Sample records for subject descriptors enter

  1. Multi-modal analysis of genetically-related subjects using SIFT descriptors in brain MRI


    Kumar, Kuldeep; Chauvin, Laurent; Toews, Mathew; Colliot, Olivier; Desrosiers, Christian


    International audience; So far, fingerprinting studies have focused on identifying features from single-modality MRI data, which capture individual characteristics in terms of brain structure, function, or white matter microstruc-ture. However, due to the lack of a framework for comparing across multiple modalities, studies based on multi-modal data remain elusive. This paper presents a multi-modal analysis of genetically-related subjects to compare and contrast the information provided by va...

  2. Module descriptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincenti, Gordon; Klausen, Bodil; Kjær Jensen, Jesper


    The Module Descriptor including a Teacher’s Guide explains and describes how to work innovatively and co-creatively with wicked problems and young people. The descriptor shows how interested educators and lecturers in Europe can copy the lessons of the Erasmus+ project HIP when teaching their own...

  3. Descriptors for antimicrobial peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenssen, Håvard


    Introduction: A frightening increase in the number of isolated multidrug resistant bacterial strains linked to the decline in novel antimicrobial drugs entering the market is a great cause for concern. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have lately been introduced as a potential new class...... of antimicrobial drugs, and computational methods utilizing molecular descriptors can significantly accelerate the development of new peptide drug candidates. Areas covered: This paper gives a broad overview of peptide and amino-acid scale descriptors available for AMP modeling and highlights which...... examples of different peptide QSAR studies, this review highlights some of the missing links and illuminates some of the questions that would be interesting to challenge in a more systematic fashion. Expert opinion: Computer-aided peptide QSAR using molecular descriptors may provide the necessary edge...

  4. Enteral Nutrition Is a Risk Factor for Airway Complications in Subjects Undergoing Noninvasive Ventilation for Acute Respiratory Failure. (United States)

    Kogo, Mariko; Nagata, Kazuma; Morimoto, Takeshi; Ito, Jiro; Sato, Yuki; Teraoka, Shunsuke; Fujimoto, Daichi; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Otsuka, Kojiro; Tomii, Keisuke


    Early enteral nutrition is recommended for mechanically ventilated patients in several studies and guidelines. In contrast, the effects of early enteral nutrition on noninvasive ventilation (NIV) have not been investigated extensively. The lack of an established method of airway protection suggests that enteral nutrition administration to these patients could increase airway complications and worsen outcomes. Between January 2007 and January 2015, 150 patients were admitted to our respiratory department for acute respiratory failure and received NIV for >48 h. Of these, 107 subjects incapable of oral intake were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical background and complications were compared in subjects who did and did not receive enteral nutrition. Sixty of the 107 subjects (56%) incapable of oral intake who received NIV also received enteral nutrition. Serum albumin concentration was significantly lower in subjects who received enteral nutrition than in those who did not (mean 2.7 ± 0.68 mg/dL vs 3.0 ± 0.75 mg/dL, P = .048). The rate of airway complications was significantly higher (53% [32/60] vs 32% [15/47], P = .03), and median NIV duration was significantly longer (16 [interquartile range 7-43] d vs 8 [5-20] d, P = .02) in subjects who received enteral nutrition than in those who did not. Multivariate analysis showed that enteral nutrition was unrelated to in-hospital mortality. Among subjects receiving NIV, enteral nutrition was associated with increased risk of airway complications but did not affect mortality. Enteral nutrition should be carefully considered in these patients. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  5. Vinegar lacks antiglycemic action on enteral carbohydrate absorption in human subjects. (United States)

    Salbe, Arline D; Johnston, Carol S; Buyukbese, M Akif; Tsitouras, Panayiotis D; Harman, S Mitchell


    The antiglycemic effects of vinegar have been known for more than a century and have been demonstrated in animal as well as human studies. Although the exact mechanism of vinegar action is not known, several possibilities have been proposed including suppression of disaccharidase activity, delayed gastric emptying, enhanced glucose uptake in the periphery and conversion to glycogen, and increased satiety. We hypothesized that by suppressing endogenous insulin secretion, we could estimate the glucose absorption rate from an oral carbohydrate load and determine the effects of vinegar ingestion on this rate. To do so, 5 subjects had 4 studies at 1-week intervals, randomly receiving placebo twice (60 mL water) and vinegar twice (20 mL apple cider vinegar, 40 mL water), followed 2 minutes later by a meal of mashed potatoes (0.75 g carbohydrate per kilogram body weight) that was consumed over 20 minutes. At the beginning of the meal, an oral octreotide/insulin suppression test (25-microg bolus octreotide; 180 minute infusion 5 mU/m(2) body surface area per minute regular human insulin, and 0.5 microg/min octreotide) was begun. Blood samples for insulin and glucose were drawn at 20-minute intervals. The oral octreotide/insulin suppression test suppressed endogenous insulin secretion for the first 100 minutes of the study. During this time, the rate of rise of glucose was modestly but significantly (P = .01) greater after vinegar ingestion compared to placebo, suggesting that vinegar does not act to decrease glycemia by interference with enteral carbohydrate absorption.

  6. Effect of recruitment strategy on types of subjects entered into a primary prevention clinical trial. (United States)

    King, A C; Harris, R B; Haskell, W L


    Clinical trials typically recruit subjects through referrals or media promotion, with generalizability of the results often uncertain. As part of a primary prevention trial to evaluate strategies for increasing physical activity in sedentary men and women, two recruitment sources, a random-digit-dial telephone survey and a community media campaign, were used to identify subjects. Baseline characteristics of 357 randomized men and women aged 50 to 65 years were compared by recruitment source. Whereas there were few differences between recruitment sources for demographic variables, telephone survey recruitment was particularly successful in recruiting smokers and persons with other cardiovascular risk factors into the trial. Counter to expectations, subsequent exercise adherence rates did not differ by recruitment source. The results suggest that the survey method, while more expensive, may be particularly useful for locating higher-risk subjects who could especially benefit from increases in physical activity but who rarely are recruited through more traditional approaches.

  7. Robust Affine Invariant Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Yang


    Full Text Available An approach is developed for the extraction of affine invariant descriptors by cutting object into slices. Gray values associated with every pixel in each slice are summed up to construct affine invariant descriptors. As a result, these descriptors are very robust to additive noise. In order to establish slices of correspondence between an object and its affine transformed version, general contour (GC of the object is constructed by performing projection along lines with different polar angles. Consequently, affine in-variant division curves are derived. A slice is formed by points fall in the region enclosed by two adjacent division curves. To test and evaluate the proposed method, several experiments have been conducted. Experimental results show that the proposed method is very robust to noise.

  8. Topological Substituent Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea V. DIUDEA


    Full Text Available Motivation. Substituted 1,3,5-triazines are known as useful herbicidal substances. In view of reducing the cost of biological screening, computational methods are carried out for evaluating the biological activity of organic compounds. Often a class of bioactives differs only in the substituent attached to a basic skeleton. In such cases substituent descriptors will give the same prospecting results as in case of using the whole molecule description, but with significantly reduced computational time. Such descriptors are useful in describing steric effects involved in chemical reactions. Method. Molecular topology is the method used for substituent description and multi linear regression analysis as a statistical tool. Results. Novel topological descriptors, XLDS and Ws, based on the layer matrix of distance sums and walks in molecular graphs, respectively, are proposed for describing the topology of substituents linked on a chemical skeleton. They are tested for modeling the esterification reaction in the class of benzoic acids and herbicidal activity of 2-difluoromethylthio-4,6-bis(monoalkylamino-1,3,5-triazines. Conclusions. Ws substituent descriptor, based on walks in graph, satisfactorily describes the steric effect of alkyl substituents behaving in esterification reaction, with good correlations to the Taft and Charton steric parameters, respectively. Modeling the herbicidal activity of the seo of 1,3,5-triazines exceeded the models reported in literature, so far.

  9. Global visibility for global health: Is it time for a new descriptor in Medical Subject Heading (MeSH of MEDLINE/PubMed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marušic´


    Full Text Available Despite a large body of research in global health (almost 9000 articles published in PubMed until 2012, the term “global health” is not included in the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH of the NLM – its controlled vocabulary thesaurus which NLM uses to index articles in MEDL INE. There are only 6 journals currently covered by PubMed which specialize in global health, including Journal of Global Health.

  10. The FREPA Descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daryai-Hansen, Petra; Jaeger, Catherine


    The paper discusses a set of tools that have been developed within the FREPA research project, supported since 2004 by the Council of Europe’s European Centre for Modern Languages. The Framework of Reference for Pluralistic Approaches to Languages and Cultures (FREPA) represents a complement...... to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages, specifying in detail and structuring its rationale on intercultural and plurilingual competences. The FREPA tools consist of (a) a comprehensive list of descriptors operationalizing intercultural and plurilingual competences in terms of knowledge......, attitudes and skills, (b) a database of teaching material and (c) a training kit for teachers. The paper presents the FREPA descriptors by comparing them to Byram’s definition of intercultural communicative competence and Deardorff’s intercultural competence model and emphasises that FREPA deepens...

  11. The FREPA Descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daryai-Hansen, Petra; Jaeger, Catherine


    , attitudes and skills, (b) a database of teaching material and (c) a training kit for teachers. The paper presents the FREPA descriptors by comparing them to Byram’s definition of intercultural communicative competence and Deardorff’s intercultural competence model and emphasises that FREPA deepens...... to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages, specifying in detail and structuring its rationale on intercultural and plurilingual competences. The FREPA tools consist of (a) a comprehensive list of descriptors operationalizing intercultural and plurilingual competences in terms of knowledge...... and complements Byram’s and Deardorff’s approaches through its distinction between competences and resources, the finely scaled catalogue of subdescriptors, the integration of plurilingual competences, and the establishment of learning to learn as a transversal dimension. Finally, the paper illustrates...

  12. The FREPA Descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daryai-Hansen, Petra; Jaeger, Catherine


    , attitudes and skills, (b) a database of teaching material and (c) a training kit for teachers. The paper presents the FREPA descriptors by comparing them to Byram’s definition of intercultural communicative competence and Deardorff’s intercultural competence model and emphasises that FREPA deepens...... that the FREPA project bridges theory and practice by equipping teachers with practical tools, which suit the needs of various contexts....

  13. The FREPA Descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daryai-Hansen, Petra; Jaeger, Catherine


    to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages, specifying in detail and structuring its rationale on intercultural and plurilingual competences. The FREPA tools consist of (a) a comprehensive list of descriptors operationalizing intercultural and plurilingual competences in terms of knowledge......The paper discusses a set of tools that have been developed within the FREPA research project, supported since 2004 by the Council of Europe’s European Centre for Modern Languages. The Framework of Reference for Pluralistic Approaches to Languages and Cultures (FREPA) represents a complement...

  14. Mordred: a molecular descriptor calculator. (United States)

    Moriwaki, Hirotomo; Tian, Yu-Shi; Kawashita, Norihito; Takagi, Tatsuya


    Molecular descriptors are widely employed to present molecular characteristics in cheminformatics. Various molecular-descriptor-calculation software programs have been developed. However, users of those programs must contend with several issues, including software bugs, insufficient update frequencies, and software licensing constraints. To address these issues, we propose Mordred, a developed descriptor-calculation software application that can calculate more than 1800 two- and three-dimensional descriptors. It is freely available via GitHub. Mordred can be easily installed and used in the command line interface, as a web application, or as a high-flexibility Python package on all major platforms (Windows, Linux, and macOS). Performance benchmark results show that Mordred is at least twice as fast as the well-known PaDEL-Descriptor and it can calculate descriptors for large molecules, which cannot be accomplished by other software. Owing to its good performance, convenience, number of descriptors, and a lax licensing constraint, Mordred is a promising choice of molecular descriptor calculation software that can be utilized for cheminformatics studies, such as those on quantitative structure-property relationships.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian North


    Full Text Available This article reports on a project commissioned and coordinated by the Council of Europe to develop descriptors for the category ‘Mediation’ in the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. Mediation is the fourth communicative language activity presented in CEFR Chapter 4, complementing reception, interaction and production. Descriptors for mediation had not been developed in the 1993–6 Swiss National Research Project that produced the original set of illustrative descriptors for the CEFR. The work took place in the context of a wider 2013–6 project to provide an extended set of CEFR illustrative descriptors. The article describes the way in which the approach taken to mediation in the project is broader than the one taken in the presentation of mediation in the CEFR text in 2001. In addition to information transfer (conveying received information the new scheme also embraces the construction of meaning and relational mediation: the process of establishing and managing interpersonal relationships in order to create a positive, collaborative environment. Descriptors were also developed for other, related, areas. The article briefly summarises the three phases of validation to which the draft descriptors were subjected before being calibrated to the mathematic scale underlying the CEFR’s levels and descriptors.

  16. A pilot trial on subjects with lactose and/or oligosaccharides intolerance treated with a fixed mixture of pure and enteric-coated α- and ß-galactosidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Pierro F


    Full Text Available Francesco Di Pierro,1 Alexander Bertuccioli,2 Eleonora Marini,3 Leandro Ivaldi4 1Velleja Research, Milan, Italy; 2Italian Association Fitness and Medicine, Fano, PU, Italy; 3Pharmextracta, Pontenure, Piacenza, Italy; 4Digestive Endoscopic Department, Ceva Hospital, Ceva, Cuneo, Italy Aim: Lactose and complex carbohydrates maldigestion, common food intolerances due to low gut content of α- and ß-galactosidase, lead to abdominal symptoms including pain, diarrhea, bloating, flatulence, and cramping. Commonly, intolerant patients are advised by physicians to avoid the offending foods (dairy foods, cereals, beans, etc. This food-limiting option, however, has possible nutritional risks. We have therefore evaluated the impact of using pure, enteric-coated α- plus ß-galactosidase on gut symptoms in intolerant subjects instead of avoidance of the offending foods. Methods: Sixteen subjects intolerant to lactose and/or complex carbohydrates were enrolled and evaluated in terms of gut symptoms with 1 uncontrolled diet, 2 diet devoid of offending foods, and 3 uncontrolled diet along with pure, enteric-coated α- and ß-galactosidase (DDM Galactosidase®. Results: Even with the uncontrolled diet, intolerant subjects treated with DDM Galactosidase® exhibited reduced gut symptoms (bloating, flatulence, diarrhea, and constipation significantly better than the control treatment as well as having a diet devoid of offending foods. Conclusion: DDM Galactosidase® is a valid and safe optional treatment to counteract lactose and complex carbohydrate intolerance in subjects who prefer not to avoid, at least partially, offending foods. Keywords: lactase, lactose intolerance, complex carbohydrate intolerance

  17. Jet-Based Local Image Descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo; Darkner, Sune; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg


    We present a general novel image descriptor based on higherorder differential geometry and investigate the effect of common descriptor choices. Our investigation is twofold in that we develop a jet-based descriptor and perform a comparative evaluation with current state-of-the-art descriptors on ...

  18. Learning Image Descriptors with Boosting. (United States)

    Trzcinski, Tomasz; Christoudias, Mario; Lepetit, Vincent


    We propose a novel and general framework to learn compact but highly discriminative floating-point and binary local feature descriptors. By leveraging the boosting-trick we first show how to efficiently train a compact floating-point descriptor that is very robust to illumination and viewpoint changes. We then present the main contribution of this paper-a binary extension of the framework that demonstrates the real advantage of our approach and allows us to compress the descriptor even further. Each bit of the resulting binary descriptor, which we call BinBoost, is computed with a boosted binary hash function, and we show how to efficiently optimize the hash functions so that they are complementary, which is key to compactness and robustness. As we do not put any constraints on the weak learner configuration underlying each hash function, our general framework allows us to optimize the sampling patterns of recently proposed hand-crafted descriptors and significantly improve their performance. Moreover, our boosting scheme can easily adapt to new applications and generalize to other types of image data, such as faces, while providing state-of-the-art results at a fraction of the matching time and memory footprint.

  19. Separability of local reactivity descriptors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    There have been recent studies on the qualitative and quantitative description of these con- cepts and use of these in the selectivity of reactions in catalysis, adsorption and molecular recognition. Global reactivity descriptors (GRD), like softness, hardness and chemical potential along with concept of hard soft acid base ...

  20. Region descriptors for automatic classification of small sea targets in infrared video

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouthaan, M.M.; Broek, S.P. van den; Hendriks, E.A.; Schwering, P.B.W.


    We evaluate the performance of different key-point detectors and region descriptors when used for automatic classification of small sea targets in infrared video. In our earlier research performed on this subject as well as in other literature, many different region descriptors have been proposed.

  1. Aquaculture Thesaurus: Descriptors Used in the National Aquaculture Information System. (United States)

    Lanier, James A.; And Others

    This document provides a listing of descriptors used in the National Aquaculture Information System (NAIS), a computer information storage and retrieval system on marine, brackish, and freshwater organisms. Included are an explanation of how to use the document, subject index terms, and a brief bibliography of the literature used in developing the…

  2. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo


    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  3. Breast density pattern characterization by histogram features and texture descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Cunha Carneiro


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Breast cancer is the first leading cause of death for women in Brazil as well as in most countries in the world. Due to the relation between the breast density and the risk of breast cancer, in medical practice, the breast density classification is merely visual and dependent on professional experience, making this task very subjective. The purpose of this paper is to investigate image features based on histograms and Haralick texture descriptors so as to separate mammographic images into categories of breast density using an Artificial Neural Network. Methods We used 307 mammographic images from the INbreast digital database, extracting histogram features and texture descriptors of all mammograms and selecting them with the K-means technique. Then, these groups of selected features were used as inputs of an Artificial Neural Network to classify the images automatically into the four categories reported by radiologists. Results An average accuracy of 92.9% was obtained in a few tests using only some of the Haralick texture descriptors. Also, the accuracy rate increased to 98.95% when texture descriptors were mixed with some features based on a histogram. Conclusion Texture descriptors have proven to be better than gray levels features at differentiating the breast densities in mammographic images. From this paper, it was possible to automate the feature selection and the classification with acceptable error rates since the extraction of the features is suitable to the characteristics of the images involving the problem.

  4. Lagrangian descriptors of driven chemical reaction manifolds (United States)

    Craven, Galen T.; Junginger, Andrej; Hernandez, Rigoberto


    The persistence of a transition state structure in systems driven by time-dependent environments allows the application of modern reaction rate theories to solution-phase and nonequilibrium chemical reactions. However, identifying this structure is problematic in driven systems and has been limited by theories built on series expansion about a saddle point. Recently, it has been shown that to obtain formally exact rates for reactions in thermal environments, a transition state trajectory must be constructed. Here, using optimized Lagrangian descriptors [G. T. Craven and R. Hernandez, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 148301 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.148301], we obtain this so-called distinguished trajectory and the associated moving reaction manifolds on model energy surfaces subject to various driving and dissipative conditions. In particular, we demonstrate that this is exact for harmonic barriers in one dimension and this verification gives impetus to the application of Lagrangian descriptor-based methods in diverse classes of chemical reactions. The development of these objects is paramount in the theory of reaction dynamics as the transition state structure and its underlying network of manifolds directly dictate reactivity and selectivity.

  5. Radiation enteritis (United States)

    Radiation enteropathy; Radiation-induced small bowel injury; Post-radiation enteritis ... Radiation therapy uses high-powered x-rays, particles, or radioactive seeds to kill cancer cells. The therapy ...

  6. Robust control of linear descriptor systems

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Yu


    This book develops original results regarding singular dynamic systems following two different paths. The first consists of generalizing results from classical state-space cases to linear descriptor systems, such as dilated linear matrix inequality (LMI) characterizations for descriptor systems and performance control under regulation constraints. The second is a new path, which considers descriptor systems as a powerful tool for conceiving new control laws, understanding and deciphering some controller’s architecture and even homogenizing different—existing—ways of obtaining some new and/or known results for state-space systems. The book also highlights the comprehensive control problem for descriptor systems as an example of using the descriptor framework in order to transform a non-standard control problem into a classic stabilization control problem. In another section, an accurate solution is derived for the sensitivity constrained linear optimal control also using the descriptor framework. The boo...

  7. Descriptors of server capabilities in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi; Slepniov, Dmitrij; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    China with the huge market potential it possesses is an important issue for subsidiaries of western multinational companies. The objective of this paper is therefore to strengthen researchers’ and practitioners’ perspectives on what are the descriptors of server capabilities. The descriptors...... are relevant to determine subsidiary roles and as an indication of the capabilities required. These descriptors are identified through extensive literature review and validated by case studies of two Danish multinational companies subsidiaries operating in China. They provided the empirical basis...

  8. Sound insulation between dwellings - Descriptors applied in building regulations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit; Rindel, Jens Holger


    of the present situation and the benefits of consensus concerning descriptors for airborne and impact sound insulation between dwellings. The descriptors suitable for evaluation should be well-defined under practical situations in buildings and be measurable. Measurement results should be reproducible...... and of course correlate well with subjective evaluation. More noise sources - including neighbours' activities - and an increased demand for high quality and comfort, together with a trend towards light-weight constructions, are contradictory and challenging. This calls for exchange of data and experience......, implying a need for harmonized descriptors. A suggestion to harmonize airborne and impact sound insulation descriptors in building regulations is given. This paper is one of two related papers about sound insulation of dwellings, dealing with requirements and descriptors in building regulations in Europe...

  9. Density-Based 3D Shape Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitt Francis


    Full Text Available We propose a novel probabilistic framework for the extraction of density-based 3D shape descriptors using kernel density estimation. Our descriptors are derived from the probability density functions (pdf of local surface features characterizing the 3D object geometry. Assuming that the shape of the 3D object is represented as a mesh consisting of triangles with arbitrary size and shape, we provide efficient means to approximate the moments of geometric features on a triangle basis. Our framework produces a number of 3D shape descriptors that prove to be quite discriminative in retrieval applications. We test our descriptors and compare them with several other histogram-based methods on two 3D model databases, Princeton Shape Benchmark and Sculpteur, which are fundamentally different in semantic content and mesh quality. Experimental results show that our methodology not only improves the performance of existing descriptors, but also provides a rigorous framework to advance and to test new ones.

  10. Descriptor revision belief change through direct choice

    CERN Document Server

    Hansson, Sven Ove


    This book provides a critical examination of how the choice of what to believe is represented in the standard model of belief change. In particular the use of possible worlds and infinite remainders as objects of choice is critically examined. Descriptors are introduced as a versatile tool for expressing the success conditions of belief change, addressing both local and global descriptor revision. The book presents dynamic descriptors such as Ramsey descriptors that convey how an agent’s beliefs tend to be changed in response to different inputs. It also explores sentential revision and demonstrates how local and global operations of revision by a sentence can be derived as a special case of descriptor revision. Lastly, the book examines revocation, a generalization of contraction in which a specified sentence is removed in a process that may possibly also involve the addition of some new information to the belief set.

  11. Important clinical descriptors to include in the examination and assessment of patients with femoroacetabular impingement syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiman, M P; Thorborg, K; Covington, K


    PURPOSE: Determine which examination findings are key clinical descriptors of femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS) through use of an international, multi-disciplinary expert panel. METHODS: A three-round Delphi survey utilizing an international, multi-disciplinary expert panel operationally...... defined from international publications and presentations was utilized. RESULTS: All six domains (subjective examination, patient-reported outcome measures, physical examination, special tests, physical performance measures, and diagnostic imaging) had at least one descriptor with 75% consensus agreement...

  12. Anthropomorphic classification using three-dimensional Fourier descriptor (United States)

    Lee, Nahm S.; Park, Kyung S.


    This paper presents an objective somatotyping method based upon a three-dimensional Fourier descriptor (FD3) as an invariant body shape descriptor. Human body shape was assumed as a stack of cross-sectional contours, and shape features were extracted based upon the FD3. The FD3 represents the shape features on the spatial frequency domain. Because global shape features are concentrated on the lower frequency terms, it is possible to classify the body shape efficiently. Trunks of forty-eight male subjects were measured using laser range finding and image processing techniques, and FD3s were calculated from their trunk contours and classified using a hierarchical clustering algorithm using Euclidian distance metric. Clustering results were compared with the classical somatotyping and showed good correlation with visual classification.

  13. The great descriptor melting pot: mixing descriptors for the common good of QSAR models. (United States)

    Tseng, Yufeng J; Hopfinger, Anton J; Esposito, Emilio Xavier


    The usefulness and utility of QSAR modeling depends heavily on the ability to estimate the values of molecular descriptors relevant to the endpoints of interest followed by an optimized selection of descriptors to form the best QSAR models from a representative set of the endpoints of interest. The performance of a QSAR model is directly related to its molecular descriptors. QSAR modeling, specifically model construction and optimization, has benefited from its ability to borrow from other unrelated fields, yet the molecular descriptors that form QSAR models have remained basically unchanged in both form and preferred usage. There are many types of endpoints that require multiple classes of descriptors (descriptors that encode 1D through multi-dimensional, 4D and above, content) needed to most fully capture the molecular features and interactions that contribute to the endpoint. The advantages of QSAR models constructed from multiple, and different, descriptor classes have been demonstrated in the exploration of markedly different, and principally biological systems and endpoints. Multiple examples of such QSAR applications using different descriptor sets are described and that examined. The take-home-message is that a major part of the future of QSAR analysis, and its application to modeling biological potency, ADME-Tox properties, general use in virtual screening applications, as well as its expanding use into new fields for building QSPR models, lies in developing strategies that combine and use 1D through nD molecular descriptors.

  14. Signature molecular descriptor : advanced applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visco, Donald Patrick, Jr. (Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN)


    In this work we report on the development of the Signature Molecular Descriptor (or Signature) for use in the solution of inverse design problems as well as in highthroughput screening applications. The ultimate goal of using Signature is to identify novel and non-intuitive chemical structures with optimal predicted properties for a given application. We demonstrate this in three studies: green solvent design, glucocorticoid receptor ligand design and the design of inhibitors for Factor XIa. In many areas of engineering, compounds are designed and/or modified in incremental ways which rely upon heuristics or institutional knowledge. Often multiple experiments are performed and the optimal compound is identified in this brute-force fashion. Perhaps a traditional chemical scaffold is identified and movement of a substituent group around a ring constitutes the whole of the design process. Also notably, a chemical being evaluated in one area might demonstrate properties very attractive in another area and serendipity was the mechanism for solution. In contrast to such approaches, computer-aided molecular design (CAMD) looks to encompass both experimental and heuristic-based knowledge into a strategy that will design a molecule on a computer to meet a given target. Depending on the algorithm employed, the molecule which is designed might be quite novel (re: no CAS registration number) and/or non-intuitive relative to what is known about the problem at hand. While CAMD is a fairly recent strategy (dating to the early 1980s), it contains a variety of bottlenecks and limitations which have prevented the technique from garnering more attention in the academic, governmental and industrial institutions. A main reason for this is how the molecules are described in the computer. This step can control how models are developed for the properties of interest on a given problem as well as how to go from an output of the algorithm to an actual chemical structure. This report

  15. 8th Workshop on Coupled Descriptor Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bartel, Andreas; Günther, Michael; Maten, E; Müller, Peter


    This book contains the proceedings of the 8th Workshop on Coupled Descriptor Systems held March 2013 in the Castle of Eringerfeld, Geseke in the neighborhood of Paderborn, Germany. It examines the wide range of current research topics in descriptor systems, including mathematical modeling, index analysis, wellposedness of problems, stiffness and different time-scales, cosimulation and splitting methods and convergence analysis. In addition, the book also presents applications from the automotive and circuit industries that show that descriptor systems provide challenging problems from the point of view of both theory and practice.   The book contains nine papers and is organized into three parts: control, simulation, and model order reduction. It will serve as an ideal resource for applied mathematicians and engineers, in particular those from mechanics and electromagnetics, who work with coupled differential equations.

  16. Local Descriptors of Dynamic and Nondynamic Correlation. (United States)

    Ramos-Cordoba, Eloy; Matito, Eduard


    Quantitatively accurate electronic structure calculations rely on the proper description of electron correlation. A judicious choice of the approximate quantum chemistry method depends upon the importance of dynamic and nondynamic correlation, which is usually assesed by scalar measures. Existing measures of electron correlation do not consider separately the regions of the Cartesian space where dynamic or nondynamic correlation are most important. We introduce real-space descriptors of dynamic and nondynamic electron correlation that admit orbital decomposition. Integration of the local descriptors yields global numbers that can be used to quantify dynamic and nondynamic correlation. Illustrative examples over different chemical systems with varying electron correlation regimes are used to demonstrate the capabilities of the local descriptors. Since the expressions only require orbitals and occupation numbers, they can be readily applied in the context of local correlation methods, hybrid methods, density matrix functional theory, and fractional-occupancy density functional theory.

  17. Local Image Descriptors Using Supervised Kernel ICA (United States)

    Yamazaki, Masaki; Fels, Sidney

    PCA-SIFT is an extension to SIFT which aims to reduce SIFT's high dimensionality (128 dimensions) by applying PCA to the gradient image patches. However PCA is not a discriminative representation for recognition due to its global feature nature and unsupervised algorithm. In addition, linear methods such as PCA and ICA can fail in the case of non-linearity. In this paper, we propose a new discriminative method called Supervised Kernel ICA (SKICA) that uses a non-linear kernel approach combined with Supervised ICA-based local image descriptors. Our approach blends the advantages of supervised learning with nonlinear properties of kernels. Using five different test data sets we show that the SKICA descriptors produce better object recognition performance than other related approaches with the same dimensionality. The SKICA-based representation has local sensitivity, non-linear independence and high class separability providing an effective method for local image descriptors.

  18. Factor Analytic Approach to Transitive Text Mining using Medline Descriptors (United States)

    Stegmann, J.; Grohmann, G.

    Matrix decomposition methods were applied to examples of noninteractive literature sets sharing implicit relations. Document-by-term matrices were created from downloaded PubMed literature sets, the terms being the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH descriptors) assigned to the documents. The loadings of the factors derived from singular value or eigenvalue matrix decomposition were sorted according to absolute values and subsequently inspected for positions of terms relevant to the discovery of hidden connections. It was found that only a small number of factors had to be screened to find key terms in close neighbourhood, being separated by a small number of terms only.

  19. Replenishing data descriptors in a DMA injection FIFO buffer (United States)

    Archer, Charles J [Rochester, MN; Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN; Cernohous, Bob R [Rochester, MN; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Kumar, Sameer [White Plains, NY; Parker, Jeffrey J [Rochester, MN


    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for replenishing data descriptors in a Direct Memory Access (`DMA`) injection first-in-first-out (`FIFO`) buffer that include: determining, by a messaging module on an origin compute node, whether a number of data descriptors in a DMA injection FIFO buffer exceeds a predetermined threshold, each data descriptor specifying an application message for transmission to a target compute node; queuing, by the messaging module, a plurality of new data descriptors in a pending descriptor queue if the number of the data descriptors in the DMA injection FIFO buffer exceeds the predetermined threshold; establishing, by the messaging module, interrupt criteria that specify when to replenish the injection FIFO buffer with the plurality of new data descriptors in the pending descriptor queue; and injecting, by the messaging module, the plurality of new data descriptors into the injection FIFO buffer in dependence upon the interrupt criteria.

  20. Local Pyramidal Descriptors for Image Recognition. (United States)

    Seidenari, Lorenzo; Serra, Giuseppe; Bagdanov, Andrew D; Del Bimbo, Alberto


    In this paper, we present a novel method to improve the flexibility of descriptor matching for image recognition by using local multiresolution pyramids in feature space. We propose that image patches be represented at multiple levels of descriptor detail and that these levels be defined in terms of local spatial pooling resolution. Preserving multiple levels of detail in local descriptors is a way of hedging one's bets on which levels will most relevant for matching during learning and recognition. We introduce the Pyramid SIFT (P-SIFT) descriptor and show that its use in four state-of-the-art image recognition pipelines improves accuracy and yields state-of-the-art results. Our technique is applicable independently of spatial pyramid matching and we show that spatial pyramids can be combined with local pyramids to obtain further improvement. We achieve state-of-the-art results on Caltech-101 (80.1%) and Caltech-256 (52.6%) when compared to other approaches based on SIFT features over intensity images. Our technique is efficient and is extremely easy to integrate into image recognition pipelines.

  1. Molecular quantum similarity using conceptual DFT descriptors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper reports a Molecular Quantum Similarity study for a set of congeneric steroid molecules, using as basic similarity descriptors electron density ρ (r), shape function (r), the Fukui functions +(r) and -(r) and local softness +(r) and -(r). Correlations are investigated between similarity indices for each couple of ...

  2. Functional Constructivism: In Search of Formal Descriptors. (United States)

    Trofimova, Irina


    The Functional Constructivism (FC) paradigm is an alternative to behaviorism and considers behavior as being generated every time anew, based on an individual's capacities, environmental resources and demands. Walter Freeman's work provided us with evidence supporting the FC principles. In this paper we make parallels between gradual construction processes leading to the formation of individual behavior and habits, and evolutionary processes leading to the establishment of biological systems. Referencing evolutionary theory, several formal descriptors of such processes are proposed. These FC descriptors refer to the most universal aspects for constructing consistent structures: expansion of degrees of freedom, integration processes based on internal and external compatibility between systems and maintenance processes, all given in four different classes of systems: (a) Zone of Proximate Development (poorly defined) systems; (b) peer systems with emerging reproduction of multiple siblings; (c) systems with internalized integration of behavioral elements ('cruise controls'); and (d) systems capable of handling low-probability, not yet present events. The recursive dynamics within this set of descriptors acting on (traditional) downward, upward and horizontal directions of evolution, is conceptualized as diagonal evolution, or di-evolution. Two examples applying these FC descriptors to taxonomy are given: classification of the functionality of neuro-transmitters and temperament traits; classification of mental disorders. The paper is an early step towards finding a formal language describing universal tendencies in highly diverse, complex and multi-level transient systems known in ecology and biology as 'contingency cycles.'

  3. Complex Correlation Measure: a novel descriptor for Poincaré plot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gubbi Jayavardhana


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poincaré plot is one of the important techniques used for visually representing the heart rate variability. It is valuable due to its ability to display nonlinear aspects of the data sequence. However, the problem lies in capturing temporal information of the plot quantitatively. The standard descriptors used in quantifying the Poincaré plot (SD1, SD2 measure the gross variability of the time series data. Determination of advanced methods for capturing temporal properties pose a significant challenge. In this paper, we propose a novel descriptor "Complex Correlation Measure (CCM" to quantify the temporal aspect of the Poincaré plot. In contrast to SD1 and SD2, the CCM incorporates point-to-point variation of the signal. Methods First, we have derived expressions for CCM. Then the sensitivity of descriptors has been shown by measuring all descriptors before and after surrogation of the signal. For each case study, lag-1 Poincaré plots were constructed for three groups of subjects (Arrhythmia, Congestive Heart Failure (CHF and those with Normal Sinus Rhythm (NSR, and the new measure CCM was computed along with SD1 and SD2. ANOVA analysis distribution was used to define the level of significance of mean and variance of SD1, SD2 and CCM for different groups of subjects. Results CCM is defined based on the autocorrelation at different lags of the time series, hence giving an in depth measurement of the correlation structure of the Poincaré plot. A surrogate analysis was performed, and the sensitivity of the proposed descriptor was found to be higher as compared to the standard descriptors. Two case studies were conducted for recognizing arrhythmia and congestive heart failure (CHF subjects from those with NSR, using the Physionet database and demonstrated the usefulness of the proposed descriptors in biomedical applications. CCM was found to be a more significant (p = 6.28E-18 parameter than SD1 and SD2 in discriminating

  4. Blur‐Invariant Feature Descriptor Using Multidirectional Integral Projection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Man Hee; Park, In Kyu


    ...°) and by combining four projection vectors into a single high‐dimensional vector. Intensive experiment shows that the proposed descriptor outperforms existing descriptors for different types of blur caused by linear motion, nonlinear motion, and defocus. Furthermore, the proposed descriptor is robust to intensity changes and image rotation.

  5. Ensembles of Novel Visual Keywords Descriptors for Image Categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdullah, Azizi; Veltkamp, Remco C.; Wiering, Marco


    Object recognition systems need effective image descriptors to obtain good performance levels. Currently, the most widely used image descriptor is the SIFT descriptor that computes histograms of orientation gradients around points in an image. A possible problem of this approach is that the number

  6. Object classification and detection with context kernel descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Hong; Olsen, Søren Ingvor; Zhu, Yaping


    Context information is important in object representation. By embedding context cue of image attributes into kernel descriptors, we propose a set of novel kernel descriptors called Context Kernel Descriptors (CKD) for object classification and detection. The motivation of CKD is to use spatial...

  7. Validating Performance Level Descriptors (PLDs) for the AP® Environmental Science Exam (United States)

    Reshetar, Rosemary; Kaliski, Pamela; Chajewski, Michael; Lionberger, Karen


    This presentation summarizes a pilot study conducted after the May 2011 administration of the AP Environmental Science Exam. The study used analytical methods based on scaled anchoring as input to a Performance Level Descriptor validation process that solicited systematic input from subject matter experts.

  8. Sketch-Based Image Retrieval: Benchmark and Bag-of-Features Descriptors. (United States)

    Eitz, M; Hildebrand, K; Boubekeur, T; Alexa, M


    We introduce a benchmark for evaluating the performance of large-scale sketch-based image retrieval systems. The necessary data are acquired in a controlled user study where subjects rate how well given sketch/image pairs match. We suggest how to use the data for evaluating the performance of sketch-based image retrieval systems. The benchmark data as well as the large image database are made publicly available for further studies of this type. Furthermore, we develop new descriptors based on the bag-of-features approach and use the benchmark to demonstrate that they significantly outperform other descriptors in the literature.

  9. Benchmarking of protein descriptor sets in proteochemometric modeling (part 2) : modeling performance of 13 amino acid descriptor sets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westen, van G.J.P.; Swier, R.F.; Cortes-Ciriano, I.; Wegner, J.K.; Overington, J.P.; IJzerman, A.P.; Vlijmen, van H.; Bender, A.


    Background While a large body of work exists on comparing and benchmarking descriptors of molecular structures, a similar comparison of protein descriptor sets is lacking. Hence, in the current work a total of 13 amino acid descriptor sets have been benchmarked with respect to their ability of

  10. Novel topological descriptors for analyzing biological networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varmuza Kurt K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Topological descriptors, other graph measures, and in a broader sense, graph-theoretical methods, have been proven as powerful tools to perform biological network analysis. However, the majority of the developed descriptors and graph-theoretical methods does not have the ability to take vertex- and edge-labels into account, e.g., atom- and bond-types when considering molecular graphs. Indeed, this feature is important to characterize biological networks more meaningfully instead of only considering pure topological information. Results In this paper, we put the emphasis on analyzing a special type of biological networks, namely bio-chemical structures. First, we derive entropic measures to calculate the information content of vertex- and edge-labeled graphs and investigate some useful properties thereof. Second, we apply the mentioned measures combined with other well-known descriptors to supervised machine learning methods for predicting Ames mutagenicity. Moreover, we investigate the influence of our topological descriptors - measures for only unlabeled vs. measures for labeled graphs - on the prediction performance of the underlying graph classification problem. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that the application of entropic measures to molecules representing graphs is useful to characterize such structures meaningfully. For instance, we have found that if one extends the measures for determining the structural information content of unlabeled graphs to labeled graphs, the uniqueness of the resulting indices is higher. Because measures to structurally characterize labeled graphs are clearly underrepresented so far, the further development of such methods might be valuable and fruitful for solving problems within biological network analysis.

  11. Reactivity of Alkyldibenzothiophenes Using Theoretical Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Rivera


    Full Text Available Theoretical calculations of the reactivity of dibenzothiophene and its methyl, dimethyl, and trimethyl derivatives show that local reactivity descriptors reproduce their experimental desulfurization reactivity trend if the first desulfurization step involves directly the sulfur atom, which only occurs if the sulfur atom is blocked at most by one methyl group. In the series of molecules {4,7-dimethyldibenzothiophene, x,4,7-trimethyldibenzothiophene (x=1,2,3}, the most reactive molecule is 2,4,7-trimethyldibenzothiophene, and local descriptors show that the reactivity is linked to the activity of the sulfur atom, which is higher in 2,4,7-trimethyldibenzothiophene due to the position of the third methyl substitute, located in the para position with respect to the carbon bonded to the sulfur atom. The electrostatic potential of 2,4,7-trimethyldibenzothiophene shows one effective adsorption site, while 1,4,7-trimethyldibenzothiophene and 3,4,7-trimethyldibenzothiophene have more sites, contributing to the higher reactivity of 2,4,7-trimethyldibenzothiophene. The index of reactivity of other descriptors was evaluated and the effect of the position of the methyl substituents on adsorption parameters, as the dipole moment and the atomic charges were also studied.

  12. RAID: a relation-augmented image descriptor

    KAUST Repository

    Guerrero, Paul


    As humans, we regularly interpret scenes based on how objects are related, rather than based on the objects themselves. For example, we see a person riding an object X or a plank bridging two objects. Current methods provide limited support to search for content based on such relations. We present RAID, a relation-augmented image descriptor that supports queries based on inter-region relations. The key idea of our descriptor is to encode region-to-region relations as the spatial distribution of point-to-region relationships between two image regions. RAID allows sketch-based retrieval and requires minimal training data, thus making it suited even for querying uncommon relations. We evaluate the proposed descriptor by querying into large image databases and successfully extract nontrivial images demonstrating complex inter-region relations, which are easily missed or erroneously classified by existing methods. We assess the robustness of RAID on multiple datasets even when the region segmentation is computed automatically or very noisy.

  13. TreeBASIS Feature Descriptor and Its Hardware Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Fowers


    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel feature descriptor called TreeBASIS that provides improvements in descriptor size, computation time, matching speed, and accuracy. This new descriptor uses a binary vocabulary tree that is computed using basis dictionary images and a test set of feature region images. To facilitate real-time implementation, a feature region image is binary quantized and the resulting quantized vector is passed into the BASIS vocabulary tree. A Hamming distance is then computed between the feature region image and the effectively descriptive basis dictionary image at a node to determine the branch taken and the path the feature region image takes is saved as a descriptor. The TreeBASIS feature descriptor is an excellent candidate for hardware implementation because of its reduced descriptor size and the fact that descriptors can be created and features matched without the use of floating point operations. The TreeBASIS descriptor is more computationally and space efficient than other descriptors such as BASIS, SIFT, and SURF. Moreover, it can be computed entirely in hardware without the support of a CPU for additional software-based computations. Experimental results and a hardware implementation show that the TreeBASIS descriptor compares well with other descriptors for frame-to-frame homography computation while requiring fewer hardware resources.

  14. Molecular Descriptors Family on Structure Activity Relationships 3. Antituberculotic Activity of some Polyhydroxyxanthones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorana BOLBOACĂ


    Full Text Available The antituberculotic activity of some polyhydroxyxanthones was estimated using the Molecular Descriptors Family on Structure Activity Relationships methodology. From a total number of 298110 real and distinct calculated descriptors, 94843 were significantly different and entered into multiple linear regression analysis. The best performing bi-varied model was obtained by use of all polyhydroxyxanthones. The MDF SAR model was validated splitting the molecules into training and test sets. A correlated correlations analysis was applied in other to compare the MDF SAR models with the previous SAR model. The prediction ability of antituberculotic activity of polyhydroxyxanthones with MDF SAR methodology is sustained by three arguments: leave-one-out procedure, training vs. test procedure, and the correlated correlations analysis. Looking at the bi-varied MDF SAR model, we can conclude that the antituberculotic activity of polyhydroxyxanthones is almost of geometrical nature (99% and is strongly dependent on partial atomic charge and group electronegativity.

  15. The recent progress in proteochemometric modelling: focusing on target descriptors, cross-term descriptors and application scope. (United States)

    Qiu, Tianyi; Qiu, Jingxuan; Feng, Jun; Wu, Dingfeng; Yang, Yiyan; Tang, Kailin; Cao, Zhiwei; Zhu, Ruixin


    As an extension of the conventional quantitative structure activity relationship models, proteochemometric (PCM) modelling is a computational method that can predict the bioactivity relations between multiple ligands and multiple targets. Traditional PCM modelling includes three essential elements: descriptors (including target descriptors, ligand descriptors and cross-term descriptors), bioactivity data and appropriate learning functions that link the descriptors to the bioactivity data. Since its appearance, PCM modelling has developed rapidly over the past decade by taking advantage of the progress of different descriptors and machine learning techniques, along with the increasing amounts of available bioactivity data. Specifically, the new emerging target descriptors and cross-term descriptors not only significantly increased the performance of PCM modelling but also expanded its application scope from traditional protein-ligand interaction to more abundant interactions, including protein-peptide, protein-DNA and even protein-protein interactions. In this review, target descriptors and cross-term descriptors, as well as the corresponding application scope, are intensively summarized. Additionally, we look forward to seeing PCM modelling extend into new application scopes, such as Target-Catalyst-Ligand systems, with the further development of descriptors, machine learning techniques and increasing amounts of available bioactivity data. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email:

  16. Enteral Tube Feeding and Pneumonia (United States)

    Gray, David Sheridan; Kimmel, David


    To determine the effects of enteral tube feeding on the incidence of pneumonia, we performed a retrospective review of all clients at our institution who had gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes placed over a 10-year period. Ninety-three subjects had a history of pneumonia before feeding tube insertion. Eighty had gastrostomy and 13, jejunostomy…

  17. Delivery of enteral nutrition. (United States)

    Grant, M J; Martin, S


    There is increasing evidence that enteral feeding is superior to parenteral nutrition with regard to maintaining gut structure and function. Selection of the enteral access route depends on the type and anticipated duration of nutrient delivery. At present, enteral feeding devices can be divided into two major categories: those entering the gastrointestinal tract through the oral or nasal cavity (oroenteric or nasoenteric tubes) and those entering through the abdominal wall including gastrostomy, duodenostomy, or jejunostomy tubes. This article provides a review of methods to insert and confirm gastric and intestinal feeding tube placement. Care of the patient with an enteric tube will be described.

  18. Control Configuration Selection for Multivariable Descriptor Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza; Stoustrup, Jakob


    Control configuration selection is the procedure of choosing the appropriate input and output pairs for the design of SISO (or block) controllers. This step is an important prerequisite for a successful industrial control strategy. In industrial practices it is often the case that the system, whi...... is that it can be used to propose a richer sparse or block diagonal controller structure. The interaction measure is used for control configuration selection of the linearized CSTR model with descriptor from.......Control configuration selection is the procedure of choosing the appropriate input and output pairs for the design of SISO (or block) controllers. This step is an important prerequisite for a successful industrial control strategy. In industrial practices it is often the case that the system, which...... systems, hydraulic systems to heat transfer, and chemical processes. The focus of this paper is on the problem of control configuration selection for multivariable descriptor systems. A gramian-based interaction measure for control configuration selection of such processes is described in this paper...

  19. A Theoretical Framework for Lagrangian Descriptors (United States)

    Lopesino, C.; Balibrea-Iniesta, F.; García-Garrido, V. J.; Wiggins, S.; Mancho, A. M.

    This paper provides a theoretical background for Lagrangian Descriptors (LDs). The goal of achieving rigorous proofs that justify the ability of LDs to detect invariant manifolds is simplified by introducing an alternative definition for LDs. The definition is stated for n-dimensional systems with general time dependence, however we rigorously prove that this method reveals the stable and unstable manifolds of hyperbolic points in four particular 2D cases: a hyperbolic saddle point for linear autonomous systems, a hyperbolic saddle point for nonlinear autonomous systems, a hyperbolic saddle point for linear nonautonomous systems and a hyperbolic saddle point for nonlinear nonautonomous systems. We also discuss further rigorous results which show the ability of LDs to highlight additional invariants sets, such as n-tori. These results are just a simple extension of the ergodic partition theory which we illustrate by applying this methodology to well-known examples, such as the planar field of the harmonic oscillator and the 3D ABC flow. Finally, we provide a thorough discussion on the requirement of the objectivity (frame-invariance) property for tools designed to reveal phase space structures and their implications for Lagrangian descriptors.


    Bellón, Víctor; Stoven, Véronique; Azencott, Chloé-Agathe


    Machine learning applications in precision medicine are severely limited by the scarcity of data to learn from. Indeed, training data often contains many more features than samples. To alleviate the resulting statistical issues, the multitask learning framework proposes to learn different but related tasks jointly, rather than independently, by sharing information between these tasks. Within this framework, the joint regularization of model parameters results in models with few non-zero coefficients and that share similar sparsity patterns. We propose a new regularized multitask approach that incorporates task descriptors, hence modulating the amount of information shared between tasks according to their similarity. We show on simulated data that this method outperforms other multitask feature selection approaches, particularly in the case of scarce data. In addition, we demonstrate on peptide MHC-I binding data the ability of the proposed approach to make predictions for new tasks for which no training data is available.

  1. Szeged Matrix Property Indices as Descriptors to Characterize Fullerenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jäntschi Lorentz


    Full Text Available Fullerenes are class of allotropes of carbon organized as closed cages or tubes of carbon atoms. The fullerenes with small number of atoms were not frequently investigated. This paper presents a detailed treatment of total strain energy as function of structural feature extracted from isomers of C40 fullerene using Szeged Matrix Property Indices (SMPI. The paper has a two-fold structure. First, the total strain energy of C40 fullerene isomers (40 structures was linked with SMPI descriptors under two scenarios, one which incorporate just the SMPI descriptors and the other one which contains also five calculated properties (dipole moment, scf-binding-energy, scf-core-energy, scf-electronic-energy, and heat of formation. Second, the performing models identified on C40 fullerene family or the descriptors of these models were used to predict the total strain energy on C42 fullerene isomers. The obtained results show that the inclusion of properties in the pool of descriptors led to the reduction of accurate linear models. One property, namely scf-binding-energy proved a significant contribution to total strain energy of C40 fullerene isomers. However, the top-three most performing models contain just SMPI descriptors. A model with four descriptors proved most accurate model and show fair abilities in prediction of the same property on C42 fullerene isomers when the approach considered the descriptors identified on C40 as the predicting descriptors for C42 fullerene isomers.

  2. Branch length similarity entropy-based descriptors for shape representation (United States)

    Kwon, Ohsung; Lee, Sang-Hee


    In previous studies, we showed that the branch length similarity (BLS) entropy profile could be successfully used for the shape recognition such as battle tanks, facial expressions, and butterflies. In the present study, we proposed new descriptors, roundness, symmetry, and surface roughness, for the recognition, which are more accurate and fast in the computation than the previous descriptors. The roundness represents how closely a shape resembles to a circle, the symmetry characterizes how much one shape is similar with another when the shape is moved in flip, and the surface roughness quantifies the degree of vertical deviations of a shape boundary. To evaluate the performance of the descriptors, we used the database of leaf images with 12 species. Each species consisted of 10 - 20 leaf images and the total number of images were 160. The evaluation showed that the new descriptors successfully discriminated the leaf species. We believe that the descriptors can be a useful tool in the field of pattern recognition.

  3. Subject thesaurus permuted listing: Energy Data Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raridon, M.H. (ed.)


    This permuted listing, an appendix to the Energy Data Base: Subject Thesaurus (DOE/TIC-7000-R6), has been prepared to alleviate the problems of entry to a large multidisciplinary thesaurus containing both single and multi-word descriptors. It is designed to be used in conjunction with the Subject Thesaurus and is not to be used alone. Each descriptor, whether a single word or multi-word entry, has been permuted and alphabetized by each significant word. The complete descriptor is given at each point.

  4. What Is Enteral Nutrition? (United States)

    ... pharmacists) will talk with you about the different types of feeding tubes. Enteral Nutrition Fact Sheet ... Continuing Education Certification Claim CE Credits ASPEN 2018 Nutrition Science and ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Pečinka


    Full Text Available Total pressure distortion is one of the three basic flow distortions (total pressure, total temperature and swirl distortion that might appear at the inlet of a gas turbine engine (GTE during operation. Different numerical parameters are used for assessing the total pressure distortion intensity and extent. These summary descriptors are based on the distribution of total pressure in the aerodynamic interface plane. There are two descriptors largely spread around the world, however, three or four others are still in use and can be found in current references. The staff at the University of Defence decided to compare the most common descriptors using basic flow distortion patterns in order to select the most appropriate descriptor for future department research. The most common descriptors were identified based on their prevalence in widely accessible publications. The construction and use of these descriptors are reviewed in the paper. Subsequently, they are applied to radial, angular, and combined distortion patterns of different intensities and with varied mass flow rates. The tests were performed on a specially designed test bench using an electrically driven standalone industrial centrifugal compressor, sucking air through the inlet of a TJ100 small turbojet engine. Distortion screens were placed into the inlet channel to create the desired total pressure distortions. Of the three basic distortions, only the total pressure distortion descriptors were evaluated. However, both total and static pressures were collected using a multi probe rotational measurement system.

  6. The Timbre Toolbox: extracting audio descriptors from musical signals. (United States)

    Peeters, Geoffroy; Giordano, Bruno L; Susini, Patrick; Misdariis, Nicolas; McAdams, Stephen


    The analysis of musical signals to extract audio descriptors that can potentially characterize their timbre has been disparate and often too focused on a particular small set of sounds. The Timbre Toolbox provides a comprehensive set of descriptors that can be useful in perceptual research, as well as in music information retrieval and machine-learning approaches to content-based retrieval in large sound databases. Sound events are first analyzed in terms of various input representations (short-term Fourier transform, harmonic sinusoidal components, an auditory model based on the equivalent rectangular bandwidth concept, the energy envelope). A large number of audio descriptors are then derived from each of these representations to capture temporal, spectral, spectrotemporal, and energetic properties of the sound events. Some descriptors are global, providing a single value for the whole sound event, whereas others are time-varying. Robust descriptive statistics are used to characterize the time-varying descriptors. To examine the information redundancy across audio descriptors, correlational analysis followed by hierarchical clustering is performed. This analysis suggests ten classes of relatively independent audio descriptors, showing that the Timbre Toolbox is a multidimensional instrument for the measurement of the acoustical structure of complex sound signals.

  7. Robust image region descriptor using local derivative ordinal binary pattern (United States)

    Shang, Jun; Chen, Chuanbo; Pei, Xiaobing; Liang, Hu; Tang, He; Sarem, Mudar


    Binary image descriptors have received a lot of attention in recent years, since they provide numerous advantages, such as low memory footprint and efficient matching strategy. However, they utilize intermediate representations and are generally less discriminative than floating-point descriptors. We propose an image region descriptor, namely local derivative ordinal binary pattern, for object recognition and image categorization. In order to preserve more local contrast and edge information, we quantize the intensity differences between the central pixels and their neighbors of the detected local affine covariant regions in an adaptive way. These differences are then sorted and mapped into binary codes and histogrammed with a weight of the sum of the absolute value of the differences. Furthermore, the gray level of the central pixel is quantized to further improve the discriminative ability. Finally, we combine them to form a joint histogram to represent the features of the image. We observe that our descriptor preserves more local brightness and edge information than traditional binary descriptors. Also, our descriptor is robust to rotation, illumination variations, and other geometric transformations. We conduct extensive experiments on the standard ETHZ and Kentucky datasets for object recognition and PASCAL for image classification. The experimental results show that our descriptor outperforms existing state-of-the-art methods.

  8. Visual feature discrimination versus compression ratio for polygonal shape descriptors (United States)

    Heuer, Joerg; Sanahuja, Francesc; Kaup, Andre


    In the last decade several methods for low level indexing of visual features appeared. Most often these were evaluated with respect to their discrimination power using measures like precision and recall. Accordingly, the targeted application was indexing of visual data within databases. During the standardization process of MPEG-7 the view on indexing of visual data changed, taking also communication aspects into account where coding efficiency is important. Even if the descriptors used for indexing are small compared to the size of images, it is recognized that there can be several descriptors linked to an image, characterizing different features and regions. Beside the importance of a small memory footprint for the transmission of the descriptor and the memory footprint in a database, eventually the search and filtering can be sped up by reducing the dimensionality of the descriptor if the metric of the matching can be adjusted. Based on a polygon shape descriptor presented for MPEG-7 this paper compares the discrimination power versus memory consumption of the descriptor. Different methods based on quantization are presented and their effect on the retrieval performance are measured. Finally an optimized computation of the descriptor is presented.

  9. Immediate preoperative enteral nutrition (preoperative enteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lađević Nebojša


    Full Text Available Nutritional support of surgical patients is a necessary part of the treatment. It alone cannot cure the disease but it significantly affects the recovery of patients and supports surgical interventions. Patients in malnutrition have shown to have significantly more postoperative infectious and non-infectious complications. This significantly prolongs treatment time and increases costs. However, there is one fact that cannot be expressed in money, which is the patient's impression of the surgical intervention. Adequate preoperative patient support, based on the intake of liquid nutritive solutions, reduces preoperative stress and deflects the metabolic response. Now, it is recommended for adults and children older than one year to drink clear liquid up to 2 hours before induction in anesthesia. Appropriate enteral nutrition has a significant place in the postoperative recovery of patients. Enteral nutrition is reducing complications, mainly infectious complications because the function of the digestive system as one large immune system is preserved. Perioperative enteral nutrition is a necessary part of the modern treatment of surgical patients. In addition to the significant effect on the occurrence of postoperative complications, it is also important that this type of diet improves the psychological status of patients.

  10. Gabor Weber Local Descriptor for Bovine Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Sun


    Full Text Available Iris recognition is a robust biometric technology. This paper proposes a novel local descriptor for bovine iris recognition, named Gabor Weber local descriptor (GWLD. We first compute the Gabor magnitude maps for the input bovine iris image, and then calculate the differential excitation and orientation for each pixel over each Gabor magnitude map. After that, we use these differential excitations and orientations to construct the GWLD histogram representation. Finally, histogram intersection is adopted to measure the similarity between different GWLD histograms. The experimental results on the SEU bovine iris database verify the representation power of our proposed local descriptor.

  11. Finding the Best Feature Detector-Descriptor Combination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Aanæs, Henrik; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup


    matching is an interplay of both detector and descriptor methodology. Our main contribution is to evaluate the performance of some of the most popular descriptor and detector combinations on the DTU Robot dataset, which is a very large dataset with massive amounts of systematic data aimed at two view...... matching. The size of the dataset implies that we can also reasonably make deductions about the statistical significance of our results. We conclude, that the MSER and Difference of Gaussian (DoG) detectors with a SIFT or DAISY descriptor are the top performers. This performance is, however...

