the two groups was also significant. Overall, the results of the single-participant experiment confirm previous finding: that electrophysiological measures, especially changes in the heart rhythm, can detect intuitive foreknowledge. This result is notable because it constitutes cross-cultural corroboration in a non-Western context—namely, Iran. In addition, the results for co-participant pairs offer new evidence on the

  13. Nonlocal Intuition: Replication and Paired-subjects Enhancement Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Saeed; Mirzaei, Maryam; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2014-03-01

    This article reports the results of a study of repeat entrepreneurs in Tehran, Iran, in which nonlocal intuition was investigated in a replication and extension of experiment using measures of heart rate variability (HRV). Nonlocal intuition is the perception of information about a distant or future event by the body's psychophysiological systems, which is not based on reason or memories of prior experience. This study follows up on the McCraty, Radin, and Bradley studies, which found evidence of nonlocal intuition. We used Radin's experimental protocol, with the addition of HRV measures as in the McCraty studies involving computer administration of a random sequence of calm and emotional pictures as the stimulus, and conducted two experiments on mutually exclusive samples-the first on a group of single participants (N=15) and the second on a group of co-participant pairs (N=30)-to investigate the question of the "amplification" of intuition effects by social connection. Each experiment was conducted over 45 trials while heart rate rhythm activity was recorded continuously. Results, using random permutation analysis, a statistically conservative procedure, show significant pre-stimulus results-that is, for the period before the computer had randomly selected the picture stimulus-for both experiments. Moreover, while significant separation between the emotional and calm HRV curves was observed in the single-participant experiment, an even larger separation was apparent for the experiment on co-participant pairs; the difference between the two groups was also significant. Overall, the results of the single-participant experiment confirm previous finding: that electrophysiological measures, especially changes in the heart rhythm, can detect intuitive foreknowledge. This result is notable because it constitutes cross-cultural corroboration in a non-Western context-namely, Iran. In addition, the results for co-participant pairs offer new evidence on the amplification of

  14. The Effect of Date (Phoenix dactylifera Juice on Haemoglobin Level An Experimental Study in Iron Supplemented Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ady Try Himawan Zen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been more research on the iron supplementation. Date juice has been shown to be rich in iron. It has been reported to increase the hemoglobin level in rats. Few studies has been conducted on the effect of date juice on the hemoglobin level in male white Wistar rats fed low iron diet.This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of (Phoenix dactylifera juice on haemoglobin level in iron supplemented rats. In this experimental study using post test control group design, 24 male white Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups. G-I served as the control group (standard diet and aquadest. G II was given the low Fe diet and aquadest for 21 d. G-III,IV were given the low fe diet and aquadest plus date juice at the concentration of 50%, 100% respectively. The treatment was given for 14 days. Spectrophotometer was used to assess the haemoglobin level of rats. One way anova followed by Post Hoc LSD was applied for the data analysis. Mean of hemoglobin (g/dl level for the four groups were 12,03, 7.72, 9.25, 10.35 respectively. Test resulted in p<0.05. Post Hoc LSD test resulted in a significant different between K-I and G-II, G-III, G-IV ;G-II and G-III, G-IV ;G-III and G-IV. In conclusion, date juice increases the haemoglobin level in male white rats fed on the low fe diet.

  15. Genetic architecture of main effect QTL for heading date in European winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanke, Christine; Ling, Jie; Plieske, Jörg; Kollers, Sonja; Ebmeyer, Erhard; Korzun, Viktor; Argillier, Odile; Stiewe, Gunther; Hinze, Maike; Beier, Sebastian; Ganal, Martin W; Röder, Marion S

    2014-01-01

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) for heading date (HD) was performed with a panel of 358 European winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties and 14 spring wheat varieties through the phenotypic evaluation of HD in field tests in eight environments. Genotyping data consisted of 770 mapped microsatellite loci and 7934 mapped SNP markers derived from the 90K iSelect wheat chip. Best linear unbiased estimations (BLUEs) were calculated across all trials and ranged from 142.5 to 159.6 days after the 1st of January with an average value of 151.4 days. Considering only associations with a -log10 (P-value) ≥ 3.0, a total of 340 SSR and 2983 SNP marker-trait associations (MTAs) were detected. After Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, a total of 72 SSR and 438 SNP marker-trait associations remained significant. Highly significant MTAs were detected for the photoperiodism gene Ppd-D1, which was genotyped in all varieties. Consistent associations were found on all chromosomes with the highest number of MTAs on chromosome 5B. Linear regression showed a clear dependence of the HD score BLUEs on the number of favorable alleles (decreasing HD) and unfavorable alleles (increasing HD) per variety meaning that genotypes with a higher number of favorable or a low number of unfavorable alleles showed lower HD and therefore flowered earlier. For the vernalization gene Vrn-A2 co-locating MTAs on chromosome 5A, as well as for the photoperiodism genes Ppd-A1 and Ppd-B1 on chromosomes 2A and 2B were detected. After the construction of an integrated map of the SSR and SNP markers and by exploiting the synteny to sequenced species, such as rice and Brachypodium distachyon, we were able to demonstrate that a marker locus on wheat chromosome 5BL with homology to the rice photoperiodism gene Hd6 played a significant role in the determination of the heading date in wheat.

  16. Effect of sibutramine on cardiovascular outcomes in overweight and obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    James, W Philip T; Caterson, Ian D; Coutinho, Walmir

    2010-01-01

    The long-term effects of sibutramine treatment on the rates of cardiovascular events and cardiovascular death among subjects at high cardiovascular risk have not been established.......The long-term effects of sibutramine treatment on the rates of cardiovascular events and cardiovascular death among subjects at high cardiovascular risk have not been established....

  17. 47 CFR 76.905 - Standards for identification of cable systems subject to effective competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for identification of cable systems... Regulation § 76.905 Standards for identification of cable systems subject to effective competition. (a) Only the rates of cable systems that are not subject to effective competition may be regulated. (b) A cable...

  18. 42 CFR 422.664 - Postponement of effective date of a contract determination when a request for a hearing is filed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Postponement of effective date of a contract determination when a request for a hearing is filed timely. 422.664 Section 422.664 Public Health CENTERS FOR... ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Medicare Contract Determinations and Appeals § 422.664 Postponement of effective date of a...

  19. 42 CFR 423.652 - Postponement of effective date of a contract determination when a request for a hearing is filed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Postponement of effective date of a contract determination when a request for a hearing is filed timely. 423.652 Section 423.652 Public Health CENTERS FOR... Postponement of effective date of a contract determination when a request for a hearing is filed timely. (a...

  20. Modified expression for bulb-tracer depletion—Effect on argon dating standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Robert J.; Calvert, Andrew T.

    2014-01-01

    40Ar/39Ar geochronology depends critically on well-calibrated standards, often traceable to first-principles K-Ar age calibrations using bulb-tracer systems. Tracer systems also provide precise standards for noble-gas studies and interlaboratory calibration. The exponential expression long used for calculating isotope tracer concentrations in K-Ar age dating and calibration of 40Ar/39Ar age standards may provide a close approximation of those values, but is not correct. Appropriate equations are derived that accurately describe the depletion of tracer reservoirs and concentrations of sequential tracers. In the modified expression the depletion constant is not in the exponent, which only varies as integers by tracer-number. Evaluation of the expressions demonstrates that systematic error introduced through use of the original expression may be substantial where reservoir volumes are small and resulting depletion constants are large. Traditional use of large reservoir to tracer volumes and the resulting small depletion constants have kept errors well less than experimental uncertainties in most previous K-Ar and calibration studies. Use of the proper expression, however, permits use of volumes appropriate to the problems addressed.

  1. Growth hormone-releasing effects of whole body vibration alone or combined with squatting plus external load in severely obese female subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giunta, Marialuisa; Cardinale, Marco; Agosti, Fiorenza; Patrizi, Alessandra; Compri, Emanuele; Rigamonti, Antonello E; Sartorio, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Whole body vibration (WBV) has been reported to exert growth hormone(GH)-releasing effects in healthy subjects. Despite the potential of WBV to positively affect body composition changes via lipolytic effects, few studies have been performed in obese subjects to date. This study evaluated the acute effects of WBV alone or in combination with squatting plus external load (WBV+S) on serum GH levels and blood lactate concentrations in 7 severely obese women (age 22 ± 5 years; BMI 39.9 ± 2.9 kg/m2). WBV and WBV+S determined a significant GH increase (mean GH peaks 5.1 ± 1.9 ng/ml, p external load. Further additional studies are required to verify the chronic effects of WBV exercise on the GH/IGF-1 system, which could represent a potentially effective approach for weight management in obese subjects.

  2. Effects of the It's Your Game . . . Keep It Real program on dating violence in ethnic-minority middle school youths: a group randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskin, Melissa F; Markham, Christine M; Shegog, Ross; Baumler, Elizabeth R; Addy, Robert C; Tortolero, Susan R

    2014-08-01

    We examined whether It's Your Game . . . Keep It Real (IYG) reduced dating violence among ethnic-minority middle school youths, a population at high risk for dating violence. We analyzed data from 766 predominantly ethnic-minority students from 10 middle schools in southeast Texas in 2004 for a group randomized trial of IYG. We estimated logistic regression models, and the primary outcome was emotional and physical dating violence perpetration and victimization by ninth grade. Control students had significantly higher odds of physical dating violence victimization (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.20, 1.92), emotional dating violence victimization (AOR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.36, 2.24), and emotional dating violence perpetration (AOR = 1.58; 95% CI = 1.11, 2.26) than did intervention students. The odds of physical dating violence perpetration were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Program effects varied by gender and race/ethnicity. IYG significantly reduced 3 of 4 dating violence outcomes among ethnic-minority middle school youths. Although further study is warranted to determine if IYG should be widely disseminated to prevent dating violence, it is one of only a handful of school-based programs that are effective in reducing adolescent dating violence behavior.

  3. Effects of the It’s Your Game . . . Keep It Real Program on Dating Violence in Ethnic-Minority Middle School Youths: A Group Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Christine M.; Shegog, Ross; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Addy, Robert C.; Tortolero, Susan R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether It’s Your Game . . . Keep It Real (IYG) reduced dating violence among ethnic-minority middle school youths, a population at high risk for dating violence. Methods. We analyzed data from 766 predominantly ethnic-minority students from 10 middle schools in southeast Texas in 2004 for a group randomized trial of IYG. We estimated logistic regression models, and the primary outcome was emotional and physical dating violence perpetration and victimization by ninth grade. Results. Control students had significantly higher odds of physical dating violence victimization (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.20, 1.92), emotional dating violence victimization (AOR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.36, 2.24), and emotional dating violence perpetration (AOR = 1.58; 95% CI = 1.11, 2.26) than did intervention students. The odds of physical dating violence perpetration were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Program effects varied by gender and race/ethnicity. Conclusions. IYG significantly reduced 3 of 4 dating violence outcomes among ethnic-minority middle school youths. Although further study is warranted to determine if IYG should be widely disseminated to prevent dating violence, it is one of only a handful of school-based programs that are effective in reducing adolescent dating violence behavior. PMID:24922162

  4. The dual effect of vegetation green-up date and strong wind on the return period of spring dust storms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jieling; Li, Ning; Zhang, Zhengtao; Chen, Xi

    2017-08-15

    Vegetation phenology changes have been widely applied in the disaster risk assessments of the spring dust storms, and vegetation green-up date shifts have a strong influence on dust storms. However, the effect of earlier vegetation green-up dates due to climate warming on the evaluation of dust storms return periods remains an important, but poorly understood issue. In this study, we evaluate the spring dust storm return period (February to June) in Inner Mongolia, Northern China, using 165 observations of severe spring dust storm events from 16 weather stations, and regional vegetation green-up dates as an integrated factor from NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), covering a period from 1982 to 2007, by building the bivariate Copula model. We found that the joint return period showed better fitting results than without considering the integrated factor when the actual dust storm return period is longer than 2years. Also, for extremely severe dust storm events, the gap between simulation result and actual return period can be narrowed up to 0.4888years by using integrated factor. Furthermore, the risk map based on the return period results shows that the Mandula, Zhurihe, Sunitezuoqi, Narenbaolige stations are identified as high risk areas. In this study area, land surface is extensively covered by grasses and shrubs, vegetation green-up date can play a significant role in restraining spring dust storm outbreaks. Therefore, we suggest that Copula method can become a useful tool for joint return period evaluation and risk analysis of severe dust storms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Short term effects of kinesiotaping on acromiohumeral distance in asymptomatic subjects: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Suarez, A; Navarro-Ledesma, S; Petocz, P; Hancock, M J; Hush, J

    2013-12-01

    The first aim of this study was to investigate whether kinesiotaping (KT) can increase the acromiohumeral distance (AHD) in asymptomatic subjects in the short term. The second aim was to investigate whether the direction of kinesiotaping application influences AHD. In recent years, the use of KT has become increasingly popular for a range of musculoskeletal conditions and for sport injuries. To date, we are unaware of any research investigating the effect of kinesiotaping on AHD. Moreover, it is unknown whether the direction of kinesiotaping application for the shoulder is important. Forty nine participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: kinesiotaping group 1 (KT1), kinesiotaping group 2 (KT2) and sham kinesiotaping (KT3). AHD ultrasound measurements at 0° and 60° of shoulder elevation were collected at baseline and immediately after kinesiotape application. The results showed significant improvements in AHD after kinesiotaping, compared with sham taping. The mean difference in AHD between KT1 and KT3 groups was 1.28 mm (95% CI: 0.55, 2.03), and between KT2 and KT3 was 0.98 mm (95% CI: 0.23, 1.74). Comparison of KT1 and KT2 groups, which was performed to identify whether the direction of taping influences the AHD, indicated there were no significant differences. KT increases AHD in healthy individuals immediately following application, compared with sham kinesiotape. No differences were found with respect to the direction in which KT was applied. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ambroxol therapy in simple chronic bronchitis: effects on subjective symptoms and ventilatory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, C H; Juhász, J; Jönsson, E; Mossberg, B

    1986-10-01

    Ambroxol, a metabolite of bromhexine, was investigated in a double-blind, controlled trial using parallel groups. We studied the effects of 60 mg and 120 mg daily versus placebo in subjects with simple chronic bronchitis. Possible therapeutic effects were evaluated by means of interviews on subjective drug effects and current respiratory symptomatology, patient diary cards, and lung function tests. Ninety-seven subjects entered the study and 92 completed satisfactorily. Comparison with the placebo group at the end of the study showed that significantly more subjects in the 120 mg ambroxol group reported improvement in respiratory symptoms, principally improved expectoration. Subjects in the 120 mg group tended to prefer the treatment period when compared to placebo but the diary cards did not indicate significant changes. Lung function values were mainly normal and did not change during treatment. We conclude that the drug had a symptomatic effect and that further studies in more severely affected patients would be worthwhile.

  7. Effect of sequential applications of foliar nutrients, biofertilizers and sowing dates on the incidence of corn stem borers in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbah, H A; Mourad, A K; el-Nimr, Hanyiat M; el-Kady, Magda B; Haroun, Nagah S

    2002-01-01

    In this study either early sown (May 1st) or lately sown (June 2nd) corn plants were treated with Phosphorin & Rhizobactrin as biofertilizers and sprayed with six selected foliar nutrients, i.e. Polymex; Greenzit SP100, Greenzit NPK, Potasin-F, Copper sulphate and Ascorbic acid; in mono-, bi-, and/or tri-sequential applications. Such practices were conducted to show their beneficial effects compared with the chemical treatment in checking the incidence of the stem borers and hence increasing the corn yield. The obtained results could be summarized in the following chief points: (a) the lately sown biofertilized plants showed somewhat higher levels of infestation than the early planted ones., (b) in general, spraying the biofertilized corn plants in both sowing dates with the tested foliar nutrients, significantly decreased the rate of the stem borers infestation than the untreated plants of control., (c) the foliar sprays of Greenzit NPK alone, bi- or tri-sequential applications of Potasin-F, Polymex, Ascorbic acid and Copper sulphate achieved considerable success in reducing larval numbers of the borers species. For example, in case of using the bi-sequential nutrients (Polymex/Ascorbic acid) the numbers were 1.2, 1.5 and 1.2 larvae/5 plants, whereas the numbers were 1.3, 1.0 and 0.7 larvae/5 plants as a result, of the tri-sequential applications (Potasin-F/Ascorbic acid/Polymex) for the pink stem borer, Sesamia cretica, (Led.), the purple lined borer, Chilo agamemnon, (Bels.), and the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis (Hb.), in respect, vs. 4.8, 4.5 and 2.9 larvae/5 plants for the same stem borers, respectively, in case of the untreated corn plants. In addition, the other trisequential applications (Polymex/ascorbic acid/Copper sulphate), (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/ascorbic acid) and (Potasin-F/Copper sulphate/Polymex) reduced the stem borers infestation; (d) from the view point of the interaction effects of sowing dates and the tested foliar nutrients, it

  8. Native language influence on the distributive effect in producing second language subject-verb agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoyan; Chen, Baoguo; Liang, Lijuan; Dunlap, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to investigate the distributive effect when producing subject-verb agreement in English as a second language (L2) when the participant's first language either does or does not require subject-verb agreement. Both Chinese-English and Uygur-English bilinguals were included in Experiment 1. Chinese has no required subject-verb agreement, whereas Uygur does. Results showed that the distributive effect was observed in Uygur-English bilinguals but not in Chinese-English bilinguals, indicating that this particular first language (L1) syntactic feature is one significant factor affecting the distributive effect in the production of subject-verb agreement in L2. Experiment 2 further investigated the matter by choosing Chinese-English participants with higher L2 proficiency. Still, no distributive effect was observed, suggesting that the absence of distributive effect in Chinese-English bilinguals in Experiment 1 was not due to low proficiency in the target language. Experiment 3 changed the way the stimuli were presented, highlighting the singular or distributive nature of the subject noun phrases, and the distributive effect was observed in Chinese-English bilinguals. Altogether, the results show that the L1 syntactic feature of subject-verb agreement is one significant factor affecting the distributive effect in the production of subject-verb agreement in L2. More specifically, distributive effects rarely occur in L2 when L1 has no requirement on subject-verb agreement, whereas distributive effects are more likely to occur in L2 when the L1 also has required subject-verb agreement.

  9. 78 FR 64533 - Silica Bricks and Shapes From China; Revised Schedule for the Subject Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Silica Bricks and Shapes From China; Revised Schedule for the Subject Investigation AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. DATES: Effective Date: October 23, 2013. FOR...

  10. The Effects of Directional Processing on Objective and Subjective Listening Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picou, Erin M.; Moore, Travis M.; Ricketts, Todd A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this investigation were (a) to evaluate the effects of hearing aid directional processing on subjective and objective listening effort and (b) to investigate the potential relationships between subjective and objective measures of effort. Method: Sixteen adults with mild to severe hearing loss were tested with study…

  11. The effect of teacher interpersonal behaviour on students' subject-specific motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Brok, P.; Levy, J.; Brekelmans, M.; Wubbels, Th.

    2006-01-01

    This study brings together insights from research on teaching and learning in specific subjects, learning environments research and effectiveness research by linking teacher interpersonal behaviour to students’ subject-related attitudes. Teaching was studied in terms of a model originating from

  12. Effects of Planting Dates, Irrigation Management and Cover Crops on Growth and Yield of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koocheki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Saffron as a winter active plant with low water requirement is the most strategic medicinal plant in arid and semi-arid parts of Iran. This slow-growing plant has narrow leaves and no aerial stem, hence weeds can be overcome it. Moreover, because of its root and canopy structure an important part of different resources is not used by this low input crop. Therefore, the use of associated crops could be an effective way for increasing resources use efficiencies (Koocheki et al., 2016. Appropriate corm planting date is another important factor that affects saffron growth and yield. Results of some studies show that late spring is the best time for corm planting (Ghasemi-Rooshnavand, 2009; Koocheki et al., 2016. In addition, irrigation management has been evaluated in some studies, but irrigation immediately after corm planting has not been investigated previously. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of irrigation management, planting date and the use of some companion crops on flowering of saffron during two growth cycles. Materials and methods This experiment was carried out as a split-split plot experiment based on a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications at Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran in 2009-2011. Experimental factors included: planting date of saffron as main factor (first of June, first of August and first of October, 2009, the irrigation management as sub factor (irrigation and no irrigation after each planting date and the companion crops as sub-sub factor [Persian clover (Trifolium resupinatum, Bitter vetch (Lathyrus sativus and control. Corm planting was done in 10×25 cm distances with 12 cm depth. In the second year irrigation was done again in the plots which were irrigated after planting in the first year at the same previous dates. Companion crops were sown after first flower picking (November, 2009, then their residue were returned to the soil in

  13. 78 FR 17890 - Effective Date of Requirement for Premarket Approval for Automated External Defibrillator System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ... to rescuers or bystanders. There is the potential risk of delivering an electrical shock during defibrillation of a patient to a rescuer or bystander if there is physical contact between them and the patient... action is of a type that does not individually or cumulatively have a significant effect on the human...

  14. The Initiation of Dating in Adolescence: The Effect of Parental Divorce. The TRAILS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Katya; Mills, Melinda; Veenstra, Rene

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of parental divorce on the time it took adolescents to initiate their first romantic relationships. Individual differences in temperament and pubertal development and the age of the adolescent at the time of divorce were also taken into account. Hypotheses were tested using event history analysis with a sample of…

  15. 78 FR 4094 - Effective Date of Requirement for Premarket Approval for Two Class III Preamendments Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    .... 110-85), and the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA) (Pub. L. 112-144... patients with metal/metal hip systems in comparison to other bearing surface combinations, addresses... performance standard to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness for metal/metal hip systems...

