WorldWideScience

Sample records for subject category fluid

  1. Redefining the pharmacology and pharmacy subject category in the journal citation reports using medical subject headings (MeSH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguet, Fernando; Salgado, Teresa M; Santopadre, Claudio; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando

    2017-10-01

    Background The Journal Citation Reports (JCR) Pharmacology and Pharmacy subject category is heterogeneous. The inclusion of journals with basic and clinical scopes, which have different citation patterns, compromises comparability of impact factors among journals within the category. Objective To subdivide the Pharmacology and Pharmacy category into basic pharmacology, clinical pharmacology, and pharmacy based on the analyses of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) as a proxy of journals' scopes. Setting JCR. Method All articles, and respective MeSH, published in 2013, 2014, and 2015 in all journals included in the 2014 JCR Pharmacology and Pharmacy category were retrieved from PubMed. Several models using a combination of the 14 MeSH categories and specific MeSH tree branches were tested using hierarchical cluster analysis. Main outcome measure Distribution of journals across the subcategories of the JCR Pharmacology and Pharmacy subject category. Results A total of 107,847 articles from 214 journals were included. Nine different models combining the MeSH categories M (Persons) and N (Health Care) with specific MeSH tree branches (selected ad-hoc) and Pharmacy-specific MeSH (identified in previous research) consistently grouped 142 journals (66.4%) in homogeneous groups reflecting their basic and clinical pharmacology, and pharmacy scopes. Ultimately, journals were clustered into: 150 in basic pharmacology, 43 in clinical pharmacology, 16 in basic pharmacology and clinical pharmacology, and 5 in pharmacy. Conclusion The reformulation of the Pharmacology and Pharmacy category into three categories was demonstrated by the consistent results obtained from testing nine different clustering models using the MeSH terms assigned to their articles.

  2. A global map of science based on the ISI subject categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Rafols, I

    2009-01-01

    The decomposition of scientific literature into disciplinary and subdisciplinary structures is one of the core goals of scientometrics. How can we achieve a good decomposition? The ISI subject categories classify journals included in the Science Citation Index (SCI). The aggregated journal-journal

  3. Discrimination and subjective well-being: protective influences of membership in a discriminated category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnilica, Karel

    2011-03-01

    Research reveals that discrimination has harmful effects on health and quality of life. Among the most frequent types of discrimination pertains gender and age discrimination. Research results show that discriminatory behaviours based on gender afflict predominantly women; age discrimination afflicts mainly older adults. At the same time, it has been found that members of these traditionally discriminated categories often use strategies that mitigate the effects of discrimination. Discrimination will have detrimental effects on subjective well-being. But its effects will be most harmful for persons who are not members of the traditionally discriminated categories. These hypotheses were tested on data from three waves of the European Social Survey that the Czech Republic also participated in. Data were analyzed in a series of multilevel random coefficients regression analyses with respondents nested within states and states nested within years of study. Both perceived gender discrimination and perceived age discrimination have negative effects on subjective well-being. However, gender discrimination had more harmful effects on the subjective well-being of men than women and age discrimination had the most harmful effects on the subjective well-being of people in their middle ages, not the elderly ones. Discrimination does not need to have most harmful effects on the quality of life of members of the categories that are discriminated against most often.

  4. Alzheimer's disease cerebrospinal fluid biomarker in cognitively normal subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toledo, J.B.; Zetterberg, H.; van Harten, A.C.; Glodzik, L.; Martinez-Lage, P.; Bocchio-Chiavetto, L.; Rami, L.; Hansson, O.; Sperling, R.; Engelborghs, S.; Osorio, R.S.; Vanderstichele, H.; Vandijck, M.; Hampel, H.; Teipl, S.; Moghekar, A.; Albert, M.; Hu, W.T.; Argiles, J.A.M.; Gorostidi, A.; Teunissen, C.E.; de Deyn, P.P.; Hyman, B.T.; Molinuevo, J.L.; Frisoni, G. B.; Linazasoro, G.; de Leon, M.J.; van der Flier, W.M.; Scheltens, P.; Blennow, K.; Shaw, L.M.; Trojanowski, J.Q.

    2015-01-01

    In a large multicentre sample of cognitively normal subjects, as a function of age, gender and APOE genotype, we studied the frequency of abnormal cerebrospinal fluid levels of Alzheimer's disease biomarkers including: total tau, phosphorylated tau and amyloid-β1-42. Fifteen cohorts from

  5. Fluid-Structure Interaction in a Fluid-Filled Composite Structure Subjected to Low Velocity Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    this study of impact force, deflection, and strain were measured in a carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite cylinder subjected to low...Sanchez, J. Lopez-Puente, and D. Varas, “On the influence of filling level in CFRP aircraft fuel tank subjected to high velocity impacts,” Composite ...and back sides. The baffle provided the greatest strain reduction at the high fill levels. 14. SUBJECT TERMS glass fiber composite , fluid structure

  6. Amniotic Fluid Cells Proliferation in Normal and Down Syndrome Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honcea Adina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Down Syndrome/Trisomy 21 is the most common chromosomal anomaly, and it represents the most common congenital cause of infants’ intellectual disability. Subjects with this syndrome are affected by degenerative processes caused by accelerated aging or unknown ethyologies. In recent years, accumulating evidence revealed increased potential of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells to be used in regenerative therapy. Our aim was to assess differences in immunophenotype, cell morphology and proliferation of amniotic fluid cells from normal and Down Syndrome pregnancies using a quantitative cytometry approach. Results revealed the emergence of a population of small sized cells in Down Syndrome derived amniotic fluid cells that are readily visible upon microscopic inspection. Hence, the fluorescence–based quantitative image cytometry determinations showed a tendency of decrease in both cell and nuclei size in trisomy, with no significant modification in nuclei circularity, as measured following actin cytoskeleton and nuclei labeling. The propensity of Ki67 positive cells was found to be increased in Down Syndrome derived cells (48.92% as compared to normal specimens (28.68%. However, cells in S and G2/M cell cycle phases decreased from 32.91% to 4.49% in diseased cells. Further studies are devoted to understanding the molecular basis of the observed differences in the proliferation ability of Down Syndrome amniotic cells, in order to evaluate the potential therapeutic effect of amniotic fluid stem cells for tissue regeneration in subjects with trisomy and to find correlations between amniotic cells phenotype and patient prognosis.

  7. The Challenge of Comparing Fluid Categories: Race and Class in Educational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Jackson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Race and class are two of the most significant factors associated with educational inequality within and across societies. However, their definitions and significance vary over time, and from one place to another. As subjective factors related to identity, they also impact on one another in their effects on educational access and equity. These issues create challenges for conducting comparative educational research that effectively explores one or both of these factors. This essay examines challenges employing race and class in comparative educational research. Race and class are analysed separately, illustrating that ethical and political issues, not just conceptual miscommunications, are at stake in defining and using these categories. The geographical and political complexity of using race and class are also reflected on more generally, and the argument is put forward that analytic and self-reflexive understanding of diversity is needed for the development of fruitful understanding of the relationship between race and class and educational equity and justice.

  8. Class categories and the subjective dimension of class: the case of Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer; Pedersen, Helene Helboe

    2017-09-15

    Class relations have been proven to affect various aspects of social life, even in modern individualized societies. However, following claims on individualization and the so-called 'death of class' thesis, studying the subjective dimension of class - that is, the way individuals perceive of class relations and their own position within them - has gone out of style. We argue that even in equalized societies, subjective class perceptions may still influence attitudes and behaviour as they evolve to fit modern class relations. To explore the existence as well as structure and content of perceived social classes, this article investigates how people describe society and social groups in focus group discussions. We find that groups in different positions in terms of education and economy all tend to apply hierarchical class categories to describe Danish society, which is normally seen as one of the most equal societies and political systems in the world. In addition, we find that economic resources serve as a baseline for the hierarchical ordering, often supplemented with notions of education, lifestyle and/or occupational profile. Even though people are somewhat uncomfortable with the notion of class, their descriptions of Danish society and classes are surprisingly similar within and across groups. We conclude that not only do class relations matter; people are also highly aware of the existing classes and able to position themselves and others according to their notion of classes. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  9. 14 CFR 25.1455 - Draining of fluids subject to freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Draining of fluids subject to freezing. 25.1455 Section 25.1455 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 25.1455 Draining of fluids subject to freezing. If fluids subject to freezing may be drained...

  10. A Study of Subject Overlap between the Main Categories of Knowledge Management within the Web of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Hazeri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although a relatively new discipline, Knowledge Management (KM is an area with a wide range of theoretical concepts and practical implications. The applicability of KM in different environments, and the vast value and benefits of its application, have led to great developments within the discipline over the last few years. The interdisciplinary nature of KM has also provided the opportunity for contributions by people from different disciplines, which in turn has lead to the rapid advancement of KM boundaries. This paper aims to examine the subject structure of the KM discipline through keyword analysis of documents in the Web of Science, using a hierarchical clustering approach and an inclusion index. Within the Web of Science categories, according to the findings, the three categories of "Management", "Computer Science Information Systems" and "Information Science Library Science" claim the highest number of documents in this area. Of 5570 author keywords, , 96 keywords are identified as "highly used" keywords. Three hierarchical clusters (dendrograms are formed from co-occurrence analysis of highly used keywords in the three categories. A comparison of these denrograms indicates that six clusters, including a total of 16 keywords, are common in the three categories. Looking at clusters of the three categories revealed that two categories - Management and Information Science Library Science - have 14 common/shared clusters, and therefore the highest degree of similarities. However, the category of Computer Science Information Systems, with 28 unique clusters, differs most markedly from the other two categories. To investigate the rate of common keywords from one category to another, the inclusion index is calculated. Results of this exercise indicate that the category of Information Science Library Science has the highest number of common keywords.

  11. How Search for Meaning Interacts with Complex Categories of Meaning in Life and Subjective Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damásio, Bruno Figueiredo; Koller, Sílvia Helena

    2015-03-03

    This study sought to assess how the search for meaning interacts with crisis of meaning and with different categories of meaning in life (meaningfulness, crisis of meaning, existential indifference, and existential conflict). Furthermore, the moderation role of search for meaning between the relation of categories of meaning and subjective well-being (SWB) was also evaluated. Participants included 3,034 subjects (63.9% women) ranging in age from 18 to 91 (M = 33.90; SD = 15.01) years old from 22 Brazilian states. Zero-order correlations and a factorial MANOVA were implemented. Positive low correlations were found for search for meaning and crisis of meaning (r = .258; p meaning presented a small-effect size moderation effect on the relation of the different categories of meaning with subjective happiness, F(6, 3008) = 2.698, p life, F(6, 3008) = .935, p = .47; η2 = .002. The differences on the levels of subjective happiness of those inserted in existential indifferent and conflicting categories differ depending on the levels of search for meaning. Further directions for future studies are proposed.

  12. Comparing journals from different fields of Science and Social Science through a JCR Subject Categories Normalized Impact Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Dorta-Gonzalez, Pablo; Dorta-Gonzalez, Maria Isabel

    2013-01-01

    The journal Impact Factor (IF) is not comparable among fields of Science and Social Science because of systematic differences in publication and citation behaviour across disciplines. In this work, a decomposing of the field aggregate impact factor into five normally distributed variables is presented. Considering these factors, a Principal Component Analysis is employed to find the sources of the variance in the JCR subject categories of Science and Social Science. Although publication and c...

  13. Investigation of gyroscopic effects in vibrating fluid-filled cylinders subjected to axial rotation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shatalov, MY

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available of the theory of gyroscopic effects in distributed structures. The model of a thick vibrating cylinder filled with a fluid and subjected to inertial rotation is analyzed. The dynamics of the cylinder is considered in terms of linear elasticity and the fluid...

  14. Fourier power, subjective distance and object categories all provide plausible models of BOLD responses in scene-selective visual areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Daniel Lescroart

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Perception of natural visual scenes activates several functional areas in the human brain, including the Parahippocampal Place Area (PPA, Retrosplenial Complex (RSC, and the Occipital Place Area (OPA. It is currently unclear what specific scene-related features are represented in these areas. Previous studies have suggested that PPA, RSC, and/or OPA might represent at least three qualitatively different classes of features: (1 2D features related to Fourier power; (2 3D spatial features such as the distance to objects in a scene; or (3 abstract features such as the categories of objects in a scene. To determine which of these hypotheses best describes the visual representation in scene-selective areas, we applied voxel-wise modeling (VM to BOLD fMRI responses elicited by a set of 1,386 images of natural scenes. VM provides an efficient method for testing competing hypotheses by comparing predictions of brain activity based on encoding models that instantiate each hypothesis. Here we evaluated three different encoding models that instantiate each of the three hypotheses listed above. We used linear regression to fit each encoding model to the fMRI data recorded from each voxel, and we evaluated each fit model by estimating the amount of variance it predicted in a withheld portion of the data set. We found that voxel-wise models based on Fourier power or the subjective distance to objects in each scene predicted much of the variance predicted by a model based on object categories. Furthermore, the response variance explained by these three models is largely shared, and the individual models explain little unique variance in responses. Based on an evaluation of previous studies and the data we present here, we conclude that there is currently no good basis to favor any one of the three alternative hypotheses about visual representation in scene-selective areas. We offer suggestions for further studies that may help resolve this issue.

  15. Fourier power, subjective distance, and object categories all provide plausible models of BOLD responses in scene-selective visual areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescroart, Mark D.; Stansbury, Dustin E.; Gallant, Jack L.

    2015-01-01

    Perception of natural visual scenes activates several functional areas in the human brain, including the Parahippocampal Place Area (PPA), Retrosplenial Complex (RSC), and the Occipital Place Area (OPA). It is currently unclear what specific scene-related features are represented in these areas. Previous studies have suggested that PPA, RSC, and/or OPA might represent at least three qualitatively different classes of features: (1) 2D features related to Fourier power; (2) 3D spatial features such as the distance to objects in a scene; or (3) abstract features such as the categories of objects in a scene. To determine which of these hypotheses best describes the visual representation in scene-selective areas, we applied voxel-wise modeling (VM) to BOLD fMRI responses elicited by a set of 1386 images of natural scenes. VM provides an efficient method for testing competing hypotheses by comparing predictions of brain activity based on encoding models that instantiate each hypothesis. Here we evaluated three different encoding models that instantiate each of the three hypotheses listed above. We used linear regression to fit each encoding model to the fMRI data recorded from each voxel, and we evaluated each fit model by estimating the amount of variance it predicted in a withheld portion of the data set. We found that voxel-wise models based on Fourier power or the subjective distance to objects in each scene predicted much of the variance predicted by a model based on object categories. Furthermore, the response variance explained by these three models is largely shared, and the individual models explain little unique variance in responses. Based on an evaluation of previous studies and the data we present here, we conclude that there is currently no good basis to favor any one of the three alternative hypotheses about visual representation in scene-selective areas. We offer suggestions for further studies that may help resolve this issue. PMID:26594164

  16. Airway symptoms and biological markers in nasal lavage fluid in subjects exposed to metalworking fluids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Fornander

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNDS: Occurrence of airway irritation among industrial metal workers was investigated. The aims were to study the association between exposures from water-based metal working fluids (MWF and the health outcome among the personnel, to assess potential effects on the proteome in nasal mucous membranes, and evaluate preventive actions. METHODS: The prevalence of airway symptoms related to work were examined among 271 metalworkers exposed to MWF and 24 metal workers not exposed to MWF at the same factory. At the same time, air levels of potentially harmful substances (oil mist, morpholine, monoethanolamine, formaldehyde generated from MWF was measured. Nasal lavage fluid was collected from 13 workers and 15 controls and protein profiles were determined by a proteomic approach. RESULTS: Airway symptoms were reported in 39% of the workers exposed to MWF although the measured levels of MWF substances in the work place air were low. Highest prevalence was found among workers handling the MWF machines but also those working in the same hall were affected. Improvement of the ventilation to reduce MWF exposure lowered the prevalence of airway problems. Protein profiling showed significantly higher levels of S100-A9 and lower levels of SPLUNC1, cystatin SN, Ig J and β2-microglobulin among workers with airway symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms that upper airway symptoms among metal workers are a common problem and despite low levels of MWF-generated substances, effects on airway immune proteins are found. Further studies to clarify the role of specific MWF components in connection to airway inflammation and the identified biological markers are warranted.

  17. The operationalization of "fields" as WoS subject categories (WCs) in evaluative bibliometrics: The cases of "library and information science" and "science & technology studies"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Bornmann, L.

    Normalization of citation scores using reference sets based on Web of Science subject categories (WCs) has become an established (“best”) practice in evaluative bibliometrics. For example, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings are, among other things, based on this operationalization.

  18. An Analysis of Document Category Prediction Responses to Classifier Model Parameter Treatment Permutations within the Software Design Patterns Subject Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankau, Brian L.

    2009-01-01

    This empirical study evaluates the document category prediction effectiveness of Naive Bayes (NB) and K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) classifier treatments built from different feature selection and machine learning settings and trained and tested against textual corpora of 2300 Gang-Of-Four (GOF) design pattern documents. Analysis of the experiment's…

  19. Effects of fluid shift on upper airway patency and neck circumference in normal-weight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yunqiang; Li, Yong; Liu, Zhaohui; Wang, Jianxia; Li, Ting; Xiong, Huahui; Yin, Hongxia; Zhang, Xinyue; Xian, Junfang; Huang, Yaqi

    2015-11-01

    Fluid shift from the lower body into the neck could narrow the upper airway (UA) and increase the propensity of its obstruction in people with obstructive sleep apnea. Although studies have demonstrated an increase in the neck circumference (NC) due to fluid shift, it remains unclear as to whether a large increase in NC means a large reduction in the cross-sectional area of the UA (CSA-UA). This study tested a hypothesis that a significant UA narrowing due to fluid redistribution is not necessarily linked to an apparent increase in NC, and vice versa. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies were performed on 30 male and 20 female normal-weight subjects. Fluid shift was achieved by raising their legs by >50°. The coordinates of the neck and UA boundaries were extracted from the MRI to calculate the NC and CSA-UA. After elevating the legs for 8 min, the CSA-UA was reduced by 27.6% while the NC increased by 1.5% in 50 subjects (p bedtime. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Characteristics of blood aggregation in human subjects of different age categories during normobaric interval hypo-oxytraining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbotina, L A; Stepanov, V K; Dvornikov, M V

    2006-01-01

    Blood aggregation was studied in human subjects of different age groups given normobaric hypooxytraining. The experiment was performed with participation of two groups of volunteers: experienced human subjects well-adapted to hypoxia and young non-adapted subjects. NOT protocol included 7 min of breathing hypoxic mixture (90% N2 and 10% O2) and 3 min of breathing atmospheric air at room temperature, 6 cycles every other day during one month. Blood aggregation was assessed by 26 parameters with the use of a multifunctional diagnostic system that permitted biophysical (rheologic), biochemical (coagulative) and mathematic (systemic) diagnostics. Two groups of the human subjects displayed significantly different reactions to of blood aggregation to the extreme factor (NOT). There was a marked dependence of the blood aggregation reaction to the hypoxic factor on the body protective-adaptive potential. Our data substantiate the need to develop NOT protocols for pilots of specific ages.

  1. Running interfacial waves in a two-layer fluid system subject to longitudinal vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldobin, D S; Pimenova, A V; Kovalevskaya, K V; Lyubimov, D V; Lyubimova, T P

    2015-05-01

    We study the waves at the interface between two thin horizontal layers of immiscible fluids subject to high-frequency horizontal vibrations. Previously, the variational principle for energy functional, which can be adopted for treatment of quasistationary states of free interface in fluid dynamical systems subject to vibrations, revealed the existence of standing periodic waves and solitons in this system. However, this approach does not provide regular means for dealing with evolutionary problems: neither stability problems nor ones associated with propagating waves. In this work, we rigorously derive the evolution equations for long waves in the system, which turn out to be identical to the plus (or good) Boussinesq equation. With these equations one can find all the time-independent-profile solitary waves (standing solitons are a specific case of these propagating waves), which exist below the linear instability threshold; the standing and slow solitons are always unstable while fast solitons are stable. Depending on initial perturbations, unstable solitons either grow in an explosive manner, which means layer rupture in a finite time, or falls apart into stable solitons. The results are derived within the long-wave approximation as the linear stability analysis for the flat-interface state [D.V. Lyubimov and A.A. Cherepanov, Fluid Dynamics 21, 849 (1986)] reveals the instabilities of thin layers to be long wavelength.

  2. The Operationalization of "Fields" as WoS Subject Categories (WCs) in Evaluative Bibliometrics: The cases of "Library and Information Science" and "Science & Technology Studies"

    OpenAIRE

    Leydesdorff, Loet; Bornmann, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Normalization of citation scores using reference sets based on Web-of-Science Subject Categories (WCs) has become an established ("best") practice in evaluative bibliometrics. For example, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings are, among other things, based on this operationalization. However, WCs were developed decades ago for the purpose of information retrieval and evolved incrementally with the database; the classification is machine-based and partially manually corrected. ...

  3. Controlled vaporized cannabis, with and without alcohol: subjective effects and oral fluid-blood cannabinoid relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Rebecca L; Brown, Timothy L; Milavetz, Gary; Spurgin, Andrew; Gorelick, David A; Gaffney, Gary; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2016-07-01

    Vaporized cannabis and concurrent cannabis and alcohol intake are commonplace. We evaluated the subjective effects of cannabis, with and without alcohol, relative to blood and oral fluid (OF, advantageous for cannabis exposure screening) cannabinoid concentrations and OF/blood and OF/plasma vaporized-cannabinoid relationships. Healthy adult occasional-to-moderate cannabis smokers received a vaporized placebo or active cannabis (2.9% and 6.7% Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol, THC) with or without oral low-dose alcohol (~0.065g/210L peak breath alcohol concentration [BrAC]) in a within-subjects design. Blood and OF were collected up to 8.3 h post-dose and subjective effects measured at matched time points with visual-analogue scales and 5-point Likert scales. Linear mixed models evaluated subjective effects by THC concentration, BrAC, and interactions. Effects by time point were evaluated by dose-wise analysis of variance (ANOVA). OF versus blood or plasma cannabinoid ratios and correlations were evaluated in paired-positive specimens. Nineteen participants (13 men) completed the study. Blood THC concentration or BrAC significantly associated with subjective effects including 'high', while OF contamination prevented significant OF concentration associations Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. HIV-1 viral escape in cerebrospinal fluid of subjects on suppressive antiretroviral treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edén, Arvid; Fuchs, Dietmar; Hagberg, Lars; Nilsson, Staffan; Spudich, Serena; Svennerholm, Bo; Price, Richard W; Gisslén, Magnus

    2010-12-15

    Occasional cases of viral escape in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) despite suppression of plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA have been reported. We investigated CSF viral escape in subjects treated with commonly used antiretroviral therapy regimens in relation to intrathecal immune activation and central nervous system penetration effectiveness (CPE) rank. Sixty-nine neurologically asymptomatic subjects treated with antiretroviral therapy >6 months and plasma HIV-1 RNA penetration effectiveness rank was not a significant predictor of detectable CSF virus or CSF neopterin levels. Viral escape in CSF is more common than previously reported, suggesting that low-grade central nervous system infection may continue in treated patients. Although these findings need extension in longitudinal studies, they suggest the utility of monitoring CSF responses, as new treatment combinations and strategies modify clinical practice.

  5. Three-dimensional computational modeling of subject-specific cerebrospinal fluid flow in the subarachnoid space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sumeet; Soellinger, Michaela; Boesiger, Peter; Poulikakos, Dimos; Kurtcuoglu, Vartan

    2009-02-01

    This study aims at investigating three-dimensional subject-specific cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics in the inferior cranial space, the superior spinal subarachnoid space (SAS), and the fourth cerebral ventricle using a combination of a finite-volume computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments. An anatomically accurate 3D model of the entire SAS of a healthy volunteer was reconstructed from high resolution T2 weighted MRI data. Subject-specific pulsatile velocity boundary conditions were imposed at planes in the pontine cistern, cerebellomedullary cistern, and in the spinal subarachnoid space. Velocimetric MRI was used to measure the velocity field at these boundaries. A constant pressure boundary condition was imposed at the interface between the aqueduct of Sylvius and the fourth ventricle. The morphology of the SAS with its complex trabecula structures was taken into account through a novel porous media model with anisotropic permeability. The governing equations were solved using finite-volume CFD. We observed a total pressure variation from -42 Pa to 40 Pa within one cardiac cycle in the investigated domain. Maximum CSF velocities of about 15 cms occurred in the inferior section of the aqueduct, 14 cms in the left foramen of Luschka, and 9 cms in the foramen of Magendie. Flow velocities in the right foramen of Luschka were found to be significantly lower than in the left, indicating three-dimensional brain asymmetries. The flow in the cerebellomedullary cistern was found to be relatively diffusive with a peak Reynolds number (Re)=72, while the flow in the pontine cistern was primarily convective with a peak Re=386. The net volumetric flow rate in the spinal canal was found to be negligible despite CSF oscillation with substantial amplitude with a maximum volumetric flow rate of 109 mlmin. The observed transient flow patterns indicate a compliant behavior of the cranial subarachnoid space. Still, the estimated

  6. Category fluency test: effects of age, gender and education on total scores, clustering and switching in Brazilian Portuguese-speaking subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brucki S.M.D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Verbal fluency tests are used as a measure of executive functions and language, and can also be used to evaluate semantic memory. We analyzed the influence of education, gender and age on scores in a verbal fluency test using the animal category, and on number of categories, clustering and switching. We examined 257 healthy participants (152 females and 105 males with a mean age of 49.42 years (SD = 15.75 and having a mean educational level of 5.58 (SD = 4.25 years. We asked them to name as many animals as they could. Analysis of variance was performed to determine the effect of demographic variables. No significant effect of gender was observed for any of the measures. However, age seemed to influence the number of category changes, as expected for a sensitive frontal measure, after being controlled for the effect of education. Educational level had a statistically significant effect on all measures, except for clustering. Subject performance (mean number of animals named according to schooling was: illiterates, 12.1; 1 to 4 years, 12.3; 5 to 8 years, 14.0; 9 to 11 years, 16.7, and more than 11 years, 17.8. We observed a decrease in performance in these five educational groups over time (more items recalled during the first 15 s, followed by a progressive reduction until the fourth interval. We conclude that education had the greatest effect on the category fluency test in this Brazilian sample. Therefore, we must take care in evaluating performance in lower educational subjects.

  7. Adhesive Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lack, Stephen; Sobocinski, Pawel

    2003-01-01

    We introduce adhesive categories, which are categories with structure ensuring that pushouts along monomorphisms are well-behaved. Many types of graphical structures used in computer science are shown to be examples of adhesive categories. Double-pushout graph rewriting generalises well...... to rewriting on arbitrary adhesive categories....

  8. Adhesive Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lack, Stephen; Sobocinski, Pawel

    2004-01-01

    We introduce adhesive categories, which are categories with structure ensuring that pushouts along monomorphisms are well-behaved. Many types of graphical structures used in computer science are shown to be examples of adhesive categories. Double-pushout graph rewriting generalises well...... to rewriting on arbitrary adhesive categories....

  9. Fluid-structure interaction analysis for pressurizer surge line subjected to thermal stratification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dong Gu [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 19 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-338 (Korea, Republic of); Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jhung, Myung Jo, E-mail: mjj@kins.re.k [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 19 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-338 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: Temperature of surge line due to stratified flow is defined using CFD analysis. Fluid-structure interaction analysis is performed to investigate the response characteristics due to thermal stress. Fatigue usage factors due to thermal stratification are relatively low. Simplifying temperature distribution in surge line is not always conservative. - Abstract: Serious mechanical damages such as cracks and plastic deformations due to excessive thermal stress caused by thermal stratification have been experienced in several nuclear power plants. In particular, the thermal stratification in the pressurizer surge line has been addressed as one of the significant safety and technical issues. In this study, a detailed unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis involving conjugate heat transfer analysis is performed to obtain the transient temperature distributions in the wall of the pressurizer surge line subjected to stratified internal flows either during out-surge or in-surge operation. The thermal loads from CFD calculations are transferred to the structural analysis code which is employed for the thermal stress analysis to investigate the response characteristics, and the fatigue analysis is ultimately performed. In addition, the thermal stress and fatigue analysis results obtained by applying the realistic temperature distributions from CFD calculations are compared with those by assuming the simplified temperature distributions to identify some requirements for a realistic and conservative thermal stress analysis from a safety point of view.

  10. The correlation of serum and gingival crevicular fluid cytokines in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, Robert A; Zee, Kwan-Yat; Arora, Manish

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of IL-6 and TNF-alpha with the levels in serum in obese patients. Twenty-six obese adults (BMI > or = 30, age 33-74) provided serum and GCF samples. Smokers and uncontrolled diabetics (HbA1c > 8%) were excluded. Serum and GCF samples were analysed for IL-6 and TNF-alpha using commercially available ELISA kits. Within each subject GCF was collected from two healthy sites (n = 26 subjects) and two gingivitis sites, defined by bleeding on probing (n = 22 subjects). The levels of IL-6 and TNF-alpha in the GCF were compared and correlated with the levels found in serum using Spearman's correlation analysis. A Bland-Altman analysis was used to determine the level of agreement between serum and GCF samples. IL-6 was more frequently detected than TNF-alpha. This was consistent in serum (100% vs 64%) and GCF samples from healthy (73% vs 52%) and gingivitis (95% vs 36%) sites. There were no significant correlations between the TNF-alpha in serum and GCF samples from healthy (r = 0.27, p = 0.22) and gingivitis (r = -0.19, p = 0.40) sites. In contrast, positive correlations were found for IL-6 between serum and GCF samples from healthy (r = 0.48, p = 0.03) and gingivitis (r = 0.79, p = 0.0001) sites. The correlation and agreement was strongest for IL-6 between serum and gingivitis GCF samples. The results of this pilot study suggest a lack of correlation and poor agreement between serum and GCF samples in obese subjects. Studies examining the link between periodontitis and obesity should consider collecting both serum and GCF.

  11. The lifetime prevalence, health services utilization and risk of suicide of bipolar spectrum subjects, including subthreshold categories in the São Paulo ECA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Doris Hupfeld; Andrade, Laura Helena

    2005-08-01

    Identifying the bipolar (BP) spectrum, including the classic Bipolar I subtype (BP-I), Bipolar II (BP-II) and subthreshold bipolar disorders not meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria has raised growing interest, as these softer expressions of bipolar spectrum have been underdiagnosed in spite of clinical consequences. Data are from the Sao Paulo Epidemiological Catchment Area Study (N=1464). Non-affective controls were compared to BP spectrum groups, based on DSM-IIIR and on the "clinical significance" criteria: Subsyndromal Hypomania (SSH) and Manic Symptoms (MS). The lifetime prevalence of BP subgroups was 8.3% (N=122). All BP-I and -II and around 75% of SSH and MS subjects had a lifetime depressive syndrome. Compared to controls and MS subjects, BP-I, BP-II and SSH groups searched more medical help and mental health services. SSH group displayed higher rates of clinical significance than BP-I subjects, and suicidality was higher in BP groups compared to controls. Even the softer MS group had higher rate of suicide attempts than SSH subjects. This is a cross-sectional study and interviews were conducted by lay personnel. Replication in bigger community samples using a mood spectrum approach is necessary to confirm these findings. However, our findings were very similar to those obtained by other authors. Softer expressions of BP disorders appear in 6.6% of this community sample and have serious clinical consequences, which supports the importance of including these categories in the BP spectrum.

  12. Crime, sujeito e sujeição criminal: aspectos de uma contribuição analítica sobre a categoria "bandido" Crime, subject and criminal subjection: aspects of a contribution towards bandit category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Misse

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O autor toma, neste artigo, o conceito de "sujeição criminal" (Misse, 1999, visando contribuir para uma melhor compreensão de como opera a categoria "bandido" na sociedade brasileira. Nesse sentido, recupera temas contemporâneos da chamada "teoria do sujeito" bem como das abordagens clássicas sobre ator e agência, rótulo e estigma, para melhor definir o conjunto de questões envolvidas em sua contribuição.In this article the author recovers the concept of "criminal subjection" (Misse, 1999, to contribute to a better understanding of how operates the category of "bandido" (bandit in Brazilian society. In this sense, the contemporary themes of the so-called "theory of the subject" are discussed as well as the classical approaches of actor and agency, label and stigma, to better define the range of issues involved in its contribution.

  13. Quantifying Beta-Galactosylceramide Kinetics in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Healthy Subjects Using Deuterium Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanhai, Kms; Goulooze, S C; Stevens, J; Hay, J L; Dent, G; Verma, A; Hankemeier, T; de Boer, T; Meijering, H; Chavez, J C; Cohen, A F; Groeneveld, G J

    2016-12-01

    Therapeutics promoting myelin synthesis may enhance recovery in demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis. However, no suitable method exists to quantify myelination. The turnover of galactosylceramide (myelin component) is indicative of myelination in mice, but its turnover has not been determined in humans. Here, six healthy subjects consumed 120 mL 70% D2 O daily for 70 days to label galactosylceramide. We then used mass spectrometry and compartmental modeling to quantify the turnover rate of galactosylceramide in cerebrospinal fluid. Maximum deuterium enrichment of body water ranged from 1.5-3.9%, whereas that of galactosylceramide was much lower: 0.05-0.14%. This suggests a slow turnover rate, which was confirmed by the model-estimated galactosylceramide turnover rate of 0.00168 day-1 , which corresponds to a half-life of 413 days. Additional studies in patients with multiple sclerosis are needed to investigate whether galactosylceramide turnover could be used as an outcome measure in clinical trials with remyelination therapies. © 2016 The Authors. Clinical and Translational Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  14. A Lumped-Parameter Subject-Specific Model of Blood Volume Response to Fluid Infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Bighamian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a lumped-parameter model that can reproduce blood volume response to fluid infusion. The model represents the fluid shift between the intravascular and interstitial compartments as the output of a hypothetical feedback controller that regulates the ratio between the volume changes in the intravascular and interstitial fluid at a target value (called target volume ratio. The model is characterized by only three parameters: the target volume ratio, feedback gain (specifying the speed of fluid shift, and initial blood volume. This model can obviate the need to incorporate complex mechanisms involved in the fluid shift in reproducing blood volume response to fluid infusion. The ability of the model to reproduce real-world blood volume response to fluid infusion was evaluated by fitting it to a series of data reported in the literature. The model reproduced the data accurately with average error and root-mean-squared error (RMSE of 0.6 % and 9.5 % across crystalloid and colloid fluids when normalized by the underlying responses. Further, the parameters derived for the model showed physiologically plausible behaviors. It was concluded that this simple model may accurately reproduce a variety of blood volume responses to fluid infusion throughout different physiological states by fitting three parameters to a given dataset. This offers a tool that can quantify the fluid shift in a dataset given the measured fractional blood volumes.

  15. A Lumped-Parameter Subject-Specific Model of Blood Volume Response to Fluid Infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bighamian, Ramin; Reisner, Andrew T; Hahn, Jin-Oh

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a lumped-parameter model that can reproduce blood volume response to fluid infusion. The model represents the fluid shift between the intravascular and interstitial compartments as the output of a hypothetical feedback controller that regulates the ratio between the volume changes in the intravascular and interstitial fluid at a target value (called "target volume ratio"). The model is characterized by only three parameters: the target volume ratio, feedback gain (specifying the speed of fluid shift), and initial blood volume. This model can obviate the need to incorporate complex mechanisms involved in the fluid shift in reproducing blood volume response to fluid infusion. The ability of the model to reproduce real-world blood volume response to fluid infusion was evaluated by fitting it to a series of data reported in the literature. The model reproduced the data accurately with average error and root-mean-squared error (RMSE) of 0.6 and 9.5% across crystalloid and colloid fluids when normalized by the underlying responses. Further, the parameters derived for the model showed physiologically plausible behaviors. It was concluded that this simple model may accurately reproduce a variety of blood volume responses to fluid infusion throughout different physiological states by fitting three parameters to a given dataset. This offers a tool that can quantify the fluid shift in a dataset given the measured fractional blood volumes.

  16. Chemokine Concentrations and Mast Cell Chemotactic Activity in BAL Fluid in Patients With Eosinophilic Bronchitis and Asthma, and in Normal Control Subjects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woodman, Lucy; Sutcliffe, Amanda; Kaur, Davinder; Berry, Mike; Bradding, Peter; Pavord, Ian D; Brightling, Christopher E

    2006-01-01

    ...: To investigate the concentration of chemokines in bronchial wash samples and BAL fluid, and the mast cell chemotactic activity in BAL fluid from subjects with asthma and eosinophilic bronchitis...

  17. A Lumped-Parameter Subject-Specific Model of Blood Volume Response to Fluid Infusion

    OpenAIRE

    Ramin Bighamian; Andrew Reisner; Jin-Oh Hahn

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a lumped-parameter model that can reproduce blood volume response to fluid infusion. The model represents the fluid shift between the intravascular and interstitial compartments as the output of a hypothetical feedback controller that regulates the ratio between the volume changes in the intravascular and interstitial fluid at a target value (called target volume ratio). The model is characterized by only three parameters: the target volume ratio, feedback gain (specifyi...

  18. Water flow patterns induced by bridge oscillation of magnetic fluid between two permanent magnets subjected to alternating magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudo, Seiichi, E-mail: sudo@akita-pu.ac.jp [Faculty of Systems Science and Technology, Akita Prefectural University, Ebinokuchi 84-4, Yurihonjo 015-0055 (Japan); Yamamoto, Kazuki [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Ishimoto, Yukitaka; Nix, Stephanie [Faculty of Systems Science and Technology, Akita Prefectural University, Ebinokuchi 84-4, Yurihonjo 015-0055 (Japan)

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of water flow induced by the bridge oscillation of magnetic fluid between two permanent magnets subject to an external alternating magnetic field. The magnetic fluid bridge is formed in the space between a pair of identical coaxial cylindrical permanent magnets submerged in water. The direction of alternating magnetic field is parallel /antiparallel to the magnetic field produced by two permanent magnets. The magnetic fluid bridge responds to the external alternating magnetic field with harmonic oscillation. The oscillation of magnetic fluid bridge generates water flow around the bridge. Water flow is visualized using a thin milk film at the container bottom. Water flows are observed with a high-speed video camera analysis system. The experimental results show that the flow pattern induced by the bridge oscillation depends on the Keulegan–Carpenter number.

  19. Comparison of PRRSV Nucleic Acid and Antibody Detection in Pen-Based Oral Fluid and Individual Serum Samples in Three Different Age Categories of Post-Weaning Pigs from Endemically Infected Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Regge, Nick; Cay, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the causative agent of an economically important disease in swine. Since it has been shown that PRRSV and PRRSV specific antibodies can be detected in oral fluid, many different aspects have been studied to show that oral fluid could be a worthy alternative diagnostic sample to serum for monitoring and surveillance of this disease. Thorough field evaluations are however missing to convincingly show its usefulness under representative field conditions. Methodology Pen-based oral fluid samples and serum samples from all individual pigs in the corresponding pens were collected from post-weaning pigs of three different age categories in eight endemically PRRSV infected farms and one PRRSV free farm in Belgium. All samples were tested by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and ELISA to detect PRRSV RNA and PRRSV specific antibodies, respectively. Results While the relative specificity of PRRSV detection by qRT-PCR in pen-based oral fluid compared to serum collected from individual pigs was high in all age categories (>90%), the relative sensitivity decreased with the age of the pigs (89, 93 and 10% in 8-12w, 16-20w and 24-28w old pigs, respectively). The latter correlated with a lower percentage of PRRSV positive pigs in serum/pen in the different age categories (55, 29 and 6%, respectively). Irrespective of the age category, pen-based oral fluid samples were always found PCR positive when at least 30% of the individual pigs were positive in serum. PRRSV specific antibody detection in oral fluid by ELISA showed a 100% relative sensitivity to detection in serum since oral fluid samples were always positive as soon as one pig in the pen was positive in serum. On the other hand, two false positive oral fluid samples in 11 pens without serum positive pigs were found, resulting in a relative specificity of 82%. Indications are however present that the oral fluid

  20. Contested Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drawing on social science perspectives, Contested Categories presents a series of empirical studies that engage with the often shifting and day-to-day realities of life sciences categories. In doing so, it shows how such categories remain contested and dynamic, and that the boundaries they create...... to life science categories. With contributions from an international team of scholars, this book will be essential reading for anyone interested in the social, legal, policy and ethical implications of science and technology and the life sciences....

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid A beta 42 is the best predictor of clinical progression in patients with subjective complaints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Harten, A.C.; Visser, P.J.; Pijnenburg, Y.A.L.; Teunissen, C.E.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Scheltens, P.; van der Flier, W.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The need to recognize Alzheimer's disease (AD) as early as possible led us to evaluate the predictive value of amyloid β(1-42) (Aβ42), total tau (tau), and phosphorylated tau (ptau) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for clinical progression in patients with subjective complaints. Methods: We

  2. Categorial Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, E.; Reichel, H.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we present a denotational semantics for a class of database definition languages. We present a language, called categorial graph language, that combines both graphical and textual phrases and is tailored to define databases. The categorial graph language is modeled after a number of

  3. Single subject design: Use of time series analyses in a small cohort to understand adherence with a prescribed fluid restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Carolyn Miller; Higgins, Melinda; Smith, Andrew; Culler, Steven D; Dunbar, Sandra B

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a secondary in-depth analysis of five persons with heart failure randomized to receive an education and behavioral intervention on fluid restriction as part of a larger study. Using a single subject analysis design, time series analyses models were constructed for each of the five patients for a period of 180 days to determine correlations between daily measures of patient reported fluid intake, thoracic impedance, and weights, and relationships between patient reported outcomes of symptom burden and health related quality of life over time. Negative relationships were observed between fluid intake and thoracic impedance, and between impedance and weight, while positive correlations were observed between daily fluid intake and weight. By constructing time series analyses of daily measures of fluid congestion, trends and patterns of fluid congestion emerged which could be used to guide individualized patient care or future research endeavors. Employment of such a specialized analysis technique allows for the elucidation of clinically relevant findings potentially disguised when only evaluating aggregate outcomes of larger studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. PROFESSIONAL CATEGORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Fildan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The transition process which Romanian commercial law underwent has affected both the term of ‘trader’, by redefining it, and the classification of professional categories. Currently, the term of ‘professional’ is conveyed by a descriptive listing of the categories of persons it comprises: traders, entrepreneurs, business operators, as well as any other person authorized to carry out economic or professional activities.