  12. Effectiveness and consistency of a suite of descriptors for assessing the ecological status of seagrass meadows (Posidonia oceanica L. Delile) (United States)

    Rotini, Alice; Belmonte, Alessandro; Barrote, Isabel; Micheli, Carla; Peirano, Andrea; Santos, Rui O.; Silva, João; Migliore, Luciana


    The increasing rate of human-induced environmental changes on coastal marine ecosystems has created a demand for effective descriptors, in particular for those suitable for monitoring the status of seagrass meadows. Growing evidence has supported the useful application of biochemical and genetic descriptors such as secondary metabolite synthesis, photosynthetic activity and genetic diversity. In the present study, we have investigated the effectiveness of different descriptors (traditional, biochemical and genetic) in monitoring seagrass meadow conservation status. The Posidonia oceanica meadow of Monterosso al Mare (Ligurian sea, NW Mediterranean) was subjected to the measurement of bed density, leaf biometry, total phenols, soluble protein and photosynthetic pigment content as well as to RAPD marker analysis. This suite of descriptors provided evidence of their effectiveness and convenient application as markers of the conservation status of P. oceanica and/or other seagrasses. Biochemical/genetic descriptors and those obtained by traditional methods depicted a well conserved meadow with seasonal variability and, particularly in summer, indicated a healthier condition in a portion of the bed (station C), which was in agreement with the physical and sedimentological features of the station. Our results support the usefulness of introducing biochemical and genetic approaches to seagrass monitoring programs since they are effective indicators of plant physiological stress and environmental disturbance.

  13. Enteric neurodegeneration in ageing. (United States)

    Camilleri, M; Cowen, T; Koch, T R


    The objective of this article is to review the clinical presentation and neurobiology of degeneration of the enteric nervous system with emphasis on human data where available. Constipation, incontinence and evacuation disorders are frequently encountered in the ageing population. Healthy lower gastrointestinal function is essential for successful ageing as it is critical to maintaining independence and autonomy to pursue further activity. One clinical expression of enteric neurodegeneration is constipation. However, the aetiology may be multifactorial as disturbances of epithelial, muscle or neural function may all result from neurodegeneration. There is evidence of loss of excitatory (e.g. cholinergic) enteric neurons and interstitial cells of Cajal, whereas inhibitory (including nitrergic) neurons appear unaffected. Understanding neurodegeneration in the enteric nervous system is key to developing treatments to reverse it. Neurotrophins have been shown to accelerate colonic transit and relieve constipation in the medium term; they are also implicated in maintenance programmes in adult enteric neurons through a role in antioxidant defence. However, their effects in ageing colon require further study. There is evidence that 5-HT(2) and 5-HT(4) mechanisms are involved in development, maintenance and survival of enteric neurons. Further research is needed to understand and potentially reverse enteric neurodegeneration.

  14. Enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaushik, Neeraj; Pietraszewski, Marie; Holst, Jens Juul


    .5 g protein/kg ideal body weight/d. Plasma gut peptide responses were monitored in 15 subjects. RESULTS: In comparison with basal fasting trypsin secretion rates (mean = 134 [standard error = 22] U/h), duodenal feeding with the polymeric and elemental formulae stimulated trypsin secretion (mean = 408...... in enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation, with particular reference to trypsin, because the avoidance of trypsin stimulation may optimize enteral feeding in acute pancreatitis. METHODS: The pancreatic secretory responses to feeding were studied in 36 healthy volunteers by standard double...... [standard error = 51] U/h; P standard error = 34] U/h) and mid-distal jejunal (mean = 119 [standard error = 16] U/h) did not. Stimulation was associated with an increase in plasma cholecystokinin, whereas distal jejunal feeding resulted in an increase...

  15. Driver head pose estimation using efficient descriptor fusion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alioua, Nawal; Amine, Aouatif; Rogozan, Alexandrina; Bensrhair, Abdelaziz; Rziza, Mohammed


    .... Model-based approaches use a face geometrical model usually obtained from facial features, whereas appearance-based techniques use the whole face image characterized by a descriptor and generally...

  16. Characterization of recommended banana cultivars using morphological and molecular descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onildo Nunes de Jesus


    Full Text Available New banana varieties with superior agronomical characteristics have been developed through introductionand/or genetic breeding. In order to guarantee its marketing and intellectual property, these new varieties need to becharacterized by efficient inheritable qualitative morphological and molecular descriptors. The aim of the research was tocharacterize recommended banana varieties using qualitative morphological and molecular descriptors. Twelve genotypeswere analyzed using 61 morphological descriptors where 17 were related to the plant, 24 to the bunch and 20 regarding theflower. Eighty-one molecular markers; 47 RAPD primers and 34 SSR primers were used. The morphological and moleculardescriptors were efficient in the characterization and identification of specific characteristics for most of the varieties evaluated.Plant and inflorescence descriptors presented the greatest variability of characteristics that can facilitate its use for cultivarprotection and registration

  17. Tracking image features with PCA-SURF descriptors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pancham, A


    Full Text Available The tracking of moving points in image sequences requires unique features that can be easily distinguished. However, traditional feature descriptors are of high dimension, leading to larger storage requirement and slower computation. In this paper...

  18. Urology Tag Ontology Project: Standardizing Social Media Communication Descriptors. (United States)

    Kutikov, Alexander; Woo, Henry H; Catto, James W


    Standardizing social media hashtag descriptors is likely to facilitate communication and promote collaboration in both health care provider and patient communities. Copyright © 2015 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The enteric nervous system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sasselli, Valentina; Pachnis, Vassilis; Burns, Alan J


    The enteric nervous system (ENS), the intrinsic innervation of the gastrointestinal tract, consists of numerous types of neurons, and glial cells, that are distributed in two intramuscular plexuses that extend along the entire...

  20. Unbiased decoding of biologically motivated visual feature descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eFelsberg


    Full Text Available Visual feature descriptors are essential elements in most computer and robot vision systems. They typically lead to an abstraction of the input data, images or video, for further processing such as clustering and machine learning. In clustering applications, the cluster center represents the prototypical descriptor of the cluster and estimating the corresponding signal value, such as color value or dominating flow orientation, by decoding the prototypical descriptor, is essential. Machine learning applications determine the relevance of respective descriptors and a visualization of the corresponding decoded information is very useful for the analysis of the learning algorithm. Thus decoding of feature descriptors is a relevant problem, frequently addressed in recent work.Also the human brain represents sensorimotor information at a suitable abstraction level through varying activation of neuron populations. Approximative computational models have been derived that confirm neurophysiological experiments on the representation of visual information by decoding the underlying signals. However, the represented variables have a bias towards centers or boundaries of the tuning curves. Despite the fact that feature descriptors in computer vision are motivated from neuroscience, the respective decoding methods have been derived largely independent.From first order principles, we derive unbiased decoding schemes for biologically motivated feature descriptors with a minimum amount of redundancy and suitable invariance properties. These descriptors establish a non-parametric density estimation of the underlying stochastic process with a particular algebraic structure. Based on the resulting algebraic constraints, we show formally how the decoding problem is formulated as an unbiased maximum likelihood estimator and we derive a recurrent inverse diffusion scheme to infer the dominating mode of the distribution. These methods are evaluated and compared to

  1. Energy Data Base: Subject Thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raridon, M.H. (ed.)


    This seventh edition of the subject thesaurus contains the standard vocabulary of indexing terms (descriptors) developed and structured by the technical staff of the Office of Scientific and Technical Information as part of its subject indexing activities for building and maintaining the Energy Data Base (EDB) and other energy information data bases for the Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this thesaurus is to enhance the efficiency of information retrieval from these data bases. This structured vocabulary reflects the scope of DOE's research, development, and technological programs and encompasses terminology derived not only from the basic sciences for also from areas of energy resources, conservation, safety, environmental impact, and regulation. There are 21,080 valid descriptors and 5683 forbidden terms in this edition of the Thesaurus. These descriptors are listed alphabetically.

  2. Structure/response correlations and similarity/diversity analysis by GETAWAY descriptors. 2. Application of the novel 3D molecular descriptors to QSAR/QSPR studies. (United States)

    Consonni, Viviana; Todeschini, Roberto; Pavan, Manuela; Gramatica, Paola


    In a previous paper the theory of the new molecular descriptors called GETAWAY (GEometry, Topology, and Atom-Weights AssemblY) was explained. These descriptors have been proposed with the aim of matching 3D-molecular geometry, atom relatedness, and chemical information. In this paper prediction ability in structure-property correlations of GETAWAY descriptors has been tested extensively by analyzing the regressions of these descriptors for selected properties of some reference compound classes. Moreover, the general performance of the new descriptors in QSAR/QSPR has been evaluated with respect to other well-known sets of molecular descriptors.

  3. ENFit Enteral Nutrition Connectors. (United States)

    Guenter, Peggi; Lyman, Beth


    New enteral connectors are now available based on the development of standards using the International Organization of Standardization process to prevent misconnections between systems that should not connect. Enteral devices with the new patient access connectors, called ENFit, are being now introduced for the purpose of improving patient safety. Transitioning to these new connectors poses benefits and challenges for facilities or agencies implementing these new devices. Information from appropriate resources should be sought by clinicians who need to partner with their suppliers and clinical organizations to see how best to meet these challenges.

  4. Gun bore flaw image matching based on improved SIFT descriptor (United States)

    Zeng, Luan; Xiong, Wei; Zhai, You


    In order to increase the operation speed and matching ability of SIFT algorithm, the SIFT descriptor and matching strategy are improved. First, a method of constructing feature descriptor based on sector area is proposed. By computing the gradients histogram of location bins which are parted into 6 sector areas, a descriptor with 48 dimensions is constituted. It can reduce the dimension of feature vector and decrease the complexity of structuring descriptor. Second, it introduce a strategy that partitions the circular region into 6 identical sector areas starting from the dominate orientation. Consequently, the computational complexity is reduced due to cancellation of rotation operation for the area. The experimental results indicate that comparing with the OpenCV SIFT arithmetic, the average matching speed of the new method increase by about 55.86%. The matching veracity can be increased even under some variation of view point, illumination, rotation, scale and out of focus. The new method got satisfied results in gun bore flaw image matching. Keywords: Metrology, Flaw image matching, Gun bore, Feature descriptor


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The great diversity of plants in the Brazilian Semiarid environment represents a vital natural resource for the human populations of these areas. Many of these plants have been subject to extractivism and among these, the species of the genus Stylosanthes , which have occurrence in this region, show great potential, however, studies on this topic are limited, and little is known about the existing variability among these plants. Therefore, further study is necessary, to facilitate the development of cultivars. This might reduce the scarcity of fodder supply in this region, but to commence a plant breeding programme, it is essential to identify genetic variability. Therefore, this study evaluated 25 accessions of Stylosanthes spp., to identify the most suitable candidates to be parents in a plant breeding programme for the semiarid region of the state of Bahia. Two experiments were carried out in different sites in an experimental design of randomized blocks with four replicates, with a spacing of 3.0 × 8.0 m. A large amount of genetic diversity was observed among accessions and the genotypes BGF 08 - 007, BGF 08 - 016, BGF 08 - 015 and BGF 08 - 021 were the most divergent in the overall evaluation. For the structuring of segregating populations, it is recommended to combine the genotypes BGF 08 - 016, BGF 08 - 015, BGF 08 - 007 and BGF 08 - 006, and for the interspecific crosses, a hybrid from the accession BGF - 024 with the accessions BGF 08 - 016 or BGF 08 - 015. This might generate superior individuals for mass descriptors, which are the most important for animal forage breeding.

  6. 5. Enter Bernhard Riemann

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 6. Geometry Enter Bernhard Riemann. Kapil H Paranjape. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 6 June 1996 pp 33-40. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Author Affiliations.

  7. Real-Time Traffic Sign Recognition using SURF Descriptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Htet Wai Kyu


    Full Text Available For road safety traffic sign is essential for drivers by giving valuable safety and navigation information pedestrians and even for the development of autonomous driver assistance system. Traffic sign can be classified by two methods can be approached. First approach is color base segmentation which is the region of traffic sign by using HSV color space Hue Saturation and Value and the next approach is shape base segmentation using Hough Circle Detection. In thissystem we use circle shape base detection for every traffic sign. At first keypoints descriptor is extracted from each standard traffic sign image in database and then keypoints descriptor is taken from region of traffic sign extracted from Hough circle detection. After that the nearest distance is matched keypoints descriptor between in each standard traffic sign image in database and extracted traffic sign image.

  8. Learning moment-based fast local binary descriptor (United States)

    Bellarbi, Abdelkader; Zenati, Nadia; Otmane, Samir; Belghit, Hayet


    Recently, binary descriptors have attracted significant attention due to their speed and low memory consumption; however, using intensity differences to calculate the binary descriptive vector is not efficient enough. We propose an approach to binary description called POLAR_MOBIL, in which we perform binary tests between geometrical and statistical information using moments in the patch instead of the classical intensity binary test. In addition, we introduce a learning technique used to select an optimized set of binary tests with low correlation and high variance. This approach offers high distinctiveness against affine transformations and appearance changes. An extensive evaluation on well-known benchmark datasets reveals the robustness and the effectiveness of the proposed descriptor, as well as its good performance in terms of low computation complexity when compared with state-of-the-art real-time local descriptors.

  9. Interframe coding of feature descriptors for mobile augmented reality. (United States)

    Makar, Mina; Chandrasekhar, Vijay; Tsai, Sam S; Chen, David; Girod, Bernd


    Streaming mobile augmented reality applications require both real-time recognition and tracking of objects of interest in a video sequence. Typically, local features are calculated from the gradients of a canonical patch around a keypoint in individual video frames. In this paper, we propose a temporally coherent keypoint detector and design efficient interframe predictive coding techniques for canonical patches, feature descriptors, and keypoint locations. In the proposed system, we strive to transmit each patch or its equivalent feature descriptor with as few bits as possible by modifying a previously transmitted patch or descriptor. Our solution enables server-based mobile augmented reality where a continuous stream of salient information, sufficient for image-based retrieval, and object localization, is sent at a bit-rate that is practical for today's wireless links and less than one-tenth of the bit-rate needed to stream the compressed video to the server.

  10. On the Alignment of Shapes Represented by Fourier Descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöstrand, Karl; Ericsson, Anders; Larsen, Rasmus


    The representation of shapes by Fourier descriptors is a time-honored technique that has received relatively little attention lately. Nevertheless, it has many benefits and is applicable for describing a range of medical structures in two dimensions. Delineations in medical applications often...... consist of continuous outlines of structures, where no information of correspondence between samples exist. In this article, we discuss an alignment method that works directly with the functional representation of Fourier descriptors, and that is optimal in a least-squares sense. With corresponding...... represented by common landmarks can be constructed in an automatic fashion. If the aligned Fourier descriptors are inverse transformed from the frequency domain to the spatial domain, a set of roughly aligned landmarks are obtained. The positions of these are then adjusted along the contour of the objects...

  11. Innovative design method of automobile profile based on Fourier descriptor (United States)

    Gao, Shuyong; Fu, Chaoxing; Xia, Fan; Shen, Wei


    Aiming at the innovation of the contours of automobile side, this paper presents an innovative design method of vehicle side profile based on Fourier descriptor. The design flow of this design method is: pre-processing, coordinate extraction, standardization, discrete Fourier transform, simplified Fourier descriptor, exchange descriptor innovation, inverse Fourier transform to get the outline of innovative design. Innovative concepts of the innovative methods of gene exchange among species and the innovative methods of gene exchange among different species are presented, and the contours of the innovative design are obtained separately. A three-dimensional model of a car is obtained by referring to the profile curve which is obtained by exchanging xenogeneic genes. The feasibility of the method proposed in this paper is verified by various aspects.

  12. Note on naive Bayes based on binary descriptors in cheminformatics. (United States)

    Townsend, Joe A; Glen, Robert C; Mussa, Hamse Y


    A plethora of articles on naive Bayes classifiers, where the chemical compounds to be classified are represented by binary-valued (absent or present type) descriptors, have appeared in the cheminformatics literature over the past decade. The principal goal of this paper is to describe how a naive Bayes classifier based on binary descriptors (NBCBBD) can be employed as a feature selector in an efficient manner suitable for cheminformatics. In the process, we point out a fact well documented in other disciplines that NBCBBD is a linear classifier and is therefore intrinsically suboptimal for classifying compounds that are nonlinearly separable in their binary descriptor space. We investigate the performance of the proposed algorithm on classifying a subset of the MDDR data set, a standard molecular benchmark data set, into active and inactive compounds.

  13. Image feature detectors and descriptors foundations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hassaballah, Mahmoud


    This book provides readers with a selection of high-quality chapters that cover both theoretical concepts and practical applications of image feature detectors and descriptors. It serves as reference for researchers and practitioners by featuring survey chapters and research contributions on image feature detectors and descriptors. Additionally, it emphasizes several keywords in both theoretical and practical aspects of image feature extraction. The keywords include acceleration of feature detection and extraction, hardware implantations, image segmentation, evolutionary algorithm, ordinal measures, as well as visual speech recognition. .

  14. A Framework of Temporal-Spatial Descriptors-Based Feature Extraction for Improved Myoelectric Pattern Recognition. (United States)

    Khushaba, Rami N; Al-Timemy, Ali H; Al-Ani, Ahmed; Al-Jumaily, Adel


    The extraction of the accurate and efficient descriptors of muscular activity plays an important role in tackling the challenging problem of myoelectric control of powered prostheses. In this paper, we present a new feature extraction framework that aims to give an enhanced representation of muscular activities through increasing the amount of information that can be extracted from individual and combined electromyogram (EMG) channels. We propose to use time-domain descriptors (TDDs) in estimating the EMG signal power spectrum characteristics; a step that preserves the computational power required for the construction of spectral features. Subsequently, TDD is used in a process that involves: 1) representing the temporal evolution of the EMG signals by progressively tracking the correlation between the TDD extracted from each analysis time window and a nonlinearly mapped version of it across the same EMG channel and 2) representing the spatial coherence between the different EMG channels, which is achieved by calculating the correlation between the TDD extracted from the differences of all possible combinations of pairs of channels and their nonlinearly mapped versions. The proposed temporal-spatial descriptors (TSDs) are validated on multiple sparse and high-density (HD) EMG data sets collected from a number of intact-limbed and amputees performing a large number of hand and finger movements. Classification results showed significant reductions in the achieved error rates in comparison to other methods, with the improvement of at least 8% on average across all subjects. Additionally, the proposed TSDs achieved significantly well in problems with HD-EMG with average classification errors of <5% across all subjects using windows lengths of 50 ms only.

  15. Feedback Nash Equilibria for Linear Quadratic Descriptor Differential Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engwerda, J.C.; Salmah, Y.


    In this note we consider the non-cooperative linear feedback Nash quadratic differential game with an infinite planning horizon for descriptor systems of index one. The performance function is assumed to be indefinite. We derive both necessary and sufficient conditions under which this game has a

  16. Cognition-inspired Descriptors for Scalable Cover Song Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Balen, J.M.H.; Bountouridis, D.; Wiering, F.; Veltkamp, R.C.


    Inspired by representations used in music cognition studies and computational musicology, we propose three simple and interpretable descriptors for use in mid- to high-level computational analysis of musical audio and applications in content-based retrieval. We also argue that the task of scalable

  17. Facial action detection using block-based pyramid appearance descriptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Bihan; Valstar, Michel F.; Pantic, Maja


    Facial expression is one of the most important non-verbal behavioural cues in social signals. Constructing an effective face representation from images is an essential step for successful facial behaviour analysis. Most existing face descriptors operate on the same scale, and do not leverage coarse

  18. Aerial Object Recognition Algorithm Based on Contour Descriptor (United States)

    Strotov, V. V.; Babyan, P. V.; Smirnov, S. A.


    This paper describes the image recognition algorithm for on-board and stationary vision system. Suggested algorithm is intended to recognize the aerial object of a specific kind using the set of the reference objects defined by 3D models. The proposed algorithm based on the outer contour descriptor building. The algorithm consists of two stages: learning and recognition. Learning stage is devoted to the exploring of reference objects. Using 3D models we can gather set of training images by rendering the 3D model from viewpoints evenly distributed on a sphere. Sphere points distribution is made by the geosphere principle. Gathered training image set is used for calculating descriptors, which will be used in the recognition stage of the algorithm. The recognition stage is focusing on estimating the similarity of the captured object and the reference objects by matching an observed image descriptor and the reference object descriptors. The experimental research was performed using a set of the models of the aircraft of the different types. The proposed orientation estimation algorithm showed good accuracy in all case studies.

  19. Unveiling descriptors for predicting the bulk modulus of amorphous carbon (United States)

    Takahashi, Keisuke; Tanaka, Yuzuru


    Descriptors for the bulk modulus of amorphous carbon are investigated through the implementation of data mining where data sets are prepared using first-principles calculations. Data mining reveals that the number of bonds in each C atom and the density of amorphous carbon are found to be descriptors representing the bulk modulus. Support vector regression (SVR) within machine learning is implemented and descriptors are trained where trained SVR is able to predict the bulk modulus of amorphous carbon. An inverse problem, starting from the bulk modulus towards structural information of amorphous carbon, is performed and structural information of amorphous carbon is successfully predicted from the desired bulk modulus. Thus, treating several physics factors in multidimensional space allows for the prediction of physical phenomena. In addition, the reported approach proposes that "big data" can be generated from a small data set using machine learning if descriptors are well defined. This would greatly change how amorphous carbon would be treated and help accelerate further development of amorphous carbon materials.

  20. An approach for combining multiple descriptors for image classification (United States)

    Tran, Duc Toan; Jansen, Bart; Deklerck, Rudi; Debeir, Olivier


    Recently, efficient image descriptors have shown promise for image classification tasks. Moreover, methods based on the combination of multiple image features provide better performance compared to methods based on a single feature. This work presents a simple and efficient approach for combining multiple image descriptors. We first employ a Naive-Bayes Nearest-Neighbor scheme to evaluate four widely used descriptors. For all features, "Image-to-Class" distances are directly computed without descriptor quantization. Since distances measured by different metrics can be of different nature and they may not be on the same numerical scale, a normalization step is essential to transform these distances into a common domain prior to combining them. Our experiments conducted on a challenging database indicate that z-score normalization followed by a simple sum of distances fusion technique can significantly improve the performance compared to applications in which individual features are used. It was also observed that our experimental results on the Caltech 101 dataset outperform other previous results.

  1. Novel texture-based descriptors for tool wear condition monitoring (United States)

    Antić, Aco; Popović, Branislav; Krstanović, Lidija; Obradović, Ratko; Milošević, Mijodrag


    All state-of-the-art tool condition monitoring systems (TCM) in the tool wear recognition task, especially those that use vibration sensors, heavily depend on the choice of descriptors containing information about the tool wear state which are extracted from the particular sensor signals. All other post-processing techniques do not manage to increase the recognition precision if those descriptors are not discriminative enough. In this work, we propose a tool wear monitoring strategy which relies on the novel texture based descriptors. We consider the module of the Short Term Discrete Fourier Transform (STDFT) spectra obtained from the particular vibration sensors signal utterance as the 2D textured image. This is done by identifying the time scale of STDFT as the first dimension, and the frequency scale as the second dimension of the particular textured image. The obtained textured image is then divided into particular 2D texture patches, covering a part of the frequency range of interest. After applying the appropriate filter bank, 2D textons are extracted for each predefined frequency band. By averaging in time, we extract from the textons for each band of interest the information regarding the Probability Density Function (PDF) in the form of lower order moments, thus obtaining robust tool wear state descriptors. We validate the proposed features by the experiments conducted on the real TCM system, obtaining the high recognition accuracy.

  2. Morphological descriptors and micro satellite diversity among scarlet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nei's coefficients for morphological descriptors and SSR data indicated that S. aethiopicum groups showed a wide genetic base. MM1102 and MM457 showed high relatedness for pubescence and moderate prickles. These traits are useful during selection and intellectual right. The Kumba and Shum groups are ...

  3. Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems (United States)

    ... page: // Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems To use the sharing features ... trouble breathing, call 911. References Mcclave SA. Enteral nutrition. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  4. [Fiber and enteral nutrition]. (United States)

    Gómez Candela, C; de Cos Blanco, A I; Iglesias Rosado, C


    Dietary fibre is a mixture of various substances and is essential for maintaining appropriate intestinal functionality and it is currently considered to be a necessary part of a healthy diet. Current recommendations for fibre consumption by adults range from 20 to 35 g/day. Enteral nutrition is an emerging therapeutic variation in both hospital and domestic settings. To a great extent, this development has been made possible thanks to the design of new formulas that adapt better and better to the clinicla conditions or our patients. The type of fibre used in these preparations varies greatly. Some have only one source of fibre while others use differnet combinations. There are currently 32 formulas available on the Spanish market, without counting the modules or specific preparations of individual types of fibre. Despite the enormous advances in the knowledge of the beneficial effects of fibre, the fact of the matter is that enteral nutrition that we routinely prescribe in normal clinical practice does not contain fibre. The are several explanations for this, perhaps the most plausible is that these formulas may lead to problems in their administration and tolerance. It is necessary to choose the correct calibre of catheter and define the best infusion method and timing. Another difficulty may be the gastrointestinal tolerance of the formulas containing fibre. No large-scale problems of intolerance have however been described in healthy volunteers nor in patients with acute or chronic pathologies, although it is of fundamental importance to monitor the rhythm of depositions in all patients with enteral nutrition (EN) and ensure proper intake of liquids, which would also be useful to prevent occlusion of the catheter. The theoretical benefits of EN with fibre with a view to maintaining or improving normal intestinal structure and function are very varied. Nonetheless, it has noit yet been possible to prove many of these effects in controlled clinical trials. At the

  5. Assessment of Food and Nutrition Related Descriptors in Agricultural and Biomedical Thesauri (United States)

    Bartol, Tomaz

    Food- and human nutrition-related subject headings or descriptors of the following thesauri-databases are assessed: NAL Thesaurus/Agricola, Agrovoc/Agris, CAB Thesaurus, FSTA Thesaurus, MeSH/Medline. Food concepts can be represented by thousands of different terms but subject scope of a particular term is sometimes vague. There exist important differences among thesauri regarding same or similar concept. A term that represents narrower or broader concept in one thesaurus can in another stand for a related concept or be non-existent. Sometimes there is no clear implication of differences between scientific (Latin) and common (English) names. Too many related terms can confuse end-users. Thesauri were initially employed mostly by information professionals but can now be used directly by users who may be unaware of differences. Thesauri are assuming new roles in classification of information as metadata. Further development towards ontologies must pay constant attention to taxonomic problems of representation of knowledge.

  6. Enteral nutrition access devices. (United States)

    Kwon, Richard S; Banerjee, Subhas; Desilets, David; Diehl, David L; Farraye, Francis A; Kaul, Vivek; Mamula, Petar; Pedrosa, Marcos C; Rodriguez, Sarah A; Varadarajulu, Shyam; Song, Louis-Michel Wong Kee; Tierney, William M


    The ASGE Technology Committee provides reviews of existing, new, or emerging endoscopic technologies that have an impact on the practice of GI endoscopy. Evidence-based methodology is used, performing a MEDLINE literature search to identify pertinent clinical studies on the topic and a MAUDE (U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Devices and Radiological Health) database search to identify the reported complications of a given technology. Both are supplemented by accessing the "related articles" feature of PubMed and by scrutinizing pertinent references cited by the identified studies. Controlled clinical trials are emphasized, but, in many cases, data from randomized, controlled trials are lacking. In such situations, large case series, preliminary clinical studies, and expert opinions are used. Technical data are gathered from traditional and Web-based publications, proprietary publications, and informal communications with pertinent vendors. Technology Status Evaluation Reports are drafted by 1 or 2 members of the ASGE Technology Committee, reviewed and edited by the committee as a whole, and approved by the ASGE Governing Board. When financial guidance is indicated, the most recent coding data and list prices at the time of publication are provided. For this review, the MEDLINE database was searched through August 2009 for articles related to endoscopy in patients requiring enteral feeding access by using the keywords "endoscopy," "percutaneous," "gastrostomy," "jejunostomy," "nasogastric," "nasoenteric," "nasojejunal," "transnasal," "feeding tube," "enteric," and "button." Technology Status Evaluation Reports are scientific reviews provided solely for educational and informational purposes. Technology Status Evaluation Reports are not rules and should not be construed as establishing a legal standard of care or as encouraging, advocating, requiring, or discouraging any particular treatment or payment for such treatment. Copyright 2010 American Society

  7. Cross-Spectral Local Descriptors via Quadruplet Network. (United States)

    Aguilera, Cristhian A; Sappa, Angel D; Aguilera, Cristhian; Toledo, Ricardo


    This paper presents a novel CNN-based architecture, referred to as Q-Net, to learn local feature descriptors that are useful for matching image patches from two different spectral bands. Given correctly matched and non-matching cross-spectral image pairs, a quadruplet network is trained to map input image patches to a common Euclidean space, regardless of the input spectral band. Our approach is inspired by the recent success of triplet networks in the visible spectrum, but adapted for cross-spectral scenarios, where, for each matching pair, there are always two possible non-matching patches: one for each spectrum. Experimental evaluations on a public cross-spectral VIS-NIR dataset shows that the proposed approach improves the state-of-the-art. Moreover, the proposed technique can also be used in mono-spectral settings, obtaining a similar performance to triplet network descriptors, but requiring less training data.

  8. Multimodal Algorithm for Iris Recognition with Local Topological Descriptors (United States)

    Campos, Sergio; Salas, Rodrigo; Allende, Hector; Castro, Carlos

    This work presents a new method for feature extraction of iris images to improve the identification process. The valuable information of the iris is intrinsically located in its natural texture, and preserving and extracting the most relevant features is of paramount importance. The technique consists in several steps from adquisition up to the person identification. Our contribution consists in a multimodal algorithm where a fragmentation of the normalized iris image is performed and, afterwards, regional statistical descriptors with Self-Organizing-Maps are extracted. By means of a biometric fusion of the resulting descriptors, the features of the iris are compared and classified. The results with the iris data set obtained from the Bath University repository show an excellent accuracy reaching up to 99.867%.

  9. Cross-Spectral Local Descriptors via Quadruplet Network (United States)

    Aguilera, Cristhian A.; Sappa, Angel D.; Aguilera, Cristhian; Toledo, Ricardo


    This paper presents a novel CNN-based architecture, referred to as Q-Net, to learn local feature descriptors that are useful for matching image patches from two different spectral bands. Given correctly matched and non-matching cross-spectral image pairs, a quadruplet network is trained to map input image patches to a common Euclidean space, regardless of the input spectral band. Our approach is inspired by the recent success of triplet networks in the visible spectrum, but adapted for cross-spectral scenarios, where, for each matching pair, there are always two possible non-matching patches: one for each spectrum. Experimental evaluations on a public cross-spectral VIS-NIR dataset shows that the proposed approach improves the state-of-the-art. Moreover, the proposed technique can also be used in mono-spectral settings, obtaining a similar performance to triplet network descriptors, but requiring less training data. PMID:28420142

  10. Urdu character recognition using fourier descriptors for optical networks (United States)

    Lodhi, S. M.; Matin, M. A.


    This work deals with the problem of recognition of Urdu characters using Fourier descriptors for optical networks. In particular, the scope of this work has been to develop a robust Urdu characters pattern classification, representation, and recognition system, which can classify patterns even if they are deformed by transformations like rotation, scaling, and translation or any combination of these, in the presence of noise. Fourier descriptors are used to uniquely describe, classify, and recognize Urdu characters within one sub-class, that provide a remarkably simple way to draw definite conclusions from vague, ambiguous, noisy or imprecise information. Although current information transmission media i.e. cable, Ethernet etc. may still be used for communications but we proposed new technology i.e. WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing) due to its high speed and low loss transmission. Finally experimental results are presented to show the power and robustness of the proposed technique for Urdu character recognition.

  11. BRIEF: Computing a Local Binary Descriptor Very Fast. (United States)

    Calonder, Michael; Lepetit, Vincent; Özuysal, Mustafa; Trzcinski, Tomasz; Strecha, Christoph; Fua, Pascal


    Binary descriptors are becoming increasingly popular as a means to compare feature points very fast while requiring comparatively small amounts of memory. The typical approach to creating them is to first compute floating-point ones, using an algorithm such as SIFT, and then to binarize them. In this paper, we show that we can directly compute a binary descriptor, which we call BRIEF, on the basis of simple intensity difference tests. As a result, BRIEF is very fast both to build and to match. We compare it against SURF and SIFT on standard benchmarks and show that it yields comparable recognition accuracy, while running in an almost vanishing fraction of the time required by either.

  12. AllergenFP: allergenicity prediction by descriptor fingerprints. (United States)

    Dimitrov, Ivan; Naneva, Lyudmila; Doytchinova, Irini; Bangov, Ivan


    Allergenicity, like antigenicity and immunogenicity, is a property encoded linearly and non-linearly, and therefore the alignment-based approaches are not able to identify this property unambiguously. A novel alignment-free descriptor-based fingerprint approach is presented here and applied to identify allergens and non-allergens. The approach was implemented into a four step algorithm. Initially, the protein sequences are described by amino acid principal properties as hydrophobicity, size, relative abundance, helix and β-strand forming propensities. Then, the generated strings of different length are converted into vectors with equal length by auto- and cross-covariance (ACC). The vectors were transformed into binary fingerprints and compared in terms of Tanimoto coefficient. The approach was applied to a set of 2427 known allergens and 2427 non-allergens and identified correctly 88% of them with Matthews correlation coefficient of 0.759. The descriptor fingerprint approach presented here is universal. It could be applied for any classification problem in computational biology. The set of E-descriptors is able to capture the main structural and physicochemical properties of amino acids building the proteins. The ACC transformation overcomes the main problem in the alignment-based comparative studies arising from the different length of the aligned protein sequences. The conversion of protein ACC values into binary descriptor fingerprints allows similarity search and classification. The algorithm described in the present study was implemented in a specially designed Web site, named AllergenFP (FP stands for FingerPrint). AllergenFP is written in Python, with GIU in HTML. It is freely accessible at FP. or

  13. Computational analysis and predictive modeling of polymorph descriptors


    Lee, Yugyung; Jana, Sourav; Acharya, Gayathri; Lee, Chi H.


    Background A computation approach based on integrating high throughput binding affinity comparison and binding descriptor classifications was utilized to establish the correlation among substrate properties and their affinity to Breast Cancer Resistant Protein (BCRP). The uptake rates of Mitoxantrone in the presence of various substrates were evaluated as an in vitro screening index for comparison of their binding affinity to BCRP. The effects of chemical properties of various chemotherapeuti...

  14. A novel method to compare protein structures using local descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniluk Paweł


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein structure comparison is one of the most widely performed tasks in bioinformatics. However, currently used methods have problems with the so-called "difficult similarities", including considerable shifts and distortions of structure, sequential swaps and circular permutations. There is a demand for efficient and automated systems capable of overcoming these difficulties, which may lead to the discovery of previously unknown structural relationships. Results We present a novel method for protein structure comparison based on the formalism of local descriptors of protein structure - DEscriptor Defined Alignment (DEDAL. Local similarities identified by pairs of similar descriptors are extended into global structural alignments. We demonstrate the method's capability by aligning structures in difficult benchmark sets: curated alignments in the SISYPHUS database, as well as SISY and RIPC sets, including non-sequential and non-rigid-body alignments. On the most difficult RIPC set of sequence alignment pairs the method achieves an accuracy of 77% (the second best method tested achieves 60% accuracy. Conclusions DEDAL is fast enough to be used in whole proteome applications, and by lowering the threshold of detectable structure similarity it may shed additional light on molecular evolution processes. It is well suited to improving automatic classification of structure domains, helping analyze protein fold space, or to improving protein classification schemes. DEDAL is available online at

  15. Human action recognition based on point context tensor shape descriptor (United States)

    Li, Jianjun; Mao, Xia; Chen, Lijiang; Wang, Lan


    Motion trajectory recognition is one of the most important means to determine the identity of a moving object. A compact and discriminative feature representation method can improve the trajectory recognition accuracy. This paper presents an efficient framework for action recognition using a three-dimensional skeleton kinematic joint model. First, we put forward a rotation-scale-translation-invariant shape descriptor based on point context (PC) and the normal vector of hypersurface to jointly characterize local motion and shape information. Meanwhile, an algorithm for extracting the key trajectory based on the confidence coefficient is proposed to reduce the randomness and computational complexity. Second, to decrease the eigenvalue decomposition time complexity, a tensor shape descriptor (TSD) based on PC that can globally capture the spatial layout and temporal order to preserve the spatial information of each frame is proposed. Then, a multilinear projection process is achieved by tensor dynamic time warping to map the TSD to a low-dimensional tensor subspace of the same size. Experimental results show that the proposed shape descriptor is effective and feasible, and the proposed approach obtains considerable performance improvement over the state-of-the-art approaches with respect to accuracy on a public action dataset.

  16. Potency-scaled partitioning in descriptor spaces with increasing dimensionality. (United States)

    Bajorath, Jürgen


    Partitioning algorithms are described that operate in chemical reference spaces formed by combinations of binary-transformed molecular descriptors and aim at the identification of potent hits in ligand-based virtual screening. One of these approaches depends on mapping of consensus positions of compound activity sets in descriptor spaces followed by step-wise extension of the dimensionality of these spaces and re-mapping of activity-dependent consensus positions. Dimension extension is carried out to increase the discriminatory power of descriptor combinations and distinguish database compounds from potential hits. This method was originally named Dynamic Mapping of Consensus positions (DMC) and subsequently extended in order to take different potency levels of known active molecules into account and increase the probability of recognizing potent database hits. The extension was accomplished by adding potency scaling to DMC calculations, and the resulting approach was termed POT-DMC. Results of comparisons of DMC and POT-DMC calculations on different classes of active compounds with substantially varying potency levels support the validity of the POT-DMC approach.

  17. Efficient eye detection using HOG-PCA descriptor (United States)

    Savakis, Andreas; Sharma, Riti; Kumar, Mrityunjay


    Eye detection is becoming increasingly important for mobile interfaces and human computer interaction. In this paper, we present an efficient eye detector based on HOG-PCA features obtained by performing Principal Component Analysis (PCA) on Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG). The Histogram of Oriented Gradients is a dense descriptor computed on overlapping blocks along a grid of cells over regions of interest. The HOG-PCA offers an efficient feature for eye detection by applying PCA on the HOG vectors extracted from image patches corresponding to a sliding window. The HOG-PCA descriptor significantly reduces feature dimensionality compared to the dimensionality of the original HOG feature or the eye image region. Additionally, we introduce the HOG-RP descriptor by utilizing Random Projections as an alternative to PCA for reducing the dimensionality of HOG features. We develop robust eye detectors by utilizing HOG-PCA and HOG-RP features of image patches to train a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. Testing is performed on eye images extracted from the FERET and BioID databases.

  18. Dense Descriptors for Optical Flow Estimation: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Baghaie


    Full Text Available Estimating the displacements of intensity patterns between sequential frames is a very well-studied problem, which is usually referred to as optical flow estimation. The first assumption among many of the methods in the field is the brightness constancy during movements of pixels between frames. This assumption is proven to be not true in general, and therefore, the use of photometric invariant constraints has been studied in the past. One other solution can be sought by use of structural descriptors rather than pixels for estimating the optical flow. Unlike sparse feature detection/description techniques and since the problem of optical flow estimation tries to find a dense flow field, a dense structural representation of individual pixels and their neighbors is computed and then used for matching and optical flow estimation. Here, a comparative study is carried out by extending the framework of SIFT-flow to include more dense descriptors, and comprehensive comparisons are given. Overall, the work can be considered as a baseline for stimulating more interest in the use of dense descriptors for optical flow estimation.

  19. Segmentation of electron microscopy images through Gabor texture descriptors (United States)

    Navarro, Rafael B.; Nestares, Oscar


    We have developed a robust method for image segmentation based on a local multiscale texture description. We first apply a set of 4 by 4 complex Gabor filters, plus a low-pass residual (LPR), producing a log-polar sampling of the frequency domain. Contrary to other analysis methods, our Gabor scheme produces a visually complete multipurpose representation of the image, so that it can also be applied to coding, synthesis, etc. Our sixteen texture features consist of local contrast descriptors, obtained by dividing the modulus of the response of the complex Gabor filter by that of the LPR at each location. Contrast descriptors are basically independent of slow variations in intensity, while increasing the robustness and invariance of the representation. Before applying the segmentation algorithm, we equalize the number of samples of the four layers in the resulting pyramid of local contrast descriptors. This method has been applied to segmentation of electron microscopy images, obtaining very good results in this real case, where robustness is a basic requirement, because intensity, textures and other factors are not completely homogeneous.

  20. BIPCO: ultrasound feature points based on phase congruency detector and binary pattern descriptor. (United States)

    Dall'Alba, Diego; Fiorini, Paolo


    Detection of feature points in medical ultrasound (US) images is the starting point of many clinical tasks, such as segmentation of lesions in pathological areas, estimation of organ deformation, and multimodality image fusion. However, obtaining a reliable feature point localization is a complex task even for an expert radiologist due to the US image characteristics: strong presence of noise, insidious artifacts, and low contrast. In this work, we describe a feature detector based on phase congruency (PhC) combined with a binary pattern descriptor. We introduce a feature detector specifically designed for US images and based on PhC analysis. We also introduce a descriptor based on local binary pattern (LBP) operator to improve and simplify the matching between feature points extracted from different images. LBP is not applied directly to the intensity values; instead, it is applied to the PhC output obtained during the detection step to improve robustness to intensity transformation, and the rejection of noise. We tested the proposed approach compared to state-of- the-art methods applied to real US images subject to realistic synthetic transformations. The results of the proposed method, in terms of accuracy and precision, outperform the state-of-the-art approaches that are not designed for US data. The methods described in this work will enable the development of US-based navigation system, which supports automatic feature point detection and matching from US images acquired at different times during the procedure.

  1. Impact sound insulation descriptors in the Nordic building regulations – Overview special rules and benefits of changing descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagberg, Klas; Rasmussen, Birgit


    All Nordic countries have sound insulation requirements specified in the building regulations or in sound classification schemes, Class C, referred to in the regulations and published as national standards, which all originate from a common Nordic INSTA-B proposal from the 90’s, thus having a lot...... of similarities. However, the descriptors and other rules differ more than what is obvious at the first glance. The present use of different descriptors and additional rules is partly a heritage from the past and partly caused by later national revisions without cooperation with the other Nordic countries....... These national rules are not easy to find, unless all details of standards and other documents are known and studied carefully, and they cause problems since the building industry is not national anymore. This paper gives an overview of special national rules in the Nordic countries regarding impact sound...

  2. Airborne sound insulation descriptors in the Nordic building regulations - Overview special rules and benefits of changing descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helimäki, Heikki; Rasmussen, Birgit


    All Nordic countries have sound insulation requirements specified in the building regulations or in sound classification schemes, Class C, referred to in the regulations and published as national standards, which all originate from a common Nordic INSTA-B proposal from the 90’s, thus having a lot...... of similarities. However, the descriptors and other rules differ more than what is obvious at the first glance. The present use of different descriptors and additional rules is partly a heritage from the past and partly caused by later national revisions without cooperation with the other Nordic countries....... These national rules are not easy to find, unless all details of standards and other documents are known and studied carefully, and they cause problems since the building industry is not national anymore. This paper gives an overview of special national rules in the Nordic countries regarding airborne sound...

  3. A group of facial normal descriptors for recognizing 3D identical twins

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huibin


    In this paper, to characterize and distinguish identical twins, three popular texture descriptors: i.e. local binary patterns (LBPs), gabor filters (GFs) and local gabor binary patterns (LGBPs) are employed to encode the normal components (x, y and z) of the 3D facial surfaces of identical twins respectively. A group of facial normal descriptors are thus achieved, including Normal Local Binary Patterns descriptor (N-LBPs), Normal Gabor Filters descriptor (N-GFs) and Normal Local Gabor Binary Patterns descriptor (N-LGBPs). All these normal encoding based descriptors are further fed into sparse representation classifier (SRC) for identification. Experimental results on the 3D TEC database demonstrate that these proposed normal encoding based descriptors are very discriminative and efficient, achieving comparable performance to the best of state-of-the-art algorithms. © 2012 IEEE.

  4. Shape-tailored local descriptors and their application to segmentation and tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Naeemullah


    We propose new dense descriptors for texture segmentation. Given a region of arbitrary shape in an image, these descriptors are formed from shape-dependent scale spaces of oriented gradients. These scale spaces are defined by Poisson-like partial differential equations. A key property of our new descriptors is that they do not aggregate image data across the boundary of the region, in contrast to existing descriptors based on aggregation of oriented gradients. As an example, we show how the descriptor can be incorporated in a Mumford-Shah energy for texture segmentation. We test our method on several challenging datasets for texture segmentation and textured object tracking. Experiments indicate that our descriptors lead to more accurate segmentation than non-shape dependent descriptors and the state-of-the-art in texture segmentation.

  5. [Modular enteral nutrition in pediatrics]. (United States)

    Murillo Sanchís, S; Prenafeta Ferré, M T; Sempere Luque, M D


    Modular Enteral Nutrition may be a substitute for Parenteral Nutrition in children with different pathologies. Study of 4 children with different pathologies selected from a group of 40 admitted to the Maternal-Childrens Hospital "Valle de Hebrón" in Barcelona, who received modular enteral nutrition. They were monitored on a daily basis by the Dietician Service. Modular enteral nutrition consists of modules of proteins, peptides, lipids, glucids and mineral salts-vitamins. 1.--Craneo-encephalic traumatisms with loss of consciousness, Feeding with a combination of parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition for 7 days. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended and modular enteral nutrition alone used up to a total of 43 days. 2.--55% burns with 36 days of hyperproteic modular enteral nutrition together with normal feeding. A more rapid recovery was achieved with an increase in total proteins and albumin. 3.--Persistent diarrhoea with 31 days of modular enteral nutrition, 5 days on parenteral nutrition alone and 8 days on combined parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended. 4.--Mucoviscidosis with a total of 19 days on modular enteral nutrition, 12 of which were exclusively on modular enteral nutrition and 7 as a night supplement to normal feeding. We administered proteic intakes of up to 20% of the total calorific intake and in concentrations of up to 1.2 calories/ml of the final preparation, always with a good tolerance. Modular enteral nutrition can and should be used as a substitute for parenteral nutrition in children with different pathologies, thus preventing the complications inherent in parenteral nutrition.

  6. International energy: Subject thesaurus supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This is a supplement to International Energy: Subject Thesaurus (ETDE/PUB--2(Rev.1)), which replaced DOE/TIC-7000--the EDB Subject Thesaurus. This supplement is provided periodically to keep International Energy: Subject Thesaurus recipients up-to-date on valid vocabulary terms (descriptors) used in building and maintaining several international energy information databases. Each issue contains all new terms added since the publication of the Thesaurus. Each supplement is a cumulative listing of the new terms, so that each issue replaces the previous one.

  7. Anomaly Detection Based on Local Nearest Neighbor Distance Descriptor in Crowded Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Hu


    Full Text Available We propose a novel local nearest neighbor distance (LNND descriptor for anomaly detection in crowded scenes. Comparing with the commonly used low-level feature descriptors in previous works, LNND descriptor has two major advantages. First, LNND descriptor efficiently incorporates spatial and temporal contextual information around the video event that is important for detecting anomalous interaction among multiple events, while most existing feature descriptors only contain the information of single event. Second, LNND descriptor is a compact representation and its dimensionality is typically much lower than the low-level feature descriptor. Therefore, not only the computation time and storage requirement can be accordingly saved by using LNND descriptor for the anomaly detection method with offline training fashion, but also the negative aspects caused by using high-dimensional feature descriptor can be avoided. We validate the effectiveness of LNND descriptor by conducting extensive experiments on different benchmark datasets. Experimental results show the promising performance of LNND-based method against the state-of-the-art methods. It is worthwhile to notice that the LNND-based approach requires less intermediate processing steps without any subsequent processing such as smoothing but achieves comparable event better performance.

  8. Anomaly detection based on local nearest neighbor distance descriptor in crowded scenes. (United States)

    Hu, Xing; Hu, Shiqiang; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Huanlong; Luo, Lingkun


    We propose a novel local nearest neighbor distance (LNND) descriptor for anomaly detection in crowded scenes. Comparing with the commonly used low-level feature descriptors in previous works, LNND descriptor has two major advantages. First, LNND descriptor efficiently incorporates spatial and temporal contextual information around the video event that is important for detecting anomalous interaction among multiple events, while most existing feature descriptors only contain the information of single event. Second, LNND descriptor is a compact representation and its dimensionality is typically much lower than the low-level feature descriptor. Therefore, not only the computation time and storage requirement can be accordingly saved by using LNND descriptor for the anomaly detection method with offline training fashion, but also the negative aspects caused by using high-dimensional feature descriptor can be avoided. We validate the effectiveness of LNND descriptor by conducting extensive experiments on different benchmark datasets. Experimental results show the promising performance of LNND-based method against the state-of-the-art methods. It is worthwhile to notice that the LNND-based approach requires less intermediate processing steps without any subsequent processing such as smoothing but achieves comparable event better performance.

  9. Quantitative structure-activation barrier relationship modeling for Diels-Alder ligations utilizing quantum chemical structural descriptors (United States)


    Background In the present study, we show the correlation of quantum chemical structural descriptors with the activation barriers of the Diels-Alder ligations. A set of 72 non-catalysed Diels-Alder reactions were subjected to quantitative structure-activation barrier relationship (QSABR) under the framework of theoretical quantum chemical descriptors calculated solely from the structures of diene and dienophile reactants. Experimental activation barrier data were obtained from literature. Descriptors were computed using Hartree-Fock theory using 6-31G(d) basis set as implemented in Gaussian 09 software. Results Variable selection and model development were carried out by stepwise multiple linear regression methodology. Predictive performance of the quantitative structure-activation barrier relationship (QSABR) model was assessed by training and test set concept and by calculating leave-one-out cross-validated Q2 and predictive R2 values. The QSABR model can explain and predict 86.5% and 80% of the variances, respectively, in the activation energy barrier training data. Alternatively, a neural network model based on back propagation of errors was developed to assess the nonlinearity of the sought correlations between theoretical descriptors and experimental reaction barriers. Conclusions A reasonable predictability for the activation barrier of the test set reactions was obtained, which enabled an exploration and interpretation of the significant variables responsible for Diels-Alder interaction between dienes and dienophiles. Thus, studies in the direction of QSABR modelling that provide efficient and fast prediction of activation barriers of the Diels-Alder reactions turn out to be a meaningful alternative to transition state theory based computation. PMID:24171724

  10. Descriptor Based Analysis of Digital 3D Shapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welnicka, Katarzyna

    Analysis and processing of 3D digital shapes is a significant research area with numerous medical, industrial, and entertainment applications which has gained enormously in importance as optical scanning modalities have started to make acquired 3D geometry commonplace. The area holds many...... challenges. One such challenge, which is addressed in this thesis, is to develop computational methods for classifying shapes which are in agreement with the human way of understanding and classifying shapes. In this dissertation we first present a shape descriptor based on the process of diffusion...

  11. On atom-bond connectivity molecule structure descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furtula Boris


    Full Text Available The atom-bond connectivity index (ABC is a degree-based molecular structure descriptor with well-documented chemical applications. In 2010 a distance-based new variant of this index (ABCGG has been proposed. Until now, the relation between ABC and ABCGG has not been analyzed. In this paper, we establish the basic characteristics of this relation. In particular, ABC and ABCGG are not correlated and both cases ABC > ABCGG and ABC < ABCGG may occur in the case of (structurally similar molecules. However, in the case of benzenoid hydrocarbons, ABC always exceeds ABCGG. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 174033

  12. Fourier shape descriptors in fish preliminary results with Prochilodus (United States)

    Torres, Audalio Rebelo; Silva, Josielma dos Santos; Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes Carvalho


    In this work, we analyzed fifteen Prochilodus applying Fourier shape descriptors techniques in order to test a method potential to detect and distinguish features like gonadal stage. The technique consists in obtains captured images from the fishes with high resolution, digitized the contours of the fish and obtains Cartesian coordinates of the points in the fish image border. These coordinates of each fish is adjusted to a Fourier discrete polynomial and the variability of each harmonic is obtained and evaluated. The initial results show a promising potential in distinguish fish features.

  13. Prostate malignancy grading using gland-related shape descriptors (United States)

    Braumann, Ulf-Dietrich; Scheibe, Patrick; Loeffler, Markus; Kristiansen, Glen; Wernert, Nicolas


    A proof-of-principle study was accomplished assessing the descriptive potential of two simple geometric measures (shape descriptors) applied to sets of segmented glands within images of 125 prostate cancer tissue sections. Respective measures addressing glandular shapes were (i) inverse solidity and (ii) inverse compactness. Using a classifier based on logistic regression, Gleason grades 3 and 4/5 could be differentiated with an accuracy of approx. 95%. Results suggest not only good discriminatory properties, but also robustness against gland segmentation variations. False classifications in part were caused by inadvertent Gleason grade assignments, as a-posteriori re-inspections had turned out.

  14. Relevant Physicochemical Descriptors of "Soft Nanomedicines" to Bypass Biological Barriers. (United States)

    Nino-Pariente, Amaya; Nebot, Vicent J; Vicent, Maria J


    Herein, we present an overview on the current status of the characterization techniques and methodologies used to study the physicochemical descriptors that influence the final clinical performance of a given nanomedicine. The described techniques were selected based on their suitability to operate under relevant "native" conditions that mimic the physiological environment. Special emphasis is placed on those techniques that hold a greater potential to unravel dynamic, structural, and compositional features of soft organic nanomedicines relevant to the ability to bypass biological barriers, and hence allow for the rational design of drug delivery platforms with improved biological output.

  15. Gastro-enteritis in huisartsenpeilstations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, M.A.S. de; Koopmans, M.P.G.; Kortbeek, L.M.; Leeuwen, W.J. van; Vinje, J.; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Duijnhoven, Y.T.P.H. van


    De incidentie van huisartsconsulten voor gastro-enteritis van 77 per 10.000 persoonjaren lijkt een lichte daling te vertonen t.o.v. de incidentie van 90 per 10.000 persoonjaren in een vergelijkbaar onderzoek in 1992-1993. De belangrijkste verwekkers van gastro-enteritis waarvoor de huisarts wordt

  16. Application of radial basis function neural network to predict soil sorption partition coefficient using topological descriptors. (United States)

    Sabour, Mohammad Reza; Moftakhari Anasori Movahed, Saman


    The soil sorption partition coefficient logKoc is an indispensable parameter that can be used in assessing the environmental risk of organic chemicals. In order to predict soil sorption partition coefficient for different and even unknown compounds in a fast and accurate manner, a radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) model was developed. Eight topological descriptors of 800 organic compounds were used as inputs of the model. These 800 organic compounds were chosen from a large and very diverse data set. Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN) was utilized as the function in this neural network model due to its capability to adapt very quickly. Hence, it can be used to predict logKoc for new chemicals, as well. Out of total data set, 560 organic compounds were used for training and 240 to test efficiency of the model. The obtained results indicate that the model performance is very well. The correlation coefficients (R2) for training and test sets were 0.995 and 0.933, respectively. The root-mean square errors (RMSE) were 0.2321 for training set and 0.413 for test set. As the results for both training and test set are extremely satisfactory, the proposed neural network model can be employed not only to predict logKoc of known compounds, but also to be adaptive for prediction of this value precisely for new products that enter the market each year. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Object tracking on mobile devices using binary descriptors (United States)

    Savakis, Andreas; Quraishi, Mohammad Faiz; Minnehan, Breton


    With the growing ubiquity of mobile devices, advanced applications are relying on computer vision techniques to provide novel experiences for users. Currently, few tracking approaches take into consideration the resource constraints on mobile devices. Designing efficient tracking algorithms and optimizing performance for mobile devices can result in better and more efficient tracking for applications, such as augmented reality. In this paper, we use binary descriptors, including Fast Retina Keypoint (FREAK), Oriented FAST and Rotated BRIEF (ORB), Binary Robust Independent Features (BRIEF), and Binary Robust Invariant Scalable Keypoints (BRISK) to obtain real time tracking performance on mobile devices. We consider both Google's Android and Apple's iOS operating systems to implement our tracking approach. The Android implementation is done using Android's Native Development Kit (NDK), which gives the performance benefits of using native code as well as access to legacy libraries. The iOS implementation was created using both the native Objective-C and the C++ programing languages. We also introduce simplified versions of the BRIEF and BRISK descriptors that improve processing speed without compromising tracking accuracy.

  18. Descriptor Learning via Supervised Manifold Regularization for Multioutput Regression. (United States)

    Zhen, Xiantong; Yu, Mengyang; Islam, Ali; Bhaduri, Mousumi; Chan, Ian; Li, Shuo


    Multioutput regression has recently shown great ability to solve challenging problems in both computer vision and medical image analysis. However, due to the huge image variability and ambiguity, it is fundamentally challenging to handle the highly complex input-target relationship of multioutput regression, especially with indiscriminate high-dimensional representations. In this paper, we propose a novel supervised descriptor learning (SDL) algorithm for multioutput regression, which can establish discriminative and compact feature representations to improve the multivariate estimation performance. The SDL is formulated as generalized low-rank approximations of matrices with a supervised manifold regularization. The SDL is able to simultaneously extract discriminative features closely related to multivariate targets and remove irrelevant and redundant information by transforming raw features into a new low-dimensional space aligned to targets. The achieved discriminative while compact descriptor largely reduces the variability and ambiguity for multioutput regression, which enables more accurate and efficient multivariate estimation. We conduct extensive evaluation of the proposed SDL on both synthetic data and real-world multioutput regression tasks for both computer vision and medical image analysis. Experimental results have shown that the proposed SDL can achieve high multivariate estimation accuracy on all tasks and largely outperforms the algorithms in the state of the arts. Our method establishes a novel SDL framework for multioutput regression, which can be widely used to boost the performance in different applications.