  16. The Initiation of Dating in Adolescence : The Effect of Parental Divorce. The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanova, Katya; Mills, Melinda; Veenstra, Rene

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of parental divorce on the time it took adolescents to initiate their first romantic relationships. Individual differences in temperament and pubertal development and the age of the adolescent at the time of divorce were also taken into account. Hypotheses were tested

  17. The effect of cognitive testing and feedback on older adults' subjective age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraci, Lisa; De Forrest, Ross; Hughes, Matthew; Saenz, Gabriel; Tirso, Robert

    2017-03-10

    Subjective age, or how old a person feels, is an important measure of self-perception that is associated with consequential cognitive and health outcomes. Recent research suggests that subjective age is affected by certain situations, including cognitive testing contexts. The current study examined whether cognitive testing and positive performance feedback affect subjective age and subsequent cognitive performance. Older adults took a series of neuropsychological and cognitive tests and subjective age was measured at various time points. Participants also either received positive or no feedback on an initial cognitive task, an analogies task. Results showed that participants felt older over the course of the testing session, particularly after taking a working memory test, relative to baseline. Positive feedback did not significantly mitigate this subjective aging effect. Results suggest that subjective age is malleable and that it can be affected by standard cognitive and neuropsychological test conditions.

  18. Fear of Love Online: The Effect of Religious Salience on the Early Adoption of Online Dating (2000-2005)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benjamin Thomas Gurrentz

    2016-01-01

    ... for examining how social groups respond differently to sudden changes in dating, marriage, and the family. This paper examines a specific social group that failed to adopt online dating during its early development...

  19. The Role of Negative Statements on the Subjective Effects of Traffic Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves Vera, M.; Vila, J.; Godoy, J. F.

    1995-12-01

    This study assesses subjective effects of traffic noise and the mediator role that negative statements about the noise and about oneself play. Eighty-four students underwent two 15-minute presentations of high intensity traffic noise, with and without negative statements. The potential effect of the negative statements was enhanced by the use of instructions concerning the expectation of negative noise effects and the credibility of the statements in half the subjects. Level of anxiety, subjective noise aversion and time estimation of the noise were taken. The State Anxiety Inventory and the Profile of Mood States Questionnaire were used as pre- and post-tests. Noise increased anxiety levels, these levels being higher during the Statements condition than during the Noise alone condition. Instructions further increased the effects of these negative statements. Subjects did not adapt to noise. Scores in the questionnaires were significantly higher in the post-test than in the pre-test. Implications of these results are discussed.

  20. Water- versus land-based exercise in elderly subjects: effects on physical performance and body composition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bergamin, Marco; Ermolao, Andrea; Tolomio, Silvia; Berton, Linda; Sergi, Giuseppe; Zaccaria, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 24-week exercise protocol carried out in geothermal spring water to improve overall physical function and muscle mass in a group of healthy elderly subjects...

  1. Effect of lidocaine on inflammation in equine jejunum subjected to manipulation only and remote to intestinal segments subjected to ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauck, Anje G; Grosche, Astrid; Morton, Alison J; Graham, A Sarah; Vickroy, Thomas W; Freeman, David E

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine effects of continuous rate infusion of lidocaine on transmural neutrophil infiltration in equine intestine subjected to manipulation only and remote to ischemic intestine. ANIMALS 14 healthy horses. PROCEDURES Ventral midline celiotomy was performed (time 0). Mild ischemia was induced in segments of jejunum and large colon. A 1-m segment of jejunum was manipulated by massaging the jejunal wall 10 times. Horses received lidocaine (n = 7) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (7) throughout anesthesia. Biopsy specimens were collected and used to assess tissue injury, neutrophil influx, cyclooxygenase expression, and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) expression at 0, 1, and 4 hours after manipulation and ischemia. Transepithelial resistance (TER) and mannitol flux were measured by use of Ussing chambers. RESULTS Lidocaine did not consistently decrease neutrophil infiltration in ischemic, manipulated, or control tissues at 4 hours. Lidocaine significantly reduced circular muscle and overall scores for cyclooxygenase-2 expression in manipulated tissues. Manipulated tissues had significantly less HIF-1α expression at 4 hours than did control tissues. Mucosa from manipulated and control segments obtained at 4 hours had lower TER and greater mannitol flux than did control tissues at 0 hours. Lidocaine did not significantly decrease calprotectin expression. Severity of neutrophil infiltration was similar in control, ischemic, and manipulated tissues at 4 hours. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Manipulated jejunum did not have a significantly greater increase in neutrophil infiltration, compared with 4-hour control (nonmanipulated) jejunum remote to sites of manipulation, ischemia, and reperfusion. Lidocaine did not consistently reduce neutrophil infiltration in jejunum.

  2. IFNs-signaling effects on lung cancer: an up-to-date pathways-specific review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galani, Vasiliki; Kastamoulas, Michalis; Varouktsi, Anna; Lampri, Evangeli; Mitselou, Antigoni; Arvanitis, Dimitrios L

    2017-08-01

    IFNs have found important applications in clinical medicine, including the treatment of lung malignancies. The biological effect of the IFN-receptor signaling is regulated essentially by three factors: the expression profile of the IFN itself, the profile of the receptor, and the expression of target genes. IFNs initiate their signaling by binding to specific receptors. The activated IFNs can directly induce gene transcription and/or multiple downstream signaling that both induce diverse cellular responses including the cell cycle arrest and the apoptosis in tumor cells. We provided evidence that IFN-γ enhances the pro cell death effects of Fas/CD95 in human neoplastic alveolar epithelial cell line, A549. We also found that p27 protein plays a pivotal role in the inducing cell death of IFNγ-CH-11-treated A549 cells, since it is involved in the Ras/Raf signaling pathway. This article discusses recent insights into these possible additional functions of IFNs in lung cancer treatment.

  3. The effects of energy drink in combination with alcohol on performance and subjective awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Alford, Chris; Hamilton-Morris, Jennifer; Verster, Joris C

    2012-01-01

    Rationale This study investigated the coadministration of an energy drink with alcohol to study the effects on subjective intoxication and objective performance. Objectives This study aims to evaluate the objective and subjective effects of alcohol versus placebo at two alcohol doses, alone and in combination with an energy drink, in a balanced order, placebo-controlled, double-blind design. Methods Two groups of ten healthy volunteers, mean (SD) age of 24 (6.5), participated in the study. On...

  4. Effects of energy restriction on acute adrenoceptor and metabolic responses to exercise in obese subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Kempen, K.P.G.; Saris, W. H. M.; Senden, J.M.G.; Menheere, P.P.C.A.; Blaak, E.E; Baak, M. A.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of energy restriction on acute adrenoceptor and metabolic responses to exercise in obese subjects. Kempen KP, Saris WH, Senden JM, Menheere PP, Blaak EE, van Baak MA. Department of Human Biology, University of Limburg, Maastricht, The Netherlands. This study was intended to investigate the effects of energy restriction on the acute responses of platelet alpha 2- and lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptors to exercise in obese female subjects. Seven obese females were restricted to a low-energ...

  5. Effect of subjective estimate of self-fitness on motivation for sport participation

    OpenAIRE

    杉本, 龍勇; Sugimoto, Tatsuo; 渡部, 近志; Watabe, Chikashi

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this study is Effect of subjective Estimate of self-fitness on motivation for sport participation of university students. Three different characteristics were identified form factor analysis. 1. Subjective Estimate of self-fitness or Results of “Shin Tairyoku Test (New fitness Test)” is not effective to motivate for regular sport participation in university students. 2. The Higher frequency of sports participation increases motivation of regular sport participation in university ...

  6. Effects of harvesting date and storage on the amounts of polyacetylenes in carrots, Daucus carota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellenberg, Lars; Johansson, Eva; Gustavsson, Karl-Erik; Olsson, Marie E

    2010-11-24

    The amounts of three main polyacetylenes in carrots; falcarinol, falcarindiol, and falcarindiol-3-acetate, were determined by HPLC, during three seasons, in carrots harvested several times per season and at different locations in Sweden. The amounts of falcarindiol first decreased from a relatively high level and then increased later in the harvest season. The amounts of falcarindiol-3-acetate showed similar variations, whereas the amounts of falcarinol did not exhibit any significant variation during the harvest season. During storage the amount of polyacetylenes leveled off, increasing in samples initially low and decreasing in samples initially high in polyacetylenes. The amounts of all polyacetylenes varied significantly due to external factors and between stored and fresh samples. This variation opens up possibilities to achieve a chemical composition of polyacetylenes at harvest that minimizes the risk of bitter off-taste and maximizes the positive health effects reported in connection with polyacetylenes in carrots.

  7. Effect of tillage and planting date on seasonal abundance and diversity of predacious ground beetles in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, R B; Parajulee, M N

    2010-01-01

    A 2-year field study was conducted in the southern High Plains region of Texas to evaluate the effect of tillage system and cotton planting date window on seasonal abundance and activity patterns of predacious ground beetles. The experiment was deployed in a split-plot randomized block design with tillage as the main-plot factor and planting date as the subplot factor. There were two levels for each factor. The two tillage systems were conservation tillage (30% or more of the soil surface is covered with crop residue) and conventional tillage. The two cotton planting date window treatments were early May (normal planting) and early June (late planting). Five prevailing predacious ground beetles, Cicindela sexguttata F., Calosoma scrutator Drees, Pasimachus spp., Pterostichus spp., and Megacephala Carolina L. (Coleoptera: Carabidae), were monitored using pitfall traps at 2-week intervals from June 2002 to October 2003. The highest total number of ground beetles (6/trap) was observed on 9 July 2003. Cicindela sexguttata was the dominant ground dwelling predacious beetle among the five species. A significant difference between the two tillage systems was observed in the abundances of Pterostichus spp. and C. sexguttata. In 2002. significantly more Pterostichus spp. were recorded from conventional plots (0.27/trap) than were recorded from conservation tillage plots (0.05/trap). Significantly more C. sexguttata were recorded in 2003 from conservation plots (3.77/trap) than were recorded from conventional tillage plots (1.04/trap). There was a significant interaction between year and tillage treatments. However, there was no significant difference in the abundances of M. Carolina and Pasimachus spp. between the two tillage practices in either of the two years. M. Carolina numbers were significantly higher in late-planted cotton compared with those observed in normal-planted cotton. However, planting date window had no significant influence on the activity patterns of the

  8. Subjective, psychomotor, and analgesic effects of oral codeine and morphine in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D J; Zacny, J P

    1998-11-01

    The subjective, psychomotor, and physiological effects of analgesic doses of oral codeine and morphine were examined in 12 healthy volunteers. Subjects ingested placebo, morphine 20 or 40 mg, or codeine 60 or 120 mg in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design. The smaller and larger doses of each drug were putatively equianalgesic, and the cold-pressor test was included to test this assumption. Codeine and morphine increased ratings of "feel drug effect" but had little effect on other subjective measures, including the Addiction Research Center Inventory, visual analog scales, and adjective checklists. The few subjective effects that were observed were modest and were dose-related for morphine but not for codeine. The drugs did not affect performance on Maddox-Wing, digit-symbol substitution, coordination, auditory reaction, reasoning, and memory tests. Dose-related decreases in pupil size (miosis) were observed following codeine and morphine. Ratings of pain intensity decreased in a dose-related manner for morphine but not for codeine. Plasma codeine and morphine levels varied as an orderly function of dose. These results suggest that oral codeine and morphine are appropriate drugs for outpatient pain relief because they are effective analgesics at doses that have only modest effects on mood, produce few side effects, and do not impair performance. The results also suggest a possible ceiling effect of codeine on analgesia and subjective effects.

  9. NIR Color vs Launch Date: A 20-Year Analysis of Space Weathering Effects on the Boeing 376 Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, James; Anz-Meador, Philip; Lederer, Sue; Cowardin, Heather; Buckalew, Brent

    2015-01-01

    The Boeing HS-376 spin stabilized spacecraft was a popular design that was launched continuously into geosynchronous orbit starting in 1980 with the last launch occurring in 2002. Over 50 of the HS-376 buses were produced to fulfill a variety of different communication missions for countries all over the world. The design of the bus is easily approximated as a telescoping cylinder that is covered with solar cells and an Earth facing antenna that is despun at the top of the cylinder. The similarity in design and the number of spacecraft launched over a long period of time make the HS-376 a prime target for studying the effects of solar weathering on solar panels as a function of time. A selection of primarily non-operational HS-376 spacecraft launched over a 20 year time period were observed using the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope on Mauna Kea and multi-band near-infrared photometry produced. Each spacecraft was observed for an entire night cycling through ZYJHK filters and time-varying colors produced to compare near-infrared color as a function of launch date. The resulting analysis shown here may help in the future to set launch date constraints on the parent object of unidentified debris objects or other unknown spacecraft.

  10. Effects of radiation emitted by WCDMA mobile phones on electromagnetic hypersensitive subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Min Kyung

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the use of the third generation (3 G mobile phones on the rise, social concerns have arisen concerning the possible health effects of radio frequency-electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs emitted by wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA mobile phones in humans. The number of people with self-reported electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS, who complain of various subjective symptoms such as headache, dizziness and fatigue, has also increased. However, the origins of EHS remain unclear. Methods In this double-blind study, two volunteer groups of 17 EHS and 20 non-EHS subjects were simultaneously investigated for physiological changes (heart rate, heart rate variability, and respiration rate, eight subjective symptoms, and perception of RF-EMFs during real and sham exposure sessions. Experiments were conducted using a dummy phone containing a WCDMA module (average power, 24 dBm at 1950 MHz; specific absorption rate, 1.57 W/kg within a headset placed on the head for 32 min. Results WCDMA RF-EMFs generated no physiological changes or subjective symptoms in either group. There was no evidence that EHS subjects perceived RF-EMFs better than non-EHS subjects. Conclusions Considering the analyzed physiological data, the subjective symptoms surveyed, and the percentages of those who believed they were being exposed, 32 min of RF radiation emitted by WCDMA mobile phones demonstrated no effects in either EHS or non-EHS subjects.

  11. The road to a more effective influenza vaccine: Up to date studies and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Kaori; Ainai, Akira; Suzuki, Tadaki; Hasegawa, Hideki

    2017-09-25

    Influenza virus causes an acute respiratory infection in humans. Frequent point mutations in the influenza genome and occasional exchange of genetic segments between virus strains help the virus evade the pre-existing immunity, resulting in epidemics and pandemics. Although vaccination is the most effective intervention, mismatches between circulating viruses and vaccine strains reduce vaccine efficacy. Furthermore, current injectable vaccines induce IgG antibodies in serum (which limit progression of influenza symptoms) but not secretory IgA antibodies in the respiratory mucosa (which prevent virus infection efficiently). Therefore, numerous studies have attempted to improve influenza vaccines. The discovery of broadly neutralizing antibodies has progressed research into antigen design. Studies designed to improve vaccine efficacy by changing the vaccine administration route have also been conducted. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying the action of various vaccines is essential if we are to develop a universal influenza vaccine. Therefore, evaluating the quality and quantity of antibodies induced by vaccines, which determine vaccine efficacy, is critical. However, at present vaccine evaluation relies on hemagglutination inhibition tests, which only measure the quantity of antibody produced. Antibody repertoires comprise a set of antibodies with specific genetic or molecular features that correspond to their functions. Genetically and functionally similar antibodies may be produced by multiple individuals exposed to an identical stimulus. Therefore, it may be possible to evaluate and compare multiple vaccine strategies in terms of the quality and quantity of an antibody response induced by a vaccine by examining antibody repertoires. Recent studies have used single cell expression and high-throughput immunoglobulin sequencing to provide a detailed picture of antibody responses. These novel methods may be critical for detailed characterization of

  12. Human Subject Effects on Torsion Pendulum Oscillations: Further Evidence of Mediation by Convection Currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerschlag, Richard; Linda Baldwin, Ann; Schwartz, Gary E

    When a human subject sits beneath a wire mesh, hemispheric torsion pendulum (TP) a rapid-onset series of oscillations at frequencies both higher and lower than the fundamental frequency of the TP have been consistently observed. This study was designed to replicate and extend prior findings that suggest the human subject effect on TP behavior is due to subject-generated, heat-induced convection currents. Effects on pendulum behavior were tested after draping an aluminized "space blanket" over the subject and by replacing the subject with a thermal mattress pad shaped to approximate the human form. Experiments were performed in a basic science university research laboratory. Real-time recordings and Fast Fourier Transform frequency spectra of pendulum oscillatory movement. The space blanket blocked, while the mattress pad mimicked, the human subject induced complex array of pendulum oscillations. Our findings support and strengthen previous results that suggest the effects of human subjects on behavior of a torsion pendulum are mediated by body-heat-induced air convection rather than an unknown type of biofield. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of acute exercise on pancreatic endocrine function in subjects with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sine H; Karstoft, Kristian; Winding, Kamilla

    2015-01-01

    We determined the effects of exercise on pancreatic endocrine responses to metabolic stimuli in type 2 diabetic (T2D) subjects and examined the influence of the diabetic status. Fourteen subjects underwent a hyperglycaemic clamp with GLP-1 infusion and arginine injection, the morning after a one...... drug naïve subjects. Exercise-induced increases in insulin secretion are blunted in T2D subjects with high hyperglycaemia and in those using anti-diabetic drugs. Clinical Trials Registration Number: NCT01812590.......-hour walk or no exercise. Subjects were stratified by high and low quantiles of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c as well as current use/non-use of anti-diabetic medication. In the entire cohort, exercise did not alter insulin secretion, while glucagon levels were increased in all clamp phases (P 

  14. Effect of the Date of Planting on Morphological Characteristics, Yield and Essential Oil Content of Achillea millefolium sub sp millefolium.L in Mashhad Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of planting date on morphological characteristic, yield and essential oil content of Achillea millefolium sub sp millefolium.L., an experiment in a randomized complete blocks design (RCBD with four treatments including four planting date (6 July, 1 August, 7 September and 7 October in four replications was conducted. During the growing stage and at the end of experiment period, following factors were measured: time and growth degree day (GDD to bolting and flowering, plant height, shoot number, lateral inflorescence numbers, inflorescence diameter and height, inflorescence yield, essential oil percentage and yield and total biomass. Our results indicated that planting date affects all of the measured factors. In the first planting date, the plants were tall (116 cm and had big inflorescence (9.97 and 8.72 cm for inflorescence diameter and height respectively. Most measured traits (shoot and lateral inflorescence number, inflorescence dry weight and total biomass had highest value in the August 1st planting date and lowest value in forth planting date (7 October 7th. Essential oil percentage was affected by planting date and the highest essential oil percentage (0.17 was produced in 7 October and the lowest (0.13 was obtained in August 1st planting date but the maximum and minimum essential oil yield (1.77 and 0.87 ml relation with 1 August and 7 September planting date respectively. In conclusion, 1 August is the best date for sowing of the plant. In general, The first of August was the best planting date for this Achillea species in Mashhad climate.

  15. Effect of Planting Date and Weed Control Methods on Yield and Agronomic Traits of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. in Khoy Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Akbari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of planting dates and weed control methods on yield and agronomic traits of sunflower was investigated. A factorial experiment based on a complete randomized blocks design with four replications was conducted in 2009. Treatments consisted of three planting date (April 4th, May5th and Juns5th and five weed control methods, Trifluralin (2 Lit/ha + Fokus (1.5 Lit/ha, Trifluralin+Nabu-s (3Lit/ha, Trifluralin, Hand weeding and without control. Results indicated that planting dates and weed control methods significantly affected head diameter, 100 grain weight, seed number per head and grain yield. Harvest index and oil percent was affected only by planting dates. The highest grain yield (630.1 g/m2, was produced in the second planting date (May 5 by using Trifluralin+Fokus. Delaying sowing date (after May 5 significantly decreased grain yield. The most important weeds in the experimental site were common lambsquarter (Chenopodium album, field bind weed (Convolvulus arvensis, bastard cabbage (Rapistrum rugosum, flower-of-an-hour (Hibiscus trionum, cockspur grass (Echinochloa colorum and green bristle grass (Setaria verticillata. It was observed that the dry matter weight sharply varied in all weed species in different planting dates, that is, in the 4th April the dry matter production of common lambsquarter and bastard cabbage, in June 5th planting date were maximum. Dry matter of broad leaf and narrow leaf weeds in the date of May 5th was lower than the other two planting dates. The interaction of planting date ×control methods on head diameter, seed number per head, grain yield and weeds dry matter was significant.

  16. 38 CFR 8.1 - Effective date for an insurance policy issued under section 1922(a) of title 38 U.S.C. (Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date for an insurance policy issued under section 1922(a) of title 38 U.S.C. (Service-Disabled Veterans' Insurance). 8.1 Section 8.1 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Effective Date § 8.1...

  17. Effect of production system, supermarket and purchase date on the vitamin D content of eggs at retail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Kliem, Kirsty E; Lovegrove, Julie A; Givens, D I

    2017-04-15

    The vitamin D content of eggs from three retail outlets was measured over five months to examine the effects of production system (organic vs. free range vs. indoor), supermarket and purchase date on the concentration of vitamin D 3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 . Results demonstrated a higher vitamin D 3 concentration in free range (57.2±3.1μg/kg) and organic (57.2±3.2μg/kg) compared with indoor (40.2±3.1μg/kg) (PD synthesis by birds having more access to sunlight, while 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 concentration was higher (PD may relate to some incorrect labelling. Concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 was higher (PD concentrations in eggs from different sources, thus highlighting the importance of accurate labelling. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Limitation of multi-elemental fingerprinting of wheat grains: Effect of cultivar, sowing date, and nutrient management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suarez-Tapia, Alfonso; Kucheryavskiy, Sergey V.; Christensen, Bent Tolstrup

    2017-01-01

    Multi-element fingerprinting demonstrates some potential for tracing the origin of agricultural products but not for discriminating among crop cultivars and nutrient management (source, rate). With principal component analysis (PCA) and univariate statistics, we examined 19 elements in grains from......; these elements increased with nutrient rate regardless of source. Unmanured grains were enriched in Cu. Mariboss was characterized by higher concentrations of Sr, Ba and Sc compared to Hereford with Sr in grain as the main separator. Univariate statistics showed higher concentrations of N, P, Mg, Ba, Cu, Mo...... and Zn in early sown than in timely sown wheat. Compared with Hereford grains Mariboss was higher in P, Mg, Ba, Cu and Sr but lower in Mn, Mo and Zn. Thus, confounding effects of cultivar, sowing date, nutrient source and rate limits the potential of multi-element analysis in discriminating among...