  5. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  6. Slip behaviour of carbonate-bearing faults subjected to fluid pressure stimulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collettini, Cristiano; Scuderi, Marco; Marone, Chris

    2017-04-01

    Earthquakes caused by fluid injection within reservoir have become an important topic of political and social discussion as new drilling and improved technologies enable the extraction of oil and gas from previously unproductive formations. During reservoir stimulation, the coupled interactions of frictional and fluid flow properties together with the stress state control both the onset of fault slip and fault slip behaviour. However, currently, there are no studies under controlled, laboratory conditions for which the effect of fluid pressure on fault slip behaviour can be deduced. To cover this gap, we have developed laboratory experiments where we monitor fault slip evolution at constant shear stress but with increasing fluid pressure, i.e. reducing the effective normal stress. Experiments have been conducted in the double direct shear configuration within a pressure vessel on carbonate fault gouge, characterized by a slightly velocity strengthening friction that is indicative of stable aseismic creep. In our experiments fault slip history can be divided in three main stages: 1) for high effective normal stress the fault is locked and undergoes compaction; 2) when the shear and effective normal stress reach the failure condition, accelerated creep is associated to fault dilation; 3) further pressurization leads to an exponential acceleration during fault compaction and slip localization. Our results indicate that fault weakening induced by fluid pressurization overcomes the velocity strengthening behaviour of calcite gouge, resulting in fast acceleration and earthquake slip. As applied to tectonic faults our results suggest that a larger number of crustal faults, including those slightly velocity strengthening, can experience earthquake slip due to fluid pressurization.

  7. Oxidation of Iron under Physiologically Relevant Conditions in Biological Fluids from Healthy and Alzheimer's Disease Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Linh Q; Wong, Bruce X; Frugier, Tony; Li, Qiao-Xin; Collins, Steven J; Bush, Ashley I; Crack, Peter J; Duce, James A

    2017-04-19

    Ferroxidase activity has been reported to be altered in various biological fluids in neurodegenerative disease, but the sources contributing to the altered activity are uncertain. Here we assay fractions of serum and cerebrospinal fluid with a newly validated triplex ferroxidase assay. Our data indicate that while ceruloplasmin, a multicopper ferroxidase, is the predominant source of serum activity, activity in CSF predominantly derives from a <10 kDa component, specifically from polyanions such as citrate and phosphate. We confirm that in human biological samples, ceruloplasmin activity in serum is decreased in Alzheimer's disease, but in CSF a reduction of activity in Alzheimer's disease originates from the polyanion component.

  8. Tensor categories

    CERN Document Server

    Etingof, Pavel; Nikshych, Dmitri; Ostrik, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Is there a vector space whose dimension is the golden ratio? Of course not-the golden ratio is not an integer! But this can happen for generalizations of vector spaces-objects of a tensor category. The theory of tensor categories is a relatively new field of mathematics that generalizes the theory of group representations. It has deep connections with many other fields, including representation theory, Hopf algebras, operator algebras, low-dimensional topology (in particular, knot theory), homotopy theory, quantum mechanics and field theory, quantum computation, theory of motives, etc. This bo

  9. A Comparison in Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in the Gingival Crevicular Fluid from Subjects with Periodontitis and Healthy Individuals using Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Salehi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori among the microorganisms isolated from the oral environment brings up the question of whether oral cavity acts as a reservoir for this bacterium. The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the prevalence of H. pylori in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF of patients with chronic periodontitis (CP as an infectious disease and healthy subjects using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Materials and methods. Periodontal examination was performed for all participants. Two sterilized paper points were inserted to the maximum depth of the periodontal pockets of selected teeth. The presence of H. pylori was determined by PCR. In the CP group, the severity of disease was defined as moderate or severe. Further, the frequency of Helicobacter pylori in GCF of each category, and the association between the presence of Helicobacter pylori in GCF and periodontitis were determined. Results. There was no statistically significant association between CP and the presence of H. pylori in the GCF (P = 0.62, there was no significant correlation between the presence of H. pylori in the GCF and gender of the subjects (P = 0.28 in CP group and P = 0.25 in control group, and there was no significant correlation between the presence of H. pylori in the GCF and severity of periodontitis (P = 0.20. Conclusion. Oral cavity acts as a reservoir for H. pylori; however, the results do not show that H. pylori is involved in periodontal disease

  10. Protein carbonyl: An oxidative stress marker in gingival crevicular fluid in healthy, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avani R Pradeep

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A defined role for reactive oxygen species (ROS in the tissue destruction that characterizes periodontitis has been described. Protein carbonyl (PC is the most widely used biomarker for oxidative damage to proteins, and reflects cellular damage induced by multiple forms of ROS. The purpose of this study is to determine the presence of PC in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF in healthy, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis (CP subjects and to find an association, if any. Materials and Methods: A total number of 75 subjects (38 males and 37 females were selected based on their clinical parameters into three groups: Group 1 (25 healthy subjects, Group 2 (25 gingivitis subjects, and Group 3 (25 CP subjects. GCF samples were collected to estimate the levels of PC. Results: The PC concentration in GCF was highest in subjects with CP as compared to gingivitis and healthy subjects and a significant association was observed between GCF PC levels and all periodontal parameters. Conclusion: There was an increase in PC levels in GCF as the disease process progressed from healthy to gingivitis and CP, suggesting a role for increased oxidative stress in CP.

  11. Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis for Pressurizer Surge Line subjected to Thermal Stratification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dong Gu; Jhung, Myung Jo; Yang, Chae Yong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Fluid-Structure Interactions (FSIs) occurring inevitably in operating reactor component systems can cause excessive force or stress to the structures resulting in mechanical damages that may eventually threaten the structural integrity of components. To solve FSI problems, results from one field (fluid-thermal) analysis are applied as loads in other fields (structural) analysis. If two media with different densities flow inside a pipe, thermal stratification can occur. Warm water is lighter than cool water and therefore tends to float on top of the cooler and heavier water, resulting in the upper portion of the pipe being hotter than the lower portion. Under these conditions, differential thermal expansion of the pipe metal can cause the pipe to deflect significantly. Unexpected piping movements are highly undesirable because of potential high piping stress that may exceed design limits for fatigue and stress. In PWRs, there are great possibilities of occurrence of thermal stratification at the feed water lines of the steam generator, at the pressurizer surge line and at the injection pipes of the emergency core cooling systems. The most affected pipe by the thermal stratification is reported to be the pressurizer surge line. Therefore in this study, a thermal-stress simulation is performed using ANSYS FSI. For the pressurizer surge line, thermal loads are transferred from ANSYS CFX to ANSYS Multiphysics in order to determine the heat transfer between the fluid and the solid body. From this information, stresses are determined and ultimately a fatigue analysis is performed

  12. A computational analysis subject to thermophysical aspects of Sisko fluid flow over a cylindrical surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awais, M.; Khalil-Ur-Rehman; Malik, M. Y.; Hussain, Arif; Salahuddin, T.

    2017-09-01

    The present analysis is devoted to probing the salient features of the mixed convection and non-linear thermal radiation effects on non-Newtonian Sisko fluid flow over a linearly stretching cylindrical surface. Properties of heat transfer are outlined via variable thermal conductivity and convective boundary conditions. The boundary layer approach is implemented to construct the mathematical model in the form of partial differential equations. Then, the requisite PDEs are transmuted into a complex ordinary differential system by invoking appropriate dimensionless variables. Solution of subsequent ODEs is obtained by utilizing the Runge-Kutta algorithm (fifth order) along with the shooting scheme. The graphical illustrations are presented to interpret the features of the involved pertinent flow parameters on concerning profiles. For a better description of the fluid flow, numerical variations in local skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number are scrutinized in tables. From thorough analysis, it is inferred that the mixed convection parameter and the curvature parameter increase the velocity while temperature shows a different behavior. Additionally, both momentum and thermal distribution of fluid flow decrease with increasing values of the non-linearity index. Furthermore, variable thermal parameter and heat generation/absorption parameter amplify the temperature significantly. The skin friction is an increasing function of all momentum controlling parameters. The local Nusselt number also shows a similar behavior against heat radiation parameter and variable thermal conductivity parameter while it shows a dual nature for the heat generation/absorption parameter. Finally, the obtained results are validated by comparison with the existing literature and hence the correctness of the analysis is proved.

  13. Band instability in near-critical fluids subjected to vibration under weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubimova, T.; Ivantsov, A.; Garrabos, Y.; Lecoutre, C.; Gandikota, G.; Beysens, D.

    2017-01-01

    Periodical patterns (bands) developing at the interface of two immiscible fluids under vibration parallel to interface are observed under zero-gravity conditions. Fluids are slightly below their liquid-vapor critical point where they behave in a scaled, universal manner. In addition, liquid and vapor densities are close and surface tension is very low. Linear stability analyses and direct numerical simulation show that this instability, although comparable to the frozen wave instability observed in a gravity field, is nonetheless noticeably different when gravity becomes zero. In particular, the neutral curve minimum corresponds to the long-wave perturbations with k =0 and zero dimensionless vibrational parameter, corresponding to no instability threshold. The pattern wavelength thus corresponds to the wavelength of the perturbations with maximal growth rate. This wavelength differs substantially from the neutral perturbations wavelength at the same vibrational parameter value. The role of viscosity is highlighted in the pattern formation, with a critical wavelength dependence on vibration parameters that strongly depends on viscosity. These results compare well with experimental observations performed in the liquid-vapor phases near the critical point of C O2 (in weightlessness) and H2 (under magnetic levitation).

  14. Thyroid Autoantibodies in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Subjects with and without Thyroid Disease: Implications for Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Ilias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Plasma antithyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (anti-Tg are widely used in the diagnosis of autoimmune thyroiditis. No research has compared anti-TPO and anti-Tg both in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of healthy individuals vis-à-vis patients with thyroid disease. Methods. We measured anti-TPO and anti-Tg antibodies in plasma and CSF in nine subjects (mean age ± SD: 73 ± 6 years with hypothyroidism and nine subjects (mean age ± SD: 73 ± 8 years without thyroid disease. Results. The concentration of anti-TPO autoantibodies in CSF was very low compared to plasma in both subjects with thyroid and without thyroid disease (P=0.007. CSF anti-Tg autoantibodies titers were very low compared to the plasma in subjects with thyroid disease (P=0.004, whereas, in subjects without thyroid disease, this difference did not reach statistical significance (P=0.063. Conclusions. Thyroid autoantibodies levels were low in plasma and CSF; we did not observe any transfer of thyroid autoantibodies from the peripheral blood to the CSF. Therefore, regarding Hashimoto’s encephalopathy, where elevated antithyroid autoantibodies are often measured in blood, it is more likely that thyroiditis and encephalopathy represent nonspecific, but distinct, events of an aggressive immune system.

  15. Effect of potassium and calcium loading on healthy subjects under hypokinesia and physical exercise with fluid and salt supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Naexu, Konstantin A.; Federenko, Youri F.

    1995-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the acute responses to the electrolyte challenges under hypokinesia and physical exercise (PE) of different intensities with fluid and salt supplementation (FSS). The studies were performed on 12 physically healthy male volunteers aged 19-24 years under 364 days of hypokinesia (decreased number of steps per day) with a set of PE with FSS. The volunteers were divided into two equal groups. The first group was subjected to a set of intensive PE and the second group was submitted to a set of moderate PE. Both groups of subjects consumed daily water and salt supplements that aimed to increase the body hydration level. For simulation of the hypokinetic effect all subjects were kept under an average of 3000 steps per day. Functional tests with a potassium chloride (KCl) and calcium lactate (Cal) load were performed during the hypokinetic period of 364 days and the 60-day prehypokinetic period that served as control, while both groups of subjects consumed daily calcium and potassium supplements. The concentration of electrolyte and hormone levels in the blood and their excretion rate in urine were determined. Renal excretion of calcium and potassium and the blood concentration thereof increased markedly in both groups of subjects. With the potassium chloride load tests the increased potassium excretion was accompanied by higher aldosterone and insulin blood levels, and with the calcium lactate load tests the increased calcium excretion was accompanied by a decreased parathyroid content in the blood. FSS and PE, regardless of intensity, failed to attenuate calcium and potassium losses. Additional intake of KCl and Cal also failed to normalize potassium and calcium abnormalities. It was concluded that during the KCl and Cal loading tests, the increased losses of potassium and calcium in the hypokinetic subjects were due to the inability of their bodies to retain these electrolytes, and that electrolyte abnormalities could

  16. Large Deformation of an Elastic Rod with Structural Anisotropy Subjected to Fluid Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Masoud; Mureithi, Njuki; Gosselin, Frederick

    2015-11-01

    In the present work, we seek to understand the fundamental mechanisms of three-dimensional reconfiguration of plants by studying the large deformation of a flexible rod in fluid flow. Flexible rods made of Polyurethane foam and reinforced with Nylon fibers are tested in a wind tunnel. The rods have bending-torsion coupling which induces a torsional deformation during asymmetric bending. A mathematical model is also developed by coupling the Kirchhoff rod theory with a semi-empirical drag formulation. Different alignments of the material frame with respect to the flow direction and a range of structural properties are considered to study their effect on the deformation of the flexible rod and its drag scaling. Results show that twisting causes the flexible rods to reorient and bend with the minimum bending rigidity. It is also found that the drag scaling of the rod in the large deformation regime is not affected by torsion. Finally, using a proper set of dimensionless numbers, the state of a bending and twisting rod is characterized as a beam undergoing a pure bending deformation.

  17. Inviscid linear stability analysis of two fluid columns of different densities subject to gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathama, Aditya; Pantano, Carlos

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the inviscid linear stability of vertical interface between two fluid columns of different densities under the influence of gravity. In this flow arrangement, the two free streams are continuously accelerating, in contrast to the canonical Kelvin-Helmholtz or Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities whose base flows are stationary (or weakly time dependent). In these classical cases, the temporal evolution of the interface can be expressed as Fourier or Laplace solutions in time. This is not possible in our case; instead, we employ the initial value problem method to solve the equations analytically. The results, expressed in terms of the well-known parabolic cylinder function, indicate that the instability grows as the exponential of a quadratic function of time. The analysis shows that in this accelerating Kelvin-Helmholtz configuration, the interface is unconditionally unstable at all wave modes, despite the presence of surface tension. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (Award No. DE-NA0002382) and the California Institute of Technology.

  18. Fluid electrolyte changes in trained subjects after water loading and during restriction of muscular activity and chronic hyperhydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorbas, Y G; Federenko, Y F; Naexu, K A

    1996-09-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine fluid electrolyte changes after water-loading tests and during hypokinesia (decreased number of km taken per day) and daily intake of fluid and salt supplementation (FSS). The studies during hypokinesia (HK) were performed for 364 d on 30 endurance-trained male volunteers in the age range of 23-26 yr, with an average peak oxygen uptake, POU, of 64 mL/kg/min. All volunteers were divided into three equal groups: 10 volunteers were placed on a continuous regime of exercise of 14.4 km/d and served as control subjects (CS); 10 volunteers were submitted to continuous HK without FSS and were considered as the unsupplemented hypokinetic subjects (UHS); and 10 volunteers were under continuous HK and FSS and were considered as the supplemented hypokinetic subjects (SHS). For the simulation of the hypokinetic effect, the UHS and SHS groups were kept continuously under an average of 2.7 km/d for the duration of the study. Prior to exposure to HK, the two groups of volunteers were on the same exercise regime as the control group. During a 60-d preexperimental period and during the remainder of the study, water-loading tests with a water load of 20 mL/kg body wt/min were performed, and urinary and plasma electrolytes (sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium) were measured. In the SHS group, urinary excretion of electrolytes and plasma electrolyte content decreased, while in the UHS these values increased after water loading tests and during HK. Based on the obtained data, it is concluded that chronic hyperhydration may be used to prevent or minimize urinary and plasma electrolyte changes in endurance-trained volunteers after water-loading tests and during prolonged restriction of muscular activity.

  19. Organizational Categories as Viewing Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    I elucidate how the two rehabilitation organizations local history, legislation, structural features of the present labour market and of social work result in a number of contradictions which make it difficult to deliver client-centred care. This exact goal is according to the staff one of the most......This paper explores how two Danish rehabilitation organizations textual guidelines for assessment of clients' personality traits influence the actual evaluation of clients. The analysis will show how staff members produce institutional identities corresponding to organizational categories, which...... very often have little or no relevance for the clients evaluated. The goal of the article is to demonstrate how the institutional complex that frames the work of the organizations produces the client types pertaining to that organization. By applying the analytical strategy of institutional ethnography...

  20. The Effect of Fin Pitch on Fluid Elastic Instability of Tube Arrays Subjected to Cross Flow of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Sandeep Rangrao; Pavitran, Sampat

    2018-02-01

    Failure of tubes in shell and tube exchangers is attributed to flow induced vibrations of such tubes. There are different excitations mechanisms due to which flow induced vibration occurs and among such mechanisms, fluid elastic instability is the most prominent one as it causes the most violent vibrations and may lead to rapid tube failures within short time. Fluid elastic instability is the fluid-structure interaction phenomenon which occurs when energy input by the fluid force exceeds energy expended in damping. This point is referred as instability threshold and corresponding velocity is referred as critical velocity. Once flow velocity exceeds critical flow velocity, the vibration amplitude increases very rapidly with flow velocity. An experimental program is carried out to determine the critical velocity at instability for plain and finned tube arrays subjected to cross flow of water. The tube array geometry is parallel triangular with cantilever end condition and pitch ratios considered are 2.6 and 2.1. The objective of research is to determine the effect of increase in pitch ratio on instability threshold for plain tube arrays and to assess the effect of addition of fins as well as increase in fin density on instability threshold for finned tube arrays. Plain tube array with two different pitch ratios; 2.1 and 2.6 and finned tube arrays with same pitch ratio; 2.6 but with two different fin pitches; such as fine (10 fpi) and coarse (4 fpi) are considered for the experimentation. Connors' equation that relates critical velocity at instability to different parameters, on which instability depends, has been used as the basis for analysis and the concept of effective diameter is used for the present investigation. The modal parameters are first suitably modified using natural frequency reduction setup that is already designed and developed to reduce natural frequency and hence to achieve experimental simulation of fluid elastic instability within the limited

  1. Category of A_infinity-categories

    OpenAIRE

    Lyubashenko, Volodymyr

    2002-01-01

    We define natural A_infinity-transformations and construct A_infinity-category of A_infinity-functors. The notion of non-strict units in an A_infinity-category is introduced. The 2-category of (unital) A_infinity-categories, (unital) functors and transformations is described.

  2. The Ungraded Derived Category

    OpenAIRE

    Stai, Torkil Utvik

    2012-01-01

    By means of the ungraded derived category we prove that the orbit category of the bounded derived category of an iterated tilted algebra with respect to translation is triangulated in such a way that the canonical functor from the bounded derived category to the orbit category becomes a triangle functor.

  3. Fully Hydro-Mechanically Coupled Experiments and Simulations on Rough Fractures Subjected to High-Pressure Fluid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, D.; Settgast, R.; Annavarapu, C.; Madonna, C.; Bayer, P.; Amann, F.

    2016-12-01

    This work presents fully hydro-mechanically coupled experiments and simulations in heterogeneous fractures. Cylindrical specimens with an artificial fracture normal to the cylinder axis were axially loaded to evaluate: (i) fracture normal closure; (ii) fracture contact stress evolution; and (iii) fracture normal closure and fluid injection pressure response. The laboratory experiments were simulated with the GEOS framework, which captures the non-linear behavior of fracture normal closure and fluid pressure response. To apply the developed model on the field scale, a heterogeneous fracture aperture field is created from aperture data recorded under zero-stress on natural tensile fractures from the Grimsel Test Site (GTS), Switzerland. The field stresses measured in the GTS are applied on the model domain, yielding the unique aperture distribution and stress perturbations in the rock mass associated with the applied stress state. Next, fluid is injected into the fracture center and tortuous flow channeling is observed. Increasing fluid injection pressures result in localized fracture opening, which leads to an increasingly non-linear relationship between fluid injection flow rate and pressure.

  4. Osmotic relations of the coelomic fluid and body wall tissues in Arenicola marina subjected to salinity change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.; Spaargaren, D.H.

    1979-01-01

    nitrogenous organic molecules (ninhydrin-positive substances, NPS) in the body wall tissues and in the coelomic fluid of specimens of Arenicola in response to sudden changes in salinity. The coelomic solutes consist almost entirely of electrolytes and the osmotic contribution of NPS is essentially negligible...

  5. A novel framework for fluid/structure interaction in rapid subject specific simulations of blood flow in coronary artery bifurcations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Milan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Practical difficulties, particularly long model development time, have limited the types and applicability of computational fluid dynamics simulations in numerical modeling of blood flow in serial manner. In these simulations, the most revealing flow parameters are the endothelial shear stress distribution and oscillatory shear index. The aim of this study was analyze their role in the diagnosis of the occurrence and prognosis of plaque development in coronary artery bifurcations. Methods. We developed a novel modeling technique for rapid cardiovascular hemodynamic simulations taking into account interactions between fluid domain (blood and solid domain (artery wall. Two numerical models that represent the observed subdomains of an arbitrary patient-specific coronary artery bifurcation were created using multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT coronagraphy and ultrasound measurements of blood velocity. Coronary flow using an in-house finite element solver PAK-FS was solved. Results. Overall behavior of coronary artery bifurcation during one cardiac cycle is described by: velocity, pressure, endothelial shear stress, oscillatory shear index, stress in arterial wall and nodal displacements. The places where (a endothelial shear stress is less than 1.5, and (b oscillatory shear index is very small (close or equal to 0 are prone to plaque genesis. Conclusion. Finite element simulation of fluid-structure interaction was used to investigate patient-specific flow dynamics and wall mechanics at coronary artery bifurcations. Simulation model revealed that lateral walls of the main branch and lateral walls distal to the carina are exposed to low endothelial shear stress which is a predilection site for development of atherosclerosis. This conclusion is confirmed by the low values of oscillatory shear index in those places.

  6. Valuation, Categories and Attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Galperin, Inna; Sorenson, Olav

    2014-01-01

    Existing research on categories has only examined indirectly the value associated with being a member of a category relative to the value of the set of attributes that determine membership in that category. This study uses survey data to analyze consumers' preferences for the "organic" label versus for the attributes underlying that label. We found that consumers generally preferred products with the category label to those with the attributes required for the organic label but without the la...

  7. Evolution of the reflection and focusing patterns and stress states in two-fluid cylindrical shell systems subjected to an external shock wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovlev, S.; Dooley, G.; Williston, K.; Gaudet, J.

    2011-12-01

    Several most important features of the hydrodynamic field induced inside a circular cylindrical shell filled with and submerged into different fluids when it is subjected to an external shock wave are considered. This investigation is a follow-up of an earlier study of the two-fluid shell-shock interaction [S. Iakovlev, Interaction between an external shock wave and a cylindrical shell filled with and submerged into different fluids, Journal of Sound and Vibration 322 (2009) 401-437], and it addresses a number of practically important issues not covered in that work. The focus of this study is on the evolution of the respective hydrodynamic patterns in response to the continuous change of the parameters of the fluids, in particular the speed of sound. Along with the analysis of the hydrodynamic patterns it is also demonstrated that when one is concerned with the highest pressure attained inside the shell, the most dangerous combination of the parameters occurs when the ratio of the internal and external acoustic speeds is close to 0.48, with the respective pressure exceeding the maximum incident pressure by more than 110 percent. The effect that the hydrodynamic features discussed have on the stress state of the shell is addressed as well, and it is observed that the maximum tensile stress is significantly affected by the evolution of the considered hydrodynamic features, whereas the maximum compressive stress is not. It is also observed that the maximum tensile stress is very sensitive to the change of the ratio of the acoustic speeds in the internal and external fluids, with as little an increase of the latter as 13 percent resulting in more than doubling of the former in some cases.

  8. Formalizing Restriction Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Chapman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Restriction categories are an abstract axiomatic framework by Cockett and Lack for reasoning about (generalizations of the idea of partiality of functions. In a restriction category, every map defines an endomap on its domain, the corresponding partial identity map. Restriction categories cover a number of examples of different flavors and are sound and complete with respect to the more synthetic and concrete partial map categories. A partial map category is based on a given category (of total maps and a map in it is a map from a subobject of the domain. In this paper, we report on an Agda formalization of the first chapters of the theory of restriction categories, including the challenging completeness result. We explain the mathematics formalized, comment on the design decisions we made for the formalization, and illustrate them at work.

  9. Incidental auditory category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, Yafit; Dick, Frederic K; Zevin, Jason D; Holt, Lori L

    2015-08-01

    Very little is known about how auditory categories are learned incidentally, without instructions to search for category-diagnostic dimensions, overt category decisions, or experimenter-provided feedback. This is an important gap because learning in the natural environment does not arise from explicit feedback and there is evidence that the learning systems engaged by traditional tasks are distinct from those recruited by incidental category learning. We examined incidental auditory category learning with a novel paradigm, the Systematic Multimodal Associations Reaction Time (SMART) task, in which participants rapidly detect and report the appearance of a visual target in 1 of 4 possible screen locations. Although the overt task is rapid visual detection, a brief sequence of sounds precedes each visual target. These sounds are drawn from 1 of 4 distinct sound categories that predict the location of the upcoming visual target. These many-to-one auditory-to-visuomotor correspondences support incidental auditory category learning. Participants incidentally learn categories of complex acoustic exemplars and generalize this learning to novel exemplars and tasks. Further, learning is facilitated when category exemplar variability is more tightly coupled to the visuomotor associations than when the same stimulus variability is experienced across trials. We relate these findings to phonetic category learning. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha in synovial fluid are associated with progression of radiographic knee osteoarthritis in subjects with previous meniscectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, S; Englund, M; Struglics, A; Lohmander, L S

    2015-11-01

    To explore potential associations between proinflammatory cytokines in synovial fluid and progression of osteoarthritis (OA) in meniscectomized subjects. We studied 132 subjects on average 18 years after meniscectomy, with a second examination 4-10 years later. We measured concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6, -8 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α by multiplex immunoassay, graded radiographic features of tibiofemoral and patellofemoral OA according to the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) atlas, scored patient-reported outcomes using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), and used logistic regression (adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, and time between examinations) for assessment of associations. Higher first examination concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α were associated with increased risk for subsequent osteophyte progression (odds ratios (OR); 95% confidence intervals 1.05; 1.00-1.09 and 1.35; 1.03-1.75). Higher second examination concentrations of TNF-α were associated with having progressed in loss of joint space (OR 1.70; 1.15-2.52) or having worsened in the activity of daily living subscale of KOOS (OR 1.50; 1.07-2.09) in the preceding years. Subjects with increasing concentrations of IL-6 or TNF-α between examinations were five times more likely to have progressed in joint space narrowing between the same examinations, as compared to those with stable or decreasing concentrations (OR 5.17; 1.54-17.32 and 5.01; 1.32-18.92). In subjects with previous meniscectomy, higher or over time increasing synovial fluid levels of IL-6 and TNF-α seems to be associated with increased risk for progression of radiographic OA. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Do subjects with aggressive and chronic periodontitis exhibit a different cytokine/chemokine profile in the gingival crevicular fluid? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, P M; Bastos, M F; Fermiano, D; Rabelo, C C; Perez-Chaparro, P J; Figueiredo, L C; Faveri, M; Feres, M

    2015-02-01

    Microbiological and immunological hypotheses have been raised to explain the differences in the clinical manifestations of aggressive periodontitis and chronic periodontitis. However, studies comparing the cytokine/chemokine profiles in gingival crevicular fluid between these two clinical conditions have so far not been compiled. This systematic review aimed to answer the following question: "Do subjects with aggressive periodontitis and chronic periodontitis have a different profile of cytokines/chemokines in the gingival crevicular fluid?" An electronic database search of MEDLINE/PubMed and Embase was performed from 1990 up to and including August 2013, using MeSH terms and other keywords. Titles and abstracts were screened and the papers that satisfied eligibility criteria were assessed. Of 1954 titles, 17 studies reporting the levels of 21 different cytokines/chemokines were included. Most studies did not find any significant differences in the gingival crevicular fluid levels of cytokines/chemokines between aggressive periodontitis and chronic periodontitis. Some studies demonstrated that the levels of specific proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines were higher (n = 5) and lower (n = 3), respectively, in aggressive periodontitis than in chronic periodontitis. The studies differed in the manner in which they reported the results (e.g. concentrations or total amounts). It was not clear in some studies whether the sample sites from both groups were matched for disease severity. Some studies did not take into account confounders, such as smoking. The current weight of evidence is not sufficient to prove that there are distinct gingival crevicular fluid cytokine/chemokine profiles for patients with aggressive periodontitis and chronic periodontitis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Valuation, categories and attributes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Galperin

    Full Text Available Existing research on categories has only examined indirectly the value associated with being a member of a category relative to the value of the set of attributes that determine membership in that category. This study uses survey data to analyze consumers' preferences for the "organic" label versus for the attributes underlying that label. We found that consumers generally preferred products with the category label to those with the attributes required for the organic label but without the label. We also found that the value accorded to the organic label increased with the number of attributes that an individual associated with the category. Category membership nevertheless still had greater value than even that of the sum of the attributes associated with it.

  13. Valuation, categories and attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galperin, Inna; Sorenson, Olav

    2014-01-01

    Existing research on categories has only examined indirectly the value associated with being a member of a category relative to the value of the set of attributes that determine membership in that category. This study uses survey data to analyze consumers' preferences for the "organic" label versus for the attributes underlying that label. We found that consumers generally preferred products with the category label to those with the attributes required for the organic label but without the label. We also found that the value accorded to the organic label increased with the number of attributes that an individual associated with the category. Category membership nevertheless still had greater value than even that of the sum of the attributes associated with it.

  14. Effect of Ultrasonic Surface Impact on the Fatigue Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V Subject to Simulated Body Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojian Cao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification (UNSM on the fatigue behavior of Ti6Al4V (TC4 in simulated body fluid (SBF was investigated. UNSM with the condition of a static load of 25 N, vibration amplitude of 30 μm and 36,000 strikes per unit produced about 35 μm surface severe plastic deformation (SPD layers on the TC4 specimens. One group was treated with a hybrid surface treatment (UNSM + TiN film. UNSM technique improves the micro hardness and the compressive residual stress. The surface roughness is increased slightly, but it can be remarkably improved by the TiN film. The fatigue strength of TC4 is improved by about 7.9% after UNSM. Though the current density of corrosion is increased and the pitting corrosion is accelerated, UNSM still improved the fatigue strength of TC4 after pre-soaking in SBF by 10.8%. Interior cracks initiate at the deformed carbide and oxide inclusions due to the ultrasonic impacts of UNSM. Corrosion products are always observed at the edge of fracture surface to both interior cracks and surface cracks. Coating a TiN film on the UNSMed surface helps to improve the whole properties of TC4 further.

  15. Nonlocal and surface effects on the flutter instability of cantilevered nanotubes conveying fluid subjected to follower forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahaadini, Reza [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sirjan University of Technology, 78137-33385 Sirjan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseini, Mohammad, E-mail: hosseini@sirjantech.ac.ir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sirjan University of Technology, 78137-33385 Sirjan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jamalpoor, Ali [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    On the basis of nonlocal elasticity theory, this paper studies the dynamic structural instability behavior of cantilever nanotubes conveying fluid incorporating end concentrated follower force and distributed tangential load, resting on the visco-Pasternak substrate. In order to improve the accuracy of the results, surface effects, i.e. surface elasticity and residual stresses are considered. Extended Hamilton’s principle is implemented to obtain the nonlocal governing partial differential equation and related boundary conditions. Then, the extended Galerkin technique is used to convert partial differential equations into a general set of ordinary differential equations. Numerical results are expressed to reveal the variations of the critical flow velocity for flutter phenomenon of cantilever nanotubes with the various values of nonlocal parameter, mass ratios, nanotubes thickness, surface effects, various parameters of the visco-Pasternak medium, constant follower force and distributed compressive tangential load. Some numerical results of this research illustrated that the values of critical flutter flow velocity and stable region increase by considering surface effects. Also, critical flutter flow velocity decreases towards zero by increasing the value of the distributed compressive tangential load and constant follower force.

  16. Bypassing hazard of housekeeping genes: Their evaluation in rat granule neurons treated with cerebrospinal fluid of Multiple Sclerosis subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepali eMathur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression studies employing real-time PCR has become an intrinsic part of biomedical research. Appropriate normalization of target gene transcript(s based on stably expressed housekeeping genes is crucial in individual experimental conditions to obtain accurate results. In multiple sclerosis (MS, several gene expression studies have been undertaken, however, the suitability of housekeeping genes to express stably in this disease is not yet explored. Recent research suggests that their expression level may vary under different experimental conditions. Hence it is indispensible to evaluate their expression stability to accurately normalize target gene transcripts. The present study aims to evaluate the expression stability of seven housekeeping genes in rat granule neurons treated with cerebrospinal fluid of MS patients. The selected reference genes were quantified by real time PCR and their expression stability was assessed using GeNorm and NormFinder algorithms. Both methods reported transferrin receptor (Tfrc and microglobulin beta-2 (B2m the most stable genes whereas beta-actin (ActB and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (Gapdh the most fluctuated ones. Altogether our data demonstrate the significance of pre-validation of housekeeping genes for accurate normalization and indicates Tfrc and B2m as best endogenous controls in MS. ActB and Gapdh are not recommended in gene expression studies related to the current one.

  17. Relationship between blood- and cerebrospinal fluid-bound neurotransmitter concentrations and conditioned pain modulation in pain-free and chronic pain subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Alexandre J; Beaudet, Nicolas; Daigle, Kathya; Sabbagh, Robert; Sansoucy, Yanick; Marchand, Serge; Sarret, Philippe; Goffaux, Philippe

    2015-05-01

    Descending pain inhibition is an endogenous pain control system thought to depend partially on the activation of bulbospinal monoaminergic pathways. Deficits in descending pain inhibition have been reported in numerous human chronic pain conditions, but there is currently no consensus regarding the neurochemical correlates responsible for this deficit. The aims of this study were to 1) assess the efficacy of descending pain inhibition in pain-free and chronic pain subjects, 2) screen for changes in centrally (ie, cerebrospinal fluid) and peripherally (ie, plasma) acting monoamine concentrations, and 3) explore the relationship between descending pain inhibition and monoamine neurotransmitter concentrations. Our results clearly show a deficit in pain inhibition, along with lower plasma norepinephrine and metanephrine concentrations in chronic pain subjects, compared to pain-free subjects. No differences were found in cerebrospinal fluid neurotransmitter concentrations. Finally, our results revealed a positive relationship between blood-bound norepinephrine and metanephrine concentrations and the efficacy of descending pain inhibition. Thus, basal monoamine levels in blood were related to descending pain inhibition. This finding supports the emerging idea that individual differences in descending pain inhibition may be linked to individual differences in peripheral processes, such as monoamines release in blood, which are possibly related to cardiovascular control. This article presents psychophysical and neurochemical findings that indicate that the latent potential of descending pain inhibitory responses is associated with differential activity in peripheral processes governed by monoamine neurotransmitter release, bringing insights into the relationship between descending pain inhibition and cardiovascular control in humans. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Skeletal adaptation to intramedullary pressure-induced interstitial fluid flow is enhanced in mice subjected to targeted osteocyte ablation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Y Kwon

    Full Text Available Interstitial fluid flow (IFF is a potent regulatory signal in bone. During mechanical loading, IFF is generated through two distinct mechanisms that result in spatially distinct flow profiles: poroelastic interactions within the lacunar-canalicular system, and intramedullary pressurization. While the former generates IFF primarily within the lacunar-canalicular network, the latter generates significant flow at the endosteal surface as well as within the tissue. This gives rise to the intriguing possibility that loading-induced IFF may differentially activate osteocytes or surface-residing cells depending on the generating mechanism, and that sensation of IFF generated via intramedullary pressurization may be mediated by a non-osteocytic bone cell population. To begin to explore this possibility, we used the Dmp1-HBEGF inducible osteocyte ablation mouse model and a microfluidic system for modulating intramedullary pressure (ImP to assess whether structural adaptation to ImP-driven IFF is altered by partial osteocyte depletion. Canalicular convective velocities during pressurization were estimated through the use of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and computational modeling. Following osteocyte ablation, transgenic mice exhibited severe losses in bone structure and altered responses to hindlimb suspension in a compartment-specific manner. In pressure-loaded limbs, transgenic mice displayed similar or significantly enhanced structural adaptation to Imp-driven IFF, particularly in the trabecular compartment, despite up to ∼50% of trabecular lacunae being uninhabited following ablation. Interestingly, regression analysis revealed relative gains in bone structure in pressure-loaded limbs were correlated with reductions in bone structure in unpressurized control limbs, suggesting that adaptation to ImP-driven IFF was potentiated by increases in osteoclastic activity and/or reductions in osteoblastic activity incurred independently of

  19. D-brane categories

    OpenAIRE

    Lazaroiu, C. I.

    2003-01-01

    This is an exposition of recent progress in the categorical approach to D-brane physics. I discuss the physical underpinnings of the appearance of homotopy categories and triangulated categories of D-branes from a string field theoretic perspective, and with a focus on applications to homological mirror symmetry.

  20. MOOCs Definition & Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández López, Arantxa; Gil Rodríguez, Eva Patrícia; Peña López, Ismael

    2013-01-01

    Infographics about MOOCs Definition and Categories, by Learning Technologies Office. Infografía sobre definición y categorías de MOOC, por Tecnología educativa. Infografia sobre definició i categories de MOOC, per Tecnologia educativa.

  1. Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Salivary Periostin Levels in Non-Smoker Subjects With Chronic and Aggressive Periodontitis : Periostin Levels in Chronic and Aggressive Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aral, Cüneyt A; Köseoğlu, Serhat; Sağlam, Mehmet; Pekbağrıyanık, Tuğba; Savran, Levent

    2016-06-01

    Periostin, an extracellular matrix protein functioning as an important structural mediator and adhesion molecule, has been shown to be an important regulator of connective tissue integrity. This study aimed to evaluate the levels of periostin in chronic periodontitis (CP) and aggressive periodontitis (AgP) compared to non-periodontitis (NP). Individuals were submitted to gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and saliva sampling. Periodontal examination consisted of plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), bleeding on probing (BOP), and clinical attachment level (CAL) measurements. Assays for periostin were performed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Periodontitis patients presented more severe clinical indices compared to the NP group (p aggressive periodontitis. The results suggest that subjects with CP and AgP exhibit a different periostin profile. Periostin in GCF may have a protective role against periodontal disease. Furthermore, salivary periostin concentrations may have a promising diagnostic potential for the aggressive forms of periodontal disease.

  2. Triangulated categories (AM-148)

    CERN Document Server

    Neeman, Amnon

    2014-01-01

    The first two chapters of this book offer a modern, self-contained exposition of the elementary theory of triangulated categories and their quotients. The simple, elegant presentation of these known results makes these chapters eminently suitable as a text for graduate students. The remainder of the book is devoted to new research, providing, among other material, some remarkable improvements on Brown''s classical representability theorem. In addition, the author introduces a class of triangulated categories""--the ""well generated triangulated categories""--and studies their properties. This

  3. International Conference on Category Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pedicchio, Maria; Rosolini, Guiseppe

    1991-01-01

    With one exception, these papers are original and fully refereed research articles on various applications of Category Theory to Algebraic Topology, Logic and Computer Science. The exception is an outstanding and lengthy survey paper by Joyal/Street (80 pp) on a growing subject: it gives an account of classical Tannaka duality in such a way as to be accessible to the general mathematical reader, and to provide a key for entry to more recent developments and quantum groups. No expertise in either representation theory or category theory is assumed. Topics such as the Fourier cotransform, Tannaka duality for homogeneous spaces, braided tensor categories, Yang-Baxter operators, Knot invariants and quantum groups are introduced and studies. From the Contents: P.J. Freyd: Algebraically complete categories.- J.M.E. Hyland: First steps in synthetic domain theory.- G. Janelidze, W. Tholen: How algebraic is the change-of-base functor?.- A. Joyal, R. Street: An introduction to Tannaka duality and quantum groups.- A. Jo...

  4. Setting of methods for analysis of mucosal antibodies in seminal and vaginal fluids of HIV seropositive subjects from Cambodian and Italian cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Donadoni

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Genital mucosae play a key role in protection from STD and HIV infection, due to their involvement in both horizontal and vertical disease transmission. High variability of published observations concerning IgA isolation and quantification underlies the strong requirement of specific methods able to maximize investigation on HIV-specific IgA.Genital fluids from 109 subjects, including male and female cohorts from Italy and Cambodia, were collected, aliquoted and processed with different techniques, to assess optimal conditions maximizing mucosal antibody recovery. Three sampling techniques, up to sixteen preservation conditions, six ELISA methods and four purifications protocols were compared.The optimal method here described took advantage of Weck-Cel sampling of female mucosal fluids. Immediate processing of genital fluids, with the addition of antibiotics and EDTA, improved recovery of vaginal IgA, while the triple addition of EDTA, antibiotics and protease inhibitors provided the highest amount of seminal IgA. Due to low amount of IgA in mucosal fluids, a high sensitive sandwich ELISA assay was set; sensitivity was enhanced by milk-based overcoating buffer and by a two-step biotin-streptavidin signal amplification. Indeed, commercial antisera to detect human immunoglobulins showed weak cross-reactivity to different antibody types. Three-step affinity purification provided reproducible immunoglobulin recovery from genital specimens, while conventional immuno-affinity IgA purification was found poorly manageable. Affinity columns were suitable to isolate mucosal IgA, which are ten-fold less concentrated than IgG in genital specimens, and provided effective separation of IgA monomers, dimers, and J-chains. Jacalin-bound resin successfully separated IgA1 from IgA2 subfraction.Specific, effective and reliable methods to study local immunity are key items in understanding host mucosal response. The sequence of methods here described is effective

  5. Consumer Product Category Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use...

  6. Variation within categories.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das-Smaal, E.A.; Swart, de J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Two aspects of variation within categories, relating to different models of categorization, were investigated - frequency of dimensional values and typicality differences within values. The influence of range of typicality experienced during learning and of informational value of feedback was also

  7. Analysis of rare categories

    CERN Document Server

    He, Jingrui

    2012-01-01

    This book focuses on rare category analysis where the majority classes have smooth distributions and the minority classes exhibit the compactness property. It focuses on challenging cases where the support regions of the majority and minority classes overlap.

  8. Categories without structures

    OpenAIRE

    Rodin, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    The popular view according to which Category theory provides a support for Mathematical Structuralism is erroneous. Category-theoretic foundations of mathematics require a different philosophy of mathematics. While structural mathematics studies invariant forms (Awodey) categorical mathematics studies covariant transformations which, generally, don t have any invariants. In this paper I develop a non-structuralist interpretation of categorical mathematics and show its consequences for history...