  19. Stroke subtype classification by geometrical descriptors of lesion shape. (United States)

    Cheng, Bastian; Knaack, Christian; Forkert, Nils Daniel; Schnabel, Renate; Gerloff, Christian; Thomalla, Götz


    Inference of etiology from lesion pattern in acute magnetic resonance imaging is valuable for management and prognosis of acute stroke patients. This study aims to assess the value of three-dimensional geometrical lesion-shape descriptors for stroke-subtype classification, specifically regarding stroke of cardioembolic origin. Stroke Etiology was classified according to ASCOD in retrospectively selected patients with acute stroke. Lesions were segmented on diffusion-weighed datasets, and descriptors of lesion shape quantified: surface area, sphericity, bounding box volume, and ratio between bounding box and lesion volume. Morphological measures were compared between stroke subtypes classified by ASCOD and between patients with embolic stroke of cardiac and non-cardiac source. 150 patients (mean age 77 years; 95% CI, 65-80 years; median NIHSS 6, range 0-22) were included. Group comparison of lesion shape measures demonstrated that lesions caused by small-vessel disease were smaller and more spherical compared to other stroke subtypes. No significant differences of morphological measures were detected between patients with cardioembolic and non-cardioembolic stroke. Stroke lesions caused by small vessel disease can be distinguished from other stroke lesions based on distinctive morphological properties. However, within the group of embolic strokes, etiology could not be inferred from the morphology measures studied in our analysis.

  20. Stroke subtype classification by geometrical descriptors of lesion shape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Cheng

    Full Text Available Inference of etiology from lesion pattern in acute magnetic resonance imaging is valuable for management and prognosis of acute stroke patients. This study aims to assess the value of three-dimensional geometrical lesion-shape descriptors for stroke-subtype classification, specifically regarding stroke of cardioembolic origin.Stroke Etiology was classified according to ASCOD in retrospectively selected patients with acute stroke. Lesions were segmented on diffusion-weighed datasets, and descriptors of lesion shape quantified: surface area, sphericity, bounding box volume, and ratio between bounding box and lesion volume. Morphological measures were compared between stroke subtypes classified by ASCOD and between patients with embolic stroke of cardiac and non-cardiac source.150 patients (mean age 77 years; 95% CI, 65-80 years; median NIHSS 6, range 0-22 were included. Group comparison of lesion shape measures demonstrated that lesions caused by small-vessel disease were smaller and more spherical compared to other stroke subtypes. No significant differences of morphological measures were detected between patients with cardioembolic and non-cardioembolic stroke.Stroke lesions caused by small vessel disease can be distinguished from other stroke lesions based on distinctive morphological properties. However, within the group of embolic strokes, etiology could not be inferred from the morphology measures studied in our analysis.

  1. [COMMODE] a large-scale database of molecular descriptors using compounds from PubChem. (United States)

    Dander, Andreas; Mueller, Laurin Aj; Gallasch, Ralf; Pabinger, Stephan; Emmert-Streib, Frank; Graber, Armin; Dehmer, Matthias


    Molecular descriptors have been extensively used in the field of structure-oriented drug design and structural chemistry. They have been applied in QSPR and QSAR models to predict ADME-Tox properties, which specify essential features for drugs. Molecular descriptors capture chemical and structural information, but investigating their interpretation and meaning remains very challenging. This paper introduces a large-scale database of molecular descriptors called COMMODE containing more than 25 million compounds originated from PubChem. About 2500 DRAGON-descriptors have been calculated for all compounds and integrated into this database, which is accessible through a web interface at

  2. FAB: Fast Angular Binary Descriptor for Matching Corner Points in Video Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehwish Tahir


    Full Text Available Image matching is a fundamental step in several computer vision applications where the requirement is fast, accurate, and robust matching of images in the presence of different transformations. Detection and more importantly description of low-level image features proved to be a more appropriate choice for this purpose, such as edges, corners, or blobs. Modern descriptors use binary values to store neighbourhood information of feature points for matching because binary descriptors are fast to compute and match. This paper proposes a descriptor called Fast Angular Binary (FAB descriptor that illustrates the neighbourhood of a corner point using a binary vector. It is different from conventional descriptors because of selecting only the useful neighbourhood of corner point instead of the whole circular area of specific radius. The descriptor uses the angle of corner points to reduce the search space and increase the probability of finding an accurate match using binary descriptor. Experiments show that FAB descriptor’s performance is good, but the calculation and matching time is significantly less than BRIEF, the best known binary descriptor, and AMIE, a descriptor that uses entropy and average intensities of informative part of a corner point for the description.

  3. Technical aspects of enteral nutrition.


    Keymling, M


    Advances in technical aspects of enteral feeding such as the manufacture of tubes from polyurethane or silicone have helped promote the science of enteral nutrition. Nasoenteral tubes have few complications, apart from a high unwanted extubation rate and some reluctance from patients because of cosmetic unacceptability. Needle jejunostomy has low morbidity but can only be placed at laparotomy. Percutaneous gastrotomy (in all its different guises) has been established as a low risk procedure a...

  4. Recent Advances in Enteral Nutrition


    Ojo, Omorogieva; Brooke, Joanne


    There have been significant advances in the provision of enteral nutrition support in the acute and community healthcare settings. Enteral nutrition is beneficial to individuals who have functional guts but may not be able to meet their nutritional requirements via a normal diet. Most of these people have neurological conditions such as stroke, multiple sclerosis and dementia which could impact on swallowing reflexes, leading to dysphagia [1]. Others may have cancer, intellectual disability o...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alli Muthiah


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Nutrients form the fuel for the body, which comes in the form of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. The body is intended to burn fuels in order to perform work. Starvation with malnutrition affects the postoperative patients and patients with acute pancreatitis. There is an increased risk of nosocomial infections and a delay in the wound healing may be noted. They are more prone for respiratory tract infections. Enteral Nutrition (EN delivers nutrition to the body through gastrointestinal tract. This also includes the oral feeding. This study will review the administration, rationale and assess the pros and cons associated with the early initiation of enteral feeding. The aim of this study is to evaluate if early commencement of enteral nutrition compared to traditional management (delayed enteral feeding is associated with fewer complications and improved outcome-  In patients undergoing elective/emergency gastrointestinal surgery.  In patients with acute pancreatitis. It is also used to determine whether a period of starvation (nil by mouth after gastrointestinal surgery or in the early days of acute pancreatitis is beneficial in terms of specific outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective cohort interventional study was conducted using 100 patients from July 2012 to November 2012. Patients satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. Patients admitted in my unit for GIT surgeries or acute pancreatitis constituted the test group, while patients admitted in other units for similar disease processes constituted the control group. RESULTS Our study concluded that early enteral feeding resulted in reduced incidence of surgical site infections. When the decreased length of stay, shorter convalescent period and the lesser post-interventional fatigue were taken into account, early enteral feeding has a definite cost benefit.CONCLUSION Early enteral feeding was beneficial associated with fewer

  6. Selection of morphoagronomic descriptors for the characterization of accessions of cassava of the Eastern Brazilian Amazon. (United States)

    Silva, R S; Moura, E F; Farias-Neto, J T; Ledo, C A S; Sampaio, J E


    The aim of this study was to select morphoagronomic descriptors to characterize cassava accessions representative of Eastern Brazilian Amazonia. It was characterized 262 accessions using 21 qualitative descriptors. The multiple-correspondence analysis (MCA) technique was applied using the criteria: contribution of the descriptor in the last factorial axis of analysis in successive cycles (SMCA); reverse order of the descriptor's contribution in the last factorial axis of analysis with all descriptors ('O'´p') of Jolliffe's method; mean of the contribution orders of the descriptor in the first three factorial axes in the analysis with all descriptors ('Os') together with ('O'´p'); and order of contribution of weighted mean in the first three factorial axes in the analysis of all descriptors ('Oz'). The dissimilarity coefficient was measured by the method of multicategorical variables. The correlation among the matrix generated with all descriptors and matrices based on each criteria varied (r = 0.21, r = 0.97, r = 0.98, r = 0.13 for SMCA, 'Os', 'Oz' and 'O'´p', respectively). The least informative descriptors were discarded independently and according to both 'Os' and 'Oz' criteria. Thirteen descriptors were capable to discriminate the accessions and to represent the morphological variability of accessions sampled in Brazilian Eastern Amazonia: color of apical leaves, petiole color, color of stem exterior, external color of storage root, color of stem cortex, color of root pulp, texture of root epidermis, color of leaf vein, color of stem epidermis, color of end branches of adult plant, branching habit, root shape, and constriction of root.

  7. Universal fragment descriptors for predicting properties of inorganic crystals (United States)

    Isayev, Olexandr; Oses, Corey; Toher, Cormac; Gossett, Eric; Curtarolo, Stefano; Tropsha, Alexander


    Although historically materials discovery has been driven by a laborious trial-and-error process, knowledge-driven materials design can now be enabled by the rational combination of Machine Learning methods and materials databases. Here, data from the AFLOW repository for ab initio calculations is combined with Quantitative Materials Structure-Property Relationship models to predict important properties: metal/insulator classification, band gap energy, bulk/shear moduli, Debye temperature and heat capacities. The prediction's accuracy compares well with the quality of the training data for virtually any stoichiometric inorganic crystalline material, reciprocating the available thermomechanical experimental data. The universality of the approach is attributed to the construction of the descriptors: Property-Labelled Materials Fragments. The representations require only minimal structural input allowing straightforward implementations of simple heuristic design rules.

  8. Retrieval of Remote Sensing Images with Pattern Spectra Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Bosilj


    Full Text Available The rapidly increasing volume of visual Earth Observation data calls for effective content based image retrieval solutions, specifically tailored for their high spatial resolution and heterogeneous content. In this paper, we address this issue with a novel local implementation of the well-known morphological descriptors called pattern spectra. They are computationally efficient histogram-like structures describing the global distribution of arbitrarily defined attributes of connected image components. Besides employing pattern spectra for the first time in this context, our main contribution lies in their dense calculation, at a local scale, thus enabling their combination with sophisticated visual vocabulary strategies. The Merced Landuse/Landcover dataset has been used for comparing the proposed strategy against alternative global and local content description methods, where the introduced approach is shown to yield promising performances.

  9. Reactivity descriptors for direct methanol fuel cell anode catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrin, Peter; Nilekar, Anand Udaykumar; Greeley, Jeff


    We have investigated the anode reaction in direct methanol fuel cells using a database of adsorption free energies for 16 intermediates on 12 close-packed transition metal surfaces calculated with periodic, self-consistent, density functional theory (DFT-GGA). This database, combined with a simple...... electrokinetic model of the methanol electrooxidation reaction, yields mechanistic insights that are consistent with previous experimental and theoretical studies on Pt, and extends these insights to a broad spectrum of other transition metals. In addition, by using linear scaling relations between...... the adsorption free energies of various intermediates in the reaction network, we find that the results determined with the full database of adsorption energies can be estimated by knowing only two key descriptors for each metal surface: the free energies of OH and CO on the surface. Two mechanisms for methanol...

  10. Planetary and Solar Data Labeled with IVOA Unified Content Descriptors (United States)

    Louys, Mireille; Cecconi, Baptiste; Derriere, Sébastien; Erard, S.; André, N.; Preite-Martinez, A.; Ochsenbein, F.; Jacquey, C.; Génot, V.; Henry, F.; Bonnin, X.; Le Sidaner, P.; Chauvin, C.; Fuller, N.; Braga, V. F.; Aboudarham, J.


    Astronomical data collections are widely using tabular formats to expose their data to the community and especially in the Virtual Observatory. In order to label the content of physical quantities stored in table columns, The Unified Content Descriptors (UCDs) [Preite Martinez et al. (2011)] labels have been standardized and attached as semantic tags to a wide range of measurements and metadata. This unifies the content description across multiple data collections and archive centers. The Planetary and Solar science communities proposed, together with the IVOA Semantics Working group, to extend this bank of semantic labels for the distribution of their own collections and to adopt compatible standards such as VOTable, TAP, etc. This work shows the new UCD set proposed and how it is made available in the Virtual Observatory framework. A reference vocabulary is set up, UCD assigning tools and tests are presented.

  11. Uterus segmentation in dynamic MRI using LBP texture descriptors (United States)

    Namias, R.; Bellemare, M.-E.; Rahim, M.; Pirró, N.


    Pelvic floor disorders cover pathologies of which physiopathology is not well understood. However cases get prevalent with an ageing population. Within the context of a project aiming at modelization of the dynamics of pelvic organs, we have developed an efficient segmentation process. It aims at alleviating the radiologist with a tedious one by one image analysis. From a first contour delineating the uterus-vagina set, the organ border is tracked along a dynamic mri sequence. The process combines movement prediction, local intensity and texture analysis and active contour geometry control. Movement prediction allows a contour intitialization for next image in the sequence. Intensity analysis provides image-based local contour detection enhanced by local binary pattern (lbp) texture descriptors. Geometry control prohibits self intersections and smoothes the contour. Results show the efficiency of the method with images produced in clinical routine.

  12. Learning physical descriptors for materials science by compressed sensing (United States)

    Ghiringhelli, Luca M.; Vybiral, Jan; Ahmetcik, Emre; Ouyang, Runhai; Levchenko, Sergey V.; Draxl, Claudia; Scheffler, Matthias


    The availability of big data in materials science offers new routes for analyzing materials properties and functions and achieving scientific understanding. Finding structure in these data that is not directly visible by standard tools and exploitation of the scientific information requires new and dedicated methodology based on approaches from statistical learning, compressed sensing, and other recent methods from applied mathematics, computer science, statistics, signal processing, and information science. In this paper, we explain and demonstrate a compressed-sensing based methodology for feature selection, specifically for discovering physical descriptors, i.e., physical parameters that describe the material and its properties of interest, and associated equations that explicitly and quantitatively describe those relevant properties. As showcase application and proof of concept, we describe how to build a physical model for the quantitative prediction of the crystal structure of binary compound semiconductors.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Marchetti da Silva


    Full Text Available This paper aims to propose an alternative method for retrieving documents using Multiwords Expressions (MWE extracted from a document base to be used as descriptors in search of an Information Retrieval System (IRS. In this sense, unlike methods that consider the text as a set of words, bag of words, we propose a method that takes into account the characteristics of the physical structure of the document in the extraction process of MWE. From this set of terms comparing pre-processed using an exhaustive algorithmic technique proposed by the authors with the results obtained for thirteen different measures of association statistics generated by the software Ngram Statistics Package (NSP. To perform this experiment was set up with a corpus of documents in digital format

  14. Multimodal image registration based on binary gradient angle descriptor. (United States)

    Jiang, Dongsheng; Shi, Yonghong; Yao, Demin; Fan, Yifeng; Wang, Manning; Song, Zhijian


    Multimodal image registration plays an important role in image-guided interventions/therapy and atlas building, and it is still a challenging task due to the complex intensity variations in different modalities. The paper addresses the problem and proposes a simple, compact, fast and generally applicable modality-independent binary gradient angle descriptor (BGA) based on the rationale of gradient orientation alignment. The BGA can be easily calculated at each voxel by coding the quadrant in which a local gradient vector falls, and it has an extremely low computational complexity, requiring only three convolutions, two multiplication operations and two comparison operations. Meanwhile, the binarized encoding of the gradient orientation makes the BGA more resistant to image degradations compared with conventional gradient orientation methods. The BGA can extract similar feature descriptors for different modalities and enable the use of simple similarity measures, which makes it applicable within a wide range of optimization frameworks. The results for pairwise multimodal and monomodal registrations between various images (T1, T2, PD, T1c, Flair) consistently show that the BGA significantly outperforms localized mutual information. The experimental results also confirm that the BGA can be a reliable alternative to the sum of absolute difference in monomodal image registration. The BGA can also achieve an accuracy of [Formula: see text], similar to that of the SSC, for the deformable registration of inhale and exhale CT scans. Specifically, for the highly challenging deformable registration of preoperative MRI and 3D intraoperative ultrasound images, the BGA achieves a similar registration accuracy of [Formula: see text] compared with state-of-the-art approaches, with a computation time of 18.3 s per case. The BGA improves the registration performance in terms of both accuracy and time efficiency. With further acceleration, the framework has the potential for

  15. Japanese-English Educational-Use Keyword Equivalents Selected from ERIC Descriptors--9th Edition. (United States)

    Aichi Univ. of Education, Japan. Center for Educational Technology.

    This book lists 4,876 descriptors selected from the Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 9th Edition, with their Japanese language equivalents. It was prepared by personnel of the Center for Educational Technology at Aichi University of Education, which, since 1978, in cooperation with Unesco's Asian Programme of Educational Innovation for Development…

  16. Discriminating Power of FISWG Characteristic Descriptors Under Different Forensic Use Cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinstra, Christopher Gerard; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan


    FISWG characteristic descriptors are facial features that can be used for evidence evaluation during forensic case work. In this paper we investigate the discriminating power of a biometric system that uses these characteristic descriptors as features under different forensic use cases. We show that

  17. Visual analytics in cheminformatics: user-supervised descriptor selection for QSAR methods. (United States)

    Martínez, María Jimena; Ponzoni, Ignacio; Díaz, Mónica F; Vazquez, Gustavo E; Soto, Axel J


    The design of QSAR/QSPR models is a challenging problem, where the selection of the most relevant descriptors constitutes a key step of the process. Several feature selection methods that address this step are concentrated on statistical associations among descriptors and target properties, whereas the chemical knowledge is left out of the analysis. For this reason, the interpretability and generality of the QSAR/QSPR models obtained by these feature selection methods are drastically affected. Therefore, an approach for integrating domain expert's knowledge in the selection process is needed for increase the confidence in the final set of descriptors. In this paper a software tool, which we named Visual and Interactive DEscriptor ANalysis (VIDEAN), that combines statistical methods with interactive visualizations for choosing a set of descriptors for predicting a target property is proposed. Domain expertise can be added to the feature selection process by means of an interactive visual exploration of data, and aided by statistical tools and metrics based on information theory. Coordinated visual representations are presented for capturing different relationships and interactions among descriptors, target properties and candidate subsets of descriptors. The competencies of the proposed software were assessed through different scenarios. These scenarios reveal how an expert can use this tool to choose one subset of descriptors from a group of candidate subsets or how to modify existing descriptor subsets and even incorporate new descriptors according to his or her own knowledge of the target property. The reported experiences showed the suitability of our software for selecting sets of descriptors with low cardinality, high interpretability, low redundancy and high statistical performance in a visual exploratory way. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that the resulting tool allows the integration of a chemist's expertise in the descriptor selection process with

  18. Meat-based enteral nutrition (United States)

    Derevitskay, O. K.; Dydykin, A. S.


    Enteral nutrition is widely used in hospitals as a means of nutritional support and therapy for different diseases. Enteral nutrition must fulfil the energy needs of the body, be balanced by the nutrient composition and meet patient’s nutritional needs. Meat is a source of full-value animal protein, vitamins and minerals. On the basis of this research, recipes and technology for a meat-based enteral nutrition product were developed. The product is a ready-to-eat sterilised mixture in the form of a liquid homogeneous mass, which is of full value in terms of composition and enriched with vitamins and minerals, consists of particles with a size of not more than 0.3 mm and has the modified fat composition and rheological characteristics that are necessary for passage through enteral feeding tubes. The study presents experimental data on the content of the main macro- and micro-nutrients in the developed product. The new product is characterised by a balanced fatty acid composition, which plays an important role in correction of lipid metabolism disorders and protein-energy deficiency, and it is capable of satisfying patients’ daily requirements for vitamins and the main macro- and microelements when consuming 1500-2000 ml. Meat-based enteral nutrition can be used in diets as a standard mixture for effective correction of the energy and anabolic requirements of the body and support of the nutritional status of patients, including those with operated stomach syndrome.

  19. A comparison of feature detectors and descriptors for object class matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hietanen, Antti; Lankinen, Jukka; Kämäräinen, Joni-Kristian


    appearance variation can be large. We extend the benchmarks to the class matching setting and evaluate state-of-the-art detectors and descriptors with Caltech and ImageNet classes. Our experiments provide important findings with regard to object class matching: (1) the original SIFT is still the best......Solid protocols to benchmark local feature detectors and descriptors were introduced by Mikolajczyk et al. 1 and 2. The detectors and the descriptors are popular tools in object class matching, but the wide baseline setting in the benchmarks does not correspond to class-level matching where...... descriptor; (2) dense sampling outperforms interest point detectors with a clear margin; (3) detectors perform moderately well, but descriptors׳ performance collapses; (4) using multiple, even a few, best matches instead of the single best has significant effect on the performance; (5) object pose variation...

  20. Enteric Neurobiology: Discoveries and Directions. (United States)

    Wood, Jackie D

    Discovery and documentation of noncholinergic-nonadrenergic neurotransmission in the enteric nervous system started a revolution in mechanisms of neural control of the digestive tract that continues into a twenty-first century era of translational gastroenterology, which is now firmly embedded in the term, neurogastroenterology. This chapter, on Enteric Neurobiology: Discoveries and Directions, tracks the step-by-step advances in enteric neuronal electrophysiology and synaptic behavior and progresses to the higher order functions of central pattern generators, hard wired synaptic circuits and libraries of neural programs in the brain-in-the-gut that underlie the several different patterns of motility and secretory behaviors that occur in the specialized, serially-connected compartments extending from the esophagus to the anus.

  1. Application of a methodology for categorizing and differentiating urban soundscapes using acoustical descriptors and semantic-differential attributes. (United States)

    Torija, Antonio J; Ruiz, Diego P; Ramos-Ridao, A F


    A subjective and physical categorization of an ambient sound is the first step to evaluate the soundscape and provides a basis for designing or adapting this ambient sound to match people's expectations. For this reason, the main goal of this work is to develop a categorization and differentiation analysis of soundscapes on the basis of acoustical and perceptual variables. A hierarchical cluster analysis, using 15 semantic-differential attributes and acoustical descriptors to include an equivalent sound-pressure level, maximum-minimum sound-pressure level, impulsiveness of the sound-pressure level, sound-pressure level time course, and spectral composition, was conducted to classify soundscapes into different typologies. This analysis identified 15 different soundscape typologies. Furthermore, based on a discriminant analysis the acoustical descriptors, the crest factor (impulsiveness of the sound-pressure level), and the sound level at 125 Hz were found to be the acoustical variables with the highest impact in the differentiation of the recognized types of soundscapes. Finally, to determine how the different soundscape typologies differed from each other, both subjectively and acoustically, a study was performed.

  2. Nutrición enteral


    Barrachina Bellés, Lidón; García Hernández, Misericordia; Oto Cavero, Isabel


    Este trabajo nos introduce en la administración de la nutrición enteral, haciendo una revisión de los aspectos a tener en cuenta tanto en sus indicaciones, vias, tipos, métodos, cuidados y complicaciones más importantes.

  3. The effects of variant descriptors on the potential effectiveness of plain packaging. (United States)

    Borland, Ron; Savvas, Steven


    To examine the effects that variant descriptor labels on cigarette packs have on smokers' perceptions of those packs and the cigarettes contained within. As part of two larger web-based studies (each involved 160 young adult ever-smokers 18-29 years old), respondents were shown a computer image of a plain cigarette pack and sets of related variant descriptors. The sets included terms that varied in terms of descriptors of colours as names, flavour strength, degrees of filter venting, filter types, quality, type of cigarette and numbers. For each set, respondents rated the highest and lowest of two or three of the following four characteristics: quality, strongest or weakest in taste, delivers most or least tar/nicotine, and most or least level of harm. There were significant differences on all four ratings. Quality ratings were the least differentiated. Except for colour descriptors, where 'Gold' rated high in quality but medium in other ratings, ratings of quality, harm, strength and delivery were all positively associated when rated on the same descriptors. Descriptor labels on cigarette packs, can affect smokers' perceptions of the characteristics of the cigarettes contained within. Therefore, they are a potential means by which product differentiation can occur. In particular, having variants differing in perceived strength while not differing in deliveries of harmful ingredients is particularly problematic. Any packaging policy should take into account the possibility that variant descriptors can mislead smokers into making inappropriate product attributions.

  4. A Joint Compression Scheme of Video Feature Descriptors and Visual Content. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Ma, Siwei; Wang, Shiqi; Zhang, Xinfeng; Sun, Huifang; Gao, Wen


    High-efficiency compression of visual feature descriptors has recently emerged as an active topic due to the rapidly increasing demand in mobile visual retrieval over bandwidth-limited networks. However, transmitting only those feature descriptors may largely restrict its application scale due to the lack of necessary visual content. To facilitate the wide spread of feature descriptors, a hybrid framework of jointly compressing the feature descriptors and visual content is highly desirable. In this paper, such a content-plus-feature coding scheme is investigated, aiming to shape the next generation of video compression system toward visual retrieval, where the high-efficiency coding of both feature descriptors and visual content can be achieved by exploiting the interactions between each other. On the one hand, visual feature descriptors can achieve compact and efficient representation by taking advantages of the structure and motion information in the compressed video stream. To optimize the retrieval performance, a novel rate-accuracy optimization technique is proposed to accurately estimate the retrieval performance degradation in feature coding. On the other hand, the already compressed feature data can be utilized to further improve the video coding efficiency by applying feature matching-based affine motion compensation. Extensive simulations have shown that the proposed joint compression framework can offer significant bitrate reduction in representing both feature descriptors and video frames, while simultaneously maintaining the state-of-the-art visual retrieval performance.

  5. On the information content of 2D and 3D descriptors for QSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oprea Tudor I.


    Full Text Available To gain better understanding on the information content of two-dimensional (2D vs. three-dimensional (3D descriptor systems, we analyzed principal component analysis scores derived from 87 2D descriptors and 798 3D (ALMOND variables on a set of 5998 compounds of medicinal chemistry interest. The information overlap between ALMOND and 2D-based descriptors, as modeled by the fraction of explained variance (r² and by seven-groups cross-validation (q² in a two PLS components model was 40%. Individual component analysis indicates that the first and second principal components from the 2D-descriptors are related to the first and third dimensions from the ALMOND PCA model. The first ALMOND component is explained (61% by size-related descriptors, whereas the third component is marginally explained (25% by hydrophobicity-related descriptors. Surprisingly, 2D-based hydrogen-bonding descriptors did not contribute significantly in this analysis. These results do not a priori justify the choice of one methodology over the other, when performing QSAR studies.

  6. Augmented Topological Descriptors of Pore Networks for Material Science. (United States)

    Ushizima, D; Morozov, D; Weber, G H; Bianchi, A G C; Sethian, J A; Bethel, E W


    One potential solution to reduce the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is the geologic storage of captured CO2 in underground rock formations, also known as carbon sequestration. There is ongoing research to guarantee that this process is both efficient and safe. We describe tools that provide measurements of media porosity, and permeability estimates, including visualization of pore structures. Existing standard algorithms make limited use of geometric information in calculating permeability of complex microstructures. This quantity is important for the analysis of biomineralization, a subsurface process that can affect physical properties of porous media. This paper introduces geometric and topological descriptors that enhance the estimation of material permeability. Our analysis framework includes the processing of experimental data, segmentation, and feature extraction and making novel use of multiscale topological analysis to quantify maximum flow through porous networks. We illustrate our results using synchrotron-based X-ray computed microtomography of glass beads during biomineralization. We also benchmark the proposed algorithms using simulated data sets modeling jammed packed bead beds of a monodispersive material.

  7. Unevenness Point Descriptor for Terrain Analysis in Mobile Robot Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Bellone


    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of imaging sensors that produce a three-dimensional representation of the environment has become an efficient solution to increase the degree of perception of autonomous mobile robots. Accurate and dense 3D point clouds can be generated from traditional stereo systems and laser scanners or from the new generation of RGB-D cameras, representing a versatile, reliable and cost-effective solution that is rapidly gaining interest within the robotics community. For autonomous mobile robots, it is critical to assess the traversability of the surrounding environment, especially when driving across natural terrain. In this paper, a novel approach to detect traversable and non-traversable regions of the environment from a depth image is presented that could enhance mobility and safety through integration with localization, control and planning methods. The proposed algorithm is based on the analysis of the normal vector of a surface obtained through Principal Component Analysis and it leads to the definition of a novel, so defined, Unevenness Point Descriptor. Experimental results, obtained with vehicles operating in indoor and outdoor environments, are presented to validate this approach.

  8. Scale Invariant Gabor Descriptor-based Noncooperative Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Zhou


    Full Text Available A new noncooperative iris recognition method is proposed. In this method, the iris features are extracted using a Gabor descriptor. The feature extraction and comparison are scale, deformation, rotation, and contrast-invariant. It works with off-angle and low-resolution iris images. The Gabor wavelet is incorporated with scale-invariant feature transformation (SIFT for feature extraction to better extract the iris features. Both the phase and magnitude of the Gabor wavelet outputs were used in a novel way for local feature point description. Two feature region maps were designed to locally and globally register the feature points and each subregion in the map is locally adjusted to the dilation/contraction/deformation. We also developed a video-based non-cooperative iris recognition system by integrating video-based non-cooperative segmentation, segmentation evaluation, and score fusion units. The proposed method shows good performance for frontal and off-angle iris matching. Video-based recognition methods can improve non-cooperative iris recognition accuracy.

  9. Scale Invariant Gabor Descriptor-Based Noncooperative Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Yingzi


    Full Text Available Abstract A new noncooperative iris recognition method is proposed. In this method, the iris features are extracted using a Gabor descriptor. The feature extraction and comparison are scale, deformation, rotation, and contrast-invariant. It works with off-angle and low-resolution iris images. The Gabor wavelet is incorporated with scale-invariant feature transformation (SIFT for feature extraction to better extract the iris features. Both the phase and magnitude of the Gabor wavelet outputs were used in a novel way for local feature point description. Two feature region maps were designed to locally and globally register the feature points and each subregion in the map is locally adjusted to the dilation/contraction/deformation. We also developed a video-based non-cooperative iris recognition system by integrating video-based non-cooperative segmentation, segmentation evaluation, and score fusion units. The proposed method shows good performance for frontal and off-angle iris matching. Video-based recognition methods can improve non-cooperative iris recognition accuracy.

  10. Nonrigid brain MR image registration using uniform spherical region descriptor. (United States)

    Liao, Shu; Chung, Albert C S


    There are two main issues that make nonrigid image registration a challenging task. First, voxel intensity similarity may not be necessarily equivalent to anatomical similarity in the image correspondence searching process. Second, during the imaging process, some interferences such as unexpected rotations of input volumes and monotonic gray-level bias fields can adversely affect the registration quality. In this paper, a new feature-based nonrigid image registration method is proposed. The proposed method is based on a new type of image feature, namely, uniform spherical region descriptor (USRD), as signatures for each voxel. The USRD is rotation and monotonic gray-level transformation invariant and can be efficiently calculated. The registration process is therefore formulated as a feature matching problem. The USRD feature is integrated with the Markov random field labeling framework in which energy function is defined for registration. The energy function is then optimized by the α-expansion algorithm. The proposed method has been compared with five state-of-the-art registration approaches on both the simulated and real 3-D databases obtained from the BrainWeb and Internet Brain Segmentation Repository, respectively. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve high registration accuracy and reliable robustness behavior.

  11. Evaluating Learner Autonomy: A Dynamic Model with Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giovanna Tassinari


    Full Text Available Every autonomous learning process should entail an evaluation of the learner’s competencies for autonomy. The dynamic model of learner autonomy described in this paper is a tool designed in order to support the self-assessment and evaluation of learning competencies and to help both learners and advisors to focus on relevant aspects of the learning process. The dynamic model accounts for cognitive, metacognitive, action-oriented and affective components of learner autonomy and provides descriptors of learners’ attitudes, competencies and behaviors. It is dynamic in order to allow learners to focus on their own needs and goals.The model ( has been validated in several workshops with experts at the Université Nancy 2, France and at the Freie Universität Berlin, Germany and tested by students, advisors and teachers. It is currently used at the Centre for Independent Language Learning at the Freie Universität Berlin for language advising. Learners can freely choose the components they would like to assess themselves in. Their assessment is then discussed in an advising session, where the learner and the advisor can compare their perspectives, focus on single aspects of the leaning process and set goals for further learning. The students’ feedback gathered in my PhD investigation shows that they are able to benefit from this evaluation; their awareness, self-reflection and decision-making in the autonomous learning process improved.

  12. Object classfication from RGB-D images using depth context kernel descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Hong; Olsen, Søren Ingvor; Zhu, Yaping


    plane and the depth direction, is developed to take full advantage of the available depth information. By embedding DCKD and JSDP into the standard object classification pipeline, we achieve superior performance to state-of-the-art methods on RGB-D benchmarks for object classification and scene......Context cue is important in object classification. By embedding the depth context cue of image attributes into kernel descriptors, we propose a new set of depth image descriptors called depth context kernel descriptors (DCKD) for RGB-D based object classification. The motivation of DCKD is to use...

  13. Enrichment of true positives from structural alerts through the use of novel atomic fragment based descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, A.; Rydberg, Patrik


    To enhance the discrimination rate for methods applying structural alerts and biotransformation rules in the prediction of toxicity and drug metabolism we have developed a set of novel fragment based atomic descriptors. These atomic descriptors encode the properties of the fragments separating...... an atom from the closest end of a branch or the molecule. The end of a branch and the end of a molecule, as well as the selection of the fragments, are made by an algorithm that uses only the distance matrix of the molecule. The novel descriptors are applied to a small set of biotransformation rules...

  14. Impulsive Controllability/Observability for Interconnected Descriptor Systems with Two Subsystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingling Zhang


    Full Text Available The problem of decentralized impulse controllability/observability for large-scale interconnected descriptor systems with two subsystems by derivative feedback is studied. Necessary conditions for the existence of a derivative feedback controller for the first subsystem of the large-scale interconnected descriptor systems ensuring the second subsystem to be impulse controllable and impulse observable are derived, respectively. Based on the results, a derivative feedback controller for the first subsystem of the large-scale interconnected descriptor systems is constructed easily such that the second subsystem is impulse controllable or impulse observable. Finally, examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the results obtained in this paper.

  15. Evaluation of an enteric-coated naproxen pellet formulation. (United States)

    Hardy, J G; Lamont, G L; Evans, D F; Haga, A K; Gamst, O N


    An enteric-coated, pellet formulation of naproxen has been evaluated in eight healthy subjects. Each volunteer was dosed with 153Sm-labelled, enteric-coated pellets on two occasions, once whilst fasted and once after breakfast. Gastrointestinal transit was followed using gamma scintigraphy and drug absorption compared with that from uncoated naproxen pellets dosed on a separate occasion. The pH in the stomach and intestines was monitored using radiotelemetry capsules. Gastric emptying was delayed by dosing after breakfast, but small intestinal transit of the enteric-coated formulation was the same on both occasions. The highest pH recorded from the stomach was 4.0 and in all subjects the pH rose to at least 7.3 in the small intestine. The onset of drug absorption was fastest from the uncoated formulation and slowest from the coated pellets taken after breakfast. The total amount of drug absorbed was the same on all three occasions.

  16. CERN openlab enters fifth phase

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrew Purcell


    CERN openlab is a unique public-private partnership between CERN and leading ICT companies. At the start of this year, openlab officially entered its fifth phase, which will run until the end of 2017. For the first time in its history, it has extended beyond the CERN community to include other major European and international research laboratories.   Founded in 2001 to develop the innovative ICT systems needed to cope with the unprecedented computing challenges of the LHC, CERN openlab unites science and industry at the cutting edge of research and innovation. In a white paper published last year, CERN openlab set out the main ICT challenges it will tackle during its fifth phase, namely data acquisition, computing platforms, data storage architectures, computer management and provisioning, networks and connectivity, and data analytics. As it enters its fifth phase, CERN openlab is expanding to include other research laboratories. "Today, research centres in other disciplines are also st...

  17. [Enteral feeding in adults: indications]. (United States)

    Matuchansky, C


    In this overview article the author examines successively: (1) the effects expected from enteral nutrition in adults: general and/or local nutritional effects, temporary arrest in progressive intestinal lesions, partial intestinal function replacement; (2) indications in gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal pathologies and modalities of application to each indication (route of administration, elemental, semi-elemental or polymeric nutrients, incremental or non-incremental calorie intake, necessity or lack of necessity for addition of fibres, value of ambulatory methods); (3) results according to indications: chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases, notably Crohn's disease, short small bowel syndromes, fistulae and stomies, preoperative period in gastrointestinal surgery, support of heavy treatments in non-terminal cancers, hypermetabolic states, notably stress; (4) absolute or relative contraindications of enteral nutrition.

  18. Application of the Fourier descriptors method to the morphological classification of particles in geological materials; Aplicacion del metodo de descriptiores de Fourier a la clasificacion morfologicas de particulas en materiales geologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzanas Lopez, J.; Santiago Buey, C.


    This study focuses on the use of Fourier descriptors to quantitatively describe the morphology of particles aggregates or pores in geological materials. Firstly, the mathematical fundaments of the method are explained. Then, the Fourier descriptors method is applied to the Krumbein Scale, a system of measuring roundness and sphericity of particles. the analysis of the comparison shows that there is good correlation between the Sphericity parameter at the Krumbein classifications and the value of the modulus of the Fourier descriptor No-1. This good correlation, along with the mathematical precision which allows to prevent subjective valorisations in the morphological description, corroborates the validity of the method to quantify the sphericity elongation of particles in geological materials. (Author) 12 refs.

  19. Enteral alimentation: administration and complications. (United States)

    Benya, R; Mobarhan, S


    Tube feeding is commonly used for providing essential calories and nutrients to the patient otherwise unable to eat. In the last two decades there has been significant expansion in the number and quality of enteral formulas. In this review, we evaluate the indications for each major class of formula, and survey complications associated with formulas and devices that deliver formula. Recommendations for future research are listed.

  20. A Map Enters the Conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    'modes of mattering'. In this paper I explore what difference digital cartography can make to STS practice. I draw on three examples from my own work where digitally mediated maps have entered the conversation and made critical, often surprising, differences to the research process. In my first example...... it was trying to chart. I use these examples to discuss the potential modes of mattering afforded by digital cartography in STS....

  1. Simple thermal to thermal face verification method based on local texture descriptors (United States)

    Grudzien, A.; Palka, Norbert; Kowalski, M.


    Biometrics is a science that studies and analyzes physical structure of a human body and behaviour of people. Biometrics found many applications ranging from border control systems, forensics systems for criminal investigations to systems for access control. Unique identifiers, also referred to as modalities are used to distinguish individuals. One of the most common and natural human identifiers is a face. As a result of decades of investigations, face recognition achieved high level of maturity, however recognition in visible spectrum is still challenging due to illumination aspects or new ways of spoofing. One of the alternatives is recognition of face in different parts of light spectrum, e.g. in infrared spectrum. Thermal infrared offer new possibilities for human recognition due to its specific properties as well as mature equipment. In this paper we present the scheme of subject's verification methodology by using facial images in thermal range. The study is focused on the local feature extraction methods and on the similarity metrics. We present comparison of two local texture-based descriptors for thermal 1-to-1 face recognition.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Oleinik


    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper deals with the problem of multiple face tracking in a video stream. The primary application of the implemented tracking system is the automatic video surveillance. The particular operating conditions of surveillance cameras are taken into account in order to increase the efficiency of the system in comparison to existing general-purpose analogs. Method. The developed system is comprised of two subsystems: detector and tracker. The tracking subsystem does not depend on the detector, and thus various face detection methods can be used. Furthermore, only a small portion of frames is processed by the detector in this structure, substantially improving the operation rate. The tracking algorithm is based on BRIEF binary descriptors that are computed very efficiently on modern processor architectures. Main Results. The system is implemented in C++ and the experiments on the processing rate and quality evaluation are carried out. MOTA and MOTP metrics are used for tracking quality measurement. The experiments demonstrated the four-fold processing rate gain in comparison to the baseline implementation that processes every video frame with the detector. The tracking quality is on the adequate level when compared to the baseline. Practical Relevance. The developed system can be used with various face detectors (including slow ones to create a fully functional high-speed multiple face tracking solution. The algorithm is easy to implement and optimize, so it may be applied not only in full-scale video surveillance systems, but also in embedded solutions integrated directly into cameras.

  3. Fast global interactive volume segmentation with regional supervoxel descriptors (United States)

    Luengo, Imanol; Basham, Mark; French, Andrew P.


    In this paper we propose a novel approach towards fast multi-class volume segmentation that exploits supervoxels in order to reduce complexity, time and memory requirements. Current methods for biomedical image segmentation typically require either complex mathematical models with slow convergence, or expensive-to-calculate image features, which makes them non-feasible for large volumes with many objects (tens to hundreds) of different classes, as is typical in modern medical and biological datasets. Recently, graphical models such as Markov Random Fields (MRF) or Conditional Random Fields (CRF) are having a huge impact in different computer vision areas (e.g. image parsing, object detection, object recognition) as they provide global regularization for multiclass problems over an energy minimization framework. These models have yet to find impact in biomedical imaging due to complexities in training and slow inference in 3D images due to the very large number of voxels. Here, we define an interactive segmentation approach over a supervoxel space by first defining novel, robust and fast regional descriptors for supervoxels. Then, a hierarchical segmentation approach is adopted by training Contextual Extremely Random Forests in a user-defined label hierarchy where the classification output of the previous layer is used as additional features to train a new classifier to refine more detailed label information. This hierarchical model yields final class likelihoods for supervoxels which are finally refined by a MRF model for 3D segmentation. Results demonstrate the effectiveness on a challenging cryo-soft X-ray tomography dataset by segmenting cell areas with only a few user scribbles as the input for our algorithm. Further results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method to fully extract different organelles from the cell volume with another few seconds of user interaction.

  4. Application of SMILES Notation Based Optimal Descriptors in Drug Discovery and Design. (United States)

    Veselinović, Aleksandar M; Veselinović, Jovana B; Živković, Jelena V; Nikolić, Goran M


    SMILES notation based optimal descriptors as a universal tool for the QSAR analysis with further application in drug discovery and design is presented. The basis of this QSAR modeling is Monte Carlo method which has important advantages over other methods, like the possibility of analysis of a QSAR as a random event, is discussed. The advantages of SMILES notation based optimal descriptors in comparison to commonly used descriptors are defined. The published results of QSAR modeling with SMILES notation based optimal descriptors applied for various pharmacologically important endpoints are listed. The presented QSAR modeling approach obeys OECD principles and has mechanistic interpretation with possibility to identify molecular fragments that contribute in positive and negative way to studied biological activity, what is of big importance in computer aided drug design of new compounds with desired activity.

  5. Visualization and processing of higher order descriptors for multi-valued data

    CERN Document Server

    Schultz, Thomas


    Modern imaging techniques and computational simulations yield complex multi-valued data that require higher-order mathematical descriptors. This book addresses topics of importance when dealing with such data, including frameworks for image processing, visualization, and statistical analysis of higher-order descriptors. It also provides examples of the successful use of higher-order descriptors in specific applications and a glimpse of the next generation of diffusion MRI. To do so, it combines contributions on new developments, current challenges in this area, and state-of-the-art surveys.   Compared to the increasing importance of higher-order descriptors in a range of applications, tools for analysis and processing are still relatively hard to come by. Even though application areas such as medical imaging, fluid dynamics, and structural mechanics are very different in nature they face many shared challenges. This book provides an interdisciplinary perspective on this topic with contributions from key rese...

  6. A Novel Fast and Robust Binary Affine Invariant Descriptor for Image Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujie Qu


    Full Text Available As the current binary descriptors have disadvantages of high computational complexity, no affine invariance, and the high false matching rate with viewpoint changes, a new binary affine invariant descriptor, called BAND, is proposed. Different from other descriptors, BAND has an irregular pattern, which is based on local affine invariant region surrounding a feature point, and it has five orientations, which are obtained by LBP effectively. Ultimately, a 256 bits binary string is computed by simple random sampling pattern. Experimental results demonstrate that BAND has a good matching result in the conditions of rotating, image zooming, noising, lighting, and small-scale perspective transformation. It has better matching performance compared with current mainstream descriptors, while it costs less time.

  7. Effects of Enteral Glutamine Supplementation on Reduction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the effect of enteral glutamine in reducing the incidence of post burn infections in patients with severe burns. Design: A double blind randomised clinical trial. Setting: Burns unit and ward 4D of Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya Subjects: Sixty patients with severe burns who were randomised to two ...

  8. Overconfidence of Vocational Education Students When Entering Higher Education (United States)

    Bowden, Mark P.; Abhayawansa, Subhash; Bahtsevanoglou, John


    Purpose: There is evidence that students who attend Technical and Further Education (TAFE) prior to entering higher education underperform in their first year of study. The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of self-efficacy in understanding the performance of students who completed TAFE in the previous year in a first year subject of…

  9. Descriptor Data Bank (DDB): A Cloud Platform for Multiperspective Modeling of Protein-Ligand Interactions. (United States)

    Ashtawy, Hossam M; Mahapatra, Nihar R


    Protein-ligand (PL) interactions play a key role in many life processes such as molecular recognition, molecular binding, signal transmission, and cell metabolism. Examples of interaction forces include hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic effects, steric clashes, electrostatic contacts, and van der Waals attractions. Currently, a large number of hypotheses and perspectives to model these interaction forces are scattered throughout the literature and largely forgotten. Instead, had they been assembled and utilized collectively, they would have substantially improved the accuracy of predicting binding affinity of protein-ligand complexes. In this work, we present Descriptor Data Bank (DDB), a data-driven platform on the cloud for facilitating multiperspective modeling of PL interactions. DDB is an open-access hub for depositing, hosting, executing, and sharing descriptor extraction tools and data for a large number of interaction modeling hypotheses. The platform also implements a machine-learning (ML) toolbox for automatic descriptor filtering and analysis and scoring function (SF) fitting and prediction. The descriptor filtering module is used to filter out irrelevant and/or noisy descriptors and to produce a compact subset from all available features. We seed DDB with 16 diverse descriptor extraction tools developed in-house and collected from the literature. The tools altogether generate over 2700 descriptors that characterize (i) proteins, (ii) ligands, and (iii) protein-ligand complexes. The in-house descriptors we extract are protein-specific which are based on pairwise primary and tertiary alignment of protein structures followed by clustering and trilateration. We built and used DDB's ML library to fit SFs to the in-house descriptors and those collected from the literature. We then evaluated them on several data sets that were constructed to reflect real-world drug screening scenarios. We found that multiperspective SFs that were constructed using a large number

  10. Descriptors for unprofessional behaviours of medical students: a systematic review and categorisation


    Mak-van der Vossen, Marianne; van Mook, Walther; van der Burgt, St?phanie; Kors, Joyce; Ket, Johannes C. F.; Croiset, Gerda; Kusurkar, Rashmi


    Background Developing professionalism is a core task in medical education. Unfortunately, it has remained difficult for educators to identify medical students? unprofessionalism, because, among other reasons, there are no commonly adopted descriptors that can be used to document students? unprofessional behaviour. This study aimed to generate an overview of descriptors for unprofessional behaviour based on research evidence of real-life unprofessional behaviours of medical students. Methods A...

  11. Minimum Energy Control of Descriptor Fractional Discrete–Time Linear Systems with Two Different Fractional Orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajewski Łukasz


    Full Text Available Reachability and minimum energy control of descriptor fractional discrete-time linear systems with different fractional orders are addressed. Using the Weierstrass–Kronecker decomposition theorem of the regular pencil, a solution to the state equation of descriptor fractional discrete-time linear systems with different fractional orders is given. The reachability condition of this class of systems is presented and used for solving the minimum energy control problem. The discussion is illustrated with numerical examples.

  12. Soundscape descriptors and a conceptual framework for developing predictive soundscape models


    Aletta, F.; Kang, J.; Axelsson, O.


    Soundscape exists through human perception of the acoustic environment. This paper investigates how soundscape currently is assessed and measured. It reviews and analyzes the main soundscape descriptors in the soundscape literature, and provides a conceptual framework for developing predictive models in soundscape studies. A predictive soundscape model provides a means of predicting the value of a soundscape descriptor, and the blueprint for how to design soundscape. It is the key for impleme...

  13. BCL::EMAS — Enantioselective Molecular Asymmetry Descriptor for 3D-QSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Butkiewicz


    Full Text Available Stereochemistry is an important determinant of a molecule’s biological activity. Stereoisomers can have different degrees of efficacy or even opposing effects when interacting with a target protein. Stereochemistry is a molecular property difficult to represent in 2D-QSAR as it is an inherently three-dimensional phenomenon. A major drawback of most proposed descriptors for 3D-QSAR that encode stereochemistry is that they require a heuristic for defining all stereocenters and rank-ordering its substituents. Here we propose a novel 3D-QSAR descriptor termed Enantioselective Molecular ASymmetry (EMAS that is capable of distinguishing between enantiomers in the absence of such heuristics. The descriptor aims to measure the deviation from an overall symmetric shape of the molecule. A radial-distribution function (RDF determines a signed volume of tetrahedrons of all triplets of atoms and the molecule center. The descriptor can be enriched with atom-centric properties such as partial charge. This descriptor showed good predictability when tested with a dataset of thirty-one steroids commonly used to benchmark stereochemistry descriptors (r2 = 0.89, q2 = 0.78. Additionally, EMAS improved enrichment of 4.38 versus 3.94 without EMAS in a simulated virtual high-throughput screening (vHTS for inhibitors and substrates of cytochrome P450 (PUBCHEM AID891.

  14. QSAR study of estrogens with the help of PM3-based descriptors (United States)

    Pasha, F. A.; Srivastava, H. K.; Singh, P. P.

    Quantum chemical descriptors (γHOMO, γLUMO, absolute hardness, global softness, chemical potential, and electronegativity) and energy descriptors (Qmin, ΔH 0f, ET, and EE) based QSAR study of estrogen derivatives was made with the help of PM3 calculations on WinMOPAC 7.21 software. The observed RBA values of estrogens were taken from the literature. QSAR models were made using different quantum chemical and energy descriptors with the help of multiple linear regression analysis. Regression models indicate that absolute hardness in combination with different energy descriptors provide better correlation between observed relative binding affinity (RBA) and predicted relative binding affinity (PA). Regression models for other quantum chemical descriptors with energy descriptors are not as clear as in the case of absolute hardness. Hardness provides a better picture due to the maximum hardness principle and can be used as a QSAR model for predicting the biological activity of any compound. Content:text/plain; charset="UTF-8"

  15. Enteric campylobacter: purging its secrets? (United States)

    Crushell, Ellen; Harty, Sinead; Sharif, Farhana; Bourke, Billy


    Campylobacterial infections are the most common cause of bacterial enterocolitis in humans. Among children, especially in developing countries, Campylobacter infections can cause severe life-threatening diarrheal disease. Although usually associated with a benign outcome in the developed world, the burden of illness posed by Campylobacter infections is enormous, and serious neurologic sequelae also can occur. For a variety of reasons our understanding of the molecular and cellular pathogenesis of Campylobacter infection has lagged far behind that of other enteric pathogens. However, recent completion of the genome sequence of Campylobacter jejuni promises to open up the Campylobacter research field with the prospect of developing novel therapeutic and preventive strategies.

  16. Evolving trends in enteral alimentation. (United States)

    Ponsky, J L


    Nutrition has become a cornerstone of surgical patient care. With better understanding of metabolic and compositional requirements, great advances have been made in the area of total parenteral nutrition. Recent attention to full utilization of alimentary tract function has prompted a resurgence of interest in dietary formulas and methods of delivery. Three new approaches to the alimentary tract provide better access for feeding. Needle catheter jejunostomy allows early alimentary tract utilization following operations, while percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and jejunostomy provide long-term solutions to the provision of enteral alimentation. Future utilization of these techniques will certainly lead to better patient care.

  17. Effective structural descriptors for natural and engineered radioactive waste confinement barriers (United States)

    Lemmens, Laurent; Rogiers, Bart; De Craen, Mieke; Laloy, Eric; Jacques, Diederik; Huysmans, Marijke; Swennen, Rudy; Urai, Janos L.; Desbois, Guillaume


    The microstructure of a radioactive waste confinement barrier strongly influences its flow and transport properties. Numerical flow and transport simulations for these porous media at the pore scale therefore require input data that describe the microstructure as accurately as possible. To date, no imaging method can resolve all heterogeneities within important radioactive waste confinement barrier materials as hardened cement paste and natural clays at the micro scale (nm-cm). Therefore, it is necessary to merge information from different 2D and 3D imaging methods using porous media reconstruction techniques. To qualitatively compare the results of different reconstruction techniques, visual inspection might suffice. To quantitatively compare training-image based algorithms, Tan et al. (2014) proposed an algorithm using an analysis of distance. However, the ranking of the algorithm depends on the choice of the structural descriptor, in their case multiple-point or cluster-based histograms. We present here preliminary work in which we will review different structural descriptors and test their effectiveness, for capturing the main structural characteristics of radioactive waste confinement barrier materials, to determine the descriptors to use in the analysis of distance. The investigated descriptors are particle size distributions, surface area distributions, two point probability functions, multiple point histograms, linear functions and two point cluster functions. The descriptor testing consists of stochastically generating realizations from a reference image using the simulated annealing optimization procedure introduced by Karsanina et al. (2015). This procedure basically minimizes the differences between pre-specified descriptor values associated with the training image and the image being produced. The most efficient descriptor set can therefore be identified by comparing the image generation quality among the tested descriptor combinations. The assessment

  18. The challenge of enteric fever. (United States)

    Waddington, Claire S; Darton, Thomas C; Pollard, Andrew J


    Enteric fever, a non-specific, systemic infection caused by S. Typhi or Paratyphi A, B or C, is common in resource-limited regions of the world, where poor sanitation infrastructure facilitates faeco-oral transmission. Prompt treatment with appropriate antibiotics minimises illness severity, but presentation to health care facilities is often delayed because of the non-specific nature of the symptoms and the lack of reliable diagnostic tests. Disease prevention requires significant investment in provision of clean water and sanitation in the long term; vaccination offers a more realistic strategy for medium term control. However, implementation of existing vaccines and development of more efficacious vaccines has been hindered by the lack of an established correlate of protection and under appreciation of the true disease burden. Human microbial infection studies could provide a vehicle for the rapid evaluation of novel vaccines and investigation of the immunobiology of enteric infection. Copyright © 2013 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Drug distribution in enteric microparticles. (United States)

    Nilkumhang, Suchada; Alhnan, Mohamed A; McConnell, Emma L; Basit, Abdul W


    The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of three fluorescent drug or drug-like molecules in enteric microparticles. Microparticles were prepared using the pH-responsive methylmethacrylate polymer Eudragit L by an emulsion solvent evaporation process. In the process drug and polymer are dissolved in ethanol, and dispersed in a liquid paraffin external phase using sorbitan sesquioleate as stabiliser. The incorporation and distribution of riboflavin, dipyridamole and acridine orange into these microparticles were investigated using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The influence of the physicochemical properties of the molecules (solubility in the inner phase, partition coefficient [ethanol/paraffin]) on the distribution, encapsulation efficiency and pH-responsive dissolution behaviour of the microparticles were examined. The drug that tended to partition in ethanol rather than liquid paraffin (riboflavin) was efficiently encapsulated and evenly distributed. In contrast, compounds which partitioned in favour of the liquid paraffin localised towards the surface of the microparticles and exhibited lower encapsulation efficiency (dipyridamole and acridine orange). All three sets of drug-loaded microparticles showed a limited release in acid (distribution appeared to have a minimum effect on drug release. This microparticle technology has the potential to provide effective enteric drug release with a wide variety of molecules.

  20. [New nutrients in enteral nutrition]. (United States)

    Vázquez Martínez, C


    1. Medical and surgical stress (major surgery, sepsis, injuries,...) increases requirements of certain essential nutrients and others considered non-essential or semi-essential. 2. Some nutrients such as glutamine, arginine, omega 3 fatty acids nucleotides, ... have a considerable influence on the immune function (delayed hypersensitivity, lymphocyte sub-population counts, immunological tests,..) and improve certain metabolic and nutritional indices (nitrogen balance, medium and short life proteins,...). For this reason, they are called "immunonutrients" or "immunity regulators". 3. The supply of special enteral formulas for situations of immunological compromise, with the addition of one or more of the nutrients considered today as "immunity regulators" has increased since 1988 in both absolute and percentage terms. 4. These nutrient-enriched enteral formulas improve the rate of infections, reduce the number of days on ventilator equipment, the length of hospital stays for critical patients, with a more marked effect on surgical patients. 5. The evidence seems today to support the use of enriched formulas with critical patients. Nonetheless, some caution must be maintained as it has not been possible to show any reduction in the mortality of the cases studied nor, in short, in the prognosis of patients affected by situations of hypercatabolism and reduced immunity. 6. We feel that their use should, therefore, be carried out in accordance with the protocols and in patients expected to survive, where the evolution reveals severe catabolism unhindered by conventional therapy.

  1. Evaluation of Statens Serum Institut Enteric Medium for Detection of Enteric Pathogens


    Blom, Marianne; Meyer, Aase; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Gaarslev, Knud; Espersen, Frank


    The efficacy of the Statens Serum Institut (SSI) enteric medium for isolation and direct identification of enteric pathogens was evaluated. Six different biochemical reactions can be read by using the SSI enteric medium, allowing direct identification of a range of enteric pathogens. All 248 gram-negative bacterial species that were tested grew on the SSI enteric medium. Only 10 of 248 bacteria (4%) showed discrepant results in the biochemical reactions, and none of these were enteric pathoge...

  2. Role of nerves in enteric infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spiller, R C


    Peripheral and central effects of enteric infection are considered. Nerves play a vital part in the immediate response to enteric infection, promoting pathogen expulsion by orchestrating intestinal secretion and propulsive motor patterns...