  19. Effects of Mentoring Speed Dating as an Innovative Matching Tool in Undergraduate Medical Education: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Guse

    Full Text Available Choosing the right mentor is crucial for effective mentorship. Yet, many medical students have difficulties finding a suitable mentor. Thus we developed mentoring speed dating (MSD as a promising matching tool to connect students and faculty mentors successfully. The purpose of this study was to explore mentees' and mentors' experience with MSD and investigate the impact of MSD on the perceived mentorship quality and continuance of the mentoring relationship.The authors completed a mixed methods study at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany, between June 2011 and March 2014. They conducted four focus groups with mentees and mentors who participated in a mentoring speed dating event and analyzed transcripts using conventional content analysis with inductive categorizing. In addition, three mentoring cohorts (two matched via MSD, one matched via conventional online profiles were surveyed on mentorship satisfaction and the 1-year continuance of their mentorship was monitored. Fifteen mentees and fifteen mentors participated in the focus groups. The authors identified several themes such as short and long term benefits of MSD and fulfillment of expectations. Benefits included finding out about the personal connection, matching expectations, providing an efficient overview of candidates. The survey was completed by 93 students (n = 29 without MSD; n = 64 with MSD. Independent t-tests and multivariate analysis of variance were used to analyze the impact of MSD on student's mentorship satisfaction.There were significant differences in responses to the items "Commitment of mentor" (p = .019 and "Constructive feedback" (p = .038 among the students who attended MSD and the students without MSD. After one year far more mentoring relationships existed among those mentees who participated in MSD in comparison to the "no MSD group".MSD is a valuable matching tool with beneficial effects on the mentorship quality. It enhances essential

  20. Effects on subjective and objective alertness and sleep in response to evening light exposure in older subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münch, M; Scheuermaier, K D; Zhang, R; Dunne, S P; Guzik, A M; Silva, E J; Ronda, J M; Duffy, J F

    2011-10-31

    Evening bright light exposure is reported to ameliorate daytime sleepiness and age-related sleep complaints, and also delays the timing of circadian rhythms. We tested whether evening light exposure given to older adults with sleep-wake complaints would delay the timing of their circadian rhythms with respect to their sleep timing, thereby reducing evening sleepiness and improving subsequent sleep quality. We examined the impact of evening light exposure from two different light sources on subjective alertness, EEG activity during wakefulness, and sleep stages. Ten healthy older adults with sleep complaints (mean age=63.3 years; 6F) participated in a 13-day study. After three baseline days, circadian phase was assessed. On the evening of days 5-8 the subjects were exposed for 2h to either polychromatic blue-enriched white light or standard white fluorescent light, and on the following day circadian phase was re-assessed. Subjects were allowed to leave the laboratory during all but the two days when the circadian phase assessment took place. Evening assessments of subjective alertness, and wake and sleep EEG data were analyzed. Subjective alertness and wake EEG activity in the alpha range (9.75-11.25 Hz) were significantly higher during light exposures when compared to the pre-light exposure evening (plight exposures produced circadian phase shifts and significantly prolonged latency to rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep for both light groups (plight exposures was negatively correlated with REM sleep duration (plight exposure could benefit older adults with early evening sleepiness, without negatively impacting the subsequent sleep episode. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Immediate Effect of Short-foot Exercise on Dynamic Balance of Subjects with Excessively Pronated Feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Dong-Chul; Kim, Kyoung; Lee, Su-Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the immediate effect of short-foot exercise (SFE) on the dynamic balance of subjects with excessively pronated feet. [Subjects] This study included 18 subjects with excessively pronated feet (navicular drop ≥ 10 mm) selected using the navicular drop test. [Methods] The limit of stability (LOS) was measured to determine the changes in the dynamic balance from before and after SFE in the standing and sitting positions. [Result] After the SFE, LOS increased significantly in all areas, namely, the left, right, front, back, and overall. [Conclusion] SFE immediately improved the dynamic balance of subjects with excessively pronated feet. Subsequent studies will be conducted to examine the effects of SFE performed over the long term on postural stability.

  2. Metformin effects on peripheral sensitivity to insulin in non diabetic obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendri, S; Debussche, X; Puy, H; Vincent, O; Marcelli, J M; Dubreuil, A; Lalau, J D

    1993-01-01

    Using the euglycaemic insulin-clamp technique we examined the effects of one-month metformin treatment on peripheral glucose utilization in non diabetic obese subjects. Two groups of obese subjects were studied in comparison with untreated lean women. Group 1 (n = 6) experienced weight loss (BMI: 32.6 +/- 1.7 vs 34.8 +/- 1.6 kg/m2, p metformin treatment the mean Km decreased by 31% in group 1 (p diabetic obese subjects, metformin seems not to affect peripheral insulin-mediated glucose metabolism unless there is weight loss.

  3. The effect of teacher interpersonal behaviour on students' subject-specific motivation

    OpenAIRE

    den Brok, P.; Levy, J.; Brekelmans, M.; Wubbels, Th.

    2006-01-01

    This study brings together insights from research on teaching and learning in specific subjects, learning environments research and effectiveness research by linking teacher interpersonal behaviour to students’ subject-related attitudes. Teaching was studied in terms of a model originating from clinical psychology that was adapted to education. Teacher interpersonal behaviour was analysed interms of two, independent behaviour dimensions called Influence and Proximity. This study investigated ...

  4. Acute effects of LSD on amygdala activity during processing of fearful stimuli in healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, F.; Lenz, C; Dolder, P C; S. Harder; Schmid, Y; Lang, U E; Liechti, M E; Borgwardt, S.

    2017-01-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) induces profound changes in various mental domains, including perception, self-awareness and emotions. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the acute effects of LSD on the neural substrate of emotional processing in humans. Using a double-blind, randomised, cross-over study design, placebo or 100??g LSD were orally administered to 20 healthy subjects before the fMRI scan, taking into account the subjective and pharmacological pea...

  5. The Effects of Music on Subjects with Alzheimer and Dementia Disease in Cache Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, Landon

    2014-01-01

    Music has been shown to trigger old memories and induce various levels of stress relief and relaxation. My research focused on the effects of music on subjects with Alzheimer and Dementia disease. Eleven patients were selected through an informed consent process which included permission from responsible family members. During the course of three or more visits to patients in their care centers, the subjects listened to a variety of songs. These included songs that family members thought woul...

  6. The Effects of CLIL Education on the Subject Matter (Mathematics) and the Target Language (English)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouazizi, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of Content and Language Integrated Learning, CLIL for short, on both the attainment of the subject matter, mathematics in our case, hence the content aspect of CLIL. The second axes of research focuses on the effect of CLIL on the learners' proficiency vis-à-vis the language of instruction, epitomized here by…

  7. Bias Corrections for Standardized Effect Size Estimates Used with Single-Subject Experimental Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugille, Maaike; Moeyaert, Mariola; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Ferron, John M.; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2014-01-01

    A multilevel meta-analysis can combine the results of several single-subject experimental design studies. However, the estimated effects are biased if the effect sizes are standardized and the number of measurement occasions is small. In this study, the authors investigated 4 approaches to correct for this bias. First, the standardized effect…

  8. Controlled vaporized cannabis, with and without alcohol: subjective effects and oral fluid-blood cannabinoid relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Rebecca L; Brown, Timothy L; Milavetz, Gary; Spurgin, Andrew; Gorelick, David A; Gaffney, Gary; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2016-07-01

    Vaporized cannabis and concurrent cannabis and alcohol intake are commonplace. We evaluated the subjective effects of cannabis, with and without alcohol, relative to blood and oral fluid (OF, advantageous for cannabis exposure screening) cannabinoid concentrations and OF/blood and OF/plasma vaporized-cannabinoid relationships. Healthy adult occasional-to-moderate cannabis smokers received a vaporized placebo or active cannabis (2.9% and 6.7% Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol, THC) with or without oral low-dose alcohol (~0.065g/210L peak breath alcohol concentration [BrAC]) in a within-subjects design. Blood and OF were collected up to 8.3 h post-dose and subjective effects measured at matched time points with visual-analogue scales and 5-point Likert scales. Linear mixed models evaluated subjective effects by THC concentration, BrAC, and interactions. Effects by time point were evaluated by dose-wise analysis of variance (ANOVA). OF versus blood or plasma cannabinoid ratios and correlations were evaluated in paired-positive specimens. Nineteen participants (13 men) completed the study. Blood THC concentration or BrAC significantly associated with subjective effects including 'high', while OF contamination prevented significant OF concentration associations Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Physical Seed Treatment and Their Effects on Seedling Emergence and Yield of Ribwort Plantain (Plantago lanceolata in Delayed Sowing Date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Mirshekari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the possibility of improving seedling emergence, stand establishment and yield of late sown ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata by seed priming pot and field experiments were conducted at the Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran during 2013. The ribwort plantain seeds were differently treated by ultrasonication, laser, magnetic field, gamma and beta irradiations all for 3.5 and 5 min. and were sown on 5th and 20th of May. All of the seed priming treatments reduced seedling emergence time, 50 % of seedling emergence and mean emergence time as compared with control. Highest seedling dry weight (0.49 g.plant-1 resulted from magnetic field treatment for 5 min. followed by magnetic field for 3.5 min. and ultrasonic treatments (0.40 g.plant-1. A further reduction in exposure time of magnetic field from 5 to 3.5 min. decreased seedling vigor index. When seeds were sown in 5th and 20th May, maturity period of plots treated with magnetic field and ultrasonic happened to range between 112.2 and 99.7 days after sowing, respectively. Leaf area index remained statistically unaffected due to a delay of 15 days in sowing date. Under field conditions, there was not significant difference between seed yields from sowing dates, and the yield ranged from 176 kg.ha-1 in control, gamma and beta irradiations up to 211 kg.ha-1 in magnetic field and ultrasonic treatments. It can be concluded that priming ribwort plantain seeds by magnetic field and ultrasonic waves would effectively be used to improve the crop performance and yield especially in late sown plants.

  10. Chemical composition of alfalfa silage with waste date and its feeding effect on ruminal fermentation characteristics and microbial protein synthesis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, R; Tahmasbi, R; Dayani, O; Khezri, A

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding ensiled alfalfa with waste date on ruminal fermentation characteristics, microbial protein synthesis, protozoa population and blood parameters in sheep. Eight rams were used in a 2 × 2 change over design. Each experimental period consisted of 21 days including 16 days for adaptation and 5 days for sampling. For ensiling, fresh alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) with different levels of waste date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) were mixed together and ensiled in 100-l containers for 45 days. Chemical composition of silages such as dry matter (DM), crude protein, NH3 -N, organic matter, NDF, ADF and pH were determined. Then, it was used as 30% (DM basis) in diets. The experimental diets were as follows: (i) control (diet containing alfalfa silage without waste date), (ii) diet containing alfalfa silage with 5 g waste date/95 g DM, (iii) diet containing alfalfa silage with 10 g waste date/90 g DM, and (iv) diet containing alfalfa silage with 15 g waste date/85 g DM. The results of this experiment showed that adding waste date to alfalfa during ensiling, improved silage quality, DM and energy level. Total protozoa population and all of holotrich, cellulolytic and entodinia in rumen fluid were increased linearly by increasing the level of waste date. Nitrogen (N) intake, urinary N excretion and nitrogen retention were affected by dietary treatments. Also, allantoin, uric acid, total purine derivatives, microbial protein synthesis, cholesterol level and blood urea nitrogen were significantly different. In conclusion, direct ensilage of alfalfa can be attained by mixing 15 g waste date/85 g DM and positive associative effects such as increased metabolizable energy (ME) and silage quality occurred. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Effects of Body Fat on Weight Concerns, Dating, and Sexual Activity: A Longitudinal Analysis of Black and White Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Udry, J. Richard; Suchindran, Chirayath; Campbell, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    Investigated implications of body-fat differences for dating and sexual activity and implications of heterosexual activity for dieting and weight concerns in adolescent girls. Found that among white girls, and blacks with college-educated mothers, more body fat was associated with lower dating probability, even among non-obese girls. Body fat was…

  12. Feeling sad makes us feel older: Effects of a sad-mood induction on subjective age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, Anne J; Wahl, Hans-Werner

    2017-08-01

    A mood-induction paradigm was implemented in a sample of 144 adults covering midlife and old age (40-80 years) to investigate associations between mood and subjective age. Sad or neutral mood was induced by texts and music pieces. Subjective age was operationalized as felt age relative to chronological age. Participants receiving the sad-mood induction reported changes toward older felt ages from pre- to postinduction. Participants receiving the neutral-mood induction reported comparable levels of subjective age at pre- and postinduction. Effects were comparable across middle- and older aged participants. Results suggest that sad affective states might dampen subjective age. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Effect of Metaboreflex on Cardiovascular System in Subjects of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Pramita; Tiwari, Sunita; Bajpai, Manish; Singh, Kalpana; Jha, Praveen

    2017-07-01

    Metaboreflex is a reflex in which muscle receptors send signals regarding metabolic (metabolites accumulation like lactic acid, potassium, adenosine) conditions of the muscles to nucleus tractus solitarius via afferent III and IV fibres to cause haemodynamic adjustments in order to regulate blood flow on the basis of the status of contracting muscle. Dysregulation in its mechanism in metabolic syndrome is demonstrated. To study the effect of metaboreflex by both isometric and rhythmic handgrip exercise on CVS parameters {Blood Pressure (BP), Cardiac Output (CO) and Systemic Vascular Resistance (SVR)} in subjects of metabolic syndrome. In this study, 27 subjects aged 25 to 45 years were enrolled after ethical clearance and proper consent. They were divided into: a) subjects without metabolic syndrome; and b) subjects with metabolic syndrome. Impedance cardiovasography was done to assess cardiac parameters (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance). Pre-exercise parameters were assessed followed by isometric exercise and post-isometric exercise parameter measurement. Again after rest, rhythmic exercise was followed. Finally post exercise parameters were assessed. Student paired t-test for comparison between pre and post exercise parameters were done. Changes in diastolic BP following exercise were statistically significant in subjects without metabolic syndrome (p-value 0.01 and 0.001 following isometric and rhythmic exercise respectively). In subjects with metabolic syndrome also these changes were significant, but to a lesser extent (p-value 0.1 and 0.01 respectively for isometric and rhythmic exercise). Changes in systolic BP following exercise were statistically significant in subjects without metabolic syndrome (p-value 0.001 and 0.001 following isometric and rhythmic exercise respectively). In subjects with metabolic syndrome also these changes were significant (p-value 0.01 and 0.001 respectively for isometric and

  14. EFFECTIVENESS OF INSTUMENTAL ASSISTED SOFT TISSUE MOBILIZATION TECHNIQUE WITH STATIC STRETCHING IN SUBJECTS WITH PLANTAR FASCIITIS

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Babu. K; Lisa Michael Pereira; Sai Kumar. N; Ayyappan. V.R

    2014-01-01

    Background: Instrumental assisted soft tissue mobilization and static stretching found to be effective in plantar fasciitis, however the combined effectiveness of these techniques were unknown. The purpose of this study is to find the effect of Instrumental assisted soft tissue mobilization technique for plantar fascia combined with static stretching of triceps surae for subjects with chronic stage of Plantar Fasciitis on pain intensity, ankle dorsiflexion range of motion and functional disab...

  15. Therapeutic effects of date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera) in the prevention of diseases via modulation of anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-tumour activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Arshad H; Aly, Salah M; Ali, Habeeb; Babiker, Ali Y; Srikar, Sauda; Khan, Amjad A

    2014-01-01

    The current mode of treatment of various diseases based on synthetic drugs is expensive, alters genetic and metabolic pathways and also shows adverse side effects. Thus, safe and effective approach is needed to prevent the diseases development and progression. In this vista, Natural products are good remedy in the treatment/management of diseases and they are affordable and effective without any adverse effects. Dates are main fruit in the Arabian Peninsula and are considered to be one of the most significant commercial crops and also have been documented in Holy Quran and modern scientific literatures. Earlier studies have shown that constituents of dates act as potent antioxidant, anti-tumour as well as anti-inflammatory, provide a suitable alternative therapy in various diseases cure. In this review, dates fruits has medicinal value are summarized in terms of therapeutic implications in the diseases control through anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumour and ant-diabetic effect.

  16. Attitudes Toward Alzheimer's Care-Seeking Among Korean Americans: Effects of Knowledge, Stigma, and Subjective Norm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Banghwa Lee; Hong, Michin; Lee, Sang E

    2017-03-10

    Early detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) ensures that affected individuals and their caregivers can make appropriate plans for health care needs, yet many ethnic minorities delay seeking care for AD until the disease has progressed. This study examined attitudes toward care-seeking for AD among Korean Americans (KAs) and identified factors affecting their attitudes. A cross-sectional survey was used to collect data from 234 KA adults. We conducted hierarchical regression analyses to examine the effects of sociocultural background (age, gender, education, cultural orientation), AD knowledge and exposure to AD, and beliefs about AD (stigma of pity, shame, and public avoidance) and AD care (subjective norm) on KAs' attitudes toward seeking AD care from primary care physicians (PCPs) and AD specialists. We also tested whether knowledge of AD moderated the impact of beliefs about AD and AD care on KAs' attitudes toward seeking AD care. For both PCPs and AD specialists, the subjective norm had the strongest effect on KAs' attitudes toward care seeking (β = 0.557 for PCPs, β = 0.360 for specialists). Effects of stigma beliefs disappeared in the presence of the subjective norm. AD knowledge moderated the impact of the subjective norm on the attitudes toward both PCPs (β = -1.653) and specialists (β = -1.742). The significance of the subjective norm in KAs' attitudes toward AD care-seeking underscores the importance of public education, and our study suggests that increasing AD knowledge could facilitate a change in public attitudes toward seeking AD care.

  17. Effect of Masking on Subjective Responses to Daily Disposable Contact Lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keir, Nancy; Luensmann, Doerte; Woods, Craig A; Bergenske, Peter; Fahmy, Mary; Fonn, Desmond

    2016-08-01

    To explore the effect of masking on subjective responses when wearing daily disposable (DD) contact lenses. In an adaptation phase, habitual wearers of Manufacturer-A (MFA) (n = 43) and Manufacturer-B (MFB) (n = 53) wore MFA-brand 1 or MFB-brand 1 DDs, respectively, for 30 days, open-label. Subjects were then randomly assigned to one of two experiments. Each experiment included two, 3-day crossover phases. An enhanced version of MFA and MFB lenses (MFA-brand 2 and MFB-brand 2) were worn contralaterally to evaluate potential differences in masking result between manufacturers. Experiment 1: subjects were fully masked to lens and packaging (FM) then unmasked (UM). Experiment 2: subjects were FM then partially masked using an over-label (PM). Comfort ratings (0-100) were recorded for each lens daily and preference between lenses was recorded on day 3 for each crossover phase. The mean difference between 0-100 ratings or preference when FM or PM versus UM for the same lens was considered a measurement of the effect associated with masking. The purpose of the study was withheld from subjects to minimize bias. The effect associated with masking for habitual wearers of MFA and MFB lenses was less than 1 out of 100 (0 ± 2.5) in both experiments. Fifty-eight subjects (60%) expressed no preference when FM. This decreased to 29 (30%) when UM or PM (proportion test, p lenses used in this study but did have an impact on lens preference. Subjects were more likely to express a preference when they handled the lenses and were exposed to the lens packaging and, in some cases, able to read the lens brand and lens manufacturer.