  9. Regional Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR at 7 Tesla correlates with Amyloid beta in Hippocampus and Brainstem of cognitively normal elderly subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J Schreiner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ may occur during healthy aging and is a risk factor for Alzheimer Disease (AD. While individual Aβ-accumulation can be measured non-invasively using Pittsburgh compound-B positron-emission-tomography (PiB-PET, Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR is a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI sequence, capable of indicating heterogeneous age-related brain pathologies associated with tissue-edema. In the current study cognitively normal elderly subjects were investigated for regional correlation of PiB- and FLAIR- intensity. Methods: 14 healthy elderly subjects without known history of cognitive impairment received 11C-PiB-PET for estimation of regional Aβ-load. In addition, whole brain T1-MPRAGE and FLAIR-MRI sequences were acquired at high field strength of 7 Tesla (7T. Volume-normalized intensities of brain regions were assessed by applying an automated subcortical segmentation algorithm for spatial definition of brain structures. Statistical dependence between FLAIR- and PiB-PET intensities was tested using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rho, followed by Holm-Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. Results: Neuropsychological testing revealed normal cognitive performance levels in all participants. Mean regional PiB-PET and FLAIR intensities were normally distributed and independent. Significant correlation between volume-normalized PiB-PET signals and FLAIR intensities resulted for Hippocampus (right:rho=0.86; left:rho=0.84, Brainstem (rho=0.85 and left Basal Ganglia vessel region (rho=0.82. Conclusions: Our finding of a significant relationship between PiB- and FLAIR-intensity mainly observable in the Hippocampus and Brainstem, indicates regional Aβ associated tissue-edema in cognitively normal elderly subjects. Further studies including clinical populations are necessary to clarify the relevance of our findings for estimating individual risk for age-related neurodegenerative

  10. Regional Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) at 7 Tesla correlates with amyloid beta in hippocampus and brainstem of cognitively normal elderly subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Simon J.; Liu, Xinyang; Gietl, Anton F.; Wyss, Michael; Steininger, Stefanie C.; Gruber, Esmeralda; Treyer, Valerie; Meier, Irene B.; Kälin, Andrea M.; Leh, Sandra E.; Buck, Alfred; Nitsch, Roger M.; Pruessmann, Klaas P.; Hock, Christoph; Unschuld, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) may occur during healthy aging and is a risk factor for Alzheimer Disease (AD). While individual Aβ-accumulation can be measured non-invasively using Pittsburgh Compund-B positron emission tomography (PiB-PET), Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) is a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) sequence, capable of indicating heterogeneous age-related brain pathologies associated with tissue-edema. In the current study cognitively normal elderly subjects were investigated for regional correlation of PiB- and FLAIR intensity. Methods: Fourteen healthy elderly subjects without known history of cognitive impairment received 11C-PiB-PET for estimation of regional Aβ-load. In addition, whole brain T1-MPRAGE and FLAIR-MRI sequences were acquired at high field strength of 7 Tesla (7T). Volume-normalized intensities of brain regions were assessed by applying an automated subcortical segmentation algorithm for spatial definition of brain structures. Statistical dependence between FLAIR- and PiB-PET intensities was tested using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rho), followed by Holm–Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. Results: Neuropsychological testing revealed normal cognitive performance levels in all participants. Mean regional PiB-PET and FLAIR intensities were normally distributed and independent. Significant correlation between volume-normalized PiB-PET signals and FLAIR intensities resulted for Hippocampus (right: rho = 0.86; left: rho = 0.84), Brainstem (rho = 0.85) and left Basal Ganglia vessel region (rho = 0.82). Conclusions: Our finding of a significant relationship between PiB- and FLAIR intensity mainly observable in the Hippocampus and Brainstem, indicates regional Aβ associated tissue-edema in cognitively normal elderly subjects. Further studies including clinical populations are necessary to clarify the relevance of our findings for estimating individual risk for age-related neurodegenerative

  11. Effects of 0.2 ppm ozone on biomarkers of inflammation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and bronchial mucosa of healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, M.T.; Madden, J.; Teran, L.M. [and others

    1998-08-01

    Short-term exposure to ozone at peak ambient levels induces neutrophil influx and impairs lung function in healthy humans. In order to investigate the mechanisms contributing to neutrophil recruitment and to examine the role of T-cells in the acute inflammatory response, we exposed 12 healthy humans to 0.2 parts per million (ppm) of ozone and filtered air on two separate occasions for 2 h with intermittent periods of rest and exercise (minute ventilation=30 L x min{sup -1}). Fibreoptic bronchoscopy was performed 6 h after the end of exposures. Total protein, tryptase, histamine, myeloperoxidase, interleukin (IL)-8 and growth-related oncogene-{alpha} (Gro-{alpha}) were measured and total and differential cell counts were performed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Flow cytometry was performed on BAL cells to study total T-cells, T-cell receptors ({alpha}{beta} and {gamma}{delta}), T-cell subsets (CD4+ and CD8+ cells) and activated T-cell subsets (CD25+). Using immunohistochemistry, neutrophils, mast cells, total T-cell numbers, T-cell subsets, CD25+ T-cells and leukocyte endothelial adhesion molecules including P-selectin, E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and vascular adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 were quantified in the bronchial biopsies. Paired samples were available from nine subjects. Following ozone exposure there was a threefold increase in the proportion of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) (p=0.07) and epithelial cells (p=0.05) in BAL fluid. This was accompanied by increased concentrations of IL-8 (p=0.01), Gro-{alpha} (p=0.05) and total protein (p=0.058). A significant positive correlation was demonstrated between the two chemokines and proportion of PMNs in BAL fluid. After ozone exposure there was a significant decrease in the CD4/CD8 ratio (p=0.05) and the proportion of activated CD4+ (p=001) and CD8+ T-cells (p=0.04). However, no significant changes were demonstrable in any of the inflammatory markers studied in the biopsies

  12. Models as Relational Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkonen, Tommi

    2017-10-01

    Model-based learning (MBL) has an established position within science education. It has been found to enhance conceptual understanding and provide a way for engaging students in authentic scientific activity. Despite ample research, few studies have examined the cognitive processes regarding learning scientific concepts within MBL. On the other hand, recent research within cognitive science has examined the learning of so-called relational categories. Relational categories are categories whose membership is determined on the basis of the common relational structure. In this theoretical paper, I argue that viewing models as relational categories provides a well-motivated cognitive basis for MBL. I discuss the different roles of models and modeling within MBL (using ready-made models, constructive modeling, and generative modeling) and discern the related cognitive aspects brought forward by the reinterpretation of models as relational categories. I will argue that relational knowledge is vital in learning novel models and in the transfer of learning. Moreover, relational knowledge underlies the coherent, hierarchical knowledge of experts. Lastly, I will examine how the format of external representations may affect the learning of models and the relevant relations. The nature of the learning mechanisms underlying students' mental representations of models is an interesting open question to be examined. Furthermore, the ways in which the expert-like knowledge develops and how to best support it is in need of more research. The discussion and conceptualization of models as relational categories allows discerning students' mental representations of models in terms of evolving relational structures in greater detail than previously done.

  13. A 2-categories companion

    OpenAIRE

    Lack, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    This paper is a rather informal guide to some of the basic theory of 2-categories and bicategories, including notions of limit and colimit, 2-dimensional universal algebra, formal category theory, and nerves of bicategories. As is the way of these things, the choice of topics is somewhat personal. No attempt is made at either rigour or completeness. Nor is it completely introductory: you will not find a definition of bicategory; but then nor will you really need one to read it. In keeping wit...

  14. Homological algebra in -abelian categories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deren Luo

    2017-08-16

    13]. He developed the classical abelian category and exact category theory to higher-dimensional n-abelian category and n-exact category theory [13]. He also proved that n-cluster tilting subcategories are n-abelian categories ...

  15. Cigarette smoking induced liver insult concomitant with inflammatory mediators in serum crevicular fluid and bronchio alveolar lavage of schistosomal diabetic subjects with history of bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dardiry, Samia A; Shafik, Sherine R; Wagih, Ayman; Amir, El-Amir M; Kassem, Gamal K; Atef, Ghada; El-Toukhy, Heba

    2007-08-01

    Forty five smokers were classified into schistosomal cases with type-2 diabetis mellitus (GI) and with associated history of bronchial asthma (GII) and without T-2 DM (GIII). A control group (GIV) of non-diabetic non schistosomal age matched subjects who quitted smoking for >6 months were included. Assessed parameters included indices of glycemic status (glycated hemoglobin), angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor) hepatic and bronchoalveolar disposition (Liver function test, metallothionein, serum levels of cotinine, cadmium selenium, copper & zinc) and bronchoalveolar lavage) (BAL) levels of surfactant proteins A & D, zinc and copper oxidative stress and fibrogenesis (total antioxidant capacity thiobarbituric acid reactive substance) and vasculopathy (angiotensin converting enzyme, P-selectin, nitrate) and periodontitis (collagenase and elastase in GCF) impact of cigarette smoking associated with trace element disbalance and enzymatic changes in crevicular fluid on altered parameters collaborative out-come. The study reflected the collaborative outcome of immune mediated mechanisms initiated by liver affection, glycemic status and history of predisposed bronchial integrity induced by oxidative stress.

  16. Beyond the Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Jeffrey

    2015-07-01

    Shushu is a Turkish Cypriot drag performance artist and the article begins with a discussion of a short film about him by a Greek Cypriot playwright, film maker, and gay activist. The film is interesting in its own right as a documentary about a complex personality, but it is also relevant to wider discussion of sexual and gender identity and categorization in a country divided by history, religion, politics, and military occupation. Shushu rejects easy identification as gay or transgender, or anything else. He is his own self. But refusing a recognized and recognizable identity brings problems, and I detected a pervasive mood of melancholy in his portrayal. The article builds from this starting point to explore the problematic nature of identities and categorizations in the contemporary world. The analysis opens with the power of words and language in defining and classifying sexuality. The early sexologists set in motion a whole catalogue of categories which continue to shape sexual thinking, believing that they were providing a scientific basis for a more humane treatment of sexual variations. This logic continues in DSM-5. The historical effect, however, has been more complex. Categorizations have often fixed individuals into a narrow band of definitions and identities that marginalize and pathologize. The emergence of radical sexual-social movements from the late 1960s offered new forms of grassroots knowledge in opposition to the sexological tradition, but at first these movements worked to affirm rather than challenge the significance of identity categories. Increasingly, however, identities have been problematized and challenged for limiting sexual and gender possibilities, leading to the apparently paradoxical situation where sexual identities are seen as both necessary and impossible. There are emotional costs both in affirming a fixed identity and in rejecting one. Shushu is caught in this dilemma, leading to the pervasive sense of loss that shapes the

  17. 28 CFR 60.2 - Authorized categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authorized categories. 60.2 Section 60.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) AUTHORIZATION OF FEDERAL LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS... the United States. (f) Any civilian agent of the Department of Defense not subject to military...

  18. The effects of exogenous crosslinking on hydration and fluid flow in the intervertebral disc subjected to compressive creep loading and unloading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Shih-Youeng; Popovich, John M; Lin, Leou-Chyr; Hedman, Thomas P

    2010-11-15

    In vitro study of genipin crosslinking effect on disc water content changes under compressive loading and unloading. To investigate the influence of collagen crosslinking on hydration and fluid flow in different regions of intact discs, and to evaluate the nutritional implications. Age-related reductions of nutrient supply and waste product removal are critically important factors in disc pathogenesis. Diffusion and fluid flow are blocked by subchondral bone thickening, cartilaginous endplate calcification, loss of hydrophilic proteoglycans, and clogging of anular pores by degraded matrix molecules. Previous studies demonstrated increased hydraulic permeability and macromolecular transport through crosslinked collagenous matrices. Genipin has also demonstrated the capability to increase retention of proteoglycans. A total of 57 bovine lumbar motion segments were divided randomly into phosphate buffered saline and 0.33% genipin-soaked treatment groups. Water content changes were measured using a mass-loss technique in 3 intervertebral disc regions following successive stages of compressive loading and unloading (post-treatment, after 1 hour 750 N compression, and after a subsequent 24-hour period of nominal loading). Net flow of fluid into or out of a region was determined from the percentage change in mean water content from successive groups. Fluid flow to and from the nucleus doubled with genipin crosslinking. Relative to the buffer-only controls, overall net fluid flow increased 103% in the nucleus pulposus, 36% in the inner anulus, and was 31% less in the outer anulus of genipin treated discs. The effects of genipin crosslinking on matrix permeability and proteoglycan retention can alter hydration levels and fluid flow in the intervertebral disc. Resulting increases in fluid flow, including a doubling of flow to and from the nucleus, could lead to enhanced nutritional inflow and waste product outflow for the disc, and may have implications for emerging cell

  19. An introduction to the language of category theory

    CERN Document Server

    Roman, Steven

    2017-01-01

    This textbook provides an introduction to elementary category theory, with the aim of making what can be a confusing and sometimes overwhelming subject more accessible. In writing about this challenging subject, the author has brought to bear all of the experience he has gained in authoring over 30 books in university-level mathematics. The goal of this book is to present the five major ideas of category theory: categories, functors, natural transformations, universality, and adjoints in as friendly and relaxed a manner as possible while at the same time not sacrificing rigor. These topics are developed in a straightforward, step-by-step manner and are accompanied by numerous examples and exercises, most of which are drawn from abstract algebra. The first chapter of the book introduces the definitions of category and functor and discusses diagrams, duality, initial and terminal objects, special types of morphisms, and some special types of categories, particularly comma categories and hom-set categories. Chap...

  20. Gingival crevicular fluid levels of human beta-defensins 1 and 3 in subjects with periodontitis and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertugrul, A S; Dikilitas, A; Sahin, H; Alpaslan, N; Bozoglan, A; Tekin, Y

    2013-08-01

    Human β-defensins (hBDs) have a strong antibacterial action against various microorganisms, especially periodontal pathogens. The aim of this study was to compare the total levels of hBD-1 and hBD-3 in the gingival crevicular fluid of healthy patients with gingivitis (HG), healthy patients with chronic periodontitis (HP), patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and gingivitis (DM2G) and patients with type 2 DM and chronic periodontitis (DM2P). A total of 80 patients were included: 20 HG, 20 HP, 20 DM2G and 20 DM2P. The levels of hBD-1 and hBD-3 in gingival crevicular fluid were measured using ELISA. The DM2P group had significantly higher periodontal clinical parameters at sites from which gingival crevicular fluid was collected compared with the other groups. The HG group had significantly lower periodontal clinical parameters within the gingival crevicular fluid-collected sites than did the HP, DM2G and DM2P groups. The gingival crevicular fluid of the DM2P group had significantly higher levels of total hBD-1 and hBD-3 than did that of the other groups; the hBD-1 and hBD-3 levels were significantly higher in the gingival crevicular fluid of the DM2G group than in that of the the non-DM type 2 groups (HG and HP). The gingival crevicular fluid of the HP group had significantly higher levels of total hBD-1 and hBD-3 in comparison with that of the HG group. As a result of the observed vascular and cell activity changes that occur within patients diagnosed with DM, periodontal diseases become more severe. These changes hinder the migration and the ability of chemotactic factors and leukocytes to protect periodontal tissues from the effects of microorganisms. In order to eliminate microorganisms, the epithelial cells in patients with DM may release more hBD-1 and hBD-3 into the gingival crevicular fluid. Determining the amount of hBD-1 and hBD-3 in the gingival crevicular fluid of patients with and without DM will help to elucidate the relationship among hBD-1, h

  1. Constraints on Colour Category Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jraissati, Yasmina; Wakui, Elley; Decock, Lieven; Douven, Igor

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses two questions related to colour categorization, to wit, the question what a colour category is, and the question how we identify colour categories. We reject both the relativist and universalist answers to these questions. Instead, we suggest that colour categories can be

  2. Heat transfer analysis of fractional second-grade fluid subject to Newtonian heating with Caputo and Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivatives: A comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asjad, Muhammad Imran; Shah, Nehad Ali; Aleem, Maryam; Khan, Ilyas

    2017-08-01

    The present study is a comparative analysis of unsteady flows of a second-grade fluid with Newtonian heating and time-fractional derivatives, namely, the Caputo fractional derivative (singular kernel) and the Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivative (non-singular kernel). A physical model for second-grade fluids is developed with fractional derivatives. The expressions for temperature and velocity fields in dimensionless form as well as rates of heat transfer are determined by means of the Laplace transform technique. Solutions for ordinary cases corresponding to integer order derivatives are also obtained. Numerical computations for a comparison between the solutions of the problem with the Caputo time-fractional derivative, problem with Caputo-Fabrizio time-fractional derivative and of the ordinary fluid problem were made. The influence of some flow parameters and fractional parameter α on temperature field as well as velocity field was presented graphically and in tabular forms.

  3. Structural similarity and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that category-specific recognition disorders for natural objects may reflect that natural objects are more structurally (visually) similar than artefacts and therefore more difficult to recognize following brain damage. On this account one might expect a positive relationship...... range of candidate integral units will be activated and compete for selection, thus explaining the higher error rate associated with animals. We evaluate the model based on previous evidence from both normal subjects and patients with category-specific disorders and argue that this model can help...

  4. Discriminating among diagnostic categories using the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Colin A; Ellason, Joan Weathersbee

    2005-04-01

    The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule was administered to 1,308 subjects in eight diagnostic categories, including 296 with dissociative identity disorder. The study tested three hypotheses: (1) the Mahalanobis distance between dissociative identity disorder and each of seven other diagnostic categories would be large, (2) the closest diagnostic category to dissociative identity disorder would be dissociative disorder not otherwise specified, and (3) nondissociative diagnostic categories would be closer to each other than any one to dissociative identity disorder. All three hypotheses were confirmed by these data. The findings support the conclusion that dissociative identity disorder is a discrete category or taxon.

  5. Citation analysis of scientific categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory S. Patience

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Databases catalogue the corpus of research literature into scientific categories and report classes of bibliometric data such as the number of citations to articles, the number of authors, journals, funding agencies, institutes, references, etc. The number of articles and citations in a category are gauges of productivity and scientific impact but a quantitative basis to compare researchers between categories is limited. Here, we compile a list of bibliometric indicators for 236 science categories and citation rates of the 500 most cited articles of each category. The number of citations per paper vary by several orders of magnitude and are highest in multidisciplinary sciences, general internal medicine, and biochemistry and lowest in literature, poetry, and dance. A regression model demonstrates that citation rates to the top articles in each category increase with the square root of the number of articles in a category and decrease proportionately with the age of the references: articles in categories that cite recent research are also cited more frequently. The citation rate correlates positively with the number of funding agencies that finance the research. The category h-index correlates with the average number of cites to the top 500 ranked articles of each category (R2=0.997. Furthermore, only a few journals publish the top 500 cited articles in each category: four journals publish 60% (σ=±20% of these and ten publish 81% (σ=±15%.

  6. Citation analysis of scientific categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patience, Gregory S; Patience, Christian A; Blais, Bruno; Bertrand, Francois

    2017-05-01

    Databases catalogue the corpus of research literature into scientific categories and report classes of bibliometric data such as the number of citations to articles, the number of authors, journals, funding agencies, institutes, references, etc. The number of articles and citations in a category are gauges of productivity and scientific impact but a quantitative basis to compare researchers between categories is limited. Here, we compile a list of bibliometric indicators for 236 science categories and citation rates of the 500 most cited articles of each category. The number of citations per paper vary by several orders of magnitude and are highest in multidisciplinary sciences, general internal medicine, and biochemistry and lowest in literature, poetry, and dance. A regression model demonstrates that citation rates to the top articles in each category increase with the square root of the number of articles in a category and decrease proportionately with the age of the references: articles in categories that cite recent research are also cited more frequently. The citation rate correlates positively with the number of funding agencies that finance the research. The category h-index correlates with the average number of cites to the top 500 ranked articles of each category ([Formula: see text]). Furthermore, only a few journals publish the top 500 cited articles in each category: four journals publish 60% ([Formula: see text]) of these and ten publish 81% ([Formula: see text]).

  7. Procedural learning of unstructured categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Matthew J; Madsen, Nils R; Ashby, F Gregory

    2012-12-01

    Unstructured categories are those in which the stimuli are assigned to each contrasting category randomly, and thus there is no rule- or similarity-based strategy for determining category membership. Intuition suggests that unstructured categories are likely to be learned via explicit memorization that is under the control of declarative memory. In contrast to this prediction, neuroimaging studies of unstructured-category learning have reported task-related activation in the striatum, but typically not in the hippocampus--results that seem more consistent with procedural learning than with a declarative-memory strategy. This article reports the first known behavioral test of whether unstructured-category learning is mediated by explicit strategies or by procedural learning. Our results suggest that the feedback-based learning of unstructured categories is mediated by procedural memory.

  8. INFLAMMATORY CELL NUMBER AND MEDIATORS IN BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE FLUID AND PERIPHERAL-BLOOD IN SUBJECTS WITH ASTHMA WITH INCREASED NOCTURNAL AIRWAYS NARROWING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OOSTERHOFF, Y; KAUFFMAN, HF; RUTGERS, B; ZIJLSTRA, FJ; KOETER, GH; POSTMA, DS

    Background: Increased nocturnal airways narrowing (NAN) in asthma is thought to occur as the result of intensification of inflammatory processes in the airways. In this study we investigated the presence of inflammatory cells and mediators in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and peripheral blood

  9. Structural biomarkers in the cerebrospinal fluid within 24 h after a traumatic spinal cord injury: a descriptive analysis of 16 subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouw, M.H.; Kwon, B.K.; Verbeek, M.M.; Vos, P.E.; Kampen, A. van; Fisher, C.G.; Street, J.; Paquette, S.J.; Dvorak, M.F.; Boyd, M.C.; Hosman, A.J.F.; Meent, H. van de

    2014-01-01

    Study design:Prospective cohort study.Objectives:To characterize the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of glial fibrillary acidic protein, neuron specific enolase (NSE), S-100beta, tau and neurofilament heavy chain (NFH) within 24 h of an acute traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), and to

  10. Influence of emotionally charged information on category-based induction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Zhu

    Full Text Available Categories help us make predictions, or inductions, about new objects. However, we cannot always be certain that a novel object belongs to the category we are using to make predictions. In such cases, people should use multiple categories to make inductions. Past research finds that people often use only the most likely category to make inductions, even if it is not certain. In two experiments, subjects read stories and answered questions about items whose categorization was uncertain. In Experiment 1, the less likely category was either emotionally neutral or dangerous (emotionally charged or likely to pose a threat. Subjects used multiple categories in induction when one of the categories was dangerous but not when they were all neutral. In Experiment 2, the most likely category was dangerous. Here, people used multiple categories, but there was also an effect of avoidance, in which people denied that dangerous categories were the most likely. The attention-grabbing power of dangerous categories may be balanced by a higher-level strategy to reject them.

  11. Post-ICU admission fluid balance and pediatric septic shock outcomes: a risk-stratified analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulebda, Kamal; Cvijanovich, Natalie Z; Thomas, Neal J; Allen, Geoffrey L; Anas, Nick; Bigham, Michael T; Hall, Mark; Freishtat, Robert J; Sen, Anita; Meyer, Keith; Checchia, Paul A; Shanley, Thomas P; Nowak, Jeffrey; Quasney, Michael; Weiss, Scott L; Chopra, Arun; Banschbach, Sharon; Beckman, Eileen; Lindsell, Christopher J; Wong, Hector R

    2014-02-01

    Observed associations between fluid balance and septic shock outcomes are likely confounded by initial mortality risk. We conducted a risk-stratified analysis of the association between post-ICU admission fluid balance and pediatric septic shock outcomes. Retrospective analysis of an ongoing multicenter pediatric septic shock clinical and biological database. Seventeen PICUs in the United States. Three hundred and seventeen children with septic shock. None. We stratified subjects into three mortality risk categories (low, intermediate, and high) using a validated biomarker-based stratification tool. Within each category, we assessed three fluid balance variables: total fluid intake/kg/d during the first 24 hours, percent positive fluid balance during the first 24 hours, and cumulative percent positive fluid balance up to 7 days. We used logistic regression to estimate the effect of fluid balance on the odds of 28-day mortality, and on complicated course, which we defined as either death within 28 days or persistence of two or more organ failures at 7 days. There were 40 deaths, and 91 subjects had a complicated course. Increased cumulative percent positive fluid balance was associated with mortality in the low-risk cohort (n = 204; odds ratio, 1.035; 95% CI, 1.004-1.066) but not in the intermediate- and high-risk cohorts. No other associations with mortality were observed. Fluid intake, percent positive fluid balance in the first 24 hours, and cumulative percent positive fluid balance were all associated with increased odds of a complicated course in the low-risk cohort but not in the intermediate- and high-risk cohorts. When stratified for mortality risk, increased fluid intake and positive fluid balance after ICU admission are associated with worse outcomes in pediatric septic shock patients with a low initial mortality risk but not in patients at moderate or high mortality risk.

  12. Functional categories in comparative linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    Functional categories in comparative linguistics Even after many decades of typological research, the biggest methodological problem still concerns the fundamental question: how can we be sure that we identify and compare the same linguistic form, structure, meaning etc. across languages? Very few...... linguistic categories, if any, appear to be ‘universal’ in the sense that they are attested in each and every language (Evans and Levinson 2009). The language-specific nature of form-based (structural, morphosyntactic) categories is well known, which is why typologists usually resort to ‘Greenbergian......’, meaning-based categories. The use of meaning-based or semantic categories, however, does not necessarily result in the identification of cross-linguistically comparable data either, as was already shown by Greenberg (1966: 88) himself. Whereas formal categories are too narrow in that they do not cover all...

  13. Category vs. Object Knowledge in Category-Based Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gregory L.; Ross, Brian H.

    2010-01-01

    In one form of category-based induction, people make predictions about unknown properties of objects. There is a tension between predictions made based on the object's specific features (e.g., objects above a certain size tend not to fly) and those made by reference to category-level knowledge (e.g., birds fly). Seven experiments with artificial…

  14. How do Category Managers Manage?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Sigurbjornsson, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to explore the managerial role of category managers in purchasing. A network management perspective is adopted. A case based research methodology is applied, and three category managers managing a diverse set of component and service categories in a global production...... firm is observed while providing accounts of their progress and results in meetings. We conclude that the network management classification scheme originally deve loped by Harland and Knight (2001) and Knight and Harland (2005) is a valuable and fertile theoretical framework for the analysis...... of the role of the category manager in purchasing....

  15. Two Categories of Dirac Manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Milburn, Brett

    2007-01-01

    We define two categories of Dirac manifolds, i.e. manifolds with complex Dirac structures. The first notion of maps I call \\emph{Dirac maps}, and the category of Dirac manifolds is seen to contain the categories of Poisson and complex manifolds as full subcategories. The second notion, \\emph{dual-Dirac maps}, defines a \\emph{dual-Dirac category} which contains presymplectic and complex manifolds as full subcategories. The dual-Dirac maps are stable under B-transformations. In particular we ge...

  16. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

  17. Fluid Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; hide

    2017-01-01

    pulsatility); (5) ocular measures (optical coherence tomography; intraocular pressure; 2-dimensional ultrasound including optic nerve sheath diameter, globe flattening, and retina-choroid thickness; Doppler ultrasound of ophthalmic and retinal arteries and veins); (6) cardiac variables by ultrasound (inferior vena cava, tricuspid flow and tissue Doppler, pulmonic valve, stroke volume, right heart dimensions and function, four-chamber views); and (7) ICP measures (tympanic membrane displacement, otoacoustic emissions). Pre- and post-flight, acute head-down tilt will induce cephalad fluid shifts, whereas lower body negative pressure will oppose these shifts. Controlled Mueller maneuvers will manipulate cardiovascular variables. Through interventions applied before, during, and after flight, we intend to fully evaluate the relationship between fluid shifts and the VIIP syndrome. Discussion. Ten subjects have consented to participate in this experiment, including the recent One-Year Mission crewmembers, who have recently completed R plus180 testing; all other subjects have completed pre-flight testing. Preliminary results from the One-Year Mission crewmembers will be presented, including measures of ocular structure and function, vascular dimensions, fluid distribution, and non-invasive estimates of intracranial pressure.

  18. Outcomes from a cohort of patients with acute kidney injury subjected to continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration: The role of negative fluid balance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Oliveira Claizoni Dos Santos

    Full Text Available Several factors influence the outcomes in acute kidney injury (AKI, especially in intensive care unit (ICU patients. In this scenario, continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT are used to control metabolic derangements and blood volume. Knowing this fact, it may be possible to change the course of the disease and decrease the high mortality rate observed. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the main risk factors for death in AKI patients needing CRRT.This was a prospective, observational cohort study of ICU patients (N = 183 with AKI who underwent continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF as their initial dialysis modality choice. The patients were predominantly male (62.8% and their median age was 65 (55-76 years. The most frequent comorbidities were cardiovascular disease (39.3%, hypertension (32.8%, diabetes (24%, and cirrhosis (20.7%. The main cause of AKI was sepsis (52.5%. At beginning of CVVHDF, 152 patients (83% were using vasopressors. The median SAPS 3 and SOFA score at ICU admission was 61 (50-74 and 10 (7-12, respectively. The dialysis dose delivered was 33.2 (28.9-38.7 ml/kg/h. The median time between ICU admission and CVVHDF initiation was 2 (1-4 days. The median cumulative fluid balance during the CVVHDF period was -1838 (-5735 +2993 ml. The mortality rate up to90 days was 58%. The independent mortality risk factors in propensity score model were: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR = 3.44[1.14-10.4; p = 0.028], hematologic malignancy (OR = 5.14[1.66-15.95; p = 0.005], oliguria (OR = 2.36[1.15-4.9; p = 0.02], positive daily fluid balance during CVVHDF (OR = 4.55[2.75-13.1; p<0.001], and total SOFA score on first dialysis day (OR = 1.27[1.12-1.45; p<0.001].Dialysis-related factors may influence the outcomes. In our cohort, positive daily fluid balance during CRRT was associated with lower survival. Multicenter, randomized studies are needed to assess fluid balance as a primary outcome to define the best strategy in this

  19. How categories come to matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohn, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    In a study of users' interactions with Siri, the iPhone personal assistant application, we noticed the emergence of overlaps and blurrings between explanatory categories such as "human" and "machine". We found that users work to purify these categories, thus resolving the tensions related...

  20. Categories of theories and interpretations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    In this paper we study categories of theories and interpretations. In these categories, notions of sameness of theories, like synonymy, bi-interpretability and mutual interpretability, take the form of isomorphism. We study the usual notions like monomorphism and product in the various theories.

  1. Categories for the working mathematician

    CERN Document Server

    MacLane, Saunders

    1971-01-01

    Category Theory has developed rapidly. This book aims to present those ideas and methods which can now be effectively used by Mathe­ maticians working in a variety of other fields of Mathematical research. This occurs at several levels. On the first level, categories provide a convenient conceptual language, based on the notions of category, functor, natural transformation, contravariance, and functor category. These notions are presented, with appropriate examples, in Chapters I and II. Next comes the fundamental idea of an adjoint pair of functors. This appears in many substantially equivalent forms: That of universal construction, that of direct and inverse limit, and that of pairs offunctors with a natural isomorphism between corresponding sets of arrows. All these forms, with their interrelations, are examined in Chapters III to V. The slogan is "Adjoint functors arise everywhere". Alternatively, the fundamental notion of category theory is that of a monoid -a set with a binary operation of multiplicati...

  2. Active vibration control of a ring-stiffened cylindrical shell in contact with unbounded external fluid and subjected to harmonic disturbance by piezoelectric sensor and actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Moon K.; Yang, Dong-Ho

    2013-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the suppression of vibrations and radiated sound of a ring-stiffened circular cylindrical shell in contact with unbounded external fluid by means of piezoelectric sensors and actuators. The dynamic model of a circular cylindrical shell based on the Sanders shell theory was considered together with a ring stiffener model. The mass and stiffness matrices for a ring stiffener were newly derived in this study and added to the mass and stiffness matrices of the cylindrical shell, respectively. The fluid-added mass matrix, which was derived by using the baffled shell theory, was also added to the mass matrix. Finally, the equations representing the piezoelectric sensor measurement and piezoelectric actuation complete the theoretical model for the addressed problem. The natural vibration characteristics of the ring-stiffened cylindrical shell both in air and in water were investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical predictions were in good agreement with the experimental results. An active vibration controller which can cope with a harmonic disturbance was designed by considering the modified higher harmonic control, which is, in fact, a band rejection filter. An active vibration control experiment on the submerged cylindrical shell was carried out in a water tank and the digital control system was used. The experimental results showed that both vibrations and radiation sound of the submerged cylindrical shell were suppressed by a pair of piezoelectric sensor and actuator.

  3. Fluid Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pnueli, David; Gutfinger, Chaim

    1997-01-01

    This text is intended for the study of fluid mechanics at an intermediate level. The presentation starts with basic concepts, in order to form a sound conceptual structure that can support engineering applications and encourage further learning. The presentation is exact, incorporating both the mathematics involved and the physics needed to understand the various phenomena in fluid mechanics. Where a didactical choice must be made between the two, the physics prevails. Throughout the book the authors have tried to reach a balance between exact presentation, intuitive grasp of new ideas, and creative applications of concepts. This approach is reflected in the examples presented in the text and in the exercises given at the end of each chapter. Subjects treated are hydrostatics, viscous flow, similitude and order of magnitude, creeping flow, potential flow, boundary layer flow, turbulent flow, compressible flow, and non-Newtonian flows. This book is ideal for advanced undergraduate students in mechanical, chemical, aerospace, and civil engineering. Solutions manual available.

  4. Effects of task and category membership on representation stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Manetta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the within-subject stability of 150 participants who performed both a sorting task and a property-generation task over multiple sessions, focusing on three concrete concept categories (food, animals and bathroom products. We hypothesized that (1 the within-subject stability would be higher in the sorting task than in the property-generation task and (2 the nature of the category would influence both the within-subject stability of the classification groups in the sorting task and the properties generated to define these groups. The results show that the within-subject stability of conceptual representations depends both on the task and on the nature of the category. The stability of the representations was greater in the sorting task than in the property-generation task and in the food category. These results are discussed from a longitudinal perspective.

  5. Molecular profile in body fluids in subjects enrolled in a randomised trial for lung cancer screening: Perspectives of integrated strategies for early diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carozzi, Francesca Maria; Bisanzi, Simonetta; Falini, Patrizia; Sani, Cristina; Venturini, Giulia; Lopes Pegna, Andrea; Bianchi, Roberto; Ronchi, Cristina; Picozzi, Giulia; Mascalchi, Mario; Carrozzi, Laura; Baliva, Filomena; Pistelli, Francesco; Tavanti, Laura; Falaschi, Fabio; Grazzini, Michela; Innocenti, Florio; Paci, Eugenio

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of a grid of molecular genetic markers detectable in sputum and plasma samples of individuals enrolled in a lung cancer screening program with low-dose CT. Subjects enrolled in the baseline screening round of the ITALUNG (randomised) screening trial were invited to provide biological specimens for molecular analysis (1356 subjects out of 1406). We included 98 subjects in this analysis. There was a highly statistically significant difference between proportion of subjects with a negative baseline CT screening test who were positive to allelic imbalance, and those with a non-calcified nodule (NCN greater than or equal to 5mm), the reason of recall for all suspects at CT Scan (chi(2): 22.9; P or = 5 mm. In subjects recalled for NCN > or = 5 mm, LOH, K-ras mutations and high levels of free plasma DNA (>5ng/ml plasma) might be important to support clinical decision making for further follow-up and repeated screening. This study, embedded in an early diagnosis randomised trial, suggests that a multi-screening approach integrating imaging technique and a biomolecular marker panel is worth of further investigation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. On Anaphora and the Binding Principles in Categorial Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Glyn; Valentín, Oriol

    In type logical categorial grammar the analysis of an expression is a resource-conscious proof. Anaphora represents a particular challenge to this approach in that the antecedent resource is multiplied in the semantics. This duplication, which corresponds logically to the structural rule of contraction, may be treated lexically or syntactically. Furthermore, anaphora is subject to constraints, which Chomsky (1981) formulated as Binding Principles A, B, and C. In this paper we consider English anaphora in categorial grammar including reference to the binding principles. We invoke displacement calculus, modal categorial calculus, categorial calculus with limited contraction, and entertain addition of negation as failure.

  7. Thermo-mechanical nonlinear vibration analysis of fluid-conveying structures subjected to different boundary conditions using Galerkin-Newton-Harmonic balancing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbeminiyi Sobamowo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of mathematical models for describing the dynamic behaviours of fluid conveying pipes, micro-pipes and nanotubes under the influence of some thermo-mechanical parameters results into nonlinear equations that are very difficult to solve analytically. In cases where the exact analytical solutions are presented either in implicit or explicit forms, high skills and rigorous mathematical analyses were employed. It is noted that such solutions do not provide general exact solutions. Inevitably, comparatively simple, flexible yet accurate and practicable solutions are required for the analyses of these structures. Therefore, in this study, approximate analytical solutions are provided to the nonlinear equations arising in flow-induced vibration of pipes, micro-pipes and nanotubes using Galerkin-Newton-Harmonic Method (GNHM. The developed approximate analytical solutions are shown to be valid for both small and large amplitude oscillations. The accuracies and explicitness of these solutions were examined in limiting cases to establish the suitability of the method.

  8. Ethnicity in censuses: Changeable and inconstant category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrđen Snježana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of ethnicity was set in all censuses of SFRY, as well as in the first censuses in countries that were created after its disintegration. When analyzing the censuses it can be concluded that it is a changeable category. Not only was the manner of forming the question in censuses changing, but also the number of categories of nationality and their order in published census' results. It depended on state policy and the political situation preceding the censuses. Since the answer on the issues of ethnicity is a subjective criterion, and it was written down according to the freely declared statement of the residents, guaranteed by the Constitution. It has often happened that same individuals have declared themselves differently from one census to another, and also some categories of ethnicity have vanished and some others were created. Although in SFRY nations and ethnicities were equal, still indirectly in published results, existence of these two categories was indicated. But, in newly created countries, the manner of forming the question of ethnicity was changed, their number and order were also changed and the notion of 'minority' was again introduced, indicating, beyond doubt, a different status of nationality (except the majority from the one in the former Yugoslavia.

  9. Constraint-Based Categorial Grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Bouma, G; Bouma, Gosse; Noord, Gertjan van

    1994-01-01

    We propose a generalization of Categorial Grammar in which lexical categories are defined by means of recursive constraints. In particular, the introduction of relational constraints allows one to capture the effects of (recursive) lexical rules in a computationally attractive manner. We illustrate the linguistic merits of the new approach by showing how it accounts for the syntax of Dutch cross-serial dependencies and the position and scope of adjuncts in such constructions. Delayed evaluation is used to process grammars containing recursive constraints.

  10. Data categories for marine planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsom, Frances L.; Cicchetti, Giancarlo; Wahle, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. National Ocean Policy calls for a science- and ecosystem-based approach to comprehensive planning and management of human activities and their impacts on America’s oceans. The Ocean Community in Data.gov is an outcome of 2010–2011 work by an interagency working group charged with designing a national information management system to support ocean planning. Within the working group, a smaller team developed a list of the data categories specifically relevant to marine planning. This set of categories is an important consensus statement of the breadth of information types required for ocean planning from a national, multidisciplinary perspective. Although the categories were described in a working document in 2011, they have not yet been fully implemented explicitly in online services or geospatial metadata, in part because authoritative definitions were not created formally. This document describes the purpose of the data categories, provides definitions, and identifies relations among the categories and between the categories and external standards. It is intended to be used by ocean data providers, managers, and users in order to provide a transparent and consistent framework for organizing and describing complex information about marine ecosystems and their connections to humans.

  11. Engineering fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    This book is intended to serve as a unique and comprehensive textbook for scientists and engineers as well as advanced students in thermo-fluid courses. It provides an intensive monograph essential for understanding dynamics of ideal fluid, Newtonian fluid, non-Newtonian fluid and magnetic fluid. These distinct, yet intertwined subjects are addressed in an integrated manner. It starts with coherent treatment of fundamental continuum mechanics, with an emphasis on the intrinsic angular momentum, by which the concepts of ferrohydrodynamics are progressively built up, and serve as a foundation for later development. Flows of ideal and Newtonian fluids are followed by a detailed presentation of basic continuum equations for applications of fluid engineering, which cover the design and operations of various turbomachines, heat exchangers and flow elements. The study of the deformation and flow of matter, namely rheology, is discussed primarily with regard to the stresses generated during the flow of complex materi...