  3. ChemDes: an integrated web-based platform for molecular descriptor and fingerprint computation. (United States)

    Dong, Jie; Cao, Dong-Sheng; Miao, Hong-Yu; Liu, Shao; Deng, Bai-Chuan; Yun, Yong-Huan; Wang, Ning-Ning; Lu, Ai-Ping; Zeng, Wen-Bin; Chen, Alex F


    Molecular descriptors and fingerprints have been routinely used in QSAR/SAR analysis, virtual drug screening, compound search/ranking, drug ADME/T prediction and other drug discovery processes. Since the calculation of such quantitative representations of molecules may require substantial computational skills and efforts, several tools have been previously developed to make an attempt to ease the process. However, there are still several hurdles for users to overcome to fully harness the power of these tools. First, most of the tools are distributed as standalone software or packages that require necessary configuration or programming efforts of users. Second, many of the tools can only calculate a subset of molecular descriptors, and the results from multiple tools need to be manually merged to generate a comprehensive set of descriptors. Third, some packages only provide application programming interfaces and are implemented in different computer languages, which pose additional challenges to the integration of these tools. A freely available web-based platform, named ChemDes, is developed in this study. It integrates multiple state-of-the-art packages (i.e., Pybel, CDK, RDKit, BlueDesc, Chemopy, PaDEL and jCompoundMapper) for computing molecular descriptors and fingerprints. ChemDes not only provides friendly web interfaces to relieve users from burdensome programming work, but also offers three useful and convenient auxiliary tools for format converting, MOPAC optimization and fingerprint similarity calculation. Currently, ChemDes has the capability of computing 3679 molecular descriptors and 59 types of molecular fingerprints. ChemDes provides users an integrated and friendly tool to calculate various molecular descriptors and fingerprints. It is freely available at The source code of the project is also available as a supplementary file. Graphical abstract:An overview of ChemDes. A platform for computing various molecular

  4. Preference for different anchor descriptors on visual analogue scales among Japanese patients with chronic pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junya Yokobe

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Although many previous studies have examined the preference of patients for different pain measurement scales, preference for anchor descriptors has not been thoroughly discussed. OBJECTIVES: To examine (1 the preferred end-phrases used in the VAS as anchor labels for Japanese patients with chronic pain, and (2 whether the preference differs according to factors such as age, sex, educational level, duration of pain, and pain intensity. METHODS: We performed an observational study in patients suffering from non-cancer chronic pain for more than 3 months at a pain center in Japan. The patients were asked to rate their pain intensity using four types of VAS that used the following different anchor descriptors: "worst pain" ("Worst", "worst pain bearable" ("Bearable", "worst pain imaginable" ("Imaginable", and "worst pain you have ever experienced" ("Experienced". They were also asked to rank the four scales according to ease of responding, and asked which descriptor best reflected their perceived pain. RESULTS: In total, 183 patients participated in the study. They consisted of 119 (65.0% women and 64 (35.0% men aged 18-84 years with the mean age of 56.9 years. "Experienced" was most preferred (69.8%, followed by "Bearable" (66.3%, "Worst" (48.8%, and "Imaginable" (16.9%. Factors such as age, sex, educational background, duration of pain, and pain intensity did not significantly affect the results. In 83.1% of patients, the preferred descriptor corresponded to the descriptor that best reflected patients' perceived pain. CONCLUSION: The frequently used expression "worst pain imaginable" is considered to be difficult to understand for most patients. Widely preferred descriptors, such as "worst pain you have ever experienced" and "worst pain bearable", should be used when evaluating perceived pain. The preference of anchor descriptors was not significantly affected by the factors such as age, sex, educational level, duration of pain, and pain

  5. Reliability of verbal descriptors of dyspnea and their relationship with perceived intensity and unpleasantness. (United States)

    von Leupoldt, A; Petersen, S; Scheuchl, S; Füllekrug, K; Gerwin, C; Reer, R; Ziegler, M; Braumann, K M; Dahme, B


    Verbal descriptors of dyspnea have been suggested as being useful in providing information on the underlying pathophysiology. However, little is known about the reliability of these descriptors. The present study examined the reliability of a German language list of respiratory symptom descriptors and studied the association of these descriptors with the intensity and unpleasantness of perceived dyspnea. Fourteen healthy volunteers performed cycle-ergometer exercise and voluntary breath-holding during which they rated the perceived intensity (VAS-I) and unpleasantness (VAS-U) of dyspnea on visual analog scales. Following this, they judged their sensations of dyspnea using the list of symptom descriptors. Both conditions were repeated in reverse order on a subsequent occasion 10 days apart. Ventilatory measures, heart rate, blood lactate, VAS-I and VAS-U during cycle-exercise as well as breath-holding time, VAS-I and VAS-U during breath-holding showed no differences between both occasions. Separate hierarchical cluster analyses identified four clusters of verbal descriptors of dyspnea which were widely comparable between both occasions: effort, speed, obstruction and suffocation. Separate multidimensional scaling analyses (MDS) confirmed these four clusters for each occasion. On both days, perceived unpleasantness of dyspnea was correlated with all four clusters during cycle-exercise, while perceived intensity showed only correlations with effort or speed, respectively. No such correlations were obtained for breath-holding. The results suggest that separable clusters of German language descriptors of dyspnea are reliably used by healthy volunteers. The obtained clusters are widely comparable to previously described clusters in other languages and are differently related to the intensity and unpleasantness of perceived dyspnea.

  6. Advantages of enteral nutrition over parenteral nutrition


    Seres, David S.; Valcarcel, Monika; Guillaume, Alexandra


    It is a strong and commonly held belief among nutrition clinicians that enteral nutrition is preferable to parenteral nutrition. We provide a narrative review of more recent studies and technical reviews comparing enteral nutrition with parenteral nutrition. Despite significant weaknesses in the existing data, current literature continues to support the use of enteral nutrition in patients requiring nutrition support, over parenteral nutrition.

  7. Advantages of enteral nutrition over parenteral nutrition (United States)

    Valcarcel, Monika; Guillaume, Alexandra


    It is a strong and commonly held belief among nutrition clinicians that enteral nutrition is preferable to parenteral nutrition. We provide a narrative review of more recent studies and technical reviews comparing enteral nutrition with parenteral nutrition. Despite significant weaknesses in the existing data, current literature continues to support the use of enteral nutrition in patients requiring nutrition support, over parenteral nutrition. PMID:23503324

  8. Descriptor Selection via Log-Sum Regularization for the Biological Activities of Chemical Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Yong Xia


    Full Text Available The quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR model searches for a reliable relationship between the chemical structure and biological activities in the field of drug design and discovery. (1 Background: In the study of QSAR, the chemical structures of compounds are encoded by a substantial number of descriptors. Some redundant, noisy and irrelevant descriptors result in a side-effect for the QSAR model. Meanwhile, too many descriptors can result in overfitting or low correlation between chemical structure and biological bioactivity. (2 Methods: We use novel log-sum regularization to select quite a few descriptors that are relevant to biological activities. In addition, a coordinate descent algorithm, which uses novel univariate log-sum thresholding for updating the estimated coefficients, has been developed for the QSAR model. (3 Results: Experimental results on artificial and four QSAR datasets demonstrate that our proposed log-sum method has good performance among state-of-the-art methods. (4 Conclusions: Our proposed multiple linear regression with log-sum penalty is an effective technique for both descriptor selection and prediction of biological activity.

  9. Polypharmacy and enteral nutrition in patients with complex chronic diseases (United States)

    Romero Jiménez, Rosa Mª; Ortega Navarro, Cristina; Cuerda Compés, Cristina


    Oral medications are often administered through enteral feeding tubes in patients with complex chronic diseases. It is important to consider possible interactions between drugs and enteral nutrition that might lead to unsuccessful treatment or tube occlusion. These patients become subjects for higher risk of problems and errors such as drug incompatibility with enteral nutrition and inappropriate dosage form selection. It is possible to minimize the risk of tube occlusion and incompatibilities problems by recognizing potential medication errors, selecting the most appropriate drug and dosage form and using appropriate administration techniques. In this context, high-alert medications for patients with chronic diseases deserve special attention. Furthermore, risk exposure should be considered among healthcare professionals and patient caregivers handling hazardous drugs. Therefore, main incompatibility problems between drugs and enteral nutrition have been reviewed, including general recommendations for administration of oral medications through enteral feeding tubes and safe handling of hazardous drugs. Specific recommendations for administration of high-alert medications for patients with chronic diseases are also included.

  10. Pharmacological descriptors related to the binding of Gp120 to CD4 corresponding to 60 representative HIV-1 strains. (United States)

    Calborean, Octavian; Mernea, Maria; Avram, Speranta; Mihailescu, Dan Florin


    The standardization of HIV-1 strains for vaccine tests include the use of viral reference panels. We determined a series of pharmacological descriptors (molecular surfaces, volumes, electrostatic energies, solvation energies, number of atoms, number of hydrogen donors or acceptors and number of rigid bonds) for the gp120 CD4-binding sites structures in the unliganded state from a reference panel of 60 diverse strains of HIV-1. We identified the descriptors that varied significantly between the strains, the outliner strains for each descriptor set and the possible correlations between the descriptors. Our results improve the knowledge about gp120, its molecular and possible neutralization properties.

  11. QSPR modeling of thermal stability of nitroaromatic compounds: DFT vs. AM1 calculated descriptors. (United States)

    Fayet, Guillaume; Rotureau, Patricia; Joubert, Laurent; Adamo, Carlo


    The quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) methodology was applied to predict the decomposition enthalpies of 22 nitroaromatic compounds, used as indicators of thermal stability. An extended series of descriptors (constitutional, topological, geometrical charge related and quantum chemical) was calculated at two different levels of theory: density functional theory (DFT) and semi-empirical AM1 approaches. Reliable models have been developed for each level, leading to similar correlations between calculated and experimental data (R(2) > 0.98). Hence, both of them can be employed as screening tools for the prediction of thermal stability of nitroaromatic compounds. If using the AM1 model presents the advantage to be less time consuming, DFT allows the calculation of more accurate molecular quantum properties, e.g., conceptual DFT descriptors. In this study, our best QSPR model is based on such descriptors, providing more chemical comprehensive relationships with decomposition reactivity, a particularly complex property for the specific class of nitroaromatic compounds.

  12. Quaternionic Local Ranking Binary Pattern: A Local Descriptor of Color Images. (United States)

    Lan, Rushi; Zhou, Yicong; Tang, Yuan Yan


    This paper proposes a local descriptor called quaternionic local ranking binary pattern (QLRBP) for color images. Different from traditional descriptors that are extracted from each color channel separately or from vector representations, QLRBP works on the quaternionic representation (QR) of the color image that encodes a color pixel using a quaternion. QLRBP is able to handle all color channels directly in the quaternionic domain and include their relations simultaneously. Applying a Clifford translation to QR of the color image, QLRBP uses a reference quaternion to rank QRs of two color pixels, and performs a local binary coding on the phase of the transformed result to generate local descriptors of the color image. Experiments demonstrate that the QLRBP outperforms several state-of-the-art methods.

  13. Finite-Time Stability Analysis for a Class of Continuous Switched Descriptor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Tinglong


    Full Text Available Finite-time stability has more practical application values than the classical Lyapunov asymptotic stability over a fixed finite-time interval. The problems of finite-time stability and finite-time boundedness for a class of continuous switched descriptor systems are considered in this paper. Based on the average dwell time approach and the multiple Lyapunov functions technique, the concepts of finite-time stability and boundedness are extended to continuous switched descriptor systems. In addition, sufficient conditions for the existence of state feedback controllers in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs are obtained with arbitrary switching rules, which guarantee that the switched descriptor system is finite-time stable and finite-time bounded, respectively. Finally, two numerical examples are presented to illustrate the reasonableness and effectiveness of the proposed results.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Ying


    Full Text Available An extreme point of scale space extraction method for binary multiscale and rotation invariant local feature descriptor is studied in this paper in order to obtain a robust and fast method for local image feature descriptor. Classic local feature description algorithms often select neighborhood information of feature points which are extremes of image scale space, obtained by constructing the image pyramid using certain signal transform method. But build the image pyramid always consumes a large amount of computing and storage resources, is not conducive to the actual applications development. This paper presents a dual multiscale FAST algorithm, it does not need to build the image pyramid, but can extract feature points of scale extreme quickly. Feature points extracted by proposed method have the characteristic of multiscale and rotation Invariant and are fit to construct the local feature descriptor.

  15. Proposal for standardised ultrasound descriptors of abnormally invasive placenta (AIP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collins, Sally L; Ashcroft, Anna; Braun, Thorsten


    Abnormally invasive placenta (AIP) is a clinical term used to describe a placenta that does not separate spontaneous during normal delivery and cannot be removed without causing high blood loss. Maternal outcome in cases with AIP is improved by antenatal diagnosis that currently relies on subject...

  16. Application of the quantum mechanical IEF/PCM-MST hydrophobic descriptors to selectivity in ligand binding. (United States)

    Ginex, Tiziana; Muñoz-Muriedas, Jordi; Herrero, Enric; Gibert, Enric; Cozzini, Pietro; Luque, F Javier


    We have recently reported the development and validation of quantum mechanical (QM)-based hydrophobic descriptors derived from the parametrized IEF/PCM-MST continuum solvation model for 3D-QSAR studies within the framework of the Hydrophobic Pharmacophore (HyPhar) method. In this study we explore the applicability of these descriptors to the analysis of selectivity fields. To this end, we have examined a series of 88 compounds with inhibitory activities against thrombin, trypsin and factor Xa, and the HyPhar results have been compared with 3D-QSAR models reported in the literature. The quantitative models obtained by combining the electrostatic and non-electrostatic components of the octanol/water partition coefficient yield results that compare well with the predictive potential of standard CoMFA and CoMSIA techniques. The results also highlight the potential of HyPhar descriptors to discriminate the selectivity of the compounds against thrombin, trypsin, and factor Xa. Moreover, the graphical representation of the hydrophobic maps provides a direct linkage with the pattern of interactions found in crystallographic structures. Overall, the results support the usefulness of the QM/MST-based hydrophobic descriptors as a complementary approach for disclosing structure-activity relationships in drug design and for gaining insight into the molecular determinants of ligand selectivity. Graphical Abstract Quantum Mechanical continuum solvation calculations performed with the IEF/PCM-MST method are used to derived atomic hydrophobic descriptors, which are then used to discriminate the selectivity of ligands against thrombin, trypsin and factor Xa. The descriptors provide complementary view to standard 3D-QSAR analysis, leading to a more comprehensive understanding of ligand recognition.

  17. Enteral tube feeding in adults. (United States)

    Scott, R; Bowling, T E


    Enteral tube feeding is usually a relatively straightforward method of nutritional support, and should be facilitated by a multiprofessional team. For short-term use (tube is indicated but if longer term feeding is required then a gastrostomy is appropriate, usually inserted endoscopically (a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube). The most common serious complication of a nasogastric tube is not identifying a misplaced tube within the lungs: there are clear recommendations from the National Patient Safety Agency as to how to check tube placement. Nasojejunal tubes are required in patients with gastroparesis. Tube blockage is common and is prevented by careful and regular flushing. Diarrhoea is the most complication of feeding and is often related to other medication. Clinicians need an algorithm for systematically dealing with such a problem. Refeeding syndrome may occur in malnourished patients and is characterised by low levels of potassium, phosphate, and/or magnesium, as well as disorders of water and salt balance. Identifying the at-risk patient with careful monitoring is crucial.

  18. CERN openlab enters new phase

    CERN Document Server

    Katarina Anthony


    The newest phase of CERN’s openlab framework was inaugurated this week during a meeting of the openlab partners. This phase will last three years and will bring together existing openlab partners and a new contributor: Huawei.   Group picture taken at the first CERN openlab IV annual Board of Sponsors meeting, in the presence of the CERN Director-General, the partners and the openlab team members. © Fons Rademakers (CERN Photo Club). Eleven years ago, the creation of the CERN openlab created a long-term link between industrial partners and the Organization. Its framework has allowed industry to carry out large-scale IT research and development in an open atmosphere – an “Open Lab”, if you will. For CERN, openlab has contributed to giving the computing centre and, more broadly, the LHC community, the opportunity to ensure that the next generation of services and products is suitable to their needs. Now entering its fourth phase, openlab will ...

  19. Extending the enteric nervous system. (United States)

    Sbarbati, Andrea; Osculati, Francesco


    The work reviews the evidence suggesting that lingual components of the autonomic system may be considered the most rostral portion of the enteric nervous system (ENS) defining the concept of lingual ENS (LENS). The LENS is not dissimilar from the more distally located portions of the ENS, however, it is characterized by a massive sensory input generated by collaterals of gustatory and trigeminal fibers. The different neuronal subpopulations that compose the LENS operate reflexes involved in regulation of secretion and vasomotility. Systemic reflexes on the digestive and respiratory apparatus are operated by means of neural connections through the pharynx or larynx. The LENS can modulate the activity of distally located organs by means of the annexed glands.The LENS seems therefore to be a "chemical eye" located at the beginning of the digestive apparatus which analyses the foods before their ingestion and diffuses this information distally. The definition of the LENS supports the concept of an elevated degree of autonomy in the ENS and puts in a new light the role of the gustatory system in modulation of the digestive functions. For its characteristics, the LENS appears to be an ideal model to study the elementary connectivity of the ENS.

  20. International Energy: Subject Thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raridon, M.H. (ed.)


    The International Energy Subject Thesaurus contains the standard vocabulary to indexing terms (descriptors) developed and structured to build and maintain energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and (2) the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) staff representing the more than ninety countries and organizations recording and indexing information for the international nuclear information community. ETDE member countries are also members of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). Nuclear information indexed and recorded for INIS by these ETDE member countries is also included in the ETDE Energy Data Base, and indexing terminology is therefore cooperatively standardized for use in both information systems. This structured vocabulary reflects the scope of international energy research, development, and technological programs and encompasses terminology derived not only from the basic sciences but also from the areas of energy resources, conservation, safety, environmental impact, and regulation.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sep 9, 2006 ... Objective: To determine the role of Campylobacter jejuni!coli as an agent of diarrhoea in the middle- belt of Nigeria. Design: A prospective case control study. Setting: University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH), private hospitals and primary health centers all in Ilorin, Nigeria. Subjects: Three hundred and ...

  2. Relationship between increasing concentrations of two carcinogens and statistical image descriptors of foci morphology in the cell transformation assay. (United States)

    Callegaro, Giulia; Corvi, Raffaella; Salovaara, Susan; Urani, Chiara; Stefanini, Federico M


    Cell Transformation Assays (CTAs) have long been proposed for the identification of chemical carcinogenicity potential. The endpoint of these in vitro assays is represented by the phenotypic alterations in cultured cells, which are characterized by the change from the non-transformed to the transformed phenotype. Despite the wide fields of application and the numerous advantages of CTAs, their use in regulatory toxicology has been limited in part due to concerns about the subjective nature of visual scoring, i.e. the step in which transformed colonies or foci are evaluated through morphological features. An objective evaluation of morphological features has been previously obtained through automated digital processing of foci images to extract the value of three statistical image descriptors. In this study a further potential of the CTA using BALB/c 3T3 cells is addressed by analysing the effect of increasing concentrations of two known carcinogens, benzo[a]pyrene and NiCl2 , with different modes of action on foci morphology. The main result of our quantitative evaluation shows that the concentration of the considered carcinogens has an effect on foci morphology that is statistically significant for the mean of two among the three selected descriptors. Statistical significance also corresponds to visual relevance. The statistical analysis of variations in foci morphology due to concentration allowed to quantify morphological changes that can be visually appreciated but not precisely determined. Therefore, it has the potential of providing new quantitative parameters in CTAs, and of exploiting all the information encoded in foci. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Local structure orientation descriptor based on intra-image similarity for multimodal registration of liver ultrasound and MR images. (United States)

    Yang, Minglei; Ding, Hui; Kang, Jingang; Cong, Longfei; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Guangzhi


    Ultrasound (US)-magnetic resonance (MR) fusion imaging is a profitable tool for image-guided abdominal diagnosis and biopsy. However, the automatic registration of liver US and MR images remains a challenging task. An effective local structure orientation descriptor (LSOD) for use in registering multimodal images is proposed in this study. LSOD utilizes a normalized similarity distance vector of intra-image patch pairs to extract intensity change orientations from intensity value changes in a local area. The multimodal similarity measure is then derived using the LSOD vector difference. Experiments were performed on simulated US and liver 2D US-3D MR images from a phantom, two healthy volunteers, and seven patients. Using the LSOD-based method, the root-mean-square target registration errors (RMS-TREs) were 1.76±1.90mm/2.03±0.84mm in phantom/clinical experiments. All of the results outperformed those obtained using modality independent neighborhood descriptor (MIND)- and linear correlation of linear combination (LC(2))-based methods (phantom/clinical: 5.23±3.35mm/4.32±3.63mm and 9.79±5.03mm/6.29±3.85mm, respectively). The registration cover range for all subjects of the LSOD-based method was 9.16mm, which was larger than those of the MIND- and LC(2)-based methods (5.06 and 5.12mm, respectively). The results demonstrated that the LSOD-based registration method could robustly register 2D US and 3D MR images of different liver sections with acceptable accuracy for clinical requirements. This approach is useful for the practical clinical application of the US-MR fusion imaging technique. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Application of descriptor approaches in design of PD observer-based actuator fault estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filasová Anna


    Full Text Available Stability analysis and design for continuous-time proportional plus derivative state observers is presented in the paper with the goal to establish the system state and actuator fault estimation. Design problem accounts a descriptor principle formulation for non-descriptor systems, guaranteing asymptotic convergence both the state observer error as fault estimate error. Presented in the sense of the second Lyapunov method, an associated structure of linear matrix inequalities is outlined to possess parameter existence of the proposed estimator structure. The obtained design conditions are verified by simulation using a numerical illustrative example.

  5. Nonlinear Adaptive Descriptor Observer for the Joint States and Parameters Estimation

    KAUST Repository


    In this note, the joint state and parameters estimation problem for nonlinear multi-input multi-output descriptor systems is considered. Asymptotic convergence of the adaptive descriptor observer is established by a sufficient set of linear matrix inequalities for the noise-free systems. The noise corrupted systems are also considered and it is shown that the state and parameters estimation errors are bounded for bounded noises. In addition, if the noises are bounded and have zero mean, then the estimation errors asymptotically converge to zero in the mean. The performance of the proposed adaptive observer is illustrated by a numerical example.

  6. Hierarchical Event Descriptors (HED: Semi-structured tagging for real-world events in large-scale EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Bigdely-Shamlo


    Full Text Available Real-world brain imaging by EEG requires accurate annotation of complex subject-environment interactions in event-rich tasks and paradigms. This paper describes the evolution of the HED (Hierarchical Event Descriptor system for systematically describing both laboratory and real-world events. HED version 2, first described here, provides the semantic capability of describing a variety of subject and environmental states. HED descriptions can include stimulus presentation events on screen or in virtual worlds, experimental or spontaneous events occurring in the real world environment, and events experienced via one or multiple sensory modalities. Furthermore, HED 2 can distinguish between the mere presence of an object and its actual (or putative perception by a subject. Although the HED framework has implicit ontological and linked data representations, the user-interface for HED annotation is more intuitive than traditional ontological annotation. We believe that hiding the formal representations allows for a more user-friendly interface, making consistent, detailed tagging of experimental and real-world events possible for research users. HED is extensible while retaining the advantages of having an enforced common core vocabulary. We have developed a collection of tools to support HED tag assignment and validation; these are available at A plug-in for EEGLAB (, CTAGGER, is also available to speed the process of tagging existing studies.

  7. Thesaurus of descriptors for the vertical file system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Thesaurus used for the NYIT Energy Information Center is presented. The center is a comprehensive information service covering every aspect of energy conservation and related technology, including conservation programs and practices, alternative energy systems, energy legislation, and public policy development in the United States and abroad. The Thesaurus includes all subject headings found in the Vertical File as well as other cross referenced terms likely to come to mind when seeking information on a specific energy area.

  8. [Enteral feeding tubes for critically ill patients]. (United States)

    Braun, J; Bein, T; Wiese, C H R; Graf, B M; Zausig, Y A


    The use of enteral feeding tubes is an important part of early enteral feeding in intensive care medicine. In other faculties with non-critically ill patients, such as (oncologic) surgery, neurology, paediatrics or even in palliative care medicine feeding tubes are used under various circumstances as a temporary or definite solution. The advantage of enteral feeding tubes is the almost physiologic administration of nutrition, liquids and medication. Enteral nutrition is thought to be associated with a reduced infection rate, increased mucosal function, improved immunologic function, reduced length of hospital stay and reduced costs. However, the insertion and use of feeding tubes is potentially dangerous and may be associated with life-threatening complications (bleeding, perforation, peritonitis, etc.). Therefore, the following article will give a summary of the different types of enteral feeding tubes and their range of application. Additionally, a critical look on indication and contraindication is given as well as how to insert an enteral feeding tube.

  9. Application and Preparation of Enteric Coating Materials (United States)

    Zhou, M. M.; Wang, L.; Zhang, X. L.; Zhou, H. J.; Chen, X. Q.; Li, Y. T.; Yang, S. L.


    In this paper, polymethacrylate enteric coated materials based on the equal mass of methyl acrylic acid and ethyl acrylate as the main raw materials were synthesized through emulsion polymerization. Omeprazole Enteric-coated Capsules were prepared by the fluidized bed coating technology using above materials as enteric layer and in vitro enteric test was considered according to standard. The results showed that the material had good coverage in the surface of omeprazole isolated pellets, excellent acid resistance in artificial gastric acid environment, and reached the disintegration effect in the buffer solution of 20min. Moreover the drug release reached 88.2% and had excellent long-term storage.

  10. [New home enteral nutrition via jejunostomy using semi-solid enteral formula]. (United States)

    Ogasawara, Mihoko; Makishima, Junko; Maruyama, Makishima Michio


    Home enteral nutrition via jejunostomy requires considerable time for infusion to the patients. A new method using semisolid enteral formula dramatically reduces the time of infusion. This method makes use of pectin and liquid enteral formula. The authors applied this method in two patients with total gastrectomy being given enteral nutrition at home. There were no complications such as diarrhea or abdominal pain. This new method of home enteral nutrition could enhance the patients' quality of life (QOL) by reducing the time of infusion of enteral nutrition.

  11. Subjectivity and severe psychiatric disorders. (United States)

    Strauss, John


    To have a complete human science in the mental health field it is essential to give adequate attention to both the objective and the subjective data related to people with psychiatric disorders. The tendency in the past has been to ignore or discount one or the other of these data sources. Subjective data are particularly neglected, sometimes considered (only) part of the "art" of medicine since the usual methodologies of the physical sciences in themselves are not adequate to reflect the nature, elusiveness, and complexity of human subjective experience. The complete experience of hallucinated voices, for instance, often includes not only the voices themselves but also terrible anguish and terrifying inability to concentrate. But even such descriptors fall unnecessarily short of reflecting the data of the experience, thus leaving research, theory, and treatment with incomplete information. To represent adequately the subjective data it is essential to recognize that besides the usual discursive knowledge and methods of traditional physical science, a second kind of knowledge and method is required to reflect the depth of human experience. To accomplish this, we must employ approaches to narrative and the arts that are uniquely capable of capturing the nature of these experiences. Only by attending seriously in our research, training, theory, and practice to the unique nature of subjective data is it possible to have a true human science for our field.

  12. Design and evaluation of a molecular fingerprint involving the transformation of property descriptor values into a binary classification scheme. (United States)

    Xue, Ling; Godden, Jeffrey W; Stahura, Florence L; Bajorath, Jürgen


    A new fingerprint design concept is introduced that transforms molecular property descriptors into two-state descriptors and thus permits binary encoding. This transformation is based on the calculation of statistical medians of descriptor distributions in large compound collections and alleviates the need for value range encoding of these descriptors. For binary encoded property descriptors, bit positions that are set off capture as much information as bit positions that are set on, different from conventional fingerprint representations. Accordingly, a variant of the Tanimoto coefficient has been defined for comparison of these fingerprints. Following our design idea, a prototypic fingerprint termed MP-MFP was implemented by combining 61 binary encoded property descriptors with 110 structural fragment-type descriptors. The performance of this fingerprint was evaluated in systematic similarity search calculations in a database containing 549 molecules belonging to 38 different activity classes and 5000 background molecules. In these calculations, MP-MFP correctly recognized approximately 34% of all similarity relationships, with only 0.04% false positives, and performed better than previous designs and MACCS keys. The results suggest that combinations of simplified two-state property descriptors have predictive value in the analysis of molecular similarity.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranka Odović


    Full Text Available The discovery of new pharmacologically active substances and drugs modeling led to necessity of predicting drugs properties and its ADME data. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists are a group of pharmaceuticals which modulate the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and today represent the most commonly prescribed anti-hypertensive drugs. The aim of this study was to compare different molecular properties of seven angiotensin II receptor antagonists / blockers (ARBs, (eprosartan, irbesartan, losartan, olmesartan, telmisartan, valsartan and their plasma protein binding (PPB data. Several ARBs molecular descriptors were calculated using software package Molinspiration Depiction Software as well as Virtual Computational Chemistry Laboratory (electronic descriptor – PSA, constitutional parameter – Mw, geometric descriptor – Vol, lipophilicity descriptors - logP values, aqueous solubility data – logS. The correlations between all collected descriptors and plasma protein binding data obtained from relevant literature were established. In the simple linear regression poor correlations were obtained in relationships between PPB data and all calculated molecular descriptors. In the next stage of the study multiple linear regression (MLR was used for correlation of PPB data with two different descriptors as independent variables. The best correlation (R2=0.70 with P<0.05 was established between PPB data and molecular weight with addition of volume values as independent variables. The possible application of computed molecular descriptors in drugs protein binding evaluation can be of great importance in drug research.

  14. Reproducibility of the NEPTUNE descriptor-based scoring system on whole-slide images and histologic and ultrastructural digital images. (United States)

    Barisoni, Laura; Troost, Jonathan P; Nast, Cynthia; Bagnasco, Serena; Avila-Casado, Carmen; Hodgin, Jeffrey; Palmer, Matthew; Rosenberg, Avi; Gasim, Adil; Liensziewski, Chrysta; Merlino, Lino; Chien, Hui-Ping; Chang, Anthony; Meehan, Shane M; Gaut, Joseph; Song, Peter; Holzman, Lawrence; Gibson, Debbie; Kretzler, Matthias; Gillespie, Brenda W; Hewitt, Stephen M


    The multicenter Nephrotic Syndrome Study Network (NEPTUNE) digital pathology scoring system employs a novel and comprehensive methodology to document pathologic features from whole-slide images, immunofluorescence and ultrastructural digital images. To estimate inter- and intra-reader concordance of this descriptor-based approach, data from 12 pathologists (eight NEPTUNE and four non-NEPTUNE) with experience from training to 30 years were collected. A descriptor reference manual was generated and a webinar-based protocol for consensus/cross-training implemented. Intra-reader concordance for 51 glomerular descriptors was evaluated on jpeg images by seven NEPTUNE pathologists scoring 131 glomeruli three times (Tests I, II, and III), each test following a consensus webinar review. Inter-reader concordance of glomerular descriptors was evaluated in 315 glomeruli by all pathologists; interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (244 cases, whole-slide images) and four ultrastructural podocyte descriptors (178 cases, jpeg images) were evaluated once by six and five pathologists, respectively. Cohen's kappa for inter-reader concordance for 48/51 glomerular descriptors with sufficient observations was moderate (0.40NEPTUNE digital pathology scoring system enables novel morphologic profiling of renal structures. For all histologic and ultrastructural descriptors tested with sufficient observations, moderate-to-excellent concordance was seen for 31/54 (57%). Descriptors not sufficiently represented will require further testing. This study proffers the NEPTUNE digital pathology scoring system as a model for standardization of renal biopsy interpretation extendable outside the NEPTUNE consortium, enabling international collaborations.

  15. Feedback saddle point equilibria for soft-constrained zero-sum linear quadratic descriptor differential game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musthofa, M.W.; Salmah, S.; Suparwanto, A.; Engwerda, J.C.


    In this paper the feedback saddle point equilibria of soft-constrained zero-sum linear quadratic differential games for descriptor systems that have index one will be studied for a finite and infinite planning horizon. Both necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a feedback saddle

  16. Reactivity descriptor in solid acid catalysis : Predicting turnover frequencies for propene methylation in zeotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Chuan Ming; Brogaard, Rasmus Y.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/285484397; Nørskov, Jens K.; Studt, Felix


    Recent work has reported the discovery of metal surface catalysts by employing a descriptor-based approach, establishing a correlation between a few well-defined properties of a material and its catalytic activity. This theoretical work aims for a similar approach in solid acid catalysis, focusing

  17. Myoelectric feature extraction using temporal-spatial descriptors for multifunction prosthetic hand control. (United States)

    Khushaba, Rami N; Al-Timemy, Ali; Al-Ani, Ahmed; Al-Jumaily, Adel


    We tackle the challenging problem of myoelectric prosthesis control with an improved feature extraction algorithm. The proposed algorithm correlates a set of spectral moments and their nonlinearly mapped version across the temporal and spatial domains to form accurate descriptors of muscular activity. The main processing step involves the extraction of the Electromyogram (EMG) signal power spectrum characteristics directly from the time-domain for each analysis window, a step to preserve the computational power required for the construction of spectral features. The subsequent analyses involve computing 1) the correlation between the time-domain descriptors extracted from each analysis window and a nonlinearly mapped version of it across the same EMG channel; representing the temporal evolution of the EMG signals, and 2) the correlation between the descriptors extracted from differences of all possible combinations of channels and a nonlinearly mapped version of them, focusing on how the EMG signals from different channels correlates with each other. The proposed Temporal-Spatial Descriptors (TSDs) are validated on EMG data collected from six transradial amputees performing 11 classes of finger movements. Classification results showed significant reductions (at least 8%) in classification error rates compared to other methods.

  18. The influence of certain molecular descriptors of fecal elimination of angiotensin II receptor antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trbojević-Stanković Jasna B.


    Full Text Available Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs modulate the function of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and are commonly prescribed antihypertensive drugs, especially in patients with renal failure. In this study, the relationship between several molecular properties of seven ARBs (candesartan, eprosartan, irbesartan, losartan, olmesartan, telmisartan, valsartan and their fecal elimination data obtained from the literature were investigated. The ARB molecular descriptors were calculated using three software packages. Simple linear regression analysis showed the best 2 correlation between fecal elimination data and lipophilicity descriptor, ClogP values (R2 = 0.725. Multiple linear regression was applied to examine the correlation of ARBs’ fecal elimination data with their lipophilicity and one additional, calculated descriptor. The best correlation (R2 = 0.909 with an acceptable probability value, P <0.05 was established between the ARB fecal elimination data and their lipophilicity and aqueous solubility data. Applying computed molecular descriptors for evaluating drug elimination is of great importance in drug research.

  19. Object Tracking Using Adaptive Covariance Descriptor and Clustering-Based Model Updating for Visual Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Qin


    Full Text Available We propose a novel approach for tracking an arbitrary object in video sequences for visual surveillance. The first contribution of this work is an automatic feature extraction method that is able to extract compact discriminative features from a feature pool before computing the region covariance descriptor. As the feature extraction method is adaptive to a specific object of interest, we refer to the region covariance descriptor computed using the extracted features as the adaptive covariance descriptor. The second contribution is to propose a weakly supervised method for updating the object appearance model during tracking. The method performs a mean-shift clustering procedure among the tracking result samples accumulated during a period of time and selects a group of reliable samples for updating the object appearance model. As such, the object appearance model is kept up-to-date and is prevented from contamination even in case of tracking mistakes. We conducted comparing experiments on real-world video sequences, which confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed approaches. The tracking system that integrates the adaptive covariance descriptor and the clustering-based model updating method accomplished stable object tracking on challenging video sequences.

  20. Comparing Local Descriptors and Bags of Visual Words to Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for Plant Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pawara, Pornntiwa; Okafor, Emmanuel; Surinta, Olarik; Schomaker, Lambertus; Wiering, Marco


    The use of machine learning and computer vision methods for recognizing different plants from images has attracted lots of attention from the community. This paper aims at comparing local feature descriptors and bags of visual words with different classifiers to deep convolutional neural networks

  1. New descriptors of T-wave morphology are independent of heart rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Peter; Xue, Joel Q; Graff, Claus


    T-wave morphology descriptors are sensitive to drug-induced changes and may be a useful addition to the QT interval in cardiac safety trials. Intrasubject heart rate dependence of T-wave morphology was investigated in a sample of 39 healthy individuals. Ten-second electrocardiograms were obtained...

  2. Descriptors for predicting the lattice constant of body centered cubic crystal (United States)

    Takahashi, Keisuke; Takahashi, Lauren; Baran, Jakub D.; Tanaka, Yuzuru


    The prediction of the lattice constant of binary body centered cubic crystals is performed in terms of first principle calculations and machine learning. In particular, 1541 binary body centered cubic crystals are calculated using density functional theory. Results from first principle calculations, corresponding information from periodic table, and mathematically tailored data are stored as a dataset. Data mining reveals seven descriptors which are key to determining the lattice constant where the contribution of descriptors is also discussed and visualized. Support vector regression (SVR) technique is implemented to train the data where the predicted lattice constants have the mean score of 83.6% accuracy via cross-validation and maximum error of 4% when compared to experimentally determined lattice constants. In addition, trained SVR is successful in predicting material combinations from a desired lattice constant. Thus, a set of descriptors for determining the lattice constant is identified and can be used as a base descriptor for lattice constants of further complex crystals. This would allow for the acceleration of the search for lattice constants of desired atomic compositions as well as the prediction of new materials based on a specified lattice constant.

  3. Development and Trialling of a Graduated Descriptors Tool for Australian Pharmacy Students (United States)

    Stupans, Ieva; Owen, Susanne; McKauge, Leigh; Pont, Lisa; Ryan, Greg; Woulfe, Jim


    Profession-derived competency standards are key determinants for curriculum and assessment in many professional university programmes. An Australian Learning and Teaching Council funded project used a participatory action research approach to enable the collaborative development of a graduated (or incremental) descriptors tool related to…

  4. Number of outer electrons as descriptor for adsorption processes on transition metals and their oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calle-Vallejo, Federico; Inoglu, Nilay G.; Su, Hai-Yan


    The trends in adsorption energies of the intermediates of the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions on transition metals and their oxides are smoothly captured by the number of outer electrons. This unique descriptor permits the construction of predictive adsorption-energy grids and explains t...

  5. Qualitative spatial logic descriptors from 3D indoor scenes to generate explanations in natural language. (United States)

    Falomir, Zoe; Kluth, Thomas


    The challenge of describing 3D real scenes is tackled in this paper using qualitative spatial descriptors. A key point to study is which qualitative descriptors to use and how these qualitative descriptors must be organized to produce a suitable cognitive explanation. In order to find answers, a survey test was carried out with human participants which openly described a scene containing some pieces of furniture. The data obtained in this survey are analysed, and taking this into account, the QSn3D computational approach was developed which uses a XBox 360 Kinect to obtain 3D data from a real indoor scene. Object features are computed on these 3D data to identify objects in indoor scenes. The object orientation is computed, and qualitative spatial relations between the objects are extracted. These qualitative spatial relations are the input to a grammar which applies saliency rules obtained from the survey study and generates cognitive natural language descriptions of scenes. Moreover, these qualitative descriptors can be expressed as first-order logical facts in Prolog for further reasoning. Finally, a validation study is carried out to test whether the descriptions provided by QSn3D approach are human readable. The obtained results show that their acceptability is higher than 82%.

  6. Fourier Descriptor Analysis and Unification of Voice Range Profile Contours: Method and Applications (United States)

    Pabon, Peter; Ternstrom, Sten; Lamarche, Anick


    Purpose: To describe a method for unified description, statistical modeling, and comparison of voice range profile (VRP) contours, even from diverse sources. Method: A morphologic modeling technique, which is based on Fourier descriptors (FDs), is applied to the VRP contour. The technique, which essentially involves resampling of the curve of the…

  7. 3D face recognition based on multiple keypoint descriptors and sparse representation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in developing methods for 3D face recognition. However, 3D scans often suffer from the problems of missing parts, large facial expressions, and occlusions. To be useful in real-world applications, a 3D face recognition approach should be able to handle these challenges. In this paper, we propose a novel general approach to deal with the 3D face recognition problem by making use of multiple keypoint descriptors (MKD and the sparse representation-based classification (SRC. We call the proposed method 3DMKDSRC for short. Specifically, with 3DMKDSRC, each 3D face scan is represented as a set of descriptor vectors extracted from keypoints by meshSIFT. Descriptor vectors of gallery samples form the gallery dictionary. Given a probe 3D face scan, its descriptors are extracted at first and then its identity can be determined by using a multitask SRC. The proposed 3DMKDSRC approach does not require the pre-alignment between two face scans and is quite robust to the problems of missing data, occlusions and expressions. Its superiority over the other leading 3D face recognition schemes has been corroborated by extensive experiments conducted on three benchmark databases, Bosphorus, GavabDB, and FRGC2.0. The Matlab source code for 3DMKDSRC and the related evaluation results are publicly available at

  8. A Hybrid FPGA/Coarse Parallel Processing Architecture for Multi-modal Visual Feature Descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With; Kjær-Nielsen, Anders; Alonso, Javier Díaz


    This paper describes the hybrid architecture developed for speeding up the processing of so-called multi-modal visual primitives which are sparse image descriptors extracted along contours. In the system, the first stages of visual processing are implemented on FPGAs due to their highly parallel...

  9. Patterns of covariance between airborne laser scanning metrics and Lorenz curve descriptors of tree size inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valbuena, R.; Maltamo, M.; Martín-Fernández, S.; Packalén, P.; Pascual, C.; Nabuurs, G.J.


    The Lorenz curve, as a descriptor of tree size inequality within a stand, has been suggested as a reliable means for characterizing forest structure and distinguishing even from uneven-sized areas. The aim of this study was to achieve a thorough understanding on the relations between airborne laser

  10. Descriptors for unprofessional behaviours of medical students: a systematic review and categorisation. (United States)

    Mak-van der Vossen, Marianne; van Mook, Walther; van der Burgt, Stéphanie; Kors, Joyce; Ket, Johannes C F; Croiset, Gerda; Kusurkar, Rashmi


    Developing professionalism is a core task in medical education. Unfortunately, it has remained difficult for educators to identify medical students' unprofessionalism, because, among other reasons, there are no commonly adopted descriptors that can be used to document students' unprofessional behaviour. This study aimed to generate an overview of descriptors for unprofessional behaviour based on research evidence of real-life unprofessional behaviours of medical students. A systematic review was conducted searching PubMed, Ebsco/ERIC, Ebsco/PsycINFO and from inception to 2016. Articles were reviewed for admitted or witnessed unprofessional behaviours of undergraduate medical students. The search yielded 11,963 different studies, 46 met all inclusion criteria. We found 205 different descriptions of unprofessional behaviours, which were coded into 30 different descriptors, and subsequently classified in four behavioural themes: failure to engage, dishonest behaviour, disrespectful behaviour, and poor self-awareness. This overview provides a common language to describe medical students' unprofessional behaviour. The framework of descriptors is proposed as a tool for educators to denominate students' unprofessional behaviours. The found behaviours can have various causes, which should be explored in a discussion with the student about personal, interpersonal and/or institutional circumstances in which the behaviour occurred. Explicitly denominating unprofessional behaviour serves two goals: [i] creating a culture in which unprofessional behaviour is acknowledged, [ii] targeting students who need extra guidance. Both are important to avoid unprofessional behaviour among future doctors.

  11. Analysing written production competence descriptors for academic and professional purposes and their calibration to the CEFR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Pierce McMahon


    Full Text Available The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR “describes in a comprehensive way what language learners have to learn to do in order to use a language for communication and what knowledge and skills they have to develop so as to be able to act effectively” (Council of Europe, 2001: 1. This paper reports on the findings of two studies whose purpose was to assess written production competence descriptors meant for their inclusion into the Academic and Professional English Language Portfolio (ELP for students of engineering and architecture. The main objective of these studies was to establish whether the language competence descriptors were a satisfactory valid tool in their language programmes from the point of view of clarity, relevance and reliability, as perceived by the students and fellow English for Academic Purposes (EAP / English for Science and Technology (EST instructors. The studies shed light on how to improve unsatisfactory descriptors. Results show that the final descriptor lists were on the whole well calibrated and fairly well written: the great majority was considered valid for both teachers and students involved.

  12. Comparison of Silhouette Shape Descriptors for Example-based Human Pose Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, Ronald Walter; Poel, Mannes


    Automatically recovering human poses from visual input is useful but challenging due to variations in image space and the high dimensionality of the pose space. In this paper, we assume that a human silhouette can be extracted from monocular visual input. We compare three shape descriptors that are

  13. Relationship between Dyspnea Descriptors and Underlying Causes of the Symptom; a Cross-sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohammad Ali Sajadi


    Full Text Available Introduction: History taking and physical examination help clinicians identify the patient’s problem and effectively treat it. This study aimed to evaluate the descriptors of dyspnea in patients presenting to emergency department (ED with asthma, congestive heart failure (CHF, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted on all patients presenting to ED with chief complaint of dyspnea, during 2 years. The patients were asked to describe their dyspnea by choosing three items from the valid and reliable questionnaire or articulating their sensation. The relationship between dyspnea descriptors and underlying cause of symptom was evaluated using SPSS version 16. Results: 312 patients with the mean age of 60.96±17.01 years were evaluated (53.2% male. Most of the patients were > 65 years old (48.7% and had basic level of education (76.9%.  "My breath doesn’t go out all the way" with 83.1%, “My chest feels tight " with 45.8%, and "I feel that my airway is obstructed" with 40.7%, were the most frequent dyspnea descriptors in asthma patients. "My breathing requires work" with 46.3%, "I feel that I am suffocating" with 31.5%, and "My breath doesn’t go out all the way" with 29.6%, were the most frequent dyspnea descriptors in COPD patients. "My breathing is heavy" with 74.4%, "A hunger for more air” with 24.4%, and "I cannot get enough air" with 23.2%, were the most frequent dyspnea descriptors in CHF patients. Except for “My breath does not go in all the way”, there was significant correlation between studied dyspnea descriptors and underlying disease (p = 0.001 for all analyses. Conclusion: It seems that dyspnea descriptors along with other findings from history and physical examination could be helpful in differentiating the causes of the symptom in patients presenting to ED suffering from dyspnea.  

  14. Abdominal abscesses with enteric communications: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chintapalli, K.; Thorsen, M.K.; Foley, W.D.; Unger, G.F.


    CT examinations of four proven abdominal abscesses with enteric communications are reported. All the patients received oral contrast (3% Gastrografin solution). Three patients recieved rectal contrast. The patient who did not receive rectal contrast had a prior abdominoperineal resection. Contrast material was administered intravenously unless there was a contraindication or a suspected enteric vesical fistula. A representative case is described.

  15. Noncommunicating Isolated Enteric Duplication Cyst in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Noncommunicating isolated enteric duplications in the abdomen are an extremely rare variant of enteric duplications with their own blood supply. We report a case of a noncommunicating isolated ileal duplication in a 10-month-old boy. He was admitted because of severe abdominal distension and developed irritability ...

  16. Enteral Nutrition and Acute Pancreatitis: A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanier, B.W.M.; Bruno, M.J.; Mathus-Vliegen, E.M.H.


    Introduction. In patients with acute pancreatitis (AP), nutritional support is required if normal food cannot be tolerated within several days. Enteral nutrition is preferred over parenteral nutrition. We reviewed the literature about enteral nutrition in AP. Methods. A MEDLINE search of the English

  17. Enteral nutrition and acute pancreatitis: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.W.M. Spanier (Marcel); M.J. Bruno (Marco); E.M.H. Mathus-Vliegen (Elisabeth)


    textabstractIntroduction. In patients with acute pancreatitis (AP), nutritional support is required if normal food cannot be tolerated within several days. Enteral nutrition is preferred over parenteral nutrition. We reviewed the literature about enteral nutrition in AP. Methods. A MEDLINE search of

  18. Understanding and controlling the enteric nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeckxstaens, G. E.


    The enteric nervous system or the `Little Brain' of the gut controls gastrointestinal motility and secretion, and is involved in visceral sensation. In this chapter, new developments in understanding the function of the enteric nervous system are described. In particular, the interaction of this

  19. Enteral nutrition in the critically ill. (United States)

    Koruda, M J; Guenter, P; Rombeau, J L


    Although total parenteral nutrition has greatly influenced the clinical management of the critically ill, enteral nutrition can provide much needed support in the intensive care unit. In order to employ the best enteral nutrition, one must understand its rationale, delivery principles, equipment, feeding techniques, and diets, as well as patient selection and monitoring.

  20. Computer-based classification of chromoendoscopy images using homogeneous texture descriptors. (United States)

    Ali, Hussam; Sharif, Muhammad; Yasmin, Mussarat; Rehmani, Mubashir Husain


    Computer-aided analysis of clinical pathologies is a challenging task in the field of medical imaging. Specifically, the detection of abnormal regions in the frames collected during an endoscopic session is difficult. The variations in the conditions of image acquisition, such as field of view or illumination modification, make it more demanding. Therefore, the design of a computer-assisted diagnostic system for the recognition of gastric abnormalities requires features that are robust to scale, rotation, and illumination variations of the images. Therefore, this study focuses on designing a set of texture descriptors based on the Gabor wavelets that will cope with certain image dynamics. The proposed features are extracted from the images and utilized for the classification of the chromoendoscopy (CH) frames into normal and abnormal categories. Moreover, to attain a higher accuracy, an optimized subset of descriptors is selected through the genetic algorithm. The results obtained using the proposed features are compared with other existing texture descriptors (e.g., local binary pattern and homogeneous texture descriptors). Furthermore, the selected features are used to train the support vector machine (SVM), naive Bayes (NB) algorithm, k-nearest neighbor algorithm, linear discriminant analysis, and ensemble tree classifier. The performance of these state-of-the-art classifiers for different texture descriptors is compared based on the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC) derived by using the CH images. The classification results reveal that the SVM classifier achieves 90.0% average accuracy and 0.93 AUC when it is employed with an optimized set of features obtained by using a genetic algorithm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Water quality indicators: bacteria, coliphages, enteric viruses. (United States)

    Lin, Johnson; Ganesh, Atheesha


    Water quality through the presence of pathogenic enteric microorganisms may affect human health. Coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli and coliphages are normally used as indicators of water quality. However, the presence of above-mentioned indicators do not always suggest the presence of human enteric viruses. It is important to study human enteric viruses in water. Human enteric viruses can tolerate fluctuating environmental conditions and survive in the environment for long periods of time becoming causal agents of diarrhoeal diseases. Therefore, the potential of human pathogenic viruses as significant indicators of water quality is emerging. Human Adenoviruses and other viruses have been proposed as suitable indices for the effective identification of such organisms of human origin contaminating water systems. This article reports on the recent developments in the management of water quality specifically focusing on human enteric viruses as indicators.

  2. Enteral and parenteral nutrition in patients with enteric fistulas and short bowel syndrome. (United States)

    Rombeau, J L; Rolandelli, R H


    Significant advances in the use of enteral and parenteral nutrition in patients with either enteric fistulas or short bowel syndrome include increased usage of enteral nutrition because of its trophic effects on the gut and increased usage of both enteral and parenteral nutrition in the home setting. Current investigations are directed toward identifying gut-specific fuels and dietary and pharmacologic enhancement of nutrient utilization.

  3. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen


    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  4. Enteral fluid therapy in large animals. (United States)

    Rainger, J E; Dart, A J


    Enteral fluids administered alone, or in conjunction with intravenous fluids, are reported to be useful for the treatment of dehydration and electrolyte loss associated with diarrhoea in a number of species, following exercise in horses and for feed impaction of the large intestine of horses. Enteral fluids are suitable for treatment of mild to moderately dehydrated patients with some intact intestinal epithelium and motile small intestine. In patients that will drink voluntarily or tolerate nasal intubation the use of enteral fluids may avoid the complications associated with intravenous fluid administration. However the labour costs associated with repeated nasal intubation in intensively managed patients requiring large volumes of fluids may make the use of enteral fluids less economical than intravenous fluid administration. Enteral fluid use alone is contraindicated in patients that are severely dehydrated and/or in hypovolaemic shock, however, if used in conjunction with intravenous fluids, the effects of villous atrophy and malnutrition may be ameliorated and the duration of hospitalisation shortened. There is a variety of commercially available enteral fluids available to veterinary practitioners. While the key components of these fluids are sodium, chloride and carbohydrates, the amounts of ions and other ingredients such as potassium, alkalising agents, amino acids and shortchain fatty acids may vary. The species of the animal, the underlying condition, and the constituents of the fluid, should influence the choice of an enteral fluid.

  5. A new texture descriptor based on local micro-pattern for detection of architectural distortion in mammographic images (United States)

    de Oliveira, Helder C. R.; Moraes, Diego R.; Reche, Gustavo A.; Borges, Lucas R.; Catani, Juliana H.; de Barros, Nestor; Melo, Carlos F. E.; Gonzaga, Adilson; Vieira, Marcelo A. C.


    This paper presents a new local micro-pattern texture descriptor for the detection of Architectural Distortion (AD) in digital mammography images. AD is a subtle contraction of breast parenchyma that may represent an early sign of breast cancer. Due to its subtlety and variability, AD is more difficult to detect compared to microcalcifications and masses, and is commonly found in retrospective evaluations of false-negative mammograms. Several computer-based systems have been proposed for automatic detection of AD, but their performance are still unsatisfactory. The proposed descriptor, Local Mapped Pattern (LMP), is a generalization of the Local Binary Pattern (LBP), which is considered one of the most powerful feature descriptor for texture classification in digital images. Compared to LBP, the LMP descriptor captures more effectively the minor differences between the local image pixels. Moreover, LMP is a parametric model which can be optimized for the desired application. In our work, the LMP performance was compared to the LBP and four Haralick's texture descriptors for the classification of 400 regions of interest (ROIs) extracted from clinical mammograms. ROIs were selected and divided into four classes: AD, normal tissue, microcalcifications and masses. Feature vectors were used as input to a multilayer perceptron neural network, with a single hidden layer. Results showed that LMP is a good descriptor to distinguish AD from other anomalies in digital mammography. LMP performance was slightly better than the LBP and comparable to Haralick's descriptors (mean classification accuracy = 83%).

  6. Comparing axial CT slices in quantized N-dimensional SURF descriptor space to estimate the visible body region. (United States)

    Feulner, Johannes; Zhou, S Kevin; Angelopoulou, Elli; Seifert, Sascha; Cavallaro, Alexander; Hornegger, Joachim; Comaniciu, Dorin


    In this paper, a method is described to automatically estimate the visible body region of a computed tomography (CT) volume image. In order to quantify the body region, a body coordinate (BC) axis is used that runs in longitudinal direction. Its origin and unit length are patient-specific and depend on anatomical landmarks. The body region of a test volume is estimated by registering it only along the longitudinal axis to a set of reference CT volume images with known body coordinates. During these 1D registrations, an axial image slice of the test volume is compared to an axial slice of a reference volume by extracting a descriptor from both slices and measuring the similarity of the descriptors. A slice descriptor consists of histograms of visual words. Visual words are code words of a quantized feature space and can be thought of as classes of image patches with similar appearance. A slice descriptor is formed by sampling a slice on a regular 2D grid and extracting a Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF) descriptor at each sample point. The codebook, or visual vocabulary, is generated in a training step by clustering SURF descriptors. Each SURF descriptor extracted from a slice is classified into the closest visual word (or cluster center) and counted in a histogram. A slice is finally described by a spatial pyramid of such histograms. We introduce an extension of the SURF descriptors to an arbitrary number of dimensions (N-SURF). Here, we make use of 2-SURF and 3-SURF descriptors. Cross-validation on 84 datasets shows the robustness of the results. The body portion can be estimated with an average error of 15.5mm within 9s. Possible applications of this method are automatic labeling of medical image databases and initialization of subsequent image analysis algorithms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pneumatosis intestinalis associated with enteral tube feeding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zorgdrager, Marcel; Pol, Robert


    ...). Explorative laparotomy showed an omental band adhesion without signs of ischaemia. After a short period of total parenteral nutrition PI resolved almost completely and enteral tube feeding could be continued once again...

  8. Endoscopic placement of enteral feeding tubes. (United States)

    Rafferty, Gerard P; Tham, Tony Ck


    Malnutrition is common in patients with acute and chronic illness. Nutritional management of these malnourished patients is an essential part of healthcare. Enteral feeding is one component of nutritional support. It is the preferred method of nutritional support in patients that are not receiving adequate oral nutrition and have a functioning gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This method of nutritional support has undergone progression over recent times. The method of placement of enteral feeding tubes has evolved due to development of new feeding tubes and endoscopic technology. Enteral feeding can be divided into methods that provide short-term and long-term access to the GIT. This review article focuses on the current range of methods of gaining access to the GIT to provide enteral feed.

  9. American Society for Parenteral & Enteral Nutrition (United States)

    ... Center Advertising and Sponsorship Learn More ASPEN Enteral Nutrition by the Numbers: EN Data Across the Healthcare Continuum Learn More The ASPEN Adult Nutrition Support Core Curriculum, 3rd Edition Has Arrived! The ...

  10. Duck Virus Enteritis - A Contingency Plan (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Duck plague, also known as duck virus enteritis (DVE) is a highly contagious, extremely deadly epizootic virus with a potential for devastating continental waterfowl...

  11. [Indications and practice of enteral nutrition]. (United States)

    Hallay, Judit; Nagy, Dániel; Fülesdi, Béla


    Malnutrition in hospitalised patients has a significant and disadvantageous impact on treatment outcome. If possible, enteral nutrition with an energy/protein-balanced nutrient should be preferred depending on the patient's condition, type of illness and risk factors. The aim of the nutrition therapy is to increase the efficacy of treatment and shorten the length of hospital stay in order to ensure rapid rehabilitation. In the present review the authors summarize the most important clinical and practical aspects of enteral nutrition therapy.