  18. Anti-cancer effects of Ajwa dates (Phoenix dactylifera L.) in diethylnitrosamine induced hepatocellular carcinoma in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fazal; Khan, Tariq Jamal; Kalamegam, Gauthaman; Pushparaj, Peter Natesan; Chaudhary, Adeel; Abuzenadah, Adel; Kumosani, Taha; Barbour, Elie; Al-Qahtani, Mohammed

    2017-08-22

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for major cancer-related deaths despite current advanced therapies. Treatment and prognosis of HCC is better in patients with preserved liver function. Many natural products including ajwa dates (Phoenix dactylifera L.), are claimed to have hepatoprotective and HCC inhibitory effects, but most lack scientific validation. To prove our hypothesis, we attempted to evaluate the HCC inhibitory effects, and other beneficial properties of the aqueous extract of ajwa dates (ADE) in a rat model of diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced liver cancer. Thirty-two male rats were divided into four groups of eight each as follows, Group A: untreated control; Group B: DEN control (180 mg/kg bw), Group C: DEN + ADE 0.5 g/kg bw; and Group D: DEN +1.0 g/kg bw. Rats from all groups were assessed for liver cancer progression or inhibition by evaluating histological, biochemical, antioxidant enzyme status, cytokines and gene expression profiles. DEN treatment Groups (B, C, D) showed histological features of HCC and in rats treated with ADE (Groups C, D) partial to complete reversal of normal liver architecture was observed. Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), glutatione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) were increased, while the liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels and lipid peroxidation were significantly decreased in Group C and Group D compared to Group B. Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β,, GM-CSF) were increased in the serum of rats in Group B while the anti-tumor cytokines (IL-2, IL-12) were increased in ADE treated Groups (C, D). In addition, Alpha-Feto Protein (AFP) and IL-6 gene expression levels were upregulated in Group B, while they were significantly downregulated in ADE treated Groups (C, D). ADE helped in the reversal of DEN damaged liver towards normal. Restoration of anti

  19. Tc Generator Development: Up-to-Date Tc Recovery Technologies for Increasing the Effectiveness of Mo Utilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van So Le

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A review on the Mo sources available today and on the Tc generators developed up to date for increasing the effectiveness of Mo utilisation is performed in the format of detailed description of the features and technical performance of the technological groups of the Mo production and Tc recovery. The latest results of the endeavour in this field are also surveyed in regard of the technical solution for overcoming the shortage of Mo supply. The technological topics are grouped and discussed in a way to reflect the similarity in the technological process of each group. The following groups are included in this review which are high specific activity Mo: the current issues of production, the efforts of more effective utilisation, and the high specific activity Mo-based Tc generator and Tc concentration units; low specific activity Mo: the Mo production based on neutron capture and accelerators and the direct production of Tc and the methods of increasing the specific activity of Mo using Szilard-Chalmers reaction and high electric power isotopic separator; up-to-date technologies of Tc recovery from low specific activity Mo: the solvent extraction-based Tc generator, the sublimation methods for Mo/Tc separation, the electrochemical method for Tc recovery, and the column chromatographic methods for Tc recovery. Besides the traditional Tc-generator systems, the integrated Tc generator systems (Tc generator column combined with postelution purification/concentration unit are discussed with the format of process diagram and picture of real generator systems. These systems are the technetium selective sorbent column-based generators, the high Mo-loading capacity column-based integrated Tc generator systems which include the saline-eluted generator systems, and the nonsaline aqueous and organic solvent eluent-eluted generator systems using high Mo-loading capacity molybdategel and recently developed sorbent columns. Tc concentration methods used in the

  20. Dopamine D3 receptor-preferring agonist enhances the subjective effects of cocaine in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Thomas F.; Haile, Colin N.; Mahoney, James J.; Shah, Ravi; Verrico, Christopher D.; De La Garza, Richard; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Pramipexole is a D3 dopamine receptor-preferring agonist indicated for the treatment of Parkinson disease. Studies associate pramipexole with pathological gambling and impulse control disorders suggesting a role for D3 receptors in reinforcement processes. Clinical studies showed pramipexole decreased cocaine craving and reversed central deficits in individuals with cocaine use disorder. Preclinical studies have shown acute administration of pramipexole increases cocaine’s reinforcing effects whereas other reports suggest chronic pramipexole produces tolerance to cocaine. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study we examined the impact of pramipexole treatment on the subjective effects produced by cocaine in volunteers with cocaine use disorder. Volunteers received pramipexole titrated up to 3.0 mg/d or placebo over 15 days. Participants then received intravenous cocaine (0, 20 and 40 mg) on day 15. Cardiovascular and subjective effects were obtained with visual analog scales at time points across the session. Pramipexole alone increased peak heart rate following saline and diastolic blood pressure following cocaine. Pramipexole produced upwards of two-fold increases in positive subjective effects ratings following cocaine. These results indicate that chronic D3 receptor activation increases the subjective effects of cocaine in humans. Caution should be used when prescribing pramipexole to patients that may also use cocaine. PMID:26239766

  1. Effect of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) on coronary flow in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikura, Fuminobu; Beppu, Shintaro; Ueda, Hiroaki; Nehra, Ajay; Khandheria, Bijoy K

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) on coronary function in normal subjects. The study assessed mean blood pressure, left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) flow, and echocardiographic variables before and 30 and 60 minutes after taking 50 mg of sildenafil citrate. The mean velocity of LAD flow was assessed with Doppler flow imaging. The study subjects were 6 healthy male volunteers (mean age 37 years). The mean velocity of LAD flow increased 60 minutes after taking sildenafil citrate, but there were no other changes. Two volunteers felt mild flashing and one had mild headache during the study. Sildenafil citrate caused vasodilatation in a normal coronary artery without systemic pressure drops. These results suggest that the agent itself did not have negative effects on the heart in normal subjects.

  2. Interaction between mode of learning and subjective experience: translation effects in long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackie, James M; Brandt, Karen R; Eysenck, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that writing auditorily presented words at encoding involves distinctive translation processes between visual and auditory domains, leading to the formation of distinctive memory traces at retrieval. This translation effect leads to higher levels of recognition than the writing of visually presented words, a non-translation effect. The present research investigated whether writing and the other translation effect of vocalisation (vocalising visually presented words) would be present in tests of recall, recognition memory and whether these effects are based on the subjective experience of remembering or knowing. Experiment 1 found a translation effect in the auditory domain in recall, as the translation effect of writing yielded higher recall than both non-translation effects of vocalisation and silently hearing. Experiment 2 found a translation effect in the visual domain in recognition, as the translation effect of vocalisation yielded higher recognition than both non-translation effects of writing and silently reading. This translation effect was attributable to the subjective experience of remembering rather than knowing. The present research therefore demonstrates the beneficial effect of translation in both recall and recognition, with the effect of vocalisation in recognition being based on rich episodic remembering.

  3. The effects of posture and subject-to-subject variations on the position, shape and volume of abdominal and thoracic organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beillas, Philippe; Lafon, Yoann; Smith, Francis W

    2009-11-01

    In this study, the thorax and the abdomen of nine subjects were imaged in four postures using a positional MRI scanner. The four postures were seated, standing, forward-flexed and supine. They were selected to represent car occupants, pedestrians, cyclists and a typical position for medical imaging, respectively. Geometrical models of key anatomical structures were registered from the imaging dataset using a custom registration toolbox. The analysis of the images and models allowed the quantification of the respective effects of posture and subject-to-subject variation on the position, shape and volume of the abdominal organs, skeletal components and thoracic cavity. In summary, except for the supine posture, the organ volumes and their positions in the spinal frame were mostly unaffected by the posture. The supine posture was associated with a motion of all solid organs of up to 39 mm (interpostural maximum for the liver, n=9), and a reduction of the thoracic cavity volume of up to 1300 cm3. Subject-to-subject variations were especially large for the volume of the spleen (variations between 120 and 400 cm3) and the position of the kidneys. As a result, subject-to-subject variations were larger than most postural effects. Other results include values of parameters that can help positioning human models such as positions, volumes and inertial properties of organs as well as skeletal parameters. Overall, this study suggests that subject-to-subject variations and the use of supine geometrical data can be problematic for finite element modeling of the abdomen for injury prediction.

  4. A variant in ANKK1 modulates acute subjective effects of cocaine: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellicy, Catherine J.; Harding, Mark J.; Hamon, Sara C.; Mahoney, James J.; Reyes, Jennifer A.; Kosten, Thomas R.; Newton, Thomas F.; De La Garza, Richard; Nielsen, David A.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether functional variants in the ankyrin repeat and kinase domain-containing 1 gene (ANKK1) and/or the dopamine receptor D2 gene (DRD2) modulate the subjective effects (reward or non-reward response to a stimulus) produced by cocaine administration. Cocaine-dependent participants (N = 47) were administered 40 mg of cocaine or placebo at time 0, and a subjective effects questionnaire (visual analog scale) was administered 15 minutes prior to cocaine administration, and at 5, 10,15, and 20 minutes following administration. The influence of polymorphisms in the ANKK1 and DRD2 genes on subjective experience of cocaine in the laboratory was tested. Participants with a T allele of ANKK1 rs1800497 experienced greater subjective ‘high’ (p = 0.00006), ‘any drug effect’ (p = 0.0003), and ‘like’ (p = 0.0004) relative to the CC genotype group. Although the variant in the DRD2 gene was shown to be associated with subjective effects, LD analysis revealed this association was driven by the ANKK1 rs1800497 variant. A participant’s ANKK1 genotype may identify individuals who are likely to experience greater positive subjective effects following cocaine exposure, including greater ‘high’ and ‘like’, and these individuals may have increased vulnerability to continue using cocaine or they may be at greater risk to relapse during periods of abstinence. However, these results are preliminary and replication is necessary to confirm these findings. PMID:24528631

  5. Effects of energy restriction on acute adrenoceptor and metabolic responses to exercise in obese subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, K.P.G.; Saris, W.H.M.; Senden, J.M.G.; Menheere, P.P.C.A.; Blaak, E.E.; van Baak, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of energy restriction on acute adrenoceptor and metabolic responses to exercise in obese subjects. Kempen KP, Saris WH, Senden JM, Menheere PP, Blaak EE, van Baak MA. Department of Human Biology, University of Limburg, Maastricht, The Netherlands. This study was intended to investigate the

  6. The Effectiveness of a Peer-Helping Programme That Increases Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryilmaz, Ali

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the effectiveness of a peer-helping programme in increasing the subjective well-being of a group of university students compared with a control group with the same characteristics who did not receive the intervention. The intervention recipients consisted of 13 male and 17 female participants. The peer helpers…

  7. Comparison of Nonoverlap Methods for Identifying Treatment Effect in Single-Subject Experimental Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakap, Salih; Snyder, Patricia; Pasia, Cathleen

    2014-01-01

    Debate is occurring about which result interpretation aides focused on examining the experimental effect should be used in single-subject experimental research. In this study, we examined seven nonoverlap methods and compared results using each method to judgments of two visual analysts. The data sources for the present study were 36 studies…

  8. Investigation of gyroscopic effects in vibrating fluid-filled cylinders subjected to axial rotation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shatalov, MY

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available of the theory of gyroscopic effects in distributed structures. The model of a thick vibrating cylinder filled with a fluid and subjected to inertial rotation is analyzed. The dynamics of the cylinder is considered in terms of linear elasticity and the fluid...

  9. Effect of fish oil on cognitive performance in older subjects: a randomized, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Rest, O.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Kok, F. J.; van Staveren, W.A.; Dullemeijer, C.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Beekman, A.T.F.; de Groot, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: High intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may protect against age-related cognitive decline. However, results from epidemiologic studies are inconclusive, and results from randomized trials in elderly subjects without dementia are lacking. Objective: To investigate the effect of

  10. The Effects of Objective Career Success on Subsequent Subjective Career Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, Stephen A.; Tymon, Walter G., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    We use a sample of working adults (N = 638) to explore the effects of past objective career success (mobility, promotions, and salary change) on current subjective success (human capital assessments by one's managers, core self evaluations, satisfaction with one's career) by gender, across an economic cycle (2004-2011), controlling for career…

  11. Effects of air pollutants on the carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rate of human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bako-Biro, Zsolt; Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David

    2004-01-01

    Several laboratory studies have shown the negative effects of emissions from typical indoor pollution sources on perceived air quality, SBS symptoms and the performance of office work. The subjects performed typical office tasks at their own pace while they were exposed for several hours...

  12. Mothers Caring for an Adult Child with Schizophrenia: The Effects of Subjective Burden on Maternal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jan Steven; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined long-term effects that burdens associated with coping with mental illness have on parental health. Data from 81 mothers of adult children with schizophrenia revealed that subjective burdens associated with stigma and worries were related to lower levels of physical well-being among the mothers. (Author/NB)

  13. Does instruction of “Integers” subject with cartoons effect students’ mathematics anxiety?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Şengül, Sare; Dereli, Mehtap

    2010-01-01

    ... at www.sciencedirect.com WCES-2010 Does instruction of “Integers” subject with cartoons effect students’ mathematics anxiety? Sare �engül a *, Mehtap Dereli b a Atatürk...

  14. Effect of fish oil on cognitive performance in older subjects: a randomized, controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rest, O van de; Geleijnse, J.M.; Kok, F.J.; Staveren, W.A. van; Dullemeijer, C.; Olderikkert, M.G.; Beekman, A.T.; Groot, CP de

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may protect against age-related cognitive decline. However, results from epidemiologic studies are inconclusive, and results from randomized trials in elderly subjects without dementia are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of

  15. The Effect of Students' Subject Discipline on Their m-Learning Application Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delialioglu, Ömer; Alioon, Yasaman

    2016-01-01

    The effect of students' subject discipline on their preferences toward m-learning applications was investigated by using a mixed-method research design. A questionnaire on students' preferences of m-learning application features was used to collect data from 181 undergraduate students. One-way analysis of variance found a significant difference…

  16. EFFECT OF ECCENTRIC EXERCISE PROGRAMME ON PAIN AND GRIP STRENGTH FOR SUBJECTS WITH MEDIAL EPICONDYLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Prashant Akhilesh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Therapeutic eccentric exercise may provide both a structural and functional benefit during tendinopathy rehabilitation. The objective is to find the effect of eccentric exercises on improvement of pain and grip strength for subjects with Medial Epicondylitis. Method: Pre to post test experimental study design randomized thirty subjects with medial epicondylitis, 15 each into Group A and Group B. Group B subjects were treated with conventional therapy and Eccentric exercises. Group A subjects were treated with conventional therapy. Results: When means of post intervention were compared using Independent ‘t’ between groups there was no statistically significant difference in improvements obtained in VAS scores and grip strength. There was a statistically significant change in means of VAS score and Grip strength when means were analyzed by using Paired‘t’ test and Wilcoxon signed rank test within the groups with positive percentage of change. Conclusion: It is concluded that four weeks of Eccentric Exercise Programme combined with conventional therapy shown significant effect on improving pain and Grip strength, however the improvement obtained has no difference when compared with control conventional treatment for Subjects with Medial Epicondylitis.

  17. Effect of Topography Degradation on Crater Size-Frequency Distributions: Implications for Populations of Small Craters and Age Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Minggang; Zhu, Meng-Hua; Xiao, Zhiyong; Wu, Yunzhao; Xu, Aoao

    2017-10-01

    Whether or not background secondary craters dominate populations of small impact craters on terrestrial bodies is a half-century controversy. It has been suggested that small craters on some planetary bodies are dominated by background secondary craters based partly on the steepened slope of crater size-frequency distribution (CSFD) toward small diameters, such as the less than 1 km diameter crater population on the lunar mare. Here we show that topography degradation enlarges craters and increases CSFD slopes with time. When topography degradation is taken into account, for various-aged crater populations, the observed steep CSFD at small diameters is uniformly consistent with an originally shallower CSFD, whose slope is undifferentiated from the CSFD slope estimated from near-Earth objects and terrestrial bolides. The results show that the effect of topography degradation on CSFD is important in dating planetary surfaces, and the steepening of CSFD slopes is not necessarily caused by secondary cratering, but rather a natural consequence of topography degradation.

  18. Effect of kinesiotaping, non-elastic taping and bracing on segmental foot kinematics during drop landing in healthy subjects and subjects with chronic ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuni, B; Mussler, J; Kalkum, E; Schmitt, H; Wolf, S I

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the effects of kinesiotape, non-elastic tape, and soft brace on segmental foot kinematics during drop landing in subjects with chronic ankle instability and healthy subjects. Controlled study with repeated measurements. Three-dimensional motion analysis laboratory. Twenty participants with chronic ankle instability and 20 healthy subjects. The subjects performed drop landings with 17 retroreflective markers on the foot and lower leg in four conditions: barefoot, with kinesiotape, with non-elastic tape and with a soft brace. Ranges of motion of foot segments using a foot measurement method. In participants with chronic ankle instability, midfoot movement in the frontal plane (inclination of the medial arch) was reduced significantly by non-elastic taping, but kinesiotaping and bracing had no effect. In healthy subjects, both non-elastic taping and bracing reduced that movement. In both groups, non-elastic taping and bracing reduced rearfoot excursion in inversion/eversion significantly, which indicates a stabilisation effect. No such effect was found with kinesiotaping. All three methods reduced maximum plantar flexion significantly. Non-elastic taping stabilised the midfoot best in patients with chronic ankle instability, while kinesiotaping did not influence foot kinematics other than to stabilise the rearfoot in the sagittal plane. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01810471. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 5 CFR 890.806 - When can former spouses change enrollment or reenroll and what are the effective dates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... satisfactory proof of eligibility within 60 days after the date of divorce, the enrollment may be made... an employing office determines that a former spouse was unable, for cause beyond his or her control...

  20. The effect of voluntarily ingested buprenorphine on rats subjected to surgically induced global cerebral ischaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliokoski, Otto Henrik; Abelson, Klas; Koch, Janne

    2010-01-01

    The effect of perioperatively administered buprenorphine analgesia on rats subjected to surgically induced global ischaemia was assessed. Rats supplied with buprenorphine, mixed in nut paste for voluntary ingestion, displayed significant reductions in postoperative excretions of faecal...... in buprenorphine-treated and untreated animals. A part from a slightly higher hyperthermia immediately after surgery and typical opiate-associated behaviour, the buprenorphine treatment had no apparent adverse effects on the experimental model. In contrast, the analgesic treatment improved the model by minimizing...

  1. THE EFFECT OF FRIENDSHIP SKILLS TRAINING ON FRIENDSHIP QUALITY AND SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING OF ADOLESCENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Çekiç; Aykut Kul; Ayşenur Çetin; Ümmügülsüm Cihangiroğlu

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effects of friendship skills training on the quality of friendship and subjective well-being of adolescents. In order to determine the experimental and control groups, the Friendship Quality Scale and the Adolescent Subjective Well-Being Scale were administered to 311 students in 9th, 10th and 11th grade classes from a state school in İskenderun in Hatay during the 2015-2016 education year. As a result, 21 students who had lower than average scores were included...

  2. EFFECTIVENESS OF MEDIAL TO LATERAL TAPING WITH EXERCISE PROGRAMME IN SUBJECTS WITH LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavana Dattaram Desai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medial to lateral tapping and exercise programme has been found to be effective in Lateral epicondylitis. The purpose to find the combined effect of Medial to lateral tapping with exercise programme for subjects with lateral epicondylitis on pain intensity and functional ability. Method: An experimental study design, selected 40 subjects with Lateral epicondylitis randomized 20 subjects each into Study and Control group. Control group received only exercise programme while study group received combined medial to lateral tapping with exercise programme thrice a week for 4 weeks. Pain intensity was measured using Visual analogue scale and functional ability was measured using Patient Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation questionnaire before and after 4 weeks of treatment. Results: When the post-intervention means were compared between Study and Control group after 4 weeks of treatment found statistically significant difference in the improvement in outcomes measures in means of VAS and PRTEE before and after intervention within the groups. Conclusion: It is concluded that the Medial to lateral tapping with exercise programme is more effective than the exercise programme in reduction of pain and improve functional abilities for subjects with Lateral epicondylitis.

  3. The Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Biochemical Parameters in Healthy Thai Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongsara, Sara; Boonpol, Sakulrat; Prompalad, Nussaree; Jeenduang, Nutjaree

    2017-09-01

    Although, the effect of Ramadan fasting on the risks for Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) has been reported in several studies, the results were inconsistent. In addition, the effect of Ramadan fasting on biochemical parameters in Thai subjects has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Ramadan fasting on anthropometry, blood pressure, Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG), lipid profiles, and body composition in healthy Thai subjects. A total of 65 healthy subjects (21 men and 44 women) aged between 19-24 years were randomly recruited. Anthropometry, blood pressure, FBG, Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (HDL-C), Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (LDL-C), and body composition were measured before Ramadan, end of Ramadan and after one month of Ramadan. There were no changes in anthropometry, blood pressure, lipid profiles and body composition in both genders before Ramadan, end of Ramadan and after one month of Ramadan. Nevertheless, FBG levels were significantly increased after one month of Ramadan compared with baseline (5.09±0.50 versus 4.83±0.38 mmol/L, p=0.016, respectively) in women. The Ramadan fasting did not affect the lipid, anthropometric and body composition in healthy Thai subjects. However, the increased FBG levels after one month of Ramadan were observed in women. To improve the favourable biochemical parameters after Ramadan fasting, the lifestyle modifications such as, increased intake of healthy diets and increased physical activity should be recommended.

  4. Effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on mood in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Moulier

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: High frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC has shown significant efficiency in the treatment of resistant depression. However in healthy subjects, the effects of rTMS remain unclear. Objective: Our aim was to determine the impact of 10 sessions of rTMS applied to the DLPFC on mood and emotion recognition in healthy subjects. Design: In a randomised double-blind study, 20 subjects received 10 daily sessions of active (10 Hz frequency or sham rTMS. The TMS coil was positioned on the left DLPFC through neuronavigation. Several dimensions of mood and emotion processing were assessed at baseline and after rTMS with clinical scales, visual analogue scales (VASs, and the Ekman 60 faces test. Results: The 10 rTMS sessions targeting the DLPFC were well tolerated. No significant difference was found between the active group and the control group for clinical scales and the Ekman 60 faces test. Compared to the control group, the active rTMS group presented a significant improvement in their adaptation to daily life, which was assessed through VAS. Conclusion: This study did not show any deleterious effect on mood and emotion recognition of 10 sessions of rTMS applied on the DLPFC in healthy subjects. This study also suggested a positive effect of rTMS on quality of life.