  12. The E-wave propagation index (EPI): A novel echocardiographic parameter for prediction of left ventricular thrombus. Derivation from computational fluid dynamic modeling and validation on human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harfi, Thura T; Seo, Jung-Hee; Yasir, Hayder S; Welsh, Nathaniel; Mayer, Susan A; Abraham, Theodore P; George, Richard T; Mittal, Rajat

    2017-01-15

    To describe the derivation and validation of a novel echocardiographic metric for prediction of left ventricle thrombus (LVT). Computational fluid dynamic modeling using cardiac CT images was used to derive a novel echocardiography-based metric to predict the presence of LVT. We retrospectively reviewed 25 transthoracic echocardiograms showing definite LVT (LVT group). We then randomly selected 25 patients with LVEF ≥55% (Normal EF group) and 25 patients with severe cardiomyopathy (CMP) with LVEF ≤40% without evidence of LVT (CMP group). The E-wave Propagation Index (EPI) was measured as the E-wave velocity time-integral divided by the LV length. An EPI>1 indicates penetration of the mitral jet into the apex whereas an EPIEPI was compared between the three groups. Crude and adjusted odd ratios of EPI and LVT association were also measured. Mean EPI was highest for the normal EF group and lowest in the LVT group (1.7 vs. 0.8; pEPI also differed significantly between LVT and CMP groups (0.8 vs. 1.2; pEPI EPI EPI of less than 1 is an independent predictor of LVT formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. PRECEDENCE AS A PSYCHOLINGUISTIC CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panarina Nadezhda Sergeevna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of particular linguistic units by representatives of a linguacultural community as the most preferable verbal actions is not necessary to be a case of verbal operations with some culturally specific knowledge. The analysis of a psychosocial mechanism used for generation and verbalization of such a knowledge allows to define the nature of precedence as a characteristic of meaning that is being effected in a speech act. The development of precedent meaning indispensably assumes not only generation of the definition component, but also entry into a structure of a culturological component meaning. The culturological component reflects a relationship between a subject-concept component of the meaning and the other elements of a speech situation – the relationship, which is notional for a person. Importance of the relationship consists in fact that definition of its content represents to a person their social identity. Until a person understands the content of relationship, which is represented by the culturological component, the use of corresponding linguistic units to nominate new objects of reality is a supraliminal appeal to the precedent knowledge, a speech act. But for new acts of usage the main thing is definitely quality of relationship as a characteristic of the cultural group stability, and the linguistic unit usage derives a new function. When the culturological component of the meaning is not included into generalization, since it is irrelevant one, and the core of meaning is composed of new and more relevant for the usage features, you can no more realize the inner form of the precedent meaning. The outer form is still relevant, since it is kept in mind by the representatives of linguaculture as the one which is preferable for usage. In this case the linguistic unit is just a tool not related to verbal representation of socially significant attitude, and its usage is a speech operation, a way to perform different speech acts

  14. A Phase 1 dose-ranging study examining the effects of a superabsorbent polymer (CLP) on fluid, sodium and potassium excretion in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Lee W; Dittrich, Howard C; Strickland, Alan; Blok, Thomas M; Newman, Richard; Oliphant, Thomas; Albrecht, Detlef

    2014-01-25

    CLP is an orally administered, non-absorbed, superabsorbent polymer being developed to increase fecal excretion of sodium, potassium and water in patients with heart failure and end-stage renal disease. This study was conducted to evaluate the safety of CLP, and to explore dose-related effects on fecal weight, fecal and urine sodium and potassium excretion, and serum electrolyte concentrations. This Phase 1, open-label, dose-escalation study included 25 healthy volunteers, who were administered CLP orally immediately prior to four daily meals for 9 days at doses of 7.5, 15.0, and 25.0 g/day (n = 5/group). An additional dose group received 15.0 g/day CLP under fasting conditions, and an untreated cohort (n = 5) served as control. Twenty-four-hour fecal and urinary output was collected daily. Samples were weighed, and sodium, potassium, and other ion content in stool and urine were measured for each treatment group. Effects on serum cation concentrations, other standard laboratory values, and adverse events were also determined. At doses below 25.0 g/day, CLP was well tolerated, with a low frequency of self-limiting gastrointestinal adverse events. CLP increased fecal weight and fecal sodium and potassium content in a dose-related manner. Concomitant dose-related decreases in urinary sodium and potassium were observed. All serum ion concentrations remained within normal limits. In this study, oral CLP removed water, sodium and potassium from the body via the gastrointestinal tract in a dose related fashion. CLP could become useful for patients with fluid overload and compromised kidney function in conditions such as congestive heart failure, salt sensitive hypertension, chronic kidney disease and end stage renal disease. NCT01944007.

  15. FINANCIAL CONTROL AS A CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Yu. Volkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the basics of “financial control” as a category. The main attention is concentrated on the “control” itself (asa term, multiplicity of interpretation of“financial control” term and its juristic-practical matching. The duality of financial control category is detected. The identity of terms “financial control” and “state financial control” is justified. The article also offers ways of development of financial control juristical regulation.

  16. Amniotic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or movements Too much amniotic fluid is called polyhydramnios . This condition can occur with multiple pregnancies (twins ... development of the fetus. Images Amniocentesis Amniotic fluid Polyhydramnios Amniotic fluid References Burton GJ, Sibley CP, Jauniaux ...

  17. The 24-hour skin hydration and barrier function effects of a hyaluronic 1%, glycerin 5%, and Centella asiatica stem cells extract moisturizing fluid: an intra-subject, randomized, assessor-blinded study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milani M

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Massimo Milani,1 Adele Sparavigna2 1Difa Cooper, Caronno Pertusella, Varese, 2Dermatologic Institute Dermig Milan, Milan, Italy Introduction: Moisturizing products are commonly used to improve hydration in skin dryness conditions. However, some topical hydrating products could have negative effects on skin barrier function. In addition, hydrating effects of moisturizers are not commonly evaluated up to 24 hours after a single application. Hyaluronic acid (HA and glycerin are very well-known substances able to improve skin hydration. Centella asiatica extract (CAE could exert lenitive, anti-inflammatory and reepithelialization actions. Furthermore, CAE could inhibit hyaluronidase enzyme activity, therefore prolonging the effect of HA. A fluid containing HA 1%, glycerin 5% and stem cells CAE has been recently developed (Jaluronius CS [JCS] fluid. Study aim: To evaluate and compare the 24-hour effects of JCS fluid on skin hydration and on transepidermal water loss (TEWL in healthy subjects in comparison with the control site. Subjects and methods: Twenty healthy women, mean age 40 years, were enrolled in an intra-subject (right vs left, randomized, assessor-blinded, controlled, 1-day trial. The primary end points were the skin hydration and TEWL, evaluated at the volar surface of the forearm and in standardized conditions (temperature- and humidity-controlled room: 23°C and 30% of humidity using a corneometer and a vapometer device at baseline, 1, 8 and 24 hours after JCS fluid application. Measurements were performed by an operator blinded for the treatments. Results: Skin hydration after 24 hours was significantly higher (P=0.001; Mann–Whitney U test in the JCS-treated area in comparison with the control site. JCS induced a significant (P=0.0001 increase in skin hydration at each evaluation time (+59% after 1 hour, +48% after 8 hours and +29% after 24 hours in comparison with both baseline (P=0.0001 and non-treated control site (P=0

  18. Interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha in synovial fluid are associated with progression of radiographic knee osteoarthritis in subjects with previous meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, S; Englund, M; Struglics, A

    2015-01-01

    concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6, -8 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α by multiplex immunoassay, graded radiographic features of tibiofemoral and patellofemoral OA according to the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) atlas, scored patient-reported outcomes using the Knee Injury...... (odds ratios (OR); 95% confidence intervals 1.05; 1.00-1.09 and 1.35; 1.03-1.75). Higher second examination concentrations of TNF-α were associated with having progressed in loss of joint space (OR 1.70; 1.15-2.52) or having worsened in the activity of daily living subscale of KOOS (OR 1.50; 1.......07-2.09) in the preceding years. Subjects with increasing concentrations of IL-6 or TNF-α between examinations were five times more likely to have progressed in joint space narrowing between the same examinations, as compared to those with stable or decreasing concentrations (OR 5.17; 1.54-17.32 and 5.01; 1...

  19. Essays on diffusion and categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hugten, Joeri

    2015-01-01

    Essay’ derives from the French ‘to try’. Accordingly, in this book, I try three new interpretations of diffusion and categories. That is, I try to divide observations into groups in a new way. Some ways of dividing lead to confusion and frustration. For example, people’s default division seems to be

  20. Acquiring auditory and phonetic categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudbeek, M.B.; Smits, R.; Swingley, D.; Cutler, A.

    2005-01-01

    Infants' first steps in language acquisition involve learning the relevant contrasts of the language-specific phonemic repertoire. This learning is viewed as the formation of categories in a multidimensional psychophysical space. Categorization research in the visual modality has shown that adults

  1. Linguistic Markedness and Category Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Todd R.; Mansfield, Cade D.; Brewer, Katherine M.

    2011-01-01

    Several psycholinguistic theories have appealed to the linguistic notion of markedness to help explain asymmetrical patterns of behavioural data. We suggest that this sort of markedness is best thought of as a derived rather than a primitive notion, emerging when the distributional properties of linguistic categories interact with general-purpose…

  2. A category of its own?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Jørgen; Roberts, Nigel S.

    1996-01-01

    At first sight, the electoral systems in Denmark, Germany, South Africa and Sweden may seem different and attaempt to categorize them together odd. All four, however, belong to the same category, which Arend Lijphart calls 'proportional representation two-tier districting systems', and the effects...

  3. Mosquito and Blackfly Category Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, James S.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Section one is concerned with the morphology, life cycle and breeding areas of mosquitoes and the diseases resulting from their presence. The second section covers similar categories in relation to the black fly population. Calculation methods and…

  4. Learnable Classes of Categorial Grammars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Makoto

    Learnability theory is an attempt to illuminate the concept of learnability using a mathematical model of learning. Two models of learning of categorial grammars are examined here: the standard model, in which sentences presented to the learner are flat strings of words, and one in which sentences are presented in the form of functor-argument…

  5. On the Category of Partial Bijections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Schwab

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Categories of partial functions have become increasingly important principally because of their applications in theoretical computer science. In this note we prove that the category of partial bijections between sets as an inverse-Baer*-category with closed projections and in which the idempotents split is an exact category. Finally the Noether isomorphism theorems are given for this exact category.

  6. A Morphism Double Category and Monoidal Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikat Chatterjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide a recipe for “fattening” a category that leads to the construction of a double category. Motivated by an example where the underlying category has vector spaces as objects, we show how a monoidal category leads to a law of composition, satisfying certain coherence properties, on the object set of the fattened category.

  7. Task-Modulated Cortical Representations of Natural Sound Source Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens; Kassuba, Tanja; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

    2018-01-01

    In everyday sound environments, we recognize sound sources and events by attending to relevant aspects of an acoustic input. Evidence about the cortical mechanisms involved in extracting relevant category information from natural sounds is, however, limited to speech. Here, we used functional MRI...... discriminability. Action categories were more accurately decoded in auditory cortex when subjects identified action information. Conversely, the material of the same sound sources was decoded with higher accuracy in the inferior frontal cortex during material identification. Representational similarity analyses...

  8. Category Learning in the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seger, Carol A.; Miller, Earl K.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to group items and events into functional categories is a fundamental characteristic of sophisticated thought. It is subserved by plasticity in many neural systems, including neocortical regions (sensory, prefrontal, parietal, and motor cortex), the medial temporal lobe, the basal ganglia, and midbrain dopaminergic systems. These systems interact during category learning. Corticostriatal loops may mediate recursive, bootstrapping interactions between fast reward-gated plasticity in the basal ganglia and slow reward-shaded plasticity in the cortex. This can provide a balance between acquisition of details of experiences and generalization across them. Interactions between the corticostriatal loops can integrate perceptual, response, and feedback-related aspects of the task and mediate the shift from novice to skilled performance. The basal ganglia and medial temporal lobe interact competitively or cooperatively, depending on the demands of the learning task. PMID:20572771

  9. A Formal Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José

    This dissertation studies the logic underlying category theory. In particular we present a formal calculus for reasoning about universal properties. The aim is to systematise judgements about functoriality and naturality central to categorical reasoning. The calculus is based on a language which...... extends the typed lambda calculus with new binders to represent universal constructions. The types of the languages are interpreted as locally small categories and the expressions represent functors. The logic supports a syntactic treatment of universality and duality. Contravariance requires a definition...... of universality generous enough to deal with functors of mixed variance. Ends generalise limits to cover these kinds of functors and moreover provide the basis for a very convenient algebraic manipulation of expressions. The equational theory of the lambda calculus is extended with new rules for the definitions...

  10. Grammatical Constructions as Relational Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Micah B

    2017-07-01

    This paper argues that grammatical constructions, specifically argument structure constructions that determine the "who did what to whom" part of sentence meaning and how this meaning is expressed syntactically, can be considered a kind of relational category. That is, grammatical constructions are represented as the abstraction of the syntactic and semantic relations of the exemplar utterances that are expressed in that construction, and it enables the generation of novel exemplars. To support this argument, I review evidence that there are parallel behavioral patterns between how children learn relational categories generally and how they learn grammatical constructions specifically. Then, I discuss computational simulations of how grammatical constructions are abstracted from exemplar sentences using a domain-general relational cognitive architecture. Last, I review evidence from adult language processing that shows parallel behavioral patterns with expert behavior from other cognitive domains. After reviewing the evidence, I consider how to integrate this account with other theories of language development. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. Virtue Ethics: The Misleading Category

    OpenAIRE

    Nussbaum, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Virtue ethics is frequently considered to be a single category of ethical theory, and a rival to Kantianismand Utilitarianism. I argue that this approach is a mistake, because both Kantians and Utilitarians can, and do, have an interest in the virtues and the forrnation of character. But even if we focus on the group of ethical theorists who are most commonly called "virtue theorists" because they reject the guidance of both Kantianism and Utilitarianism, and derive inspiration from ancient G...

  12. Cosmetics, categories, and the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2012-01-01

    Cosmetics is an interesting unregulated category of over-the-counter products designed to enhance appearance and skin health. The coloring agents used in cosmetics are regulated along with their preservative constituents. New understandings of skin physiology have allowed cosmetics to advance beyond appearance issues into the functional arena. Cosmeceuticals is an unrecognized term from a regulatory perspective that conveys the new cosmetic formulations ability to improve skin health. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Levels of serum interleukin (IL)-6 and gingival crevicular fluid of IL-1beta and prostaglandin E(2) among non-smoking subjects with gingivitis and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriankaja, O M; Barros, S P; Moss, K; Panagakos, F S; DeVizio, W; Beck, J; Offenbacher, S

    2009-02-01

    The goal of this study was to assess whether non-smoking patients with type 2 diabetes present with increased levels of local and systemic proinflammatory mediators and, if so, whether such an increase is associated with enhanced clinical gingival inflammation compared to non-smoking patients without diabetes. We used a cross-sectional database consisting of 725 self-reported lifelong non-smokers aged 53 to 74 years. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of interleukin (IL)-1beta and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and serum levels of IL-6 were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. No participant had probing depth >3 mm. Participants with bleeding on probing (BOP) in or=10% of sites were defined as having biofilm-gingival interface (BGI) gingivitis. Approximately 53% (n = 385) and 11% (n = 80) of the sample had BGI gingivitis and type 2 diabetes, respectively. The mean age-adjusted level of GCF IL-1beta was significantly elevated in the diabetic group compared to the non-diabetic group (P = 0.048), but serum IL-6 (P = 0.14) and GCF PGE(2) were not (P = 0.98). The mean GCF IL-1beta and PGE(2) levels were significantly elevated in subjects with BGI gingivitis (136.2 +/- 112.9 ng/ml and 277.2 +/- 187.2 ng/ml, respectively) compared to subjects with gingival health (95.9 +/- 82.9 ng/ml and 205.7 +/- 149.6 ng/ml, respectively), regardless of diabetic status (P gingivitis compared to subjects with gingival health only among subjects with diabetes (2.9 +/- 3.2 pg/ml versus 1.5 +/- 1.4 pg/ml; P = 0.008). With the exception of serum IL-6 in subjects without diabetes, an increase in the levels of proinflammatory mediators was associated with increased odds of having BGI gingivitis. The associations were stronger in the diabetic group. Type 2 diabetes may increase the host inflammatory response to oral biofilm, which, in turn, may exacerbate preconditions associated with gingivitis in susceptible individuals. Furthermore, systemic inflammation, as demonstrated by the

  14. 14 CFR 23.3 - Airplane categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane categories. 23.3 Section 23.3... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 23.3 Airplane categories. (a) The normal category is limited to airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding pilot...

  15. Task-Modulated Cortical Representations of Natural Sound Source Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjortkjær, Jens; Kassuba, Tanja; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Skov, Martin; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2017-10-23

    In everyday sound environments, we recognize sound sources and events by attending to relevant aspects of an acoustic input. Evidence about the cortical mechanisms involved in extracting relevant category information from natural sounds is, however, limited to speech. Here, we used functional MRI to measure cortical response patterns while human listeners categorized real-world sounds created by objects of different solid materials (glass, metal, wood) manipulated by different sound-producing actions (striking, rattling, dropping). In different sessions, subjects had to identify either material or action categories in the same sound stimuli. The sound-producing action and the material of the sound source could be decoded from multivoxel activity patterns in auditory cortex, including Heschl's gyrus and planum temporale. Importantly, decoding success depended on task relevance and category discriminability. Action categories were more accurately decoded in auditory cortex when subjects identified action information. Conversely, the material of the same sound sources was decoded with higher accuracy in the inferior frontal cortex during material identification. Representational similarity analyses indicated that both early and higher-order auditory cortex selectively enhanced spectrotemporal features relevant to the target category. Together, the results indicate a cortical selection mechanism that favors task-relevant information in the processing of nonvocal sound categories. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  16. Duality as a category-theoretic concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corfield, David

    2017-08-01

    In a paper published in 1939, Ernest Nagel described the role that projective duality had played in the reformulation of mathematical understanding through the turn of the nineteenth century, claiming that the discovery of the principle of duality had freed mathematicians from the belief that their task was to describe intuitive elements. While instances of duality in mathematics have increased enormously through the twentieth century, philosophers since Nagel have paid little attention to the phenomenon. In this paper I will argue that a reassessment is overdue. Something beyond doubt is that category theory has an enormous amount to say on the subject, for example, in terms of arrow reversal, dualising objects and adjunctions. These developments have coincided with changes in our understanding of identity and structure within mathematics. While it transpires that physicists have employed the term 'duality' in ways which do not always coincide with those of mathematicians, analysis of the latter should still prove very useful to philosophers of physics. Consequently, category theory presents itself as an extremely important language for the philosophy of physics.

  17. Task-Modulated Cortical Representations of Natural Sound Source Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens; Kassuba, Tanja; Madsen, Kristoffer H.

    2017-01-01

    discriminability. Action categories were more accurately decoded in auditory cortex when subjects identified action information. Conversely, the material of the same sound sources was decoded with higher accuracy in the inferior frontal cortex during material identification. Representational similarity analyses...... indicated that both early and higher-order auditory cortex selectively enhanced spectrotemporal features relevant to the target category. Together, the results indicate a cortical selection mechanism that favors task-relevant information in the processing of nonvocal sound categories.......In everyday sound environments, we recognize sound sources and events by attending to relevant aspects of an acoustic input. Evidence about the cortical mechanisms involved in extracting relevant category information from natural sounds is, however, limited to speech. Here, we used functional MRI...

  18. Category theoretic analysis of single-photon decision maker

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Makoto Naruse Song-Ju; Berthel, Martin; Drezet, Aurélien; Huant, Serge; Hori, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    Decision making is a vital function in the era of artificial intelligence; however, its physical realizations and their theoretical fundamentals are not yet known. In our former study [Sci. Rep. 5, 513253 (2015)], we demonstrated that single photons can be used to make decisions in uncertain, dynamically changing environments. The multi-armed bandit problem was successfully solved using the dual probabilistic and particle attributes of single photons. Herein, we present the category theoretic foundation of the single-photon-based decision making, including quantitative analysis that agrees well with the experimental results. The category theoretic model unveils complex interdependencies of the entities of the subject matter in the most simplified manner, including a dynamically changing environment. In particular, the octahedral structure in triangulated categories provides a clear understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the single-photon decision maker. This is the first demonstration of a category the...

  19. Organized simultaneous displays facilitate learning of complex natural science categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Brian J; Carvalho, Paulo F; Goldstone, Robert L; Nosofsky, Robert M

    2017-12-01

    Subjects learned to classify images of rocks into the categories igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary. In accord with the real-world structure of these categories, the to-be-classified rocks in the experiments had a dispersed similarity structure. Our central hypothesis was that learning of these complex categories would be improved through observational study of organized, simultaneous displays of the multiple rock tokens. In support of this hypothesis, a technique that included the presentation of the simultaneous displays during phases of the learning process yielded improved acquisition (Experiment 1) and generalization (Experiment 2) compared to methods that relied solely on sequential forms of study and testing. The technique appears to provide a good starting point for application of cognitive-psychology principles of effective category learning to the science classroom.

  20. Fluid Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  1. Fluid Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2001-01-01

    Fluid interaction, interaction by the user with the system that causes few breakdowns, is essential to many user interfaces. We present two concrete software systems that try to support fluid interaction for different work practices. Furthermore, we present specificity, generality, and minimality...... as design goals for fluid interfaces....

  2. Does Category A Anchor Text Improve Category B Results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Research and Development Activity (ARDA). U.S. Government or Federal Rights License 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...Tech- nical Report TR-CTIT-10-15, Centre for Telematics and Information Technology University of Twente, Enschede. April.

  3. The history of psychological categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Roger

    2005-03-01

    Psychological terms, such as 'mind', 'memory', 'emotion' and indeed 'psychology' itself, have a history. This history, I argue, supports the view that basic psychological categories refer to historical and social entities, and not to 'natural kinds'. The case is argued through a wide ranging review of the historiography of western psychology, first, in connection with the field's extreme modern diversity; second, in relation to the possible antecedents of the field in the early modern period; and lastly, through a brief introduction to usage of the words 'soul', 'mind', 'memory' and 'emotion'. The discussion situates the history of psychology within a large historical context, questions assumptions about the continuity of meaning, and draws out implications for the philosophical and social constitution of 'psychology' and 'the psychological' from the existing literature. The historical evidence, this paper concludes, does not support the conventional presumption that modern psychological terms describe 'natural kinds'.

  4. Structural similarity and category-specificity: a refined account

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B.

    2004-01-01

    range of candidate integral units will be activated and compete for selection, thus explaining the higher error rate associated with animals. We evaluate the model based on previous evidence from both normal subjects and patients with category-specific disorders and argue that this model can help...

  5. Quotients of unital ${A}_\\infty$-categories

    OpenAIRE

    Lyubashenko, Volodymyr; Manzyuk, Oleksandr

    2003-01-01

    For a full subcategory B of a unital A_infinity-category C a quotient unital A_infinity-category `C/B' is defined. For differential graded categories such quotient is constructed by V.Drinfeld. Our construction is explicit and uses freely generated A_infinity-categories. The quotient D=`C/B' represents the A_infinity-2-functor A \\mapsto A_\\infty^u(C,A)_{modulo B}, which associates with a given unital A_infinity-category A the A_infinity-category of unital A_infinity-functors C -> A, whose res...

  6. Color categories and color appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue–green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary were perceptually exaggerated. This task did not require overt judgments of the perceived colors, and the tendency to group showed only a weak and inconsistent categorical bias. In a second case, we analyzed results from two prior studies of hue scaling of chromatic stimuli (De Valois, De Valois, Switkes, & Mahon, 1997; Malkoc, Kay, & Webster, 2005), to test whether color appearance changed more rapidly around the blue–green boundary. In this task observers directly judge the perceived color of the stimuli and these judgments tended to show much stronger categorical effects. The differences between these tasks could arise either because different signals mediate color grouping and color appearance, or because linguistic categories might differentially intrude on the response to color and/or on the perception of color. Our results suggest that the interaction between language and color processing may be highly dependent on the specific task and cognitive demands and strategies of the observer, and also highlight pronounced individual differences in the tendency to exhibit categorical responses. PMID:22176751

  7. Product sounds : Basic concepts and categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan Vieira, E.; Van Egmond, R.; Jacobs, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigated which categories of product sounds listeners can distinguish. We explored the perceptual domain of product sounds in order to be able to derive perceptually similar categories and determine how users are able to describe these categories by merely listening to them.

  8. Fluid and electrolyte balance during 24-hour fluid and/or energy restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lewis J; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2013-12-01

    Weight categorized athletes use a variety of techniques to induce rapid weight loss (RWL) in the days leading up to weigh in. This study examined the fluid and electrolyte balance responses to 24-hr fluid restriction (FR), energy restriction (ER) and fluid and energy restriction (F+ER) compared with a control trial (C), which are commonly used techniques to induce RWL in weight category sports. Twelve subjects (six male, six female) received adequate energy and water (C) intake, adequate energy and restricted water (~10% of C; FR) intake, restricted energy (~25% of C) and adequate water (ER) intake or restricted energy (~25% of C) and restricted (~10% of C) water intake (F+ER) in a randomized counterbalanced order. Subjects visited the laboratory at 0 hr, 12 hr, and 24 hr for blood and urine sample collection. Total body mass loss was 0.33% (C), 1.88% (FR), 1.97% (ER), and 2.44% (F+ER). Plasma volume was reduced at 24 hr during FR, ER, and F+ER, while serum osmolality was increased at 24 hr for FR and F+ER and was greater at 24 hr for FR compared with all other trials. Negative balances of sodium, potassium, and chloride developed during ER and F+ER but not during C and FR. These results demonstrate that 24 hr fluid and/ or energy restriction significantly reduces body mass and plasma volume, but has a disparate effect on serum osmolality, resulting in hypertonic hypohydration during FR and isotonic hypohydration during ER. These findings might be explained by the difference in electrolyte balance between the trials.

  9. Fluid Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University.......These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University....

  10. Incremental Bayesian Category Learning From Natural Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frermann, Lea; Lapata, Mirella

    2016-08-01

    Models of category learning have been extensively studied in cognitive science and primarily tested on perceptual abstractions or artificial stimuli. In this paper, we focus on categories acquired from natural language stimuli, that is, words (e.g., chair is a member of the furniture category). We present a Bayesian model that, unlike previous work, learns both categories and their features in a single process. We model category induction as two interrelated subproblems: (a) the acquisition of features that discriminate among categories, and (b) the grouping of concepts into categories based on those features. Our model learns categories incrementally using particle filters, a sequential Monte Carlo method commonly used for approximate probabilistic inference that sequentially integrates newly observed data and can be viewed as a plausible mechanism for human learning. Experimental results show that our incremental learner obtains meaningful categories which yield a closer fit to behavioral data compared to related models while at the same time acquiring features which characterize the learned categories. (An earlier version of this work was published in Frermann and Lapata .). Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. CISM Course on Rotating Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    1992-01-01

    The volume presents a comprehensive overview of rotation effects on fluid behavior, emphasizing non-linear processes. The subject is introduced by giving a range of examples of rotating fluids encountered in geophysics and engineering. This is then followed by a discussion of the relevant scales and parameters of rotating flow, and an introduction to geostrophic balance and vorticity concepts. There are few books on rotating fluids and this volume is, therefore, a welcome addition. It is the first volume which contains a unified view of turbulence in rotating fluids, instability and vortex dynamics. Some aspects of wave motions covered here are not found elsewhere.

  12. Fluid dynamics of dilatant fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakanishi, Hiizu; Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Mitarai, Namiko

    2012-01-01

    A dense mixture of granules and liquid often shows a severe shear thickening and is called a dilatant fluid. We construct a fluid dynamics model for the dilatant fluid by introducing a phenomenological state variable for a local state of dispersed particles. With simple assumptions for an equation...... of the state variable, we demonstrate that the model can describe basic features of the dilatant fluid such as the stress-shear rate curve that represents discontinuous severe shear thickening, hysteresis upon changing shear rate, and instantaneous hardening upon external impact. An analysis of the model...... reveals that the shear thickening fluid shows an instability in a shear flow for some regime and exhibits the shear thickening oscillation (i.e., the oscillatory shear flow alternating between the thickened and the relaxed states). The results of numerical simulations are presented for one- and two...

  13. Cross-language perceptual category mapping: Korean perception of English obstruents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanyong; de Jong, Kenneth; Silbert, Noah

    2004-05-01

    Models, such as SLM and PAM, predict that performance on second language sounds is determined by the perceptual relationship of the sounds to the original language categories. To measure this relationship, Schmidt [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 99, 3201-3211] had native Korean speakers classify English consonant productions into Korean orthographic categories, and assess the similarity of the consonants to the chosen categories. The current experiment further examines how Korean labeling relates to accuracy in using English orthographic categories. Results show Koreans poorly identify sounds rated as dissimilar from Korean categories. Similarly, sounds that are inconsistently labeled with Korean labels are less accurately identified. These results suggest that accuracy varies with the nearness of the English and a Korean category, and thus English categories are developed from original Korean categories. However, other results indicate that sounds straddling Korean categories can be very accurately labeled, suggesting a complete suppression of native contrasts. In addition, identification accuracy for subjectively odd sounds can be very high, suggesting the development of a new category. Similarly, cases in which both Korean and English labeling is inconsistent show no relationship between the Korean and the English labels, indicating that the English categories are constructed apart from the existing Korean categories.

  14. John Duns Scotus: Questions on Aristotle’s Categories, qq. 1-3

    OpenAIRE

    Salinas Leal, Héctor Hernando; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

    2016-01-01

    This is the first Spanish translation of the three first questions, of Scotus’s commentary on Aristotle’s Categories. The Franciscan distinguishes the subject matter of the Aristotelian treatise under the logical concept of «category», grounding the unity of their treatment as a scientific object on the unity of this concept. To do so, Scotus distinguishes the properly logic study of categories, from its linguistic treatment (which grounds in their utterance) and from the metaphysician’s stud...

  15. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a focused, readable account of the principal physical and mathematical ideas at the heart of fluid dynamics. Graduate students in engineering, applied math, and physics who are taking their first graduate course in fluids will find this book invaluable in providing the background in physics and mathematics necessary to pursue advanced study. The book includes a detailed derivation of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations, followed by many examples of their use in studying the dynamics of fluid flows. Modern tensor analysis is used to simplify the mathematical derivations, thus allowing a clearer view of the physics. Peter Bernard also covers the motivation behind many fundamental concepts such as Bernoulli's equation and the stream function. Many exercises are designed with a view toward using MATLAB or its equivalent to simplify and extend the analysis of fluid motion including developing flow simulations based on techniques described in the book.

  16. Crystallized and fluid intelligence in elderly patients with mild dementia of the Alzheimer type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, O; Saito, M

    1998-06-01

    To examine early intellectual deficits in elderly patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT), 25 mildly impaired patients with DAT and 25 normal controls were compared using the Japanese version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R). The two groups did not differ significantly in age, years of education, or sex ratio. Based on Horn's modified fluid and crystallized model, the WAIS-R subtests were classified into two categories (i.e., fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence). The DAT group showed a significantly lower crystallized intelligence score, whereas the fluid intelligence scores did not differ significantly between the two groups. When the subtests were examined individually, the subtests for crystallized intelligence (i.e., information, comprehension, and similarities) were found to show the most significant deficits. These results suggest that elderly subjects with mild DAT have more impaired crystallized intelligence than those without dementia.

  17. Complex Fluids and Hydraulic Fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbati, Alexander C; Desroches, Jean; Robisson, Agathe; McKinley, Gareth H

    2016-06-07

    Nearly 70 years old, hydraulic fracturing is a core technique for stimulating hydrocarbon production in a majority of oil and gas reservoirs. Complex fluids are implemented in nearly every step of the fracturing process, most significantly to generate and sustain fractures and transport and distribute proppant particles during and following fluid injection. An extremely wide range of complex fluids are used: naturally occurring polysaccharide and synthetic polymer solutions, aqueous physical and chemical gels, organic gels, micellar surfactant solutions, emulsions, and foams. These fluids are loaded over a wide range of concentrations with particles of varying sizes and aspect ratios and are subjected to extreme mechanical and environmental conditions. We describe the settings of hydraulic fracturing (framed by geology), fracturing mechanics and physics, and the critical role that non-Newtonian fluid dynamics and complex fluids play in the hydraulic fracturing process.

  18. Global maps of science based on the new Web-of-Science categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Carley, S.; Rafols, I.

    2013-01-01

    In August 2011, Thomson Reuters launched version 5 of the Science and Social Science Citation Index in the Web of Science (WoS). Among other things, the 222 ISI Subject Categories (SCs) for these two databases in version 4 of WoS were renamed and extended to 225 WoS Categories (WCs). A new set of

  19. The Theory of Empty Categories and the Pro-drop Parameter in Modern Greek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippaki-Warburton, Irene

    1987-01-01

    Examines the theory of empty categories in a Government and Binding analysis of Modern Greek syntax. No empty subject category is found and so the pro-drop parameter is a misnomer here. Further support for the correlation between parametric variation and inflexional or morphological properties of a language is presented. (Author/LMO)

  20. Mirror Asymmetry of Category and Letter Fluency in Traumatic Brain Injury and Alzheimer's Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitani, Erminio; Rosci, Chiara; Saetti, Maria Cristina; Laiacona, Marcella

    2009-01-01

    In this study we contrasted the Category fluency and Letter fluency performance of 198 normal subjects, 57 Alzheimer's patients and 57 patients affected by traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim was to check whether, besides the prevalence of Category fluency deficit often reported among Alzheimer's patients, the TBI group presented the opposite…

  1. Protein secondary structure: category assignment and predictability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus A.; Bohr, Henrik; Brunak, Søren

    2001-01-01

    structures. Single sequence prediction of the new three category assignment gives an overall prediction improvement of 3.1% and 5.1%, compared to the DSSP assignment and schemes where the helix category consists of a-helix and 3(10)-helix, respectively. These results were achieved using a standard feed-forward...

  2. Conformal field theories and tensor categories. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Chengming [Nankai Univ., Tianjin (China). Chern Institute of Mathematics; Fuchs, Juergen [Karlstad Univ. (Sweden). Theoretical Physics; Huang, Yi-Zhi [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Kong, Liang [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. for Advanced Study; Runkel, Ingo; Schweigert, Christoph (eds.) [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Mathematics

    2014-08-01

    First book devoted completely to the mathematics of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications. Contributors include both mathematicians and physicists. Some long expository articles are especially suitable for beginners. The present volume is a collection of seven papers that are either based on the talks presented at the workshop ''Conformal field theories and tensor categories'' held June 13 to June 17, 2011 at the Beijing International Center for Mathematical Research, Peking University, or are extensions of the material presented in the talks at the workshop. These papers present new developments beyond rational conformal field theories and modular tensor categories and new applications in mathematics and physics. The topics covered include tensor categories from representation categories of Hopf algebras, applications of conformal field theories and tensor categories to topological phases and gapped systems, logarithmic conformal field theories and the corresponding non-semisimple tensor categories, and new developments in the representation theory of vertex operator algebras. Some of the papers contain detailed introductory material that is helpful for graduate students and researchers looking for an introduction to these research directions. The papers also discuss exciting recent developments in the area of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications and will be extremely useful for researchers working in these areas.

  3. Biased allocation of faces to social categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dotsch, R.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2011-01-01

    Three studies show that social categorization is biased at the level of category allocation. In all studies, participants categorized faces. In Studies 1 and 2, participants overallocated faces with criminal features-a stereotypical negative trait-to the stigmatized Moroccan category, especially if

  4. Parsing with Structure-Preserving Categorial Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelletti, M.

    2007-01-01

    This book is a study of the logical and computational properties of structure-preserving categorial grammars. The first part of the book presents chart-parsers for non-associative categorial grammars in the style of Ajdukiewicz and Bar-Hillel. These are proposed in Chapter 3 as deductive parsers,

  5. Homological algebra in n-abelian categories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we study the homological theory in n -abelian categories. First, we prove some useful properties of n -abelian categories, such as ( n + 2 ) × ( n + 2 ) -lemma, 5-lemma and n -Horseshoes lemma. Secondly, we introduce the notions of right(left) n -derived functors of left(right) n -exact functors, n -(co)resolutions, ...

  6. Generalized Categorial Grammar for Unbounded Dependencies Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Luan Viet

    2014-01-01

    Accurate recovery of predicate-argument dependencies is vital for interpretation tasks like information extraction and question answering, and unbounded dependencies may account for a significant portion of the dependencies in any given text. This thesis describes a Generalized Categorial Grammar (GCG) which, like other categorial grammars,…

  7. The ethnic category from a linguistic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan Săftoiu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I put forward an analysis from a linguistic perspective of an ethnic category in Romania that is defined by at least two terms: gypsy and Romany. The concept of category refers to the members of a particular group that sets apart from other groups by a set of specific elements acknowledged at the level of a larger community. In interaction, individuals frequently use categories and the set of features that a certain category is characterized by, since it is easier to deal with sets of knowledge than with references for each individual separately. The analysis is based on a series of expressions and phrases, proverbs and jokes which were (or still are getting about in the Romanian space and which delineated, at the level of the collective mentality, the image of an ethnic category whose name (still oscillates between two terms. The texts were grouped depending on the different stereotypes associated with the ethnic category under discussion, by highlighting the pejorative connotations of the uses of the term gypsy in relation to the ethnic category Romany, a significance-free category that can be ‘filled up’ by elements that can sketch a positive image.

  8. Diagnostic Categories in Autobiographical Accounts of Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Working within frameworks drawn from the writings of Immanuel Kant, Alfred Schutz, and Kenneth Burke, this article examines the role that diagnostic categories play in autobiographical accounts of illness, with a special focus on chronic disease. Four lay diagnostic categories, each with different connections to formal medical diagnostic categories, serve as typifications to make sense of the way the lifeworld changes over the course of chronic illness. These diagnostic categories are used in conjunction with another set of typifications: lay epidemiologies, lay etiologies, lay prognostics, and lay therapeutics. Together these serve to construct and reconstruct the self at the center of the lifeworld. Embedded within the lay diagnostic categories are narratives of progression, regression, or stability, forms of typification derived from literary and storytelling genres. These narratives are developed by the self in autobiographical accounts of illness.

  9. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Landsat 7 ETM+ image in and around Kuju volcano,. Kyushu, Japan. 1049. Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin. Province, China: Constrains from rare earth element, fluid inclusion geochemistry and geochronology. 1401. Ninety million years of orogenesis, 250 million years of quiescence and then further ...

  10. Better mood and better performance. Learning rule-described categories is enhanced by positive mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Ruby T; Rabi, Rahel; Minda, John Paul

    2010-12-01

    Theories of mood and its effect on cognitive processing suggest that positive mood may allow for increased cognitive flexibility. This increased flexibility is associated with the prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex, both of which play crucial roles in hypothesis testing and rule selection. Thus, cognitive tasks that rely on behaviors such as hypothesis testing and rule selection may benefit from positive mood, whereas tasks that do not rely on such behaviors should not be affected by positive mood. We explored this idea within a category-learning framework. Positive, neutral, and negative moods were induced in our subjects, and they learned either a rule-described or a non-rule-described category set. Subjects in the positive-mood condition performed better than subjects in the neutral- or negative-mood conditions in classifying stimuli from rule-described categories. Positive mood also affected the strategy of subjects who classified stimuli from non-rule-described categories.

  11. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Mashiach-Arazi, Yael; Nouriel, Ariella; Raz, Raanan; Constantini, Naama W

    2015-09-29

    In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes. Height and weight of 169 child and adolescent competitive karate athletes were measured. Participants were divided into eleven hypothetical weight categories of 5 kg increments, and eleven hypothetical height categories of 5 cm increments. We calculated the coefficient of variation of height and weight by each division method. We also calculated how many participants fit into corresponding categories of both height and weight, and how many would shift a category if divided by height. There was a high correlation between height and weight (r = 0.91, p<0.001). The mean range of heights seen within current weight categories was reduced by 83% when participants were divided by height. When allocating athletes by height categories, 74% of athletes would shift up or down one weight category at most, compared with the current categorization method. We conclude that dividing young karate athletes by height categories significantly reduced the range of heights of competitors within the category. Such categorization would not cause athletes to compete against much heavier opponents in most cases. Using height categories as a means to reduce eating disorders in combat sports should be further examined.

  12. EDUCATIONAL EVENT AS THE PEDAGOGICAL CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor V. Lobanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to reveal the essence of the educational event as a pedagogical category. The reason to study the issue is the methodological generality of the term that came into pedagogical everyday life, but which semantic content is still not clear enough. Methods. The methods involve a theoretical analysis of the philosophical and pedagogical literature on the study, the categorical analysis, surveys of students and teachers. Results. The concept content of «event» is looked upon in both historical scholarship and pedagogy, «educational event» is analyzed in unity with the «educational situation» and «educational process». The attitude of students and teachers to educational events was clarified through the surveys; emotional and rational responses of the respondents were differentiated and the peculiarities of events organization in the education system were classified. While teachers and students are considered as subjects of educational events, their goals are delineated. Scientific novelty. The author's own definition of is given. Educational event is defined as a specially organized and unique pedagogical fact limited, but not rigidly determined by the educational situation, and capable of changing the educational process going beyond the boundaries of its conformism. The formulation above is the result of analysis how the concepts of «event», «situation» and «process» may interact in pedagogical discourse. Practical significance. The results can be used while designing the educational programs and projects, as well as in the development of academic courses of innovative pedagogy. 

  13. Properties and applications of magnetorheological fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.; Fu, L. J.; Wang, G. C.

    2005-12-01

    The Magnetic, yield and rheological properties of the Magnetorheological (MR) fluids are discussed. Based on the microstructure of a magnetic chain a theoretical model was developed to analyze the effect of the applied magnetic field on the yield stress of the MR fluids. A bingham model was used to describe the rheological characteristics of the MR fluids subject to an applied magnetic field. The results show that the MR fluid exhibits super paramagnetic behavior. The yield stress increases as the applied magnetic field increases. The MR fluids can be used in clutch, valve, and damper devices because the yield stress of these fluids can be continuously adjusted by the applied magnetic field.

  14. God's Categories: The Effect of Religiosity on Children's Teleological and Essentialist Beliefs about Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesendruck, Gil; Haber, Lital

    2009-01-01

    Creationism implies that God imbued each category with a unique nature and purpose. These implications closely correspond to what some cognitive psychologists define as an essentialistic and teleological stance towards categories. This study assessed to what extent the belief in God as creator of categories is related to the mappings of these…

  15. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubnov-Raz Gal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes.

  16. The impact of category structure and training methodology on learning and generalizing within-category representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ell, Shawn W; Smith, David B; Peralta, Gabriela; Hélie, Sébastien

    2017-08-01

    When interacting with categories, representations focused on within-category relationships are often learned, but the conditions promoting within-category representations and their generalizability are unclear. We report the results of three experiments investigating the impact of category structure and training methodology on the learning and generalization of within-category representations (i.e., correlational structure). Participants were trained on either rule-based or information-integration structures using classification (Is the stimulus a member of Category A or Category B?), concept (e.g., Is the stimulus a member of Category A, Yes or No?), or inference (infer the missing component of the stimulus from a given category) and then tested on either an inference task (Experiments 1 and 2) or a classification task (Experiment 3). For the information-integration structure, within-category representations were consistently learned, could be generalized to novel stimuli, and could be generalized to support inference at test. For the rule-based structure, extended inference training resulted in generalization to novel stimuli (Experiment 2) and inference training resulted in generalization to classification (Experiment 3). These data help to clarify the conditions under which within-category representations can be learned. Moreover, these results make an important contribution in highlighting the impact of category structure and training methodology on the generalization of categorical knowledge.

  17. A Higher-Order Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A calculus for a fragment of category theory is presented. The types in the language denote categories and the expressions functors. The judgements of the calculus systematise categorical arguments such as: an expression is functorial in its free variables; two expressions are naturally isomorphic...... in their free variables. There are special binders for limits and more general ends. The rules for limits and ends support an algebraic manipulation of universal constructions as opposed to a more traditional diagrammatic approach. Duality within the calculus and applications in proving continuity are discussed...... with examples. The calculus gives a basis for mechanising a theory of categories in a generic theorem prover like Isabelle....

  18. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 121 - C-46 Nontransport Category Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... section diaphragm. C-46 engine nacelles which conform to the C-46 transport category requirements meet the... engine compartments which conform to the type design and which comply with all applicable airworthiness... shut off the flow of hydraulic fluid to the cowl flap cylinder in each engine nacelle. The shutoff...