  12. Medication administration through enteral feeding tubes. (United States)

    Williams, Nancy Toedter


    An overview of enteral feeding tubes, drug administration techniques, considerations for dosage form selection, common drug interactions with enteral formulas, and methods to minimize tube occlusion is given. Enteral nutrition through a feeding tube is the preferred method of nutrition support in patients who have a functioning gastrointestinal tract but who are unable to be fed orally. This method of delivering nutrition is also commonly used for administering medications when patients cannot swallow safely. However, several issues must be considered with concurrent administration of oral medications and enteral formulas. Incorrect administration methods may result in clogged feeding tubes, decreased drug efficacy, increased adverse effects, or drug-formula incompatibilities. Various enteral feeding tubes are available and are typically classified by site of insertion and location of the distal tip of the feeding tube. Liquid medications, particularly elixirs and suspensions, are preferred for enteral administration; however, these formulations may be hypertonic or contain large amounts of sorbitol, and these properties increase the potential for adverse effects. Before solid dosage forms are administered through the feeding tube, it should be determined if the medications are suitable for manipulation, such as crushing a tablet or opening a capsule. Medications should not be added directly to the enteral formula, and feeding tubes should be properly flushed with water before and after each medication is administered. To minimize drug-nutrient interactions, special considerations should be taken when administering phenytoin, carbamazepine, warfarin, fluoroquinolones, and proton pump inhibitors via feeding tubes. Precautions should be implemented to prevent tube occlusions, and immediate intervention is required when blockages occur. Successful drug delivery through enteral feeding tubes requires consideration of the tube size and placement as well as careful

  13. Endoscopic placement of enteral feeding tubes


    Rafferty, Gerard P; Tham, Tony CK


    Malnutrition is common in patients with acute and chronic illness. Nutritional management of these malnourished patients is an essential part of healthcare. Enteral feeding is one component of nutritional support. It is the preferred method of nutritional support in patients that are not receiving adequate oral nutrition and have a functioning gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This method of nutritional support has undergone progression over recent times. The method of placement of enteral feedin...

  14. Unsupervised selection of informative descriptors in QSAR study of anti-HIV activities of HEPT derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagheri, Saeed; Omidikia, Nematollah; Kompany-Zareh, Mohsen


    selection is unsupervised indeed. Besides, scores that are the linear combination of the data variables are set as dependent variables (artificial dependent variables). It includes 107 derivatives of HEPT molecule, characterized by 160 descriptors encoding the steric, hydrophobic, electronic and structural......With the increasing ease of measuring and calculating multiple descriptors per molecule in quantitative structure-activity relationship, the importance of variable selection for data reduction and improving interpretability is gaining importance. While variable selection has been extensively...... studied in the context of supervised learning, in this paper, an unsupervised learning method is proposed for variable selection and its performance is assessed using a typical QSAR data set. Whereas there is no real dependent variable in the proposed variable selection algorithm, applied variable...

  15. Genetic dissimilarity among sweet potato genotypes using morphological and molecular descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Knoblauch Viega de Andrade


    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the genetic dissimilarity among sweet potato genotypes using morphological and molecular descriptors. The experiment was conducted in the Olericulture Sector at Federal University of Jequitinhonha and Mucuri Valleys (UFVJM and evaluated 60 sweet potato genotypes. For morphological characterization, 24 descriptors were used. For molecular characterization, 11 microsatellite primers specific for sweet potatoes were used, obtaining 210 polymorphic bands. Morphological and molecular diversity was obtained by dissimilarity matrices based on the coefficient of simple matching and the Jaccard index for morphological and molecular data, respectively. From these matrices, dendrograms were built. There is a large amount of genetic variability among sweet potato genotypes of the germplasm bank at UFVJM based on morphological and molecular characterizations. There was no duplicate suspicion or strong association between morphological and molecular analyses. Divergent accessions have been identified by molecular and morphological analyses, which can be used as parents in breeding programmes to produce progenies with high genetic variability.

  16. A high capacity multiple watermarking scheme based on Fourier descriptor and Sudoku (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Zheng, Huimin


    Digital watermark is a type of technology to hide some significant information which is mainly used to protect digital data. A high capacity multiple watermarking method is proposed, which adapts the Fourier descriptor to pre-process the watermarks, while a Sudoku puzzle is used as a reference matrix in embedding process and a key in extraction process. It can dramatically reduce the required capacity by applying Fourier descriptor. Meanwhile, the security of watermarks can be guaranteed due to the Sudoku puzzle. Unlike previous algorithms applying Sudoku puzzle in spatial domain, the proposed algorithm works in transformed domain by applying LWT2.In addition, the proposed algorithm can detect the temper location accurately. The experimental results demonstrated that the goals mentioned above have been achieved.

  17. Metal Oxide Nanomaterial QNAR Models: Available Structural Descriptors and Understanding of Toxicity Mechanisms. (United States)

    Ying, Jiali; Zhang, Ting; Tang, Meng


    Metal oxide nanomaterials are widely used in various areas; however, the divergent published toxicology data makes it difficult to determine whether there is a risk associated with exposure to metal oxide nanomaterials. The application of quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) modeling in metal oxide nanomaterials toxicity studies can reduce the need for time-consuming and resource-intensive nanotoxicity tests. The nanostructure and inorganic composition of metal oxide nanomaterials makes this approach different from classical QSAR study; this review lists and classifies some structural descriptors, such as size, cation charge, and band gap energy, in recent metal oxide nanomaterials quantitative nanostructure activity relationship (QNAR) studies and discusses the mechanism of metal oxide nanomaterials toxicity based on these descriptors and traditional nanotoxicity tests.

  18. A descriptor list of Silybum marianum (L. Gaertner – morphological and biological characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušková, Elena


    Full Text Available Silybum marianum (L. Gaertn (Milk thistle is an important medicinal plant which fruits are used for treatment of various liver diseases. In an effort to utilize the genetic potential of cultivated plants in the best way, the breeding of new high-performance cultivars is underway all over the world. Genetic improvement in Silybum can only be, as with all other plants, achieved through a clear understanding of the plant´s behaviour and the amount of variability presented in wild populations. Surprisingly no descriptor list has been compiled up to now, which would permit an objective and easily repeatable description an evaluation of the different Silybum genotypes. The first part of such a descriptor list, which is intended mainly for evaluation of genotypes perspective for fruit production, is presented here and it contains both the morphological and biological characters.

  19. Static sign language recognition using 1D descriptors and neural networks (United States)

    Solís, José F.; Toxqui, Carina; Padilla, Alfonso; Santiago, César


    A frame work for static sign language recognition using descriptors which represents 2D images in 1D data and artificial neural networks is presented in this work. The 1D descriptors were computed by two methods, first one consists in a correlation rotational operator.1 and second is based on contour analysis of hand shape. One of the main problems in sign language recognition is segmentation; most of papers report a special color in gloves or background for hand shape analysis. In order to avoid the use of gloves or special clothing, a thermal imaging camera was used to capture images. Static signs were picked up from 1 to 9 digits of American Sign Language, a multilayer perceptron reached 100% recognition with cross-validation.

  20. Metal Oxide Nanomaterial QNAR Models: Available Structural Descriptors and Understanding of Toxicity Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiali Ying


    Full Text Available Metal oxide nanomaterials are widely used in various areas; however, the divergent published toxicology data makes it difficult to determine whether there is a risk associated with exposure to metal oxide nanomaterials. The application of quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR modeling in metal oxide nanomaterials toxicity studies can reduce the need for time-consuming and resource-intensive nanotoxicity tests. The nanostructure and inorganic composition of metal oxide nanomaterials makes this approach different from classical QSAR study; this review lists and classifies some structural descriptors, such as size, cation charge, and band gap energy, in recent metal oxide nanomaterials quantitative nanostructure activity relationship (QNAR studies and discusses the mechanism of metal oxide nanomaterials toxicity based on these descriptors and traditional nanotoxicity tests.

  1. Correlates of protection for enteric vaccines. (United States)

    Holmgren, Jan; Parashar, Umesh D; Plotkin, Stanley; Louis, Jacques; Ng, Su-Peing; Desauziers, Eric; Picot, Valentina; Saadatian-Elahi, Mitra


    An immunological Correlate of Protection (CoP) is an immune response that is statistically interrelated with protection. Identification of CoPs for enteric vaccines would help design studies to improve vaccine performance of licensed vaccines in low income settings, and would facilitate the testing of future vaccines in development that might be more affordable. CoPs are lacking today for most existing and investigational enteric vaccines. In order to share the latest information on CoPs for enteric vaccines and to discuss novel approaches to correlate mucosal immune responses in humans with protection, the Foundation Mérieux organized an international conference of experts where potential CoPs for vaccines were examined using case-studies for both bacterial and viral enteric pathogens. Experts on the panel concluded that to date, all established enteric vaccine CoPs, such as those for hepatitis A, Vi typhoid and poliovirus vaccines, are based on serological immune responses even though these may poorly reflect the relevant gut immune responses or predict protective efficacy. Known CoPs for cholera, norovirus and rotavirus could be considered as acceptable for comparisons of similarly composed vaccines while more work is still needed to establish CoPs for the remaining enteric pathogens and their candidate vaccines. Novel approaches to correlate human mucosal immune responses with protection include the investigation of gut-originating antibody-secreting cells (ASCs), B memory cells and follicular helper T cells from samples of peripheral blood during their recirculation. Copyright © 2017.

  2. Descriptor-Based Analysis Applied to HCN Synthesis from NH3 and CH4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabow, L


    The design of solid metal catalysts using theoretical methods has been a long-standing goal in heterogeneous catalysis. Recent developments in methodology and computer technology as well as the establishment of a descriptor-based approach for the analysis of reaction mechanisms and trends across the periodic table allow for the fast screening for new catalytic materials and have lead to first examples of computational discoveries of new materials. The underlying principles of the descriptor-based approach are the existence of relations between the surface electronic structure, adsorption energies and activation barriers that result in volcano-shaped activity plots as function of simple descriptors, such as atomic binding energies or the d-band center. Linear scaling relations have been established between the adsorption energies of hydrogen-containing molecules such as CH{sub x}, NH{sub x}, OH{sub x} and SH{sub x} and the C, N O and S adsorption energies on transition-metal surfaces. Transition-state energies have also been shown to scale linearly with adsorption energies in a similar fashion. Recently, a single transition state scaling relation has been identified for a large number of C-C, C-O, C-N, N-O, N-N, and O-O coupling reactions. The scaling relations provide a powerful tool for the investigation of reaction mechanisms and the prediction of potential energy surfaces. They limit the number of independent variables to a few, typically adsorption energies of key atoms. Using this information as input to a microkinetic model provides an understanding of trends in catalytic activity across the transition metals. In most cases a volcano-shaped relation between activity and the key variables, the descriptors, is observed. In the present paper we will provide an example of the approach outlined above and show how one can obtain an understanding of activity/selectivity trends of a reaction with just a few new calculations.

  3. Generic Traffic Descriptors in Managing Service Quality in BISDN/ATM Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bošnjak


    Full Text Available Traffic models for multiservice broadband networks differsignificantly regarding simple analytic models applicable intelephone traffic and circuit-switch network. The paper presentsa clear analysis of standardised traffic descriptors andquality parameters of the main services in BISDNIATM. Trafficdescriptors have been associated with the basic values andconcepts developed within generic traffic theory. Part systematisationof traffic parameters has been performed as basis for formalisedgeneralised description of parameters and effectivequality management of A TM services.

  4. Chemical structure of descriptors with an active hydrogen atom in certain bioregulators. (United States)

    Kurchii, B A


    The chemical structure of descriptors (D) for some plant growth regulators (PGR), herbicides, pesticides and drugs is described. The presence of an active hydrogen atom in molecules is an essential factor determining biological activity of chemicals. The results obtained from the study of dependence existing between the structure of a certain substance and its biological activity may be used in designing of novel compounds which possess in biological activity.

  5. Tobacco products sold by Internet vendors following restrictions on flavors and light descriptors. (United States)

    Jo, Catherine L; Williams, Rebecca S; Ribisl, Kurt M


    The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act bans characterizing flavors (e.g., grape, strawberry) in cigarettes, excluding tobacco and menthol, and prohibits companies from using misleading descriptors (e.g., light, low) that imply reduced health risks without submitting scientific data to support the claim and obtaining a marketing authorization from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. This observational study examines tobacco products offered by Internet cigarette vendors (ICV) pre- and postimplementation of the ban on characterizing flavors in cigarettes and the restriction on misleading descriptors. Cross-sectional samples of the 200 most popular ICVs in 2009, 2010, and 2011 were identified. Data were analyzed in 2012 and 2013. In 2011 the odds for selling cigarettes with banned flavors or misleading descriptors were 0.40 times that for selling the products in 2009 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.18, 0.88). However, 89% of vendors continued to sell the products, including 95.8% of international vendors. Following the ban on characterizing flavors, ICVs began selling potential alternative products. In 2010, the odds for selling flavored little cigars were 1.71 (95% CI = 1.09, 2.69) times that for selling the product in 2009 and, for clove cigars, were 5.50 (95% CI = 2.36, 12.80) times that for selling the product in 2009. Noncompliance with the ban on characterizing flavors and restriction on misleading descriptors has been high, especially among international vendors. Many vendors appear to be circumventing the intent of the flavors ban by selling unbanned flavored cigars, in some cases in lieu of flavored cigarettes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  6. Discretizing LTI Descriptor (Regular Differential Input Systems with Consistent Initial Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios D. Karageorgos


    Full Text Available A technique for discretizing efficiently the solution of a Linear descriptor (regular differential input system with consistent initial conditions, and Time-Invariant coefficients (LTI is introduced and fully discussed. Additionally, an upper bound for the error ‖x¯(kT−x¯k‖ that derives from the procedure of discretization is also provided. Practically speaking, we are interested in such kind of systems, since they are inherent in many physical, economical and engineering phenomena.

  7. Discrimination Power of Polynomial-Based Descriptors for Graphs by Using Functional Matrices. (United States)

    Dehmer, Matthias; Emmert-Streib, Frank; Shi, Yongtang; Stefu, Monica; Tripathi, Shailesh


    In this paper, we study the discrimination power of graph measures that are based on graph-theoretical matrices. The paper generalizes the work of [M. Dehmer, M. Moosbrugger. Y. Shi, Encoding structural information uniquely with polynomial-based descriptors by employing the Randić matrix, Applied Mathematics and Computation, 268(2015), 164-168]. We demonstrate that by using the new functional matrix approach, exhaustively generated graphs can be discriminated more uniquely than shown in the mentioned previous work.

  8. Characterizations of how species mediate ecosystem properties require more comprehensive functional effect descriptors (United States)

    Hale, R.; Mavrogordato, M. N.; Tolhurst, T. J.; Solan, M.


    The importance of individual species in mediating ecosystem process and functioning is generally accepted, but categorical descriptors that summarize species-specific contributions to ecosystems tend to reference a limited number of biological traits and underestimate the importance of how organisms interact with their environment. Here, we show how three functionally contrasting sediment-dwelling marine invertebrates affect fluid and particle transport - important processes in mediating nutrient cycling - and use high-resolution reconstructions of burrow geometry to determine the extent and nature of biogenic modification. We find that individual functional effect descriptors fall short of being able to adequately characterize how species mediate the stocks and flows of important ecosystem properties and that, in contrary to common practice and understanding, they are not substitutable with one another because they emphasize different aspects of species activity and behavior. When information derived from these metrics is combined with knowledge of how species behave and modify their environment, however, detailed mechanistic information emerges that increases the likelihood that a species functional standing will be appropriately summarized. Our study provides evidence that more comprehensive functional effect descriptors are required if they are to be of value to those tasked with projecting how altered biodiversity will influence future ecosystems.

  9. Finding Chemical Structures Corresponding to a Set of Coordinates in Chemical Descriptor Space. (United States)

    Miyao, Tomoyuki; Funatsu, Kimito


    When chemical structures are searched based on descriptor values, or descriptors are interpreted based on values, it is important that corresponding chemical structures actually exist. In order to consider the existence of chemical structures located in a specific region in the chemical space, we propose to search them inside training data domains (TDDs), which are dense areas of a training dataset in the chemical space. We investigated TDDs' features using diverse and local datasets, assuming that GDB11 is the chemical universe. These two analyses showed that considering TDDs gives higher chance of finding chemical structures than a random search-based method, and that novel chemical structures actually exist inside TDDs. In addition to those findings, we tested the hypothesis that chemical structures were distributed on the limited areas of chemical space. This hypothesis was confirmed by the fact that distances among chemical structures in several descriptor spaces were much shorter than those among randomly generated coordinates in the training data range. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Performance of Global-Appearance Descriptors in Map Building and Localization Using Omnidirectional Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Payá


    Full Text Available Map building and localization are two crucial abilities that autonomous robots must develop. Vision sensors have become a widespread option to solve these problems. When using this kind of sensors, the robot must extract the necessary information from the scenes to build a representation of the environment where it has to move and to estimate its position and orientation with robustness. The techniques based on the global appearance of the scenes constitute one of the possible approaches to extract this information. They consist in representing each scene using only one descriptor which gathers global information from the scene. These techniques present some advantages comparing to other classical descriptors, based on the extraction of local features. However, it is important a good configuration of the parameters to reach a compromise between computational cost and accuracy. In this paper we make an exhaustive comparison among some global appearance descriptors to solve the mapping and localization problem. With this aim, we make use of several image sets captured in indoor environments under realistic working conditions. The datasets have been collected using an omnidirectional vision sensor mounted on the robot.

  11. Measuring the Conformational Distance of GPCR-related Proteins Using a Joint-based Descriptor. (United States)

    Thangappan, Jayaraman; Madan, Bharat; Wu, Sangwook; Lee, Sun-Gu


    Joint-based descriptor is a new level of macroscopic descriptor for protein structure using joints of secondary structures as a basic element. Here, we propose how the joint-based descriptor can be applied to examine the conformational distances or differences of transmembrane (TM) proteins. Specifically, we performed three independent studies that measured the global and conformational distances between GPCR A family and its related structures. First, the conformational distances of GPCR A family and other 7TM proteins were evaluated. This provided the information on the distant and close families or superfamilies to GPCR A family and permitted the identification of conserved local conformations. Second, computational models of GPCR A family proteins were validated, which enabled us to estimate how much they reproduce the native conformation of GPCR A proteins at global and local conformational level. Finally, the conformational distances between active and inactive states of GPCR proteins were estimated, which identified the difference of local conformation. The proposed macroscopic joint-based approach is expected to allow us to investigate structural features, evolutionary relationships, computational models and conformational changes of TM proteins in a more simplistic manner.

  12. Texture descriptors based on adaptive neighborhoods for classification of pigmented skin lesions (United States)

    González-Castro, Víctor; Debayle, Johan; Wazaefi, Yanal; Rahim, Mehdi; Gaudy-Marqueste, Caroline; Grob, Jean-Jacques; Fertil, Bernard


    Different texture descriptors are proposed for the automatic classification of skin lesions from dermoscopic images. They are based on color texture analysis obtained from (1) color mathematical morphology (MM) and Kohonen self-organizing maps (SOMs) or (2) local binary patterns (LBPs), computed with the use of local adaptive neighborhoods of the image. Neither of these two approaches needs a previous segmentation process. In the first proposed descriptor, the adaptive neighborhoods are used as structuring elements to carry out adaptive MM operations which are further combined by using Kohonen SOM; this has been compared with a nonadaptive version. In the second one, the adaptive neighborhoods enable geometrical feature maps to be defined, from which LBP histograms are computed. This has also been compared with a classical LBP approach. A receiver operating characteristics analysis of the experimental results shows that the adaptive neighborhood-based LBP approach yields the best results. It outperforms the nonadaptive versions of the proposed descriptors and the dermatologists' visual predictions.

  13. Excited-state properties from ground-state DFT descriptors: A QSPR approach for dyes. (United States)

    Fayet, Guillaume; Jacquemin, Denis; Wathelet, Valérie; Perpète, Eric A; Rotureau, Patricia; Adamo, Carlo


    This work presents a quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR)-based approach allowing an accurate prediction of the excited-state properties of organic dyes (anthraquinones and azobenzenes) from ground-state molecular descriptors, obtained within the (conceptual) density functional theory (DFT) framework. The ab initio computation of the descriptors was achieved at several levels of theory, so that the influence of the basis set size as well as of the modeling of environmental effects could be statistically quantified. It turns out that, for the entire data set, a statistically-robust four-variable multiple linear regression based on PCM-PBE0/6-31G calculations delivers a R(adj)(2) of 0.93 associated to predictive errors allowing for rapid and efficient dye design. All the selected descriptors are independent of the dye's family, an advantage over previously designed QSPR schemes. On top of that, the obtained accuracy is comparable to the one of the today's reference methods while exceeding the one of hardness-based fittings. QSPR relationships specific to both families of dyes have also been built up. This work paves the way towards reliable and computationally affordable color design for organic dyes. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A New Laws Filtered Local Binary Pattern Texture Descriptor for Ultrasound Kidney Images Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR is an inevitable technique in medical applications. One of the important tasks in CBIR is the feature extraction process. A new feature extraction procedure called Laws Filtered Local Binary Pattern (LFLBP for extracting texture features from ultrasound kidney images is proposed in this manuscript. This new texture feature combines the gain of Laws Masks and Local Binary Pattern (LBP. The Laws Masks enhance the discrimination power of LBP by capturing high energy texture points in an image and efficiently characterize the textures. The new descriptor is intended to utilize the local information in an effective manner neither the increase of encoding levels nor the usage of adjacent neighbourhood information. The performance of this new descriptor is compared with the LBP and the Local Ternary Pattern (LTP. The experimental results show that the ultrasound kidney images retrieval system with this new descriptor has good average precision value (77% as compared to LBP (74% and LTP (74.3%.

  15. New Fukui, dual and hyper-dual kernels as bond reactivity descriptors. (United States)

    Franco-Pérez, Marco; Polanco-Ramírez, Carlos-A; Ayers, Paul W; Gázquez, José L; Vela, Alberto


    We define three new linear response indices with promising applications for bond reactivity using the mathematical framework of τ-CRT (finite temperature chemical reactivity theory). The τ-Fukui kernel is defined as the ratio between the fluctuations of the average electron density at two different points in the space and the fluctuations in the average electron number and is designed to integrate to the finite-temperature definition of the electronic Fukui function. When this kernel is condensed, it can be interpreted as a site-reactivity descriptor of the boundary region between two atoms. The τ-dual kernel corresponds to the first order response of the Fukui kernel and is designed to integrate to the finite temperature definition of the dual descriptor; it indicates the ambiphilic reactivity of a specific bond and enriches the traditional dual descriptor by allowing one to distinguish between the electron-accepting and electron-donating processes. Finally, the τ-hyper dual kernel is defined as the second-order derivative of the Fukui kernel and is proposed as a measure of the strength of ambiphilic bonding interactions. Although these quantities have never been proposed, our results for the τ-Fukui kernel and for τ-dual kernel can be derived in zero-temperature formulation of the chemical reactivity theory with, among other things, the widely-used parabolic interpolation model.

  16. A novel 3D shape descriptor for automatic retrieval of anatomical structures from medical images (United States)

    Nunes, Fátima L. S.; Bergamasco, Leila C. C.; Delmondes, Pedro H.; Valverde, Miguel A. G.; Jackowski, Marcel P.


    Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) aims at retrieving from a database objects that are similar to an object provided by a query, by taking into consideration a set of extracted features. While CBIR has been widely applied in the two-dimensional image domain, the retrieval of3D objects from medical image datasets using CBIR remains to be explored. In this context, the development of descriptors that can capture information specific to organs or structures is desirable. In this work, we focus on the retrieval of two anatomical structures commonly imaged by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computed Tomography (CT) techniques, the left ventricle of the heart and blood vessels. Towards this aim, we developed the Area-Distance Local Descriptor (ADLD), a novel 3D local shape descriptor that employs mesh geometry information, namely facet area and distance from centroid to surface, to identify shape changes. Because ADLD only considers surface meshes extracted from volumetric medical images, it substantially diminishes the amount of data to be analyzed. A 90% precision rate was obtained when retrieving both convex (left ventricle) and non-convex structures (blood vessels), allowing for detection of abnormalities associated with changes in shape. Thus, ADLD has the potential to aid in the diagnosis of a wide range of vascular and cardiac diseases.

  17. Leaf and fruit morphological descriptors for commercial nance selections (Byrsonima crassifolia (L. HBK in Nayarit, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina-Torres, R.


    Full Text Available In order to identify the variability of quantitative and qualitative leaf and fruit descriptors, 41 commercial nance selections (Byrsonima crassifolia (L. HBK collected in six locations of the state of Nayarit were characterized. The main component analysis (MCA showed that 79.91 % of the total variance (TV was explained by seven main components (MC’s and from these three contributed 55.20 % to TV. MC1 explained 24.10 % of the variance, where the most relevant to the study of the nance genetic diversity were: fresh leaf weight, leaf area and the equatorial fruit diameter. MC2 contributed 19.18 % to TV, where the most important were fruit size and fresh weight, as well as leaf average length and width. MC3 contributed 11.92 % to TV, where fruit shape and fruit apex form were negatively correlated. Adaxial leaf pubescence correlated positively. The rest of the total variance had little importance to leaf and fruit phenotypic characterization. The three groupings obtained by principal components and hierarchical conglomerates had a high coincidence for discriminating selections based on leaf and fruit descriptors. However, the descriptors obtained showed no relationship with the geographical origin of the selections. This supposes an advanced degree of domestication and transit of plant material for commercial orchards.

  18. Development of QSAR model to predict the ecotoxicity of Vibrio fischeri using COSMO-RS descriptors. (United States)

    Ghanem, Ouahid Ben; Mutalib, M I Abdul; Lévêque, Jean-Marc; El-Harbawi, Mohanad


    Ionic liquids (ILs) are class of solvent whose properties can be modified and tuned to meet industrial requirements. However, a high number of potentially available cations and anions leads to an even increasing members of newly-synthesized ionic liquids, adding to the complexity of understanding on their impact on aquatic organisms. Quantitative structure activity∖property relationship (QSAR∖QSPR) technique has been proven to be a useful method for toxicity prediction. In this work,σ-profile descriptors were used to build linear and non-linear QSAR models to predict the ecotoxicities of a wide variety of ILs towards bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Linear model was constructed using five descriptors resulting in high accuracy prediction of 0.906. The model performance and stability were ascertained using k-fold cross validation method. The selected descriptors set from the linear model was then used in multilayer perceptron (MLP) technique to develop the non-linear model, the accuracy of the model was further enhanced achieving high correlation coefficient with the lowest value being 0.961 with the highest mean square error of 0.157. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cations in Octahedral Sites: A Descriptor for Oxygen Electrocatalysis on Transition-Metal Spinels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Chao; Feng, Zhenxing; Scherer, Günther G.; Barber, James; Shao-Horn, Yang; Xu, Zhichuan J. (Nanyang); (ICL); (Oregon State U.); (TUM-CREATE); (MIT)


    Exploring efficient and low-cost electrocatalysts for the oxygen-reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen-evolution reaction (OER) is critical for developing renewable energy technologies such as fuel cells, metal–air batteries, and water electrolyzers. A rational design of a catalyst can be guided by identifying descriptors that determine its activity. Here, a descriptor study on the ORR/OER of spinel oxides is presented. With a series of MnCo2O4, the Mn in octahedral sites is identified as an active site. This finding is then applied to successfully explain the ORR/OER activities of other transition-metal spinels, including MnxCo3-xO4 (x = 2, 2.5, 3), LixMn2O4 (x = 0.7, 1), XCo2O4 (X = Co, Ni, Zn), and XFe2O4 (X = Mn, Co, Ni). A general principle is concluded that the eg occupancy of the active cation in the octahedral site is the activity descriptor for the ORR/OER of spinels, consolidating the role of electron orbital filling in metal oxide catalysis.

  20. Structural descriptor database: a new tool for sequence-based functional site prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasconcelos Ana


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Structural Descriptor Database (SDDB is a web-based tool that predicts the function of proteins and functional site positions based on the structural properties of related protein families. Structural alignments and functional residues of a known protein set (defined as the training set are used to build special Hidden Markov Models (HMM called HMM descriptors. SDDB uses previously calculated and stored HMM descriptors for predicting active sites, binding residues, and protein function. The database integrates biologically relevant data filtered from several databases such as PDB, PDBSUM, CSA and SCOP. It accepts queries in fasta format and predicts functional residue positions, protein-ligand interactions, and protein function, based on the SCOP database. Results To assess the SDDB performance, we used different data sets. The Trypsion-like Serine protease data set assessed how well SDDB predicts functional sites when curated data is available. The SCOP family data set was used to analyze SDDB performance by using training data extracted from PDBSUM (binding sites and from CSA (active sites. The ATP-binding experiment was used to compare our approach with the most current method. For all evaluations, significant improvements were obtained with SDDB. Conclusion SDDB performed better when trusty training data was available. SDDB worked better in predicting active sites rather than binding sites because the former are more conserved than the latter. Nevertheless, by using our prediction method we obtained results with precision above 70%.

  1. Fukui and dual-descriptor matrices within the framework of spin-polarized density functional theory. (United States)

    Alcoba, Diego R; Lain, Luis; Torre, Alicia; Oña, Ofelia B; Chamorro, Eduardo


    This work deals with the Fukui and dual reactivity descriptors within the framework of the spin-polarized density functional theory. The first and second derivatives of the electron density and the spin density with respect to the total number of electrons N = Nα + Nβ and with respect to the spin number NS = Nα-Nβ have been formulated by means of reduced density matrices in the representation of the spin-orbitals of a given basis set, providing the matrix extension of those descriptors. The analysis of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Fukui and dual-descriptor matrices yields information on the role played by the molecular orbitals in charge-transfer and spin-polarization processes. This matrix formulation enables determining similarity indices which allows one to evaluate quantitatively the quality of the simple frontier molecular orbital model in conceptual density functional theory. Selected closed- and open-shell systems in different spin symmetries have been studied with this matrix formalism at several levels of electronic correlation. The results confirm the suitability of this approach.

  2. Important clinical descriptors to include in the examination and assessment of patients with femoroacetabular impingement syndrome: an international and multi-disciplinary Delphi survey. (United States)

    Reiman, M P; Thorborg, K; Covington, K; Cook, C E; Hölmich, P


    Determine which examination findings are key clinical descriptors of femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS) through use of an international, multi-disciplinary expert panel. A three-round Delphi survey utilizing an international, multi-disciplinary expert panel operationally defined from international publications and presentations was utilized. All six domains (subjective examination, patient-reported outcome measures, physical examination, special tests, physical performance measures, and diagnostic imaging) had at least one descriptor with 75% consensus agreement for diagnosis and assessment of FAIS. Diagnostic imaging was the domain with the highest level of agreement. Domains such as patient-reported outcome measures (PRO's) and physical examination were identified as non-diagnostic measures (rather as assessments of disease impact). Although it also had the greatest level of variability in description of examination domains, diagnostic imaging continues to be the preeminent diagnostic measure for FAIS. No single domain should be utilized as the sole diagnostic or assessment parameter for FAIS. While not all investigated domains provide diagnostic capability for FAIS, those that do not are able to serve purpose as a measure of disease impact (e.g., impairments and activity limitations). The clinical relevance of this Delphi survey is the understanding that a comprehensive assessment measuring both diagnostic capability and disease impact most accurately reflects the patient with FAIS. V.

  3. Evaluation of the pharmacological descriptors related to the induction of antidepressant activity and its prediction by QSAR/QRAR methods. (United States)

    Avram, S; Buiu, C; Duda-Seiman, D; Duda-Seiman, C; Borcan, F; Mihailescu, D


    Antidepressants are psychiatric agents used for the treatment of different types of depression, being at present amongst the most commonly prescribed drugs, while their effectiveness and adverse effects are still the subject of many studies. To reduce the inefficiency of known antidepressants caused by their side-effects, many research efforts have recently focused on the development of improved strategies for new antidepressants drug design. For this reason it is necessary to apply very fast and precise techniques, such as QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships) and QRAR (Quantitative Retention-Activity Relationship), which are capable to analyze and predict the biological activity for these structures, taking in account the possible changes of the molecular structures and chromatographic parameters. We discuss the pharmaceutical descriptors (van der Waals, electrostatic, hydrophobicity, hydrogen donor/acceptor bond, Verloop's parameters, polar area) involved in QSAR and also chromatographic parameters involved in QRAR studies of antidepressants. Antidepressant activities of alkanol piperazine, acetamides, arylpiperazines, thienopyrimidinone derivatives (as preclinical antidepressants) and also the antidepressants already used in clinical practice are mentioned.

  4. Image copy-move forgery detection based on sped-up robust features descriptor and adaptive minimal-maximal suppression (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Sun, Xingming; Xin, Xiangyang; Hu, Weifeng; Wu, Youxin


    Region duplication is a simple and effective operation to create digital image forgeries, where a continuous portion of pixels in an image is copied and pasted to a different location in the same image. Many prior copy-move forgery detection methods suffer from their inability to detect the duplicated region, which is subjected to various geometric transformations. A keypoint-based approach is proposed to detect the copy-move forgery in an image. Our method starts by extracting the keypoints through a fast Hessian detector. Then the adaptive minimal-maximal suppression (AMMS) strategy is developed for distributing the keypoints evenly throughout an image. By using AMMS and a sped-up robust feature descriptor, the proposed method is able to deal with the problem of insufficient keypoints in the almost uniform area. Finally, the geometric transformation performed in cloning is recovered by using the maximum likelihood estimation of the homography. Experimental results show the efficacy of this technique in detecting copy-move forgeries and estimating the geometric transformation parameters. Compared with the state of the art, our approach obtains a higher true positive rate and a lower false positive rate.

  5. Single-layer closure of typhoid enteric perforation: Our experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Typhoid enteritis is rare in developed countries. The increasing prevalence of typhoid fever with enteric perforation in our environment is alarming. Peritonitis follows enteric perforation due to typhoid enteritis. Surgical treatments and repair of the perforated areas due to typhoid enteritis varies between ...

  6. Intestinal endocrine cells in radiation enteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietroletti, R.; Blaauwgeers, J.L.; Taat, C.W.; Simi, M.; Brummelkamp, W.H.; Becker, A.E. (Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands))


    In this study, the intestinal endocrine cells were investigated in 13 surgical specimens affected by radiation enteritis. Endocrine cells were studied by means of Grimelius' silver staining and immunostaining for chromogranin, a general marker of endocrine cells. Positively stained cells were quantified by counting their number per unit length of muscularis mucosa. Results in radiation enteritis were compared with matched control specimens by using Student's t test. Chromogranin immunostaining showed a statistically significant increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis specimens compared with controls both in small and large intestine (ileum, 67.5 +/- 23.5 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 17.0 +/- 6.1 in controls; colon, 40.9 +/- 13.7 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 9.5 +/- 4.1 in controls--p less than 0.005 in both instances). Increase of endocrine cells was demonstrated also by Grimelius' staining; however, without reaching statistical significance. It is not clear whether or not the increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis reported in this study is caused by a hyperplastic response or by a sparing phenomenon. We should consider that increased endocrine cells, when abnormally secreting their products, may be involved in some of the clinical features of radiation enteropathy. In addition, as intestinal endocrine cells produce trophic substances to the intestine, their increase could be responsible for the raised risk of developing carcinoma of the intestine in long standing radiation enteritis.

  7. Tuberculous Enteritis: A Rare Complication of Miliary Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danisha Figueroa


    Full Text Available Tuberculous enteritis is a clinical rarity even in immunocompromised patients. We present a case of miliary tuberculosis with gastrointestinal involvement. A 47-year-old homosexual male from Philippines with no significant medical history presented with productive cough, night sweats, subjective fevers, shortness of breath, watery diarrhea, and 25-pound weight loss in past one year. On physical exam he was afebrile, mildly hypotensive, tachycardic, and tachypneic, but saturating well on room air. He was cachectic with oral thrush and bilateral fine rales. Chest X-ray revealed a miliary pattern. His sputum AFB smear was strongly positive. PCR and sputum culture were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. He was started on Rifampin, Isoniazid, Ethambutol, and Pyrazinamide. He was found to be HIV positive with an absolute CD4 count of 4 cells/μL. Due to persistent diarrhea, stool was sent for AFB culture and grew M. tuberculosis. He responded well to treatment with resolution of symptoms. Tuberculous enteritis occurs in about 2% of the patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Although it is uncommon, it should be considered in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis and abdominal complaints. A presumptive diagnosis of tuberculous enteritis can be made in the setting of active pulmonary tuberculosis with suggestive clinical, endoscopic, and/or radiographic findings.

  8. A coupling approach of a predictor and a descriptor for breast cancer prognosis. (United States)

    Shin, Hyunjung; Nam, Yonghyun


    In cancer prognosis research, diverse machine learning models have applied to the problems of cancer susceptibility (risk assessment), cancer recurrence (redevelopment of cancer after resolution), and cancer survivability, regarding an accuracy (or an AUC--the area under the ROC curve) as a primary measurement for the performance evaluation of the models. However, in order to help medical specialists to establish a treatment plan by using the predicted output of a model, it is more pragmatic to elucidate which variables (markers) have most significantly influenced to the resulting outcome of cancer or which patients show similar patterns. In this study, a coupling approach of two sub-modules--a predictor and a descriptor--is proposed. The predictor module generates the predicted output for the cancer outcome. Semi-supervised learning co-training algorithm is employed as a predictor. On the other hand, the descriptor module post-processes the results of the predictor module, mainly focusing on which variables are more highly or less significantly ranked when describing the results of the prediction, and how patients are segmented into several groups according to the trait of common patterns among them. Decision trees are used as a descriptor. The proposed approach, 'predictor-descriptor,' was tested on the breast cancer survivability problem based on the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results database for breast cancer (SEER). The results present the performance comparison among the established machine leaning algorithms, the ranks of the prognosis elements for breast cancer, and patient segmentation. In the performance comparison among the predictor candidates, Semi-supervised learning co-training algorithm showed best performance, producing an average AUC of 0.81. Later, the descriptor module found the top-tier prognosis markers which significantly affect to the classification results on survived/dead patients: 'lymph node involvement', 'stage', 'site

  9. A 3D visualization of the substituent effect : A brief analysis of two components of the operational formula of dual descriptor for open-shell systems. (United States)

    Martínez-Araya, Jorge I; Yepes, Diana; Jaque, Pablo


    Six organometallic compounds coming from a basic Mo-based complex were analyzed from the perspective of the dual descriptor in order to detect subtle influences that a substituent group could exert on the reactive core at a long range. Since the aforementioned complexes are open-shell systems, the used operational formula for the dual descriptor is that one defined for those aforementioned systems, which was then compared with spin density. In addition, dual descriptor was decomposed into two terms, each of which was also applied on every molecular system. The obtained results indicated that components of dual descriptor could become more useful than the operational formula of dual descriptor because differences exerted by the substituents at the para position were better detected by components of dual descriptor rather than the dual descriptor by itself.

  10. Fourier Descriptors Based on the Structure of the Human Primary Visual Cortex with Applications to Object Recognition


    Bohi, Amine; Prandi, Dario; Guis, Vincente; Bouchara, Frédéric; Gauthier, Jean-Paul


    International audience; In this paper we propose a supervised object recognition method using new global features and inspired by the model of the human primary visual cortex V1 as the semidiscrete roto-translation group $SE(2,N)=\\mathbb Z_N\\rtimes \\mathbb{R}^2$. The proposed technique is based on generalized Fourier descriptors on the latter group, which are invariant to natural geometric transformations (rotations, translations). These descriptors are then used to feed an SVM classifier. We...

  11. Assessing the binding affinity of a selected class of DPP4 inhibitors using chemical descriptor-based multiple linear regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Isagani Janairo


    Full Text Available The activity of a selected class of DPP4 inhibitors was preliminarily assessed using chemical descriptors derived AM1 optimized geometries. Using multiple linear regression model, it was found that ?E0, LUMO energy, area, molecular weight and ?H0 are the significant descriptors that can adequately assess the binding affinity of the compounds. The derived multiple linear regression (MLR model was validated using rigorous statistical analysis. The preliminary model suggests that bulky and electrophilic inhibitors are desired.


    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  13. Endoscopic solutions to challenging enteral feeding problems. (United States)

    Paski, Shirley C; Dominitz, Jason A


    Enteral nutrition support is often required in patients who are unable to meet their own nutritional requirements. Endoscopists play a key role in the placement of enteral feeding catheters. This review focuses on the recently published solutions to common problems encountered during endoscopic placement of enteral feeding devices. Case reports and case series describe solutions for overcoming common problems encountered during the placement of enteral feeding devices. Transnasal techniques can simplify nasojejunal tube placement, whereas deep enteroscopy techniques provide more reliable jejunostomy placement. Endoscopic ultrasound can help when transillumination is not possible or in the setting of postsurgical anatomy like Roux-en-Y. Laparoscopic-assisted procedures are useful when endoscopic techniques have failed in adults or in select high-risk pediatric patients. The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy and the American Gastroenterology Association both published comprehensive guidelines that outline the indications, contraindications, technical aspects of feeding catheter placement, and complications. Advances in endoscopic techniques, including deep enteroscopy, endoscopic ultrasound, ultra-slim transnasal endoscopes and laparoscopic-assisted procedures, have enabled endoscopists to successfully place enteral feeding tubes in patients who previously required open procedures.

  14. MultiDK: A Multiple Descriptor Multiple Kernel Approach for Molecular Discovery and Its Application to Organic Flow Battery Electrolytes. (United States)

    Kim, Sungjin; Jinich, Adrián; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán


    We propose a multiple descriptor multiple kernel (MultiDK) method for efficient molecular discovery using machine learning. We show that the MultiDK method improves both the speed and accuracy of molecular property prediction. We apply the method to the discovery of electrolyte molecules for aqueous redox flow batteries. Using multiple-type-as opposed to single-type-descriptors, we obtain more relevant features for machine learning. Following the principle of "wisdom of the crowds", the combination of multiple-type descriptors significantly boosts prediction performance. Moreover, by employing multiple kernels-more than one kernel function for a set of the input descriptors-MultiDK exploits nonlinear relations between molecular structure and properties better than a linear regression approach. The multiple kernels consist of a Tanimoto similarity kernel and a linear kernel for a set of binary descriptors and a set of nonbinary descriptors, respectively. Using MultiDK, we achieve an average performance of r(2) = 0.92 with a test set of molecules for solubility prediction. We also extend MultiDK to predict pH-dependent solubility and apply it to a set of quinone molecules with different ionizable functional groups to assess their performance as flow battery electrolytes.

  15. Molecular survey of enteric viruses in commercial chicken farms in Korea with a history of enteritis. (United States)

    Koo, B S; Lee, H R; Jeon, E O; Han, M S; Min, K C; Lee, S B; Mo, I P


    Several enteric viruses have increasingly received attention as potential causative agents of runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) in chickens. A molecular survey was performed to determine the presence of a broad range of enteric viruses, namely chicken astrovirus (CAstV), avian nephritis virus (ANV), chicken parvovirus (ChPV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), avian rotavirus (AvRV), avian reovirus (ARV), and fowl adenovirus (FAdV), in intestinal samples derived from 34 commercial chicken flocks that experienced enteritis outbreaks between 2010 and 2012. Using techniques such as PCR and reverse-transcription PCR, enteric viruses were identified in a total of 85.3% of investigated commercial chicken flocks in Korea. Furthermore, diverse combinations of 2 or more enteric viruses were simultaneously identified in 51.7% of chicken farms positive for enteric viruses. The rank order of positivity for enteric viruses was as follows: ANV (44.1%), CAstV (38.2%), ChPV (26.5%), IBV (20.6%), ARV (8.8%), AvRV (5.9%), and FAdV (2.9%). Additionally, other pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Eimeria spp., and FAdV were detected in 79% of chicken flocks positive for enteric viruses using PCR, bacterial isolation, and microscopic examination. The results of our study indicate the presence of several enteric viruses with various combinations in commercial chicken farms that experienced enteritis outbreaks. Experimental studies are required to further understand the roles of enteric viruses in RSS in commercial chickens.

  16. Acute cerebellar ataxia in enteric fever. (United States)

    Sawhney, I M; Prabhakar, S; Dhand, U K; Chopra, J S


    Acute cerebellar ataxia as an isolated neurological manifestation of enteric fever is very rare. Three cases of acute cerebellar ataxia associated with enteric fever are reported. The diagnosis of enteric fever was confirmed by positive blood culture, strongly positive Widal test and rising antibody titres. The major clinical features were rapid development of gait ataxia, limb ataxia and dysarthria. None of the patients had altered sensorium. The cerebellar involvement was noticed on the second or third day of fever which progressed for one to two days. The symptoms remained static for one to two weeks and thereafter all the patients showed gradual recovery in a few weeks. Acute onset of cerebellar lesion, self limiting course and cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis suggest par- or post-infectious demyelinating pathology in these patients, who were not related to each other.

  17. Pneumatosis intestinalis associated with enteral tube feeding. (United States)

    Zorgdrager, Marcel; Pol, Robert


    A 49-year-old man presented with a Hinchey II perforated diverticulitis and underwent laparoscopic peritoneal lavage. During the postoperative course the patient received enteral tube feeding which was followed by a bowel obstruction accompanied with pneumatosis intestinalis (PI). Explorative laparotomy showed an omental band adhesion without signs of ischaemia. After a short period of total parenteral nutrition PI resolved almost completely and enteral tube feeding could be continued once again. In the weeks that followed the patient developed atypical bowel symptoms and recurrent PI which resolved each time the drip feeding was discontinued. Despite the mild clinical course, a CT scan showed massive PI on day 21 after the laparotomy. After excluding life-threatening conditions conservative management was instituted and the patient recovered completely after discontinuing the drip feeding. We present one of the few cases of subclinical PI associated with enteral tube feeding that could be managed conservatively.

  18. Enteric alpha defensins in norm and pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisitsyn Nikolai A


    Full Text Available Abstract Microbes living in the mammalian gut exist in constant contact with immunity system that prevents infection and maintains homeostasis. Enteric alpha defensins play an important role in regulation of bacterial colonization of the gut, as well as in activation of pro- and anti-inflammatory responses of the adaptive immune system cells in lamina propria. This review summarizes currently available data on functions of mammalian enteric alpha defensins in the immune defense and changes in their secretion in intestinal inflammatory diseases and cancer.

  19. Perbedaan PaCO2 darah pada pasien kritis yang mendapat diet makanan enteral komersial dengan diet makanan enteral kombinasi di rumah sakit Dr. Sardjito Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jaelani


    Full Text Available Background: Malnutrition often occurs in a critical patient caused by various things such as decreasing function of gastrointestinal tract, high process of catabolism and homeostatie destruction. Other problem that may occur when nutrition is given with high total calories could be dangerous because it could cause hiperglikemia, the production improvement of CO blood and worsen the homeostasis destruction. Objective: To find out the difference of PaCO blood in critical patients who obtain commercial enteral food diet or combined enteral food diet. Methods: This was an experimental study using randomized controlled trial with pretest-posttest control group design. The subjects were critical patients who were given care in the intensive installation Dr. Sardjito hospital Yogyakarta who met the criteria: adult patient, using ventilator and receiving enteral food diet. Results: There was no difference between PaCO blood in critical patient who obtained commercial enteral diet and com- bined enteral food diet. There was a change difference of PaCO with 55% compared with <55% from energy total (p=0.03. Conclusion: The improvement of PaCO was not caused by the type of enteral formula given, cause of the high intake of energy and carbohydrate.

  20. Ghanaian Women Enter into Popular Entertainment | Collins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article discuses the problems faced by West African and particularly Ghanaian female popular performers and the various factors that have, since the 1960's led to increasing numbers of women entering the professional theatre and the commercial entertainment industry. The study examines the upsurge of female ...

  1. Entering a Crack: An Encounter with Gossip (United States)

    Henderson, Linda


    In this paper, I enter a crack to think otherwise about the concept "gossip". Drawing on previous scholarship engaging with Deleuzian concepts to inform research methodologies, this paper builds on this body of work. Following Deleuze and Guattari, the paper undertakes a mapping of gossip, subsequent to an encounter with a crack.…

  2. Experimental Yersinia pseudotuberculosis enteritis in laboratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and guinea pigs. Animals orally fed with clean water showed no symptoms of yersiniosis. Rabbits infected with Y. pseudotuberculosis showed signs of illness while guinea pigs did not show any clinical sign. Visceral organs of infected rabbits showed enteritis with necrotic lesions but no pathological changes were observed ...

  3. Campylobacter enteritis among children in Dembia District ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To estimate the magnitude of Campylobacter enteritis in children below fifteen years of age. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Seven villages found in the outskirts of Kolla Diba town were covered. The town is located 35 kilometres away from Gondar teaching hospital. Participants: Stool specimens were ...

  4. Astronaut John Glenn Enters Friendship 7 (United States)


    Astronaut John Glenn enters the Mercury spacecraft, Friendship 7, prior to the launch of MA-6 on February 20, 1961 and became the first American who orbited the Earth. The MA-6 mission was the first manned orbital flight boosted by the Mercury-Atlas vehicle, a modified Atlas ICBM (Intercontinental Ballistic Missile), lasted for five hours, and orbited the Earth three times.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 12, 2000 ... ABSTRACT. Objective: To estimate the magnitude of Campylobacter enteritis in children below fifteen years of age. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Seven ... Campylobacter species can cause infection in all age groups but the ..... stereotype distribution of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli isolated.

  6. [Enteral alimentation at home: why PEG now?]. (United States)

    Suzuki, Y; Hanyu, N; Kashiwagi, H; Kubo, T; Aoki, T


    The history of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is relatively short. In 1980, a report entitled "Gastrostomy without laparotomy: A percutaneous endoscopic technique" by Ponsky and Gaudere was first published in the Journal of Pediatric Surgery. Thereafter, PEG soon saw widespread use in Western countries because of its clinical efficacy and economy. It has been performed in about 170,000 cases annually in the US. In contrast, its spread in Japan has been extremely slow: only about 10,000 cases have undergone this procedure annually, and this number accounted for less than 5% of patients receiving enteral alimentation. The reason why PEG has not spread may be the medical insurance system in Japan and the local distaste for operation scarring. However, in consideration of the unprecedented ageing of society that is surely coming in the near future, the role of PEG in Japan must be reexamined. In this report, we presented the methodology of enteral alimentation at home by means of PEG, giving special consideration to: (1) "What points are improved by using enteral alimentation at home by means of PEG in various diseases; (2) dysphagia due to cerebral angiopathy; (3) terminal cancer; (4) otolaryngological diseases; and (5) Crohn disease. We also discussed "Why PEG is important now?" in performing enteral alimentation at home.

  7. Kokainudløst iskaemisk enteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Lise; Bendtsen, Flemming


    and a pill cam capsule endoscopy were normal. In all cases the condition normalized spontaneously. A thorough interview revealed a recreational use of cocaine, and diary recordings confirmed the association between her abdominal pain and cocaine use. Ischaemic enteritis has previously been described...... in cocaine users. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Sep...

  8. Aspects of enteral nutrition in cancer chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jitske Martha


    This thesis deals with several aspects of the influences of intensive cancer chemotherapy on the nutritional status, the metabolism, and the gastrointestinal tract of the host and describes whether these results can be influenced by enteral hyperalimentation, We studied these aspects in patients

  9. Fourier-based quantification of renal glomeruli size using Hough transform and shape descriptors. (United States)

    Najafian, Sohrab; Beigzadeh, Borhan; Riahi, Mohammad; Khadir Chamazkoti, Fatemeh; Pouramir, Mahdi


    Analysis of glomeruli geometry is important in histopathological evaluation of renal microscopic images. Due to the shape and size disparity of even glomeruli of same kidney, automatic detection of these renal objects is not an easy task. Although manual measurements are time consuming and at times are not very accurate, it is commonly used in medical centers. In this paper, a new method based on Fourier transform following usage of some shape descriptors is proposed to detect these objects and their geometrical parameters. Reaching the goal, a database of 400 regions are selected randomly. 200 regions of which are part of glomeruli and the other 200 regions are not belong to renal corpuscles. ROC curve is used to decide which descriptor could classify two groups better. f_measure, which is a combination of both tpr (true positive rate) and fpr (false positive rate), is also proposed to select optimal threshold for descriptors. Combination of three parameters (solidity, eccentricity, and also mean squared error of fitted ellipse) provided better result in terms of f_measure to distinguish desired regions. Then, Fourier transform of outer edges is calculated to form a complete curve out of separated region(s). The generality of proposed model is verified by use of cross validation method, which resulted tpr of 94%, and fpr of 5%. Calculation of glomerulus' and Bowman's space with use of the algorithm are also compared with a non-automatic measurement done by a renal pathologist, and errors of 5.9%, 5.4%, and 6.26% are resulted in calculation of Capsule area, Bowman space, and glomeruli area, respectively. Having tested different glomeruli with various shapes, the experimental consequences show robustness and reliability of our method. Therefore, it could be used to illustrate renal diseases and glomerular disorders by measuring the morphological changes accurately and expeditiously. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Autocorrelation descriptor improvements for QSAR: 2DA_Sign and 3DA_Sign. (United States)

    Sliwoski, Gregory; Mendenhall, Jeffrey; Meiler, Jens


    Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is a branch of computer aided drug discovery that relates chemical structures to biological activity. Two well established and related QSAR descriptors are two- and three-dimensional autocorrelation (2DA and 3DA). These descriptors encode the relative position of atoms or atom properties by calculating the separation between atom pairs in terms of number of bonds (2DA) or Euclidean distance (3DA). The sums of all values computed for a given small molecule are collected in a histogram. Atom properties can be added with a coefficient that is the product of atom properties for each pair. This procedure can lead to information loss when signed atom properties are considered such as partial charge. For example, the product of two positive charges is indistinguishable from the product of two equivalent negative charges. In this paper, we present variations of 2DA and 3DA called 2DA_Sign and 3DA_Sign that avoid information loss by splitting unique sign pairs into individual histograms. We evaluate these variations with models trained on nine datasets spanning a range of drug target classes. Both 2DA_Sign and 3DA_Sign significantly increase model performance across all datasets when compared with traditional 2DA and 3DA. Lastly, we find that limiting 3DA_Sign to maximum atom pair distances of 6 Å instead of 12 Å further increases model performance, suggesting that conformational flexibility may hinder performance with longer 3DA descriptors. Consistent with this finding, limiting the number of bonds in 2DA_Sign from 11 to 5 fails to improve performance.

  11. Local texture descriptors for the assessment of differences in diffusion magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. (United States)

    Thomsen, Felix Sebastian Leo; Delrieux, Claudio Augusto; de Luis-García, Rodrigo


    Descriptors extracted from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain can be employed to locate and characterize a wide range of pathologies. Scalar measures are typically derived within a single-voxel unit, but neighborhood-based texture measures can also be applied. In this work, we propose a new set of descriptors to compute local texture characteristics from scalar measures of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), such as mean and radial diffusivity, and fractional anisotropy. We employ weighted rotational invariant local operators, namely standard deviation, inter-quartile range, coefficient of variation, quartile coefficient of variation and skewness. Sensitivity and specificity of those texture descriptors were analyzed with tract-based spatial statistics of the white matter on a diffusion MRI group study of elderly healthy controls, patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and mild or moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition, robustness against noise has been assessed with a realistic diffusion-weighted imaging phantom and the contamination of the local neighborhood with gray matter has been measured. The new texture operators showed an increased ability for finding formerly undetected differences between groups compared to conventional DTI methods. In particular, the coefficient of variation, quartile coefficient of variation, standard deviation and inter-quartile range of the mean and radial diffusivity detected significant differences even between previously not significantly discernible groups, such as MCI versus moderate AD and mild versus moderate AD. The analysis provided evidence of low contamination of the local neighborhood with gray matter and high robustness against noise. The local operators applied here enhance the identification and localization of areas of the brain where cognitive impairment takes place and thus indicate them as promising extensions in diffusion MRI group studies.

  12. Content-based retrieval using MPEG-7 visual descriptor and hippocampal neural network (United States)

    Kim, Young Ho; Joung, Lyang-Jae; Kang, Dae-Seong


    As development of digital technology, many kinds of multimedia data are used variously and requirements for effective use by user are increasing. In order to transfer information fast and precisely what user wants, effective retrieval method is required. As existing multimedia data are impossible to apply the MPEG-1, MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 technologies which are aimed at compression, store and transmission. So MPEG-7 is introduced as a new technology for effective management and retrieval for multimedia data. In this paper, we extract content-based features using color descriptor among the MPEG-7 standardization visual descriptor, and reduce feature data applying PCA(Principal Components Analysis) technique. We remodel the cerebral cortex and hippocampal neural networks as a principle of a human's brain and it can label the features of the image-data which are inputted according to the order of hippocampal neuron structure to reaction-pattern according to the adjustment of a good impression in Dentate gyrus region and remove the noise through the auto-associate- memory step in the CA3 region. In the CA1 region receiving the information of the CA3, it can make long-term or short-term memory learned by neuron. Hippocampal neural network makes neuron of the neural network separate and combine dynamically, expand the neuron attaching additional information using the synapse and add new features according to the situation by user's demand. When user is querying, it compares feature value stored in long-term memory first and it learns feature vector fast and construct optimized feature. So the speed of index and retrieval is fast. Also, it uses MPEG-7 standard visual descriptors as content-based feature value, it improves retrieval efficiency.

  13. Estimation of the volume of distribution of some pharmacologically important compounds from their structural descriptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR approaches were used to estimate the volume of distribution (Vd using an artificial neural network (ANN. The data set consisted of the volume of distribution of 129 pharmacologically important compounds, i.e., benzodiazepines, barbiturates, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, tricyclic anti-depressants and some antibiotics, such as betalactams, tetracyclines and quinolones. The descriptors, which were selected by stepwise variable selection methods, were: the Moriguchi octanol–water partition coefficient; the 3D-MoRSE-signal 30, weighted by atomic van der Waals volumes; the fragment-based polar surface area; the d COMMA2 value, weighted by atomic masses; the Geary autocorrelation, weighted by the atomic Sanderson electronegativities; the 3D-MoRSE – signal 02, weighted by atomic masses, and the Geary autocorrelation – lag 5, weighted by the atomic van der Waals volumes. These descriptors were used as inputs for developing multiple linear regressions (MLR and artificial neural network models as linear and non-linear feature mapping techniques, respectively. The standard errors in the estimation of Vd by the MLR model were: 0.104, 0.103 and 0.076 and for the ANN model: 0.029, 0.087 and 0.082 for the training, internal and external validation test, respectively. The robustness of these models were also evaluated by the leave-5-out cross validation procedure, that gives the statistics Q2 = 0.72 for the MLR model and Q2 = 0.82 for the ANN model. Moreover, the results of the Y-randomization test revealed that there were no chance correlations among the data matrix. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate the applicability of the estimation of the Vd value of drugs from their structural molecular descriptors. Furthermore, the statistics of the developed models indicate the superiority of the ANN over the MLR model.