  5. Inhaled vs. oral alprazolam: subjective, behavioral and cognitive effects, and modestly increased abuse potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissig, Chad J; Harrison, Joseph A; Carter, Lawrence P; Griffiths, Roland R

    2015-03-01

    Infrahuman and human studies suggest that a determinant of the abuse potential of a drug is rate of onset of subjective effects. This study sought to determine if the rate of onset of subjective effects and abuse potential of alprazolam would be increased when administered via inhalation vs. the oral route. Placebo, inhaled alprazolam (0.5, 1, and 2 mg), and oral alprazolam (1, 2, and 4 mg) were administered under double-blind, double-dummy conditions using a crossover design in 14 healthy participants with histories of drug abuse. Participant and observer ratings and behavioral and cognitive performance measures were assessed repeatedly during 9-h sessions. Both routes of administration produced orderly dose and time-related effects, with higher doses producing greater and longer-lasting effects. Onset of subjective effects following inhaled alprazolam was very rapid (e.g., 2 vs. 49 min after 2 mg inhaled vs. oral). On measures of abuse potential (e.g., liking and good effects), inhaled alprazolam was more potent, as evidenced by a leftward shift in the dose-response curve. Despite the potency difference, at the highest doses, peak ratings of subjective effects related to abuse potential (e.g., "drug liking") were similar across the two routes. On other measures (e.g., sedation and performance), the routes were equipotent. The inhaled route of administration modestly increased the abuse potential of alprazolam despite significantly increasing its rate of onset. If marketed, the reduced availability and increased cost of inhaled alprazolam may render the societal risk of increased abuse to be low.

  6. Subjective Report of Side Effects of Prescribed and Nonprescribed Psychostimulant Use in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tess E; Martel, Michelle M; DeSantis, Alan D

    2017-03-21

    Side effects of prescribed and nonprescribed psychostimulant use are understudied. The study examined side effects of prescribed and nonprescribed psychostimulant use in a college sample with attention to possible gender differences. 2716 undergraduates (1448 male) between the ages of 17 and 57 years (M = 19.43 years, SD = 1.7 years) completed an online survey that included questions about the subjective side effects of prescribed and nonprescribed psychostimulant use. Results suggested that prescribed users more frequently reported side effects, compared to nonprescribed users. For prescribed users, females more frequently reported appetite, somatic, and anxiety-related side effects compared to males. For nonprescribed users, while females reported more somatic and anxiety-related side effects, males more frequently reported loss of sex drive and sweating as side effects. Conclusions/Importance: These findings suggest prescribed users of psychostimulants more frequently report side effects with prominent gender differences in line with gender roles.

  7. Effects of a very low-fat, vegan diet in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, John; Bruce, Bonnie; Spiller, Gene; Westerdahl, John; McDougall, Mary

    2002-02-01

    To demonstrate the effects of a very low-fat, vegan diet on patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Single-blind dietary intervention study. SUBJECTS AND STUDY INTERVENTIONS: This study evaluated the influence of a 4-week, very low-fat (approximately 10%), vegan diet on 24 free-living subjects with RA, average age, 56 +/- 11 years old. Prestudy and poststudy assessment of RA symptomatology was performed by a rheumatologist blind to the study design. Biochemical measures and 4-day diet data were also collected. Subjects met weekly for diet instruction, compliance monitoring, and progress assessments. There were significant (p 0.05). Weight also decreased significantly (p 0.05), RA factor decreased 10% (ns, p > 0.05), while erythrocyte sedimentation rate was unchanged (p > 0.05). This study showed that patients with moderate-to-severe RA, who switch to a very low-fat, vegan diet can experience significant reductions in RA symptoms.

  8. Effects of varied doses of psilocybin on time interval reproduction in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackermann, Jirí; Wittmann, Marc; Hasler, Felix; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2008-04-11

    Action of a hallucinogenic substance, psilocybin, on internal time representation was investigated in two double-blind, placebo-controlled studies: Experiment 1 with 12 subjects and graded doses, and Experiment 2 with 9 subjects and a very low dose. The task consisted in repeated reproductions of time intervals in the range from 1.5 to 5s. The effects were assessed by parameter kappa of the 'dual klepsydra' model of internal time representation, fitted to individual response data and intra-individually normalized with respect to initial values. The estimates kappa were in the same order of magnitude as in earlier studies. In both experiments, kappa was significantly increased by psilocybin at 90 min from the drug intake, indicating a higher loss rate of the internal duration representation. These findings are tentatively linked to qualitative alterations of subjective time in altered states of consciousness.

  9. Sex differences in the subjective effects of oral Δ9-THC in cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Jessica S; Kelly, Thomas H; Westgate, Philip M; Lile, Joshua A

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that there are sex differences in endocannabinoid function and the response to exogenous cannabinoids, though data from clinical studies comparing acute cannabinoid effects in men and women under controlled laboratory conditions are limited. To further explore these potential differences, data from 30 cannabis users (N=18 M, 12 F) who completed previous Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) discrimination studies were combined for this retrospective analysis. In each study, subjects learned to discriminate between oral Δ9-THC and placebo and then received a range of Δ9-THC doses (0, 5, 15 and a "high" dose of either 25 or 30mg). Responses on a drug-discrimination task, subjective effects questionnaire, psychomotor performance tasks, and physiological measures were assessed. Δ9-THC dose-dependently increased drug-appropriate responding, ratings on "positive" Visual Analog Scale (VAS) items (e.g., good effects, like drug, take again), and items related to intoxication (e.g., high, stoned). Δ9-THC also dose-dependently impaired performance on psychomotor tasks and elevated heart rate. Sex differences on VAS items emerged as a function of dose. Women exhibited significantly greater subjective responses to oral drug administration than men at the 5mg Δ9-THC dose, whereas men were more sensitive to the subjective effects of the 15mg dose of Δ9-THC than women. These results demonstrate dose-dependent separation in the subjective response to oral Δ9-THC administration by sex, which might contribute to the differential development of problematic cannabis use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of date palm coproducts and annatto extract on lipid oxidation and microbial quality in a pork liver pâté.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sánchez, A M; Ciro-Gómez, G L; Zapata-Montoya, J E; Vilella-Esplá, J; Pérez-Álvarez, J A; Sayas-Barberá, E

    2014-11-01

    Dates are an interesting source of bioactive compounds, and coproducts from the date industry are of potential use in the manufacturing of meat products. In the present research, spreadable pork liver pâtés were made using fresh date coproducts (2.5% and 7.5%) as a potential functional ingredient and an ethanolic annatto extract (128 mg/kg) as colorant. The effect of these 2 ingredients on the lipid oxidation and microbial quality of the pâtés was assessed during 21 d of storage. The pâtés containing 7.5% date paste were seen to have the highest content of phenolic compounds during storage. The combination of 2.5% date paste and annatto protected pâtés against lipid oxidation throughout the 21 d of storage, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances values being 0.47 mg MDA/kg at the end of this period, while other combinations increased oxidation compared to the control pâté. The control and those made with 2.5% date paste alone showed the highest counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria, while the addition of annatto and/or 7.5% date paste reduced this count. The results suggest that a combination of both ingredients is necessary to reduce oxidation and microbial growth, but whereas the concentration of 2.5% is more appropriate to reduce oxidation, the combination with 7.5% date paste reduces the microbial counts. Both ingredients could have an opportunity of valorization in the meat industry for improving the quality. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Effect of triclosan on the subgingival microbiota of periodontitis-susceptible subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosling, B; Dahlén, G; Volpe, A; Furuichi, Y; Ramberg, P; Lindhe, J

    1997-12-01

    The present study evaluated the long-term effect of (i) meticulous self-performed, supragingival plaque control and (ii) the use of a triclosan/copolymer containing dentifrice in adult subjects susceptible to destructive periodontitis. 40 individuals were recruited into the trial. 3-5 years prior to the baseline examination, they had all been treated by nonsurgical means- for advanced periodontal disease. During the subsequent maintenance phase, all subjects had at different time intervals exhibited sites with recurrent periodontitis. At a baseline examination, 6 surfaces per tooth were examined regarding bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth, and probing attachment level. The deepest pocket site in each quadrant (i.e. 4 sites per subject) was selected and samples of the subgingival bacteria were taken. At baseline, all volunteers received detailed information on proper oral hygiene techniques. This information was repeated on an individual need basis during the course of the subsequent 36-months. No professional subgingival therapy was delivered between the baseline and the 36-month examinations. The subjects were randomly distributed into 2 equal groups of 20 individuals each, 1 test and 1 control group. The members of the test group were supplied with a fluoridated dentifrice containing triclosan/copolymer (Total, Colgate), while the controls received a corresponding dentifrice but without triclosan/copolymer. The findings demonstrated that in subjects with advanced and recurrent periodontitis, carefully practiced supragingival plaque control had some effects on the subgingival microbiota, but also that this was insufficient to prevent disease progression. In a corresponding group of subjects, however, who used a triclosan/copolymer dentifrice, the subgingival microbiota was reduced in both quantitative and qualitative terms and recurrent periodontitis was almost entirely prevented.

  12. Comparison of Occlusion Effect in Normal Hearing Subjects via Real Ear Measurement and Audiometric Bing Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meymaneh Jafari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: One of the most common complaints, particularly among patients with normal or near normal low-frequency hearing, is that their voice sounds "hollow". This is associated with "Occlusion effect". The aim of this study was to comparison of occlusion effect in normal hearing subjects via Real Ear Measurement and Audiometric Bing test. Materials and Method: Twenty volunteers with normal hearing (10 male, 10 female, with ages ranging from 18 – 24 years were enrolled in this study. First, audiometric Bing test was performed in frequencies of 250, 500, 750 and 1000 Hz. Then in real ear measurement, subjects were instructed to vocalize /â/ and /i/ for 5 seconds. Probe microphone was recorded the sound pressure in the ear canals. The degrees of occlusion effect unit were obtained for further analysis.Results: The means of occlusion effect were present in all subjects. There was no correlation between the results of audiometric Bing test and real-ear measurement. No significant difference was obtained between genders and monaural or binaural occlusion in real-ear measurement. But in audiometric Bing test, the difference between monaural or binaural occlusion was significant(p<0.05.Conclusion: The peak of occlusion effect varies significantly among hearing aid users, so the hearing aid must be tuned. Probe- microphone measures will assist in determination how much gain is enough, and where frequency- specific adjustments are needed.

  13. A review of safety, side-effects and subjective reactions to intranasal oxytocin in human research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Elayne; Dadds, Mark R; Brennan, John L; Williams, Katrina; Levy, Florence; Cauchi, Avril J

    2011-09-01

    Human research investigating the impact of intranasal oxytocin on psychological processes has accelerated over the last two decades. No review of side effects, subjective reactions and safety is available. A systematic review of 38 randomised controlled trials conducted between 1990 and 2010 that investigated the central effects of intranasal oxytocin was undertaken. A systematic search for reports of adverse reactions involving intranasal oxytocin was also completed. Since 1990, research trials have reported on N=1529 (79% male) of which 8% were participants with developmental or mental health difficulties. Dosages ranged from 18 to 40 IU, mainly in single doses but ranged up to 182 administrations. Diverse methods have been used to screen and exclude participants, monitor side effects and subject reactions. Side effects are not different between oxytocin and placebo and participants are unable to accurately report on whether they have received oxytocin and placebo. Three case reports of adverse reactions due to misuse and longer-term use of intranasal oxytocin were reported. The evidence shows that intranasal oxytocin: (1) produces no detectable subjective changes in recipients, (2) produces no reliable side-effects, and (3) is not associated with adverse outcomes when delivered in doses of 18-40 IU for short term use in controlled research settings. Future research directions should include a focus on the dosage and duration of use, and application with younger age groups, vulnerable populations, and with females. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Date Rape (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breath? Talking to Your Parents - or Other Adults Date Rape KidsHealth > For Teens > Date Rape Print A ... Yourself Getting Help Reporting a Rape What Is Date Rape? When people think of rape , they might ...

  15. Naltrexone Maintenance Decreases Cannabis Self-Administration and Subjective Effects in Daily Cannabis Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Margaret; Ramesh, Divya; Glass, Andrew; Pavlicova, Martina; Bedi, Gillinder; Cooper, Ziva D

    2015-01-01

    Given that cannabis use is increasing in the United States, pharmacological treatment options to treat cannabis use disorder are needed. Opioid antagonists modulate cannabinoid effects and may offer a potential approach to reducing cannabis use. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled human laboratory study, we assessed the effects of naltrexone maintenance on the reinforcing, subjective, psychomotor, and cardiovascular effects of active and inactive cannabis. Nontreatment-seeking, daily cannabis smokers were randomized to receive naltrexone (50 mg: n=18 M and 5 F) or placebo (0 mg; n=26 M and 2 F) capsules for 16 days. Before, during, and after medication maintenance, participants completed 10 laboratory sessions over 4–6 weeks, assessing cannabis' behavioral and cardiovascular effects. Medication compliance was verified by observed capsule administration, plasma naltrexone, and urinary riboflavin. Relative to placebo, maintenance on naltrexone significantly reduced both active cannabis self-administration and its positive subjective effects (‘good effect'). Participants in the placebo group had 7.6 times (95% CI: 1.1–51.8) the odds of self-administering active cannabis compared with the naltrexone group. This attenuation of reinforcing and positive subjective effects also influenced cannabis use in the natural ecology. Naltrexone had intrinsic effects: decreasing ratings of friendliness, food intake, and systolic blood pressure, and increasing spontaneous reports of stomach upset and headache, yet dropout rates were comparable between groups. In summary, we show for the first time that maintenance on naltrexone decreased cannabis self-administration and ratings of ‘good effect' in nontreatment-seeking daily cannabis smokers. Clinical studies in patients motivated to reduce their cannabis use are warranted to evaluate naltrexone's efficacy as a treatment for cannabis use disorder. PMID:25881117

  16. Effect of Sweetened Dried Cranberry Consumption on Urinary Proteome and Fecal Microbiome in Healthy Human Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekiares, Nell; Krueger, Christian G; Meudt, Jennifer J; Shanmuganayagam, Dhanansayan; Reed, Jess D

    2018-02-01

    The relationship among diet, human health, and disease is an area of growing interest in biomarker research. Previous studies suggest that the consumption of cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) could beneficially influence urinary and digestive health. The present study sought to determine if daily consumption of sweetened dried cranberries (SDC) changes the urinary proteome and fecal microbiome, as determined in a prospective sample of 10 healthy individuals. Baseline urine and fecal samples were collected from the subjects in the fasted (8-12 h) state. The subjects then consumed one serving (42 g) of SDC daily with lunch for 2 weeks. Urine and fecal samples were collected again the day after 2 weeks of SDC consumption. Orbitrap Q-Exactive mass spectrometry of urinary proteins showed that consumption of SDC resulted in changes to 22 urinary proteins. Multiplex sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA genes in fecal samples indicated changes in relative abundance of several bacterial taxonomic units after consumption of SDC. There was a shift in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio, increases in commensal bacteria, and decreases or the absence of bacteria associated with negative health effects. A decrease in uromodulin in all subjects and an increase in Akkermansia bacteria in most subjects were observed and warrant further investigation. Future larger clinical studies with multiomics and multitissue sampling designs are required to determine the effects of SDC consumption on nutrition and health.

  17. LONG TERM EFFECT OF CYRIAX PHYSIOTHERPY WITH SUPERVISED EXERCISE PROGRAM IN SUBJECTS WITH TENNIS ELBOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Shridhar Thakare

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose is to find long term effect of Cyriax physiotherapy with supervised exercise program in the reduction of pain and improvement of functional ability for subjects with tennis elbow. Method: An experimental study design, 30 subjects with Tennis Elbow randomized 15 subjects each into Study and Control group. Control group received Supervised Exercise program while Study group received Cyriax Physiotherapy with Supervised exercises program thrice in a week for 4 weeks and post intervention follow up after 2 weeks. Outcome measurements were measured for pain using Visual analogue Scale (VAS and Patient Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE for functional ability. Results: There is no statistically significant difference in pre- intervention means of VAS and PRTEE when compared between the groups using independent ‘t’ test as a parametric and Mann Whitney U test as a non-parametric test. When means of post intervention and follow-up measurements were compared there is a statistically significant (p<0.05 difference in VAS and PRTEE scores between the groups. However greater percentage of improvements was obtained in study group than control group. Conclusion: It is concluded that there is significant long term effect with greater percentage of improvement in pain and functional ability up to 2 weeks follow-up following 4 weeks of combined Cyriax physiotherapy with supervised exercise program than only supervised exercise program for subjects with tennis elbow.

  18. Acute differential effects of dietary protein quality on postprandial lipemia in obese non-diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmer-Jensen, Jens; Mortensen, Lene S; Astrup, Arne; de Vrese, Michael; Holst, Jens J; Thomsen, Claus; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2013-01-01

    Non-fasting triglyceridemia is much closer associated to cardiovascular risk compared to fasting triglyceridemia. We hypothesized that there would be acute differential effects of four common dietary proteins (cod protein, whey isolate, gluten, and casein) on postprandial lipemia in obese non-diabetic subjects. To test the hypothesis we conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study with crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins i.e. cod protein, whey protein, gluten or casein. Eleven obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, body mass index: 30.3-42.0 kg/m(2)) participated and blood samples were drawn in the 8-h postprandial period. Supplementation of a fat rich mixed meal with whey protein caused lower postprandial lipemia (P = .048) compared to supplementation with cod protein and gluten. This was primarily due to lower triglyceride concentration in the chylomicron rich fraction (P = .0293). Thus, we have demonstrated acute differential effects on postprandial metabolism of four dietary proteins supplemented to a fat rich mixed meal in obese non-diabetic subjects. Supplementation with whey protein caused lower postprandial lipemia compared to supplementation with cod and gluten. As postprandial lipemia is closely correlated to cardiovascular disease, long-term dietary supplementation with whey protein may prove beneficial in preventing cardiovascular disease in obese non-diabetic subjects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Essence of Conscious Conflict: Subjective Effects of Sustaining Incompatible Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsella, Ezequiel; Gray, Jeremy R.; Krieger, Stephen C.; Bargh, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Conflict constitutes one of the fundamental ‘tuggings and pullings’ of the human experience. Yet, the link between the various kinds of conflict in the nervous system and subjective experience remains unexplained. We tested a hypothesis that predicts why both the ‘hot’ conflicts involving self-control and motivation, and the ‘cooler’ response conflicts of the laboratory, lead to changes in subjective experience. From this standpoint, these changes arise automatically from the activation of incompatible skeletomotor intentions, because the primary function of consciousness is to integrate such intentions for adaptive skeletal muscle output. Accordingly, we demonstrated for the first time that merely sustaining incompatible intentions (to move right and left) in a motionless state produces stronger subjective effects than sustaining compatible intentions. The results held equally strongly for two different effector systems involving skeletal muscle: arm movements and finger movements. In contrast, no such effects were found with conflict in a smooth muscle effector system. Together, these findings illuminate aspects of the nature of subjective experience and the role of incompatible intentions in affect and failures of self-control. PMID:19803593

  20. Comparative Effects of Methylphenidate, Modafinil, and MDMA on Response Inhibition Neural Networks in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, André; Müller, Felix; Dolder, Patrick C; Schmid, Yasmin; Zanchi, Davide; Liechti, Matthias E; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2017-09-01

    Psychostimulants such as methylphenidate and modafinil are increasingly used by healthy people for cognitive enhancement purposes, whereas the acute effect of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy) on cognitive functioning in healthy subjects remains unclear. This study directly compared the acute effects of methylphenidate, modafinil, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on the neural mechanisms underlying response inhibition in healthy subjects. Using a double-blind, within-subject, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, methylphenidate, modafinil, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine were administrated to 21 healthy subjects while performing a go/no-go event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging task to assess brain activation during motor response inhibition. Relative to placebo, methylphenidate and modafinil but not 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine improved inhibitory performance. Methylphenidate significantly increased activation in the right middle frontal gyrus, middle/superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, presupplementary motor area, and anterior cingulate cortex compared with placebo. Methylphenidate also induced significantly higher activation in the anterior cingulate cortex and presupplementary motor area and relative to modafinil. Relative to placebo, modafinil significantly increased activation in the right middle frontal gyrus and superior/inferior parietal lobule, while 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine significantly increased activation in the right middle/inferior frontal gyrus and superior parietal lobule. Direct comparison of methylphenidate, modafinil, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine revealed broad recruitment of fronto-parietal regions but specific effects of methylphenidate on middle/superior temporal gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex, and presupplementary motor area activation, suggesting dissociable modulations of response inhibition networks and potentially the superiority of methylphenidate in the

  1. Therapeutic satisfaction and subjective effects of different strains of pharmaceutical-grade cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Tibor M; van Genugten, Marianne; Höner-Snoeken, Kathrin; van de Velde, Marco J; Niesink, Raymond J M

    2014-06-01

    In The Netherlands, pharmaceutical-grade cultivated cannabis is distributed for medicinal purposes as commissioned by the Ministry of Health. Few studies have thus far described its therapeutic efficacy or subjective (adverse) effects in patients. The aims of this study are to assess the therapeutic satisfaction within a group of patients using prescribed pharmaceutical-grade cannabis and to compare the subjective effects among the available strains with special focus on their delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol content. In a cross-sectional and natural design, users of pharmaceutical-grade cannabis were investigated with questionnaires. Medical background of the patients was asked as well as experienced therapeutic effects and characteristics of cannabis use. Subjective effects were measured with psychometric scales and used to compare among the strains of cannabis used across this group of patients. One hundred two patients were included; their average age was 53 years and 76% used it for more than a year preceding this study. Chronic pain (53%; n = 54) was the most common medical indication for using cannabis followed by multiple sclerosis (23%; n = 23), and 86% (n = 88) of patients (almost) always experienced therapeutic satisfaction when using pharmaceutical cannabis. Dejection, anxiety, and appetite stimulation were found to differ among the 3 strains of cannabis. These results show that patients report therapeutic satisfaction with pharmaceutical cannabis, mainly pain alleviation. Some subjective effects were found to differ among the available strains of cannabis, which is discussed in relation to their different tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol content. These results may aid in further research and critical appraisal for medicinally prescribed cannabis products.