  19. Category fluency in a latino sample: associations with age, education, gender, and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Wendy J; Teng, Evelyn; Zheng, Ling; Paz, Sylvia; Chui, Helena; Varma, Rohit

    2005-07-01

    The authors know of no published studies that have evaluated the effect of Spanish- versus English-language on category fluency within a sample of United States Latinos only. As part of a pilot study for the institution of a cognitive screening program in a cohort of Latinos, we assessed category fluency (fruits, vegetables, and "other" supermarket items) in a sample of 90 self-identified Latino community residents (aged 52-84, 0-18 years of education). The primary demographic correlates of category fluency were age and education. The decrement in naming of fruits with age was limited to the older old subjects (>age 70). Relatively younger old subjects (aged 61-70) did not differ from middle-aged subjects on category fluency. Gender showed little relationship to category naming. Persons naming in Spanish named significantly fewer 'other supermarket' items, but did not differ from English speakers in the more common fluency categories of fruits and vegetables. This analysis of category fluency in an ethnically homogenous sample with a wide range of formal education provided an evaluation of the effects of chosen language free of possible confounding by cultural differences, and also provided a more complete evaluation of the influence of education on category fluency.

  20. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  1. Words can slow down category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brojde, Chandra L; Porter, Chelsea; Colunga, Eliana

    2011-08-01

    Words have been shown to influence many cognitive tasks, including category learning. Most demonstrations of these effects have focused on instances in which words facilitate performance. One possibility is that words augment representations, predicting an across the-board benefit of words during category learning. We propose that words shift attention to dimensions that have been historically predictive in similar contexts. Under this account, there should be cases in which words are detrimental to performance. The results from two experiments show that words impair learning of object categories under some conditions. Experiment 1 shows that words hurt performance when learning to categorize by texture. Experiment 2 shows that words also hurt when learning to categorize by brightness, leading to selectively attending to shape when both shape and hue could be used to correctly categorize stimuli. We suggest that both the positive and negative effects of words have developmental origins in the history of word usage while learning categories. [corrected

  2. Topoi the categorial analysis of logic

    CERN Document Server

    Goldblatt, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A classic exposition of a branch of mathematical logic that uses category theory, this text is suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students and accessible to both philosophically and mathematically oriented readers.

  3. Review of adverb category in Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Satorre Grau

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Among all word classes, the adverb is the worst defined and studied grammatical category. All grammarians accept that this category includes very heterogeneous elements, which come from very different origins and have very different functions. There is thus an urgent need to review this grammatical category. With this work, I intend to find an answer to the following questions: How the grammatical theory on the adverb has been developed? Which have been the mistakes of the grammatical tradition by producing a theory on the adverb? What should we actually understand by an adverb? How can we order, in a proper and reasonable way, the elements which are presently grouped in the so called «adverb» category? And finally, is the grammatical theory on the adverb also applicable to adverbial phrases? The result is a rearrangement of the words which have been considered as adverbs by the grammatical tradition so far.

  4. Fluid Fascinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, Onno; Zwart, Valerie; Haveman, Martha J.

    De Art & Science show “Fluid Fascinations��? omvat een presentatie over de wetenschappelijke context, inclusief een live experiment (ontworpen samen met kunstenaar/designer Wout Zweers); en, gemengde media en olieverfschilderijen, en digitale fotowerken van kunstenares Valerie Zwart. De show is

  5. Automatically Modeling Linguistic Categories in Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luise, M. D. López; Hisgen, D.; Soffer, M.

    This paper presents an approach to process Spanish linguistic categories automatically. The approach is based in a module of a prototype named WIH (Word Intelligent Handler), which is a project to develop a conversational bot. It basically learns category usage sequence in a sentence. It extracts a weighting metric to discriminate most common structures in real dialogs. Such a metric is important to define the preferred organization to be used by the robot to build an answer.

  6. Categories of difference in science and policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Bak

    2012-01-01

    Categories of difference have a crucial position in academic research as well as policymaking. They serve to distinguish and differentiate between groups in society. They can appear in the shape of crude dichotomies or in complex and sophisticated forms resting on constructivist and intersectiona......Categories of difference have a crucial position in academic research as well as policymaking. They serve to distinguish and differentiate between groups in society. They can appear in the shape of crude dichotomies or in complex and sophisticated forms resting on constructivist...... and intersectionalist perspectives. Nevertheless, using categories of difference also creates something into existence and there may be implications through the particular application of specific categories. This article reflects on how categories of difference are constructed and employed in research, legislation...... and policy discourse. By looking at different approaches used by qualitative and quantitative researchers, as well as at how specific concepts enter policy-making and legislation, I want to address a number of questions about how we as researchers understand and work with categories of differences...

  7. Monoidal categories and topological field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Turaev, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to monoidal categories and their connections with 3-dimensional topological field theories. Starting with basic definitions, it proceeds to the forefront of current research. Part 1 introduces monoidal categories and several of their classes, including rigid, pivotal, spherical, fusion, braided, and modular categories. It then presents deep theorems of Müger on the center of a pivotal fusion category. These theorems are proved in Part 2 using the theory of Hopf monads. In Part 3 the authors define the notion of a topological quantum field theory (TQFT) and construct a Turaev-Viro-type 3-dimensional state sum TQFT from a spherical fusion category. Lastly, in Part 4 this construction is extended to 3-manifolds with colored ribbon graphs, yielding a so-called graph TQFT (and, consequently, a 3-2-1 extended TQFT). The authors then prove the main result of the monograph: the state sum graph TQFT derived from any spherical fusion category is isomorphic to the Reshetikhin-Turaev surgery gr...

  8. Message Passing in computational fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Argentini, G

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present the concept of MPF, Message Passing Fluid, an abstract fluid where the molecules move by mean of the informations that they exchange each other, on the basis of rules and methods of a generalized Cellular Automaton. The model is intended for a simulation by mean of message passing libraries on the field of parallel computing, which seems to offer a natural environment for this subject. The first results show that by mean of simple mathematical models it's possible to obtain realistic simulations of fluid motion, in the case of a general geometry too.

  9. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ruban, Anatoly I

    This is the first book in a four-part series designed to give a comprehensive and coherent description of Fluid Dynamics, starting with chapters on classical theory suitable for an introductory undergraduate lecture course, and then progressing through more advanced material up to the level of modern research in the field. The present Part 1 consists of four chapters. Chapter 1 begins with a discussion of Continuum Hypothesis, which is followed by an introduction to macroscopic functions, the velocity vector, pressure, density, and enthalpy. We then analyse the forces acting inside a fluid, and deduce the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible and compressible fluids in Cartesian and curvilinear coordinates. In Chapter 2 we study the properties of a number of flows that are presented by the so-called exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations, including the Couette flow between two parallel plates, Hagen-Poiseuille flow through a pipe, and Karman flow above an infinite rotating disk. Chapter 3 is d...

  10. TV MEDIA ANALYSIS FOR BANKING CATEGORY (2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Elena POȘTOACĂ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article represents a short overview of the media landscape for the banking category in Romania in 2012. Unlike the other categories (for example FMCG – fast moving consumer goods, the banking category is more complex because every bank can communicate for a wider range of products (credits, deposits, packages dedicated to students, pensioners and other types of banking products. In the first part of this paper, there will be presented some theoretical notions about media planning and media analyses in order for the lecturer to easily go through the second part of the article. The second part of the paper will only refer to TV analyses. This media channel owns the highest budget share in our category, and also in the media mix of every important player, active in the Romanian market. The analyses will show which bank communicated most effectively, which is the most important spender on TV, what banking products had the largest budget allocated, which is the pattern for this category when it comes to allocating audience points for each day interval and so on. The starting point of this analyses is based on the secondary data obtained from InfoSys+ which is the world’s leading TV analyses software, used in more than 29 countries by 8000+ users.

  11. Writing and the 'Subject'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Charlotte

    /reading subject) manifests itself in the material mark on the page. The study shows how this indexical reference to a ‘subject’ is manipulated and used as a mask through which a writer/painter can perform a certain ‘subject’. Through analyses of the various levels on which the ‘subject’ is represented...... in the early as well as the contemporary avant-garde, it becomes clear that the ‘subject’ is an unstable category that can be exposed to manipulation and play. Handwriting is performing as a signature (as an index), but is at the same time similar to the signature of a subject (an icon) and a verbal construct...

  12. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B

    2006-01-01

    and fragmented drawings. We also examined whether fragmentation had different impact on the recognition of natural objects and artefacts and found that recognition of artefacts was more affected by fragmentation than recognition of natural objects. Thus, the usual finding of an advantage for artefacts...... in difficult object decision tasks, which is also found in the present experiments with outlines, is reversed when the stimuli are fragmented. This interaction between category (natural versus artefacts) and stimulus type (outlines versus fragmented forms) is in accordance with predictions derived from...... a recent account of category-specificity and lends support to the notion that category-specific impairments can occur for both natural objects and artefacts following damage to pre-semantic stages in visual object recognition. The implications of the present findings are discussed in relation to theories...

  13. Glamour in the system of aesthetic categories. Part I. Glamour and high categories: cosmic incompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolsky Evgeny Vladimirovich

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article for the first time in the Russian Humanities considers the phenomenon of glamour through the prism of universal aesthetic categories. The essence of the conception is to explore the phenomenon of glamour not in the sphere of its existence, but to perform global ontological phenomena to which its genesis leads. Following the methodology of Alexander Baumgarten the author of the article consistently compares glamour to aesthetic categories. In this article the author relates glamour with the categories of the beautiful, the sublime and the tragic. The article demonstrates the incompatibility of glamour with high aesthetic categories.

  14. Fluid dynamics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Rieutord, Michel

    2015-01-01

    This book is dedicated to readers who want to learn fluid dynamics from the beginning. It assumes a basic level of mathematics knowledge that would correspond to that of most second-year undergraduate physics students and examines fluid dynamics from a physicist’s perspective. As such, the examples used primarily come from our environment on Earth and, where possible, from astrophysics. The text is arranged in a progressive and educational format, aimed at leading readers from the simplest basics to more complex matters like turbulence and magnetohydrodynamics. Exercises at the end of each chapter help readers to test their understanding of the subject (solutions are provided at the end of the book), and a special chapter is devoted to introducing selected aspects of mathematics that beginners may not be familiar with, so as to make the book self-contained.

  15. Higher categories, colimits, and the blob complex

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Scott; Walker, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    We summarize our axioms for higher categories, and describe the blob complex. Fixing an n-category C, the blob complex associates a chain complex B_*(W;C)$ to any n-manifold W. The 0-th homology of this chain complex recovers the usual topological quantum field theory invariants of W. The higher homology groups should be viewed as generalizations of Hochschild homology (indeed, when W=S^1 they coincide). The blob complex has a very natural definition in terms of homotopy colimits along decomp...

  16. Retail beer market. Opportunities for beer category

    OpenAIRE

    Caldová, Marie

    2015-01-01

    My bachelors thesis deals with design of better utilization of sales space in traditional retail formats. I focus on the beer category . I describe the basic principles of retailing. I imagine the food retailing division according to the company Pilsner Urquell. I mention all the legal requirements for the labeling of beer products. I mention the beer category share in total sales in the retail market . I describe the main beer producers who are active on the Czech market. The main topic is t...

  17. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  18. Gender-related dissociations of categorical fluency in normal subjects and in subjects with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Camillo; Ferraccioli, Monica; Gainotti, Guido

    2007-03-01

    Semantic fluency tasks, with the categories of birds and furniture as stimuli, were administered to normal subjects and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Normal subjects showed a gender-related double dissociation consistent with the literature data because men were more fluent with the birds category and women with the furniture category. Also, patients with AD showed a Gender x Category interaction, but the double dissociation between birds and furniture was not present because of a prevalent impairment of the living category birds that was irrespective of gender. This pattern of impairment in patients with AD was independent from the disease stage. The authors conclude that (a) gender-related categorical effects cannot be considered as inborn, sex-related cognitive differences but as familiarity effects and (b) both lesion-related and familiarity-related factors must be taken into account to explain category-specific effects of patients with brain damage and patients with AD.

  19. Transforming feminine categories: genealogies of virginity and sainthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiritz, Susan E; Schiller, Britt-Marie

    2005-01-01

    The categories of virginity and sainthood, often used as norms of femininity, are historically and contextually constructed. Genealogies of these categories reveal definitions of female subjectivity in accordance with male desires. Traditional conceptions of virginity have implications for theories of female development and sexuality, conceptions of the psychoanalytic process, and theories of social symbolism. Notions of virginity as an unblemished state, the first penetration by a penis as an irrevocable transformation to womanhood, and defloration as a developmental milestone in female sexuality derive from male fantasies of female purity that translate into justifications for social structures of control and ownership. While fantasies of sainthood played significant roles in the work of both Sigmund and Anna Freud, their images of saints, which they did not analyze, were unconsciously shaped by a Victorian sensibility. Because the psychoanalytic legacy is androcentrically informed, analysts may be hampered in their efforts to treat the pathologies of perfection that continue to plague women. Contesting and unsettling conventional epistemological assumptions open up the categories of virginity and sainthood to images and representations of female autonomy and integrity. The critical analyses offered here contribute to theories of the plasticity of gender and the social construction of femininity.

  20. Ontological semantics in modified categorial grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymczak, Bartlomiej Antoni

    2009-01-01

    Categorial Grammar is a well established tool for describing natural language semantics. In the current paper we discuss some of its drawbacks and how it could be extended to overcome them. We use the extended version for deriving ontological semantics from text. A proof-of-concept implementation...

  1. Biased allocation of faces to social categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotsch, Ron; Wigboldus, Daniël H J; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2011-06-01

    Three studies show that social categorization is biased at the level of category allocation. In all studies, participants categorized faces. In Studies 1 and 2, participants overallocated faces with criminal features--a stereotypical negative trait--to the stigmatized Moroccan category, especially if they were prejudiced. On the contrary, the stereotype-irrelevant negative trait stupid did not lead to overallocation to the Moroccan category. In Study 3, using the stigmatized category homosexual, the previously used negative trait criminal--irrelevant to the homosexual stereotype--did not lead to overallocation, but the stereotype-relevant positive trait femininity did. These results demonstrate that normative fit is higher for faces with stereotype-relevant features regardless of valence. Moreover, individual differences in implicit prejudice predicted the extent to which stereotype-relevant traits elicited overallocation: Whereas more negatively prejudiced people showed greater overallocation of faces associated with negative stereotype-relevant traits, they showed less overallocation of faces associated with positive stereotype-relevant traits. These results support our normative fit hypothesis: In general, normative fit is better for faces with stereotypical features. Moreover, normative fit is enhanced for prejudiced individuals when these features are evaluatively congruent. Social categorization thus may be biased in itself. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  2. Development of Implicit and Explicit Category Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.; Maddox, W. Todd; Karalunas, Sarah L.

    2011-01-01

    We present two studies that examined developmental differences in the implicit and explicit acquisition of category knowledge. College-attending adults consistently outperformed school-age children on two separate information-integration paradigms due to children's more frequent use of an explicit rule-based strategy. Accuracy rates were also…

  3. Using Wikipedia's category structure for entity search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, R.; Kamps, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how the category structure of Wikipedia can be exploited for Entity Ranking. In the last decade, theWeb has not only grown in size, but also changed its character, due to collaborative content creation and an increasing amount of structure. Current Search Engines find

  4. Multimedia Category Preferences of Working Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baukal, Charles E., Jr.; Ausburn, Lynna J.

    2016-01-01

    Many have argued for the importance of continuing engineering education (CEE), but relatively few recommendations were found in the literature for how to use multimedia technologies to deliver it most effectively. The study reported here addressed this gap by investigating the multimedia category preferences of working engineers. Four categories…

  5. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, I; Paulson, Olaf B.

    2006-01-01

    in difficult object decision tasks, which is also found in the present experiments with outlines, is reversed when the stimuli are fragmented. This interaction between category (natural versus artefacts) and stimulus type (outlines versus fragmented forms) is in accordance with predictions derived from...

  6. Reasoning with Polarity in Categorial Type Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernardi, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis follows the parsing as deduction approach to lin- guistics. We use the tools of Categorial Type Logic (CTL) to study the interface of natural language syntax and semantics. Our aim is to investigate the mathematical structure of CTL and explore the

  7. 32 CFR 901.10 - Presidential category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... purpose of this category, children are defined as the natural children of a parent and adopted children... SCHOOLS APPOINTMENT TO THE UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ACADEMY Nomination Procedures and Requirements § 901.10... merit. One hundred appointments are authorized each year. (a) The child of a Regular or Reserve member...

  8. Categories of Large Numbers in Line Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, David; Charlesworth, Arthur; Ottmar, Erin

    2017-01-01

    How do people stretch their understanding of magnitude from the experiential range to the very large quantities and ranges important in science, geopolitics, and mathematics? This paper empirically evaluates how and whether people make use of numerical categories when estimating relative magnitudes of numbers across many orders of magnitude. We…

  9. Rhythmic categories in spoken-word recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, A.; Otake, T.

    2002-01-01

    Rhythmic categories such as morae in Japanese or stress units in English play a role in the perception of spoken language. We examined this role in Japanese, since recent evidence suggests that morae may intervene as structural units in word recognition. First, we found that traditional puns more

  10. Learning about Tool Categories via Eavesdropping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Brenda; Seston, Rebecca; Kelemen, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has found that toddlers will form enduring artifact categories after direct exposure to an adult using a novel tool. Four studies explored whether 2- (N = 48) and 3-year-olds (N = 32) demonstrate this same capacity when learning by eavesdropping. After surreptitiously observing an adult use 1 of 2 artifacts to operate a bell via a…

  11. Evolution of Wikipedia’s Category Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suchecki, K.; Salah, A.A.; Gao, C.; Scharnhorst, A.

    2012-01-01

    Wikipedia, as a social phenomenon of collaborative knowledge creation, has been studied extensively from various points of view. The category system of Wikipedia, introduced in 2004, has attracted relatively little attention. In this study, we focus on the documentation of knowledge, and the

  12. Competition in Learning Language-Based Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taraban, Roman; Roark, Bret

    1996-01-01

    In this study, non-French participants learned gender-appropriate adjectives for 24 French nouns. Findings indicate that learning the same set of feminine French nouns could be made more or less difficult when the nouns in the masculine category created more or less competition. (45 references) (Author/CK)

  13. New Evidence for Infant Colour Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anna; Davies, Ian R. L.

    2004-01-01

    Bornstein, Kessen, and Weiskopf (1976) reported that pre-linguistic infants perceive colour categorically for primary boundaries: Following habituation, dishabituation only occurred if the test stimulus was from a different adult category to the original. Here, we replicated this important study and extended it to include secondary boundaries,…

  14. 40 CFR 1042.310 - Engine selection for Category 1 and Category 2 engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... engines from the same engine family from the next fifteen engines produced or within seven days, whichever... Category 1 engine families, whichever is greater. (2) For Category 2 engines, the minimum sample size is... engine families, whichever is greater. (b) Randomly select one engine from each engine family early in...

  15. Category labels induce boundary-dependent perceptual warping in learned speech categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Kristen; Myers, Emily

    2013-10-01

    Adults tend to perceive speech sounds from their native language as members of distinct and stable categories; however, they fail to perceive differences between many non-native speech sounds without a great deal of training. The present study investigates the effects of categorization training on adults' ability to discriminate non-native phonetic contrasts. It was hypothesized that only individuals who successfully learned the appropriate categories would show selective improvements in discriminating between-category contrasts. Participants were trained to categorize progressively narrow phonetic contrasts across one of two non-native boundaries, with discrimination pre- and post-tests completed to measure the effects of training on participants' perceptual sensitivity. Results suggest that changes in adults' ability to discriminate a non-native contrast depend on their successful learning of the relevant category structure. Furthermore, post-training identification functions show that changes in perceptual categories specifically correspond to their relative placement of the category boundary. Taken together, these results indicate that learning to assign category labels to a non-native speech continuum is sufficient to induce discontinuous perception of between- versus within-category contrasts.

  16. Category Label Effects on Chinese Children's Inductive Inferences: Modulation by Perceptual Detail and Category Specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Changquan; Lu, Xiaoying; Zhang, Li; Li, Hong; Deak, Gedeon O.

    2012-01-01

    Inductive generalization of novel properties to same-category or similar-looking objects was studied in Chinese preschool children. The effects of category labels on generalizations were investigated by comparing basic-level labels, superordinate-level labels, and a control phrase applied to three kinds of stimulus materials: colored photographs…

  17. Structural similarity and category-specificity: a refined account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that category-specific recognition disorders for natural objects may reflect that natural objects are more structurally (visually) similar than artefacts and therefore more difficult to recognize following brain damage. On this account one might expect a positive relationship between blood flow and structural similarity in areas involved in visual object recognition. Contrary to this expectation we report a negative relationship in that identification of articles of clothing cause more extensive activation than identification of vegetables/fruit and animals even though items from the categories of animals and vegetables/fruit are rated as more structurally similar than items from the category of articles of clothing. Given that this pattern cannot be explained in terms of a tradeoff between activation and accuracy, we interpret these findings within a model where the matching of visual forms to memory incorporates two operations: (i) the integration of stored object features into whole object representations (integral units), and (ii) the competition between activated integral units for selection (i.e. identification). In addition, we suggest that these operations are differentially affected by structural similarity in that high structural similarity may be beneficial for the integration of stored features into integral units, thus explaining the greater activation found with articles of clothing, whereas it may be harmful for the selection process proper because a greater range of candidate integral units will be activated and compete for selection, thus explaining the higher error rate associated with animals. We evaluate the model based on previous evidence from both normal subjects and patients with category-specific disorders and argue that this model can help reconcile otherwise conflicting data.

  18. Global Maps of Science based on the new Web-of-Science Categories

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet; Rafols, Ismael

    2012-01-01

    In August 2011, Thomson Reuters launched version 5 of the Science and Social Science Citation Index in the Web of Science (WoS). Among other things, the 222 ISI Subject Categories (SCs) for these two databases in version 4 of WoS were renamed and extended to 225 WoS Categories (WCs). A new set of 74 Subject Categories (SCs) was added, but at a higher level of aggregation. Since we previously used the ISI SCs as the baseline for a global map in Pajek (Rafols et al., 2010) and brought this facility online (at http://www.leydesdorff.net/overlaytoolkit), we recalibrated this map for the new WC categories using the Journal Citation Reports 2010. In the new installation, the base maps can also be made using VOSviewer (Van Eck & Waltman, 2010).

  19. Fluid Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Explorations and analysis of soundscapes have, since Canadian R. Murray Schafer's work during the early 1970's, developed into various established research - and artistic disciplines. The interest in sonic environments is today present within a broad range of contemporary art projects and in arch......Explorations and analysis of soundscapes have, since Canadian R. Murray Schafer's work during the early 1970's, developed into various established research - and artistic disciplines. The interest in sonic environments is today present within a broad range of contemporary art projects...... and in architectural design. Aesthetics, psychoacoustics, perception, and cognition are all present in this expanding field embracing such categories as soundscape composition, sound art, sonic art, sound design, sound studies and auditory culture. Of greatest significance to the overall field is the investigation...

  20. Multiple vertebral fluid-fluid levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bladt, O.; Demaerel, P.; Catry, F.; Breuseghem, I. Van [University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Ballaux, F. [University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Department of Pathology, Leuven (Belgium); Samson, I. [University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Leuven (Belgium)

    2004-11-01

    We present a case of multiple vertebral metastases, with multiple fluid-fluid levels, from a moderately to poorly differentiated carcinoma of unknown origin. We suggest that fluid-fluid levels in multiple vertebral lesions are highly suggestive of bone metastases. (orig.)

  1. Challenges of linking chronic dehydration and fluid consumption to health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Lawrence E

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the effects of chronic mild dehydration and fluid consumption on specific health outcomes including obesity. The electronic databases PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for relevant literature published from the time of their inception to 2011, with results restricted to studies performed on human subjects and reports in the English language. Key words included the following: dehydration, hypohydration, water intake, fluid intake, disease, and the names of specific disease states. Strength of evidence categories were described for 1) medical conditions associated with chronic dehydration or low daily water intake, and 2) randomized-controlled trials regarding the effects of increased water consumption on caloric intake, weight gain, and satiety. This process determined that urolithiasis is the only disorder that has been consistently associated (i.e., 11 of 13 publications) with chronic low daily water intake. Regarding obesity and type 2 diabetes, evidence suggests that increased water intake may reduce caloric intake for some individuals. Recommendations for future investigations include measuring total fluid intake (water + beverages + water in solid food), conducting randomized-controlled experiments, identifying novel hydration biomarkers, and delineating hydration categories. © 2012 International Life Sciences Institute.

  2. Heat transfer fluids for solar DHW systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedel, S.; Bezzel, E.

    2000-07-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the sudden clogging of the pipes in collectors as a consequence of liquid deterioration after repeated boiling during stagnation. A method to perform simple screening as accelerated tests of a large number liquid of samples subjected to various chemical- and physical environments have been designed. The acceleration factor of experiments relative to real systems is quite substantial primarily due to the extensive stress cycles in tests. Possible degradation mechanisms have been investigated and generally, there are two different paths to degradation of glycol: Thermal degradation and oxidative degradation primarily yielding propylene derivatives and carboxylic acids respectively. Polymerisation is an obvious possibility in a system containing various organic compounds such as acids and alcohols. Consequently, the reaction patterns alter making room for alternative interconnected mechanisms thus generating a broad spectrum of possible degradation products. Reserve alkalinity and pH are somewhat unreliable means of solely estimating the state of a liquid in relation to degradation and precipitation, as curvature of the RA-pH relations are different from liquid to liquid. For the majority of liquids, precipitation is not correlated with pH and RA. Coloration and precipitation in the liquid phase during stagnation separated liquids in two sub-categories. Fluids with inhibitor have sparing to moderate sedimentation and are brownish-black due to deterioration. Glycols without additives were either pale or colourless and did not precipitate. During normal operation, all fluids are clear and transparent and the majority has the same initial colour. The same distinction in liquids was observed on examination on the inside surface of the tubes concerning extent and the quantity of deposit. Liquids with additives tend to have significantly more deposit covering a larger surface than liquids without. Visual evaluation has proved that

  3. Gyroelastic fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerbel, G.D.

    1981-01-20

    A study is made of a scale model in three dimensions of a guiding center plasma within the purview of gyroelastic (also known as finite gyroradius-near theta pinch) magnetohydrodynamics. The (nonlinear) system sustains a particular symmetry called isorrhopy which permits the decoupling of fluid modes from drift modes. Isorrhopic equilibria are analyzed within the framework of geometrical optics resulting in (local) dispersion relations and ray constants. A general scheme is developed to evolve an arbitrary linear perturbation of a screwpinch equilibrium as an invertible integral transform (over the complete set of generalized eigenfunctions defined naturally by the equilibrium). Details of the structure of the function space and the associated spectra are elucidated. Features of the (global) dispersion relation owing to the presence of gyroelastic stabilization are revealed. An energy principle is developed to study the stability of the tubular screwpinch.

  4. Higher categories, colimits, and the blob complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Scott; Walker, Kevin

    2011-05-17

    We summarize our axioms for higher categories, and describe the "blob complex." Fixing an n-category , the blob complex associates a chain complex B(*)(W;C) to any n-manifold W. The zeroth homology of this chain complex recovers the usual topological quantum field theory invariants of W. The higher homology groups should be viewed as generalizations of Hochschild homology (indeed, when W = S(1), they coincide). The blob complex has a very natural definition in terms of homotopy colimits along decompositions of the manifold W. We outline the important properties of the blob complex and sketch the proof of a generalization of Deligne's conjecture on Hochschild cohomology and the little discs operad to higher dimensions.

  5. Visual object recognition and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    (shape configuration). In the early writings these two topics were examined more or less independently. In later works, findings concerning category-effects and shape configuration merge into an integrated model, termed RACE, advanced to explain category-effects arising at pre-semantic stages in visual...... object recognition. RACE assumes two operations: shape configuration and selection. Shape configuration refers to the binding of visual elements into elaborate shape descriptions corresponding to whole objects or large object parts (operation 1). The output of the shape configuration operation...... is a description that can be matched with structural representations of whole objects or object parts stored in visual long-term memory. The process of finding a match between the configured description and stored object representations is thought of as a race among stored object representations that compete...

  6. Security threats categories in healthcare information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samy, Ganthan Narayana; Ahmad, Rabiah; Ismail, Zuraini

    2010-09-01

    This article attempts to investigate the various types of threats that exist in healthcare information systems (HIS). A study has been carried out in one of the government-supported hospitals in Malaysia.The hospital has been equipped with a Total Hospital Information System (THIS). The data collected were from three different departments, namely the Information Technology Department (ITD), the Medical Record Department (MRD), and the X-Ray Department, using in-depth structured interviews. The study identified 22 types of threats according to major threat categories based on ISO/IEC 27002 (ISO 27799:2008). The results show that the most critical threat for the THIS is power failure followed by acts of human error or failure and other technological factors. This research holds significant value in terms of providing a complete taxonomy of threat categories in HIS and also an important component in the risk analysis stage.

  7. Categories of definiteness in Classical Armenian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Müth

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of the definite article in semantic and pragmatic categories in the Greek and Classical Armenian New Testament translation is compared. Greek and Classical Armenian agree in their use of the definite article only in NPs determined by contrastive attributes. In all other categories the systems of both languages differ. Generally, Armenian avoids the definite article with proper nouns and nouns with unique reference, while definite articles with proper names in Greek are common (with the exception of sacred or especially “respected” persons such as prophets. If the definite article is present in Greek, it is often motivated by pragmatic factors (e.g. re-topicalization, etc.. There is no clear evidence in Armenian for the use of the definite article as a marker of generic reference, nor for the use in NPs determined by superlative, comparative or ordinal attributes.

  8. Network graph analysis of category fluency testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Alan J; Ogrocki, Paula K; Thomas, Peter J

    2009-03-01

    Category fluency is impaired early in Alzheimer disease (AD). Graph theory is a technique to analyze complex relationships in networks. Features of interest in network analysis include the number of nodes and edges, and variables related to their interconnectedness. Other properties important in network analysis are "small world properties" and "scale-free" properties. The small world property (popularized as the so-called "6 degrees of separation") arises when the majority of connections are local, but a number of connections are to distant nodes. Scale-free networks are characterized by the presence of a few nodes with many connections, and many more nodes with fewer connections. To determine if category fluency data can be analyzed using graph theory. To compare normal elderly, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD network graphs, and characterize changes seen with increasing cognitive impairment. Category fluency results ("animals" recorded over 60 s) from normals (n=38), MCI (n=33), and AD (n=40) completing uniform data set evaluations were converted to network graphs of all unique cooccurring neighbors, and compared for network variables. For Normal, MCI and AD, mean clustering coefficients were 0.21, 0.22, 0.30; characteristic path lengths were 3.27, 3.17, and 2.65; small world properties decreased with increasing cognitive impairment, and all graphs showed scale-free properties. Rank correlations of the 25 commonest items ranged from 0.75 to 0.83. Filtering of low-degree nodes in normal and MCI graphs resulted in properties similar to the AD network graph. Network graph analysis is a promising technique for analyzing changes in category fluency. Our technique results in nonrandom graphs consistent with well-characterized properties for these types of graphs.

  9. On Learning Natural-Science Categories That Violate the Family-Resemblance Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosofsky, Robert M; Sanders, Craig A; Gerdom, Alex; Douglas, Bruce J; McDaniel, Mark A

    2017-01-01

    The general view in psychological science is that natural categories obey a coherent, family-resemblance principle. In this investigation, we documented an example of an important exception to this principle: Results of a multidimensional-scaling study of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks (Experiment 1) suggested that the structure of these categories is disorganized and dispersed. This finding motivated us to explore what might be the optimal procedures for teaching dispersed categories, a goal that is likely critical to science education in general. Subjects in Experiment 2 learned to classify pictures of rocks into compact or dispersed high-level categories. One group learned the categories through focused high-level training, whereas a second group was required to simultaneously learn classifications at a subtype level. Although high-level training led to enhanced performance when the categories were compact, subtype training was better when the categories were dispersed. We provide an interpretation of the results in terms of an exemplar-memory model of category learning.

  10. Thermophysical Properties of Fluids and Fluid Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengers, Jan V.; Anisimov, Mikhail A.

    2004-05-03

    The major goal of the project was to study the effect of critical fluctuations on the thermophysical properties and phase behavior of fluids and fluid mixtures. Long-range fluctuations appear because of the presence of critical phase transitions. A global theory of critical fluctuations was developed and applied to represent thermodynamic properties and transport properties of molecular fluids and fluid mixtures. In the second phase of the project, the theory was extended to deal with critical fluctuations in complex fluids such as polymer solutions and electrolyte solutions. The theoretical predictions have been confirmed by computer simulations and by light-scattering experiments. Fluctuations in fluids in nonequilibrium states have also been investigated.

  11. Glamour in the system of aesthetic categories. Part I. Glamour and high categories: cosmic incompatibility

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolsky Evgeny Vladimirovich

    2017-01-01

    The article for the first time in the Russian Humanities considers the phenomenon of glamour through the prism of universal aesthetic categories. The essence of the conception is to explore the phenomenon of glamour not in the sphere of its existence, but to perform global ontological phenomena to which its genesis leads. Following the methodology of Alexander Baumgarten the author of the article consistently compares glamour to aesthetic categories. In this article the author relates glamour...

  12. Category label effects on Chinese children's inductive inferences: Modulation by perceptual detail and category specificity

    OpenAIRE

    Long, C.; Lu, X; Zhang, L.; Li, H.; Deák, GO

    2012-01-01

    Inductive generalization of novel properties to same-category or similar-looking objects was studied in Chinese preschool children. The effects of category labels on generalizations were investigated by comparing basic-level labels, superordinate-level labels, and a control phrase applied to three kinds of stimulus materials: colored photographs (Experiment 1), realistic line drawings (Experiment 2), and cartoon-like line drawings (Experiment 3). No significant labeling effects were found for...

  13. From groups to categorial algebra introduction to protomodular and mal’tsev categories

    CERN Document Server

    Bourn, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    This book gives a thorough and entirely self-contained, in-depth introduction to a specific approach to group theory, in a large sense of that word. The focus lie on the relationships which a group may have with other groups, via “universal properties”, a view on that group “from the outside”. This method of categorical algebra, is actually not limited to the study of groups alone, but applies equally well to other similar categories of algebraic objects. By introducing protomodular categories and Mal’tsev categories, which form a larger class, the structural properties of the category Gp of groups, show how they emerge from four very basic observations about the algebraic litteral calculus and how, studied for themselves at the conceptual categorical level, they lead to the main striking features of the category Gp of groups. Hardly any previous knowledge of category theory is assumed, and just a little experience with standard algebraic structures such as groups and monoids. Examples and exercises...

  14. Automatic fluid dispenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellaris, P. C. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Fluid automatically flows to individual dispensing units at predetermined times from a fluid supply and is available only for a predetermined interval of time after which an automatic control causes the fluid to drain from the individual dispensing units. Fluid deprivation continues until the beginning of a new cycle when the fluid is once again automatically made available at the individual dispensing units.

  15. 40 CFR Appendix 3 to Subpart A of... - Procedure for Mixing Base Fluids With Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... base fluid to kg of dry control sediment). Sediment and base fluid mixing shall be accomplished by... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedure for Mixing Base Fluids With... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS OIL AND GAS EXTRACTION POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Offshore...

  16. Category theoretic analysis of hierarchical protein materials and social networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I Spivak

    Full Text Available Materials in biology span all the scales from Angstroms to meters and typically consist of complex hierarchical assemblies of simple building blocks. Here we describe an application of category theory to describe structural and resulting functional properties of biological protein materials by developing so-called ologs. An olog is like a "concept web" or "semantic network" except that it follows a rigorous mathematical formulation based on category theory. This key difference ensures that an olog is unambiguous, highly adaptable to evolution and change, and suitable for sharing concepts with other olog. We consider simple cases of beta-helical and amyloid-like protein filaments subjected to axial extension and develop an olog representation of their structural and resulting mechanical properties. We also construct a representation of a social network in which people send text-messages to their nearest neighbors and act as a team to perform a task. We show that the olog for the protein and the olog for the social network feature identical category-theoretic representations, and we proceed to precisely explicate the analogy or isomorphism between them. The examples presented here demonstrate that the intrinsic nature of a complex system, which in particular includes a precise relationship between structure and function at different hierarchical levels, can be effectively represented by an olog. This, in turn, allows for comparative studies between disparate materials or fields of application, and results in novel approaches to derive functionality in the design of de novo hierarchical systems. We discuss opportunities and challenges associated with the description of complex biological materials by using ologs as a powerful tool for analysis and design in the context of materiomics, and we present the potential impact of this approach for engineering, life sciences, and medicine.

  17. Category Theoretic Analysis of Hierarchical Protein Materials and Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, David I.; Giesa, Tristan; Wood, Elizabeth; Buehler, Markus J.

    2011-01-01

    Materials in biology span all the scales from Angstroms to meters and typically consist of complex hierarchical assemblies of simple building blocks. Here we describe an application of category theory to describe structural and resulting functional properties of biological protein materials by developing so-called ologs. An olog is like a “concept web” or “semantic network” except that it follows a rigorous mathematical formulation based on category theory. This key difference ensures that an olog is unambiguous, highly adaptable to evolution and change, and suitable for sharing concepts with other olog. We consider simple cases of beta-helical and amyloid-like protein filaments subjected to axial extension and develop an olog representation of their structural and resulting mechanical properties. We also construct a representation of a social network in which people send text-messages to their nearest neighbors and act as a team to perform a task. We show that the olog for the protein and the olog for the social network feature identical category-theoretic representations, and we proceed to precisely explicate the analogy or isomorphism between them. The examples presented here demonstrate that the intrinsic nature of a complex system, which in particular includes a precise relationship between structure and function at different hierarchical levels, can be effectively represented by an olog. This, in turn, allows for comparative studies between disparate materials or fields of application, and results in novel approaches to derive functionality in the design of de novo hierarchical systems. We discuss opportunities and challenges associated with the description of complex biological materials by using ologs as a powerful tool for analysis and design in the context of materiomics, and we present the potential impact of this approach for engineering, life sciences, and medicine. PMID:21931622

  18. Semi-supervised Phonetic Category Learning: Does Word-level Information Enhance the Efficacy of Distributional Learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Poppels

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To test whether word-level information facilitates the learning of phonetic categories, 40 adult native English speakers were exposed to a bimodal distribution of vowels embedded in non-words. Half of the subjects received phonetic categories aligned with lexical categories, while the other half received no such cue. It was hypothesized that the subjects exposed to lexically-informative training stimuli that were aligned with the target categories would outperform the control subjects on a perceptual categorization task after training. While the results revealed no such group differences, the data indicated that many subjects used the relevant dimension for categorization before having received any training. Implications regarding experimental design and suggestions for future research based on the results are discussed.

  19. Fluid mechanics problems and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Spurk, Joseph H

    1997-01-01

    his collection of over 200 detailed worked exercises adds to and complements the textbook Fluid Mechanics by the same author, and illustrates the teaching material through examples. In the exercises the fundamental concepts of Fluid Mechanics are applied to obtaining the solution of diverse concrete problems, and in doing this the student's skill in the mathematical modeling of practical problems is developed. In addition, 30 challenging questions without detailed solutions have been included, and while lecturers will find these questions suitable for examinations and tests, the student himself can use them to check his understanding of the subject.

  20. Synovial fluid analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joint fluid analysis; Joint fluid aspiration ... El-Gabalawy HS. Synovial fluid analysis, synovial biopsy, and synovial pathology. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, McInnes IB, O'Dell JR, eds. Kelly's Textbook of ...

  1. Is conversion therapy possible in stage IV gastric cancer: the proposal of new biological categories of classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Okumura, Naoki; Tanahashi, Toshiyuki; Kodera, Yasuhiro

    2016-04-01

    Conversion therapy for gastric cancer (GC) has been the subject of much recent attention. It is defined as a surgical treatment aiming at an R0 resection after chemotherapy for tumors that were originally unresectable or marginally resectable for technical and/or oncological reasons. However, the indications for resection remain to be clarified. In the present review, we focus on the biology and heterogeneous characteristics of stage IV GC and propose new categories of classification. Stage IV GC patients can be divided based on the absence (categories 1 and 2) or presence (categories 3 and 4) of macroscopically detectable peritoneal dissemination, which has a different biological outcome compared to hematological metastasis. Category 1 is defined oncologically as stage IV but the metastasis is technically resectable. Category 2 includes a marginally resectable metastasis or patients for whom the operation would not necessarily be the best choice. Category 3 includes a potentially unresectable metastasis of peritoneal dissemination that is only macroscopically detectable. Category 4 includes noncurable metastasis with peritoneal and other organ metastasis. The indications for conversion therapy might include the patients from category 2, some patients from category 3 and a very small number of patients from category 4. The longer survival can be expected for patients corresponding to categories 1, 2 and, to a lesser extent, 3, while the treatment of other patients focuses on "care." The provision of conversion therapy for stage IV GC patients might be one of the main roles of surgical oncologists in the near future.

  2. Antisocial behavior: Dimension or category(ies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biro Mikloš

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Classificatory systems (DSM-IV, ICD-10 use different criteria for defining a rather common antisocial disorder, traditionally referred as psychopathy. Most empirical studies of this phenomenon use Cleckley's operational definition that was applied and amended in Hare's revised Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R. In modern literature, the fact that there is less than a perfect correspondence between classificatory systems and Hare's PCL-R is often cited as an indication that antisocial behavior is not confined to a distinct category of people but is rather a continuous personality dimension. In order to further elucidate the nosology of antisocial behaviors, a Psychopathy Assessment Questionnaire (PAQ based on Cleckley - Hare's criteria and consisting of 40 binary items was administered to 339 men (135 prisoners and 204 members of the general population. Four distinct clusters of respondents were identified by means of hierarchical cluster analysis: Psychopathic type (characterized by high positive scores on dimension of Unemotionality; Antisocial type (characterized by high positive scores on Social deviance dimension; Adapted type (characterized by negative scores on all dimensions; and Hyper-controlled type (characterized by extremely negative scores on dimension Social deviance accompanied with positive scores on Unemotionality dimension. Additional comparison with MMPI profiles which classified prison sample in two groups ("Psychopathic profiles" and "Non- Psychopathic profiles" shows that there is no expected compatibility between MMPI and PAQ. We conclude that Antisocial type can be treated as a distinct category, while Psychopathic type displays characteristics of dimensional distribution.