  14. Evaluation of the benefits of enteral nutrition in long-term care elderly patients. (United States)

    Arinzon, Zeev; Peisakh, Alexander; Berner, Yitshal N


    Demented patients may refuse to eat as they come closer to the end of their lives. We evaluated the effectiveness of enteral nutrition in the improvement of survival and nutritional and functional status in very dependent and demented long-term care (LTC) elderly patients and its correlation with the nutritional parameters. Fifty-seven elderly patients, aged 60 years and older, who received nutrition by the enteral route (enteral nutrition group, ENG), were compared with 110 age-, sex-, comorbibity-, cognitive-, and dependent-matched subjects (control group, CG). Indications for enteral nutrition, type of tube; weight status subsequent to enteral nutrition; cognitive, functional, and pressure sore status; and complete clinical, complete blood count, and biochemical profile were recorded for each subject on initiation and conclusion of the study. Enteral nutrition was associated with improvement in blood count (hemoglobin and lymphocyte count), in renal function tests and electrolytes (BUN, creatinine, BUN/creatinine ratio, sodium and potassium), hydration status, serum osmolarity, and in serum proteins (total protein, albumin, and transferrin), but not in serum cholesterol and CRP levels. Decline in functional and in cognitive status was higher in CG than in ENG (Delta changes; respectively P = .24 and P .05). Complication rate related to nutrition was higher in ENG than in CG (61% and 34%, respectively; P preventing pressure sore development in an LTC setting.

  15. Application of a PCR method for the diagnosis of ulcerative enteritis: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Agnoletti


    Full Text Available Ulcerative enteritis or “quail disease” is an acute clostridial infection of young birds reported in many avian species, chicken and turkey included. Clostridium colinum is the causative agent of ulcerative enteritis and because of the difficulties bound to the isolation and identification of this bacterium by means of classic bacteriological techniques, its detection appears very hard and the prevalence of this disease could be underestimated. To investigate the diffusion of C. colinum in enteric disease of birds, a recently developed PCR protocol was applied to 42 cultural broths previously inoculated with organs and intestinal samples collected from diseased subjects. PCR-positive broths were cultivated to attempt the isolation of C. colinum. Samples collected from positive birds were subjected to histological examinations. 4 birds (3 broilers chickens and 1 pigeon resulted PCR-positive and, in one case, C. colinum was isolated. Gross and histological lesions of positive birds were compatible with those described in other ulcerative enteritis outbreaks. These preliminary results demonstrates that C. colinum is sporadically implicated in enteric diseases of broiler chickens (14.2%. In addition, the PCR assay proved to be an useful and reliable instrument to support the diagnosis of ulcerative enteritis and to facilitate the isolation of C. colinum.

  16. The Subject in Cognitive Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Caro-Gabalda


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the various subjects embedded in cognitive psychotherapy. The cognitive model developed by Beck, considered as a rationalist and modernist model, will exemplify these subjects. Cognitive therapy should be placed in the modernist historical context and related to a subject characterized as having rationality and the ability to observe and detect cognitions, emotions and behaviors. The paper develops this background introducing three main subject types. The first is the introspective and conscious subject, who is able to observe what is within oneself, has free access, and is conscious of one's cognitive world. The second is the cognitive miser that describes the subject who enters into therapy. The final subject identified, is the trained scientist who is able to develop a more objective knowledge, changing faulty schemas and cognitive distortions. This subject is the one most looked for in cognitive therapy. We could connect these subjects to some of the main elements of cognitive therapy such as the concept of ABC, assessment procedures, cognitive techniques or the relevance of schemas. Finally, the paper suggests some issues for study that could contribute to the theoretical and clinical evolution of cognitive psychotherapy.

  17. NMR spectrometers as "magnetic tongues": prediction of sensory descriptors in canned tomatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmendal, Anders; Amoresano, Claudia; Trotta, Roberta


    The perception of odor and flavor of food is a complicated physiological and psychological process that cannot be explained by simple models. Quantitative descriptive analysis is a technique used to describe sensory features. Nevertheless, the availability of a number of instrumental techniques has...... the analyzed samples based on their chemical composition. We were able to correlate the NMR metabolomic fingerprints recorded for canned tomato samples to the sensory descriptors bitterness, sweetness, sourness, saltiness, tomato and metal taste, redness, and density, suggesting that NMR might be a very useful...

  18. Neurodynamics-Based Robust Pole Assignment for High-Order Descriptor Systems. (United States)

    Le, Xinyi; Wang, Jun


    In this paper, a neurodynamic optimization approach is proposed for synthesizing high-order descriptor linear systems with state feedback control via robust pole assignment. With a new robustness measure serving as the objective function, the robust eigenstructure assignment problem is formulated as a pseudoconvex optimization problem. A neurodynamic optimization approach is applied and shown to be capable of maximizing the robust stability margin for high-order singular systems with guaranteed optimality and exact pole assignment. Two numerical examples and vehicle vibration control application are discussed to substantiate the efficacy of the proposed approach.

  19. How strong is it? The interpretation of force and compliance constants as bond strength descriptors. (United States)

    Brandhorst, Kai; Grunenberg, Jörg


    Knowledge about individual covalent or non-covalent bond strengths is the Holy Grail of many modern molecular sciences. Recent developments of new descriptors for such interaction strengths based on potential constants are summarised in this tutorial review. Several publications for and against the use of compliance matrices (inverse force constants matrix) have appeared in the literature in the last few years. However the mathematical basis for understanding, and therefore interpreting, compliance constants is still not well developed. We therefore summarise the theoretical foundations and point to the advantages and disadvantages of the use of force constants versus compliance constants for the description of both non-covalent and covalent interactions.

  20. Calculation of Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Descriptors of Artemisinin Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jambalsuren Bayarmaa


    Full Text Available Quantitative structure-activity relationships are based on the construction of predictive models using a set of known molecules and associated activity value. This accurate methodology, developed with adequate mathematical and computational tools, leads to a faster, cheaper and more comprehensive design of new products, reducing the experimental synthesis and testing on animals. Preparation of the QSAR models of artemisinin derivatives was carried out by the genetic function algorithm (GFA method for 91 molecules. The results show some relationships to the observed antimalarial activities of the artemisinin derivatives. The most statistically signi fi cant regression equation obtained from the fi nal GFA relates to two molecular descriptors.

  1. Computing distance-based topological descriptors of complex chemical networks: New theoretical techniques (United States)

    Hayat, Sakander


    Structure-based topological descriptors/indices of complex chemical networks enable prediction of physico-chemical properties and the bioactivities of these compounds through QSAR/QSPR methods. In this paper, we have developed a rigorous computational and theoretical technique to compute various distance-based topological indices of complex chemical networks. A fullerene is called the IPR (Isolated-Pentagon-Rule) fullerene, if every pentagon in it is surrounded by hexagons only. To ensure the applicability of our technique, we compute certain distance-based indices of an infinite family of IPR fullerenes. Our results show that the proposed technique is more diverse and bears less algorithmic and combinatorial complexity.

  2. Joint efforts to harmonize sound insulation descriptors and classification schemes in Europe (COST TU0901)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit


    for building systems and products. Unfortunately, there is evidence for a development in the "wrong" direction. For example, sound classification schemes for dwellings exist in nine countries. There is no sign on increasing harmonization, rather the contrary, as more countries are preparing proposals with new...... Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been approved and runs 2009-2013. The main objectives are to prepare proposals for harmonized sound insulation descriptors and for a European sound classification scheme. Other goals are e.g. to establish a catalogue of sound insulation data...

  3. Antioxidant activity of flavonoids: a QSAR modeling using Fukui indices descriptors. (United States)

    Djeradi, Houria; Rahmouni, Ali; Cheriti, Abdelkrim


    A QSAR model to predict the antioxidant activity of flavonoid compounds was developed. New electronic structure descriptors which are Fukui indices are correlated to the radical scavenging of flavonoids. These indices are obtained at DFT/B3LYP level of chemical quantum theory. The logIC50 experimental values of antioxidant activity are taken from the literature. The model is based on the multilinear regression method. Both experimental and calculated data of 36 flavonoids compounds were analyzed. A good correlation coefficient (R(2) = 0.8159) is obtained and the antioxidant activities of test compounds are well predicted.

  4. On the Use of Second-Order Descriptors To Predict Queueing Behavior of MAPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Allan T.; Nielsen, Bo Friis


    The contributions of this paper are the following: We derive a formula for the IDI (Index of Dispersion for Intervals) for the Markovian Arrival Process (MAP). We show that two-state MAPs with identical fundamental rate, IDI and IDC (Index of Dispersion for Counts), define interval stationary point...... stationary and time stationary behavior of the two-state model. We give various illustrative numerical examples on the merits in predicting queueing behavior on the basis of first- and second-order descriptors by considering queueing behavior of MAPs with constant fundamental rate and IDC, respectively...

  5. Descriptor Fingerprints and Their Application to Red Wine Clustering and Discrimination (United States)

    Bangov, I. P.; Moskovkina, M.; Stojanov, B. P.


    The investigation was performed to test the potentials of the fingerprint clustering algorithm for a set of 1599 red wines in relation to some wine properties, comprised in the notion "wine quality". We have obtained a distribution of the wines into different clusters as a result. Each cluster was composed of wine-objects with similar values of laboratory parameters and with a wine quality certificate. A correlation between the. quality of wines (a sensory taste factor) and the phisicochemical descriptors (laboratory analytical test results data) was observed and analyzed.

  6. Texture Descriptors Ensembles Enable Image-Based Classification of Maturation of Human Stem Cell-Derived Retinal Pigmented Epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loris Nanni

    Full Text Available A fast, non-invasive and observer-independent method to analyze the homogeneity and maturity of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC derived retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells is warranted to assess the suitability of hPSC-RPE cells for implantation or in vitro use. The aim of this work was to develop and validate methods to create ensembles of state-of-the-art texture descriptors and to provide a robust classification tool to separate three different maturation stages of RPE cells by using phase contrast microscopy images. The same methods were also validated on a wide variety of biological image classification problems, such as histological or virus image classification.For image classification we used different texture descriptors, descriptor ensembles and preprocessing techniques. Also, three new methods were tested. The first approach was an ensemble of preprocessing methods, to create an additional set of images. The second was the region-based approach, where saliency detection and wavelet decomposition divide each image in two different regions, from which features were extracted through different descriptors. The third method was an ensemble of Binarized Statistical Image Features, based on different sizes and thresholds. A Support Vector Machine (SVM was trained for each descriptor histogram and the set of SVMs combined by sum rule. The accuracy of the computer vision tool was verified in classifying the hPSC-RPE cell maturation level.The RPE dataset contains 1862 subwindows from 195 phase contrast images. The final descriptor ensemble outperformed the most recent stand-alone texture descriptors, obtaining, for the RPE dataset, an area under ROC curve (AUC of 86.49% with the 10-fold cross validation and 91.98% with the leave-one-image-out protocol. The generality of the three proposed approaches was ascertained with 10 more biological image datasets, obtaining an average AUC greater than 97%.Here we showed that the developed ensembles

  7. MultiDK: A Multiple Descriptor Multiple Kernel Approach for Molecular Discovery and Its Application to The Discovery of Organic Flow Battery Electrolytes

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán


    We propose a multiple descriptor multiple kernel (MultiDK) method for efficient molecular discovery using machine learning. We show that the MultiDK method improves both the speed and the accuracy of molecular property prediction. We apply the method to the discovery of electrolyte molecules for aqueous redox flow batteries. Using \\emph{multiple-type - as opposed to single-type - descriptors}, more relevant features for machine learning can be obtained. Following the principle of the 'wisdom of the crowds', the combination of multiple-type descriptors significantly boosts prediction performance. Moreover, MultiDK can exploit irregularities between molecular structure and property relations better than the linear regression method by employing multiple kernels - more than one kernel functions for a set of the input descriptors. The multiple kernels consist of the Tanimoto similarity function and a linear kernel for a set of binary descriptors and a set of non-binary descriptors, respectively. Using MultiDK, we...

  8. Energy Data Base: Subject Thesaurus permutated listing. Revision 6, Appendix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redford, J.S. (ed.)


    The Office of Scientific and Technical Information, in its role of managing scientific and technical information in support of DOE programs, develops and maintains a standardized vocabulary for indexing this information. This permutated listing, an appendix to the Energy Data Base: Subject Thesaurus (DOE/TIC-7000-R6), has been prepared to alleviate the problems of entry to a large multidisciplinary thesaurus containing both single and multiword descriptors. It is designed to be used in conjunction with the Subject Thesaurus and is not to be used alone.

  9. A Universal 3D Voxel Descriptor for Solid-State Material Informatics with Deep Convolutional Neural Networks. (United States)

    Kajita, Seiji; Ohba, Nobuko; Jinnouchi, Ryosuke; Asahi, Ryoji


    Material informatics (MI) is a promising approach to liberate us from the time-consuming Edisonian (trial and error) process for material discoveries, driven by machine-learning algorithms. Several descriptors, which are encoded material features to feed computers, were proposed in the last few decades. Especially to solid systems, however, their insufficient representations of three dimensionality of field quantities such as electron distributions and local potentials have critically hindered broad and practical successes of the solid-state MI. We develop a simple, generic 3D voxel descriptor that compacts any field quantities, in such a suitable way to implement convolutional neural networks (CNNs). We examine the 3D voxel descriptor encoded from the electron distribution by a regression test with 680 oxides data. The present scheme outperforms other existing descriptors in the prediction of Hartree energies that are significantly relevant to the long-wavelength distribution of the valence electrons. The results indicate that this scheme can forecast any functionals of field quantities just by learning sufficient amount of data, if there is an explicit correlation between the target properties and field quantities. This 3D descriptor opens a way to import prominent CNNs-based algorithms of supervised, semi-supervised and reinforcement learnings into the solid-state MI.

  10. Machine Learning Using Combined Structural and Chemical Descriptors for Prediction of Methane Adsorption Performance of Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs). (United States)

    Pardakhti, Maryam; Moharreri, Ehsan; Wanik, David; Suib, Steven L; Srivastava, Ranjan


    Using molecular simulation for adsorbent screening is computationally expensive and thus prohibitive to materials discovery. Machine learning (ML) algorithms trained on fundamental material properties can potentially provide quick and accurate methods for screening purposes. Prior efforts have focused on structural descriptors for use with ML. In this work, the use of chemical descriptors, in addition to structural descriptors, was introduced for adsorption analysis. Evaluation of structural and chemical descriptors coupled with various ML algorithms, including decision tree, Poisson regression, support vector machine and random forest, were carried out to predict methane uptake on hypothetical metal organic frameworks. To highlight their predictive capabilities, ML models were trained on 8% of a data set consisting of 130,398 MOFs and then tested on the remaining 92% to predict methane adsorption capacities. When structural and chemical descriptors were jointly used as ML input, the random forest model with 10-fold cross validation proved to be superior to the other ML approaches, with an R 2 of 0.98 and a mean absolute percent error of about 7%. The training and prediction using the random forest algorithm for adsorption capacity estimation of all 130,398 MOFs took approximately 2 h on a single personal computer, several orders of magnitude faster than actual molecular simulations on high-performance computing clusters.

  11. Similarity boosted quantitative structure-activity relationship--a systematic study of enhancing structural descriptors by molecular similarity. (United States)

    Girschick, Tobias; Almeida, Pedro R; Kramer, Stefan; Stålring, Jonna


    The concept of molecular similarity is one of the most central in the fields of predictive toxicology and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) research. Many toxicological responses result from a multimechanistic process and, consequently, structural diversity among the active compounds is likely. Combining this knowledge, we introduce similarity boosted QSAR modeling, where we calculate molecular descriptors using similarities with respect to representative reference compounds to aid a statistical learning algorithm in distinguishing between different structural classes. We present three approaches for the selection of reference compounds, one by literature search and two by clustering. Our experimental evaluation on seven publicly available data sets shows that the similarity descriptors used on their own perform quite well compared to structural descriptors. We show that the combination of similarity and structural descriptors enhances the performance and that a simple stacking approach is able to use the complementary information encoded by the different descriptor sets to further improve predictive results. All software necessary for our experiments is available within the cheminformatics software framework AZOrange.

  12. BioGPS descriptors for rational engineering of enzyme promiscuity and structure based bioinformatic analysis. (United States)

    Ferrario, Valerio; Siragusa, Lydia; Ebert, Cynthia; Baroni, Massimo; Foscato, Marco; Cruciani, Gabriele; Gardossi, Lucia


    A new bioinformatic methodology was developed founded on the Unsupervised Pattern Cognition Analysis of GRID-based BioGPS descriptors (Global Positioning System in Biological Space). The procedure relies entirely on three-dimensional structure analysis of enzymes and does not stem from sequence or structure alignment. The BioGPS descriptors account for chemical, geometrical and physical-chemical features of enzymes and are able to describe comprehensively the active site of enzymes in terms of "pre-organized environment" able to stabilize the transition state of a given reaction. The efficiency of this new bioinformatic strategy was demonstrated by the consistent clustering of four different Ser hydrolases classes, which are characterized by the same active site organization but able to catalyze different reactions. The method was validated by considering, as a case study, the engineering of amidase activity into the scaffold of a lipase. The BioGPS tool predicted correctly the properties of lipase variants, as demonstrated by the projection of mutants inside the BioGPS "roadmap".

  13. Assessing diversity among traditional Greek and foreign eggplant cultivars using molecular markers and morphometrical descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios A. Augustinos


    Full Text Available Eggplant is a widely cultivated vegetable crop of great economic importance. Its long lasting history of domestication, selection and breeding has led to the development of numerous cultivars with variable traits. In the present study, we assessed the diversity levels within and among eleven Greek and foreign cultivars, using 22 morphological descriptors and two different classes of molecular markers (retrotransposon microsatellite amplified polymorphism-REMAP markers and nuclear microsatellites. Our results, in accordance with other studies in the field showed: a the limited levels of genetic polymorphism within the cultivars; b the high morphological and genetic divergence existing among them as indicated by the genetic distance values calculated, which could be attributed to selection, inbreeding and bottleneck effects; and c the lack of concordance among morphological descriptors and molecular markers. Despite these, our analysis showed that the utilization of combinations of markers is an effective method for the characterization of plant material providing also useful diagnostic tools for the identification and authentication of the selected Greek cultivars.

  14. Assessing diversity among traditional Greek and foreign eggplant cultivars using molecular markers and morphometrical descriptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustinos, A.A.; Petropoulos, C.; Karasoulou, V.; Bletsos, F.; Papasotiropoulos, V.


    Eggplant is a widely cultivated vegetable crop of great economic importance. Its long lasting history of domestication, selection and breeding has led to the development of numerous cultivars with variable traits. In the present study, we assessed the diversity levels within and among eleven Greek and foreign cultivars, using 22 morphological descriptors and two different classes of molecular markers (retrotransposon microsatellite amplified polymorphism-REMAP markers and nuclear microsatellites). Our results, in accordance with other studies in the field showed: a) the limited levels of genetic polymorphism within the cultivars; b) the high morphological and genetic divergence existing among them as indicated by the genetic distance values calculated, which could be attributed to selection, inbreeding and bottleneck effects; and c) the lack of concordance among morphological descriptors and molecular markers. Despite these, our analysis showed that the utilization of combinations of markers is an effective method for the characterization of plant material providing also useful diagnostic tools for the identification and authentication of the selected Greek cultivars.

  15. Descriptors of Modular Formation of Accounting and Analytical Cluster in Innovation Development of Agricultural Holdings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna Degaltseva


    Full Text Available In the context of the division of accounting into financial accounting, taxation accounting, management accounting and statistical accounting a problem of improving their relationship arises. The accounting and analytical cluster plays the role of the correlating factor of the relationship between the subdivisions of the agricultural holding property. To improve its work a modular principle of its building based on information technology was introduced. Practical implementation of modular accounting and analytical cluster revealed its shortcomings. They were as follows: each type of account and each production unit used its own natural and cost parameters. The number and nature of these parameters were different. To eliminate the shortcomings in the information security of managers and specialists of the agricultural holding, we attempt to develop a methodology for establishing a rational number of descriptors (binding parameters for each module. The proposed descriptors are designed on the basis of validity of the methodological approach to their calculations and legal support. The proposed method allowed to limit the asymmetric information in all kinds of records, to improve its quality and to bring a synergistic effect from the scale and structure of the use of the agricultural holdings property complex.

  16. Cardiac Arrhythmias Classification Method Based on MUSIC, Morphological Descriptors, and Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available An electrocardiogram (ECG beat classification scheme based on multiple signal classification (MUSIC algorithm, morphological descriptors, and neural networks is proposed for discriminating nine ECG beat types. These are normal, fusion of ventricular and normal, fusion of paced and normal, left bundle branch block, right bundle branch block, premature ventricular concentration, atrial premature contraction, paced beat, and ventricular flutter. ECG signal samples from MIT-BIH arrhythmia database are used to evaluate the scheme. MUSIC algorithm is used to calculate pseudospectrum of ECG signals. The low-frequency samples are picked to have the most valuable heartbeat information. These samples along with two morphological descriptors, which deliver the characteristics and features of all parts of the heart, form an input feature vector. This vector is used for the initial training of a classifier neural network. The neural network is designed to have nine sample outputs which constitute the nine beat types. Two neural network schemes, namely multilayered perceptron (MLP neural network and a probabilistic neural network (PNN, are employed. The experimental results achieved a promising accuracy of 99.03% for classifying the beat types using MLP neural network. In addition, our scheme recognizes NORMAL class with 100% accuracy and never misclassifies any other classes as NORMAL.

  17. Evaluation of MPEG-7-Based Audio Descriptors for Animal Voice Recognition over Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Luque


    Full Text Available Environmental audio monitoring is a huge area of interest for biologists all over the world. This is why some audio monitoring system have been proposed in the literature, which can be classified into two different approaches: acquirement and compression of all audio patterns in order to send them as raw data to a main server; or specific recognition systems based on audio patterns. The first approach presents the drawback of a high amount of information to be stored in a main server. Moreover, this information requires a considerable amount of effort to be analyzed. The second approach has the drawback of its lack of scalability when new patterns need to be detected. To overcome these limitations, this paper proposes an environmental Wireless Acoustic Sensor Network architecture focused on use of generic descriptors based on an MPEG-7 standard. These descriptors demonstrate it to be suitable to be used in the recognition of different patterns, allowing a high scalability. The proposed parameters have been tested to recognize different behaviors of two anuran species that live in Spanish natural parks; the Epidalea calamita and the Alytes obstetricans toads, demonstrating to have a high classification performance.

  18. Human Activity-Understanding: A Multilayer Approach Combining Body Movements and Contextual Descriptors Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Granata


    Full Text Available A deep understanding of human activity is key to successful human-robot interaction (HRI. The translation of sensed human behavioural signals/cues and context descriptors into an encoded human activity remains a challenge because of the complex nature of human actions. In this paper, we propose a multilayer framework for the understanding of human activity to be implemented in a mobile robot. It consists of a perception layer which exploits a D-RGB-based skeleton tracking output used to simulate a physical model of virtual human dynamics in order to compensate for the inaccuracy and inconsistency of the raw data. A multi-support vector machine (MSVM model trained with features describing the human motor coordination through temporal segments in combination with environment descriptors (object affordance is used to recognize each sub-activity (classification layer. The interpretation of sequences of classified elementary actions is based on discrete hidden Markov models (DHMMs (interpretation layer. The framework assessment was performed on the Cornell Activity Dataset (CAD-120 [1]. The performances of our method are comparable with those presented in [2] and clearly show the relevance of this model-based approach.

  19. Cardiac Arrhythmias Classification Method Based on MUSIC, Morphological Descriptors, and Neural Network (United States)

    Naghsh-Nilchi, Ahmad R.; Kadkhodamohammadi, A. Rahim


    An electrocardiogram (ECG) beat classification scheme based on multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm, morphological descriptors, and neural networks is proposed for discriminating nine ECG beat types. These are normal, fusion of ventricular and normal, fusion of paced and normal, left bundle branch block, right bundle branch block, premature ventricular concentration, atrial premature contraction, paced beat, and ventricular flutter. ECG signal samples from MIT-BIH arrhythmia database are used to evaluate the scheme. MUSIC algorithm is used to calculate pseudospectrum of ECG signals. The low-frequency samples are picked to have the most valuable heartbeat information. These samples along with two morphological descriptors, which deliver the characteristics and features of all parts of the heart, form an input feature vector. This vector is used for the initial training of a classifier neural network. The neural network is designed to have nine sample outputs which constitute the nine beat types. Two neural network schemes, namely multilayered perceptron (MLP) neural network and a probabilistic neural network (PNN), are employed. The experimental results achieved a promising accuracy of 99.03% for classifying the beat types using MLP neural network. In addition, our scheme recognizes NORMAL class with 100% accuracy and never misclassifies any other classes as NORMAL.

  20. Prediction of Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeability Assay of Some Drugs from their Theoretically Calculated Molecular Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Konoz


    Full Text Available Parallel artificial membrane permeation assays (PAMPA have been extensively utilized to determine the drug permeation potentials. In the present work, the permeation of miscellaneous drugs measured as flux by PAMPA (logF of 94 drugs, are predicted by quantitative structure property relationships modeling based on a variety of calculated theoretical descriptors, which screened and selected by genetic algorithm (GA variable subset selection procedure. These descriptors were used as inputs for generated artificial neural networks. After generation, optimization and training of artificial neural network (5:3:1, it was used for the prediction of logF for the training, test and validation sets. The standard error for the GA-ANN calculated logF for training, test and validation sets are 0.17, 0.028 and 0.15 respectively, which are smaller than those obtained by GA-MLR model (0.26, 0.051 and 0.22, respectively. Results obtained reveal the reliability and good predictably of neural network model in the prediction of membrane permeability of drugs.

  1. Automated pulmonary nodule detection based on three-dimensional shape-based feature descriptor. (United States)

    Choi, Wook-Jin; Choi, Tae-Sun


    Computer-aided detection (CAD) can help radiologists to detect pulmonary nodules at an early stage. In pulmonary nodule CAD systems, feature extraction is very important for describing the characteristics of nodule candidates. In this paper, we propose a novel three-dimensional shape-based feature descriptor to detect pulmonary nodules in CT scans. After lung volume segmentation, nodule candidates are detected using multi-scale dot enhancement filtering in the segmented lung volume. Next, we extract feature descriptors from the detected nodule candidates, and these are refined using an iterative wall elimination method. Finally, a support vector machine-based classifier is trained to classify nodules and non-nodules. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated on Lung Image Database Consortium data. The proposed method significantly reduces the number of false positives in nodule candidates. This method achieves 97.5% sensitivity, with only 6.76 false positives per scan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Aquifer vulnerability to pesticide pollution - Combining soil, land-use and aquifer properties with molecular descriptors (United States)

    Worrall, F.; Kolpin, D.W.


    This study uses an extensive survey of herbicides in groundwater across the midwest United States to predict occurrences of a range of compounds across the region from a combination of their molecular properties and the properties of the catchment of a borehole. The study covers 100 boreholes and eight pesticides. For each of the boreholes its catchment the soil, land-use and aquifer properties were characterized. Discriminating boreholes where pollution occurred from those where no pollution occurred gave a model that was 74% correct with organic carbon content, percentage sand content and depth to the water table being significant properties of the borehole catchment. Molecular topological descriptors as well as Koc, solubility and half-life were used to characterize each compound included in the study. Inclusion of molecular properties makes it possible to discriminate between occurrence and non-occurrence of each compound in each well. The best-fit model combines: organic carbon content, percentage sand content and depth to the water table with molecular descriptors representing molecular size, molecular branching and functional group composition of the herbicides.

  3. Chemical and Molecular Descriptors for the Reactivity of Amines with CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Anita S.; Kitchin, John R.


    Amine-based solvents are likely to play an important role in CO{sub 2} capture applications in the future, and the identification of amines with superior performance will facilitate their use in CO{sub 2} capture. While some improvements in performance will be achieved through process modifications, modifying the CO{sub 2} capture performance of an amine also implies in part an ability to modify the reactions between the amine and CO{sub 2} through development of new functionalized amines. We present a computational study of trends in the reactions between CO{sub 2} and functionalized amines with a focus on identifying molecular descriptors that determine trends in reactivity. We examine the formation of bicarbonate and carbamate species on three classes of functionalized amines: alkylamines, alkanolamines, and fluorinated alkylamines including primary, secondary and tertiary amines in each class. These functional groups span electron-withdrawing to donating behavior, hydrogen-bonding, extent of functionalization, and proximity effects of the functional groups. Electron withdrawing groups tend to destabilize CO{sub 2} reaction products, whereas electron-donating groups tend to stabilize CO{sub 2} reaction products. Hydrogen bonding stabilizes CO{sub 2} reaction products. Electronic structure descriptors based on electronegativity were found to describe trends in the bicarbonate formation energy. A chemical correlation was observed between the carbamate formation energy and the carbamic acid formation energy. The local softness on the reacting N in the amine was found to partially explain trends carbamic acid formation energy.

  4. Hybrid optimal descriptors as a tool to predict skin sensitization in accordance to OECD principles. (United States)

    Toropova, Alla P; Toropov, Andrey A


    Skin sensitization (allergic contact dermatitis) is a widespread problem arising from the contact of chemicals with the skin. The detection of molecular features with undesired effect for skin is complex task owing to unclear biochemical mechanisms and unclearness of conditions of action of chemicals to skin. The development of computational methods for estimation of this endpoint in order to reduce animal testing is recommended (Cosmetics Directive EC regulation 1907/2006; EU Regulation, Regulation, 1223/2009). The CORAL software ( gives good predictive models for the skin sensitization. Simplified molecular input-line entry system (SMILES) together with molecular graph are used to represent the molecular structure for these models. So-called hybrid optimal descriptors are used to establish quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs). The aim of this study is the estimation of the predictive potential of the hybrid descriptors. Three different distributions into the training (≈70%), calibration (≈15%), and validation (≈15%) sets are studied. QSAR for these three distributions are built up with using the Monte Carlo technique. The statistical characteristics of these models for external validation set are used as a measure of predictive potential of these models. The best model, according to the above criterion, is characterized by n validation =29, r 2 validation =0.8596, RMSE validation =0.489. Mechanistic interpretation and domain of applicability for these models are defined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. BioGPS descriptors for rational engineering of enzyme promiscuity and structure based bioinformatic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Ferrario

    Full Text Available A new bioinformatic methodology was developed founded on the Unsupervised Pattern Cognition Analysis of GRID-based BioGPS descriptors (Global Positioning System in Biological Space. The procedure relies entirely on three-dimensional structure analysis of enzymes and does not stem from sequence or structure alignment. The BioGPS descriptors account for chemical, geometrical and physical-chemical features of enzymes and are able to describe comprehensively the active site of enzymes in terms of "pre-organized environment" able to stabilize the transition state of a given reaction. The efficiency of this new bioinformatic strategy was demonstrated by the consistent clustering of four different Ser hydrolases classes, which are characterized by the same active site organization but able to catalyze different reactions. The method was validated by considering, as a case study, the engineering of amidase activity into the scaffold of a lipase. The BioGPS tool predicted correctly the properties of lipase variants, as demonstrated by the projection of mutants inside the BioGPS "roadmap".

  6. Determination of Abraham model solute descriptors for the monomeric and dimeric forms of trans-cinnamic acid using measured solubilities from the Open Notebook Science Challenge


    Bradley, Jean-Claude; Abraham, Michael H.; Acree, William E.; Lang, Andrew SID; Beck, Samantha N; Bulger, David A; Clark, Elizabeth A.; Condron, Lacey N; Costa, Stephanie T; Curtin, Evan M; Kurtu, Sozit B; Mangir, Mark I; McBride, Matthew J


    Background Calculating Abraham descriptors from solubility values requires that the solute have the same form when dissolved in all solvents. However, carboxylic acids can form dimers when dissolved in non-polar solvents. For such compounds Abraham descriptors can be calculated for both the monomeric and dimeric forms by treating the polar and non-polar systems separately. We illustrate the method of how this can be done by calculating the Abraham descriptors for both the monomeric and dimeri...

  7. An objective approach for feature extraction: distribution analysis and statistical descriptors for scale choice and channel network identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sofia


    Full Text Available A statistical approach to LiDAR derived topographic attributes for the automatic extraction of channel network and for the choice of the scale to apply for parameter evaluation is presented in this paper. The basis of this approach is to use distribution analysis and statistical descriptors to identify channels where terrain geometry denotes significant convergences. Two case study areas with different morphology and degree of organization are used with their 1 m LiDAR Digital Terrain Models (DTMs. Topographic attribute maps (curvature and openness for various window sizes are derived from the DTMs in order to detect surface convergences. A statistical analysis on value distributions considering each window size is carried out for the choice of the optimum kernel. We propose a three-step method to extract the network based (a on the normalization and overlapping of openness and minimum curvature to highlight the more likely surface convergences, (b a weighting of the upslope area according to these normalized maps to identify drainage flow paths and flow accumulation consistent with terrain geometry, (c the standard score normalization of the weighted upslope area and the use of standard score values as non subjective threshold for channel network identification. As a final step for optimal definition and representation of the whole network, a noise-filtering and connection procedure is applied. The advantage of the proposed methodology, and the efficiency and accurate localization of extracted features are demonstrated using LiDAR data of two different areas and comparing both extractions with field surveyed networks.

  8. Advances in structural damage assessment using strain measurements and invariant shape descriptors (United States)

    Patki, Amol Suhas

    to the area surrounding the damage, while damage in orthotropic materials tends to have more global repercussions. This calls for analysis of full-field strain distributions adding to the complexity of post-damage life estimation. This study explores shape descriptors used in the field of medical imagery, military targeting and biometric recognition for obtaining a qualitative and quantitative comparison between full-field strain data recorded from damaged composite panels using sophisticated experimental techniques. These descriptors are capable of decomposing images with 103 to 106 pixels into a feature vector with only a few hundred elements. This ability of shape descriptors to achieve enormous reduction in strain data, while providing unique representation, makes them a practical choice for the purpose of structural damage assessment. Consequently, it is relatively easy to statistically compare the shape descriptors of the full-field strain maps using similarity measures rather than the strain maps themselves. However, the wide range of geometric and design features in engineering components pose difficulties in the application of traditional shape description techniques. Thus a new shape descriptor is developed which is applicable to a wide range of specimen geometries. This work also illustrates how shape description techniques can be applied to full-field finite element model validations and updating.

  9. Clinical and nutritional implications of radiation enteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, W.H.; Fan, A.; Halsted, C.H.


    The clinical and nutritional significance of radiation enteritis was assessed in eight patients with chronic diarrhea which followed curative doses of radiotherapy for pelvic malignancies. Steatorrhea, found in seven malnourished patients, was ascribed to ileal disease or previous surgery, or to bacterial contamination of the small intestine. Lactose intolerance, assessed by breath hydrogen excretion after oral lactose and by jejunal lactase levels, was found in six patients. In a subgroup of five patients, the administration of two different defined formula liquid diets by nasoduodenal infusion decreased fecal fluid and energy losses by about one-half. Compared to Vivonex-HN, the infusion of Criticare-HN was associated with greater likelihood of intestinal gas production but a three-fold greater utilization of protein. Intestinal malabsorption and malnutrition in radiation enteritis has diverse etiologies. Whereas nutritional support by liquid diet limits fecal fluid and energy losses, these diets differ significantly in clinical tolerance and biologic value.

  10. Enteral feeding practices in the NICU: results from a 2009 Neonatal Enteral Feeding Survey. (United States)

    Gregory, Katherine E; Connolly, Teresa C


    : The purpose of this study was to examine the current management of the enteral feeding regimens of premature infants cared for in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). : The study included responses from 70 neonatal nurses who participated in a 2009 Neonatal Enteral Feeding Survey distributed electronically to the National Association of Neonatal Nurses membership. These respondents were representative of both the United States and Canada, with 29 US states represented. The majority of respondents (95.7%) reported current nursing employment in a level III NICU. : Survey research was used in this exploratory study. The survey, Enteral Tube Feeding Practices in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, was developed in collaboration with expert neonatal nurses and nutritionists, pilot tested, and distributed via electronic means. : Survey research was conducted according to the Dillman methodology. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and univariate analysis of variance assessing for significant differences in specific neonatal feeding practices reported. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data reported. : The outcome measures included the survey responses to the questions asked about the implementation of an enteral feeding protocol and various aspects of enteral feeding practices in the NICU. : The majority of participants (60.9%) reported that an enteral feeding protocol was implemented in practice, but that it was inconsistently followed because of individual physician or nurse practice patterns, or highly individualized feeding plans required of specific clinical care needs of the patient. Respondents indicated that gestational age was the leading criteria used to initiate feedings, and patent ductus arteriosis treatment was the primary contraindication to enteral feedings. The leading factor reported to delay or alter enteral feedings was the presence of gastric residuals. Survey data indicated that other contraindicating factors to

  11. Collaborative Innovation for Entering Emerging Markets


    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna


    The aim of this paper is to investigate collaborative innovation in business networks for small environmental technology companies entering an emerging market (EM). Export of environmental technology solutions to emerging economies involves high investment opportunities and high growth potential, but also high risk. For example, large-scale demonstrator equipment proving the function of the environmental technology solution might be needed, which usually requires cooperation between several c...

  12. Enteral Nutrition in Dementia: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Brooke


    Full Text Available The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in dementia. The prevalence of dementia is predicted to rise worldwide partly due to an aging population. People with dementia may experience both cognitive and physical complications that impact on their nutritional intake. Malnutrition and weight loss in dementia correlates with cognitive decline and the progress of the disease. An intervention for long term eating difficulties is the provision of enteral nutrition through a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy tube to improve both nutritional parameters and quality of life. Enteral nutrition in dementia has traditionally been discouraged, although further understanding of physical, nutritional and quality of life outcomes are required. The following electronic databases were searched: EBSCO Host, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar for publications from 1st January 2008 and up to and including 1st January 2014. Inclusion criteria included the following outcomes: mortality, aspiration pneumonia, pressure sores, nutritional parameters and quality of life. Each study included separate analysis for patients with a diagnosis of dementia and/or neurological disease. Retrospective and prospective observational studies were included. No differences in mortality were found for patients with dementia, without dementia or other neurological disorders. Risk factors for poor survival included decreased or decreasing serum albumin levels, increasing age or over 80 years and male gender. Evidence regarding pneumonia was limited, although did not impact on mortality. No studies explored pressure sores or quality of life.

  13. Enteral Nutrition in Dementia: A Systematic Review (United States)

    Brooke, Joanne; Ojo, Omorogieva


    The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in dementia. The prevalence of dementia is predicted to rise worldwide partly due to an aging population. People with dementia may experience both cognitive and physical complications that impact on their nutritional intake. Malnutrition and weight loss in dementia correlates with cognitive decline and the progress of the disease. An intervention for long term eating difficulties is the provision of enteral nutrition through a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy tube to improve both nutritional parameters and quality of life. Enteral nutrition in dementia has traditionally been discouraged, although further understanding of physical, nutritional and quality of life outcomes are required. The following electronic databases were searched: EBSCO Host, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar for publications from 1st January 2008 and up to and including 1st January 2014. Inclusion criteria included the following outcomes: mortality, aspiration pneumonia, pressure sores, nutritional parameters and quality of life. Each study included separate analysis for patients with a diagnosis of dementia and/or neurological disease. Retrospective and prospective observational studies were included. No differences in mortality were found for patients with dementia, without dementia or other neurological disorders. Risk factors for poor survival included decreased or decreasing serum albumin levels, increasing age or over 80 years and male gender. Evidence regarding pneumonia was limited, although did not impact on mortality. No studies explored pressure sores or quality of life. PMID:25854831

  14. Web-4D-QSAR: A web-based application to generate 4D-QSAR descriptors. (United States)

    Ataide Martins, João Paulo; Rougeth de Oliveira, Marco Antônio; Oliveira de Queiroz, Mário Sérgio


    A web-based application is developed to generate 4D-QSAR descriptors using the LQTA-QSAR methodology, based on molecular dynamics (MD) trajectories and topology information retrieved from the GROMACS package. The LQTAGrid module calculates the intermolecular interaction energies at each grid point, considering probes and all aligned conformations resulting from MD simulations. These interaction energies are the independent variables or descriptors employed in a QSAR analysis. A friendly front end web interface, built using the Django framework and Python programming language, integrates all steps of the LQTA-QSAR methodology in a way that is transparent to the user, and in the backend, GROMACS and LQTAGrid are executed to generate 4D-QSAR descriptors to be used later in the process of QSAR model building. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Identification of Electronic and Structural Descriptors of Adenosine Analogues Related to Inhibition of Leishmanial Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norka B. H. Lozano


    Full Text Available Quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR studies were performed in order to identify molecular features responsible for the antileishmanial activity of 61 adenosine analogues acting as inhibitors of the enzyme glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Leishmania mexicana (LmGAPDH. Density functional theory (DFT was employed to calculate quantum-chemical descriptors, while several structural descriptors were generated with Dragon 5.4. Variable selection was undertaken with the ordered predictor selection (OPS algorithm, which provided a set with the most relevant descriptors to perform PLS, PCR and MLR regressions. Reliable and predictive models were obtained, as attested by their high correlation coefficients, as well as the agreement between predicted and experimental values for an external test set. Additional validation procedures were carried out, demonstrating that robust models were developed, providing helpful tools for the optimization of the antileishmanial activity of adenosine compounds.

  16. An extension of spherical harmonics to region-based rotationally invariant descriptors for molecular shape description and comparison. (United States)

    Mak, Lora; Grandison, Scott; Morris, Richard J


    The use of spherical harmonics in the molecular sciences is widespread. They have been employed with success in, for instance, the crystallographic fast rotation function, small-angle scattering particle reconstruction, molecular surface visualisation, protein-protein docking, active site analysis and protein function prediction. An extension of the spherical harmonic expansion method is presented here that enables regions (bodies) rather than contours (surfaces) to be described and which lends itself favourably to the construction of rotationally invariant shape descriptors. This method introduces a radial term that extends the spherical harmonics to 3D polynomials. These polynomials maintain the advantages of the spherical harmonics (orthonormality, completeness, uniqueness and fast computation) but correct the drawbacks (contour based shape description and star-shape objects) and give rise to powerful invariant descriptors. We provide proof-of-principle examples illustrating the potential of this method for accurate object representation, an analysis of the descriptor classification power, and comparisons to other methods.

  17. International Energy: Subject Thesaurus. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutkowski, R.W. [ed.


    The Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) is a consortium of member countries around the globe that share their energy research and technology information through ETDE`s database. The Exchange was established in 1987 under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) and serves all ETDE member countries. The Exchange also collaborates with other entities as appropriate.The International Energy:Subject Thesaurus [ETDE/PUB--2(Rev.2)] contains the standard vocabulary of indexing terms (descriptors) developed and structured to build and maintain energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the U.S. DOE Office of Scientific and technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and (2) the International Atomic Energy Agency`s International Nuclear Information System (INIS) staff representing the more than 100 countries and organizations t hat record and index information for the international nuclear information community. Because all ETDE member countries are also members of INIS, the contents of INIS`s database are included in ETDE`s database. Indexing terminology is therefore cooperatively standardized for use in both information systems. This structured vocabulary reflects the scope of international energy research and technology programs. The terminology of this thesaurus aids in subject searching on commercial systems, such as the online products offered by Knight-Ridder Information Services and STN International and the CD-ROM products offered by Silver Platter and Knight-Ridder. This thesaurus can also be used with the in-house systems provided by some ETDE member countries. Descriptors are added to the thesaurus as needed (i.e., when a document contains a concept for which there is no adequate term or terms in the thesaurus). More than 28,000 entries appear in this document, which replaced International

  18. Competing goals draw attention to effort, which then enters cost-benefit computations as input. (United States)

    Hennecke, Marie; Freund, Alexandra M


    Different to Kurzban et al., we conceptualize the experience of mental effort as the subjective costs of goal pursuit (i.e., the amount of invested resources relative to the amount of available resources). Rather than being an output of computations that compare costs and benefits of the target and competing goals, effort enters these computations as an input.

  19. Competing goals draw attention to effort, which then enters cost-benefit computations as input


    Hennecke, Marie; Freund, Alexandra M.


    Different to Kurzban et al., we conceptualize the experience of mental effort as the subjective costs of goal pursuit (i.e., the amount of invested resources relative to the amount of available resources). Rather than being an output of computations that compare costs and benefits of the target and competing goals, effort enters these computations as an input.

  20. 50 CFR 23.21 - What happens if a country enters a reservation for a species? (United States)


    ... reservation for a species? 23.21 Section 23.21 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Prohibitions, Exemptions, and Requirements § 23.21 What happens if a country enters a reservation for a species? (a) Purpose. CITES is not subject to general...

  1. Saponin-containing subfractions of soybean molasses induce enteritis in the distal intestine of Atlantic salmon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knudsen, D.; Urán, P.; Arnous, A.; Koppe, W.


    The current work aimed at tracing the causative components for soybean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Soybean molasses was subjected to phase separation using n-butanol. Three subfractions were obtained as follows: butanol phase, precipitate, and water phase. The biochemical

  2. Potential and existing mechanisms of enteric methane production in ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyi Qiao


    Full Text Available Enteric methane (CH4 emissions in ruminants have attracted considerable attention due to their impact on greenhouse gases and the contribution of agricultural practices to global warming. Over the last two decades, a number of approaches have been adopted to mitigate CH4 emissions. However, the mechanisms of methanogenesis have still not been fully defined. According to the genome sequences of M. ruminantium in the rumen and of M. AbM4 in the abomasum, the pathways of carbon dioxide (CO2 reduction and formate oxidation to CH4 have now been authenticated in ruminants. Furthermore, in the light of species or genera description of methanogens, the precursors of methanogenesis discovered in the rumen and research advances in related subjects, pathways of acetate dissimilation via Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta as well as metabolism of methanol to CH4 might be present in the rumen, although neither process has yet been experimentally demonstrated in the rumen. Herein the research advances in methanogenesic mechanisms including existing and potential mechanisms are reviewed in detail. In addition, further research efforts to understand the methanogenesis mechanism should focus on isolation and identification of more specific methanogens, and their genome sequences. Such increased knowledge will provide benefits in terms of improved dietary energy utilization and a reduced contribution of enteric CH4 emissions to total global greenhouse gas emissions from the ruminant production system.

  3. Enteral ecoimmunonutrition reduced enteral permeability and serum ghrelin activity in severe cerebral stroke patients with lung infection. (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Di; Shao, Feng


    The study analyzed how enteral ecoimmunonutrition, which comprises probiotics, glutamine, fish oil, and Enteral Nutritional Suspension (TPF), can impact on the enteral permeability and serum Ghrelin activity in severe cerebral stroke patients with lung infection. Among 190 severe cerebral stroke patients with tolerance to TPF, they were randomized into control and treatment groups after antibiotics treatment due to lung infections. There were 92 patients in the control group and 98 patients in treatment group. The control group was treated with TPF and the treatment group was treated with enteral ecoimmunonutrition, which comprises probiotics, glutamine, fish oil, and Enteral Nutritional Suspension. All patients received continuous treatments through nasoenteral or nasogastric tubes. 7, 14, and 21 days after the treatments, the enteral tolerance to nutrition was observed in both groups. The tests included abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, and lactulose/mannitol (L/M) ratio. Serum Ghrelin levels were determined by ELISA. The incidence of abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea was lower in the treatment group and enteral tolerance to nutrition was also superior to the control group. No difference in serum Ghrelin level was observed between the control and treatment groups with enteral intolerance to nutrition. However, in patients with enteral tolerance to nutrition, the treatment group showed lower enteral nutrition and lower enteral permeability compared to the control group. In severe cerebral stroke patients with lung infection, enteral ecoimmunonutrition after antibiotics treatment improved enteral tolerance to nutrition and reduced enteral permeability; meanwhile, it lowered the serum Ghrelin activity, which implied the high serum Ghrelin reduces enteral permeability.

  4. Quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mutagenicity by classification methods based on holistic theoretical molecular descriptors. (United States)

    Gramatica, Paola; Papa, Ester; Marrocchi, Assunta; Minuti, Lucio; Taticchi, Aldo


    Various polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), ubiquitous environmental pollutants, are recognized mutagens and carcinogens. A homogeneous set of mutagenicity data (TA98 and TA100,+S9) for 32 benzocyclopentaphenanthrenes/chrysenes was modeled by the quantitative structure-activity relationship classification methods k-nearest neighbor and classification and regression tree, using theoretical holistic molecular descriptors. Genetic algorithm provided the selection of the best subset of variables for modeling mutagenicity. The models were validated by leave-one-out and leave-50%-out approaches and have good performance, with sensitivity and specificity ranges of 90-100%. Mutagenicity assessment for these PAHs requires only a few theoretical descriptors of their molecular structure.

  5. Microstructural descriptors and cellular automata simulation of the effects of non-random nuclei location on recrystallization in two dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rangel Rios


    Full Text Available The effect of non-random nuclei location and the efficiency of microstructural descriptors in assessing such a situation are studied. Cellular automata simulation of recrystallization in two dimensions is carried out to simulate microstrutural evolution for nuclei distribution ranging from a periodic arrangement to clusters of nuclei. The simulation results are compared in detail with microstrutural descriptors normally used to follow transformation evolution. It is shown that the contiguity is particularly relevant to detect microstructural deviations from randomness. This work focuses on recrystallization but its results are applicable to any nucleation and growth transformation.

  6. Performance of Kier-Hall E-state Descriptors in Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR Studies of Multifunctional Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Butina


    Full Text Available Performance of the E-state descriptors was tested against simple counts of the 35 atom types that the Kier-Hall E-states are based upon, by building PLS models for clogP, aqueous solubility, human intestinal absorption (HIA and blood brain barrier (BBB. The results indicate that the simple counts work at least as well as E-state descriptors in building models for solubility and BBB, while surprisingly, simple counts have outperformed E-states by 18% and 30%, respectively, when building the models for HIA and clogP.

  7. Effective chromatic texture coding for robust skin disease minimal descriptor quantification (United States)

    Fiorini, Rodolfo A.; Crivellini, M.; Codagnone, G.; Dacquino, Gianfranco F.; Libertini, M.; Morresi, A.


    Among the various skin diseases skin tumors are the most serious ones and skin melanoma is particularly dangerous. Its malignant evolution lasts about 5 or 6 years and ends with the death of the patient. Early diagnosis is a powerful means of preventing this evolution allowing sudden intervention which increases probability of recover and survival. Purpose of this paper is to present an active support system (ASS) able to reveal and quantify the stage of disease evolution. The work focuses the problem encountered in chromatic information encoding the morphological aspects quantification. A new method is proposed which permits robust and reliable quantification of image data obtained via a digital epiluminescence dermatoscopy apparatus (DELM) designed and built with interesting new features. The image information extraction is based on minimal descriptor set of parameters in order to classify chromatic texture and morphological features. The active support systems is based on DELM technique, taking advantage of polarized light guided by optical fibers. In the purpose to discriminate between malignant and benign melanocytic lesions, several dermatoscopical features have been proposed by different research groups. Nevertheless many are the attempts to reach a reliable and objective classification procedure. We adopt, as reference, the approach used by Stanganelli and Kenet. Through a bioengineering analysis we can organize reference grids that offer the possibility to extract the maximum information content from dermatological data. The classification takes into account the Spread and Intrinsic Descriptors and correspond to the best operative description. Therefore these grids are the more suitable tools for application which require ASS for diagnosis. In fact it is possible to obtain quantitative evaluations too. We propose a method based on geometrical synthetical descriptors. All that permits a reliable early diagnosis of melanotic disease and to follow its

  8. Developing a CD-CBM Anticipatory Approach for Cavitation - Defining a Model Descriptor Consistent Between Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, G.O.; Dress, W.B.; Kercel, S.W.


    A major problem with cavitation in pumps and other hydraulic devices is that there is no effective method for detecting or predicting its inception. The traditional approach is to declare the pump in cavitation when the total head pressure drops by some arbitrary value (typically 3o/0) in response to a reduction in pump inlet pressure. However, the pump is already cavitating at this point. A method is needed in which cavitation events are captured as they occur and characterized by their process dynamics. The object of this research was to identify specific features of cavitation that could be used as a model-based descriptor in a context-dependent condition-based maintenance (CD-CBM) anticipatory prognostic and health assessment model. This descriptor was based on the physics of the phenomena, capturing the salient features of the process dynamics. An important element of this concept is the development and formulation of the extended process feature vector @) or model vector. Thk model-based descriptor encodes the specific information that describes the phenomena and its dynamics and is formulated as a data structure consisting of several elements. The first is a descriptive model abstracting the phenomena. The second is the parameter list associated with the functional model. The third is a figure of merit, a single number between [0,1] representing a confidence factor that the functional model and parameter list actually describes the observed data. Using this as a basis and applying it to the cavitation problem, any given location in a flow loop will have this data structure, differing in value but not content. The extended process feature vector is formulated as follows: E`> [ , {parameter Iist}, confidence factor]. (1) For this study, the model that characterized cavitation was a chirped-exponentially decaying sinusoid. Using the parameters defined by this model, the parameter list included frequency, decay, and chirp rate. Based on this, the

  9. Selecting an informative features vocabulary for recognition algorithms based on Fourier-descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ya. Kolyuchkin


    Full Text Available Working vocabulary of features include most informative features of objects to be recognized. The aim is to develop a method of forming a working vocabulary of features for recognition algorithms based on Fourier-descriptors of the object image contours.To solve this problem the paper offers to use the method of functional maximization that is the ratio of the distance between the classes to the spread of objects within each of the classes represented in the feature space, which is formed on the basis of Fourier-descriptors.To check the effectiveness of the proposed method to form a working vocabulary of features the numerical experiments have been carried out. The experiments used two databases of reference images consisting of 10 and 13 reference images. Test images obtained by rotating the reference images, by zooming, as well as by adding the noise using the normal law of distribution have been created from these images. The proposed by the author algorithm, which uses the Prewitt operator, threshold segmentation, and morphological processing has marked the contours of images. The original vocabulary of features derived from the Fourier-descriptors has dimension of 98. The vocabularies of working features having the dimensions, respectively, 3 and 4 have been formed on the basis of functional maximization for both reference images. In the course of numerical experiments the frequency of correct decisions to recognise the features of reference bases of images for the original and working vocabularies has been evaluated. It has been proved that the algorithm of recognition with the formed working vocabularies of features provides a great efficiency of automatic recognition of objects.There are known publications, which use a similar method to form a working vocabulary of features in algorithms of human recognition by the image. But there are no publications on choosing the vocabulary of features for recognition algorithms based on the

  10. Protein-protein docking using region-based 3D Zernike descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sael Lee


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein interactions are a pivotal component of many biological processes and mediate a variety of functions. Knowing the tertiary structure of a protein complex is therefore essential for understanding the interaction mechanism. However, experimental techniques to solve the structure of the complex are often found to be difficult. To this end, computational protein-protein docking approaches can provide a useful alternative to address this issue. Prediction of docking conformations relies on methods that effectively capture shape features of the participating proteins while giving due consideration to conformational changes that may occur. Results We present a novel protein docking algorithm based on the use of 3D Zernike descriptors as regional features of molecular shape. The key motivation of using these descriptors is their invariance to transformation, in addition to a compact representation of local surface shape characteristics. Docking decoys are generated using geometric hashing, which are then ranked by a scoring function that incorporates a buried surface area and a novel geometric complementarity term based on normals associated with the 3D Zernike shape description. Our docking algorithm was tested on both bound and unbound cases in the ZDOCK benchmark 2.0 dataset. In 74% of the bound docking predictions, our method was able to find a near-native solution (interface C-αRMSD ≤ 2.5 Å within the top 1000 ranks. For unbound docking, among the 60 complexes for which our algorithm returned at least one hit, 60% of the cases were ranked within the top 2000. Comparison with existing shape-based docking algorithms shows that our method has a better performance than the others in unbound docking while remaining competitive for bound docking cases. Conclusion We show for the first time that the 3D Zernike descriptors are adept in capturing shape complementarity at the protein-protein interface and useful for

  11. Development and stability evaluation of enteric coated Diclofenac sodium tablets using Sureteric. (United States)

    Zaid, Abdel Naser


    This study was aimed to develop a stable enteric coated diclofenac sodium tablets using Sureteic without a subcoating layer. Diclofenac uncoated tablets were developed and manufactured through the non direct compression process. Sureteric white aqueous coating dispersion was used as enteric coating material. Sureteric is a special mixture of Polyvinyl Acetate Phthalate (Phthalavin (R), PVAP), plasticizers and other ingredients in a suitable optimized dry powder formulation. The obtained enteric coated tablets were subjected to disintegration and no sign of cracking was observed when they placed in a hydrochloric solution at pH 1.2, but they were completely disintegrated within 10 minutes when they putted in buffered solution at pH6.8. Dissolution test was also conducted by placing tablets in 0.1 M HCl for 2 hours and then 1 hour in phosphate buffer at pH 6.8. Less than 0.9% of drug was released in the acidic phase and up to 97% in the basic medium. These results show that Sureteric can be successfully used to produce diclofenac sodium enteric coated tablets in order to prevent its release in the stomach and facilitate immediate release of the drug in the duodenum. These findings suggest that aqueous enteric coating with Sureteric system is an easy and economical approach for preparing stable diclofenac sodium enteric coat without the use of a subcoating layer.