  2. Hypoglycemic effect of Lupinus mutabilis in healthy volunteers and subjects with dysglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasini, M; Castro, J; Villacrés, E; Narváez, L; Villamar, M P; Baldeón, M E

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome and type-2 diabetes are increasing health problems that negatively affect health care systems worldwide. There is a constant urge to develop new therapies with better effects, lower side effects at lower prices to treat these diseases. Lupinus species and their derivates are good candidates to be used as hypoglycaemic agents. A phase II clinical trial was conducted to assess the role of raw Lupinus mutabilis on blood glucose and insulin in normoglycemic and dysglycemic subjects. Results show that consumption of L. mutabilis by normal weight healthy young individuals did not change importantly blood glucose and insulin levels. On the other hand, consumption of similar doses of lupinus by dysglycemic individuals (fasting glucose > 100 mg/dL) decreased significantly blood glucose. Lupinus effects were greater in those subjects with higher basal glucose levels. Glucose lowering effects of lupinus were not observed after soy intake that was used as control. A statistically significant reduction in insulin levels was also observed in the lupinus group compared with the soy group after 60 minutes of treatment. Furthermore, only treatment with lupinus improved insulin resistance in dysglycemic subjects. These data demonstrate that lupinus consumption could be a feasible and low cost alternative to treat chronic hyperglycemic diseases.

  3. 19 CFR 351.701 - Applicability dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability dates. 351.701 Section 351.701... DUTIES Applicability Dates § 351.701 Applicability dates. The regulations contained in this part 351... governed by the regulations in effect on the date the petitions were filed or requests were made for those...

  4. Emotional Stroop task: effect of word arousal and subject anxiety on emotional interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresler, Thomas; Mériau, Katja; Heekeren, Hauke R; van der Meer, Elke

    2009-05-01

    Inconsistent findings regarding the emotional Stroop effect in healthy subjects may be explained by confounding effects of stimulus valence and arousal, as well as individual differences in anxiety. We examined reaction time data in a healthy sample using the emotional Stroop task while carefully matching arousal level of positive and negative words. Independent of valence, emotional relative to neutral words elicited emotional interference, indicating that arousal determines emotional interference. Independent of valence, emotional words were better re-called and recognized than neutral words. Individual differences in state anxiety were associated with emotional interference, that is, emotional interference was enhanced in subjects with high state anxiety. There was no influence of trait anxiety. These findings indicate that word arousal produces emotional interference independent of valence. State anxiety exacerbates interference of emotional words by further biasing attention towards emotionally salient stimuli.

  5. Effect of cigarette smoking on subgingival bacteria in healthy subjects and patients with chronic periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Karasneh, Jumana,; Al Habashneh, Rola ,; Marzouka, Nour Aldain,; Thornhill, Martin,

    2016-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking is known to increase the risk of periodontal destruction and developing chronic periodontitis (CP). It is also reported to affect the subgingival bacterial profile among CP patients. However, studies on the effect of smoking on the bacterial profile among healthy subjects are still limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of smoking on the subgingival bacterial profile in both healthy adults and CP patients. Methods Subgingival plaqu...

  6. Frataxin mRNA Isoforms in FRDA Patients and Normal Subjects: Effect of Tocotrienol Supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    Provvidenza Maria Abruzzo; Marina Marini; Alessandra Bolotta; Gemma Malisardi; Stefano Manfredini; Alessandro Ghezzo; Antonella Pini; Gianluca Tasco; Rita Casadio

    2013-01-01

    Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is caused by deficient expression of the mitochondrial protein frataxin involved in the formation of iron-sulphur complexes and by consequent oxidative stress. We analysed low-dose tocotrienol supplementation effects on the expression of the three splice variant isoforms (FXN-1, FXN-2, and FXN-3) in mononuclear blood cells of FRDA patients and healthy subjects. In FRDA patients, tocotrienol leads to a specific and significant increase of FXN-3 expression while not a...

  7. Effects of radiation emitted by WCDMA mobile phones on electromagnetic hypersensitive subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Min Kyung; Choi, Joon Yul; Kim, Sung Kean; Yoo, Tae Keun; Kim, Deok Won

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background With the use of the third generation (3 G) mobile phones on the rise, social concerns have arisen concerning the possible health effects of radio frequency-electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) emitted by wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) mobile phones in humans. The number of people with self-reported electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS), who complain of various subjective symptoms such as headache, dizziness and fatigue, has also increased. However, the origins...

  8. EFFECTS OF NEURAL MOBILIZATION IN POSTERIOR MYOFASCIAL CHAIN FLEXIBILITY IN NORMAL SUBJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Stuti Sharma; Shiv Kumar Verma; Vaibhav Agarwal

    2015-01-01

    Aims and objectives: The aim of this research is to see the effectiveness of neural mobilization on posterior myofascial chain flexibility. Methodology: Samples of 70 subjects were recruited for the study. Pre mobilization readings for finger floor distance, tibiotarsal angle and finger floor grades were taken for each individual, after whom slump mobilization was given and post mobilization readings were again taken in the same sequence after mobilization. Results: Both finger floor di...

  9. EFFECTIVENESS OF INSTUMENTAL ASSISTED SOFT TISSUE MOBILIZATION TECHNIQUE WITH STATIC STRETCHING IN SUBJECTS WITH PLANTAR FASCIITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Babu. K

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Instrumental assisted soft tissue mobilization and static stretching found to be effective in plantar fasciitis, however the combined effectiveness of these techniques were unknown. The purpose of this study is to find the effect of Instrumental assisted soft tissue mobilization technique for plantar fascia combined with static stretching of triceps surae for subjects with chronic stage of Plantar Fasciitis on pain intensity, ankle dorsiflexion range of motion and functional disability. Methods: An experimental study design, selected subjects with chronic Plantar Fasciitis randomized subjects into each Study and Control group. Total of 40 subject’s data who completed study, 20 in each group, was used for analysis. Control group received conventional exercise while Study group received conventional exercises with Instrumental assisted soft tissue mobilization combined with static stretching of triceps surae muscle. Outcome measurements such as Intensity of pain using Numerical Pain Rating Scale-101 (NPRS-101, function disability using Foot Function Index Pain Subscale (FFI and ankle dorsiflexion active range of motion using Goniometer was measured before and after 2 weeks of intervention. Results: There is statistically significant improvement in means of NRS-101, ankle dorsiflexion active range of motion and Foot Function Index Pain Subscale after intervention in both groups. When the post-intervention means were compared between Study and Control group after 2 weeks of treatment there is statistically significant difference in means between the groups whereas study group showed greater percentage of improvement than control group. Conclusion: It is concluded that Instrumental assisted soft tissue mobilization technique combined with static stretching of triceps surae muscle is significantly effective than conventional exercises on reducing pain, improving ankle dorsiflexion range of motion and functional disability for subjects

  10. The effect of Group Hope Therapy on subjective wellbeing, acceptance and rumination in HIV+ patients

    OpenAIRE

    Roghayeh Ataie Moghanloo; Vahid Ataie Moghanloo; Jalil Babapour -Kheiroddin; Hamid Poursharifi; Maliheh Pishvaei

    2014-01-01

    Background: Women and men afflicted with HIV bear specific physical, mental and social problems. The aim of this research was to determine the effects of group hope therapy on subjective wellbeing, acceptance and rumination in HIV+ patients. Methods: The present study was a randomized clinical trial research with a pretest-posttest and control group. The study population included all the people infected with AIDS virus (HIV+) who referred to counseling and treatment center of behavioral di...

  11. Interactive effects of music tempi and intensities on grip strength and subjective affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorghis, C I; Cheek, P; Simpson, S D; Bigliassi, M

    2018-03-01

    Pretask music is widely used by athletes albeit there is scant empirical evidence to support its use. The present study extended a line of work into pretask music by examining the interactive effects of music tempo and intensity (volume) on the performance of a simple motor skill and subjective affect. A 2 × 2 within-subjects factorial design was employed with an additional no-music control, the scores from which were used as a covariate. A sample of 52 male athletes (M age  = 26.1 ± 4.8 years) was exposed to five conditions: fast/loud (126 bpm/80 dBA), fast/quiet (126 bpm/70 dBA), slow/loud (87 bpm/80 dBA), slow/quiet (87 bpm/70 dBA) music, and a no-music control. Dependent variables were grip strength, measured with a handgrip dynamometer, and subjective affect, assessed by use of the Affect Grid. The tempo and intensity components of music had interactive effects for grip strength but only main effects for subjective affect. Fast-tempo music played at a high intensity yielded the highest grip strength, while fast-tempo music played at a low-intensity resulted in much lower grip strength (M diff.  = -1.11 Force kg). For affective valence, there were main effects of tempo and intensity, with fast and loud music yielding the highest scores. For affective arousal, there was no difference between tempi although there was between intensities, with the high-intensity condition yielding higher scores. The present findings indicate the utility of fast/loud pretask music in enhancing affective valence and arousal in preparation for a simple or gross motor task. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on fibrin and thrombin generation in healthy subjects and subjects with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Bradley J; Morel-Kopp, Marie-Christine; Tofler, Geoffrey H; Ward, Christopher M

    2015-04-01

    Hypercoagulability plays a key role in the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake has been inversely related to the risk of cardiovascular events, the mechanisms are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of omega-3 on novel markers of global coagulation. The generation of fibrin and thrombin, measured via overall hemostasis potential (OHP) assay and calibrated automated thrombography, respectively, was determined in 40 healthy subjects and 16 patients with CVD at baseline and after 4 weeks of 640 mg/day omega-3 PUFA. In healthy subjects, fibrin generation was significantly reduced, as measured by overall coagulation potential (p = 0.013), OHP (p omega-3 PUFA significantly reduced OHP and significantly increased the lag time to thrombin generation (both p omega-3 PUFA had no effect on other fibrin and thrombin generation parameters in CVD patients. Four-week omega-3 PUFA supplementation reduced thrombotic potential in healthy subjects, as shown by reduced fibrin generation and peak thrombin. There was a greater effect on fibrin generation in healthy subjects compared with those with CVD. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  13. Internalizing and externalizing personality and subjective effects in a sample of adolescent cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, Sara; Matalí, Josep Lluís; Martín-Fernández, María; Pardo, Marta; Lleras, Maria; Castellano-Tejedor, Carmina; Haro, Josep Maria

    2016-10-06

    Cannabis is the illicit substance most widely used by adolescents. Certain personality traits such as impulsivity and sensation seeking, and the subjective effects experienced after substance use (e.g. euphoria or relaxation) have been identified as some of the main etiological factors of consumption. This study aims to categorize a sample of adolescent cannabis users based on their most dominant personality traits (internalizing and externalizing profile). Then, to make a comparison of both profiles considering a set of variables related to consumption, clinical severity and subjective effects experienced. From a cross-sectional design, 173 adolescents (104 men and 69 women) aged 13 to 18 asking for treatment for cannabis use disorder in an Addictive Behavior Unit (UCAD) from the hospital were recruited. For the assessment, an ad hoc protocol was employed to register consumption, the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) and the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI) 49-item short form were also administered. Factor analysis suggested a two-profile solution: Introverted, Inhibited, Doleful, Dramatizing (-), Egotistic (-), Self-demeaning and Borderline tendency scales composed the internalizing profile, and Submissive (-), Unruly, Forceful, Conforming (-) and Oppositional scales composed the externalizing profile. The comparative analysis showed that the internalizing profile has higher levels of clinical severity and more subjective effects reported than the externalizing profile. These results suggest the need to design specific intervention strategies for each profile.

  14. Acute effects of LSD on amygdala activity during processing of fearful stimuli in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, F; Lenz, C; Dolder, P C; Harder, S; Schmid, Y; Lang, U E; Liechti, M E; Borgwardt, S

    2017-01-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) induces profound changes in various mental domains, including perception, self-awareness and emotions. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the acute effects of LSD on the neural substrate of emotional processing in humans. Using a double-blind, randomised, cross-over study design, placebo or 100 μg LSD were orally administered to 20 healthy subjects before the fMRI scan, taking into account the subjective and pharmacological peak effects of LSD. The plasma levels of LSD were determined immediately before and after the scan. The study (including the a priori-defined study end point) was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov before study start (NCT02308969). The administration of LSD reduced reactivity of the left amygdala and the right medial prefrontal cortex relative to placebo during the presentation of fearful faces (PLSD-induced amygdala response to fearful stimuli and the LSD-induced subjective drug effects (PLSD modulates the engagement of brain regions that mediate emotional processing. PMID:28375205

  15. Effects of Curcuma longa (turmeric) on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous animal studies have shown that Curcuma (C.) longa lowers plasma glucose. C. longa may thus be a promising ingredient in functional foods aimed at preventing type 2 diabetes. The purpose of the study is to study the effect of C. longa on postprandial plasma glucose, insulin levels and glycemic index (GI) in healthy subjects. Methods Fourteen healthy subjects were assessed in a crossover trial. A standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered together with capsules containing a placebo or C. longa. Finger-prick capillary and venous blood samples were collected before, and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after the start of the OGTT to measure the glucose and insulin levels, respectively. Results The ingestion of 6 g C. longa had no significant effect on the glucose response. The change in insulin was significantly higher 30 min (P = 0.03) and 60 min (P = 0.041) after the OGTT including C. longa. The insulin AUCs were also significantly higher after the ingestion of C. longa, 15 (P = 0.048), 30 (P = 0.035), 90 (P = 0.03), and 120 (P = 0.02) minutes after the OGTT. Conclusions The ingestion of 6 g C. longa increased postprandial serum insulin levels, but did not seem to affect plasma glucose levels or GI, in healthy subjects. The results indicate that C. longa may have an effect on insulin secretion. Trial registration number NCT01029327 PMID:20937162

  16. Effects of Curcuma longa (turmeric on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingemansson Sandra

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous animal studies have shown that Curcuma (C. longa lowers plasma glucose. C. longa may thus be a promising ingredient in functional foods aimed at preventing type 2 diabetes. The purpose of the study is to study the effect of C. longa on postprandial plasma glucose, insulin levels and glycemic index (GI in healthy subjects. Methods Fourteen healthy subjects were assessed in a crossover trial. A standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was administered together with capsules containing a placebo or C. longa. Finger-prick capillary and venous blood samples were collected before, and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after the start of the OGTT to measure the glucose and insulin levels, respectively. Results The ingestion of 6 g C. longa had no significant effect on the glucose response. The change in insulin was significantly higher 30 min (P = 0.03 and 60 min (P = 0.041 after the OGTT including C. longa. The insulin AUCs were also significantly higher after the ingestion of C. longa, 15 (P = 0.048, 30 (P = 0.035, 90 (P = 0.03, and 120 (P = 0.02 minutes after the OGTT. Conclusions The ingestion of 6 g C. longa increased postprandial serum insulin levels, but did not seem to affect plasma glucose levels or GI, in healthy subjects. The results indicate that C. longa may have an effect on insulin secretion. Trial registration number NCT01029327

  17. Pattern of use and subjective effects of Salvia divinorum among recreational users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Débora; Riba, Jordi; Bouso, José Carlos; Gómez-Jarabo, Gregorio; Barbanoj, Manel J

    2006-11-08

    Salvia divinorum is a member of the Lamiaceae family and contains the psychotropic diterpene and kappa-opioid receptor agonist salvinorin-A. Originally a shamanic inebriant used by the Mexican Mazatec Indians, the plant and its preparations are becoming increasingly popular among non-traditional users. Demographic data and information on pattern of use and subjective effects were obtained by means of self-report questionnaires from a sample of 32 recreational users of salvia and other psychedelics. Involvement with salvia appeared to be a recent phenomenon. Smoking the extract was the preferred form of administration. Subjective effects were described as intense but short-lived, appearing in less than 1 min and lasting 15 min or less. They included psychedelic-like changes in visual perception, mood and somatic sensations, and importantly, a highly modified perception of external reality and the self, leading to a decreased ability to interact with oneself or with one's surroundings. Although some aspects of the subjective effects reported were similar to high doses of classical psychedelics with serotonin-2A receptor agonist activity, the intense derealization and impairment reported appear to be a characteristic of salvia. The observed simultaneous high scores on the LSD and PCAG subscales of the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI) have been previously reported for other kappa-opioid agonists, and support kappa receptor activation as the probable pharmacologic mechanism underlying the modified state of awareness induced by salvia.

  18. Acute effects of LSD on amygdala activity during processing of fearful stimuli in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, F; Lenz, C; Dolder, P C; Harder, S; Schmid, Y; Lang, U E; Liechti, M E; Borgwardt, S

    2017-04-04

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) induces profound changes in various mental domains, including perception, self-awareness and emotions. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the acute effects of LSD on the neural substrate of emotional processing in humans. Using a double-blind, randomised, cross-over study design, placebo or 100 μg LSD were orally administered to 20 healthy subjects before the fMRI scan, taking into account the subjective and pharmacological peak effects of LSD. The plasma levels of LSD were determined immediately before and after the scan. The study (including the a priori-defined study end point) was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov before study start (NCT02308969). The administration of LSD reduced reactivity of the left amygdala and the right medial prefrontal cortex relative to placebo during the presentation of fearful faces (PLSD-induced amygdala response to fearful stimuli and the LSD-induced subjective drug effects (PLSD modulates the engagement of brain regions that mediate emotional processing.

  19. Effect of tone-based sound stimulation on balance performance of normal subjects: preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnacco, Guido; Klotzek, Adam S; Carrick, Frederick R; Wright, Cameron H G; Oggero, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Sound is known to affect the human brain, hence sound or music therapy is sometimes used to improve a subject's physicaland mental health. In this study, the effects sound stimulation has on balance were investigated by means of computerizeddynamic posturography tests performed with eyes closed on an unstable surface using a CAPS® system, exceeding theInternational Society for Posture and Gait Research (ISPGR) recommended metrological performance standards. Subjectswere tested without listening to any music (baseline), listening to “pure music”, and listening to the same music with differenttones embedded into it (one for each key). We found that different subjects react differently to different tones. Music alonedid not have a statistically significant effect on balance compared to the baseline, but the “best” tone significantly improvedbalance compared to the baseline or the “pure music” conditions. Furthermore, the “worst” tone reduced the balancecompared to “pure music”, but the reduction was not statistically significant relative to the baseline. The results thereforeindicate that, at least relative to balance performance, the tone-based sound stimulation we investigated is effective andinherently safe, but that tone selection depends on the individual subject.

  20. [Effect of frequency compression in hearing aids on speech intelligibility and subjective sound quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifholz, M; Margolf-Hackl, S; Kreikemeier, S; Kiessling, J

    2013-04-01

    The acceptance of hearing aids by users with high frequency hearing loss still represents a problem. Processing algorithms that shift high frequency signal components into an audible frequency range are proposed as a solution. We looked into the issue of whether frequency compression becomes more beneficial with increasing high frequency hearing loss or/and for users with cochlear dead regions (DR). A total of 20 hearing aid candidates were assessed audiometrically and classified into two test groups in terms of their hearing loss and the presence of DR. The subjects then evaluated four hearing aid settings that differed solely in the degree of frequency compression. Speech recognition threshold measurements and subjective sound quality ratings were carried out for all four settings. Data showed that 15 of the 20 test subjects understood fricatives with a high frequency spectrum component better, since they were able to distinguish between the two logatomes "Afa" and "Asa". No correlation was found between the beneficial effect of frequency compression and the degree of high frequency hearing loss or the presence of DR. Subjective sound quality ratings indicated no clear preference, but excessive frequency compression was generally deemed counterproductive. Frequency compression may be appropriate for hearing aid users with high frequency hearing loss and can improve speech recognition. The degree of frequency compression required to achieve maximal benefit varies from case to case and has to be optimized on an individual basis.

  1. Effective Inclusion of e-Learning in a Subject of Physics Experiments: Introductory Electronics Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, T.; Abe, K.; Yamazaki, N.; Ooe, A.; Igarashi, K.; Hayashi, S.; Suzuki, M.

    2010-07-01

    A Web-based e-Learning homework system was introduced in the undergraduate subject of the introductory electronics experiment; "Introductory Electronics Laboratory". This homework is appended to practical trainings and face-to-face guidance in the laboratory (blended-type e-Learning). The e-Learning is mainly prepared to teach basic electronics and to guide necessary apparatus before the practical training. The overall impression about this subject in students' questionnaires has improved from 3.5 for 2005/2006 (e-Learning not introduced) to 3.9 2007/2008 (e-Learning introduced) (5 for good, 3 for average, and 1 for bad). Students understanding of the experiments has also improved from 3.43 for 2005/2006 to 3.45 for 2007/2008 (5, 4, 3, 2 for S, A, B, C grade). This subject is compulsory for all second-year students in our department (˜120 students). The e-Learning system in our case is considered to be effective especially for required subjects of experiments and large classes.

  2. Effects of instructions and cue subjectiveness on specificity of autobiographical memory recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge J. Ricarte-Trives

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The first aim of this study was to determine the power of instructions on the specificity of autobiographical memory as obtained with the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986 and the efficacy of cue word criteria selection based on subjective parameters obtained with a standardized lexical program. Results showed a high power of specific instructions in its written version in contrast to non-directed memory recall to the same list of words three weeks later in a counterbalanced repeated measures within-subjects design. This effect was stronger when subjects previously were faced to the non-specific recovery task. Matched word lists using the "Buscapalabras" program (Davis & Perea, 2005 showed a very similar behaviour. These results point out that the same stimuli can be used repeatedly to obtain voluntary and involuntary retrieval with changes at instructional level. Additionally, standardized lexical programs can be employed to adapt cue-words of memory recall systems controlling for subjective differences related to language parameters (frequency, imageability and familiarity.