  3. Energy performance indicator report: fluid milk plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In Canada, the dairy sector consumes significant amounts of energy and is looking for new ways of saving energy. The aim of this study, performed by the Competitive Analysis Centre Inc., was to find novel energy savings ideas for fluid milk plants. For this purpose, the energy consumption of 17 fluid milk plants, which accounts for over 50% of total Canadian output, was analyzed; first, at the plant level, and then by 8 categories at the sub-plant level in order to develop benchmarks that could be applied at both these levels. The paper provides background information on Canada's fluid milk sector and outlines the methodology used to develop and apply energy efficiency measures in the sector; the study findings are also presented. This report found that the energy consumption of the Canadian fluid milk sector could be lowered by applying the energy saving proposals developed herein.

  4. African Journals Online: Browse by Category

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Education (35) Environmental Sciences (28) Finance & Management (16) Fish & Fisheries (4) General Science (broad subject range) (86) Health (167) ... Philosophy (7) Political Science & Law (18) Psychology & Psychiatry (16) Religion (6) Sociology & Anthropology (41) Technology, Computer Science & Engineering (29)

  5. Fluid Mechanics An Introduction to the Theory of Fluid Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Durst, Franz

    2008-01-01

    Advancements of fluid flow measuring techniques and of computational methods have led to new ways to treat laminar and turbulent flows. These methods are extensively used these days in research and engineering practise. This also requires new ways to teach the subject to students at higher educational institutions in an introductory manner. The book provides the knowledge to students in engineering and natural science needed to enter fluid mechanics applications in various fields. Analytical treatments are provided, based on the Navier-Stokes equations. Introductions are also given into numerical and experimental methods applied to flows. The main benefit the reader will derive from the book is a sound introduction into all aspects of fluid mechanics covering all relevant subfields.

  6. Hypostases of THEM category in mass media communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanysheva Zulfira Zakievna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the reflection of the US/THEM category in mass media communication in conditions of sharp confrontation of ideological opponents. It is aimed at revealing the potential of lingvocultural signs to be used as units of generating desirable senses in leading English periodical issues. The alien culture is shown to possess three basic hypostases with xenocultural axiological semantic space taking the lead. The article proves that intercultural massmedia communication is marked by reciprocal influence of semantic spaces and subjective evaluation of information. Xenoprecedent phenomena are viewed as supporting clamps in the process of semantic transformations of national and cultural signs designed to exert a manipulative effect on the target reader.

  7. The Category of Immaturity in a Legal Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedonkina A.A

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We presented psychological and legal approaches to the concept of immaturity, and the definition of the perpetrator. We analyzed the differences of age aspects of the subject of crime in different countries, the criteria for establishing a minimum age of criminal responsibility. We discuss the problem of the possibility of lowering the age of criminal responsibility in the Russian Federation from the point of view of psychological science. We considered the legal category of "mental retardation not associated with mental illness" and its psychological equivalent - "personal immaturity". We describe the main problems arising in the course of the complex judicial, psychological and psychiatric examination for the presence of a mental retardation not associated with mental illness in minor. We presented psychological approaches to the concept of "personal immaturity", described the concept of "mature personality".

  8. Risk as economic category: systematics scientific approach and refinement contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Vygovskyy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the categorical-conceptual apparatus of risk and its refinement based on a critical analysis of existing systematic scientific approaches. Determined that in the refinement of the economic nature of the risk of a number of controversial issues: the definition of the objective or subjective nature of risk; matching of concepts such as «risk», «danger», «loss», «probability of loss»; definition of negative or positive consequences of risk; identification of risk with its consequences, or source of origin, which makes the relevance of research topics. As a result of scientific research has been refined interpretation of risk as an economic category, the characteristics of the company associated with the probability of unforeseen situations that may lead to negative and positive impacts, assessment of which requires the development of alternatives for management decisions. Clarification of the definition focuses on the possibility (probability of a favorable (unfavorable events which require certain corrective action management unit of the enterprise. The author emphasizes the mandatory features of the category of «risk», in particular: the concept of risk is always associated with the uncertainty of the future; event occurring has implications for the enterprise (both negative and positive; consequences for necessitates the development of a number of alternative solutions to the possible elimination of the negative consequences of risky events; risk – a mandatory attribute of modern management (its value is enhanced in terms of market conditions; subject to risk assessment and management by the company. Dedicated and updated features contribute to the clarification of the nature of the economic risk and categorical conceptual apparatus of risk management.

  9. New trends in fluid mechanics research. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, F.G. [China Aerospace Corporation, Beijing (China). Science and Technology Council; Li, J.C. (eds.) [Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing (China). Inst. of Mechanics

    2008-07-01

    This volume is the proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Fluid Mechanics (ICFM-V), the primary forum for the presentation of technological advances and research results in the fields of theoretical, experimental, and computational Fluid Mechanics. Following the previous conferences in Beijing (1987, 1993 and 1998) and Dalian (2004) organized by the Chinese Society of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, the Scientific Committee for ICFM presents ICFM-V to provide a forum for researchers to exchange original ideas and recent advances in Fluid Mechanics and relevant interdisciplinary subjects. Topics include: flow instability and turbulence, aerodynamics and gas dynamics, hydrodynamics, industrial and environmental fluid mechanics, biofluid mechanics, geophysical fluid mechanics, plasma and magneto-hydrodynamics, multiphase flows, non-Newtonian flows and flows in porous media, flow of reacting fluid, microscale flow and others.The CD-ROM includes all papers presented at the conference in PDF format, including those that were not selected for the book. (orig.)

  10. Sacrality and worldmaking: new categorial perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Paden

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The category of the sacred in particular and the role of transcultural concept-formation in general have undergone an obvious crisis. For the most part, "the sacred," if not an empty label, has been linked with theologism, and transcultural concepts have been condemned for their general non-comparability and colonialist intent. The author approaches the matter of transcultural templates through an analysis of certain concepts of sacrality. With some exceptions, the discourse of sacrality has indeed been dominated by a single model, where "the sacred" became a reified noun—a substantive term for a supernatural reality, a label for the transcendent, or even an epithet for divinity, mystery, the wholly other. As such, the expression has functioned to bestow a sense of unity to the diversity of cultures, link that unity with a transcendent reality, and offer a simple way of making sense of otherwise foreign beliefs and practices by giving them a familiar, generic referent.

  11. [Toothpastes: ingredients, brands, categories and their utilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavnai, N

    2010-04-01

    Toothpaste is one of the most widely used dental products, with the largest sales. Its use is one of the most popular oral hygiene behaviors in developed countries. In the last 30 years there has been a large variety of changes in toothpaste composition. One of the main changes is utilizing the toothpaste as a delivery system for therapeutic agents to the oral cavity. A large variety of toothpastes can be found on the market, for different purposes: caries prevention, gingivitis prevention, anti calculus formation, dentine hypersensitivity prevention and for teeth whitening. Toothpastes have a wide range of ingredients: abrasives, humectants, preservatives, thickening or binding agents, detergents, flavoring agents and therapeutic agents. This review provides details on the ingredients of dentifrices, the evidence about the different brands and categories, and questions about their utilization.

  12. The land: Primary category of faith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J. Volschenk

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This review article of Walter Brueggemann’s book “The land: Place as gift, promise, and challenge in biblical faith” (2002 mainly focuses on land as the primary category of faith in the Bible. The main focus is on the dialectical interrelationship between land possession and land-loss. A holistic, systemic and triangular interrelationship exists between God, land, Israel and Torah/covenant. The balance in this triangular relationship is essential for equilibrium in the system. The pendulum thus swings between land, exile and kingdom or in other words, between “landedness” and “landlessness”. The conclusion is that ignorance of this holistic and triangular interrelationship is of great cost and peril to any generation’s perspective on land.

  13. Eyetracking and selective attention in category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehder, Bob; Hoffman, Aaron B

    2005-08-01

    An eyetracking version of the classic Shepard, Hovland, and Jenkins (1961) experiment was conducted. Forty years of research has assumed that category learning often involves learning to selectively attend to only those stimulus dimensions useful for classification. We confirmed that participants learned to allocate their attention optimally. We also found that learners tend to fixate all stimulus dimensions early in learning. This result obtained despite evidence that participants were also testing one-dimensional rules during this period. Finally, the restriction of eye movements to only relevant dimensions tended to occur only after errors were largely (or completely) eliminated. We interpret these findings as consistent with multiple-systems theories of learning which maximize information input in order to maximize the number of learning modules involved, and which focus solely on relevant information only after one module has solved the learning problem.

  14. Category of diversity in linguaphilosophic prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulpina Valentina Grigorievna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Category of diversity is described in subcategories of homogeneous and inhomogeneous multitudes, allowing to reveal a natural categorization within the category of quantity. An integral multitude, presented within the category of quantity, is formed, among other things of countable nouns, like: штуки, головы, кочаны, etc.: булочек четыре штуки, сорок голов скота, два кочана капусты. When account is carried out on the basis of countable nouns (explicable or implied, a man is abstracted from the individual characteristics of objects, they are thought of as the same person and attention to their differences is not focused on. It is described a type of homogeneous multitudes as the “group” refer to the number of the type стадо etc.: стадо овец, косяк рыб, лежбище тюленейстадо и др.: стадо овец, косяк рыб, лежбище тюленей. It is established cross-language differences filling lexical units within the multitude uniform on the basis of a comparison of the Russian and Polish languages. The focus of the article is the heterogeneity of the multitude category, designated as a complementary multitude, in which the union objects to the group is based on the complementary elements provided in various multitudes, multitudes with different nominations and acting in conjunction with the names of the objects themselves, which form these multitudes: ассорти, коллекция, канцтовары. The essence of such multitudes is that elements within the group combined a certain connection (as opposed to a uniform multitude, are not the same, but different and complementary. It is nalyzed different groups of such multitudes in the household, business, the scientific field, in onomastics. Among the non-uniform multitudes, groups of people, for example, are viewed on the material of the Polish and German groups

  15. The role of grammatical category information in spoken word retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duràn, Carolina Palma; Pillon, Agnesa

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the role of lexical syntactic information such as grammatical gender and category in spoken word retrieval processes by using a blocking paradigm in picture and written word naming experiments. In Experiments 1, 3, and 4, we found that the naming of target words (nouns) from pictures or written words was faster when these target words were named within a list where only words from the same grammatical category had to be produced (homogeneous category list: all nouns) than when they had to be produced within a list comprising also words from another grammatical category (heterogeneous category list: nouns and verbs). On the other hand, we detected no significant facilitation effect when the target words had to be named within a homogeneous gender list (all masculine nouns) compared to a heterogeneous gender list (both masculine and feminine nouns). In Experiment 2, using the same blocking paradigm by manipulating the semantic category of the items, we found that naming latencies were significantly slower in the semantic category homogeneous in comparison with the semantic category heterogeneous condition. Thus semantic category homogeneity caused an interference, not a facilitation effect like grammatical category homogeneity. Finally, in Experiment 5, nouns in the heterogeneous category condition had to be named just after a verb (category-switching position) or a noun (same-category position). We found a facilitation effect of category homogeneity but no significant effect of position, which showed that the effect of category homogeneity found in Experiments 1, 3, and 4 was not due to a cost of switching between grammatical categories in the heterogeneous grammatical category list. These findings supported the hypothesis that grammatical category information impacts word retrieval processes in speech production, even when words are to be produced in isolation. They are discussed within the context of extant theories of lexical production.

  16. The role of grammatical category information in spoken word retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina ePalma Duràn

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of lexical syntactic information such as grammatical gender and category in spoken word retrieval processes by using a blocking paradigm in picture and written word naming experiments. In Experiments 1, 3, and 4, we found that the naming of target words (nouns from pictures or written words was faster when these target words were named within a list where only words from the same grammatical category had to be produced (homogeneous category list: all nouns than when they had to be produced within a list comprising also words from another grammatical category (heterogeneous category list: nouns and verbs. On the other hand, no significant facilitation effect was detected when the target words had to be named within a homogeneous gender list (all masculine nouns compared to a heterogeneous gender list (both masculine and feminine nouns. In Experiment 2, using the same blocking paradigm by manipulating the semantic category of the items, we found that naming times were significantly slower in the semantic category homogeneous in comparison with the semantic category heterogeneous condition. Thus semantic category homogeneity caused an interference, not a facilitation effect like grammatical category homogeneity. Finally, in Experiment 5, nouns in the heterogeneous category condition had to be named just after a verb (category-switching position or a noun (same-category position. We found a facilitation effect of category homogeneity but no significant effect of position, which showed that the effect of category homogeneity found in Experiments 1, 3, and 4 was not due to a cost of switching between grammatical categories in the heterogeneous grammatical category list. These findings supported the hypothesis that grammatical category information could impact word retrieval processes in speech production, even when words are to be produced in isolation. They are discussed within the context of extant theories of lexical

  17. Understanding Vulnerability: From Categories to Experiences of Young Congolese People in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christina R.

    2007-01-01

    This article problematises the "vulnerables" category that the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees applies to groups of refugees. Drawing on 9 months' qualitative research with young Congolese refugees in Uganda, it presents research subjects' self-identification and lived realities that do not correspond to the homogenous,…

  18. Magnetoviscous model fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Kröger, M; Hess, S

    2003-01-01

    We review, apply and compare diverse approaches to the theoretical understanding of the dynamical and rheological behaviour of ferrofluids and magnetorheological (MR) fluids subject to external magnetic and flow fields. Simple models are introduced which are directly solvable by nonequilibrium Brownian or molecular dynamics computer simulation. In particular, the numerical results for ferrofluids quantify the domain of validity of uniaxial alignment of magnetic moments (in and) out of equilibrium. A Fokker-Planck equation for the dynamics of the magnetic moments - corresponding to the Brownian dynamics approach - and its implications are analysed under this approximation. The basic approach considers the effect of external fields on the dynamics of ellipsoid shaped permanent ferromagnetic domains (aggregates), whose size should depend on the strength of flow and magnetic field, the magnetic interaction parameter and concentration (or packing fraction). Results from analytic calculations and from simulation ar...

  19. PREFACE: XXI Fluid Mechanics Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmyd, Janusz S.; Fornalik-Wajs, Elzbieta; Jaszczur, Marek

    2014-08-01

    This Conference Volume contains the papers presented at the 21st Fluid Mechanics Conference (XXI FMC) held at AGH - University of Science and Technology in Krakow, Poland, 15-18 June 2014, and accepted for Proceedings published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The Fluid Mechanics Conferences have been taking place every two years since 1974, a total of forty years. The 21st Fluid Mechanics Conference (XXI FMC) is being organized under the auspices of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Committee of Mechanics. The goal of this conference is to provide a forum for the exposure and exchange of ideas, methods and results in fluid mechanics. Conference topics include, but are not limited to Aerodynamics, Atmospheric Science, Bio-Fluids, Combustion and Reacting Flows, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Experimental Fluid Mechanics, Flow Machinery, General Fluid Dynamics, Hydromechanics, Heat and Fluid Flow, Measurement Techniques, Micro- and Nano- Flow, Multi-Phase Flow, Non-Newtonian Fluids, Rotating and Stratified Flows, Turbulence. Within the general subjects of this conference, the Professor Janusz W. Elsner Competition for the best fluid mechanics paper presented during the Conference is organized. Authors holding a M.Sc. or a Ph.D. degree and who are not older than 35 years of age may enter the Competition. Authors with a Ph.D. degree must present individual papers; authors with a M.Sc. degree may present papers with their supervisor as coauthor, including original results of experimental, numerical or analytic research. Six state-of-the-art keynote papers were delivered by world leading experts. All contributed papers were peer reviewed. Recommendations were received from the International Scientific Committee, reviewers and the advisory board. Accordingly, of the 163 eligible extended abstracts submitted, after a review process by the International Scientific Committee, 137 papers were selected for presentation at the 21st Fluid Mechanics Conference, 68

  20. Investigating cross-category brand loyalty behavior in FMCG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boztug, Yasemin; Hildebrandt, Lutz; Silberhorn, Nadja

    In competitive markets, customer retention is more efficient than trying to attract new customers. Brand loyalty is an intrinsic commitment to repeatedly purchase a particular brand. But most analyses have been conducted in one specific category only. It has been shown that product purchases in one...... category depend on purchases in other categories. The aspect of cross-category related brand loyalty has been somewhat neglected so far. We concentrate on cross-category relationships of strong national brands and on how customers' brand choice decisions are related across several product categories....

  1. Fluid mechanics in fluids at rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Howard

    2012-07-01

    Using readily available experimental thermophoretic particle-velocity data it is shown, contrary to current teachings, that for the case of compressible flows independent dye- and particle-tracer velocity measurements of the local fluid velocity at a point in a flowing fluid do not generally result in the same fluid velocity measure. Rather, tracer-velocity equality holds only for incompressible flows. For compressible fluids, each type of tracer is shown to monitor a fundamentally different fluid velocity, with (i) a dye (or any other such molecular-tagging scheme) measuring the fluid's mass velocity v appearing in the continuity equation and (ii) a small, physicochemically and thermally inert, macroscopic (i.e., non-Brownian), solid particle measuring the fluid's volume velocity v(v). The term "compressibility" as used here includes not only pressure effects on density, but also temperature effects thereon. (For example, owing to a liquid's generally nonzero isobaric coefficient of thermal expansion, nonisothermal liquid flows are to be regarded as compressible despite the general perception of liquids as being incompressible.) Recognition of the fact that two independent fluid velocities, mass- and volume-based, are formally required to model continuum fluid behavior impacts on the foundations of contemporary (monovelocity) fluid mechanics. Included therein are the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations, which are now seen to apply only to incompressible fluids (a fact well-known, empirically, to experimental gas kineticists). The findings of a difference in tracer velocities heralds the introduction into fluid mechanics of a general bipartite theory of fluid mechanics, bivelocity hydrodynamics [Brenner, Int. J. Eng. Sci. 54, 67 (2012)], differing from conventional hydrodynamics in situations entailing compressible flows and reducing to conventional hydrodynamics when the flow is incompressible, while being applicable to both liquids and gases.

  2. Category Specificity in Normal Episodic Learning: Applications to Object Recognition and Category-Specific Agnosia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukach, Cindy M.; Bub, Daniel N.; Masson, Michael E. J.; Lindsay, D. Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Studies of patients with category-specific agnosia (CSA) have given rise to multiple theories of object recognition, most of which assume the existence of a stable, abstract semantic memory system. We applied an episodic view of memory to questions raised by CSA in a series of studies examining normal observers' recall of newly learned attributes…

  3. Ad hoc categories and false memories: Memory illusions for categories created on-the-spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soro, Jerônimo C; Ferreira, Mário B; Semin, Gün R; Mata, André; Carneiro, Paula

    2017-11-01

    Three experiments were designed to test whether experimentally created ad hoc associative networks evoke false memories. We used the DRM (Deese, Roediger, McDermott) paradigm with lists of ad hoc categories composed of exemplars aggregated toward specific goals (e.g., going for a picnic) that do not share any consistent set of features. Experiment 1 revealed considerable levels of false recognitions of critical words from ad hoc categories. False recognitions occurred even when the lists were presented without an organizing theme (i.e., the category's label). Experiments 1 and 2 tested whether (a) the ease of identifying the categories' themes, and (b) the lists' backward associative strength could be driving the effect. List identifiability did not correlate with false recognition, and the effect remained even when backward associative strength was controlled for. Experiment 3 manipulated the distractor items in the recognition task to address the hypothesis that the salience of unrelated items could be facilitating the occurrence of the phenomenon. The effect remained when controlling for this source of facilitation. These results have implications for assumptions made by theories of false memories, namely the preexistence of associations in the activation-monitoring framework and the central role of gist extraction in fuzzy-trace theory, while providing evidence of the occurrence of false memories for more dynamic and context-dependent knowledge structures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Auxillary Fluid Flowmeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    RezaNejad Gatabi, Javad; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Ebrahimi Darkhaneh, Hadi

    2010-01-01

    The Auxiliary Fluid Flow meter is proposed to measure the fluid flow of any kind in both pipes and open channels. In this kind of flow measurement, the flow of an auxiliary fluid is measured Instead of direct measurement of the main fluid flow. The auxiliary fluid is injected into the main fluid...... be chosen. The fabrication of a prototype flow meter and experimental verification of the analytical data were reported. The fabricated prototype is able to measure the velocity of the water in an open channel....... and with measuring its travel time between two different positions, its velocity could be calculated. Given the velocity of the auxiliary fluid, the velocity of the main fluid could be calculated. Using this technique, it is possible to measure the velocity of any kind of fluids, if an appropriate auxiliary fluid...

  5. Postoperative fluid management

    OpenAIRE

    Kayilioglu, Selami Ilgaz; Dinc, Tolga; Sozen, Isa; Bostanoglu, Akin; Cete, Mukerrem; Coskun, Faruk

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative care units are run by an anesthesiologist or a surgeon, or a team formed of both. Management of postoperative fluid therapy should be done considering both patients’ status and intraoperative events. Types of the fluids, amount of the fluid given and timing of the administration are the main topics that determine the fluid management strategy. The main goal of fluid resuscitation is to provide adequate tissue perfusion without harming the patient. The endothelial glycocalyx dysf...

  6. Three drowsiness categories assessment by electroencephalogram in driving simulator environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Izzat A; Rumagit, Arthur M; Utsunomiya, Mitaku; Morie, Takamasa; Igasaki, Tomohiko

    2017-07-01

    Traffic accidents remain one of the most critical issues in many countries. One of the major causes of traffic accidents is drowsiness while driving. Since drowsiness is related to human physiological conditions, drowsiness is hard to prevent. Several studies have been conducted in assessing drowsiness, especially in a driving environment. One of the common methods used is the electroencephalogram (EEG). It is known that drowsiness occurs in the central nervous system; thus, estimating drowsiness using EEG is the promising way to assess drowsiness accurately. In this study, we tried to estimate drowsiness using frequency-domain and time-domain analysis of EEG. To validate the physiological conditions of the subjects, the Karolinska sleepiness scale (KSS), a subject-based assessment of drowsiness condition; and an examiner-based assessment known as facial expression evaluation (FEE) were applied. Three categories were considered; alert (KSS drowsiness (KSS 6-7; FEE 1-2) and strong drowsiness (KSS > 7; FEE > 2). The six parameters (absolute and relative power of alpha, ratio of β/α and (θ+α)/β, and Hjorth activity and mobility parameters) had statistically significant differences between the three drowsiness conditions (P drowsiness (up to 92.9%). Taken together, we suggest that EEG parameters can be used in detecting the three drowsiness conditions in a simulated driving environment.

  7. Fundamental fluid mechanics and magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hosking, Roger J

    2016-01-01

    This book is primarily intended to enable postgraduate research students to enhance their understanding and expertise in Fluid Mechanics and Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), subjects no longer treated in isolation. The exercises throughout the book often serve to provide additional and quite significant knowledge or to develop selected mathematical skills, and may also fill in certain details or enhance readers’ understanding of essential concepts. A previous background or some preliminary reading in either of the two core subjects would be advantageous, and prior knowledge of multivariate calculus and differential equations is expected.

  8. Category selectivity in human visual cortex: Beyond visual object recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peelen, M.V.; Downing, P.E.

    2017-01-01

    Human ventral temporal cortex shows a categorical organization, with regions responding selectively to faces, bodies, tools, scenes, words, and other categories. Why is this? Traditional accounts explain category selectivity as arising within a hierarchical system dedicated to visual object

  9. The Cape Observatory: all Categories of Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Ian S.

    2012-09-01

    In this presentation I will give an outline of the various types of heritage related to the Royal Observatory, Cape of Good Hope, established in 1820 and now the headquarters campus of the South African Astronomical Observatory, located quite close to downtown Cape Town. In terms of tangible, fixed heritage, the campus itself, the domes and the various other buildings are obviously relevant. This category includes the Classical Revival Main Building of 1828 and the McClean dome of 1895 by the leading colonial architect Herbert Baker as well as many other buildings and even the graves of two directors. Tangible movable items include, in principle, the telescopes, the accessory instruments and many pieces of apparatus that have been preserved. In addition, extensive collections of antique paintings, drawings, furniture and books add to the site's cultural significance. Many of the Observatory's archives are still kept locally. The intangible heritage of the Observatory consists for example of its history, its major discoveries, its interaction with the City, its central role in the history of science in South Africa and its appeal as a living cultural institution. Especially notable were the observations by Henderson (ca 1831) leading to the distance of a Cen and the early sky survey known as the Cape Photographic Durchmusterung.

  10. AMUC: Associated Motion capture User Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Sally Jane; Lawson, Sian E M; Olivier, Patrick; Watson, Paul; Chan, Anita M-A; Dade-Robertson, Martyn; Dunphy, Paul; Green, Dave; Hiden, Hugo; Hook, Jonathan; Jackson, Daniel G

    2009-07-13

    The AMUC (Associated Motion capture User Categories) project consisted of building a prototype sketch retrieval client for exploring motion capture archives. High-dimensional datasets reflect the dynamic process of motion capture and comprise high-rate sampled data of a performer's joint angles; in response to multiple query criteria, these data can potentially yield different kinds of information. The AMUC prototype harnesses graphic input via an electronic tablet as a query mechanism, time and position signals obtained from the sketch being mapped to the properties of data streams stored in the motion capture repository. As well as proposing a pragmatic solution for exploring motion capture datasets, the project demonstrates the conceptual value of iterative prototyping in innovative interdisciplinary design. The AMUC team was composed of live performance practitioners and theorists conversant with a variety of movement techniques, bioengineers who recorded and processed motion data for integration into the retrieval tool, and computer scientists who designed and implemented the retrieval system and server architecture, scoped for Grid-based applications. Creative input on information system design and navigation, and digital image processing, underpinned implementation of the prototype, which has undergone preliminary trials with diverse users, allowing identification of rich potential development areas.

  11. Conciliating neuroscience and phenomenology via category theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehresmann, Andrée C; Gomez-Ramirez, Jaime

    2015-12-01

    The paper discusses how neural and mental processes correlate for developing cognitive abilities like memory or spatial representation and allowing the emergence of higher cognitive processes up to embodied cognition, consciousness and creativity. It is done via the presentation of MENS (for Memory Evolutive Neural System), a mathematical methodology, based on category theory, which encompasses the neural and mental systems and analyzes their dynamics in the process of 'becoming'. Using the categorical notion of a colimit, it describes the generation of mental objects through the iterative binding of distributed synchronous assemblies of neurons, and presents a new rationale of spatial representation in the hippocampus (Gómez-Ramirez and Sanz, 2011). An important result is that the degeneracy of the neural code (Edelman, 1989) is the property allowing for the formation of mental objects and cognitive processes of increasing complexity order, with multiple neuronal realizabilities; it is essential "to explain certain empirical phenomena like productivity and systematicity of thought and thinking (Aydede 2010)". Rather than restricting the discourse to linguistics or philosophy of mind, the formal methods used in MENS lead to precise notions of Compositionality, Productivity and Systematicity, which overcome the dichotomic debate of classicism vs. connectionism and their multiple facets. It also allows developing the naturalized phenomenology approach asked for by Varela (1996) which "seeks articulations by mutual constraints between phenomena present in experience and the correlative field of phenomena established by the cognitive sciences", while avoiding their pitfalls. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Within-category discrimination of musical chords: perceptual magnet or anchor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, B E; Pastore, R E; Hall, M D

    1995-08-01

    Recent speech research has begun to evaluate the internal structure of categories. In one such study, Kuhl (1991) found that discrimination was poorer for vowel stimuli that were more representative of the category (prototype, or P, set) than it was for less representative stimuli (nonprototype, or NP, set). This finding was interpreted as indicating that a category prototype may function as a "perceptual magnet", effectively decreasing perceptual distance, and thus discriminability, between stimuli. The present study examines the function of prototypes in a musical category--another natural, but nonspeech category. Paralleling the Kuhl study, representative (P) and less representative (NP) sets of major triad stimuli were constructed, based on equal temperament. Musically experienced subjects rated the stimuli in each set for a goodness as a major triad, with the highest rated stimulus serving as a prototype standard for a subsequent discrimination task. Results from the discrimination task demonstrated better performance in the P context than in the NP context. The current nonspeech results indicate that a prototype functions as an anchor rather than a magnet. In addition to providing a natural, nonspeech standard for comparison with speech findings, the results provide some important insights into the nature of musical categories.

  13. Generalization in Category Learning: The Roles of Representational and Decisional Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunlich, Kurt; Wehe, Hillary S.

    2015-01-01

    Effective generalization in a multiple-category situation involves both assessing potential membership in individual categories and resolving conflict between categories while implementing a decision bound. We separated generalization from decision bound implementation using an information integration task in which category exemplars varied over two incommensurable feature dimensions. Human subjects first learned to categorize stimuli within limited training regions, and then, during fMRI scanning, they also categorized transfer stimuli from new regions of perceptual space. Transfer stimuli differed both in distance from the training region prototype and distance from the decision bound, allowing us to independently assess neural systems sensitive to each. Across all stimulus regions, categorization was associated with activity in the extrastriate visual cortex, basal ganglia, and the bilateral intraparietal sulcus. Categorizing stimuli near the decision bound was associated with recruitment of the frontoinsular cortex and medial frontal cortex, regions often associated with conflict and which commonly coactivate within the salience network. Generalization was measured in terms of greater distance from the decision bound and greater distance from the category prototype (average training region stimulus). Distance from the decision bound was associated with activity in the superior parietal lobe, lingual gyri, and anterior hippocampus, whereas distance from the prototype was associated with left intraparietal sulcus activity. The results are interpreted as supporting the existence of different uncertainty resolution mechanisms for uncertainty about category membership (representational uncertainty) and uncertainty about decision bound (decisional uncertainty). PMID:26063914

  14. 40 CFR 98.340 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., construction and demolition landfills, or industrial landfills. (c) This source category consists of the... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 98.340 Definition of the source category. (a) This source category applies to municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills that accepted...

  15. 14 CFR 61.159 - Aeronautical experience: Airplane category rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aeronautical experience: Airplane category... Transport Pilots § 61.159 Aeronautical experience: Airplane category rating. (a) Except as provided in... certificate with an airplane category and class rating must have at least 1,500 hours of total time as a pilot...

  16. Quasi-coherent Hecke category and Demazure descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arkhipov, Sergey; Kanstrup, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Let G be a reductive algebraic group with a Borel subgroup B. We define the quasi-coherent Hecke category for the pair (G,B). For any regular Noetherian G- scheme X we construct a monoidal action of the Hecke category on the derived category of B-equivariant quasi-coherent sheaves on X. Using the...

  17. The Empirical Case for Role-Governed Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Micah B.; Markman, Arthur B.; Stilwell, C. Hunt

    2011-01-01

    Most theories of categorization posit feature-based representations. Markman and Stilwell (2001) argued that many natural categories name roles in relational systems and therefore they are role-governed categories. There is little extant empirical evidence to support the existence of role-governed categories. Three experiments examine predictions…

  18. 40 CFR 98.270 - Definition of source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Pulp and Paper Manufacturing § 98.270 Definition of source category. (a) The pulp and paper manufacturing source category consists of facilities that produce market... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of source category. 98.270...

  19. Preschool Children Differentiation According to the Lingua- Grammatical Categories Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. V. Polivara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The parallel existence of languages and cultures brings forward the necessity of studying this linguistic phenomenon and designing special methods of speech development for the bilingual children. The particular attention should be given to the preschool age, for according to A. A. Leontyev’s study, the parallel acquiring of two languages often results in insufficient development of socio-linguistic speech standards. The research is devoted to the phenomenon of the two language systems coexistence in a bilingual person’s consciousness, both of them functioning and encoding the same subjects and phenomena. The peculiarities of language interference are described with the reference to the Russian-Tatar bilingual environment. The author believes that the bilingual interference problems are not caused by the phonetic and grammar system differences of the two languages. To find out the potential source of inter-language transition and interrelations between the native and non-native languages, it is necessary to identify the cognitive, neurolinguistic and psycho-linguistic aspects. Therefore, the regional phenomenon of mass bilingualism among the Tatar population is examined by the author in the framework of the psycho-linguistic and cognitive approaches. The paper presents the model of the lexical and grammar categories formation based on differentiated preschool teaching of the bilingual children. The proposed model makes it possible to overcome the limited viewpoint on the general speech dysfunctions, as well as the specifics of lexical and grammar categories development. It can be used for the further development of educational programs in psycho-linguistics, ethno-linguistics, onto-linguistics, cognitive linguistics, social-linguistics, contrastive linguistics and the language theory by means of extending the teaching course content. 

  20. Ego depletion interferes with rule-defined category learning but not non-rule-defined category learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Minda, John P; Rabi, Rahel

    2015-01-01

    ...) categories as opposed to the learning of non-rule-defined (NRD) categories. Prior research has also suggested that ego depletion can temporarily reduce the capacity for executive functioning and cognitive flexibility...

  1. Categorizing the meanings of craft: A multi-perspectival framework for eight interrelated meaning categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kouhia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The meaning and value of crafts as bearers of the cultural heritage are widely acknowledged, and deserved attention has also been paid to the pedagogical applications of craft in practice. Still, research relating to subjectively interpreted meanings of crafts has remained rather scarce. The main interest of the study is to examine subjectively construed meanings of craft associated both to the self-reflective act of making and to the tangible craft object, and categorize the discovered meanings into representative categories. In presenting a multi-perspectival framework for the categories that portray the common kinds of meanings that crafts have, a substance that surpasses cultural boundaries is also captured due to the multicultural research setting. The primary empirical data of the study are composed of interviews of six women from different cultural backgrounds; the supporting data feature a participant observation of a multicultural craft activity group and photographic notes. The wide range of different meanings captured from the data is, during the conducted qualitative content analysis, critically classified into representational categories that typify the personally experienced meanings. The analysis revealed eight interrelated meaning categories regarding the meanings of craft that go beyond cultural boundaries: Meanings proceed from the subjective process of interpreting craft in a socially constructed, personalized setting, but still the meanings given to craft have been given similar characterizations in the several cultural contexts examined. This study adds to an understanding of how personalized meanings contribute to building intercultural reciprocity. Keywords: craft, culture, meanings, interculturality, meaning making

  2. Predicting Success Study Using Students GPA Category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awan Setiawan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Maintaining student graduation rates are the main tasks of a University. High rates of student graduation and the quality of graduates is a success indicator of a university, which will have an impact on public confidence as stakeholders of higher education and the National Accreditation Board as a regulator (government. Making predictions of student graduation and determine the factors that hinders will be a valuable input for University. Data mining system facilitates the University to create the segmentation of students’ performance and prediction of their graduation. Segmentation of student by their performance can be classified in a quadrant chart is divided into 4 segments based on grade point average and the growth rate of students performance index per semester. Standard methodology in data mining i.e CRISP-DM (Cross Industry Standard Procedure for Data Mining will be implemented in this research. Making predictions, graduation can be done through the modeling process by utilizing the college database. Some algorithms such as C5, C & R Tree, CHAID, and Logistic Regression tested in order to find the best model. This research utilizes student performance data for several classes. Parameters used in addition to GPA also included the master's students data are expected to build the student profile data. The outcome of the study is the student category based on their study performance and prediction of graduation. Based on this prediction, the  university may recommend actions to be taken to improve the student  achievement index and graduation rates.Keywords: graduation, segmentation, quadrant GPA, data mining, modeling algorithms

  3. Fluid Dynamics Theory, Computation, and Numerical Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Pozrikidis, Constantine

    2009-01-01

    Fluid Dynamics: Theory, Computation, and Numerical Simulation is the only available book that extends the classical field of fluid dynamics into the realm of scientific computing in a way that is both comprehensive and accessible to the beginner. The theory of fluid dynamics, and the implementation of solution procedures into numerical algorithms, are discussed hand-in-hand and with reference to computer programming. This book is an accessible introduction to theoretical and computational fluid dynamics (CFD), written from a modern perspective that unifies theory and numerical practice. There are several additions and subject expansions in the Second Edition of Fluid Dynamics, including new Matlab and FORTRAN codes. Two distinguishing features of the discourse are: solution procedures and algorithms are developed immediately after problem formulations are presented, and numerical methods are introduced on a need-to-know basis and in increasing order of difficulty. Matlab codes are presented and discussed for ...

  4. Fluid dynamics theory, computation, and numerical simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Pozrikidis, C

    2001-01-01

    Fluid Dynamics Theory, Computation, and Numerical Simulation is the only available book that extends the classical field of fluid dynamics into the realm of scientific computing in a way that is both comprehensive and accessible to the beginner The theory of fluid dynamics, and the implementation of solution procedures into numerical algorithms, are discussed hand-in-hand and with reference to computer programming This book is an accessible introduction to theoretical and computational fluid dynamics (CFD), written from a modern perspective that unifies theory and numerical practice There are several additions and subject expansions in the Second Edition of Fluid Dynamics, including new Matlab and FORTRAN codes Two distinguishing features of the discourse are solution procedures and algorithms are developed immediately after problem formulations are presented, and numerical methods are introduced on a need-to-know basis and in increasing order of difficulty Matlab codes are presented and discussed for a broad...

  5. Comparing English, Mandarin, and Russian Hydrographic and Terrain Categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Chen-Chieh [National University of Singapore; Sorokine, Alexandre [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The paper compares hydrographic and terrain categories in the geospatial data standards of the US, Taiwan, and Russian Federation where the dominant languages used are from di erent language families. It aims to identify structural and semantic di erences between similar categories across three geospatial data standards. By formalizing the data standard structures and identifying the properties that di erentiate sibling categories in each geospatial data standard using well-known formal relations and quality universals, we develop a common basis on which hydrographic and terrain categories in the three data standards can be compared. The result suggests that all three data standards structure categories with a mixture of relations with di erent meaning even though most of them are well-known relations in top-level ontologies. Similar categories can be found across all three standards but exact match between similar categories are rare.

  6. A tool for sharing annotated research data: the "Category 0" UMLS (Unified Medical Language System) vocabularies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Jules J

    2003-06-16

    Large biomedical data sets have become increasingly important resources for medical researchers. Modern biomedical data sets are annotated with standard terms to describe the data and to support data linking between databases. The largest curated listing of biomedical terms is the the National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). The UMLS contains more than 2 million biomedical terms collected from nearly 100 medical vocabularies. Many of the vocabularies contained in the UMLS carry restrictions on their use, making it impossible to share or distribute UMLS-annotated research data. However, a subset of the UMLS vocabularies, designated Category 0 by UMLS, can be used to annotate and share data sets without violating the UMLS License Agreement. The UMLS Category 0 vocabularies can be extracted from the parent UMLS metathesaurus using a Perl script supplied with this article. There are 43 Category 0 vocabularies that can be used freely for research purposes without violating the UMLS License Agreement. Among the Category 0 vocabularies are: MESH (Medical Subject Headings), NCBI (National Center for Bioinformatics) Taxonomy and ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Diseases-9-Clinical Modifiers). The extraction file containing all Category 0 terms and concepts is 72,581,138 bytes in length and contains 1,029,161 terms. The UMLS Metathesaurus MRCON file (January, 2003) is 151,048,493 bytes in length and contains 2,146,899 terms. Therefore the Category 0 vocabularies, in aggregate, are about half the size of the UMLS metathesaurus.A large publicly available listing of 567,921 different medical phrases were automatically coded using the full UMLS metatathesaurus and the Category 0 vocabularies. There were 545,321 phrases with one or more matches against UMLS terms while 468,785 phrases had one or more matches against the Category 0 terms. This indicates that when the two vocabularies are evaluated by their fitness to find at least one term

  7. A tool for sharing annotated research data: the "Category 0" UMLS (Unified Medical Language System vocabularies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berman Jules J

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large biomedical data sets have become increasingly important resources for medical researchers. Modern biomedical data sets are annotated with standard terms to describe the data and to support data linking between databases. The largest curated listing of biomedical terms is the the National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System (UMLS. The UMLS contains more than 2 million biomedical terms collected from nearly 100 medical vocabularies. Many of the vocabularies contained in the UMLS carry restrictions on their use, making it impossible to share or distribute UMLS-annotated research data. However, a subset of the UMLS vocabularies, designated Category 0 by UMLS, can be used to annotate and share data sets without violating the UMLS License Agreement. Methods The UMLS Category 0 vocabularies can be extracted from the parent UMLS metathesaurus using a Perl script supplied with this article. There are 43 Category 0 vocabularies that can be used freely for research purposes without violating the UMLS License Agreement. Among the Category 0 vocabularies are: MESH (Medical Subject Headings, NCBI (National Center for Bioinformatics Taxonomy and ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Diseases-9-Clinical Modifiers. Results The extraction file containing all Category 0 terms and concepts is 72,581,138 bytes in length and contains 1,029,161 terms. The UMLS Metathesaurus MRCON file (January, 2003 is 151,048,493 bytes in length and contains 2,146,899 terms. Therefore the Category 0 vocabularies, in aggregate, are about half the size of the UMLS metathesaurus. A large publicly available listing of 567,921 different medical phrases were automatically coded using the full UMLS metatathesaurus and the Category 0 vocabularies. There were 545,321 phrases with one or more matches against UMLS terms while 468,785 phrases had one or more matches against the Category 0 terms. This indicates that when the two vocabularies are

  8. Amniotic fluid embolism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaur, Kiranpreet; Bhardwaj, Mamta; Kumar, Prashant; Singhal, Suresh; Singh, Tarandeep; Hooda, Sarla

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is one of the catastrophic complications of pregnancy in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters into the maternal pulmonary circulation, causing cardiovascular collapse...

  9. Electric fluid pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dam, Jeremy Daniel; Turnquist, Norman Arnold; Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2015-09-29

    An electric machine is presented. The electric machine includes a hollow rotor; and a stator disposed within the hollow rotor, the stator defining a flow channel. The hollow rotor includes a first end portion defining a fluid inlet, a second end portion defining a fluid outlet; the fluid inlet, the fluid outlet, and the flow channel of the stator being configured to allow passage of a fluid from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet via the flow channel; and wherein the hollow rotor is characterized by a largest cross-sectional area of hollow rotor, and wherein the flow channel is characterized by a smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel, wherein the smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel is at least about 25% of the largest cross-sectional area of the hollow rotor. An electric fluid pump and a power generation system are also presented.

  10. Lectures on fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Shinbrot, Marvin

    2012-01-01

    Readable and user-friendly, this high-level introduction explores the derivation of the equations of fluid motion from statistical mechanics, classical theory, and a portion of the modern mathematical theory of viscous, incompressible fluids. 1973 edition.