  12. ADEPT - Abnormal Doppler Enteral Prescription Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCormick Kenny


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancies complicated by abnormal umbilical artery Doppler blood flow patterns often result in the baby being born both preterm and growth-restricted. These babies are at high risk of milk intolerance and necrotising enterocolitis, as well as post-natal growth failure, and there is no clinical consensus about how best to feed them. Policies of both early milk feeding and late milk feeding are widely used. This randomised controlled trial aims to determine whether a policy of early initiation of milk feeds is beneficial compared with late initiation. Optimising neonatal feeding for this group of babies may have long-term health implications and if either of these policies is shown to be beneficial it can be immediately adopted into clinical practice. Methods and Design Babies with gestational age below 35 weeks, and with birth weight below 10th centile for gestational age, will be randomly allocated to an "early" or "late" enteral feeding regimen, commencing milk feeds on day 2 and day 6 after birth, respectively. Feeds will be gradually increased over 9-13 days (depending on gestational age using a schedule derived from those used in hospitals in the Eastern and South Western Regions of England, based on surveys of feeding practice. Primary outcome measures are time to establish full enteral feeding and necrotising enterocolitis; secondary outcomes include sepsis and growth. The target sample size is 400 babies. This sample size is large enough to detect a clinically meaningful difference of 3 days in time to establish full enteral feeds between the two feeding policies, with 90% power and a 5% 2-sided significance level. Initial recruitment period was 24 months, subsequently extended to 38 months. Discussion There is limited evidence from randomised controlled trials on which to base decisions regarding feeding policy in high risk preterm infants. This multicentre trial will help to guide clinical practice and may also

  13. Enteral nutrition. Potential complications and patient monitoring. (United States)

    Kohn, C L; Keithley, J K


    Enteral feedings are safely tolerated by most patients. When complications occur, gastrointestinal disturbances are most frequently encountered, followed by mechanical and metabolic complications. Nurses can prevent many of the problems associated with enteral feeding through careful monitoring. Based on the current literature, the authors make the following recommendations: 1. All patients receiving tube feedings should be placed on a protocol that provides guidelines for (a) confirming correct tube placement; (b) preventing/managing tube obstruction; (c) handling and selecting formulas; (d) administering formulas; and (e) monitoring patients. 2. Fine-bore tubes are easily misplaced or dislodged; ensure correct positioning both before and during feeding. Food coloring should be added to all feedings to help detect aspiration/tube displacement. 3. Multiple factors can cause diarrhea in tube-fed patients and, therefore, require periodic assessment. These factors include concomitant drug therapy; malnutrition/hypoalbuminemia; formula-related factors (for example, lactose content, osmolality); and bacterial contamination. 4. Urine sugar and acetone levels should be checked every 6 hours (until stable). Vital signs and fluid intake and output should be determined every 8 hours, and weight should be measured on a daily basis. Serum electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, and glucose levels should be determined daily, until serum levels stabilize. Weekly measurements of trace elements should be made to ensure adequate mineral replacement. 5. Use a controller pump to administer continuous feedings at a constant rate or to administer formulas that are viscous. Flush feeding tubes with water every 4 hours during continuous feedings, after giving intermittent feedings, after giving medications, and after checking for gastric residuals. If tube obstruction occurs, attempt to irrigate the tube with either water or cola. 6. Select feedings that contain appropriate nutrient sources

  14. Prediction of enteric methane emissions from cattle. (United States)

    Moraes, Luis E; Strathe, Anders B; Fadel, James G; Casper, David P; Kebreab, Ermias


    Agriculture has a key role in food production worldwide and it is a major component of the gross domestic product of several countries. Livestock production is essential for the generation of high quality protein foods and the delivery of foods in regions where animal products are the main food source. Environmental impacts of livestock production have been examined for decades, but recently emission of methane from enteric fermentation has been targeted as a substantial greenhouse gas source. The quantification of methane emissions from livestock on a global scale relies on prediction models because measurements require specialized equipment and may be expensive. The predictive ability of current methane emission models remains poor. Moreover, the availability of information on livestock production systems has increased substantially over the years enabling the development of more detailed methane prediction models. In this study, we have developed and evaluated prediction models based on a large database of enteric methane emissions from North American dairy and beef cattle. Most probable models of various complexity levels were identified using a Bayesian model selection procedure and were fitted under a hierarchical setting. Energy intake, dietary fiber and lipid proportions, animal body weight and milk fat proportion were identified as key explanatory variables for predicting emissions. Models here developed substantially outperformed models currently used in national greenhouse gas inventories. Additionally, estimates of repeatability of methane emissions were lower than the ones from the literature and multicollinearity diagnostics suggested that prediction models are stable. In this context, we propose various enteric methane prediction models which require different levels of information availability and can be readily implemented in national greenhouse gas inventories of different complexity levels. The utilization of such models may reduce errors

  15. Automated Clustering Analysis of Immunoglobulin Sequences in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Based on 3D Structural Descriptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcatili, Paolo; Mochament, Konstantinos; Agathangelidis, Andreas


    similarity between the 3D models. The Fast Point Feature Histograms descriptors derived from the structurally aligned parts are used to compute a distance matrix, which is then used as input for the clustering procedure. Clustering analysis on the data is performed through the application......Imunoglobulins (Igs) are crucial for the defense against pathogens, but they are also important in many clinical and biotechnological applications. Their characteristics, and ultimately their function, depend on their three-dimensional (3D) structure; however, the procedures to experimentally...... determine it are extremely laborious and demanding. Hence, the ability to gain insight into the structure of Igs at large relies on the availability of tools and algorithms for producing accurate Ig structural models based on their primary sequence alone. These models can then be used to determine...

  16. Prioritization of in silico models and molecular descriptors for the assessment of ready biodegradability. (United States)

    Fernández, Alberto; Rallo, Robert; Giralt, Francesc


    Ready biodegradability is a key property for evaluating the long-term effects of chemicals on the environment and human health. As such, it is used as a screening test for the assessment of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic substances. Regulators encourage the use of non-testing methods, such as in silico models, to save money and time. A dataset of 757 chemicals was collected to assess the performance of four freely available in silico models that predict ready biodegradability. They were applied to develop a new consensus method that prioritizes the use of each individual model according to its performance on chemical subsets driven by the presence or absence of different molecular descriptors. This consensus method was capable of almost eliminating unpredictable chemicals, while the performance of combined models was substantially improved with respect to that of the individual models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Transferring Instantly the State of Higher-Order Linear Descriptor (Regular Differential Systems Using Impulsive Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios D. Karageorgos


    Full Text Available In many applications, and generally speaking in many dynamical differential systems, the problem of transferring the initial state of the system to a desired state in (almost zero-time time is desirable but difficult to achieve. Theoretically, this can be achieved by using a linear combination of Dirac -function and its derivatives. Obviously, such an input is physically unrealizable. However, we can think of it approximately as a combination of small pulses of very high magnitude and infinitely small duration. In this paper, the approximation process of the distributional behaviour of higher-order linear descriptor (regular differential systems is presented. Thus, new analytical formulae based on linear algebra methods and generalized inverses theory are provided. Our approach is quite general and some significant conditions are derived. Finally, a numerical example is presented and discussed.

  18. Harmonization of sound insulation descriptors and classification schemes in Europe: COST Action TU0901

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    insulation requirements seems unrealistic. However, by preparing a harmonized European classification scheme with a number of quality classes, member states could select a "harmonized" class fitting the national needs and conditions. A joint European Action, COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing...... and working groups. The main objectives of TU0901 are to prepare proposals for harmonized sound insulation descriptors and for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality classes for dwellings. Other goals are e.g. to establish a catalogue of sound insulation data and an on-line compendium......-in-Chief. Handbook of noise and vibration control, USA: Wiley and Son; 2007 [Ch. 114]. [4] COST Action TU0901 “Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions”, 2009-2013, (public information at COST website) or http...

  19. What makes a good descriptor for heterogeneous ice nucleation on OH-patterned surfaces (United States)

    Pedevilla, Philipp; Fitzner, Martin; Michaelides, Angelos


    Freezing of water is arguably one of the most common phase transitions on Earth and almost always happens heterogeneously. Despite its importance, we lack a fundamental understanding of what makes substrates efficient ice nucleators. Here we address this by computing the ice nucleation (IN) ability of numerous model hydroxylated substrates with diverse surface hydroxyl (OH) group arrangements. Overall, for the substrates considered, we find that neither the symmetry of the OH patterns nor the similarity between a substrate and ice correlate well with the IN ability. Instead, we find that the OH density and the substrate-water interaction strength are useful descriptors of a material's IN ability. This insight allows the rationalization of ice nucleation ability across a wide range of materials and can aid the search and design of novel potent ice nucleators in the future.

  20. Obtaining video descriptors for a content-based video information system (United States)

    Bescos, Jesus; Martinez, Jose M.; Cabrera, Julian M.; Cisneros, Guillermo


    This paper describes the first stages of a research project that is currently being developed in the Image Processing Group of the UPM. The aim of this effort is to add video capabilities to the Storage and Retrieval Information System already working at our premises. Here we will focus on the early design steps of a Video Information System. For this purpose, we present a review of most of the reported techniques for video temporal segmentation and semantic segmentation, previous steps to afford the content extraction task, and we discuss them to select the more suitable ones. We then outline a block design of a temporal segmentation module, and present guidelines to the design of the semantic segmentation one. All these operations trend to facilitate automation in the extraction of low level features and semantic features that will finally take part of the video descriptors.

  1. Descriptors and Thermodynamic Limitations of Electrocatalytic Carbon Dioxide Reduction on Rutile Oxide Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhowmik, Arghya; Vegge, Tejs; Hansen, Heine Anton


    A detailed understanding of the electrochemical reduction of CO2 into liquid fuels on rutile metal oxide surfaces is developed by using DFT calculations. We consider oxide overlayer structures on RuO2(1 1 0) surfaces as model catalysts to elucidate the trends and limitations in the CO2 reduction...... reaction (CO2RR) based on thermodynamic analysis. We aim to specify the requirements for CO2RR catalysts to establish adsorbate scaling relations and use these to derive activity volcanoes. Computational results show that the OH* binding free energy is a good descriptor of the thermodynamic limitations...... and it defines the left leg of the activity volcano for CO2RR. HCOOH* is a key intermediate for products formed through further reduction, for example, methanediol, methanol, and methane. The surfaces that do not bind HCOOH* are selective towards formic acid (HCOOH) production, but hydrogen evolution limits...


    Alferink, Larry A; Critchfield, Thomas S; Hitt, Jennifer L; Higgins, William J


    Based on a small sample of highly successful teams, past studies suggested that shot selection (two- vs. three-point field goals) in basketball corresponds to predictions of the generalized matching law. We examined the generality of this finding by evaluating shot selection of college (Study 1) and professional (Study 3) players. The matching law accounted for the majority of variance in shot selection, with undermatching and a bias for taking three-point shots. Shot-selection matching varied systematically for players who (a) were members of successful versus unsuccessful teams, (b) competed at different levels of collegiate play, and (c) served as regulars versus substitutes (Study 2). These findings suggest that the matching law is a robust descriptor of basketball shot selection, although the mechanism that produces matching is unknown. PMID:20190921

  3. Iris Segmentation using Gradient Magnitude and Fourier Descriptor for Multimodal Biometric Authentication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defiana Sulaeman


    Full Text Available Perfectly segmenting the area of the iris is one of the most important steps in iris recognition. There are several problematic areas that affect the accuracy of the iris segmentation step, such as eyelids, eyelashes, glasses, pupil (due to less accurate iris segmentation, motion blur, and lighting and specular reflections. To solve these problems, gradient magnitude and Fourier descriptor are employed to do iris segmentation in the proposed Multimodal Biometric Authentication System (MBAS. This approach showed quite promising results, i.e. an accuracy rate of 97%. The result of the iris recognition system was combined with the result of an open-source fingerprint recognition system to develop a multimodal biometrics authentication system. The results of the fusion between iris and fingerprint authentication were 99% accurate. Data from Multimedia Malaysia University (MMUI and our own prepared database, the SGU-MB-1 dataset, were used to test the accuracy of the proposed system.

  4. {sup 13}C NMR spectral data and molecular descriptors to predict the antioxidant activity of flavonoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Mariane Balerine; Muramatsu, Eric [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP). Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmauceuticas; Emereciano, Vicente de Paula [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Scotti, Marcus Tullius [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPA), Joao Pessoa, PA (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas e Educacao; Scotti, Luciana; Tavares, Josean Fechine; Silva, Marcelo Sobral da [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPA), Joao Pessoa, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Tecnologia Farmaceutica


    Tissue damage due to oxidative stress is directly linked to development of many, if not all, human morbidity factors and chronic diseases. In this context, the search for dietary natural occurring molecules with antioxidant activity, such as flavonoids, has become essential. In this study, we investigated a set of 41 flavonoids (23 flavones and 18 flavonols) analyzing their structures and biological antioxidant activity. The experimental data were submitted to a QSAR (quantitative structure-activity relationships) study. NMR {sup 13}C data were used to perform a Kohonen self-organizing map study, analyzing the weight that each carbon has in the activity. Additionally, we performed MLR (multilinear regression) using GA (genetic algorithms) and molecular descriptors to analyze the role that specific carbons and substitutions play in the activity. (author)

  5. Clinical descriptors for the recognition of central sensitization pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lluch, Enrique; Nijs, Jo; Courtney, Carol A


    and its association with structural joint changes, pain distribution, behavior of knee pain, presence of neuropathic-like or centrally mediated symptoms and responsiveness to previous treatment. The latter includes assessment of response to clinical test, mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia, thermal......BACKGROUND: Despite growing awareness of the contribution of central pain mechanisms to knee osteoarthritis pain in a subgroup of patients, routine evaluation of central sensitization is yet to be incorporated into clinical practice. AIM: The objective of this perspective is to design a set...... of clinical descriptors for the recognition of central sensitization in patients with knee osteoarthritis that can be implemented in clinical practice. METHODS: A narrative review of original research papers was conducted by nine clinicians and researchers from seven different countries to reach agreement...

  6. Texture descriptors to distinguish radiation necrosis from recurrent brain tumors on multi-parametric MRI (United States)

    Tiwari, Pallavi; Prasanna, Prateek; Rogers, Lisa; Wolansky, Leo; Badve, Chaitra; Sloan, Andrew; Cohen, Mark; Madabhushi, Anant


    Di erentiating radiation necrosis (a radiation induced treatment e ect) from recurrent brain tumors (rBT) is currently one of the most clinically challenging problems in care and management of brain tumor (BT) patients. Both radiation necrosis (RN), and rBT exhibit similar morphological appearance on standard MRI making non-invasive diagnosis extremely challenging for clinicians, with surgical intervention being the only course for obtaining de nitive ground truth". Recent studies have reported that the underlying biological pathways de n- ing RN and rBT are fundamentally di erent. This strongly suggests that there might be phenotypic di erences and hence cues on multi-parametric MRI, that can distinguish between the two pathologies. One challenge is that these di erences, if they exist, might be too subtle to distinguish by the human observer. In this work, we explore the utility of computer extracted texture descriptors on multi-parametric MRI (MP-MRI) to provide alternate representations of MRI that may be capable of accentuating subtle micro-architectural di erences between RN and rBT for primary and metastatic (MET) BT patients. We further explore the utility of texture descriptors in identifying the MRI protocol (from amongst T1-w, T2-w and FLAIR) that best distinguishes RN and rBT across two independent cohorts of primary and MET patients. A set of 119 texture descriptors (co-occurrence matrix homogeneity, neighboring gray-level dependence matrix, multi-scale Gaussian derivatives, Law features, and histogram of gradient orientations (HoG)) for modeling di erent macro and micro-scale morphologic changes within the treated lesion area for each MRI protocol were extracted. Principal component analysis based variable importance projection (PCA-VIP), a feature selection method previously developed in our group, was employed to identify the importance of every texture descriptor in distinguishing RN and rBT on MP-MRI. PCA-VIP employs regression analysis to provide

  7. Categorical dimensions of human odor descriptor space revealed by non-negative matrix factorization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason B Castro

    Full Text Available In contrast to most other sensory modalities, the basic perceptual dimensions of olfaction remain unclear. Here, we use non-negative matrix factorization (NMF--a dimensionality reduction technique--to uncover structure in a panel of odor profiles, with each odor defined as a point in multi-dimensional descriptor space. The properties of NMF are favorable for the analysis of such lexical and perceptual data, and lead to a high-dimensional account of odor space. We further provide evidence that odor dimensions apply categorically. That is, odor space is not occupied homogenously, but rather in a discrete and intrinsically clustered manner. We discuss the potential implications of these results for the neural coding of odors, as well as for developing classifiers on larger datasets that may be useful for predicting perceptual qualities from chemical structures.

  8. Spectral descriptors for bulk metallic glasses based on the thermodynamics of competing crystalline phases

    CERN Document Server

    Perim, Eric; Liu, Yanhui; Toher, Cormac; Gong, Pan; Li, Yanglin; Simmons, W Neal; Levy, Ohad; Vlassak, Joost J; Schroers, Jan; Curtarolo, Stefano


    Metallic glasses have attracted considerable interest in recent years due to their unique combination of superb properties and processability. Predicting bulk metallic glass formers from known parameters remains a challenge and the search for new systems is still performed by trial and error. It has been speculated that some sort of "confusion" during crystallization of the crystalline phases competing with glass formation could play a key role. Here, we propose a heuristic descriptor quantifying confusion and demonstrate its validity by detailed experiments on two well-known glass forming alloy systems. With the insight provided by these results, we develop a robust model for predicting glass formation ability based on the spectral decomposition of geometrical and energetic features of crystalline phases calculated ab-initio in the AFLOW high throughput framework. Our findings indicate that the formation of metallic glass phases could be a much more common phenomenon than currently estimated, with more than ...

  9. Visual assessment of phenotype by UPOV descriptor and relatedness of maize lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Vojka


    Full Text Available The information on inter-relations of breeding material and genetic distinctness of available germplasm is important for deciding on the usage mode in breeding programmes. For the given research, phenotype description according to principles of UPOV descriptors was taken from 28 maize lines that are parental components of 20 ZP maize hybrids of known pedigree, from one year and two repetitions. Cluster analysis was conducted in order to establish whether the phenotype characterization of genotypes can be used for defining homogenous groups by relatedness, and to what extent the results are in accordance with the known information on the examined material's pedigree. The cluster analysis, Ward method, based on Squared Euclidian Distance, provided the best concordance with the information on the pedigree of the examined maize lines, so those results are presented in this paper and used for correspondence analysis.

  10. Clinical and molecular rationale to retain the cancer descriptor for Gleason score 6 disease. (United States)

    Reichard, Chad A; Klein, Eric A


    Treatment choices for men with indolent prostate cancer include active surveillance or definitive local therapy. Overtreatment of these patients is an important current problem. Treatment decisions are often made jointly by the clinician and the patient, partly based on the tumour's Gleason score. To reduce the burden of overtreatment, the clinical significance of Gleason score 3 + 3 = 6 prostate cancer has been questioned and some have advocated that Gleason pattern 3 should be stripped of its cancer status. However, removing the cancer descriptor would have far-reaching clinical consequences that might result in poor patient outcomes, as the evidence of a lack of malignancy is inconclusive in several areas. For example, molecular data suggest that the genomic instability underlying tumour progression precedes histologically visible changes and the absolute risk of metastasis or mortality from Gleason score 6 prostate cancer is not zero. Extreme caution is required when weighing a decision to reclassify Gleason pattern 3 disease as a non-cancer.

  11. Modeling the toxicity of chemicals to Tetrahymena pyriformis using molecular fragment descriptors and probabilistic neural networks. (United States)

    Niculescu, S P; Kaiser, K L; Schultz, T W


    The results of an investigation into the use of a probabilistic neural network (PNN)-based methodology to model the 48-h ICG50 (inhibitory concentration for population growth) sublethal toxicity of 825 chemicals to the ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis are presented. The information fed into the neural networks is solely based on simple molecular descriptors as can be derived from the chemical structure. In contrast to most other toxicological models, the octanol/water partition coefficient is not used as an input parameter, and no rules of thumb or other substance selection criteria are employed. The cross-validation and external validation experiments confirmed excellent recognitive and predictive capabilities of the resulting models and recommend their future use in evaluating the potential of most organic molecules to be toxic to Tetrahymena.

  12. Probabilistic neural network modeling of the toxicity of chemicals to Tetrahymena pyriformis with molecular fragment descriptors. (United States)

    Kaiser, K L E; Niculescu, S P; Schultz, T W


    We present the results of an investigation into the use of a probabilistic neural network (PNN) based methodology to model the 48-60-h ICG50 (inhibitory concentration for population growth) sublethal toxicity to the ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis. The information fed into the neural network is solely based on simple molecular descriptors as can be derived from the chemical structure. In contrast to most other toxicological models, the octanol/water partition coefficient is not used as an input parameter and no rules of thumb, or other substance selection-criteria, are involved. The model was trained on a 1,000 substances data set and validated using an 84 substances external test set. The associated analysis of errors confirms the excellent recognitive and predictive capabilities of the model.

  13. Obtaining time-dependent multi-dimensional dividing surfaces using Lagrangian descriptors (United States)

    Feldmaier, Matthias; Junginger, Andrej; Main, Jörg; Wunner, Günter; Hernandez, Rigoberto


    Dynamics between reactants and products are often mediated by a rate-determining barrier and an associated dividing surface leading to the transition state theory rate. This framework is challenged when the barrier is time-dependent because its motion can give rise to recrossings across the fixed dividing surface. A non-recrossing time-dependent dividing surface can nevertheless be attached to the TS trajectory resulting in recrossing-free dynamics. We extend the formalism-constructed using Lagrangian Descriptors-to systems with additional bath degrees of freedom. The propagation of reactant ensembles provides a numerical demonstration that our dividing surface is recrossing-free and leads to exact TST rates.

  14. Fractional Differential Texture Descriptors Based on the Machado Entropy for Image Splicing Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabha W. Ibrahim


    Full Text Available Image splicing is a common operation in image forgery. Different techniques of image splicing detection have been utilized to regain people’s trust. This study introduces a texture enhancement technique involving the use of fractional differential masks based on the Machado entropy. The masks slide over the tampered image, and each pixel of the tampered image is convolved with the fractional mask weight window on eight directions. Consequently, the fractional differential texture descriptors are extracted using the gray-level co-occurrence matrix for image splicing detection. The support vector machine is used as a classifier that distinguishes between authentic and spliced images. Results prove that the achieved improvements of the proposed algorithm are compatible with other splicing detection methods.

  15. Distance phenomena in high-dimensional chemical descriptor spaces: consequences for similarity-based approaches. (United States)

    Rupp, Matthias; Schneider, Petra; Schneider, Gisbert


    Measuring the (dis)similarity of molecules is important for many cheminformatics applications like compound ranking, clustering, and property prediction. In this work, we focus on real-valued vector representations of molecules (as opposed to the binary spaces of fingerprints). We demonstrate the influence which the choice of (dis)similarity measure can have on results, and provide recommendations for such choices. We review the mathematical concepts used to measure (dis)similarity in vector spaces, namely norms, metrics, inner products, and, similarity coefficients, as well as the relationships between them, employing (dis)similarity measures commonly used in cheminformatics as examples. We present several phenomena (empty space phenomenon, sphere volume related phenomena, distance concentration) in high-dimensional descriptor spaces which are not encountered in two and three dimensions. These phenomena are theoretically characterized and illustrated on both artificial and real (bioactivity) data. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Computational prediction of the pKas of small peptides through Conceptual DFT descriptors (United States)

    Frau, Juan; Hernández-Haro, Noemí; Glossman-Mitnik, Daniel


    The experimental pKa of a group of simple amines have been plotted against several Conceptual DFT descriptors calculated by means of different density functionals, basis sets and solvation schemes. It was found that the best fits are those that relate the pKa of the amines with the global hardness η through the MN12SX density functional in connection with the Def2TZVP basis set and the SMD solvation model, using water as a solvent. The parameterized equation resulting from the linear regression analysis has then been used for the prediction of the pKa of small peptides of interest in the study of diabetes and Alzheimer disease. The accuracy of the results is relatively good, with a MAD of 0.36 units of pKa.

  17. Campylobacter enteritis: early diagnosis with Gram's stain. (United States)

    Ho, D D; Ault, M J; Ault, M A; Murata, G H


    Campylobacter jejuni has become one of the most important causes of infectious diarrhea in the United States. We examined the utility of Gram's stain of stool for the rapid presumptive diagnosis of Campylobacter enteritis in a large, urban hospital and found that this test has a sensitivity of 43.5% and a specificity of 99.4%. We believe that Gram's stain of stool could be used to direct the early management of up to one half of patients infected with this pathogen.

  18. Enteric methane emissions from German pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dämmgen, Ulrich; Schulz, Joachim; Klausing, Heinrich Kleine


    . Meanwhile numerous experimental data on methane emissions from enteric fermentation is available in Germany and abroad; the results are compiled in this work. These results also allow for a description of transformation processes in the hind gut and a subsequent establishment of models that relate emissions...... to feed and performance data. The model by Kirchgeßner et al. (1995) is based on German experimental data and reflects typical national diet compositions. It is used to quantify typical emissions and methane conversion ratios. The results agree with other experimental findings at home and abroad...


    Polyakova, E P; Ksenofontov, D A; Revyakin, A O; Ivanov, A A


    Experiments on goats and rabbits showed that zinc supplement to the diet leads to calcium concentration rise in muscle, bone and blood of animals. However, this rise was not adequate to increase in.zinc consumption. The bulk of alimentary zinc stayed in soluble fraction, dense endogen fraction and infusoria fraction of digesta and stimulated calcium release from food particles, it's accumulation in digesta fractions and calcium utilization on the whole. Authors estimate animal digesta as homeostatic, spatial organized, endogenic formation in which zinc and calcium are functionally dependent through enteral mucosa.

  20. Tobacco industry response to a ban on lights descriptors on cigarette packaging and population outcomes. (United States)

    Alpert, Hillel R; Carpenter, Daniel; Connolly, Gregory N


    The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and its Guidelines recommend nations ban the use of misleading terms, such as 'light' and 'mild' on tobacco product advertising, packaging and labelling. Many nations, including the USA, have implemented such bans and some have introduced or passed legislation requiring plain packaging on tobacco products. We previously reported that manufacturers in the USA responded by replacing lights terms with colour terms and related colour-coding of packages. This study examines population outcomes and public health impact of the US ban. We examined available data regarding a) per cent filter ventilation strata used to designate lights subbrand categories; b) market share per tar yield; c) initiation and use of cigarettes by lights categories and d) overall cigarette consumption to identify changes from before to after the ban. We used interrupted time series multivariable logistic regression and joinpoint regression models to test for changes in rates and temporal trends associated with the ban. The per cent filter ventilation strata used to designate lights subbrand categories were maintained in the colour named subbrands. No change was observed following the ban in lights market share, relative prevalence of lights versus non-lights smoking or relative smoking initiation on lights versus non-lights among all ages or among youth in particular. The rate of decline in per capita cigarette consumption slowed by 37% from the period 2007-2010 to 2010-2014. This study strongly suggests that manufacturers' circumvention prevented the lights descriptor ban from succeeding as intended, most likely perpetuating the misleading consumer perceptions about relative risks, while failing to increase smoking cessation and reduce initiation. Laws requiring generic (plain) and elimination of subbrand descriptors should prevent evasion of legislation banning the use of specific terms through marketing, regulatory and legal challenges. © Article

  1. Prediction of monomer reactivity in radical copolymerizations from transition state quantum chemical descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengde Tan


    Full Text Available In comparison with the Q-e scheme, the Revised Patterns Scheme: the U, V Version (the U-V scheme has greatly improved both its accessibility and its accuracy in interpreting and predicting the reactivity of a monomer in free-radical copolymerizations. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR models were developed to predict the reactivity parameters u and v of the U-V scheme, by applying genetic algorithm (GA and support vector machine (SVM techniques. Quantum chemical descriptors used for QSAR models were calculated from transition state species with structures C¹H3 - C²HR³• or •C¹H2 - C²H2R³ (formed from vinyl monomers C¹H²=C²HR³ + H•, using density functional theory (DFT, at the UB3LYP level of theory with 6-31G(d basis set. The optimum support vector regression (SVR model of the reactivity parameter u based on Gaussian radial basis function (RBF kernel (C = 10, ε = 10- 5 and γ = 1.0 produced root-mean-square (rms errors for the training, validation and prediction sets being 0.220, 0.326 and 0.345, respectively. The optimal SVR model for v with the RBF kernel (C = 20, ε = 10- 4 and γ = 1.2 produced rms errors for the training set of 0.123, the validation set of 0.206 and the prediction set of 0.238. The feasibility of applying the transition state quantum chemical descriptors to develop SVM models for reactivity parameters u and v in the U-V scheme has been demonstrated.

  2. Radiogenomic analysis of hypoxia pathway reveals computerized MRI descriptors predictive of overall survival in glioblastoma (United States)

    Beig, Niha; Patel, Jay; Prasanna, Prateek; Partovi, Sasan; Varadan, Vinay; Madabhushi, Anant; Tiwari, Pallavi


    Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is a highly aggressive brain tumor with a median survival of 14 months. Hypoxia is a hallmark trait in GBM that is known to be associated with angiogenesis, tumor growth, and resistance to conventional therapy, thereby limiting treatment options for GBM patients. There is thus an urgent clinical need for non-invasively capturing tumor hypoxia in GBM towards identifying a subset of patients who would likely benefit from anti-angiogenic therapies (bevacizumab) in the adjuvant setting. In this study, we employed radiomic descriptors to (a) capture molecular variations of tumor hypoxia on routine MRI that are otherwise not appreciable; and (b) employ the radiomic correlates of hypoxia to discriminate patients with short-term survival (STS, overall survival (OS) 16 months). A total of 97 studies (25 STS, 36 MTS, 36 LTS) with Gadolinium T1-contrast (Gd-T1c), T2w, and FLAIR protocols with their corresponding gene expression profiles were obtained from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) database. For each MRI study, necrotic, enhancing tumor, and edematous regions were segmented by an expert. A total of 30 radiomic descriptors (i.e. Haralick, Laws energy, Gabor) were extracted from every region across all three MRI protocols. By performing unsupervised clustering of the expression profile of hypoxia associated genes, a "low", "medium", or "high" index was defined for every study. Spearman correlation was then used to identify the most significantly correlated MRI features with the hypoxia index for every study. These features were further used to categorize each study as STS, MTS, and LTS using Kaplan-Meier (KM) analysis. Our results revealed that the most significant features (p < 0.05) were identified as Laws energy and Haralick features that capture image heterogeneity on FLAIR and Gd-T1w sequences. We also found these radiomic features to be significantly associated with survival, distinguishing MTS from LTS (p=.005) and STS from LTS (p=.0008).

  3. Personality and subjective well-being in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus and Pongo abelii). (United States)

    Weiss, Alexander; King, James E; Perkins, Lori


    Orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus and Pongo abelii) are semisolitary apes and, among the great apes, the most distantly related to humans. Raters assessed 152 orangutans on 48 personality descriptors; 140 of these orangutans were also rated on a subjective well-being questionnaire. Principal-components analysis yielded 5 reliable personality factors: Extraversion, Dominance, Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Intellect. The authors found no factor analogous to human Conscientiousness. Among the orangutans rated on all 48 personality descriptors and the subjective well-being questionnaire, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and low Neuroticism were related to subjective well-being. These findings suggest that analogues of human, chimpanzee, and orangutan personality domains existed in a common ape ancestor. Copyright (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of coercive and noncoercive pressures to enter drug abuse treatment. (United States)

    Marlowe, D B; Kirby, K C; Bonieskie, L M; Glass, D J; Dodds, L D; Husband, S D; Platt, J J; Festinger, D S


    This paper reports preliminary data derived from a standardized interview scoring procedure for detecting and characterizing coercive and noncoercive pressures to enter substance abuse treatment. Coercive and noncoercive pressures stemming from multiple psychosocial domains are operationalized through recourse to established behavioral principles. Inter-rater reliability for the scoring procedure was exceptional over numerous rater trials. Substantive analyses indicate that, among clients in outpatient cocaine treatment, 'coercion' is operative in multiple psychosocial domains, and that subjects perceive legal pressures as exerting substantially less influence over their decisions to enter treatment than informal psychosocial pressures. Implications for drug treatment planning, legal and ethical issues, and directions for future research are proposed.

  5. The Enteric Nervous System in Intestinal Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A Sharkey


    Full Text Available Since about the 1950s nerves in the wall of the intestine have been postulated to play a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Human and animal studies examining the role of nerves in intestinal inflammation are the focus of this review. Consideration is given to two possible ways that nerves are involved in IBD. First, nerves may play a role in the development or maintenance of inflammation through local release of transmitters. Second, once initiated (by whatever means, the processes of inflammation may disrupt the normal pattern of innervation and the interactions of nerves and their target tissues. Many of the functional disturbances observed in IBD are likely due to an alteration in the enteric nervous system either structurally through disruptions of nerve-target relationships or by modifications of neurotransmitters or their receptors. Finally, it appears that the enteric nervous system may be a potential therapeutic target in IBD and that neuroactive drugs acting locally can represent useful agents in the management of this disease.

  6. Administration of antiretroviral medication via enteral tubes. (United States)

    Prohaska, Emily S; King, Allison R


    Case reports and other published or manufacturer-provided data on the administration of antiretroviral agents through enteral feeding tubes are reviewed. There is very limited published evidence to guide clinicians in the delivery of therapies for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by feeding tubes, especially crushed tablets and capsule contents. A search of the primary literature (through February 2012) identified a total of nine articles describing the delivery of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) agents via gastrostomy (G), jejunostomy, and other feeding tubes; correspondence with pharmaceutical manufacturers yielded additional information. Most of the published evidence (from two prospective studies, one retrospective study, and six case reports) pertains to the treatment of HIV-infected children (33 of 40 cases). Although not a primary endpoint of any of the reviewed studies, viral suppression was documented in 29 of the 40 patients referenced in the reviewed articles. Manufacturer-provided information indicates that crushed darunavir tablets in suspension, as well as oral solutions of ritonavir and lopinavir-ritonavir, can be administered through G-tubes without significant loss of therapeutic efficacy. Data regarding enteral feeding tube administration are available for 63% of commercially available oral HAART agents and are primarily limited to case reports specific to the pediatric population.

  7. [Our experience with ambulatory enteral nutrition]. (United States)

    Orduña, R M; Giménez Martínez, R; Valdivia Garvayo, M; Ruiz Santa-Olalla, A T; Roca Fernández-Castanys, E; Pérez de la Cruz, A


    Enteral nutrition in the home of the patient, has gained interest in recent years. In our health care area, we do not have a Unit of at Home Hospitalization, which has not prevented the implementation of this therapeutic modality in certain types of patients. 89 cases who have undergone enteral Nutrition in their home after the last hospital admission, were reviewed. According to the basic pathology, 41.6% (37 patients) correspond to neurological patients; 51.7% correspond to neoplasmic patients, and 6.7% are classified as miscellaneous. The average age is 64 years (18 months-92 years); the mean caloric ingestion is 1,520 Kcal/day (500-2,500), and the duration is a mean of 315 days (7-1,560). The complications observed through ambulatory visits of the patient and/or the family, accounted for a total of 36, of which 30 (83%) were digestive, and were corrected with the usual methods. In 8 cases (22%), it involved mechanical complications, and only 2 cases involved metabolic complications. Only 1 serious complication (massive bronchoaspiration) could have been avoided. The results indicate a good degree of acceptance, with similar results to those described by other authors, and with a low incidence of severe complications.

  8. Filamentous Influenza Virus Enters Cells via Macropinocytosis (United States)

    Rossman, Jeremy S.; Leser, George P.


    Influenza virus is pleiomorphic, producing both spherical (100-nm-diameter) and filamentous (100-nm by 20-μm) virions. While the spherical virions are known to enter host cells through exploitation of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, the entry pathway for filamentous virions has not been determined, though the existence of an alternative, non-clathrin-, non-caveolin-mediated entry pathway for influenza virus has been known for many years. In this study, we confirm recent results showing that influenza virus utilizes macropinocytosis as an alternate entry pathway. Furthermore, we find that filamentous influenza viruses use macropinocytosis as the primary entry mechanism. Virions enter cells as intact filaments within macropinosomes and are trafficked to the acidic late-endosomal compartment. Low pH triggers a conformational change in the M2 ion channel protein, altering membrane curvature and leading to a fragmentation of the filamentous virions. This fragmentation may enable more-efficient fusion between the viral and endosomal membranes. PMID:22875971

  9. QSPR models based on molecular mechanics and quantum chemical calculations. 1. Construction of Boltzmann averaged descriptors for alkanes, alcohols, diols, ethers and cyclic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyekjær, Jane Dannow; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Jonsdottir, Svava Osk


    -averaged by selection of the most relevant conformers out of a set of possible molecular conformers generated by a systematic scheme presented in this paper. Six of these descriptors are calculated with molecular mechanics and three with quantum chemical methods. Especially interesting descriptors are the relative van...

  10. Enteric parasitic infections among secondary school students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enteric parasitic infections among secondary school students in Gusau, ... Age, gender, marital status, anaemia and type of toilet significantly affected the ... There was no case of mixed infection of enteric parasites observed in this study.

  11. Routes for early enteral nutrition after esophagectomy : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijs, Teus J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413993558; Berkelmans, Gijs H K; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard A P; Ruurda, Jelle P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/257561021; Hillegersberg, Richard V|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110706242; Soeters, Peter B; Luyer, Misha D P

    BACKGROUND: Early enteral feeding following surgery can be given orally, via a jejunostomy or via a nasojejunal tube. However, the best feeding route following esophagectomy is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To determine the best route for enteral nutrition following esophagectomy regarding anastomotic

  12. Incidence of Diarrhea in Hospitalized Patients with Standard Enteral Formula

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shabbu Ahmadi bonakdar; Mahdieh Pouryazdanpanah; Zahra Ganie Far; Saba Ghazanfari; Abdolreza Norouzy


    ...`s reports standard enteral formula is inducing diarrhea. In this study our purpose is to evaluate the incidence of diarrhea in hospitalized patients with standard Enteral Nutrition (EN) formula intake...

  13. Periodic table-based descriptors to encode cytotoxicity profile of metal oxide nanoparticles: a mechanistic QSTR approach. (United States)

    Kar, Supratik; Gajewicz, Agnieszka; Puzyn, Tomasz; Roy, Kunal; Leszczynski, Jerzy


    Nanotechnology has evolved as a frontrunner in the development of modern science. Current studies have established toxicity of some nanoparticles to human and environment. Lack of sufficient data and low adequacy of experimental protocols hinder comprehensive risk assessment of nanoparticles (NPs). In the present work, metal electronegativity (χ), the charge of the metal cation corresponding to a given oxide (χox), atomic number and valence electron number of the metal have been used as simple molecular descriptors to build up quantitative structure-toxicity relationship (QSTR) models for prediction of cytotoxicity of metal oxide NPs to bacteria Escherichia coli. These descriptors can be easily obtained from molecular formula and information acquired from periodic table in no time. It has been shown that a simple molecular descriptor χox can efficiently encode cytotoxicity of metal oxides leading to models with high statistical quality as well as interpretability. Based on this model and previously published experimental results, we have hypothesized the most probable mechanism of the cytotoxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles to E. coli. Moreover, the required information for descriptor calculation is independent of size range of NPs, nullifying a significant problem that various physical properties of NPs change for different size ranges. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Descriptors of natural thermal regimes in streams and their responsiveness to change in the Pacific Northwest of North America (United States)

    Ivan Arismendi; Sherri L. Johnson; Jason B. Dunham; Roy. Haggerty


    1. Temperature is a major driver of ecological processes in stream ecosystems, yet the dynamics of thermal regimes remain poorly described. Most work has focused on relatively simple descriptors that fail to capture the full range of conditions that characterise thermal regimes of streams across seasons or throughout the year.2. To more...

  15. A Comparative Study of Personality Descriptors Attributed to the Deaf, the Blind, and Individuals with No Sensory Disability. (United States)

    Cambra, Cristina


    University students (N=222) evaluated personality descriptors as applied to people with deafness, blindness, or no sensory disability. Two general stereotypes of the deaf emerged: that of general nonsociability and that of limited intelligence. However, students who already knew a deaf person assigned the deaf more positive personality…

  16. QSPR models based on molecular mechanics and quantum chemical calculations. 1. Construction of Boltzmann-averaged descriptors for alkanes, alcohols, diols, ethers and cyclic compounds. (United States)

    Dyekjaer, Jane; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Jónsdóttir, Svava


    Values for nine descriptors for QSPR (quantitative structure-property relationships) modeling of physical properties of 96 alkanes, alcohols, ethers, diols, triols and cyclic alkanes and alcohols in conjunction with the program Codessa are presented. The descriptors are Boltzmann-averaged by selection of the most relevant conformers out of a set of possible molecular conformers generated by a systematic scheme presented in this paper. Six of these descriptors are calculated with molecular mechanics and three with quantum chemical methods. Especially interesting descriptors are the relative van der Waals energies and the molecular polarizabilities, which correlate very well with boiling points. Five more simple descriptors that only depend on the molecular constitutional formula are also discussed briefly.

  17. 9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Mink Enteritis Vaccine...

  18. Early enteral nutrition compared to outcome in critically ill trauma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The benefit of an early enteral nutrition start in critical ill patients is widely accepted. However, limited published data focus on trauma patients. This study aimed to investigate the effect of early enteral nutrition initiation on length of stay and mortality in an intensive care unit (ICU), as well as explore if enteral ...

  19. Multiple structure single parameter: analysis of a single protein nano environment descriptor characterizing a shared loci on structurally aligned proteins. (United States)

    Salim, José Augusto; Borro, Luiz; Mazoni, Ivan; Yano, Inácio; Jardine, José G; Neshich, Goran


    A graphical representation of physicochemical and structural descriptors attributed to amino acid residues occupying the same topological position in different, structurally aligned proteins can provide a more intuitive way to associate possible functional implications to identified variations in structural characteristics. This could be achieved by observing selected characteristics of amino acids and of their corresponding nano environments, described by the numerical value of matching descriptor. For this purpose, a web-based tool called multiple structure single parameter (MSSP) was developed and here presented. MSSP produces a two-dimensional plot of a single protein descriptor for a number of structurally aligned protein chains. From a total of 150 protein descriptors available in MSSP, selected of >1500 parameters stored in the STING database, it is possible to create easily readable and highly informative XY-plots, where X-axis contains the amino acid position in the multiple structural alignment, and Y-axis contains the descriptor's numerical values for each aligned structure. To illustrate one of possible MSSP contributions to the investigation of changes in physicochemical and structural properties of mutants, comparing them with the cognate wild-type structure, the oncogenic mutation of M918T in RET kinase is presented. The comparative analysis of wild-type and mutant structures shows great changes in their electrostatic potential. These variations are easily depicted at the MSSP-generated XY-plot. The web server is freely available at Web server implemented in Perl, Java and JavaScript and JMol or Protein Viewer as structure visualizers. or Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  20. Physician Preferences to Communicate Neuropsychological Results: Comparison of Qualitative Descriptors and a Proposal to Reduce Communication Errors. (United States)

    Schoenberg, Mike R; Osborn, Katie E; Mahone, E Mark; Feigon, Maia; Roth, Robert M; Pliskin, Neil H


    Errors in communication are a leading cause of medical errors. A potential source of error in communicating neuropsychological results is confusion in the qualitative descriptors used to describe standardized neuropsychological data. This study sought to evaluate the extent to which medical consumers of neuropsychological assessments believed that results/findings were not clearly communicated. In addition, preference data for a variety of qualitative descriptors commonly used to communicate normative neuropsychological test scores were obtained. Preference data were obtained for five qualitative descriptor systems as part of a larger 36-item internet-based survey of physician satisfaction with neuropsychological services. A new qualitative descriptor system termed the Simplified Qualitative Classification System (Q-Simple) was proposed to reduce the potential for communication errors using seven terms: very superior, superior, high average, average, low average, borderline, and abnormal/impaired. A non-random convenience sample of 605 clinicians identified from four United States academic medical centers from January 1, 2015 through January 7, 2016 were invited to participate. A total of 182 surveys were completed. A minority of clinicians (12.5%) indicated that neuropsychological study results were not clearly communicated. When communicating neuropsychological standardized scores, the two most preferred qualitative descriptor systems were by Heaton and colleagues (26%) and a newly proposed Q-simple system (22%). Comprehensive norms for an extended Halstead-Reitan battery: Demographic corrections, research findings, and clinical applications. Odessa, TX: Psychological Assessment Resources) (26%) and the newly proposed Q-Simple system (22%). Initial findings highlight the need to improve and standardize communication of neuropsychological results. These data offer initial guidance for preferred terms to communicate test results and form a foundation for more

  1. New Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Model for Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Dipeptides Based on Integrated Descriptors. (United States)

    Deng, Baichuan; Ni, Xiaojun; Zhai, Zhenya; Tang, Tianyue; Tan, Chengquan; Yan, Yijing; Deng, Jinping; Yin, Yulong


    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides derived from food proteins have been widely reported for hypertension treatment. In this paper, a benchmark data set containing 141 unique ACE inhibitory dipeptides was constructed through database mining, and a quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) study was carried out to predict half-inhibitory concentration (IC50) of ACE activity. Sixteen descriptors were tested and the model generated by G-scale descriptor showed the best predictive performance with the coefficient of determination (R2) and cross-validated R2 (Q2) of 0.6692 and 0.6220, respectively. For most other descriptors, R2 were ranging from 0.52 to 0.68 and Q2 were ranging from 0.48 to 0.61. A complex model combining all 16 descriptors was carried out and variable selection was performed in order to further improve the prediction performance. The quality of model using integrated descriptors (R2 0.7340 ± 0.0038, Q2 0.7151 ± 0.0019) was better than that of G-scale. An in-depth study of variable importance showed that the most correlated properties to ACE inhibitory activity were hydrophobicity, steric, and electronic properties and C-terminal amino acids contribute more than N-terminal amino acids. Five novel predicted ACE-inhibitory peptides were synthesized, and their IC50 values were validated through in vitro experiments. The results indicated that the constructed model could give a reliable prediction of ACE-inhibitory activity of peptides, and it may be useful in the design of novel ACE-inhibitory peptides.

  2. Determinant factors of the viscosity of enteral formulas: basic analysis of thickened enteral formulas. (United States)

    Wakita, Maki; Masui, Hironori; Ichimaru, Satomi; Amagai, Teruyoshi


    Thickened enteral formula (TEF), which is made by adding thickener to enteral formula, has been used mainly in Japan to reduce the incidence of clinical complications associated with enteral nutrition. However, the optimal viscosity of TEF needed to achieve a high efficiency is different for each medical complication and for individual patients. The viscosity of TEF, which consists of enteral formula and thickener, was determined by 5 factors: (1) formula energy density, (2) formula temperature, (3) stirring speed, (4) stirring time, and (5) time elapsed since preparation. Then, the changing index (CI) was calculated for each of the 5 factors to determine which exerts the most influence on TEF viscosities. The most influential factor (CI ≥-50%) for the decrease in TEF viscosity was formula energy density. In contrast, the most influential factors (CI ≥50%) for the increase in TEF viscosity were stirring time and time elapsed since preparation. The results of this study indicate that formula energy density, stirring time, and time elapsed since preparation are the most influential factors to consider during manipulation of TEF viscosity.

  3. Acrodermatitis enteropathica during adequate enteral nutrition. (United States)

    Changela, Avani; Javaiya, Hemangkumar; Changela, Kinesh; Davanos, Evangelia; Rickenbach, Kiersten


    Acrodermatitis enteropathica is a rare skin disorder of zinc deficiency. This case report describes a 91-year-old female nursing home resident who presented with a skin eruption resembling acrodermatitis enteropathica while receiving adequate enteral nutrition (EN) via a percutaneous gastrostomy tube. A low zinc level of 36 mcg/dL confirmed zinc deficiency, and treatment with oral zinc sulfate 220 mg 3 times a day resulted in rapid resolution of the skin lesions. This case supports the notion of close monitoring of patients on long-term EN for clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency, especially in the presence of an unexplained skin rash. Although micronutrient deficiencies are more prevalent in underdeveloped countries and with patients receiving parenteral nutrition, these deficiencies should be kept in mind for patients in developed countries as well as patients receiving EN.

  4. Pathogenesis of Salmonella-induced enteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L. Santos


    Full Text Available Infections with Salmonella serotypes are a major cause of food-borne diseases worldwide. Animal models other than the mouse have been employed for the study of nontyphoidal Salmonella infections because the murine model is not suitable for the study of Salmonella-induced diarrhea. The microbe has developed mechanisms to exploit the host cell machinery to its own purpose. Bacterial proteins delivered directly into the host cell cytosol cause cytoskeletal changes and interfere with host cell signaling pathways, which ultimately enhance disease manifestation. Recently, marked advances have been made in our understanding of the molecular interactions between Salmonella serotypes and their hosts. Here, we discuss the molecular basis of the pathogenesis of Salmonella-induced enteritis.


    Ariadel Cobo, Diana; Pereira Cunill, José Luis; Socas Macías, María; Serrano Aguayo, Pilar; Gómez Liébana, Eulalia; Morales Conde, Salvador; García Luna, Pedro Pablo


    The particularity of this case is the nutritional management that has managed to avoid the use of prolonged parenteral nutrition and possible complications by placing jejunal tube at the distal end in patients with short bowel. It is a 34-year-old colecistectomizado complicated with postoperative peritonitis and dehiscence; two years he studied with small bowel obstruction, he was made de-volvulus and was complicated with two leak at different times after the second escape took place jejunostomy side double barreled shotgun level dehiscence, presented high debits by afferent loop of the terminal jejunostomy; during admission, polyurethane probe enteral feeding was inserted by the efferent loop jejunostomy. He received jejunal tube feeding laundry in the efferent loop terminal with decreased weight gain and subsequent reconstruction of intestinal transit debit proximal jejunostomy. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimal Time to Enter a Retirement Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhui Zhang


    Full Text Available We consider the financial planning problem of a retiree wishing to enter a retirement village at a future uncertain date. The date of entry is determined by the retiree’s utility and bequest maximisation problem within the context of uncertain future health states. In addition, the retiree must choose optimal consumption, investment, bequest and purchase of insurance products prior to their full annuitisation on entry to the retirement village. A hyperbolic absolute risk-aversion (HARA utility function is used to allow necessary consumption for basic living and medical costs. The retirement village will typically require an initial deposit upon entry. This threshold wealth requirement leads to exercising the replication of an American put option at the uncertain stopping time. From our numerical results, active insurance and annuity markets are shown to be a critical aspect in retirement planning.

  7. Reactive Arthritis Caused by Yersinia enterocolitica Enteritis. (United States)

    Honda, Kazuya; Iwanaga, Nozomi; Izumi, Yasumori; Tsuji, Yoshika; Kawahara, Chieko; Michitsuji, Toru; Higashi, Shuntaro; Kawakami, Atsushi; Migita, Kiyoshi


    We report a case of reactive arthritis (ReA) triggered by Yersinia enterocolitica enteritis. A 24-year-old Japanese man developed polyarthritis in the lower limbs. Two weeks prior to these symptoms, he noted diarrhea, right lower abdominal pain and a fever. Y. enterocolitica was not isolated from a stool culture; however, he was diagnosed with ReA based on the colonoscopic findings of a high anti-Y. enterocolitica antibody titer and HLA-B27 antigen positivity. Following treatment with methotrexate and steroids, his arthritis improved. This is the first reported Japanese case of ReA in the English literature after a gastrointestinal infection caused by Y. enterocolitica.

  8. Energy Data Base: Subject Thesaurus Permutated Listing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Entry to a large multidisciplinary thesaurus containing both single and multi-word descriptors presents problems to the experienced as well as the new user. This permutated listing was prepared to alleviate these problems. Each descriptor has been permutated according to each significant word in single and multi-word entries and listed alphabetically. This type listing will: (1) provide the user with the correct thesaurus entry; and (2) permit review of generically related descriptors separated by alphabetization in the Thesaurus.

  9. Preparation and evaluation of duloxetine hydrochloride enteric-coated pellets with different enteric polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Kuang


    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present study was to prepare duloxetine hydrochloride (DXH enteric-coated pellets using different enteric polymers. Three layers (drug-loaded layer, barrier layer, and enteric-coated layer were applied to the inert core pellets, successively. The optimal formulation was manufactured by employing suspension layering method in fluidized bed processor (FBP with varieties of enteric polymers like Aqoat® AS-LF, Eudragit® L30D55 and HPMCP-HP55. The prepared pellets were measured for physical characterization and the in vitro dissolution profile. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was conducted to observe the morphology of pellets, and different kinetic models were applied to analyze the release mechanism of Cymbalta® and home-made pellets. The coating weight gain of enteric-coated layer containing Eudragit® L30D55, Aqoat® AS-LF and HP-55 were determined to be 35%, 26% and 24%, respectively. The similarity factors (f2 of self-made capsules with above polymers and commercially available capsules (Cymbalta® were above 50 in the dissolution medium of pH 6.8 phosphate buffer solution (PBS. SEM figures showed the smooth surfaces of self-prepared pellets using Eudragit® L30D55 and Aqoat® AS-LF, whereas rough surface was found in the HP-55 pellets at day 0, and an impurity was appearing in the condition of 40 °C/75% relative humidity for 1 month. In conclusion, the pellets prepared by utilizing Eudragit® L30D55 and Aqoat® AS-LF were the optimal preparations based on the dissolution profile and stability.

  10. Saponin-containing subfractions of soybean molasses induce enteritis in the distal intestine of Atlantic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, D.; Uran, P.; Arnous, Anis


    The current work aimed at tracing the causative components for soybean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Soybean molasses was subjected to phase separation using n-butanol. Three subfractions were obtained as follows: butanol phase, precipitate, and water phase. The biochemic......, trigger the inflammatory reaction. We therefore suggest that soybean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon is induced by soyasaponins alone or by soyasaponins in combination with other factors, e.g., antigenic soybean proteins or the intestinal microflora........ The level of intestinal inflammation was evaluated by light microscopy using a semiquantitative scoring system. Histological assessments revealed that Atlantic salmon fed a combination of butanol phase and precipitate displayed significant enteritis. Atlantic salmon fed the water phase displayed normal...... intestinal morphology. The causative components for soybean-induced enteritis withstand butanol treatment and prolonged heating at 70 degrees C. Sucrose, raffinose, stachyose, nor soybean proteins larger than 10 kDa induce enteritis alone. Soyasaponins, or components that follow the same solubility pattern...