  3. The Effects of Dating Violence, Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior among a Diverse Sample of Illinois Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, Binta; Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H.; Crown, Laurel; Gibbons, Maya A.; Vines, Linda N.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between dating violence, forced sexual intercourse (FSI), and four measures of sexual risk taking (i.e., age at first sex, number of recent (within the last three months) sex partners, alcohol/drug use at last sex, and condom use at last sex) among a sample of 1124 ethnically diverse sexually active adolescents…

  4. The effects of possible contamination on the radiocarbon dating of the Dead Sea Scrolls I : Castor oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasmussen, KL; van der Plicht, J; Cryer, FH; Doudna, G; Cross, FM; Strugnell, J; Rasmussen, Kaare L.; Cryer, Frederick H.; Cross, Frank M.

    2001-01-01

    Some fragments of the Dead Sea Scroll manuscripts were contaminated with castor oil in the late 1950s. We have conducted experiments in order to establish if the AAA pretreatment cleaning procedures conducted on Dead Sea Scroll manuscript samples in the last two dating series (Bonani et al. 1992;

  5. Dating of rock art and the effect of human activity on vegetation: The complementary use of archaeological and scientific methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelle, Kari Loe; Lødøen, Trond Klungseth

    2017-07-01

    One of the main aims of Scandinavian rock art research in recent years has been to identify the culture or society responsible for the imagery. This is of mutual importance, as studies of material culture can shed light on the rock art, while the iconography can be used to understand the contemporary material remains. A major challenge however, has been to determine the exact age of the images, as there are no direct dating materials. In order to overcome this challenge archaeological excavations and palynological analyses have been carried out at Vingen in Western Norway, one of Scandinavia's largest rock art areas. The archaeological and palynological data achieved, as well as loss-on-ignition are independent means for the dating of human activity. Since these methods provided similar results, an indirect connection to the rock art production activity may be inferred. Dates from archaeological contexts indicate a peak of activity between 6900 and 6300 cal. BP, with a potential start 7350 cal. BP and a culmination 6100 cal. BP. Palynological data from three different types of basins have documented forest disturbance in the same time period. Local vegetation reconstructions using the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm has proved useful to identify anthropogenic-induced land cover changes in the Mesolithic period and a marked reforestation at the transition to the Neolithic period. The applied methods have helped to considerably improve our understanding of past activity and the environment, and demonstrates the potential of archaeological excavations and palynological studies for dating of rock art.

  6. Meeting expectations: The effects of expectations on self-esteem following the construction of a dating profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, Dian A.

    2016-01-01

    Online daters may be aware that online chat can extend their opportunities for making a desirable impression on potential dates in comparison to meeting a potential partner face-to-face. This anticipation of a subsequent interaction may already impact the impression individuals expect to make

  7. Effect of salicylic acid on phenolic compounds related to date palm resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. albedinis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dihazi

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid (SA plays a key role in establishing resistance to pathogens in many plants. To study the possible involvement of SA in the resistance of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (FOA, we investigated levels of phenolic compounds, known as indicators of resistance in the date palm/ Fusarium pathosystem. After treatment with SA the content of root soluble phenolics in F. oxysporum inoculated date palm seedlings was about 4 times higher in cv. Bousthami noir and 6 times higher in cv. Jihel than that in untreated plants showing disease symptoms. The largest increase was at a SA concentration of 50 µM. SA treatment also enhanced the content of cell wall phenolics. In addition, inoculation of SA-treated roots of date palm with FOA (strain ZAG resulted in a greater number of plants showing only limited hypersensitive reaction-like necrotic lesions. In contrast, SA-untreated plants normally showed spreading necrosis in response to fungus inoculation.

  8. The Effects of Childhood Exposure to Marital Violence on Adolescent Gender-Role Beliefs and Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichter, Erika L.; McCloskey, Laura A.

    2004-01-01

    Children exposed to marital violence in childhood are at risk for engaging in dating violence as adolescents or young adults. Using a longitudinal prospective design, mother--child pairs from violent and nonviolent homes (N = 208) were interviewed about exposure to marital violence twice over a 7--9 year time span. Responses to questions about…

  9. 40 CFR 51.917 - What is the effective date of designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area? 51.917 Section 51.917 Protection of... Air Quality Standard § 51.917 What is the effective date of designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area? The Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area (designated on September 17...

  10. 17 CFR 171.41 - Petition for a stay of effective date of a member responsibility action pending a hearing by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... its action in accordance with the applicable rules of the association. If the petition for a stay is... a hearing under the appropriate rules of the association, to make the suspension, restriction or... effective date of a member responsibility action pending a hearing by the National Futures Association. 171...

  11. 17 CFR 171.43 - Petition for a stay of the effective date of a final decision of the National Futures Association...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... effective date of a final decision of the National Futures Association in a member responsibility action. 171.43 Section 171.43 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES RELATING TO REVIEW OF NATIONAL FUTURES ASSOCIATION DECISIONS IN DISCIPLINARY, MEMBERSHIP DENIAL...

  12. 31 CFR 30.17 - Q-17: How do the effective date provisions apply with respect to the requirements under section...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Q-17: How do the effective date provisions apply with respect to the requirements under section 111 of EESA? 30.17 Section 30.17 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TARP STANDARDS FOR COMPENSATION AND CORPORATE...

  13. Effects of caffeine on alcohol reinforcement: beverage choice, self-administration, and subjective ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Mary M; Meredith, Steven E; Evatt, Daniel P; Griffiths, Roland R

    2017-03-01

    Combining alcohol and caffeine is associated with increased alcohol consumption, but no prospective experimental studies have examined whether added caffeine increases alcohol consumption. This study examined how caffeine alters alcohol self-administration and subjective reinforcing effects in healthy adults. Thirty-one participants completed six double-blind alcohol self-administration sessions: three sessions with alcohol only (e.g., beverage A) and three sessions with alcohol and caffeine (e.g., beverage B). Participants chose which beverage to consume on a subsequent session (e.g., beverage A or B). The effects of caffeine on overall beverage choice, number of self-administered drinks, subjective ratings (e.g., Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale), and psychomotor performance were examined. A majority of participants (65%) chose to drink the alcohol beverage containing caffeine on their final self-administration session. Caffeine did not increase the number of self-administered drinks. Caffeine significantly increased stimulant effects, decreased sedative effects, and attenuated decreases in psychomotor performance attributable to alcohol. Relative to nonchoosers, caffeine choosers reported overall lower stimulant ratings and reported greater drinking behavior prior to the study. Although caffeine did not increase the number of self-administered drinks, most participants chose the alcohol beverage containing caffeine. Given the differences in subjective ratings and pre-existing differences in self-reported alcohol consumption for caffeine choosers and nonchoosers, these data suggest that decreased stimulant effects of alcohol and heavier self-reported drinking may predict subsequent choice of combined caffeine and alcohol beverages. These predictors may identify individuals who would benefit from efforts to reduce risk behaviors associated with combining alcohol and caffeine.

  14. Effects of Mirtogenol® on ocular blood flow and intraocular hypertension in asymptomatic subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigerwalt, Robert D.; Gianni, Belcaro; Paolo, Morazzoni; Bombardelli, Ezio; Burki, Carolina

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The most important variable risk factor for developing glaucoma is intraocular hypertension. Timely lowering of high intraocular pressure (IOP) significantly lowers the likelihood of developing glaucoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the food supplement Mirtogenol® (Mirtoselect® and Pycnogenol®) on IOP and ocular blood flow in a product evaluation study. Methods Thirty-eight asymptomatic subjects with intraocular hypertension were either given Mirtogenol® (20 subjects) or were not treated (18 subjects). The visual acuity, IOP, and ocular blood flow were measured at two, three, and six months. Results After two months of supplementation with Mirtogenol®, the mean IOP decreased from a baseline of 25.2 mmHg to 22.2 mmHg. After three months of treatment with Mirtogenol®, the IOP was significantly lowered compared to that of untreated controls (p<0.05) to 22.0 mmHg. No further improvement was found after six months. Nineteen of the twenty patients taking Mirtogenol had a decreased IOP after three months. Only marginal effects on the IOP were found in the 18 control subjects. No side effects were observed. Ocular blood flow (central retinal, ophthalmic, and posterior ciliary arteries) improved both in the systolic and diastolic components as measured by Color Doppler imaging. After three months of treatment, the improvement of ocular blood flow was significant as compared to both baseline and control group (p<0.05). Conclusions An improved ocular blood flow may contribute to the prevention of glaucoma. The results of this study indicate that Mirtogenol® may represent a safe preventative intervention for lowering the risk for developing symptomatic glaucoma by controlling IOP and improving ocular blood flow. PMID:18618008

  15. Differential effects of visual feedback on subjective visual vertical accuracy and precision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bjasch

    Full Text Available The brain constructs an internal estimate of the gravitational vertical by integrating multiple sensory signals. In darkness, systematic head-roll dependent errors in verticality estimates, as measured by the subjective visual vertical (SVV, occur. We hypothesized that visual feedback after each trial results in increased accuracy, as physiological adjustment errors (A-/E-effect are likely based on central computational mechanisms and investigated whether such improvements were related to adaptational shifts of perceived vertical or to a higher cognitive strategy. We asked 12 healthy human subjects to adjust a luminous arrow to vertical in various head-roll positions (0 to 120deg right-ear down, 15deg steps. After each adjustment visual feedback was provided (lights on, display of previous adjustment and of an earth-vertical cross. Control trials consisted of SVV adjustments without feedback. At head-roll angles with the largest A-effect (90, 105, and 120deg, errors were reduced significantly (p0.05 influenced. In seven subjects an additional session with two consecutive blocks (first with, then without visual feedback was completed at 90, 105 and 120deg head-roll. In these positions the error-reduction by the previous visual feedback block remained significant over the consecutive 18-24 min (post-feedback block, i.e., was still significantly (p<0.002 different from the control trials. Eleven out of 12 subjects reported having consciously added a bias to their perceived vertical based on visual feedback in order to minimize errors. We conclude that improvements of SVV accuracy by visual feedback, which remained effective after removal of feedback for ≥18 min, rather resulted from a cognitive strategy than by adapting the internal estimate of the gravitational vertical. The mechanisms behind the SVV therefore, remained stable, which is also supported by the fact that SVV precision - depending mostly on otolith input - was not affected by visual

  16. Effect of Xerostomia on the Functional Capacity of Subjects with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins E Silva, Marília; Carvalho, Camila Nunes; Carvalho, Alessandra de Albuquerque Tavares; Leão, Jair Carneiro; Duarte, Angela Luzia Pinto; Gueiros, Luiz Alcino

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the intensity of xerostomia and hyposalivation in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as well as the effects of these conditions on functional incapacity and disease activity. The study sample comprised 236 individuals of both sexes who had RA. All the individuals were submitted to clinical evaluation and unstimulated sialometry. Functional capacity was determined by using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), xerostomia was assessed using the Xerostomia Inventory, and disease activity was evaluated with the 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28). The effect of Sjögren syndrome (SS) was analyzed, and the sample was divided into 2 groups: RA (191 subjects) and RA/SS (45 subjects). The Xerostomia Inventory showed positive and significant correlation with fatigue (r = 0.243; p < 0.0001), number of painful joints (r = 0.218; p = 0.001), HAQ (r = 0.279; p < 0.0001), and DAS28 (r = 0.156; p < 0.0001). On regression analysis, both xerostomia (OR 3.89, 95% CI 1.84-8.23, p < 0.001) and DAS28 (for severe disease activity: OR 13.26, 95% CI 3.15-55.79, p < 0.001) showed influence on functional incapacity. Forty-five individuals (19.1%) presented with secondary SS, and having this diagnosis was not associated with disease activity or functional capacity. Xerostomia demonstrated an adverse effect on quality of life of subjects with RA, being associated with a reduction in functional capacity. In this clinical setting, xerostomia can be monitored as a marker of worse clinical evolution.

  17. Seeding Dates and Cultivars Effects on Stink Bugs Population and Damage on Common Bean Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Y G; Gómez, J R; Klingen, I

    2017-12-01

    Fields experiments were conducted during two growing seasons (2010-2011 and 2012-2013) at three seeding dates to identify stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) species and to determine their seasonal population density fluctuation and damage caused to three common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars "Ica Pijao," "Cubacueto 25-9," and "Chévere." Stink bug species observed were Nezara viridula (L.), Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), Chinavia rolstoni (Rolston), Chinavia marginatum (Palisot de Beauvois), and Euschistus sp. The most prevalent species was N. viridula in both seasons. The largest number of stink bugs was found in beans seeded at the first (mid September) and third (beginning of January) seeding dates. Population peaked at BBCH 75 with 1.75, 0.43, and 1.25 stink bugs/10 plants in 2010-2011 and with 2.67, 0.45, and 1.3 stink bugs/10 plants in 2012-2013 in the fields seeded the first, second, and third seeding dates, respectively. The lowest numbers of stink bugs were found in beans seeded at the second (mid November) seeding date. A significant negative correlation between relative humidity and number of stink bugs was found in 2010-2011, and a similar tendency was observed in 2012-2013. The highest seed and pod damage levels occurred in cv. "Chévere" and the lowest in cv. "ICA Pijao" during both seasons. Results suggest that cv. "ICA Pijao" and the second (mid November) seeding date is the best choice to reduce stink bug damage.

  18. The effects of hypnosis on an elite senior European tour golfer: a single-subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pates, John

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a hypnosis intervention on the performance and flow-state experiences of an elite senior European Tour golf professional. The experimental effect was assessed during 11 Senior European Tour golf events. Performance and flow data were analyzed using a single-subject design combined with a procedure to monitor the player's internal experience. The results indicated that the player's mean stroke average and mean flow scores increased from baseline to intervention. There were no overlapping data points between baseline and intervention conditions for both performance and flow-state scores. The qualitative data revealed hypnosis may positively control emotions, thoughts, feelings, and perceptions.

  19. Gratitude mediates the effect of emotional intelligence on subjective well-being: A structural equation modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yuan

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the relationship among emotional intelligence, gratitude, and subjective well-being in a sample of university students. A total of 365 undergraduates completed the emotional intelligence scale, the gratitude questionnaire, and the subjective well-being measures. The results of the structural equation model showed that emotional intelligence is positively associated with gratitude and subjective well-being, that gratitude is positively associated with subjective well-being, and that gratitude partially mediates the positive relationship between emotional intelligence and subjective well-being. Bootstrap test results also revealed that emotional intelligence has a significant indirect effect on subjective well-being through gratitude.

  20. EFFECT OF TURMERIC (CURCUMA LONGA ON OVERWEIGHT HYPERLIPIDEMIC SUBJECTS: DOUBLE BLIND STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lekhani Pashine

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of turmeric (Curcuma longa on serum lipid profile in overweight hyperlipidemic subjects. Methods: This was a double blind randomised control study. The study was conducted in the Department of Medicine, CSM Medical University, Lucknow from July 2010-June 2011. A total of 120 subjects were interviewed using a pre-tested semi-structured schedule whose BMI>25 and total cholesterol>200 mg/dl and/or triglyceride>150 mg/dl, were divided randomly using random number table into 2 groups Group-I (Aquous extract of Turmeric-1.4 gm per day (n=53 and Group-II (Placebo (n=52 for three months. They were given the same color capsules without revealing their identity, with the instructions to take the contents of each pack twice a day before meal for 90 days. Subjects were asked to give their 12 hour fasting blood samples on 0, 30, 60 and 90 day. The paired t-test was used to compare the changes amongst follow-ups and unpaired t-test was used to compare between groups. p-value<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: At the baseline, both the groups were similar in anthropometric and clinical parameters. Treatment group produced significant (p<0.0001 reduction in lipid profiles such as serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol and VLDL- cholesterol in hypercholesteremic group from 0 day to 30, 60 and 90 day of follow-ups. However, there was no significant change in the placebo group. The percentage reduction was higher in the subjects of Turmeric group as compared to Placebo. Conclusion: Aquous extract of Turmeric has shown lipid lowering properties among overweight hyperlipidemic subjects.

  1. [Music therapy in adults with cochlear implants : Effects on music perception and subjective sound quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, E; Grapp, M; Argstatter, H

    2016-12-01

    People with severe hearing impairments and deafness can achieve good speech comprehension using a cochlear implant (CI), although music perception often remains impaired. A novel concept of music therapy for adults with CI was developed and evaluated in this study. This study included 30 adults with a unilateral CI following postlingual deafness. The subjective sound quality of the CI was rated using the hearing implant sound quality index (HISQUI) and musical tests for pitch discrimination, melody recognition and timbre identification were applied. As a control 55 normally hearing persons also completed the musical tests. In comparison to normally hearing subjects CI users showed deficits in the perception of pitch, melody and timbre. Specific effects of therapy were observed in the subjective sound quality of the CI, in pitch discrimination into a high and low pitch range and in timbre identification, while general learning effects were found in melody recognition. Music perception shows deficits in CI users compared to normally hearing persons. After individual music therapy in the rehabilitation process, improvements in this delicate area could be achieved.

  2. Prebiotic Effects of Xylooligosaccharides on the Improvement of Microbiota Balance in Human Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyh-Hsiang Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been indicated that probiotics can be nourished by consuming prebiotics in order to function more efficiently, allowing the bacteria to stay within a healthy balance. In this study, we investigated the effects of xylooligosaccharides- (XOS- enriched rice porridge consumption on the ecosystem in the intestinal tract of human subjects. Twenty healthy subjects participated in this 6-week trial, in which 10 subjects received XOS-enriched rice porridge while the others received placebo rice porridge. Fecal samples were collected at the end of weeks 0, 1, 3, 4, 6, and 7 for microorganism examination. The results showed that 6-week daily ingestion of the XOS-enriched rice porridge induced significant increases in fecal bacterial counts of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp., as well as decreases in Clostridium perfringens without changing the total anaerobic bacterial counts, compared to that of placebo rice porridge. However, fluctuations in the counts of coliforms were observed in both groups during the 6-week intervention. In conclusion, the intestinal microbiota balance was improved after daily consumption of 150 g of rice porridge containing XOS for 6 weeks, demonstrating the prebiotic potential of XOS incorporated into foods. This also indicates the effectiveness of XOS as a functional ingredient in relation to its role as a prebiotic compound.

  3. Personality and the acute subjective effects of d-amphetamine in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Johanson, Chris-Ellyn; de Wit, Harriet

    2013-03-01

    There is evidence that subjective responses to psychoactive drugs are related to personality traits. Here, we extend previous findings by examining personality measures in relation to acute responses to d-amphetamine (AMPH) in a large sample of healthy volunteers. Healthy adults (n=286) completed the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Brief Form (MPQ-BF) and participated in four sessions during which they received oral AMPH (0, 5, 10, 20 mg), under double-blind conditions. Subjective responses to the drug were measured using the Profile of Mood States, Addiction Research Center Inventory, and Drug Effects Questionnaire. Drug responses were reduced via principal components analysis to three higher-order factors ('Euphoria', 'Arousal', 'Dysphoria'). Participants were rank ordered on selected MPQ-BF scales; the top and bottom third on each trait were compared on the drug response factors. High trait physical fearlessness was significantly associated with greater amphetamine-related Arousal, and high trait reward sensitivity was significantly associated with greater Euphoria. In addition, high trait impulsivity was significantly associated with greater Arousal and Euphoria. These results provide further evidence that individual differences in the subjective effects of AMPH are partially explained by differences in personality, and are consistent with the idea that both personality and responses to stimulants depend upon shared neurochemical systems.

  4. Effect of antiorthostatic BedRest (BR) on GastroIntestinal Motility (GIM) of normal subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putcha, L.; Hunter, R. P.; Tietze, K. J.; Cintron, N. M.

    1992-01-01

    The combined effects of postural changes, fluid shifts and diuresis associated with the absence of the gravity vector may decrease gastrointestinal motility (GIM) during space flight. GIM can be estimated from the mouth to cecum transit time (MCTT) of orally administered lactulose (LAC); this test is used to assess changes in GIM in normal subjects and in patients with GI pathology and related disease conditions. Since bedrest (BR) mimics some of the physiological changes that occur during space flight, the effect of ten days of BR on GIM was evaluated from the MCTT of LAC. Methods: Subjects were 12 nonsmoking males between the ages of 35 and 50. After an 8-10 hour fast, subjects ingested Cephulac (registered) (20 g solution) with a low-fiber breakfast on four different days (45, 30, 25, and 20) before BR and on three separate days (4, 7, and 10) during BR. Breath-H2 concentrations were measured before and at 10 minute intervals for 4 hours after breakfast using a Quintron breathalyzer and MCTT was determined from these data. Results: MCTT ranged between 10 and 122 minutes during ambulation and 80 to 120 minutes during BR with means of 79 minutes and 122 minutes respectively. Conclusion: Mean MCTT during BR was 54 percent longer than during ambulation, suggesting that absorption and availability of orally administered medications and nutrients may be delayed or impaired as a result of decreased GIM during bedrest.