  11. The Survival Processing Effect with Intentional Learning of Ad Hoc Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Savchenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that memory is adapted to remember information when it is processed in a survival context. This study investigates how procedural changes in Marinho (2012 study might have led to her failure to replicate the survival mnemonic advantage. In two between-subjects design experiments, participants were instructed to learn words from ad hoc categories and to rate their relevance to a survival or a control scenario. No survival advantage was obtained in either experiment. The Adjusted Ratio of Clustering (ARC scores revealed that including the category labels made the participants rely more on the category structure of the list. Various procedural aspects of the conducted experiments are discussed as possible reasons underlying the absence of the survival effect.

  12. Amniotic fluid water dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beall, M. H.; van den Wijngaard, J. P. H. M.; van Gemert, M. J. C.; Ross, M. G.

    2007-01-01

    Water arrives in the mammalian gestation from the maternal circulation across the placenta. It then circulates between the fetal water compartments, including the fetal body compartments, the placenta and the amniotic fluid. Amniotic fluid is created by the flow of fluid from the fetal lung and

  13. Fluid Statics and Archimedes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this article we derive equations for variation of pressure in a static fluid or in one that is moving as a rigid body. Also, we show that surfaces of constant pressure and constant density should coincide. Various types of instabilities related to submerged bodies and multi layerd fluids are briefly discussed. Pressure in Fluids.

  14. Sex differences in fluid and crystalized intelligence focus on people with psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćosović Vojislav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fluid intelligence is described as ability to rapidly solve novel problems and capacity to manage and easily adapt to new situations. Crystallized intelligence reflects ability to timely use lifetime-learned information and skills. Bearing in mind that intelligence is one of the impaired cognitive functions in psychosis, a question arises there are if any sex differences in patients, regarding total IQ, fluid or crystallized intelligence. Aim: To evaluate sex differences in psychosis and to analyze the differences between patients and sex, age and origin matched healthy controls. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated schizophrenia spectrum patients (F20-29 based on ICD10; n = 52, age = 29,3±5,9 years, illness duration <10 years and controls (n = 51, age = 29,8±6,3 years. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze data. Results: Analyzing sex differences in total IQ, fluid and crystalized IQ, it has been found that women exhibited lower crystallized intelligence scores both in the patient group (p = 0,039 and in the control group (p = 0,016. Among male patients, lower scores were found in comparison to the healthy male controls in all of the categories, while female patients scores in crystallized intelligence were not significantly different in comparison to female healthy group ((p = 0,160. Conclusion: In the male subjects with psychosis, a deficit was found in both subdomains of intelligence, while in female subjects it was found in fluid intelligence only. Factors which could serve as protective from greater cognitive impairment in female patients need further evaluation, as a sign of potential mechanisms that could ameliorate the course and prognosis of schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

  15. Fluid to fluid contact heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, W. E.

    1986-01-01

    Heat transfer and pressure drop test results for a fluid to fluid contact heat exchanger are reported. The heat exchanger, fabricated and tested to demonstrate one method of transferring heat between structures in space, had a total contact area of 0.18 sq m. It utilized contact surfaces which were flexible and conformed to the mating contact surfaces upon pressurization of the fluid circulating within the heat exchanger. During proof-of-concept performance tests, the heat exchanger was operated in a typical earth environment. It demonstrated a contact conductance of 3.8 kW/sq m C at contact pressures in the 15 to 70 kPa range.

  16. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components among Japanese Workers by Clustered Business Category.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoo Hidaka

    Full Text Available The present study was a cross-sectional study conducted to reveal the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components and describe the features of such prevalence among Japanese workers by clustered business category using big data. The data of approximately 120,000 workers were obtained from a national representative insurance organization, and the study analyzed the health checkup and questionnaire results according to the field of business of each subject. Abnormalities found during the checkups such as excessive waist circumference, hypertension or glucose intolerance, and metabolic syndrome, were recorded. All subjects were classified by business field into 18 categories based on The North American Industry Classification System. Based on the criteria of the Japanese Committee for the Diagnostic Criteria of Metabolic Syndrome, the standardized prevalence ratio (SPR of metabolic syndrome and its components by business category was calculated, and the 95% confidence interval of the SPR was computed. Hierarchical cluster analysis was then performed based on the SPR of metabolic syndrome components, and the 18 business categories were classified into three clusters for both males and females. The following business categories were at significantly high risk of metabolic syndrome: among males, Construction, Transportation, Professional Services, and Cooperative Association; and among females, Health Care and Cooperative Association. The results of the cluster analysis indicated one cluster for each gender with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome components; among males, a cluster consisting of Manufacturing, Transportation, Finance, and Cooperative Association, and among females, a cluster consisting of Mining, Transportation, Finance, Accommodation, and Cooperative Association. These findings reveal that, when providing health guidance and support regarding metabolic syndrome, consideration must be given to its components and the

  17. Fluid and particle mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Michell, S J

    2013-01-01

    Fluid and Particle Mechanics provides information pertinent to hydraulics or fluid mechanics. This book discusses the properties and behavior of liquids and gases in motion and at rest. Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the science of fluid mechanics that is subdivided accordingly into two main branches, namely, fluid statics and fluid dynamics. This text then examines the flowmeter devices used for the measurement of flow of liquids and gases. Other chapters consider the principle of resistance in open channel flow, which is based on improper application of th

  18. Categorial compositionality: a category theory explanation for the systematicity of human cognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Phillips

    Full Text Available Classical and Connectionist theories of cognitive architecture seek to explain systematicity (i.e., the property of human cognition whereby cognitive capacity comes in groups of related behaviours as a consequence of syntactically and functionally compositional representations, respectively. However, both theories depend on ad hoc assumptions to exclude specific instances of these forms of compositionality (e.g. grammars, networks that do not account for systematicity. By analogy with the Ptolemaic (i.e. geocentric theory of planetary motion, although either theory can be made to be consistent with the data, both nonetheless fail to fully explain it. Category theory, a branch of mathematics, provides an alternative explanation based on the formal concept of adjunction, which relates a pair of structure-preserving maps, called functors. A functor generalizes the notion of a map between representational states to include a map between state transformations (or processes. In a formal sense, systematicity is a necessary consequence of a higher-order theory of cognitive architecture, in contrast to the first-order theories derived from Classicism or Connectionism. Category theory offers a re-conceptualization for cognitive science, analogous to the one that Copernicus provided for astronomy, where representational states are no longer the center of the cognitive universe--replaced by the relationships between the maps that transform them.

  19. Categorial compositionality: a category theory explanation for the systematicity of human cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Steven; Wilson, William H

    2010-07-22

    Classical and Connectionist theories of cognitive architecture seek to explain systematicity (i.e., the property of human cognition whereby cognitive capacity comes in groups of related behaviours) as a consequence of syntactically and functionally compositional representations, respectively. However, both theories depend on ad hoc assumptions to exclude specific instances of these forms of compositionality (e.g. grammars, networks) that do not account for systematicity. By analogy with the Ptolemaic (i.e. geocentric) theory of planetary motion, although either theory can be made to be consistent with the data, both nonetheless fail to fully explain it. Category theory, a branch of mathematics, provides an alternative explanation based on the formal concept of adjunction, which relates a pair of structure-preserving maps, called functors. A functor generalizes the notion of a map between representational states to include a map between state transformations (or processes). In a formal sense, systematicity is a necessary consequence of a higher-order theory of cognitive architecture, in contrast to the first-order theories derived from Classicism or Connectionism. Category theory offers a re-conceptualization for cognitive science, analogous to the one that Copernicus provided for astronomy, where representational states are no longer the center of the cognitive universe--replaced by the relationships between the maps that transform them.

  20. Category mistakes: A barrier to effective environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ken J; Jago, Mark

    2017-09-01

    How entities, the things that exist, are defined and categorised affects all aspects of environmental management including technical descriptions, quantitative analyses, participatory processes, planning, and decisions. Consequently, ambiguous definitions and wrongly assigning entities to categories, referred to as category mistakes, are barriers to effective management. Confusion caused by treating the term 'biodiversity' variously as the property of an area, the biota of an area, and a preferred end state (a value) - quite different categories of entities - is one example. To overcome such difficulties, we develop and define four entity categories - elements, processes, properties, and values - and two derived categories - states and systems. We argue that adoption of these categories and definitions will significantly improve environmental communication and analysis, and thus strengthen planning and decision-making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A role for the developing lexicon in phonetic category acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Naomi H; Griffiths, Thomas L; Goldwater, Sharon; Morgan, James L

    2013-10-01

    Infants segment words from fluent speech during the same period when they are learning phonetic categories, yet accounts of phonetic category acquisition typically ignore information about the words in which sounds appear. We use a Bayesian model to illustrate how feedback from segmented words might constrain phonetic category learning by providing information about which sounds occur together in words. Simulations demonstrate that word-level information can successfully disambiguate overlapping English vowel categories. Learning patterns in the model are shown to parallel human behavior from artificial language learning tasks. These findings point to a central role for the developing lexicon in phonetic category acquisition and provide a framework for incorporating top-down constraints into models of category learning. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Interpretation of response categories in patient-reported rating scales: a controlled study among people with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knutsson Ida

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unambiguous interpretation of ordered rating scale response categories requires distinct meanings of category labels. Also, summation of item responses into total scores assumes equal intervals between categories. While studies have identified problems with rating scale response category functioning there is a paucity of empirical studies regarding how respondents interpret response categories. We investigated the interpretation of commonly used rating scale response categories and attempted to identify distinct and roughly equally spaced response categories for patient-reported rating scales in Parkinson's disease (PD and age-matched control subjects. Methods Twenty-one rating scale response categories representing frequency, intensity and level of agreement were presented in random order to 51 people with PD (36 men; mean age, 66 years and 36 age-matched controls (14 men; mean age, 66. Respondents indicated their interpretation of each category on 100-mm visual analog scales (VAS anchored by Never - Always, Not at all - Extremely, and Totally disagree - Completely agree. VAS values were compared between groups, and response categories with mean values and non-overlapping 95% CIs corresponding to equally spaced locations on the VAS line were sought to identify the best options for three-, four-, five-, and six-category scales. Results VAS values did not differ between the PD and control samples (P = 0.286 or according to educational level (P = 0.220, age (P = 0.220, self-reported physical functioning (P = 0.501 and mental health (P = 0.238, or (for the PD sample PD duration (P = 0.213 or presence of dyskinesias (P = 0.212. Attempts to identify roughly equally spaced response categories for three-, four-, five-, and six-category scales were unsuccessful, as the 95% CIs of one or several of the identified response categories failed to include the criterion values for equal distances. Conclusions This study offers an evidence

  3. Prior auditory information shapes visual category-selectivity in ventral occipito-temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Ruth; Noppeney, Uta

    2010-10-01

    Objects in our natural environment generate signals in multiple sensory modalities. This fMRI study investigated the influence of prior task-irrelevant auditory information on visually-evoked category-selective activations in the ventral occipito-temporal cortex. Subjects categorized pictures as landmarks or animal faces, while ignoring the preceding congruent or incongruent sound. Behaviorally, subjects responded slower to incongruent than congruent stimuli. At the neural level, the lateral and medial prefrontal cortices showed increased activations for incongruent relative to congruent stimuli consistent with their role in response selection. In contrast, the parahippocampal gyri combined visual and auditory information additively: activation was greater for visual landmarks than animal faces and landmark-related sounds than animal vocalizations resulting in increased parahippocampal selectivity for congruent audiovisual landmarks. Effective connectivity analyses showed that this amplification of visual landmark-selectivity was mediated by increased negative coupling of the parahippocampal gyrus with the superior temporal sulcus for congruent stimuli. Thus, task-irrelevant auditory information influences visual object categorization at two stages. In the ventral occipito-temporal cortex auditory and visual category information are combined additively to sharpen visual category-selective responses. In the left inferior frontal sulcus, as indexed by a significant incongruency effect, visual and auditory category information are integrated interactively for response selection. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Perceptual and category processing of the Uncanny Valley hypothesis' dimension of human likeness: some methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, Marcus; Jancke, Lutz

    2013-06-03

    Mori's Uncanny Valley Hypothesis(1,2) proposes that the perception of humanlike characters such as robots and, by extension, avatars (computer-generated characters) can evoke negative or positive affect (valence) depending on the object's degree of visual and behavioral realism along a dimension of human likeness (DHL) (Figure 1). But studies of affective valence of subjective responses to variously realistic non-human characters have produced inconsistent findings (3, 4, 5, 6). One of a number of reasons for this is that human likeness is not perceived as the hypothesis assumes. While the DHL can be defined following Mori's description as a smooth linear change in the degree of physical humanlike similarity, subjective perception of objects along the DHL can be understood in terms of the psychological effects of categorical perception (CP) (7). Further behavioral and neuroimaging investigations of category processing and CP along the DHL and of the potential influence of the dimension's underlying category structure on affective experience are needed. This protocol therefore focuses on the DHL and allows examination of CP. Based on the protocol presented in the video as an example, issues surrounding the methodology in the protocol and the use in "uncanny" research of stimuli drawn from morph continua to represent the DHL are discussed in the article that accompanies the video. The use of neuroimaging and morph stimuli to represent the DHL in order to disentangle brain regions neurally responsive to physical human-like similarity from those responsive to category change and category processing is briefly illustrated.

  5. Spinning fluids reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  6. Right away: A late, right-lateralized category effect complements an early, left-lateralized category effect in visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, Merryn D; Becker, Stefanie I

    2017-10-01

    According to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, learned semantic categories can influence early perceptual processes. A central finding in support of this view is the lateralized category effect-namely, the finding that categorically different colors (e.g., blue and green hues) can be discriminated faster than colors within the same color category (e.g., different hues of green), especially when they are presented in the right visual field. Because the right visual field projects to the left hemisphere, this finding has been popularly couched in terms of the left-lateralization of language. However, other studies have reported bilateral category effects, which has led some researchers to question the linguistic origins of the effect. Here we examined the time course of lateralized and bilateral category effects in the classical visual search paradigm by means of eyetracking and RT distribution analyses. Our results show a bilateral category effect in the manual responses, which is combined of an early, left-lateralized category effect and a later, right-lateralized category effect. The newly discovered late, right-lateralized category effect occurred only when observers had difficulty locating the target, indicating a specialization of the right hemisphere to find categorically different targets after an initial error. The finding that early and late stages of visual search show different lateralized category effects can explain a wide range of previously discrepant findings.

  7. The Category-Demand Effects of Price Promotions

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent R. Nijs; Marnik G. Dekimpe; Jan-Benedict E.M. Steenkamps; Hanssens, Dominique M

    2001-01-01

    Although price promotions have increased in both commercial use and quantity of academic research over the last decade, most of the attention has been focused on their effects on brand choice and brand sales. By contrast, little is known about the conditions under which price promotions expand short-run and long-run category demand, even though the benefits of category expansion can be substantial to manufacturers and retailers alike. This paper studies the category-demand effects of consumer...

  8. Undecidability of Equality in the Free Locally Cartesian Closed Category

    OpenAIRE

    Castellan, Simon; Clairambault, Pierre; Dybjer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    International audience; We show that a version of Martin-Löf type theory with extensional identity, a unit type N 1 , Σ, Π, and a base type is a free category with families (supporting these type formers) both in a 1-and a 2-categorical sense. It follows that the underlying category of contexts is a free locally cartesian closed category in a 2-categorical sense because of a previously proved biequivalence. We then show that equality in this category is undecidable by reducing it to the undec...

  9. Attentional accounting: Voluntary spatial attention increases budget category prioritization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrkva, Kellen; Van Boven, Leaf

    2017-09-01

    Too often, people fail to prioritize the most important activities, life domains, and budget categories. One reason for misplaced priorities, we argue, is that activities and categories people have frequently or recently attended to seem higher priority than other activities and categories. In Experiment 1, participants were cued to direct voluntary spatial attention toward 1 side of a screen while images depicting different budget categories were presented: 1 category on the cued side and 1 on the noncued side of the screen. Participants rated cued budget categories as higher priority than noncued budget categories. Cued attention also increased perceived distinctiveness, and a mediation model was consistent with the hypothesis that distinctiveness mediates the effect of cued attention on prioritization. Experiment 2 orthogonally manipulated 2 components of a spatial cuing manipulation-heightened visual attention and heightened mental attention-to examine how each influences prioritization. Visual attention and mental attention additively increased prioritization. In Experiment 3, attention increased prioritization even when prioritization decisions were incentivized, and even when heightened attention was isolated from primacy and recency. Across experiments, cued categories were prioritized more than noncued categories even though measures were taken to disguise the purpose of the experiments and manipulate attention incidentally (i.e., as a by-product of an unrelated task). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. On the (un)suitability of semantic categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Since Greenberg’s groundbreaking publication on universals of grammar, typologists have used semantic categories to investigate (constraints on) morphological and syntactic variation in the world’s languages and this tradition has been continued in the WALS project. It is argued here that the emp......Since Greenberg’s groundbreaking publication on universals of grammar, typologists have used semantic categories to investigate (constraints on) morphological and syntactic variation in the world’s languages and this tradition has been continued in the WALS project. It is argued here...... that the employment of semantic categories has some serious drawbacks, however, suggesting that semantic categories, just like formal categories, cannot be equated across languages in morphosyntactic typology. Whereas formal categories are too narrow in that they do not cover all structural variants attested across...... languages, semantic categories can be too wide, including too many structural variants. Furthermore, it appears that in some major typological studies semantic categories have been confused with formal categories. A possible solution is pointed out: typologists first need to make sure that the forms...

  11. Learning of role-governed and thematic categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Micah B; Bainbridge, Rebecca; Murphy, Gregory L

    2016-02-01

    Natural categories are often based on intrinsic characteristics, such as shared features, but they can also be based on extrinsic relationships to items outside the categories. Examples of relational categories include items that share a thematic relation or items that share a common role. Five experiments used an artificial category learning paradigm to investigate whether people can learn role-governed and thematic categories without explicit instruction or linguistic support. Participants viewed film clips in which objects were engaged in similar actions and then were asked to group together objects that they believed were in the same category. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that while people spontaneously grouped items using both role-governed and thematic relations, when forced to choose between the two, most preferred role-governed categories. In Experiment 3, category labels increased this preference. Experiment 4 found that people failed to group items based on more abstract role relations when the specific relations differed (e.g., objects that prevented different actions). However, Experiment 5 showed that people could identify them with the aid of comparison. We concluded that people can form role-governed categories even with minimal perceptual and linguistic cues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. 40 CFR 98.210 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: limestone, dolomite, ankerite, magnesite, siderite, rhodochrosite, or sodium carbonate. Facilities are... sufficient to allow the calcination reaction to occur. (b) This source category does not include equipment...

  13. Category search speeds up face-selective fMRI responses in a non-hierarchical cortical face network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fang; Badler, Jeremy B; Righi, Giulia; Rossion, Bruno

    2015-05-01

    The human brain is extremely efficient at detecting faces in complex visual scenes, but the spatio-temporal dynamics of this remarkable ability, and how it is influenced by category-search, remain largely unknown. In the present study, human subjects were shown gradually-emerging images of faces or cars in visual scenes, while neural activity was recorded using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Category search was manipulated by the instruction to indicate the presence of either a face or a car, in different blocks, as soon as an exemplar of the target category was detected in the visual scene. The category selectivity of most face-selective areas was enhanced when participants were instructed to report the presence of faces in gradually decreasing noise stimuli. Conversely, the same regions showed much less selectivity when participants were instructed instead to detect cars. When "face" was the target category, the fusiform face area (FFA) showed consistently earlier differentiation of face versus car stimuli than did the "occipital face area" (OFA). When "car" was the target category, only the FFA showed differentiation of face versus car stimuli. These observations provide further challenges for hierarchical models of cortical face processing and show that during gradual revealing of information, selective category-search may decrease the required amount of information, enhancing and speeding up category-selective responses in the human brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Science, public health and nursing: highlighting the gender and generation categories in the episteme of praxis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egry, Emiko Yoshikawa; da Fonseca, Rosa Maria Godoy Serpa; Oliveira, Maria Amélia de Campos

    2013-09-01

    This essay aims to show the relevance of sociological categories gender and generation that underlie the phenomenon of nursing in public health, the episteme of praxis. We understand praxis as the foundation of the historical and dialectic materialism, demonstrating its importance in the process of construction of knowledge in public health nursing. The sociological categories of gender and generation were chosen in this paper because it has the privilege to better illuminate certain phenomena that have been the subject of scientific concern, such as violence against women, children and the elderly, in all its vulnerabilities. The dialectical method was adopted, with an emphasis on the secondary laws of "essence and phenomena" and "reality and possibility". Finally, given that the choice of the approach to the object, as well as the instruments for intervention towards a purpose in the process of scientific knowledge is the choice of the knowing subject, the ethics was related to praxis.

  15. FLUID INGESTION STRATEGIES OF COMPETITIVE CYCLISTS DURING 40 KM TIME TRIAL COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karianne Backx

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Dear Editor-in- ChiefLoss of fluid during prolonged exercise has been purported to be a cause of fatigue (Below et al., 1995; Walsh et al., 1994, for example. A plethora of information regarding 'optimal' fluid replacement strategies exists; perhaps the most prominent of these in the public domain is the position stand on exercise and fluid replacement published by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM. It recommends that one should ingest fluid early and continually at regular intervals in an attempt to replace the volume of fluid lost through sweating or consume as much as can be tolerated (Covertino et al., 1996. Drinking practices associated with different types of endurance activity are not well documented and it may be possible that the guidelines based on empirical data derived from laboratory conditions lack the necessary ecological validity for performance in the field. To our knowledge, there are no data on fluid intake or body mass losses during high-intensity cycling time trials (TT outside of laboratory conditions; although a pilot study questionnaire used by El-Sayed et al., 1997 revealed that the volume ingested in pre-race preparation over a similar TT race distance (46 km ranged between 0.125-0.5 L. Therefore the aim of this investigation was to elucidate the fluid ingestion strategies of competitive cyclists during pre-race preparation and 40 km TT competition and the resultant body mass loss.Seventy-two competitive male cyclists ranging from Elite Category to Category 4 cyclists (according to British Cycling classification volunteered to participated in this investigation from two separate 40 km TT (n = 21 and n = 51, respectively. Mean (±SD body mass, height and age for all participants were 73.4 ± 7.5 kg, 1.77 ± 0.06 m, and 47 ± 13 years. All procedures were approved by the University's Research Ethics Committee and subjects completed informed consent prior to the start of the investigation.Both events were held

  16. Measuring Fluid Intelligence in Healthy Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goghari, Vina M.

    2017-01-01

    The present study evaluated subjective and objective cognitive measures as predictors of fluid intelligence in healthy older adults. We hypothesized that objective cognitive measures would predict fluid intelligence to a greater degree than self-reported cognitive functioning. Ninety-three healthy older (>65 years old) community-dwelling adults participated. Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (RAPM) were used to measure fluid intelligence, Digit Span Sequencing (DSS) was used to measure working memory, Trail Making Test (TMT) was used to measure cognitive flexibility, Design Fluency Test (DFT) was used to measure creativity, and Tower Test (TT) was used to measure planning. The Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ) was used to measure subjective perceptions of cognitive functioning. RAPM was correlated with DSS, TT, and DFT. When CFQ was the only predictor, the regression model predicting fluid intelligence was not significant. When DSS, TMT, DFT, and TT were included in the model, there was a significant change in the model and the final model was also significant, with DFT as the only significant predictor. The model accounted for approximately 20% of the variability in fluid intelligence. Our findings suggest that the most reliable means of assessing fluid intelligence is to assess it directly. PMID:28250990

  17. The changing role of the subject specialist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cotta-Schønberg

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available As we all know, libraries are these years rapidly undergoing change on unparalleled scale. Evidently, this applies to librarians, too, and not the least to that important category of library staff, the subject specialist. As recruiting and education of library workers differ from country to country it is difficult to give a detailed, generally valid description of the subject librarian in libraries, but I believe that you can describe an ideal model of subject librarianship as follows: Within each of the major subject disciplines covered by the library, the library should have a subject specialist preferably with a master degree or at least a bachelor degree in the particular subject discipline. The role of the subject specialist is to perform four basic functions where extensive subject knowledge is considered to be necessary: selecting and classifying books, assisting users with advanced subject inquiries, giving subject-specific courses in information retrieval, and maintaining liaison with relevant academic departments and centres. Personally, I know this system very well since I got employment in the Royal Library in Copenhagen as a subject specialist in psychology in the very month I finished my degree in psychology from the University of Copenhagen, back in 1973. The subject librarian system at the Royal Library in Copenhagen was patterned on the ideal model, as I just described it, and it was closely paralleled in the other academic libraries in Denmark, also the new university libraries which were founded in the seventies.

  18. Computational Fluid Dynamics in Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Allard, Francis; Awbi, Hazim B.

    2008-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics in Ventilation Design is a new title in the is a new title in the REHVA guidebook series. The guidebook is written for people who need to use and discuss results based on CFD predictions, and it gives insight into the subject for those who are not used to work with CFD....... The guidebook is also written for people working with CFD which have to be more aware of how this numerical method is applied in the area of ventilation. The guidebook has, for example, chapters that are very important for CFD quality control in general and for the quality control of ventilation related...

  19. 47 CFR 36.126 - Circuit equipment-Category 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... is used for the amplification, modulation, regeneration, testing, balancing or control of signals... Equipment Excluding Wideband—Category 4.13—The cost of Circuit Equipment associated with exchange line plant... included in this category: Jointly used message circuits, i.e., message switching plant circuits carrying...

  20. 41 CFR 105-62.101 - Security classification categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security classification categories. 105-62.101 Section 105-62.101 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... classification categories. As set forth in Executive Order 12065, official information or material which requires...

  1. Normal and abnormal category-effects in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2017-01-01

    . These limitations have led to the development of a new model of category-effects at pre-semantic stages in visual object processing, which can be considered a further development of the Cascade model: the Pre-semantic Account of Category-Effects (PACE). Here I give a slightly historical, but primarily integrative...

  2. The Role of Corticostriatal Systems in Speech Category Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Han-Gyol; Maddox, W. Todd; Mumford, Jeanette A.; Chandrasekaran, Bharath

    2016-01-01

    One of the most difficult category learning problems for humans is learning nonnative speech categories. While feedback-based category training can enhance speech learning, the mechanisms underlying these benefits are unclear. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated neural and computational mechanisms underlying feedback-dependent speech category learning in adults. Positive feedback activated a large corticostriatal network including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal lobule, middle temporal gyrus, caudate, putamen, and the ventral striatum. Successful learning was contingent upon the activity of domain-general category learning systems: the fast-learning reflective system, involving the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex that develops and tests explicit rules based on the feedback content, and the slow-learning reflexive system, involving the putamen in which the stimuli are implicitly associated with category responses based on the reward value in feedback. Computational modeling of response strategies revealed significant use of reflective strategies early in training and greater use of reflexive strategies later in training. Reflexive strategy use was associated with increased activation in the putamen. Our results demonstrate a critical role for the reflexive corticostriatal learning system as a function of response strategy and proficiency during speech category learning. Keywords: category learning, fMRI, corticostriatal systems, speech, putamen PMID:25331600

  3. 14 CFR 121.199 - Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.199 Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a...

  4. Priming Ability-Relevant Social Categories Improves Intellectual Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Phoebe S.; Kennette, Lynne N.; Van Havermaet, Lisa R.; Frank, Nichole M.; McIntyre, Rusty B.

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that priming affects behavioral tasks; fewer studies, however, have been conducted on how social category primes affect cognitive tasks. The present study aimed to examine the effects of social category primes on math performance and word recall. It was hypothesized that Asian prime words would improve math performance and word…

  5. Semantic categories in the indigenous languages of Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, K.; Braga, M.L.; de Melo Barbosa, E.; Silveira Coriolano, J.; Jezuino da Costa, J.; de Souza Martins, M.; Leite de Oliveira, D.; Maciel de Oliveira, V.; Gomes Pereira, L.; Santana, L.; do Carmo Santos, C.L.; dos Ramos Soares, V.

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates which semantic categories, as defined in Functional Discourse Grammar, formally manifest themselves in a sample of native languages of Brazil, and the extent to which the distribution of these manifestations across categories can be described systematically in terms of

  6. The Spacing Effect in Children's Memory and Category Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlach, Haley A.; Sandhofer, Catherine M.; Kornell, Nate

    2008-01-01

    The spacing effect describes the robust phenomenon whereby memory is enhanced when learning events are distributed, instead of being presented in succession. We investigated the effect of spacing on children's memory and category induction. Three-year-old children were presented with two tasks, a memory task and a category induction task. In the…

  7. A novel particle swarm optimization based on population category

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingying; Qu, Jianhua

    2017-10-01

    This paper raised a novel particle swarm optimization algorithm based on population category. Traditional particle swarm optimization algorithm is easily to trap in local optimum. In order to avoid standard algorithm appearing premature convergence, this novel algorithm use population category strategy to find new directions for particles. At last, computational results show that the new method is effective and has a high-performance.

  8. 40 CFR 98.180 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Lead Production § 98.180 Definition of the source category. The lead production source category consists of primary lead smelters and secondary lead smelters. A primary lead smelter is a facility engaged in the production of lead metal from lead sulfide ore...

  9. 77 FR 20281 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... and concrete stains. Today's final rule designates the proposed product categories within which... designated product category can compete with similar re- refined lubricating oil products with recycled... found in the Comprehensive Procurement Guideline, 40 CFR 247.17. Sec. 3201.87 Wood and concrete stains...

  10. Representation of categories: metaphorical use of the container schema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, I.; Pecher, D.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we investigated whether the mental representation of the concept categories is represented by the container image schema (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980). In two experiments participants decided whether two pictures were from the same category (animal or vehicle). Pictures were

  11. Skew category algebras associated with partially defined dynamical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundström, Patrik; Öinert, Per Johan

    2012-01-01

    We introduce partially defined dynamical systems defined on a topological space. To each such system we associate a functor s from a category G to Topop and show that it defines what we call a skew category algebra A ⋊σ G. We study the connection between topological freeness of s and, on the one...

  12. Eyetracking reveals multiple-category use in induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Stephanie Y; Ross, Brian H; Murphy, Gregory L

    2016-07-01

    Category information is used to predict properties of new category members. When categorization is uncertain, people often rely on only one, most likely category to make predictions. Yet studies of perception and action often conclude that people combine multiple sources of information near-optimally. We present a perception-action analog of category-based induction using eye movements as a measure of prediction. The categories were objects of different shapes that moved in various directions. Experiment 1 found that people integrated information across categories in predicting object motion. The results of Experiment 2 suggest that the integration of information found in Experiment 1 were not a result of explicit strategies. Experiment 3 tested the role of explicit categorization, finding that making a categorization judgment, even an uncertain one, stopped people from using multiple categories in our eye-movement task. Experiment 4 found that induction was indeed based on category-level predictions rather than associations between object properties and directions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. A review of functional imaging studies on category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2007-01-01

    such as familiarity and visual complexity. Of the most consistent activations found, none appear to be selective for natural objects or artefacts. The findings reviewed are compatible with theories of category-specificity that assume a widely distributed conceptual system not organized by category....

  14. Development of Category-based Induction and Semantic Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Anna V.; Godwin, Karrie E.; Matlen, Bryan J.; Unger, Layla

    2015-01-01

    Category-based induction is a hallmark of mature cognition; however, little is known about its origins. This study evaluated the hypothesis that category-based induction is related to semantic development. Computational studies suggest that early on there is little differentiation among concepts, but learning and development lead to increased…

  15. Towards the development of a salinity impact category for South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards the development of a salinity impact category for South African life cycle assessments: part 3 - salinity potentials. ... Surface water 0.165. Natural surfaces 0.031. Agricultural surfaces 1.000. An additional impact category for salinity effects is therefore proposed, and the derived salinity potentials (also known as ...

  16. Abstract: Category Allocation and Education for Accident/Emergency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Category Allocation and Education for Accident/Emergency Department Nurses at Referral Hospital in Kigali, Rwanda. ... might have been other factors such as a change in triage practice and institution of a day care room in A/E. Staff knowledge increased in accuracy of triage category allocation from 51% to 64%.

  17. 40 CFR 98.190 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of the source category. 98... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Lime Manufacturing § 98.190 Definition of the source category... non-marketed lime manufacturing facilities. (c) Lime kilns at pulp and paper manufacturing facilities...

  18. 40 CFR 98.240 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petrochemical Production § 98.240 Definition of the source... makes methanol, hydrogen, and/or ammonia from synthesis gas is part of the petrochemical source category... category. (f) A process that produces a petrochemical from bio-based feedstock is not part of the...

  19. Relativistic elasticity of stationary fluid branes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armas, J.; Obers, N.A.

    2013-01-01

    Fluid mechanics can be formulated on dynamical surfaces of arbitrary codimension embedded in a background space-time. This has been the main object of study of the blackfold approach in which the emphasis has primarily been on stationary fluid configurations. Motivated by this approach we show...... under certain conditions that a given stationary fluid configuration living on a dynamical surface of vanishing thickness and satisfying locally the first law of thermodynamics will behave like an elastic brane when the surface is subject to small deformations. These results, which are independent...... of the number of space-time dimensions and of the fluid arising from a gravitational dual, reveal the (electro)elastic character of (charged) black branes when considering extrinsic perturbations....

  20. Simulation based engineering in fluid flow design

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, J S

    2017-01-01

    This volume offers a tool for High Performance Computing (HPC). A brief historical background on the subject is first given. Fluid Statics dealing with Pressure in fluids at rest, Buoyancy and Basics of Thermodynamics are next presented. The Finite Volume Method, the most convenient process for HPC, is explained in one-dimensional approach to diffusion with convection and pressure velocity coupling. Adiabatic, isentropic and supersonic flows in quasi-one dimensional flows in axisymmetric nozzles is considered before applying CFD solutions. Though the theory is restricted to one-dimensional cases, three-dimensional CFD examples are also given. Lastly, nozzle flows with normal shocks are presented using turbulence models. Worked examples and exercises are given in each chapter. Fluids transport thermal energy for its conversion to kinetic energy, thus playing a major role that is central to all heat engines. With the advent of rotating machinery in the 20th century, Fluid Engineering was developed in the form o...

  1. International Conference on Mathematical Fluid Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Yukihito

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents original papers ranging from an experimental study on cavitation jets to an up-to-date mathematical analysis of the Navier-Stokes equations for free boundary problems, reflecting topics featured at the International Conference on Mathematical Fluid Dynamics, Present and Future, held 11–14 November 2014 at Waseda University in Tokyo. The contributions address subjects in one- and two-phase fluid flows, including cavitation, liquid crystal flows, plasma flows, and blood flows. Written by internationally respected experts, these papers highlight the connections between mathematical, experimental, and computational fluid dynamics. The book is aimed at a wide readership in mathematics and engineering, including researchers and graduate students interested in mathematical fluid dynamics.

  2. Odd viscosity in chiral active fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Debarghya; Souslov, Anton; Abanov, Alexander G; Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2017-11-17

    We study the hydrodynamics of fluids composed of self-spinning objects such as chiral grains or colloidal particles subject to torques. These chiral active fluids break both parity and time-reversal symmetries in their non-equilibrium steady states. As a result, the constitutive relations of chiral active media display a dissipationless linear-response coefficient called odd (or equivalently, Hall) viscosity. This odd viscosity does not lead to energy dissipation, but gives rise to a flow perpendicular to applied pressure. We show how odd viscosity arises from non-linear equations of hydrodynamics with rotational degrees of freedom, once linearized around a non-equilibrium steady state characterized by large spinning speeds. Next, we explore odd viscosity in compressible fluids and suggest how our findings can be tested in the context of shock propagation experiments. Finally, we show how odd viscosity in weakly compressible chiral active fluids can lead to density and pressure excess within vortex cores.

  3. Anthropometric Profile in Different Event Categories of Acrobatic Gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboada-Iglesias, Yaiza; Santana, Mercedes Vernetta; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, Águeda

    2017-06-01

    There is a specific anthropometric profile for each sport, which may be differentiated even in relation to the position, role or event category within each sport discipline. However, there are few studies on acrobatic gymnastics, and the goal of this work was to determine the anthropometric profile depending on the event category, as well as factors that predisposed to performance in these categories. The sample consisted of 150 gymnasts from Spain, divided into 8 groups according to the event category and the role played. The kinanthropometric measurements were taken through the procedures established by the International Society for the Advancement of Kineantropometry. The anthropometric characteristics, including body mass index, somatotype, body composition and proportionality using the Phantom stratagem were analyzed, and the results obtained from the different groups were compared. A regression analysis was performed with particular groups of gymnasts. No significant differences (p gymnast toward choosing one event category or another, except for female bases.

  4. Relational categories as a bridge between cognitive and educational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Micah B; Schalk, Lennart

    2016-07-01

    Both cognitive and educational psychology literature strive to investigate human category and concept learning. However, both literatures focus on different phenomena and often use different methodologies. We identify and discuss commonalities and differences between the literatures. This literature comparison reveals that research on relational category learning offers a promising avenue to integration. We suggest that this integration would be especially beneficial to advance our understanding of conceptual change essentially, how complex scientific concepts and categories are acquired and developed in educational contexts elaborating or correcting students' prior conceptions. Furthermore, the focus on relational categories allows us to provide an integrative discussion on how recent lines of research on analogy, memory and category learning, and knowledge restructuring relate to and can inform education. In general, this article advocates the complementary nature of cognitive and educational psychology and identifies viable, and potentially synergistic paths for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Client contribution in negotiations on employability – categories revised?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskelinen, L.; Olesen, Søren Peter; Caswell, D.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we explore how the institutional category ‘unemployed’ is specified in everyday practice when implementing an active employment policy. We illustrate the process of categorisation as an aspect of the in situ positioning and self-representation of the client by examining one social...... worker–client talk: how the category unemployed is shaped and ‘translated’ when the client negotiates her situation with the social worker. Two types of category revisions are identified. First, the employability of the client, rather than her unemployment situation, is the issue under negotiation....... Second, the client introduces new categories that are compatible with the demands of the employment system. She contributes by drawing on discursive resources related to the category of ‘active job seeker’ but does this with an own agenda of looking for a suitable job. The analysis elucidates the client...

  6. Metalworking and machining fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark

    2010-10-12

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  7. Categorical perception of color: evidence from secondary category boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-rasheed, Abdulrahman Saud

    2015-01-01

    Despite a plethora of behavioral research exploring the phenomenon of color categorical perception (CP) known as “better discrimination between pair of colors stimuli from different categories and pair of colors stimuli from the same category even when the stimulus differences between the pairs of stimuli are equal”, most of the evidence for the CP of color was derived from Roman or top-to-down script readers and very rarely from right-to-left script readers in primary category. To date, no studies of color CP have been conducted on right-to-left script readers in secondary category boundary to support this theory. Three experiments have been conducted: Experiments 1 and 2 established the Arabic blue–purple secondary category boundary, and Experiment 3 tested the CP of color in the blue–purple category boundary. Sixty participants (30 men and 30 women) took part in this study. All spoke Arabic as their first language, and all were undergraduate or postgraduate students at King Saud University. Their ages ranged from 18–35 years with a mean age of 21.9 years (SD =5.2). The result indicated that for Experiments 1 and 2, it appeared that the Arabic blue–purple category boundary was approximately 10PB and it is in the same location as for English. For Experiment 3, reaction times in the between-categories condition were significantly faster than those in the within-category condition; this suggested that CP of color was shown in the Arabic’s blue–purple secondary category boundary. PMID:26648764

  8. Thermodynamics of Fluid Polyamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, Mikhail A.; Duška, Michal; Caupin, Frédéric; Amrhein, Lauren E.; Rosenbaum, Amanda; Sadus, Richard J.

    2018-01-01

    Fluid polyamorphism is the existence of different condensed amorphous states in a single-component fluid. It is either found or predicted, usually at extreme conditions, for a broad group of very different substances, including helium, carbon, silicon, phosphorous, sulfur, tellurium, cerium, hydrogen, and tin tetraiodide. This phenomenon is also hypothesized for metastable and deeply supercooled water, presumably located a few degrees below the experimental limit of homogeneous ice formation. We present a generic phenomenological approach to describe polyamorphism in a single-component fluid, which is completely independent of the molecular origin of the phenomenon. We show that fluid polyamorphism may occur either in the presence or in the absence of fluid phase separation depending on the symmetry of the order parameter. In the latter case, it is associated with a second-order transition, such as in liquid helium or liquid sulfur. To specify the phenomenology, we consider a fluid with thermodynamic equilibrium between two distinct interconvertible states or molecular structures. A fundamental signature of this concept is the identification of the equilibrium fraction of molecules involved in each of these alternative states. However, the existence of the alternative structures may result in polyamorphic fluid phase separation only if mixing of these structures is not ideal. The two-state thermodynamics unifies all the debated scenarios of fluid polyamorphism in different areas of condensed-matter physics, with or without phase separation, and even goes beyond the phenomenon of polyamorphism by generically describing the anomalous properties of fluids exhibiting interconversion of alternative molecular states.

  9. Fluid dynamics transactions

    CERN Document Server

    Fiszdon, W

    1965-01-01

    Fluid Dynamics Transactions, Volume 2 compiles 46 papers on fluid dynamics, a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that deals with fluid flow. The topics discussed in this book include developments in interference theory for aeronautical applications; diffusion from sources in a turbulent boundary layer; unsteady motion of a finite wing span in a compressible medium; and wall pressure covariance and comparison with experiment. The certain classes of non-stationary axially symmetric flows in magneto-gas-dynamics; description of the phenomenon of secondary flows in curved channels by means of co

  10. Sphere based fluid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor); Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Systems are described for using multiple closely-packed spheres. In one system for passing fluid, a multiplicity of spheres lie within a container, with all of the spheres having the same outside diameter and with the spheres being closely nested in one another to create multiple interstitial passages of a known size and configuration and smooth walls. The container has an inlet and outlet for passing fluid through the interstitial passages formed between the nested spheres. The small interstitial passages can be used to filter out material, especially biological material such as cells in a fluid, where the cells can be easily destroyed if passed across sharp edges. The outer surface of the spheres can contain a material that absorbs a constitutent in the flowing fluid, such as a particular contamination gas, or can contain a catalyst to chemically react the fluid passing therethrough, the use of multiple small spheres assuring a large area of contact of these surfaces of the spheres with the fluid. In a system for storing and releasing a fluid such as hydrogen as a fuel, the spheres can include a hollow shell containing the fluid to be stored, and located within a compressable container that can be compressed to break the shells and release the stored fluid.