  11. Content Based Image Retrieval by Using Color Descriptor and Discrete Wavelet Transform. (United States)

    Ashraf, Rehan; Ahmed, Mudassar; Jabbar, Sohail; Khalid, Shehzad; Ahmad, Awais; Din, Sadia; Jeon, Gwangil


    Due to recent development in technology, the complexity of multimedia is significantly increased and the retrieval of similar multimedia content is a open research problem. Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) is a process that provides a framework for image search and low-level visual features are commonly used to retrieve the images from the image database. The basic requirement in any image retrieval process is to sort the images with a close similarity in term of visually appearance. The color, shape and texture are the examples of low-level image features. The feature plays a significant role in image processing. The powerful representation of an image is known as feature vector and feature extraction techniques are applied to get features that will be useful in classifying and recognition of images. As features define the behavior of an image, they show its place in terms of storage taken, efficiency in classification and obviously in time consumption also. In this paper, we are going to discuss various types of features, feature extraction techniques and explaining in what scenario, which features extraction technique will be better. The effectiveness of the CBIR approach is fundamentally based on feature extraction. In image processing errands like object recognition and image retrieval feature descriptor is an immense among the most essential step. The main idea of CBIR is that it can search related images to an image passed as query from a dataset got by using distance metrics. The proposed method is explained for image retrieval constructed on YCbCr color with canny edge histogram and discrete wavelet transform. The combination of edge of histogram and discrete wavelet transform increase the performance of image retrieval framework for content based search. The execution of different wavelets is additionally contrasted with discover the suitability of specific wavelet work for image retrieval. The proposed algorithm is prepared and tried to implement for

  12. Bronchopulmonary complications associated to enteral nutrition devices in patients admitted to internal medicine departments. (United States)

    Marco, J; Barba, R; Lázaro, M; Matía, P; Plaza, S; Canora, J; Zapatero, A


    Enteral nutrition using feeding devices such as nasogastric (NG) tube or percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is an effective feeding method subject that may give rise to complications. We have studied the relationship between enteral nutrition feeding devices in patients admitted to the Internal Medicine Departments and the development of pulmonary complications (bronchial aspiration and aspiration pneumonia). All of the patients discharge between 2005 and 2009 from the Internal Medicine (IM) Departments of the public hospitals of the National Health System in Spain were analyzed. The data of patients with bronchial aspiration or aspiration pneumonia who also were carriers of NG tubes or PEG, were obtained from the Minimum Basic Data Set (MBDS). From a total of 2,767,259 discharges, 26,066 (0.92%) patients with nasogastric tube (NG tube) or percutaneous gastrostomy (PEG) were identified. A total of 21.5% of patients with NG tube and 25.9% of patients with PEG had coding for a bronchopulmonary aspiration on their discharge report versus 1.2% of patients without an enteral feeding tube. In the multivariate analysis, the likelihood of suffering bronchoaspiration was 9 times greater in patients with SNG (OR: 9.1; 95% CI: 8.7-9.4) and 15 greater in subjects with PEG (OR: 15.2; 95% CI: 14.5-15.9) than in subjects without SNG or PEG. Mean stay (9.2 and 12.7 more days), diagnostic complexity and costs were much higher in patients with SNG or PEG compared to patients in hospital who did not require these devices. An association was found between SNG and PEG for enteral feeding and pulmonary complications. Mean stay, diagnostic complexity and cost per admission of these patients was higher in patients who did not require enteral nutrition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. [The detection of the bronchial aspiration of enteral nutrition in the ICU]. (United States)

    Pérez Cárdenas, M D; Ayuso Murillo, D; Fernández Hernández, A I; Conde Alonso, M; Ruiz Ruiz, B; Montejo González, J C


    Description of a comparative study in order to evaluate the sensitivity and reliability of two techniques described in literature used to detect the bronchoaspiration of enteral nutrition. Technique A consists of measuring the glucose in bronchial secretions by strips reactive to glucose-oxidase, and Technique B consists of staining the enteral diets with Methylene Blue, and then watching for the possible presence of colouring in the bronchial secretions. Our study is a contribution to the possible enhancing of the detection of bronchoaspiration, by combining both techniques. A series of 38 patients (Series A) was analyzed, who were subjected to Technique A and a further 32 patients (Series B) were subjected to both Techniques. A comparative study was made on both techniques, based on days of enteral nutrition, and it was observed that the incidence of bronchoaspiration for Series A during the first day of enteral nutrition was 25.7%, and on the following days 9.9%. In Series B, for the first day (Technique A) the percentage of 20% compared to 0% (Technique B), during the following days, 7.2% and 0.93% respectively. We related other variables, in view of their direct handling by the nursing department, such as the pressure used to inflate the pneumoplugging, amount of gastric drainage, administration of antiemetics, the correct position of the nasogastric tube and the presence of peristaltism. The statistical correlation for glucose in bronchial secretions with these variables was not significant.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Evaluation of vegetation post-fire resilience in the Alpine region using descriptors derived from MODIS spectral index time series (United States)

    Di Mauro, Biagio; Fava, Francesco; Busetto, Lorenzo; Crosta, Giovanni Franco; Colombo, Roberto


    In this study a method based on the analysis of MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) time series is proposed to estimate the post-fire resilience of mountain vegetation (broadleaf forest and prairies) in the Italian Alps. Resilience is defined herewith as the ability of a dynamical system to counteract disturbances. It can be quantified by the amount of time the disturbed system takes to resume, in statistical terms, an ecological functionality comparable with its undisturbed behavior. Satellite images of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and of the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) with spatial resolution of 250m and temporal resolution of 16 days in the 2000-2012 time period were used. Wildfire affected areas in the Lombardy region between the years 2000 and 2010 were analysed. Only large fires (affected area >40ha) were selected. For each burned area, an undisturbed adjacent control site was located. Data pre-processing consisted in the smoothing of MODIS time series for noise removal and then a double logistic function was fitted. Land surface phenology descriptors (proxies for growing season start/end/length and green biomass) were extracted in order to characterize the time evolution of the vegetation. Descriptors from a burned area were compared to those extracted from the respective control site by means of the one-way analysis of variance. According to the number of subsequent years which exhibit statistically meaningful difference between burned and control site, five classes of resilience were identified and a set of thematic maps was created for each descriptor. The same method was applied to all 84 aggregated events and to events aggregated by main land cover. EVI index results more sensitive to fire impact than NDVI index. Analysis shows that fire causes both a reduction of the biomass and a variation in the phenology of the Alpine vegetation. Results suggest an average ecosystem resilience of 6-7 years. Moreover

  15. Measurement and prediction of enteric methane emission (United States)

    Sejian, Veerasamy; Lal, Rattan; Lakritz, Jeffrey; Ezeji, Thaddeus


    The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the agricultural sector account for about 25.5% of total global anthropogenic emission. While CO2 receives the most attention as a factor relative to global warming, CH4, N2O and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) also cause significant radiative forcing. With the relative global warming potential of 25 compared with CO2, CH4 is one of the most important GHGs. This article reviews the prediction models, estimation methodology and strategies for reducing enteric CH4 emissions. Emission of CH4 in ruminants differs among developed and developing countries, depending on factors like animal species, breed, pH of rumen fluid, ratio of acetate:propionate, methanogen population, composition of diet and amount of concentrate fed. Among the ruminant animals, cattle contribute the most towards the greenhouse effect through methane emission followed by sheep, goats and buffalos, respectively. The estimated CH4 emission rate per cattle, buffaloe, sheep and goat in developed countries are 150.7, 137, 21.9 and 13.7 (g/animal/day) respectively. However, the estimated rates in developing countries are significantly lower at 95.9 and 13.7 (g/animal/day) per cattle and sheep, respectively. There exists a strong interest in developing new and improving the existing CH4 prediction models to identify mitigation strategies for reducing the overall CH4 emissions. A synthesis of the available literature suggests that the mechanistic models are superior to empirical models in accurately predicting the CH4 emission from dairy farms. The latest development in prediction model is the integrated farm system model which is a process-based whole-farm simulation technique. Several techniques are used to quantify enteric CH4 emissions starting from whole animal chambers to sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer techniques. The latest technology developed to estimate CH4 more accurately is the micrometeorological mass difference technique. Because the conditions under which

  16. New antitrichomonal drug-like chemicals selected by bond (edge)-based TOMOCOMD-CARDD descriptors. (United States)

    Meneses-Marcel, Alfredo; Rivera-Borroto, Oscar M; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Montero, Alina; Machado Tugores, Yanetsy; Escario, José Antonio; Gómez Barrio, Alicia; Montero Pereira, David; Nogal, Juan José; Kouznetsov, Vladimir V; Ochoa Puentes, Cristian; Bohórquez, Arnold R; Grau, Ricardo; Torrens, Francisco; Ibarra-Velarde, Froylán; Arán, Vicente J


    Bond-based quadratic indices, new TOMOCOMD-CARDD molecular descriptors, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to discover novel lead trichomonacidals. The obtained LDA-based quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) models, using nonstochastic and stochastic indices, were able to classify correctly 87.91% (87.50%) and 89.01% (84.38%) of the chemicals in training (test) sets, respectively. They showed large Matthews correlation coefficients of 0.75 (0.71) and 0.78 (0.65) for the training (test) sets, correspondingly. Later, both models were applied to the virtual screening of 21 chemicals to find new lead antitrichomonal agents. Predictions agreed with experimental results to a great extent because a correct classification for both models of 95.24% (20 of 21) of the chemicals was obtained. Of the 21 compounds that were screened and synthesized, 2 molecules (chemicals G-1, UC-245) showed high to moderate cytocidal activity at the concentration of 10 microg/ml, another 2 compounds (G-0 and CRIS-148) showed high cytocidal activity only at the concentration of 100 microg/ml, and the remaining chemicals (from CRIS-105 to CRIS-153, except CRIS-148) were inactive at these assayed concentrations. Finally, the best candidate, G-1 (cytocidal activity of 100% at 10 microg/ml) was in vivo assayed in ovariectomized Wistar rats achieving promising results as a trichomonacidal drug-like compound.

  17. Position Estimation and Local Mapping Using Omnidirectional Images and Global Appearance Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerai Berenguer


    Full Text Available This work presents some methods to create local maps and to estimate the position of a mobile robot, using the global appearance of omnidirectional images. We use a robot that carries an omnidirectional vision system on it. Every omnidirectional image acquired by the robot is described only with one global appearance descriptor, based on the Radon transform. In the work presented in this paper, two different possibilities have been considered. In the first one, we assume the existence of a map previously built composed of omnidirectional images that have been captured from previously-known positions. The purpose in this case consists of estimating the nearest position of the map to the current position of the robot, making use of the visual information acquired by the robot from its current (unknown position. In the second one, we assume that we have a model of the environment composed of omnidirectional images, but with no information about the location of where the images were acquired. The purpose in this case consists of building a local map and estimating the position of the robot within this map. Both methods are tested with different databases (including virtual and real images taking into consideration the changes of the position of different objects in the environment, different lighting conditions and occlusions. The results show the effectiveness and the robustness of both methods.

  18. A search model for topological insulators with high-throughput robustness descriptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Kesong; Setyawan, Wahyu; Wang, Shidong; Nardelli, Marco B.; Curtarolo, Stephano


    Topological insulators (TI) are becoming one of the most studied classes of novel materials because of their great potential for applications ranging from spintronics to quantum computers. To fully integrate TI materials in electronic devices, high-quality epitaxial single-crystalline phases with sufficiently large bulk bandgaps are necessary. Current efforts have relied mostly on costly and time-consuming trial-and-error procedures. Here we show that by defining a reliable and accessible descriptor {cflx X}TI, which represents the topological robustness or feasibility of the candidate, and by searching the quantum materials repository, we have automatically discovered 28 TIs (some of them already known) in five different symmetry families. These include peculiar ternary halides, Cs{l_brace}Sn,Pb,Ge{r_brace}{l_brace}Cl,Br,I{r_brace}{sub 3}, which could have been hardly anticipated without high-throughput means. Our search model, by relying on the significance of repositories in materials development, opens new avenues for the discovery of more TIs in different and unexplored classes of systems.

  19. Fusion of Visible and Thermal Descriptors Using Genetic Algorithms for Face Recognition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Hermosilla


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present a new face recognition system based on the fusion of visible and thermal features obtained from the most current local matching descriptors by maximizing face recognition rates through the use of genetic algorithms. The article considers a comparison of the performance of the proposed fusion methodology against five current face recognition methods and classic fusion techniques used commonly in the literature. These were selected by considering their performance in face recognition. The five local matching methods and the proposed fusion methodology are evaluated using the standard visible/thermal database, the Equinox database, along with a new database, the PUCV-VTF, designed for visible-thermal studies in face recognition and described for the first time in this work. The latter is created considering visible and thermal image sensors with different real-world conditions, such as variations in illumination, facial expression, pose, occlusion, etc. The main conclusions of this article are that two variants of the proposed fusion methodology surpass current face recognition methods and the classic fusion techniques reported in the literature, attaining recognition rates of over 97% and 99% for the Equinox and PUCV-VTF databases, respectively. The fusion methodology is very robust to illumination and expression changes, as it combines thermal and visible information efficiently by using genetic algorithms, thus allowing it to choose optimal face areas where one spectrum is more representative than the other.

  20. Modelos teóricos de gestión del conocimiento: descriptores, conceptualizaciones y enfoques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Avendaño Pérez


    Full Text Available Uno de los desafíos que enfrentan las organizaciones en la actualidad, consiste en transformar el conocimiento que cada individuo dispone en un conocimiento organizacional, y, a su vez, crear una cultura organizacional colaborativa que favorezca este proceso, para incrementar el patrimonio intelectual de la empresa. En este contexto, la gestión del conocimiento aparece como campo de estudio y estrategia organizacional: permite abordar estos retos; sin embargo, por su reciente aparición, aún los estudios y ensayos especializados son heterogéneos al respecto, en cuanto a sus conteni - dos. En este trabajo analizamos algunos modelos teóricos en función de descriptores y sus principales orientaciones; analizamos las definiciones de “conocimiento” y de “gestión de conocimiento”, ubicándolos en sus respectivos enfoques epistemológicos. Como principales resultados, se deduce que en los autores analizados predomina el enfoque objetivista del conocimiento, el enfoque organizacional de la gestión del conocimiento y la importancia de complementar el uso de las tecnologías de información y comunicación con la creación de un clima organizacional colaborativo para gestionar de forma óptima el conocimiento en las organizaciones.

  1. Comparison of efficiency of distance measurement methodologies in mango (Mangifera indica) progenies based on physicochemical descriptors. (United States)

    Alves, E O S; Cerqueira-Silva, C B M; Souza, A M; Santos, C A F; Lima Neto, F P; Corrêa, R X


    We investigated seven distance measures in a set of observations of physicochemical variables of mango (Mangifera indica) submitted to multivariate analyses (distance, projection and grouping). To estimate the distance measurements, five mango progeny (total of 25 genotypes) were analyzed, using six fruit physicochemical descriptors (fruit weight, equatorial diameter, longitudinal diameter, total soluble solids in °Brix, total titratable acidity, and pH). The distance measurements were compared by the Spearman correlation test, projection in two-dimensional space and grouping efficiency. The Spearman correlation coefficients between the seven distance measurements were, except for the Mahalanobis' generalized distance (0.41 ≤ rs ≤ 0.63), high and significant (rs ≥ 0.91; P < 0.001). Regardless of the origin of the distance matrix, the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean grouping method proved to be the most adequate. The various distance measurements and grouping methods gave different values for distortion (-116.5 ≤ D ≤ 74.5), cophenetic correlation (0.26 ≤ rc ≤ 0.76) and stress (-1.9 ≤ S ≤ 58.9). Choice of distance measurement and analysis methods influence the.

  2. Fusion of Visible and Thermal Descriptors Using Genetic Algorithms for Face Recognition Systems. (United States)

    Hermosilla, Gabriel; Gallardo, Francisco; Farias, Gonzalo; San Martin, Cesar


    The aim of this article is to present a new face recognition system based on the fusion of visible and thermal features obtained from the most current local matching descriptors by maximizing face recognition rates through the use of genetic algorithms. The article considers a comparison of the performance of the proposed fusion methodology against five current face recognition methods and classic fusion techniques used commonly in the literature. These were selected by considering their performance in face recognition. The five local matching methods and the proposed fusion methodology are evaluated using the standard visible/thermal database, the Equinox database, along with a new database, the PUCV-VTF, designed for visible-thermal studies in face recognition and described for the first time in this work. The latter is created considering visible and thermal image sensors with different real-world conditions, such as variations in illumination, facial expression, pose, occlusion, etc. The main conclusions of this article are that two variants of the proposed fusion methodology surpass current face recognition methods and the classic fusion techniques reported in the literature, attaining recognition rates of over 97% and 99% for the Equinox and PUCV-VTF databases, respectively. The fusion methodology is very robust to illumination and expression changes, as it combines thermal and visible information efficiently by using genetic algorithms, thus allowing it to choose optimal face areas where one spectrum is more representative than the other.

  3. Environmental quality of Italian marine water by means of marine strategy framework directive (MSFD descriptor 9.

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    Chiara Maggi

    Full Text Available ISPRA, on behalf of the Italian Ministry of Environment, carried out the initial assessment of environmental quality status of the 3 Italian subregions (Mediterranean Sea Region on Descriptor 9. The approach adopted to define the GES started to verify that contaminants in fish and other seafood for human consumption did not exceed levels established by Community legislation (Reg. 1881/2006 and further updates. As the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD requires to use health tools to assess the environment, Italy decided to adopt a statistical range of acceptance of thresholds identified by national (D.Lgs. 152/2006 concerning water quality required for mussel farms and international legislation (Reg. 1881/2006 and further updates, which allowed to use the health results and to employ them for the assessment of environmental quality. Italy proposed that Good Environmental Status (GES is achieved when concentrations are lower than statistical range of acceptance, estimated on samples of fish and fishery products coming from only national waters. GIS-based approach a to perform different integration levels for station, cell's grid and years, was used; the elaborations allowed to judge the environmental quality good.

  4. Results from the Use of Molecular Descriptors Family on Structure Property/Activity Relationships

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    Sorana-Daniela Bolboacă


    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the results obtained by utilization of an originalapproach called Molecular Descriptors Family on Structure-Property (MDF-SPR andStructure-Activity Relationships (MDF-SAR applied on classes of chemical compoundsand its usefulness as precursors of models elaboration of new compounds with betterproperties and/or activities and low production costs. The MDF-SPR/MDF-SARmethodology integrates the complex information obtained from compound’s structure inunitary efficient models in order to explain properties/activities. The methodology has beenapplied on a number of thirty sets of chemical compounds. The best subsets of moleculardescriptors family members able to estimate and predict property/activity of interest wereidentified and were statistically and visually analyzed. The MDF-SPR/MDF-SAR modelswere validated through internal and/or external validation methods. The estimation andprediction abilities of the MDF-SPR/MDF-SAR models were compared with previousreported models by applying of correlated correlation analysis, which revealed that theMDF-SPR/MDF-SAR methodology is reliable. The MDF-SPR/MDF-SAR methodologyopens a new pathway in understanding the relationships between compound’s structure andproperty/activity, in property/activity prediction, and in discovery, investigation andcharacterization of new chemical compounds, more competitive as costs andproperty/activity, being a method less expensive comparative with experimental methods.

  5. Sensory descriptors of cocoa beans from cultivated trees of Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico

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    Alfredo Vázquez-Ovando


    Full Text Available The odor and taste profile of cocoa bean samples obtained from trees cultivated in southern Mexico were evaluated by trained panelists. Seven representative samples (groups of a total of 45 were analyzed. Four attributes of taste (sweetness, bitterness, acidity and astringency, and nine of odor (chocolate, nutty, hazelnut, sweet, acidity, roasted, spicy, musty and off-odor were evaluated. A sample (G7 with higher scores in sweet taste and sweet and nutty odors was detected, as well as a high association between these descriptors and the sample, analyzed through principal component analysis (PCA. Similarly, samples that showed high scores for non-desired odors in cocoas such as off-odor and musty were identified and related by PCA to roasted odor and astringent taste (G2 and G4. Based on this scores, the samples were listed in descending order by their sensory quality as G7> G5> G6> G3> G1> G4> G2.

  6. Correspondence of verbal descriptor and numeric rating scales for pain intensity: an item response theory calibration. (United States)

    Edelen, Maria Orlando; Saliba, Debra


    Assessing pain intensity in older adults is critical and challenging. There is debate about the most effective way to ask older adults to describe their pain severity, and clinicians vary in their preferred approaches, making comparison of pain intensity scores across settings difficult. A total of 3,676 residents from 71 community nursing homes across eight states were asked about pain presence. The 1,960 residents who reported pain within the past 5 days (53% of total, 70% female; age: M = 77.9, SD = 12.4) were included in analyses. Those who reported pain were also asked to provide a rating of pain intensity using either a verbal descriptor scale (VDS; mild, moderate, severe, and very severe and horrible), a numeric rating scale (NRS; 0 = no pain to 10 = worst pain imaginable), or both. We used item response theory (IRT) methods to identify the correspondence between the VDS and the NRS response options by estimating item parameters for these and five additional pain items. The sample reported moderate amounts of pain on average. Examination of the IRT location parameters for the pain intensity items indicated the following approximate correspondence: VDS mild approximately NRS 1-4, VDS moderate approximately NRS 5-7, VDS severe approximately NRS 8-9, and VDS very severe, horrible approximately NRS 10. This IRT calibration provides a crosswalk between the two response scales so that either can be used in practice depending on the preference of the clinician and respondent.

  7. Molecular-orbital and structural descriptors in theoretical investigation of electroreduction of nitrodiazoles

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    Full Text Available It is shown how a simple theoretical approach can be used for the investigation of electro-organic reactions.Mononitroimidazoles and mononitropyrazoles were studied by the semiempirical MNDO-PM3 molecular orbital method. The electrochemical reduction potentials of diazoles have been correlated with the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO. It was found that an admirable correlation could be obtained by the introduction of simple structural descriptors as a correction to the energy of the LUMO. The interaction of a molecule with its surrounding depends on electrostatic potential and on steric hindrance. Most of these steric effects are taken into account using two parameters having a very limited set of integer values. The first (b is the position of a ring substituent regarding ring nitrogens, which accounts for the different orientations of dipole moments and for the different shape of the electrostatic potential. The second (structural parameter (t is the type of the ring, which accounts mostly for different modes of electrode approach, and for different charge polarization patterns in two diazole rings. The extended correlation with ELUMO, b and t, is very good, having a regression coefficient r = 0.991. The intrinsic importance of b and t is exemplified by their high statistical weight.

  8. Exploring spatial patterns of vulnerability for diverse biodiversity descriptors in regional conservation planning. (United States)

    Vimal, Ruppert; Pluvinet, Pascal; Sacca, Céline; Mazagol, Pierre-Olivier; Etlicher, Bernard; Thompson, John D


    In this study, we developed a multi-criteria assessment of spatial variability of the vulnerability of three different biodiversity descriptors: sites of high conservation interest by virtue of the presence of rare or remarkable species, extensive areas of high ecological integrity, and landscape diversity in grid cells across an entire region. We assessed vulnerability in relation to (a) direct threats in and around sites to a distance of 2 km associated with intensive agriculture, building and road infrastructure and (b) indirect effects of human population density on a wider scale (50 km). The different combinations of biodiversity and threat indicators allowed us to set differential priorities for biodiversity conservation and assess their spatial variation. For example, with this method we identified sites and grid cells which combined high biodiversity with either high threat values or low threat values for the three different biodiversity indicators. In these two classes the priorities for conservation planning will be different, reduce threat values in the former and restrain any increase in the latter. We also identified low priority sites (low biodiversity with either high or low threats). This procedure thus allows for the integration of a spatial ranking of vulnerability into priority setting for regional conservation planning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Classification of signaling proteins based on molecular star graph descriptors using Machine Learning models. (United States)

    Fernandez-Lozano, Carlos; Cuiñas, Rubén F; Seoane, José A; Fernández-Blanco, Enrique; Dorado, Julian; Munteanu, Cristian R


    Signaling proteins are an important topic in drug development due to the increased importance of finding fast, accurate and cheap methods to evaluate new molecular targets involved in specific diseases. The complexity of the protein structure hinders the direct association of the signaling activity with the molecular structure. Therefore, the proposed solution involves the use of protein star graphs for the peptide sequence information encoding into specific topological indices calculated with S2SNet tool. The Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship classification model obtained with Machine Learning techniques is able to predict new signaling peptides. The best classification model is the first signaling prediction model, which is based on eleven descriptors and it was obtained using the Support Vector Machines-Recursive Feature Elimination (SVM-RFE) technique with the Laplacian kernel (RFE-LAP) and an AUROC of 0.961. Testing a set of 3114 proteins of unknown function from the PDB database assessed the prediction performance of the model. Important signaling pathways are presented for three UniprotIDs (34 PDBs) with a signaling prediction greater than 98.0%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Structure-activity correlations for illicit amphetamines using ANN and constitutional descriptors. (United States)

    Gosav, S; Praisler, M; Dorohoi, D O; Popa, G


    The goal of this study was to develop an expert system capable to identify the potential biological activity of new substances having a molecular structure similar to illicit amphetamines. For this purpose we have designed two types of artificial neural network (ANN) systems, which have been trained to classify amphetamines according to their toxicological activity (stimulant amphetamines or hallucinogenic amphetamines) and distinguish them from nonamphetamines. Such a system is essential for testing new molecular structures for epidemiological, clinical, and forensic purposes. The first type of artificial neural network is a "spectral" neural network, which has as input variables the most important 100 absorption intensities from a total of 260 measured for each normalized infrared spectrum 10cm(-1) apart. The spectral data consists of a database built with the GC-FT-IR spectra of the most popular drugs of abuse (mainly central stimulants, hallucinogens, sympathomimetic amines, narcotics and other potent analgesics), precursors and derivatized counterparts. All samples were also characterized by their constitutional descriptors (CDs). For each sample, a number of 45 CDs were computed and introduced as input variables for a second type of ANN, which uses a structural database. The efficiency of this "structural" artificial neural network (CD-ANN) has been improved by optimizing the training set and increasing the number of input variables (CDs). A comparative analysis of the spectral and the structural networks is presented.

  11. Chemical descriptors for sensory and parental origin of commercial Coffea genotypes. (United States)

    Bicho, Natalina Cavaco; Leitão, António Eduardo; Ramalho, José Cochicho; Lidon, Fernando Cebola


    To attain chemical descriptors responsible for sensory characteristics linked to the botanical origin of five Brazilian coffee genotypes, a chemical survey was carried out. Highest and lowest amounts of caffeine were found in Apoatã and Obatã. Coffea dewevrei showed the lowest contents of 5-CQA and 3-CQA. 3,5-diCQA was higher for Apoatã and minimum values were detected in Icatu. Apoatã showed the highest contents of 3,4-diCQA and 4,5-diCQA, Catuaí, Icatu and Obatã revealed lower values of 4,5-diCQA. Among hydroxycinnamic acids ferulic acid prevailed in all genotypes, with lower values in Icatu and Obatã. 3,4-DCA remained significantly higher in Apoatã, C. dewevrei and Catuaí. Caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid did not vary significantly. It was concluded that Apoatã was most adequate for the decaffeinated industry; Catuaí, Icatu and Obatã were identified as producers of good beverages. Apoatã and C. dewevrei seemed to share closer parental origins to Coffea canephora cv. Robusta, whereas Icatu, Obatã and Catuaí showed higher similarities to Coffea arabica.

  12. Position Estimation and Local Mapping Using Omnidirectional Images and Global Appearance Descriptors (United States)

    Berenguer, Yerai; Payá, Luis; Ballesta, Mónica; Reinoso, Oscar


    This work presents some methods to create local maps and to estimate the position of a mobile robot, using the global appearance of omnidirectional images. We use a robot that carries an omnidirectional vision system on it. Every omnidirectional image acquired by the robot is described only with one global appearance descriptor, based on the Radon transform. In the work presented in this paper, two different possibilities have been considered. In the first one, we assume the existence of a map previously built composed of omnidirectional images that have been captured from previously-known positions. The purpose in this case consists of estimating the nearest position of the map to the current position of the robot, making use of the visual information acquired by the robot from its current (unknown) position. In the second one, we assume that we have a model of the environment composed of omnidirectional images, but with no information about the location of where the images were acquired. The purpose in this case consists of building a local map and estimating the position of the robot within this map. Both methods are tested with different databases (including virtual and real images) taking into consideration the changes of the position of different objects in the environment, different lighting conditions and occlusions. The results show the effectiveness and the robustness of both methods. PMID:26501289

  13. The Big Five Factor Marker Adjectives Are Not Especially Popular Words. Are They Superior Descriptors? (United States)

    Roivainen, Eka


    Vocabularies of natural languages evolve over time. Useful words become more popular and useless concepts disappear. In this study, the frequency of the use of 295 English, 100 German, and 114 French personality adjectives in book texts and Twitter messages as qualifiers of the words person, woman, homme, femme, and Person was studied. Word frequency data were compared to factor loadings from previous factor analytic studies on personality terms. The correlation between the popularity of an adjective and its highest primary loading in five- and six-factor models was low (-0.12 to 0.17). The Big five (six) marker adjectives were not more popular than "blended" adjectives that had moderate loadings on several factors. This finding implies that laymen consider "blended" adjectives as equally useful descriptors compared to adjectives that represent core features of the five (six) factors. These results are compatible with three hypotheses: 1) laymen are not good at describing personality, 2) the five (six) factors are artifacts of research methods, 3) the interaction of the five (six) factors is not well understood.

  14. Identification of nutritional descriptors of roasting intensity in beverages of Arabica and Robusta coffee beans. (United States)

    Bicho, Natalina Cavaco; Leitão, Antóanto Eduardo; Ramalho, José Cochicho; De Alvarenga, Nuno Bartolomeu; Lidon, Fernando Cebola


    Arabica and Robusta coffee beans were roasted at 220 ± 10°C for 7, 9 and 11 min to identify chemical descriptors in the beverages. The pH of the beverages showed the lowest value in the medium roasting level. In each degree of browning, the soluble solids content remained slightly higher in Arabica drinks. The contents of caffeine did not vary, but trigonelline decreased with burning up intensity. Chlorogenic acids also decreased with increasing roasting time. The 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid prevailed in Arabica and Robusta beverages, but the isomers of dicaffeoylquinic and feruolilquínic acids remained higher in Robusta. It was concluded that trigonelline and total caffeoylquinic, fatty dicaffeoylquinic and fatty feruolilquínic acids detached the beverages according to roasting intensity. Caffeine and pH allowed drinks separation between both species. Soluble solids take apart Arabica and Robusta drinks in each degree of roasting. All the individual groups of chlorogenic acids also explained 90% of the variance among samples.

  15. Experiments and improvements of ear recognition based on local texture descriptors (United States)

    Benzaoui, Amir; Adjabi, Insaf; Boukrouche, Abdelhani


    The morphology of the human ear presents rich and stable information embedded on the curved 3-D surface and has as a result attracted considerable attention from forensic scientists and engineers as a biometric recognition modality. However, recognizing a person's identity from the morphology of the human ear in unconstrained environments, with insufficient and incomplete training data, strong person-specificity, and high within-range variance, can be very challenging. Following our previous work on ear recognition based on local texture descriptors, we propose to use anatomical and embryological information about the human ear in order to find the autonomous components and the locations where large interindividual variations can be detected. Embryology is particularly relevant to our approach as it provides information on the possible changes that can be observed in the external structure of the ear. We experimented with three publicly available databases, namely: IIT Delhi-1, IIT Delhi-2, and USTB-1, consisting of several ear benchmarks acquired under varying conditions and imaging qualities. The experiments show excellent results, beyond the state of the art.

  16. Descriptors and Thermodynamic Limitations of Electrocatalytic Carbon Dioxide Reduction on Rutile Oxide Surfaces. (United States)

    Bhowmik, Arghya; Vegge, Tejs; Hansen, Heine A


    A detailed understanding of the electrochemical reduction of CO 2 into liquid fuels on rutile metal oxide surfaces is developed by using DFT calculations. We consider oxide overlayer structures on RuO 2 (1 1 0) surfaces as model catalysts to elucidate the trends and limitations in the CO 2 reduction reaction (CO2RR) based on thermodynamic analysis. We aim to specify the requirements for CO2RR catalysts to establish adsorbate scaling relations and use these to derive activity volcanoes. Computational results show that the OH* binding free energy is a good descriptor of the thermodynamic limitations and it defines the left leg of the activity volcano for CO2RR. HCOOH* is a key intermediate for products formed through further reduction, for example, methanediol, methanol, and methane. The surfaces that do not bind HCOOH* are selective towards formic acid (HCOOH) production, but hydrogen evolution limits their suitability. We determine the ideal binding free energy for H* and OH* to facilitate selective CO2RR over H 2 /CO evolution to be ΔG B [H]>0.5 eV and -0.5 eV<ΔG B [OH]<0.1 eV. The Re-containing overlayers considered in this work display excellent promise for selectivity, although they are active at a highly reducing potential. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Spherical harmonics based descriptor for neural network potentials: Structure and dynamics of Au147 nanocluster (United States)

    Jindal, Shweta; Chiriki, Siva; Bulusu, Satya S.


    We propose a highly efficient method for fitting the potential energy surface of a nanocluster using a spherical harmonics based descriptor integrated with an artificial neural network. Our method achieves the accuracy of quantum mechanics and speed of empirical potentials. For large sized gold clusters (Au147), the computational time for accurate calculation of energy and forces is about 1.7 s, which is faster by several orders of magnitude compared to density functional theory (DFT). This method is used to perform the global minimum optimizations and molecular dynamics simulations for Au147, and it is found that its global minimum is not an icosahedron. The isomer that can be regarded as the global minimum is found to be 4 eV lower in energy than the icosahedron and is confirmed from DFT. The geometry of the obtained global minimum contains 105 atoms on the surface and 42 atoms in the core. A brief study on the fluxionality in Au147 is performed, and it is concluded that Au147 has a dynamic surface, thus opening a new window for studying its reaction dynamics.

  18. Microcalcification morphological descriptors and parenchyma fractal dimension hierarchically interact in breast cancer: A diagnostic perspective. (United States)

    Verma, Garima; Luciani, Maria Laura; Palombo, Alessandro; Metaxa, Linda; Panzironi, Giovanna; Pediconi, Federica; Giuliani, Alessandro; Bizzarri, Mariano; Todde, Virginia


    Herein, we propose a Systems Biology approach aimed at identifying quantitative morphological parameters useful in discriminating benign from malignant breast microcalcifications at digital mammography. The study includes 31 patients in which microcalcifications had been detected during XR mammography and were further confirmed by stereotactic (XR-guided) biopsies. Patients were classified according to the BIRADS (Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System), along with their parenchyma fractal dimension and biopsy size. A geometrical-topological characterization of microcalcifications was obtained as well. The 'size of biopsy' was the parameter endowed with the highest discriminant power between malignant and benign lesions thus confirming the reliability of surgeon judgment. The quantitative shape evaluation of both lesions and parenchyma allowed for a promising prediction of the BIRADS score. The area of lesions and parenchyma fractal dimension show a complex distribution for malignant breast calcifications that are consistent with their qualitative morphological pattern. Fractal dimension analysis enables the user to obtain reliable results as proved by its efficiency in the prediction of the morphology of breast cancer. By reconstructing a phase-space distribution of biophysical parameters, different patterns of aggregation are recognized corresponding to different calcium deposition patterns, while the combination of tissue and microcalcification morphological descriptors provide a statistically significant prediction of tumour grade. The development of an automated morphology evaluation system can help during clinical evaluation while also sketching mechanistic hypotheses of microcalcification generation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Application of 3D Zernike descriptors to shape-based ligand similarity searching

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    Venkatraman Vishwesh


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of promising drug leads from a large database of compounds is an important step in the preliminary stages of drug design. Although shape is known to play a key role in the molecular recognition process, its application to virtual screening poses significant hurdles both in terms of the encoding scheme and speed. Results In this study, we have examined the efficacy of the alignment independent three-dimensional Zernike descriptor (3DZD for fast shape based similarity searching. Performance of this approach was compared with several other methods including the statistical moments based ultrafast shape recognition scheme (USR and SIMCOMP, a graph matching algorithm that compares atom environments. Three benchmark datasets are used to thoroughly test the methods in terms of their ability for molecular classification, retrieval rate, and performance under the situation that simulates actual virtual screening tasks over a large pharmaceutical database. The 3DZD performed better than or comparable to the other methods examined, depending on the datasets and evaluation metrics used. Reasons for the success and the failure of the shape based methods for specific cases are investigated. Based on the results for the three datasets, general conclusions are drawn with regard to their efficiency and applicability. Conclusion The 3DZD has unique ability for fast comparison of three-dimensional shape of compounds. Examples analyzed illustrate the advantages and the room for improvements for the 3DZD.

  20. Universal Fragment Descriptors for Predicting Electronic and Mechanical Properties of Inorganic Crystals (United States)

    Oses, Corey; Isayev, Olexandr; Toher, Cormac; Curtarolo, Stefano; Tropsha, Alexander

    Historically, materials discovery is driven by a laborious trial-and-error process. The growth of materials databases and emerging informatics approaches finally offer the opportunity to transform this practice into data- and knowledge-driven rational design-accelerating discovery of novel materials exhibiting desired properties. By using data from the AFLOW repository for high-throughput, ab-initio calculations, we have generated Quantitative Materials Structure-Property Relationship (QMSPR) models to predict critical materials properties, including the metal/insulator classification, band gap energy, and bulk modulus. The prediction accuracy obtained with these QMSPR models approaches training data for virtually any stoichiometric inorganic crystalline material. We attribute the success and universality of these models to the construction of new materials descriptors-referred to as the universal Property-Labeled Material Fragments (PLMF). This representation affords straightforward model interpretation in terms of simple heuristic design rules that could guide rational materials design. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the power of materials informatics to dramatically accelerate the search for new materials.

  1. Combination of image descriptors for the exploration of cultural photographic collections (United States)

    Bhowmik, Neelanjan; Gouet-Brunet, Valérie; Bloch, Gabriel; Besson, Sylvain


    The rapid growth of image digitization and collections in recent years makes it challenging and burdensome to organize, categorize, and retrieve similar images from voluminous collections. Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) is immensely convenient in this context. A considerable number of local feature detectors and descriptors are present in the literature of CBIR. We propose a model to anticipate the best feature combinations for image retrieval-related applications. Several spatial complementarity criteria of local feature detectors are analyzed and then engaged in a regression framework to find the optimal combination of detectors for a given dataset and are better adapted for each given image; the proposed model is also useful to optimally fix some other parameters, such as the k in k-nearest neighbor retrieval. Three public datasets of various contents and sizes are employed to evaluate the proposal, which is legitimized by improving the quality of retrieval notably facing classical approaches. Finally, the proposed image search engine is applied to the cultural photographic collections of a French museum, where it demonstrates its added value for the exploration and promotion of these contents at different levels from their archiving up to their exhibition in or ex situ.

  2. Kompensasi Kesalahan Sensor Berbasis Descriptor dengan Performa H_inf pada Winding Machine

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    Hendra Antomy


    Full Text Available Kesalahan pada sensor dapat terjadi pada sistem kontrol dengan umpan balik sehingga mengakibatkan sistem mengalami penurunan stabilitas dan performa. Fault Tolerant Control (FTC adalah metode untuk mengkompensasi kesalahan pada komponen sistem, salah satunya adalah kesalahan sensor. FTC dapat disusun dengan cara mendesain estimator untuk mengestimasi besarnya kesalahan sensor yang terjadi. Kompensasi dilakukan dengan cara mengurangkan estimasi kesalahan sensor dengan keluaran sistem. Pada makalah ini, FTC untuk kesalahan sensor diterapkan pada sistem winding machine. Estimator dirancang menggunakan pendekatan sistem descriptor dan didesain memenuhi performa H_inf. Permasalahan dalam desain estimator dirumuskan dalam bentuk Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI. Untuk merancang kontroler nominal, sistem winding machine direpresentasikan sebagai model fuzzy Takagi-Sugeno (T-S. Berdasarkan model tersebut, aturan kontroler disusun menggunakan konsep Parallel Distributed Compensation (PDC dengan struktur kontrol servo tipe 1. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan bahwa kompensasi yang diberikan dapat menjaga performa dan stabilitas sistem saat terjadi kesalahan sensor. Selain itu, estimator memenuhi performa H_inf dengan L2-Gain kurang dari tingkat pelemahan yang ditentukan.

  3. Prediction of Protein-Protein Interactions with Physicochemical Descriptors and Wavelet Transform via Random Forests. (United States)

    Jia, Jianhua; Xiao, Xuan; Liu, Bingxiang


    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) provide valuable insight into the inner workings of cells, and it is significant to study the network of PPIs. It is vitally important to develop an automated method as a high-throughput tool to timely predict PPIs. Based on the physicochemical descriptors, a protein was converted into several digital signals, and then wavelet transform was used to analyze them. With such a formulation frame to represent the samples of protein sequences, the random forests algorithm was adopted to conduct prediction. The results on a large-scale independent-test data set show that the proposed model can achieve a good performance with an accuracy value of about 0.86 and a geometric mean value of about 0.85. Therefore, it can be a usefully supplementary tool for PPI prediction. The predictor used in this article is freely available at © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  4. White paper on guidelines concerning enteric nervous system stem cell therapy for enteric neuropathies⋆ (United States)

    Burns, Alan J.; Goldstein, Allan M.; Newgreen, Donald F.; Stamp, Lincon; Schäfer, Karl-Herbert; Metzger, Marco; Hotta, Ryo; Young, Heather M.; Andrews, Peter W.; Thapar, Nikhil; Belkind-Gerson, Jaime; Bondurand, Nadege; Bornstein, Joel C.; Chan, Wood Yee; Cheah, Kathryn; Gershon, Michael D.; Heuckeroth, Robert O.; Hofstra, Robert M.W.; Just, Lothar; Kapur, Raj P.; King, Sebastian K.; McCann, Conor J.; Nagy, Nandor; Ngan, Elly; Obermayr, Florian; Pachnis, Vassilis; Pasricha, Pankaj J.; Sham, Mai Har; Tam, Paul; Berghe, Pieter Vanden


    Over the last 20 years, there has been increasing focus on the development of novel stem cell based therapies for the treatment of disorders and diseases affecting the enteric nervous system (ENS) of the gastrointestinal tract (so-called enteric neuropathies). Here, the idea is that ENS progenitor/stem cells could be transplanted into the gut wall to replace the damaged or absent neurons and glia of the ENS. This White Paper sets out experts’ views on the commonly used methods and approaches to identify, isolate, purify, expand and optimize ENS stem cells, transplant them into the bowel, and assess transplant success, including restoration of gut function. We also highlight obstacles that must be overcome in order to progress from successful preclinical studies in animal models to ENS stem cell therapies in the clinic. PMID:27059883

  5. Utilized friction when entering and exiting a dry and wet bathtub. (United States)

    Siegmund, Gunter P; Flynn, Jim; Mang, Daniel W; Chimich, Dennis D; Gardiner, John C


    Bathtubs and showers are a common source of unintentional slips and falls. The goal of this study was to quantify the friction used by barefoot subjects entering and exiting a typical bathtub/shower enclosure under dry and wet conditions. Sixty subjects (30F, 30M) from three age groups (20-30 years, 40-50 years, 60-70 years) entered and exited a slip-resistant bathtub using six movement patterns (three entering and three exiting the tub) simulating actual use. Force plates installed in the tub floor and the slip-resistant deck outside the tub measured ground reaction forces, from which utilized friction and double support times were calculated. Overall, utilized friction varied from 0.102 to 0.442 (0.235+/-0.057) and was 0.058+/-0.040 lower in wet than dry conditions across all movement patterns (p0.14). Double support times were longer in older subjects than in both young and middle-aged subjects for all movement patterns (p<0.0009) and longer under wet than dry conditions for all entry movements (p<0.0001). These data suggest that subjects regard the wet condition as more hazardous than the dry condition and adapt their utilized friction accordingly. These data also show that older subjects are more cautious than young subjects when confronted with the dual tasks of stepping over the tub's apron and transitioning to a surface perceived to be more slippery. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Chronic radiation enteritis: A community hospital experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenner, M.N.; Sheehan, P.; Nanavati, P.J.; Ross, D.S. (Southern Illinois Univ. School of Medicine, Springfield (USA))


    A retrospective study was undertaken to evaluate the operative management of patients with chronic radiation enteropathy. Thirty-eight affected patients from 1974 to 1986 were reviewed. Patients with recurrent cancer responsible for symptoms were excluded. Seventy-one percent of patients presented with bowel obstruction. Twenty-one patients were treated with bowel resection, while 17 were treated with a bypass procedure or diverting ostomy alone. Overall morbidity was 45%, and postoperative mortality was 16%. Patients in the bypass group were significantly older than those in the resection group (70.3 vs. 55.5 years, P = .024), suggesting that age may have been a determinant of the procedure performed. In our study there was no difference in outcome based on preexisting vascular disease, tumor site, type of procedure performed, or radiation dose. We conclude that resection is the procedure of choice in cases of chronic radiation enteritis requiring surgery except in cases with dense adhesions when enteroenterostomal bypass is a viable alternative.

  7. Enteric bacterial catalysts for fuel ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingram, L.O.; Aldrich, H.C.; Borges, A.C.C. [and others


    The technology is available to produce fuel ethanol from renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The current challenge is to assemble the various process options into a commercial venture and begin the task of incremental improvement. Current process designs for lignocellulose are far more complex than grain to ethanol processes. This complexity results in part from the complexity of the substrate and the biological limitations of the catalyst. Their work at the University of Florida has focused primarily on the genetic engineering of Enteric bacteria using genes encoding Zymomonas mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. These two genes have been assembled into a portable ethanol production cassette, the PET operon, and integrated into the chromosome of Escherichia coli B for use with hemicellulose-derived syrups. The resulting strain, KO11, produces ethanol efficiently from all hexose and pentose sugars present in the polymers of hemicellulose. By using the same approach, the authors integrated the PET operon into the chromosome of Klebsiella oxytoca to produce strain P2 for use in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process for cellulose. Strain P2 has the native ability to ferment cellobiose and cellotriose, eliminating the need for one class of cellulase enzymes.

  8. Enteral and parenteral nutrition in acute pancreatitis. (United States)

    Imrie, Clement W; Carter, C Ross; McKay, Colin J


    In the last 5 years naso-enteric feeding has increasingly been used in clinical practice in patients with severe acute pancreatitis. Randomized clinical studies in both mild and severe forms of the disease have demonstrated not only the feasibility but also the safety of this approach. The majority of patients have been fed by variously placed nasojejunal tubes with varied problems in maintaining both location and patency. Most have been surprised to find that it is possible to feed the patients in this way with the potential of improving gut barrier function and immune response, at reduced cost and greater safety than with parenteral nutrition. The current evidence points to nasojejunal feeding being preferable to parenteral feeding, but evidence has yet to be produced to prove beyond reasonable doubt that such feeding is an improvement on conservative management without feeding. Finally, the most recent development has indicated that fine-bore nasogastric feeding may well be a realistic alternative to nasojejunal feeding even in the more severe forms of this disease. A small percentage of patients may still need parenteral nutrition. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  9. Pathophysiology and surgical treatment for radiation enteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onodera, Hisashi; Park, Tae Bun; Hasegawa, Masato (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine) (and others)


    We analyzed 23 patients (5 males and 18 females, mean age 60) who had been operated on in our department for radiation enteritis. (1) These patients were divided into two types according to the time of surgery. Sixteen of 23 (79%) patients were operated on a median of 12 months after radiotherapy, while 7 (30%) underwent surgery more than 10 years later. (2) They were also divided according to the dominant symptoms. Fourteen of 23 (60%) complained of nausea and abdominal distension suggestive of small bowel injury, whereas 7 (30%) had tenesmus and anal bleeding indicating proctitis. Two patients developed perforative peritonitis. (3) The operations performed were as follows: extensive intestinal resection and anastomosis (13), pull-through procedure (3), rectal excision (2), ileostomy (3), by-pass operation (2). Two patients with peritonitis died despite open drainage. Nineteen intestinal anastomoses were all successfully performed. Patients who underwent extensive small bowel resection could resume ordinary daily life without symptoms. Our analysis showed that small bowel injury should be treated by generous resection of the affected bowels followed by anastomosis of the disease-free ends, while rectal lesions are best dealt with by restorative proctectomy. This may provide a good quality of life and minimize major postoperative complications such as leakage. (author).

  10. Enteral Nutrition in Pancreaticoduodenectomy: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Buscemi


    Full Text Available Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD is considered the gold standard treatment for periampullory carcinomas. This procedure presents 30%–40% of morbidity. Patients who have undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy often present perioperative malnutrition that is worse in the early postoperative days, affects the process of healing, the intestinal barrier function and the number of postoperative complications. Few studies focus on the relation between enteral nutrition (EN and postoperative complications. Our aim was to perform a review, including only randomized controlled trial meta-analyses or well-designed studies, of evidence regarding the correlation between EN and main complications and outcomes after pancreaticoduodenectomy, as delayed gastric emptying (DGE, postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF, postpancreatectomy hemorrhage (PPH, length of stay and infectious complications. Several studies, especially randomized controlled trial have shown that EN does not increase the rate of DGE. EN appeared safe and tolerated for patients after PD, even if it did not reveal any advantages in terms of POPF, PPH, length of stay and infectious complications.

  11. Osmolality and pH in handmade enteral diets used in domiciliary enteral nutritional therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Simeone HENRIQUES

    Full Text Available Abstract Patients who need prolonged domiciliary enteral nutritional therapy may benefit from handmade diets. However, the preparation of such diets might cause insecurity with regard to their nutritional composition and physical-chemical properties. Current study analyzes the osmolality and Hydrogen-Ion concentration (pH on handmade enteral diets. To this purpose, six formulas and two juices, prescribed on discharge from hospital, were analyzed physically and chemically. Osmolality and pH were respectively determined by cryoscopy and potentiometry. Most formulations were classified as isosmolar (with less than 400 mOsm/kg solvent, and only one was classified as slightly hyperosmolar, with rates ranging from 356.7 to 403.5 mOsm/kg solvent. On average, the standard formula presented higher osmolality than similar ones prepared for hyperglycemia. Among the juices, only one registered hyperosmolar concentration of 595.54 mOsm/kg solvent. All formulas presented pH rates classified as low acidity, ranging between 6.1 and 6.6, while the two juices had the lowest results, 4.73 and 4.66 each. The blend of ingredients used in handmade formulas and juices studied presented acceptable osmolality and pH rates for a safe administration and absence of gastrointestinal complications. Data showed here are consistent with an appropriate and healthy diet and contributed towards success in domiciliary enteral nutritional therapy.

  12. Tracing enteric viruses in the European berry fruit supply chain. (United States)

    Maunula, Leena; Kaupke, Agnieszka; Vasickova, Petra; Söderberg, Kirsi; Kozyra, Iwona; Lazic, Sava; van der Poel, Wim H M; Bouwknegt, Martijn; Rutjes, Saskia; Willems, Kris A; Moloney, Rita; D'Agostino, Martin; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; von Bonsdorff, Carl-Henrik; Rzeżutka, Artur; Pavlik, Ivo; Petrovic, Tamas; Cook, Nigel


    In recent years, numerous foodborne outbreaks due to consumption of berry fruit contaminated by human enteric viruses have been reported. This European multinational study investigated possible contamination routes by monitoring the entire food chain for a panel of human and animal enteric viruses. A total of 785 samples were collected throughout the food production chain of four European countries (Czech Republic, Finland, Poland and Serbia) during two growing seasons. Samples were taken during the production phase, the processing phase, and at point-of-sale. Samples included irrigation water, animal faeces, food handlers' hand swabs, swabs from toilets on farms, from conveyor belts at processing plants, and of raspberries or strawberries at points-of-sale; all were subjected to virus analysis. The samples were analysed by real-time (reverse transcription, RT)-PCR, primarily for human adenoviruses (hAdV) to demonstrate that a route of contamination existed from infected persons to the food supply chain. The analyses also included testing for the presence of selected human (norovirus, NoV GI, NoV GII and hepatitis A virus, HAV), animal (porcine adenovirus, pAdV and bovine polyomavirus, bPyV) and zoonotic (hepatitis E virus, HEV) viruses. At berry production, hAdV was found in 9.5%, 5.8% and 9.1% of samples of irrigation water, food handlers' hands and toilets, respectively. At the processing plants, hAdV was detected in one (2.0%) swab from a food handler's hand. At point-of-sale, the prevalence of hAdV in fresh raspberries, frozen raspberries and fresh strawberries, was 0.7%, 3.2% and 2.0%, respectively. Of the human pathogenic viruses, NoV GII was detected in two (3.6%) water samples at berry production, but no HAV was detected in any of the samples. HEV-contaminated frozen raspberries were found once (2.6%). Animal faecal contamination was evidenced by positive pAdV and bPyV assay results. At berry production, one water sample contained both viruses, and at

  13. Fourth meeting entitled “Visualization and Processing of Tensors and Higher Order Descriptors for Multi-Valued Data”

    CERN Document Server

    Vilanova, Anna; Burgeth, Bernhard; Visualization and Processing of Tensors and Higher Order Descriptors for Multi-Valued Data


    Arising from the fourth Dagstuhl conference entitled Visualization and Processing of Tensors and Higher Order Descriptors for Multi-Valued Data (2011), this book offers a broad and vivid view of current work in this emerging field. Topics covered range from applications of the analysis of tensor fields to research on their mathematical and analytical properties. Part I, Tensor Data Visualization, surveys techniques for visualization of tensors and tensor fields in engineering, discusses the current state of the art and challenges, and examines tensor invariants and glyph design, including an overview of common glyphs. The second Part, Representation and Processing of Higher-order Descriptors, describes a matrix representation of local phase, outlines mathematical morphological operations techniques, extended for use in vector images, and generalizes erosion to the space of diffusion weighted MRI. Part III, Higher Order Tensors and Riemannian-Finsler Geometry, offers powerful mathematical language to model and...

  14. The impact of cigarette pack design, descriptors, and warning labels on risk perception in the U.S. (United States)

    Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Hammond, David; Smith, Philip; Cummings, K Michael


    In the U.S., limited evidence exists on the impact of colors and brand imagery used in cigarette pack design. This study examined the impact of pack design, product descriptors, and health warnings on risk perception and brand appeal. A cross-sectional mall-intercept study was conducted with 197 adult smokers and 200 nonsmokers in Buffalo NY from June to July 2009 (data analysis from July 2009 to December 2010). Participants were shown 12 sets of packs randomly; each set varied by a particular design feature (color, descriptor) or warning label style (text versus graphic, size, attribution, message framing). Packs were rated on criteria including risk perceptions, quit motivation, and purchase interest. Participants selected larger, pictorial, and loss-framed warning labels as more likely to attract attention, encourage thoughts about health risks, motivate quitting, and be most effective. Participants were more likely to select packs with lighter color shading and descriptors such as light, silver, and smooth as delivering less tar, smoother taste, and lower health risk, compared to darker-shaded or full-flavor packs. Additionally, participants were more likely to select the branded compared to plain white pack when asked which delivered the most tar, smoothest taste, was more attractive, appealed to youth aged graphic health warnings that convey loss-framed messages as most effective in communicating health risks to U.S. adults. The results also indicate that color and product descriptors are associated with false beliefs about risks. Plain packaging may reduce many of the erroneous misperceptions of risk communicated through pack design features. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Oversampling to overcome overfitting: exploring the relationship between data set composition, molecular descriptors, and predictive modeling methods. (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Yun; Hsu, Ming-Tsung; Esposito, Emilio Xavier; Tseng, Yufeng J


    The traditional biological assay is very time-consuming, and thus the ability to quickly screen large numbers of compounds against a specific biological target is appealing. To speed up the biological evaluation of compounds, high-throughput screening is widely used in the fields of biomedical, biological information, and drug discovery. The research presented in this study focuses on the use of support vector machines, a machine learning method, various classes of molecular descriptors, and different sampling techniques to overcome overfitting to classify compounds for cytotoxicity with respect to the Jurkat cell line. The cell cytotoxicity data set is imbalanced (a few active compounds and very many inactive compounds), and the ability of the predictive modeling methods is adversely affected in these situations. Commonly imbalanced data sets are overfit with respect to the dominant classified end point; in this study the models routinely overfit toward inactive (noncytotoxic) compounds when the imbalance was substantial. Support vector machine (SVM) models were used to probe the proficiency of different classes of molecular descriptors and oversampling ratios. The SVM models were constructed from 4D-FPs, MOE (1D, 2D, and 21/2D), noNP+MOE, and CATS2D trial descriptors pools and compared to the predictive abilities of CATS2D-based random forest models. Compared to previous results in the literature, the SVM models built from oversampled data sets exhibited better predictive abilities for the training and external test sets.

  16. Descriptors of Malignant Non-mass Enhancement of Breast MRI: Their Correlation to the Presence of Invasion. (United States)

    Machida, Youichi; Shimauchi, Akiko; Tozaki, Mitsuhiro; Kuroki, Yoshifumi; Yoshida, Tamiko; Fukuma, Eisuke


    This study aims to investigate the clinical significance of malignant non-mass enhancement (NME) descriptors in breast magnetic resonance images by assessing their correlation to the presence of invasion or lymph node metastasis. Three radiologists independently reviewed magnetic resonance images with malignant NMEs between January 2008 and December 2009. Distribution was assessed first, and then each of four internal enhancement patterns-clumped, clustered ring, branching, and hypointense area-was evaluated dichotomously (yes or no). Because clustered rings and hypointense areas were thought to be major structural elements of heterogeneous NMEs, they were also evaluated by integrating them into one collective descriptor we called the "heterogeneous structures." Chi-square test, Fisher exact test, or Student t test was used to analyze differences of variables by each reviewer. Positive predictive values (PPVs) of descriptors in predicting presence of invasion or lymph node metastasis were calculated. P breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Texture Retrieval from VHR Optical Remote Sensed Images Using the Local Extrema Descriptor with Application to Vineyard Parcel Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh-Tan Pham


    Full Text Available In this article, we develop a novel method for the detection of vineyard parcels in agricultural landscapes based on very high resolution (VHR optical remote sensing images. Our objective is to perform texture-based image retrieval and supervised classification algorithms. To do that, the local textural and structural features inside each image are taken into account to measure its similarity to other images. In fact, VHR images usually involve a variety of local textures and structures that may verify a weak stationarity hypothesis. Hence, an approach only based on characteristic points, not on all pixels of the image, is supposed to be relevant. This work proposes to construct the local extrema-based descriptor (LED by using the local maximum and local minimum pixels extracted from the image. The LED descriptor is formed based on the radiometric, geometric and gradient features from these local extrema. We first exploit the proposed LED descriptor for the retrieval task to evaluate its performance on texture discrimination. Then, it is embedded into a supervised classification framework to detect vine parcels using VHR satellite images. Experiments performed on VHR panchromatic PLEIADES image data prove the effectiveness of the proposed strategy. Compared to state-of-the-art methods, an enhancement of about 7% in retrieval rate is achieved. For the detection task, about 90% of vineyards are correctly detected.

  18. A novel and robust rotation and scale invariant structuring elements based descriptor for pedestrian classification in infrared images (United States)

    Soundrapandiyan, Rajkumar; Chandra Mouli, P. V. S. S. R.


    In this paper, a novel and robust rotation and scale invariant structuring elements based descriptor (RSSED) for pedestrian classification in infrared (IR) images is proposed. In addition, a segmentation method using difference of Gaussian (DoG) and horizontal intensity projection is proposed. The three major steps are moving object segmentation, feature extraction and classification of objects as pedestrian or non-pedestrian. The segmentation result is used to extract the RSSED feature descriptor. To extract features, the segmentation result is encoded using local directional pattern (LDP). This helps in the identification of local textural patterns. The LDP encoded image is further quantized adaptively to four levels. Finally the proposed RSSED is used to formalize the descriptor from the quantized image. Support vector machine is employed for classification of the moving objects in a given IR image into pedestrian and non-pedestrian classes. The segmentation results shows the robustness in extracting the moving objects. The classification results obtained from SVM classifier shows the efficacy of the proposed method.

  19. Statistically validated QSARs, based on theoretical descriptors, for modeling aquatic toxicity of organic chemicals in Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow). (United States)

    Papa, Ester; Villa, Fulvio; Gramatica, Paola


    The use of Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships in assessing the potential negative effects of chemicals plays an important role in ecotoxicology. (LC50)(96h) in Pimephales promelas (Duluth database) is widely modeled as an aquatic toxicity end-point. The object of this study was to compare different molecular descriptors in the development of new statistically validated QSAR models to predict the aquatic toxicity of chemicals classified according to their MOA and in a unique general model. The applied multiple linear regression approach (ordinary least squares) is based on theoretical molecular descriptor variety (1D, 2D, and 3D, from DRAGON package, and some calculated logP). The best combination of modeling descriptors was selected by the Genetic Algorithm-Variable Subset Selection procedure. The robustness and the predictive performance of the proposed models was verified using both internal (cross-validation by LOO, bootstrap, Y-scrambling) and external statistical validations (by splitting the original data set into training and validation sets by Kohonen-artificial neural networks (K-ANN)). The model applicability domain (AD) was checked by the leverage approach to verify prediction reliability.

  20. Prediction of radical scavenging activities of anthocyanins applying adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) with quantum chemical descriptors. (United States)

    Jhin, Changho; Hwang, Keum Taek


    Radical scavenging activity of anthocyanins is well known, but only a few studies have been conducted by quantum chemical approach. The adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is an effective technique for solving problems with uncertainty. The purpose of this study was to construct and evaluate quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models for predicting radical scavenging activities of anthocyanins with good prediction efficiency. ANFIS-applied QSAR models were developed by using quantum chemical descriptors of anthocyanins calculated by semi-empirical PM6 and PM7 methods. Electron affinity (A) and electronegativity (χ) of flavylium cation, and ionization potential (I) of quinoidal base were significantly correlated with radical scavenging activities of anthocyanins. These descriptors were used as independent variables for QSAR models. ANFIS models with two triangular-shaped input fuzzy functions for each independent variable were constructed and optimized by 100 learning epochs. The constructed models using descriptors calculated by both PM6 and PM7 had good prediction efficiency with Q-square of 0.82 and 0.86, respectively.