  5. Buspirone maintenance does not alter the reinforcing, subjective, and cardiovascular effects of intranasal methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Anna R; Strickland, Justin C; Stoops, William W; Lile, Joshua A; Rush, Craig R

    2017-12-01

    Medications development efforts for methamphetamine-use disorder have targeted central monoamines because these systems are directly involved in the effects of methamphetamine. Buspirone is a dopamine autoreceptor and D3 receptor antagonist and partial agonist at serotonin 1A receptors, making it a logical candidate medication for methamphetamine-use disorder. Buspirone effects on abuse-related behaviors of methamphetamine have been mixed in clinical and preclinical studies. Experimental research using maintenance dosing, which models therapeutic use, is limited. This study evaluated the influence of buspirone maintenance on the reinforcing effects of methamphetamine using a self-administration procedure, which has predictive validity for clinical efficacy. The impact of buspirone maintenance on the subjective and cardiovascular response to methamphetamine was also determined. Eight research participants (1 female) reporting recent illicit stimulant use completed a placebo-controlled, crossover, double-blind protocol in which the pharmacodynamic effects of intranasal methamphetamine (0, 15, and 30mg) were assessed after at least 6days of buspirone (0 and 45mg/day) maintenance. Intranasal methamphetamine functioned as a reinforcer and produced prototypical stimulant-like subjective (e.g., increased ratings of Good Effects and Like Drug) and cardiovascular (e.g., elevated blood pressure) effects. These effects of methamphetamine were similar under buspirone and placebo maintenance conditions. Maintenance on buspirone was well tolerated and devoid of effects when administered alone. These data suggest that buspirone is unlikely to be an effective pharmacotherapy for methamphetamine-use disorder. Given the central role of monoamines in methamphetamine-use disorder, it is reasonable for future studies to continue to target these systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of organic fertilizers and different sowing dates on yield and yield components of flower and grain of Pot Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Rezvani moghaddam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to find out suitable organic fertilizers for elimination of chemical fertilizers usage and the optimum sowing date in Pot Marigold cultivation, an experiment was conducted in the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2007 growing season. For this purpose a split plot experiment based on completely randomized block design with three replications was used. The main factor consist of four different fertilizers (50 kg.ha-1 N, 40 t.ha-1 Cow manure, 20 t.ha-1 Compost fertilizer and 10 t.ha-1 Hen manure beside control (without fertilizer and three sowing dates (10th April, 1th May and 21th May were allocated as sub factor. The results showed that the length time of emergence to budding, budding to flowering and flowering to ripening decreased by delay in sowing date, significantly. By delay in sowing date, plant height and dry matter also decreased because of reduction of vegetative growing duration. The various fertilizers had not significant effect on developmental stages and morphological characteristics of Pot Marigold. Nitrogen fertilizer and Hen manure in compare of other treatments had significantly (p≤0.05 higher level in number of inflorescences, yield of inflorescences, yield of petal and seed yield. Thus, Hen manure can be a suitable replacement of chemical fertilizers in Pot Marigold cultivation. The various sowing dates showed significant effect on the most measured characteristics of seed and inflorescences yield components of Pot Marigold. The highest of all studied characteristics were obtained in 10th April and 1th May than 21th May sowing dates.

  7. Acute differential effects of dietary protein quality on postprandial lipemia in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmer-Jensen, Jens; Mortensen, Lene Sundahl; Astrup, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Non-fasting triglyceridemia is much closer associated to cardiovascular risk compared to fasting triglyceridemia. We hypothesized that there would be acute differential effects of four common dietary proteins (cod protein, whey isolate, gluten, and casein) on postprandial lipemia in obese non......-diabetic subjects. To test the hypothesis we conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study with crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins i.e. cod protein, whey protein, gluten or casein. Eleven obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, body mass index: 30.......3-42.0 kg/m(2)) participated and blood samples were drawn in the 8-h postprandial period. Supplementation of a fat rich mixed meal with whey protein caused lower postprandial lipemia (P = .048) compared to supplementation with cod protein and gluten. This was primarily due to lower triglyceride...

  8. Interactive Effects of Anxiety Sensitivity and Subjective Social Status on Psychological Symptomatology in Black Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzel, Lorraine R; Childress, Sarah D; Obasi, Ezemenari M; Garey, Lorra; Vidrine, Damon J; McNeill, Lorna H; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity is the fear of anxiety-related sensations and subjective social status is a self-perception of social standing relative to others: both constructs have been linked to psychological symptomatology. This study investigated the interactive effects of anxiety sensitivity and social status in relation to anxiety and depressive symptomatology expression among 124 black adults. Participants provided sociodemographics and completed self-report questionnaires. The interactive associations between anxiety sensitivity and social status on anxiety symptomatology and depressive symptomatology were examined with hierarchical linear regressions adjusted for sociodemographics and negative affectivity. Significant interactions between anxiety sensitivity and social status were evident only for anxiety symptoms: specifically, the association between anxiety sensitivity and anxiety symptoms was much stronger for individuals with lower (versus higher) subjective social status. Black adults with this higher anxiety sensitivity/lower social status phenotype may be at heightened risk for the expression of anxiety symptomatology, and may benefit from interventions to reduce anxiety sensitivity.

  9. The effect of dolutegravir on the pharmacokinetics of metformin in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dolutegravir (DTG is an HIV integrase strand transfer inhibitor approved for use in combination with other antiretrovirals for the treatment of HIV-infection in adults and adolescents. Metformin is a drug frequently used in diabetic HIV-infected patients, which requires titration to optimize dosing. In vitro, DTG inhibits organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2 and multidrug and toxin extrusion transporter 1 (MATE 1 which are known to be involved in the disposition of metformin. The objective of this study was to assess the drug interaction between DTG and metformin. Materials and Methods: This was an open-label, parallel-group, three-period crossover study in healthy adult subjects. Eligible subjects were enrolled into one of the two treatment cohorts (15 subjects/cohort. Subjects received metformin 500 mg q12h for 5 days in Period 1; metformin 500 mg q12h plus DTG 50 mg q24h (Cohort 1 or 50 mg q12h (Cohort 2 for 7 days in Period 2; and metformin 500 mg q12h for 10 days in Period 3. There were no washout periods between treatments. All doses of study drug were taken with a moderate-fat meal. Serial plasma PK samples and safety assessments were obtained throughout the study. Non-compartmental PK analysis was performed and geometric least squares (GLS mean ratios and 90% confidence intervals (CI were generated by the mixed effect model for within-subject treatment comparisons for each cohort. Results: Fourteen and thirteen subjects completed study in Cohort 1 and Cohort 2, respectively. Plasma exposures of metformin were significantly increased when co-administered with DTG (Table 1.There were no apparent changes in metformin half-life and tmax. Increased metformin plasma exposure returned to normal levels observed in Period 1 after DTG was discontinued in Period 3. No Grade 3 or 4 adverse events (AEs, deaths or serious AEs were reported during the study. Most frequently reported drug-related AEs were headache (9, loose stools (8, and

  10. Effects of Planting Date and Plant Density on Physiological Indices, Quantity and Quality Traits of Two Varieties of Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sepehri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Marigold (Calendula officinalis L. is originated from North West Africa and Mediterranean area, is a medicinal plant used for several purposes. It is an annual herb or short-lived perennial from the Asteraceae family with yellow or orange flowers. The Marigold has been used as a traditional medicine and food dye, but is currently used as an anti-inflammatory and wound healer. It is grown for drug, obtained from the flowers. The flowers blossom during summer three or more times per year. The essential oil of yellow or orange petals of Calendula officinalis L. is one of the important yield components which is used for food and medicine. Moreover, the seed has an oil content of 5-20 %. Seed oil could be used as a binder in paints, coating and cosmetics. Growth, development and production of medicinal plants, as well as other plants are affected by genetic and agronomic factors. Planting date and plant density are two most important factors that can affect yield and yield components. Planting date affects the quantity and quality of secondary metabolites of medicinal plants. The optimum sowing date and plant density can improve the light and temperature absorption and other factors during the growing season. The positive effects of optimal planting date and plant density has been described by a number of researchers. The Plant population is dependent on the plant characters, growth period, time and method of cultivation. Also, the suitable sowing date has advantages for maximum production. Early sowing in the spring causes weakly establishment of plant and late planting date shortens growth period and simultaneous flowering period due to high temperature in summer. In this study, the effects of plant density and planting date on physiological indices, quantity and quality of two varieties of spare and compact marigold has been evaluated. Materials and Methods In order to determine the effects of planting date and plant density on

  11. Abuse potential assessment of propofol by its subjective effects after sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezcan, Aysu Hayriye; Ornek, Dilsen Hatice; Ozlu, Onur; Baydar, Mustafa; Yavuz, Nurcan; Ozaslan, Nihal Gokbulut; Dilek, Kevser; Keske, Aylin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined the euphoric effect of propofol and its high satisfaction ratio regarding its liability to be abused, particularly in painless procedures, such as colonoscopy. Fifty subjects aged between 18 and 65 years who fulfilled the criteria for ASA 1-2 and were prepared for colonoscopy were enrolled into this study. For intravenous sedation induction, 2 mg/kg propofol was used, and additional injections were administered according to BIS values. After colonoscopy, the subjects were taken to a recovery room and observed for 30 minutes. Patients were interviewed with the modified Brice questionnare regarding the incidence and the content of dreams. A 5-point Likert scale was used to classify their dreams, and the content of the dreams was also recorded. To assess the subjective effects of propofol, the patients were asked to use the Hall and Van der Castle emotion scale; their biological states were also assessed. The patients' feelings regarding propofol were each rated as absent or present. We used the Morphine-Benzedrine Group scale to measure the euphoric effects of propofol. At the end of the study, subjects scored their satisfaction on a five-point scale. There were no statistically significant differences in sex age, weight, propofol dose, or satisfaction ratio (p>0.05) in the groups, although male patients received a higher dose of propofol and had higher satisfaction ratio. Patients reported no residual after-effects. The incidence of dreaming was 42%. There was no statistically significant difference in dreaming between the sexes, but male patients had a higher dreaming ratio. Dreamers received higher propofol doses and had a higher satisfaction ratio (p>0.05). All dreamers reported happy dreams regarding daily life, and their mean MBG score was 10.5. There was no correlation between MBG scores and propofol doses (r= -0.044, p= 0.761). We conclude that propofol functions as a reward; that patients enjoy its acute effects; and that no

  12. Human pharmacology of ayahuasca: subjective and cardiovascular effects, monoamine metabolite excretion, and pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riba, Jordi; Valle, Marta; Urbano, Gloria; Yritia, Mercedes; Morte, Adelaida; Barbanoj, Manel J

    2003-07-01

    The effects of the South American psychotropic beverage ayahuasca on subjective and cardiovascular variables and urine monoamine metabolite excretion were evaluated, together with the drug's pharmacokinetic profile, in a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. This pharmacologically complex tea, commonly obtained from Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis, combines N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), an orally labile psychedelic agent showing 5-hydroxytryptamine2A agonist activity, with monoamine oxidase (MAO)-inhibiting beta-carboline alkaloids (harmine, harmaline, and tetrahydroharmine). Eighteen volunteers with prior experience in the use of psychedelics received single oral doses of encapsulated freeze-dried ayahuasca (0.6 and 0.85 mg of DMT/kg of body weight) and placebo. Ayahuasca produced significant subjective effects, peaking between 1.5 and 2 h, involving perceptual modifications and increases in ratings of positive mood and activation. Diastolic blood pressure showed a significant increase at the high dose (9 mm Hg at 75 min), whereas systolic blood pressure and heart rate were moderately and nonsignificantly increased. Cmax values for DMT after the low and high ayahuasca doses were 12.14 ng/ml and 17.44 ng/ml, respectively. Tmax (median) was observed at 1.5 h after both doses. The Tmax for DMT coincided with the peak of subjective effects. Drug administration increased urinary normetanephrine excretion, but, contrary to the typical MAO-inhibitor effect profile, deaminated monoamine metabolite levels were not decreased. This and the negligible harmine plasma levels found suggest a predominantly peripheral (gastrointestinal and liver) site of action for harmine. MAO inhibition at this level would suffice to prevent first-pass metabolism of DMT and allow its access to systemic circulation and the central nervous system.

  13. Indentation Size Effect (ISE) in Copper Subjected to Severe Plastic Deformation (SPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Joshua D.; Achuthan, Ajit; Morrison, David J.

    2014-05-01

    The characteristic length scale of deformation in copper specimens subjected to severe plastic deformation (SPD) through surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) was studied with indentation experiments. Annealed copper disks were shot peened with 6-mm diameter tungsten carbide spheres with an average velocity of 2.3 m/s for 15 minutes in a vibrating chamber. The SMAT-treated specimens were cross-sectioned, and the exposed face was studied under nanoindentation in order to determine the effect of dislocation density on surface hardness and indentation size effect (ISE). Since the specimen preparation of the exposed face involved mechanical polishing, which in turn introduced additional SPD on the indenting face, the effect of mechanical polishing on hardness measurement was investigated first. To this end, the mechanically polished specimens were subjected to various durations of electrochemical polishing. Hardness measurements on these specimens showed that the effect of mechanical polishing was substantial for both microindentation and nanoindentation, the impact being significantly larger for nanoindentation. Consequently, the measured depth of influence of the SMAT process, determined on specimens subjected to longer durations of electrochemical polishing, shows larger values compared to those previously reported in the literature. The ISE shows a bilinear relationship between the square of hardness and the reciprocal of indentation depth. The slope of this behavior, corresponding to smaller indentation loads, which is a measure of the ISE associated with a strain gradient, shows a power-law relationship with an increase in the distance away from the SMAT surface, instead of the constant value expected with the Nix-Gao type model.

  14. Effects of a single, oral 60 mg caffeine dose on attention in healthy adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmus, Micha Mm; Hay, Justin L; Zuiker, Rob Gja; Okkerse, Pieter; Perdrieu, Christelle; Sauser, Julien; Beaumont, Maurice; Schmitt, Jeroen; van Gerven, Joop Ma; Silber, Beata Y

    2017-02-01

    Caffeine induces positive effects on sustained attention, although studies assessing the acute effects of low caffeine dose (effects of a 60 mg dose of caffeine on sustained attention in tests lasting up to 45 minutes using 82 low or non-caffeine-consuming healthy male ( n=41) and female ( n=41) adults aged between 40 and 60 years. Vigilance was measured using Mackworth Clock test, Rapid Visual Information Processing Test, adaptive tracking test, saccadic eye movement and attention switch test. Effects on mood and fatigue were analysed using Bond and Lader and Caffeine Research visual analogue scales, and Samn-Perelli questionnaire. Saliva sampling was performed for both compliance and caffeine pharmacokinetic analysis. Administration of a 60 mg caffeine dose resulted in a significant improvement in sustained attention compared with the placebo. Also a significantly improved peak saccadic velocity and reaction time performance was found, and decreased error rate. Significantly increased feelings of alertness, contentment and overall mood after caffeine treatment compared with placebo were observed. This study demonstrated that in healthy adult subjects oral administration of a single 60 mg caffeine dose elicited a clear enhancement of sustained attention and alertness, measured both in multiple objective performances and in subjective scales.

  15. Proximal and Time-Varying Effects of Cigarette, Alcohol, Marijuana and other Hard Drug Use on Adolescent Dating Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes, H. Luz McNaughton; Vangie A Foshee; Bauer, Daniel J.; Ennett, Susan T.

    2014-01-01

    Although numerous studies have established a link between substance use and adult partner violence, little research has examined the relationship during adolescence and most extant research has not examined multiple substance use types. The current study used hierarchical growth modeling to simultaneously examine proximal (between-person) and time-varying (within-person) relations between cigarette, alcohol, marijuana and hard drug use and physical dating aggression across grades 8 through 12...

  16. Comparison of Caffeine and d-amphetamine in Cocaine-Dependent Subjects: Differential Outcomes on Subjective and Cardiovascular Effects, Reward Learning, and Salivary Paraxanthine

    OpenAIRE

    Scott D. Lane; Green, Charles E.; Schmitz, Joy M.; Rathnayaka, Nuvan; Fang, Wendy B; Ferré, Sergi; Moeller, F. Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Due to indirect modulation of dopamine transmission, adenosine receptor antagonists may be useful in either treating cocaine use or improving disrupted cognitive-behavioral functions associated with chronic cocaine use. To compare and contrast the stimulant effects of adenosine antagonism to direct dopamine stimulation, we administered 150 mg and 300 mg caffeine, 20 mg amphetamine, and placebo to cocaine-dependent vs. healthy control subjects, matched on moderate caffeine use. Data were obtai...

  17. Effect of meteorological factors on the development of lentil stemphylium blight at different sowing dates in rampur, chitwan, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subash Subedi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Stemphylium species are pathogenic to a number of crops under broad geography and diverse environments. Stemphylium blight of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik caused by Stemphylium botryosum Walr is becoming a serious emerging threat to lentil cultivation and become widespread throughout major legume growing areas in Nepal. Lentil was sown in different dates to observed incidence and severity of stemphylium blight in Rampur, Chitwan during two consecutive years 2012-2014. Lentil seeds sown up to middle of November escaped the disease severity and also resulted higher yield compared to other dates. Disease severity increased with the advancement of sowing date from November 1 to December 21 with decreased yields. The trends of disease development were similar in both years. The maximum and minimum temperatures, total rainfall and sunshine hour ranging from 22.42-24.23°C (mean 23.32°C, 4.12-13.00°C(mean 8.56°C, 9.6-30.5mm (mean 24.85mm and 200.05-309.85 hour (mean 254.95 hour respectively were favorable for disease development. A multiple linear regression model with temperature, rainfall and sunshine hours was developed to predict stemphylium blight disease severity on lentil plants.

  18. The effects of academic and interpersonal stress on dating violence among college students: a test of classical strain theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Brandon; Smithey, Martha

    2012-03-01

    This study examines Merton's Classical Strain Theory (1938) as a causative factor in intimate partner violence among college students. We theorize that college students experience general life strain and cumulative strain as they pursue the goal of a college degree. We test this strain on the likelihood of using intimate partner violence. Strain due to unrealistic expectations of intimate partnership and economic strain are also examined. The analysis examines the following causative factors representing strain: 1) the College Undergraduate Stress Scale (Renner & Mackin, 1998); 2) cumulative academic strain measured by college classification; 3) cumulative intimate partner strain measured as the length of time in the relationship; 4) academic strain measured by number of hours studied weekly, and 5) economic strain measured by number of hours worked weekly. Additionally, we examine the extent to which gender and race/ethnicity differentially affect intimate partner in the context of these measures of strain. The Conflict Tactics Scales II (Straus et al, 1996) are used to measure dating violence and include indicators for sexual coercion, physical aggression, injury, and psychological aggression. Data were collected from 142 students in lower-division classes from Texas Tech University. Results show that general strain and cumulative intimate partner strain increase the use of dating violence among college students. The longer dating partners are in a relationship, the higher the chances of psychological aggression, physical assault, and sexual coercion. Converse to our expectations, time spent working reduces psychological aggression due to reducing time spent together rather than reflecting economic strain.

  19. Effects of metformin treatment on erythrocyte insulin binding in normal weight subjects, in obese non diabetic subjects, in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizkalla, S W; Elgrably, F; Tchobroutsky, G; Slama, G

    1986-08-01

    We have evaluated the effects of metformin administration on erythrocyte insulin receptors in 21 subjects: 5 normal weight subjects, 5 obese non diabetics, 5 insulin-dependent diabetics (Type I) and 6 obese non insulin-dependent (Type II) diabetics. Plasma glucose, plasma insulin and erythrocyte insulin receptors were studied after 15 days of metformin (850 mg, t.d.) or placebo administered in a double blind random order. Maximum specific insulin binding to erythrocytes increased after metformin in the normals (p less than 0.01), in the obese non diabetics (p less than 0.01) and in the obese Type 2 diabetics (p less than 0.005), but not in Type I diabetics. Scatchard analysis showed that the receptor number per cell increased by 37% in the normals, by 17% in the obese non diabetics and by 182% in Type 2 diabetics. Receptor affinity increased in obese subjects but did not increase in normals and in diabetics. Only in Type II diabetics was there a significant decrease in plasma glucose. Metformin, thus, increased binding in normals by moderately increasing the capacity of cell receptors, in obese non diabetics by increasing the affinity, whereas in obese Type II diabetics it dramatically increases receptor capacity. This is consistent with the fact that metformin has a hypoglycaemic effect mainly in Type II diabetics, but not in non diabetics (whether obese or not), and could be due to a direct effect on the cell membrane.

  20. Streptomyces globosus UAE1, a Potential Effective Biocontrol Agent for Black Scorch Disease in Date Palm Plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Esam E; Sham, Arjun; Salmin, Zeinab; Abdelmowla, Yasmeen; Iratni, Rabah; El-Tarabily, Khaled; AbuQamar, Synan

    2017-01-01

    Many fungal diseases affect date palm causing considerable losses in date production worldwide. We found that the fungicide Cidely® Top inhibited the mycelial growth of the soil-borne pathogenic fungus Thielaviopsis punctulata, the causal agent of black scorch disease of date palm, both in vitro and in vivo. Because the use of biocontrol agents (BCAs) can minimize the impact of pathogen control on economic and environmental concerns related to chemical control, we aimed at testing local actinomycete strains isolated from the rhizosphere soil of healthy date palm cultivated in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) against T. punctulata. The selected isolate can thus be used as a potential agent for integrated disease management programs. In general, the BCA showed antagonism in vitro and in greenhouse experiments against this pathogen. The most promising actinomycete isolate screened showed the highest efficacy against the black scorch disease when applied before or at the same time of inoculation with T. punctulata, compared with BCA or fungicide application after inoculation. The nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analyses using the 16S ribosomal RNA gene with other Streptomyces spp. in addition to morphological and cultural characteristics revealed that the isolated UAE strain belongs to Streptomyces globosus UAE1. The antagonistic activity of S. globosus against T. punctulata, was associated with the production by this strain of diffusible antifungal metabolites i.e., metabolites that can inhibit mycelial growth of the pathogen. This was evident in the responses of the vegetative growth of pure cultures of the pathogen when exposed to the culture filtrates of the BCA. Altogether, the pathogenicity tests, disease severity indices and mode of action tests confirmed that the BCA was not only capable of suppressing black scorch disease symptoms, but also could prevent the spread of the pathogen, as a potential practical method to improve disease management in the palm