  11. Basketball ability testing and category for players with mental retardation: 8-month training effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciosi, Emanuele; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Baldari, Carlo; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Guidetti, Laura

    2012-06-01

    Although sport for athletes with mental retardation (MR) is achieving an important role, the literature concerning basketball tests and training is still poor. The aims of this study were to verify whether the basketball test battery could be an appropriate modality to classify the players in the Promotion (Pro) category, to assess basketball abilities before (PRE) and after (POST) an 8-month training in players with MR in relation to Competitive (Comp) and Pro categories, to analyze the variation of specific basketball abilities based on subjects' MR diagnosis. Forty-one male basketball players with MR (17 Comp and 24 Pro; age range 18-45 years; MR: 15% mild, 54% moderate, 29% severe, and 2% profound) were assessed PRE and POST training through the basketball test battery, which assessed 4 ability levels of increasing difficulty (from I to IV), each one characterized by the analysis of fundamental areas (ball handling, reception, passing, and shooting). Level I was significantly changed after the intervention period regardless of the Category, whereas shooting was affected by the interaction between Category and Intervention. The results showed significant differences between categories in the scores of individual global, level I, level II, level III, and in all fundamental areas. Individual global score in both categories significantly increased. The players of Comp significantly improved in level III, in ball handling, reception, passing, and shooting scores. The players of Pro improved significantly in level II, in ball handling, reception, and passing scores. Individual global, ability levels I-III, and fundamental area scores were negatively correlated to the MR level indicating that the players with a lower MR obtained higher ability scores. In conclusion, it was found that the basketball test battery could be useful for improving and monitoring training in both Comp and Pro players.

  12. Isogeometric shape optimization in fluid mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørtoft, Peter; Gravesen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this work is numerical shape optimization in fluid mechanics, based on isogeometric analysis. The generic goal is to design the shape of a 2-dimensional flow domain to minimize some prescribed objective while satisfying given geometric constraints. As part of the design problem...

  13. On the shear instability of fluid interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Alexakis, A.; Young, Y.; Rosner, R.

    2001-01-01

    We examine the linear stability of fluid interfaces subjected to a shear flow. Our main object is to generalize previous work to arbitrary Atwood number, and to allow for surface tension and weak compressibility. The motivation derives from instances in astrophysical systems where mixing across material interfaces driven by shear flows may significantly affect the dynamical evolution of these systems.

  14. Shear instability of fluid interfaces: Stability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexakis, A.; Young, Y.; Rosner, R.

    2002-02-01

    We examine the linear stability of fluid interfaces subjected to a shear flow. Our main object is to generalize previous work to an arbitrary Atwood number, and to allow for surface tension and weak compressibility. The motivation derives from instances in astrophysical systems where mixing across material interfaces driven by shear flows may significantly affect the dynamical evolution of these systems.

  15. Fluid dynamics via examples and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Nazarenko, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    "This is an excellent book for fluid dynamics students. It gives a good overview of the theory through a large set of worthy example problems. After many classical textbooks on the subject, there is finally one with solved exercises. I fully appreciate the selection of topics."-Professor Miguel Onorato, Physics Department, University of Torino.

  16. Lectures on Geophysical Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samelson, Roger M.

    The fluid kaleidoscope of the Earth's ocean and atmosphere churns and sparkles with jets, gyres, eddies, waves, streams, and cyclones. These vast circulations, essential elements of the physical environment that support human life, are given a special character by the Earth's rotation and by their confinement to a shallow surficial layer, thin relative to the solid Earth in roughly the same proportion as an apple skin is to an apple. Geophysical fluid dynamics exploits this special character to develop a unified theoretical approach to the physics of the ocean and atmosphere.With Lectures on Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Rick Salmon has added an insightful and provocative volume to the handful of authoritative texts currently available on the subject. The book is intended for first-year graduate students, but advanced students and researchers also will find it useful. It is divided into seven chapters, the first four of these adapted from course lectures. The book is well written and presents a fresh and stimulating perspective that complements existing texts. It would serve equally well either as the main text for a core graduate curriculum or as a supplementary resource for students and teachers seeking new approaches to both classical and contemporary problems. A lively set of footnotes contains many references to very recent work. The printing is attractive, the binding is of high quality, and typographical errors are few.

  17. Combining features from ERP components in single-trial EEG for discriminating four-category visual objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changming; Xiong, Shi; Hu, Xiaoping; Yao, Li; Zhang, Jiacai

    2012-10-01

    Categorization of images containing visual objects can be successfully recognized using single-trial electroencephalograph (EEG) measured when subjects view images. Previous studies have shown that task-related information contained in event-related potential (ERP) components could discriminate two or three categories of object images. In this study, we investigated whether four categories of objects (human faces, buildings, cats and cars) could be mutually discriminated using single-trial EEG data. Here, the EEG waveforms acquired while subjects were viewing four categories of object images were segmented into several ERP components (P1, N1, P2a and P2b), and then Fisher linear discriminant analysis (Fisher-LDA) was used to classify EEG features extracted from ERP components. Firstly, we compared the classification results using features from single ERP components, and identified that the N1 component achieved the highest classification accuracies. Secondly, we discriminated four categories of objects using combining features from multiple ERP components, and showed that combination of ERP components improved four-category classification accuracies by utilizing the complementarity of discriminative information in ERP components. These findings confirmed that four categories of object images could be discriminated with single-trial EEG and could direct us to select effective EEG features for classifying visual objects.

  18. Comparison of four different categories of prosthetic feet during ramp ambulation in unilateral transtibial amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Vibhor; Gailey, Robert S; Gaunaurd, Ignacio A; O'Toole, Christopher; Finnieston, Adam; Tolchin, Ronald

    2015-10-01

    Comparative effectiveness of prosthetic feet during ramp ambulation in unilateral transtibial amputees, who function at different Medicare Functional Classification Levels, has not been published. To determine differences in symmetry in external work between four categories of prosthetic feet in K-Level-2 and K-Level-3 unilateral transtibial amputees during ramp ascent and descent. Randomized repeated-measures trial. Ten subjects completed six testing sessions during which symmetry in external work was calculated using F-scan in-sole sensors. Between testing sessions 1 and 2, subjects received standardized functional prosthetic training. In Sessions 3-6, subjects tested four feet--solid ankle cushion heel, stationary attachment flexible endoskeleton, Talux (categories K1, K2, and K3, respectively), and Proprio-Foot (microprocessor ankle)--using a study socket and had a 10- to 14-day accommodation period with each foot. During ramp descent, K-Level-2 subjects demonstrated higher symmetry in external work values with Talux and Proprio-Foot compared to the solid ankle cushion heel foot. K-Level-3 subjects also had higher symmetry in external work values with the Talux foot than the solid ankle cushion heel foot. Ramp ascent symmetry in external work values were not significantly different between feet. Prosthetic foot category appears to influence symmetry in external work more during decline walking than incline walking. K-Level-2 unilateral transtibial amputees achieve greater symmetry from K3 dynamic response prosthetic feet with J-shaped ankle and microprocessor ankles while descending ramps. The findings suggest that K-Level-2 unilateral transtibial amputees benefit from K3 dynamic response prosthetic feet with J-shaped ankle. These results support the prescription of K3 feet for K-Level-2 amputees who frequently negotiate ramps. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  19. Comparing two K-category assignments by a K-category correlation coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorodkin, Jan

    2004-01-01

    categories by considering what belongs and what does not belong to one of the categories, leading to the loss of information. Here, an extended correlation coefficient that applies to K-categories is proposed, and this measure is shown to be highly applicable for evaluating prediction of RNA secondary...... structure in cases where some predicted pairs go into the category "unknown" due to lack of reliability in predicted pairs or unpaired residues. Hence, predicting base pairs of RNA secondary structure can be a three-category problem. The measure is further shown to be well in agreement with existing...... performance measures used for ranking protein secondary structure predictions. Server and software is available at http://rk.kvl.dk/....

  20. Role of cutaneous surface fluid in frog osmoregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Ramløv, Hans

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated whether evaporative water loss (EWL) in frogs stems from water diffusing through the skin or fluid secreted by mucous glands. Osmolality of cutaneous surface fluid (CSF) of Rana esculenta (Pelophylax kl. esculentus) subjected to isoproterenol or 30 °C–34 °C was 191 ± 9...

  1. Recognition of Odontogenic Cyst-Fluid Cholesterol Concentration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hypercholesterolaemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Serum cholesterol is usually determined to know if a subject is at a risk of heart diseases. This lipid is found in most fluids in the body including the odontogenic cyst-fluid. We investigated the concentration of cholesterol in the odontogenic ...

  2. Context Dependency of Conditioned Aversions to Familiar and Novel Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kiyoshi; Iguchi, Yoshio; Sawa, Kosuke

    2006-01-01

    Using a context discrimination procedure and rats as the subjects, the formation of context-dependent aversions to novel and familiar fluids was investigated. Experiment 1 revealed that context dependency could be established to a novel fluid (saccharin) after three cycles of context discrimination training and that the acquired context dependency…

  3. Space Station fluid management logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Sam M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

  4. Categories of fruit and vegetables: Attributes and definitions in Serbian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilparić Branislava M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the results of an empirical investigation performed by E. Rosch and K. Mervis (1975, the prototype structures of the categories FRUIT and VEGETABLES, the two superordinate and neighbouring categories with no clear-cut boundaries between them, are formed by family resemblances. Each category has only two attributes ('(part of a plant' and 'edible' which are common to all its members and yet not sufficient to define the category and separate it from other categories of edible (parts of plants. Through the analysis and comparison of a number of definitions for FRUIT and VEGETABLES (obtained in a questionnaire-based survey from a hundred native speakers of Serbian; taken from Lexicography and Conceptual Analysis by A. Wierzbicka; taken from five general dictionaries of the Serbian language, the author of this paper attempts to determine the group of attributes that could play a key role in differentiating the observed categories and to search for the most appropriate way to define the two categories in Serbian which would hopefully be acceptable to both modern (prototype semantics and practical lexicography.

  5. Visual Images of Subjective Perception of Time in a Literary Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterik, Ella V.; Issina, Gaukhar I.; Pecherskikh, Taliya F.; Belikova, Oxana V.

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the subjective perception of time, or psychological time, as a text category and a literary image. It focuses on the visual images that are characteristic of different types of literary time--accelerated, decelerated and frozen (vanished). The research is based on the assumption that the category of subjective perception…

  6. Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power (FMFP)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amitabh Bhattacharya

    engineers to efficiently simulate turbulent flows, was in fact first devised by Joseph Smagorinsky, a researcher in atmo- spheric science. ... Over the last few decades, mainly due to the rapid improvement in computational efficiency, cameras, optics and instrumentation, both ... towards design of fluid power systems. Asim and ...

  7. Dynamics of Complex Fluid-Fluid Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagis, L.M.C.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of recent progress in modelling the behaviour of complex fluid–fluid interfaces with non-equilibrium thermodynamics. We will limit ourselves to frameworks employing the Gibbs dividing surface model, and start with a general discussion of the surface excess

  8. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  9. Fluid Statics and Archimedes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fluid Statics and Archimedes. Jaywant H Arakeri C Dharuman. General Article Volume 11 Issue 10 October 2006 pp 28- ... Keywords. Fluid statics; buoyancy; stratification; instability. Author Affiliations. Jaywant H Arakeri1 C Dharuman1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 ...

  10. Peritoneal fluid culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - peritoneal fluid ... sent to the laboratory for Gram stain and culture. The sample is checked to see if bacteria ... The peritoneal fluid culture may be negative, even if you have ... diagnosis of peritonitis is based on other factors, in addition ...

  11. Fluid loading responsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) and in the peri-operative phase are dependent on physicians and nurses for their fluid intake. Volume status optimization is required to maximize oxygen delivery to vital organs. Unnecessary fluid administration can, however, lead to general and pulmonary

  12. Cerebrospinal fluid sodium rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF sodium levels have been reported to rise during episodic migraine. Since migraine frequently starts in early morning or late afternoon, we hypothesized that natural sodium chronobiology may predispose susceptible persons when extracellular CSF sodium increases. Since no mammalian brain sodium rhythms are known, we designed a study of healthy humans to test if cation rhythms exist in CSF. Methods Lumbar CSF was collected every ten minutes at 0.1 mL/min for 24 h from six healthy participants. CSF sodium and potassium concentrations were measured by ion chromatography, total protein by fluorescent spectrometry, and osmolarity by freezing point depression. We analyzed cation and protein distributions over the 24 h period and spectral and permutation tests to identify significant rhythms. We applied the False Discovery Rate method to adjust significance levels for multiple tests and Spearman correlations to compare sodium fluctuations with potassium, protein, and osmolarity. Results The distribution of sodium varied much more than potassium, and there were statistically significant rhythms at 12 and 1.65 h periods. Curve fitting to the average time course of the mean sodium of all six subjects revealed the lowest sodium levels at 03.20 h and highest at 08.00 h, a second nadir at 09.50 h and a second peak at 18.10 h. Sodium levels were not correlated with potassium or protein concentration, or with osmolarity. Conclusion These CSF rhythms are the first reports of sodium chronobiology in the human nervous system. The results are consistent with our hypothesis that rising levels of extracellular sodium may contribute to the timing of migraine onset. The physiological importance of sodium in the nervous system suggests that these rhythms may have additional repercussions on ultradian functions.

  13. Primacy or recency effects in forming inductive categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Sean; Crawford, L Elizabeth

    2008-04-01

    Five experiments provide evidence for a primacy effect in the formation of inductive categories. Participants completed a category induction task in which they observed and reproduced a set of lines that varied in length but were serially ordered so that they increased or decreased in length. Subsequent estimates of the average of the distribution were systematically biased in the direction of stimuli encountered at the beginning of the induction task, suggesting that initially encountered stimuli exert greater weight in a category representation than do subsequent stimuli. We offer possible explanations for why this primacy effect might arise.

  14. The Importance of Developing a Foundation for Naive Category Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Cabbolet, Marcoen J. T. F.

    2015-01-01

    Recently Feferman (Rev. Symb. Logic 6: 6-15, 2013) has outlined a program for the development of a foundation for naive category theory. While Ernst (ibid. 8: 306-327, 2015) has shown that the resulting axiomatic system is still inconsistent, the purpose of this note is to show that nevertheless some foundation has to be developed before naive category theory can replace axiomatic set theory as a foundational theory for mathematics. It is argued that in naive category theory currently a 'cook...

  15. The Category of Time in English, Russian and French Phraseology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Makleeva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we make an attempt to analyze linguistic and cultural descriptions of phraseological units of English, Russian and French reflecting the category of time. In the study of each language about 200 of phraseological units associated with the category of time were taken, which were divided into 5 groups representing different phraseo-semantic concepts. We have carried out a semantic analysis of the data of phraseological units identified by national-cultural peculiarities of expression of time category. The results can be used in the practice of teaching English, Russian and French as foreign languages, in courses on linguistics, and are also taken into account compiling dictionaries.

  16. Bicategories of fractions for groupoids in monadic categories

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqmin, Pierre-Alain; Vitale, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    The bicategory of fractions of the 2-category of internal groupoids and internal functors in groups with respect to weak equivalences (i.e., functors which are internally full, faithful and essentially surjective) has an easy description: one has just to replace internal functors by monoidal functors. In the present paper, we generalize this result from groups to any monadic category over a regular category C; assuming that the axiom of choice holds in C: For T a monad on C; the bicategory of...

  17. Anthropometric and Somatotype Characteristics of Young Soccer Players: Differences Among Categories, Subcategories, and Playing Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perroni, Fabrizio; Vetrano, Mario; Camolese, Giancarlo; Guidetti, Laura; Baldari, Carlo

    2015-08-01

    Considering that anthropometric parameters are important factors in the performance of the soccer players, the aim of this study was to explore the differences in anthropometric and somatotype characteristics of Italian young soccer players. Weight, height, body mass index, and somatotype of 112 young soccer players, grouped in Giovanissimi "A" (14 years), "B" (13 years), and "C" (12 years) as well as Allievi "B" (15 years) and "A" (16 years) and "Juniores" (older than 17 years), were evaluated. Statistical analysis tests were computed at p ≤ 0.05, and an analysis of variance for each somatotype was calculated to analyze the main effects and interactions of the factors: categories, subcategories, and playing position. Bonferroni's post hoc analysis was used to identify differences among mean values. Considering all subjects, we have found significant differences in categories, subcategories, and playing position between anthropometric values and a somatotype value of 2.8-3.8-2.9. Significant differences have found among goalkeepers and the others playing position in endomorphy (p ≤ 0.001) and with defenders and midfielders in ectomorphy (p somatotype differences for playing position within categories also in the youngest categories and subcategories, in particular, in the endomorphy component. Young soccer players should be trained with more appropriate and specific training load to avoid the increased injury risk during adolescence.

  18. Texture-modified food and fluids in dementia and residential aged care facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Painter V

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Virginia Painter,1 David G Le Couteur,1–3 Louise M Waite1–3 1Aged and Chronic Care Department, Concord Repatriation General Hospital, Concord, NSW, Australia; 2Ageing and Alzheimer’s Institute, Concord Repatriation General Hospital, Concord, NSW, Australia; 3Centre for Education and Research on Ageing, University of Sydney, Concord, NSW, Australia Introduction: Dysphagia is common in people living with dementia and associated with increased risk of aspiration pneumonia, dehydration, malnutrition, and death. Treatment options are limited and the use of texture-modified food and fluids (TMF is a widespread clinical practice. This review aimed to evaluate the evidence for TMF in dementia.Methods: A literature search using terms “dysphagia,” “texture-modified food and fluids,” “dementia,” and “aged care” was performed by using three electronic databases from 1990 to March 2017. Studies were assessed for suitability, then reviewed with data extracted, and grouped by categories of outcome measures.Results: A total of 3,722 publications were identified, and 22 studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies were heterogeneous in design and methodology. There were no publications examining dementia exclusively; however, many subjects with dementia were included in studies of residential aged care facilities. TMF reduced the risk of aspiration seen on videofluoroscopy but not clinical aspiration and pneumonia. TMF was associated with lower daily energy and fluid intake and variable adherence.Conclusion: There is a lack of evidence for people living with dementia and in residential care facilities that TMF improves clinical outcomes such as aspiration pneumonia, nutrition, hydration, morbidity, and mortality. Adverse effects including poorer energy and fluid intake were identified. Keywords: modified diet, dysphagia, aspiration, aged care, nursing homes, dehydration, nutrition

  19. Clinical patterns in asthma based on proximal and distal airway nitric oxide categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aledia Anna S

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The exhaled nitric oxide (eNO signal is a marker of inflammation, and can be partitioned into proximal [J'awNO (nl/s, maximum airway flux] and distal contributions [CANO (ppb, distal airway/alveolar NO concentration]. We hypothesized that J'awNO and CANO are selectively elevated in asthmatics, permitting identification of four inflammatory categories with distinct clinical features. Methods In 200 consecutive children with asthma, and 21 non-asthmatic, non-atopic controls, we measured baseline spirometry, bronchodilator response, asthma control and morbidity, atopic status, use of inhaled corticosteroids, and eNO at multiple flows (50, 100, and 200 ml/s in a cross-sectional study design. A trumpet-shaped axial diffusion model of NO exchange was used to characterize J'awNO and CANO. Results J'awNO was not correlated with CANO, and thus asthmatic subjects were grouped into four eNO categories based on upper limit thresholds of non-asthmatics for J'awNO (≥ 1.5 nl/s and CANO (≥ 2.3 ppb: Type I (normal J'awNO and CANO, Type II (elevated J'awNO and normal CANO, Type III (elevated J'awNO and CANO and Type IV (normal J'awNO and elevated CANO. The rate of inhaled corticosteroid use (lowest in Type III and atopy (highest in Type II varied significantly amongst the categories influencing J'awNO, but was not related to CANO, asthma control or morbidity. All categories demonstrated normal to near-normal baseline spirometry; however, only eNO categories with increased CANO (III and IV had significantly worse asthma control and morbidity when compared to categories I and II. Conclusions J'awNO and CANO reveal inflammatory categories in children with asthma that have distinct clinical features including sensitivity to inhaled corticosteroids and atopy. Only categories with increase CANO were related to poor asthma control and morbidity independent of baseline spirometry, bronchodilator response, atopic status, or use of inhaled

  20. Identity, gender, and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Using the self-reported level of happiness as a measure of subjective well-being, this study examines the relationship between gender identity and subjective well-being with data from Taiwan. The findings suggest that an individual's perceptions about the ideals of women's gender roles in the labor market, the family, and politics are strongly related to his or her assigned social category, the prescriptions and characteristics associated with the social category, and the actions taken to match the ideals of gender identity. Consistent with Akerlof and Kranton's (2000) identity model, it is also found that an individual's gains or losses in gender identity lead to increases or decreases in the level of happiness.

  1. Ego depletion interferes with rule-defined category learning but not non-rule-defined category learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minda, John P.; Rabi, Rahel

    2015-01-01

    Considerable research on category learning has suggested that many cognitive and environmental factors can have a differential effect on the learning of rule-defined (RD) categories as opposed to the learning of non-rule-defined (NRD) categories. Prior research has also suggested that ego depletion can temporarily reduce the capacity for executive functioning and cognitive flexibility. The present study examined whether temporarily reducing participants’ executive functioning via a resource depletion manipulation would differentially impact RD and NRD category learning. Participants were either asked to write a story with no restrictions (the control condition), or without using two common letters (the ego depletion condition). Participants were then asked to learn either a set of RD categories or a set of NRD categories. Resource depleted participants performed more poorly than controls on the RD task, but did not differ from controls on the NRD task, suggesting that self regulatory resources are required for successful RD category learning. These results lend support to multiple systems theories and clarify the role of self-regulatory resources within this theory. PMID:25688220

  2. LexGram - a practical categorial grammar formalism -

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, Esther

    1995-01-01

    We present the LexGram system, an amalgam of (Lambek) categorial grammar and Head Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG), and show that the grammar formalism it implements is a well-structured and useful tool for actual grammar development.

  3. Goguen categories a categorical approach to l-fuzzy relations

    CERN Document Server

    Winter, Michael; Mundici, Daniele

    2007-01-01

    Goguen categories extend the relational calculus and its categorical formalization to the fuzzy world. Starting from the fundamental concepts of sets, binary relations and lattices this book introduces several categorical formulations of an abstract theory of relations such as allegories, Dedekind categories and related structures. It is shown that neither theory is sufficiently rich to describe basic operations on fuzzy relations. The book then introduces Goguen categories and provides a comprehensive study of these structures including their representation theory, and the definability of norm-based operations. The power of the theory is demonstrated by a comprehensive example. A certain Goguen category is used to specify and to develop a fuzzy controller. Based on its abstract description as well as certain desirable properties and their formal proofs, a verified controller is derived without compromising the - sometimes - intuitive choice of norm-based operations by fuzzy engineers.

  4. Category superiority effects in young and elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharps, M J

    1997-06-01

    Recent research indicates that some elderly persons experience an age-related visual processing deficit, for which they may attempt to compensate through the use of relational information. This hypothesis was tested, using the category superiority effect as a model system. In studies of young adults, the category superiority effect has been shown to be confined to relatively abstract stimulus materials such as verbal items, and to be absent for more concrete representations such as photographs of actual objects. However, it was predicted that, contrary to the data from young adults, a category superiority effect would be present in elderly adults for both verbal and pictorial stimuli, because elderly people would be expected to use category information to compensate for imageric deficits. This prediction was confirmed, consistent with the hypothesis.

  5. Anthropometric Profile in Different Event Categories of Acrobatic Gymnastics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yaiza Taboada-Iglesias; Mercedes Vernetta Santana; Águeda Gutiérrez-Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    .... However, there are few studies on acrobatic gymnastics, and the goal of this work was to determine the anthropometric profile depending on the event category, as well as factors that predisposed...

  6. Effects of contrasting category, conjoint frequency and typicality on categorization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das-Smaal, E.A.; Swart, de J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether (a) experience with a contrasting category, (b) conjoint frequency of dimensional values, (c) range of typicality of values, and (d) type of information administered during learning influenced subsequent test performance. Each experiment began

  7. Early warning reporting categories analysis of recall and complaints data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-31

    This analysis was performed to assist the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) in identifying components and systems to be included in early warning reporting (EWR) categories that would be based upon historical safety-related recal...

  8. Remanufacture Systems for Category 1 and 2 Marine Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA maintains a list of remanufacture systems, or “kits”, certified for use with Category 1 and 2 marine diesel engines according to the provisions of 40 CFR Part 1042, Subpart I, and is periodically updated.

  9. Solving the Selective Multi-Category Parallel-Servicing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Range, Troels Martin; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    In this paper we present a new scheduling problem and describe a shortest path based heuristic as well as a dynamic programming based exact optimization algorithm to solve it. The Selective Multi-Category Parallel-Servicing Problem (SMCPSP) arises when a set of jobs has to be scheduled on a server...... (machine) with limited capacity. Each job requests service in a prespecified time window and belongs to a certain category. Jobs may be serviced partially, incurring a penalty; however, only jobs of the same category can be processed simultaneously. One must identify the best subset of jobs to process...... in each time interval of a given planning horizon while respecting the server capacity and scheduling requirements. We compare the proposed solution methods with a MILP formulation and show that the dynamic programming approach is faster when the number of categories is large, whereas the MILP can...

  10. Category 3 threshold quantities for hazard categorization of nonreactor facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandigo, R.L.

    1996-02-13

    This document provides the information necessary to determine Hazard Category 3 threshold quantities for those isotopes of interest not listed in WHC-CM-4-46, Section 4, Table 1.''Threshold Quantities.''

  11. A Baire Category Approach to the Bang-Bang Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, A.; Piccoli, B.

    The aim of this paper is to develop a new technique, based on the Baire category theorem, in order to establish the closedness of reachable sets and the existence of optimal trajectories for control systems, without the usual convexity assumptions. The bang-bang property is proved for a new class of "concave" multifunctions, characterized by the existence of suitable linear selections. The proofs rely on Lyapunov's theorem in connection with a Baire category argument.

  12. Anisotropic thermal expansion in crystals of different categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamkovskaya, A.; Maksimova, E.

    2015-12-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) indicatory surfaces of thermal expansion in crystals of different categories were constructed in program MathCad. Indicatory surface of thermal expansion is a sphere, spheroid, ellipsoid or surface of multiple parts, depending on the category of the crystal symmetry. The symmetry elements of thermal expansion include the symmetry elements of the point group of the crystal according Neumann's Principle.

  13. Memory of ordinal number categories in macaque monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Tanya; Amit, Daniel J; Yakovlev, Volodya; Zohary, Ehud; Hochstein, Shaul

    2006-03-01

    What mechanism underlies serial order memory? Studying preverbal serial memory shows that macaque monkeys reproducing a sequence of items can acquire knowledge of item ordinal position. In our previous experiment, macaques were repeatedly presented with image lists (first shown sequentially and then simultaneously on a touch screen together with a distractor chosen randomly from other lists). The task was to touch list images in the correct order. The monkeys' natural tendency was to categorize images by their ordinal position or number because their most common error was touching the distractor when it had the same ordinal number (in its own list) as the correct image. Item-to-item associations were used to complete the categorization strategy. Proposing a dynamic image-salience hypothesis for serial recall (based on category-to-image influence and a salience computation for identifying touch targets), we now study the category label characteristics in the context of this hypothesis. We found that these category labels are absolute, ordinal-number-based categories (first, second, etc.), not relative memorized as relative distance from the beginning and the end of the list, and not based on fixed ranking of reward contingency/image familiarity. Even isolated from item-item associations, the categories demonstrate category tuning (as well as the corresponding overlap of adjacent ordinal number codes). Moreover, monkeys choose images by proximity of their category to the current touch number, irrespective of the accuracy of the preceding choice. Category tuning itself is symmetric relative to correct ordinal position, but is skewed by other factors (reward, etc.). Tuning width increases with list length, with a concurrent increased use of item-to-item associations for determining touch order.

  14. Calabi-Yau structures on categories of matrix factorizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shklyarov, Dmytro

    2017-09-01

    Using tools of complex geometry, we construct explicit proper Calabi-Yau structures, that is, non-degenerate cyclic cocycles on differential graded categories of matrix factorizations of regular functions with isolated critical points. The formulas involve the Kapustin-Li trace and its higher corrections. From the physics perspective, our result yields explicit 'off-shell' models for categories of topological D-branes in B-twisted Landau-Ginzburg models.

  15. The social context of the category "emotional and behavioural disorders"

    OpenAIRE

    Razpotnik, Špela

    2015-01-01

    It is the aim of the following study to call attention to the question of the extent to which categories and discourses surrounding the classification and categorization of children with special needs, particularly the category ‘emotional and behavioural disorders’, reflect the significance, influence and presence of wider socio-political and socio-economic conditions. Although designations change with time, it seems that even existing classifications and designations have n...

  16. Adaptive response-time-based category sequencing in perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, Everett; Kellman, Philip J

    2014-06-01

    Although much recent work in perceptual learning (PL) has focused on basic sensory discriminations, recent analyses suggest that PL in a variety of tasks depends on processes that discover and select information relevant to classifications being learned (Kellman & Garrigan, 2009; Petrov, Dosher, & Lu, 2005). In complex, real-world tasks, discovery involves finding structural invariants amidst task-irrelevant variation (Gibson, 1969), allowing learners to correctly classify new stimuli. The applicability of PL methods to such tasks offers important opportunities to improve learning. It also raises questions about how learning might be optimized in complex tasks and whether variables that influence other forms of learning also apply to PL. We investigated whether an adaptive, response-time-based, category sequencing algorithm implementing laws of spacing derived from memory research would also enhance perceptual category learning and transfer to novel cases. Participants learned to classify images of 12 different butterfly genera under conditions of: (1) random presentation, (2) adaptive category sequencing, and (3) adaptive category sequencing with 'mini-blocks' (grouping 3 successive category exemplars). We found significant effects on efficiency of learning for adaptive category sequencing, reliably better than for random presentation and mini-blocking (Experiment 1). Effects persisted across a 1-week delay and were enhanced for novel items. Experiment 2 showed even greater effects of adaptive learning for perceptual categories containing lower variability. These results suggest that adaptive category sequencing increases the efficiency of PL and enhances generalization of PL to novel stimuli, key components of high-level PL and fundamental requirements of learning in many domains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Online Consumer Reviews: The Moderating Effect of Product Category

    OpenAIRE

    Bjering, Einar; Havro, Lars Jaakko

    2014-01-01

    This paper tests a previously proposed model for assessing consumer generated online reviews effect on sales, the review impact continuum. Product category is found to play an important role as a moderating factor of several properties concerning user generated online reviews - including its impact on sales. The authors introduce a novel method for product category classification using natural language processing (NLP), and by applying this method show that reviews are more influential for su...

  18. Threat Identification Parameters for a Stolen Category 1 Radioactive Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ussery, Larry Eugene [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Winkler, Ryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, Steven Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-18

    Radioactive sources are used very widely for research and practical applications across medicine, industry, government, universities, and agriculture. The risks associated with these sources vary widely depending on the specific radionuclide used to make the source, source activity, and its chemical and physical form. Sources are categorized by a variety of classification schemes according to the specific risk they pose to the public. This report specifically addresses sources that are classified in the highest category for health risk (category 1). Exposure to an unshielded or lightly shielded category 1 source is extremely dangerous to life and health and can be fatal in relatively short exposure times measured in seconds to minutes. A Category 1 source packaged according to the guidelines dictated by the NRC and U.S. Department of Transportation will typically be surrounded by a large amount of dense shielding material, but will still exhibit a significant dose rate in close proximity. Detection ranges for Category 1 gamma ray sources can extend beyond 5000 ft, but will depend mostly on the source isotope and activity, and the level of shielding around the source. Category 1 sources are easy to detect, but difficult to localize. Dose rates in proximity to an unshielded Category 1 source are extraordinarily high. At distances of a few hundred feet, the functionality of many commonly used handheld instruments will be extremely limited for both the localization and identification of the source. Radiation emitted from a Category 1 source will scatter off of both solid material (ground and buildings) and the atmosphere, a phenomenon known as skyshine. This scattering affects the ability to easily localize and find the source.

  19. Converging modalities ground abstract categories: the case of politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Ana Rita; Garrido, Margarida V; Semin, Gün R

    2013-01-01

    Three studies are reported examining the grounding of abstract concepts across two modalities (visual and auditory) and their symbolic representation. A comparison of the outcomes across these studies reveals that the symbolic representation of political concepts and their visual and auditory modalities is convergent. In other words, the spatial relationships between specific instances of the political categories are highly overlapping across the symbolic, visual and auditory modalities. These findings suggest that abstract categories display redundancy across modal and amodal representations, and are multimodal.

  20. Modulating the granularity of category formation by global cortical states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihwa Kim

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The unsupervised categorization of sensory stimuli is typically attributed to feedforward processing in a hierarchy of cortical areas. This purely sensory-driven view of cortical processing, however, ignores any internal modulation, e.g., by top-down attentional signals or neuromodulator release. To isolate the role of internal signaling on category formation, we consider an unbroken continuum of stimuli without intrinsic category boundaries. We show that a competitive network, shaped by recurrent inhibition and endowed with Hebbian and homeostatic synaptic plasticity, can enforce stimulus categorization. The degree of competition is internally controlled by the neuronal gain and the strength of inhibition. Strong competition leads to the formation of many attracting network states, each being evoked by a distinct subset of stimuli and representing a category. Weak competition allows more neurons to be co-active, resulting in fewer but larger categories. We conclude that the granularity of cortical category formation, i.e., the number and size of emerging categories, is not simply determined by the richness of the stimulus environment, but rather by some global internal signal modulating the network dynamics. The model also explains the salient non-additivity of visual object representation observed in the monkey inferotemporal (IT cortex. Furthermore, it offers an explanation of a previously observed, demand-dependent modulation of IT activity on a stimulus categorization task and of categorization-related cognitive deficits in schizophrenic patients.

  1. 77 FR 19282 - Draft NPDES General Permit for Discharges From the Oil and Gas Extraction Point Source Category...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... AGENCY Draft NPDES General Permit for Discharges From the Oil and Gas Extraction Point Source Category to... Elimination System (NPDES) general permit regulating discharges from oil and gas wells in the Coastal... adversely affect an Essential Fish Habitat is subject to the consultation provisions of the Manguson-Stevens...

  2. Graded Responses and Joining Categories: A Rejoinder to Andrich'"Models for Measurement, Precision, and Nondichotomization of Graded Responses."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, Edward E.

    1995-01-01

    The Jansen and Roskam (1986) approach to joining categories of graded responses presents valid arguments that are subject to empirical test. The multiplicative Poisson (MPM) model of D. Andrich can be seen as an approximation to the continuous response model of Muller (1987). An extension of the MPM is suggested. (SLD)

  3. Category specificity in early perception: face and word n170 responses differ in both lateralization and habituation properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Urs; Rossion, Bruno; McCandliss, Bruce D

    2008-01-01

    N170 event-related potential (ERP) responses to both faces and visual words raises questions about category specific processing mechanisms during early perception and their neural basis. Topographic differences across word and face N170s suggests a form of category specific processing in early perception - the word N170 is consistently left-lateralized, while less consistent evidence supports a right-lateralization for the face N170. Additionally, the face N170 shows a reduction in amplitude across consecutive individual faces, a form of habituation that might differ across studies thereby helping to explain inconsistencies in lateralization. This effect remains unexplored for visual words. The current study directly contrasts N170 responses to words and faces within the same subjects, examining both category-level habituation and lateralization effects. ERP responses to a series of different faces and words were collected under two contexts: blocks that alternated faces and words vs. pure blocks of a single category designed to induce category-level habituation. Global and occipito-temporal measures of N170 amplitude demonstrated an interaction between category (words, faces) and block context (alternating categories, same category). N170 amplitude demonstrated class-level habituation for faces but not words. Furthermore, the pure block context diminished the right-lateralization of the face N170, pointing to class-level habituation as a factor that might drive inconsistencies in findings of right-lateralization across different paradigms. No analogous effect for the word N170 was found, suggesting category specificity for this form of habituation. Taken together, topographic and habituation effects suggest distinct forms of perceptual processing drive the face N170 and the visual word form N170.

  4. Micromachined Fluid Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqiang Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Micromachined fluid inertial sensors are an important class of inertial sensors, which mainly includes thermal accelerometers and fluid gyroscopes, which have now been developed since the end of the last century for about 20 years. Compared with conventional silicon or quartz inertial sensors, the fluid inertial sensors use a fluid instead of a solid proof mass as the moving and sensitive element, and thus offer advantages of simple structures, low cost, high shock resistance, and large measurement ranges while the sensitivity and bandwidth are not competitive. Many studies and various designs have been reported in the past two decades. This review firstly introduces the working principles of fluid inertial sensors, followed by the relevant research developments. The micromachined thermal accelerometers based on thermal convection have developed maturely and become commercialized. However, the micromachined fluid gyroscopes, which are based on jet flow or thermal flow, are less mature. The key issues and technologies of the thermal accelerometers, mainly including bandwidth, temperature compensation, monolithic integration of tri-axis accelerometers and strategies for high production yields are also summarized and discussed. For the micromachined fluid gyroscopes, improving integration and sensitivity, reducing thermal errors and cross coupling errors are the issues of most concern.

  5. Micromachined Fluid Inertial Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiqiang; Zhu, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Micromachined fluid inertial sensors are an important class of inertial sensors, which mainly includes thermal accelerometers and fluid gyroscopes, which have now been developed since the end of the last century for about 20 years. Compared with conventional silicon or quartz inertial sensors, the fluid inertial sensors use a fluid instead of a solid proof mass as the moving and sensitive element, and thus offer advantages of simple structures, low cost, high shock resistance, and large measurement ranges while the sensitivity and bandwidth are not competitive. Many studies and various designs have been reported in the past two decades. This review firstly introduces the working principles of fluid inertial sensors, followed by the relevant research developments. The micromachined thermal accelerometers based on thermal convection have developed maturely and become commercialized. However, the micromachined fluid gyroscopes, which are based on jet flow or thermal flow, are less mature. The key issues and technologies of the thermal accelerometers, mainly including bandwidth, temperature compensation, monolithic integration of tri-axis accelerometers and strategies for high production yields are also summarized and discussed. For the micromachined fluid gyroscopes, improving integration and sensitivity, reducing thermal errors and cross coupling errors are the issues of most concern. PMID:28216569

  6. FRACTURING FLUID CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subhash Shah

    2000-08-01

    Hydraulic fracturing technology has been successfully applied for well stimulation of low and high permeability reservoirs for numerous years. Treatment optimization and improved economics have always been the key to the success and it is more so when the reservoirs under consideration are marginal. Fluids are widely used for the stimulation of wells. The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF) has been established to provide the accurate prediction of the behavior of complex fracturing fluids under downhole conditions. The primary focus of the facility is to provide valuable insight into the various mechanisms that govern the flow of fracturing fluids and slurries through hydraulically created fractures. During the time between September 30, 1992, and March 31, 2000, the research efforts were devoted to the areas of fluid rheology, proppant transport, proppant flowback, dynamic fluid loss, perforation pressure losses, and frictional pressure losses. In this regard, a unique above-the-ground fracture simulator was designed and constructed at the FFCF, labeled ''The High Pressure Simulator'' (HPS). The FFCF is now available to industry for characterizing and understanding the behavior of complex fluid systems. To better reflect and encompass the broad spectrum of the petroleum industry, the FFCF now operates under a new name of ''The Well Construction Technology Center'' (WCTC). This report documents the summary of the activities performed during 1992-2000 at the FFCF.

  7. Thermodynamics of Fluid Polyamorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail A. Anisimov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluid polyamorphism is the existence of different condensed amorphous states in a single-component fluid. It is either found or predicted, usually at extreme conditions, for a broad group of very different substances, including helium, carbon, silicon, phosphorous, sulfur, tellurium, cerium, hydrogen, and tin tetraiodide. This phenomenon is also hypothesized for metastable and deeply supercooled water, presumably located a few degrees below the experimental limit of homogeneous ice formation. We present a generic phenomenological approach to describe polyamorphism in a single-component fluid, which is completely independent of the molecular origin of the phenomenon. We show that fluid polyamorphism may occur either in the presence or in the absence of fluid phase separation depending on the symmetry of the order parameter. In the latter case, it is associated with a second-order transition, such as in liquid helium or liquid sulfur. To specify the phenomenology, we consider a fluid with thermodynamic equilibrium between two distinct interconvertible states or molecular structures. A fundamental signature of this concept is the identification of the equilibrium fraction of molecules involved in each of these alternative states. However, the existence of the alternative structures may result in polyamorphic fluid phase separation only if mixing of these structures is not ideal. The two-state thermodynamics unifies all the debated scenarios of fluid polyamorphism in different areas of condensed-matter physics, with or without phase separation, and even goes beyond the phenomenon of polyamorphism by generically describing the anomalous properties of fluids exhibiting interconversion of alternative molecular states.

  8. Effects of category-specific costs on neural systems for perceptual decision-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming, Stephen M; Whiteley, Louise Emma; Hulme, Oliver James

    2010-01-01

    Perceptual judgments are often biased by prospective losses, leading to changes in decision criteria. Little is known about how and where sensory evidence and cost information interact in the brain to influence perceptual categorization. Here we show that prospective losses systematically bias...... the perception of noisy face-house images. Asymmetries in category-specific cost were associated with enhanced blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal in a frontoparietal network. We observed selective activation of parahippocampal gyrus for changes in category-specific cost in keeping with the hypothesis that loss...... functions enact a particular task set that is communicated to visual regions. Across subjects, greater shifts in decision criteria were associated with greater activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Our results support a hypothesis that costs bias an intermediate representation between...

  9. International Space Station -- Fluid Physics Rack

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The optical bench for the Fluids Integrated Rack section of the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is shown extracted for servicing. The FCF will be installed, in phases, in the Destiny, the U.S. Laboratory Module of the International Space Station (ISS), and will accommodate multiple users for a range of investigations. This is an engineering mockup; the flight hardware is subject to change as designs are refined. The FCF is being developed by the Microgravity Science Division (MSD) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. (Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

  10. Phase noise reveals early category-specific modulation of the event-related potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornél eNémeth

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found that the amplitude of the early event-related potential (ERP components evoked by faces, such as N170 and P2, changes systematically as a function of noise added to the stimuli. This change has been linked to an increased perceptual processing demand and to enhanced difficulty in perceptual decision making about faces. However, to date it has not yet been tested whether noise manipulation affects the neural correlates of decisions about face and non-face stimuli similarly. To this end, we measured the event-related potentials for faces and cars at three different phase noise levels. Subjects performed the same two-alternative age-discrimination task on stimuli chosen from young-old morphing continua that were created from faces as well as cars and were calibrated to lead to similar performances at each noise-level. Adding phase noise to the stimuli reduced performance and enhanced response latency for the two categories to the same extent. Parallel to that, phase noise reduced the amplitude and prolonged the latency of the face-specific N170 component. The amplitude of the P1 showed category-specific noise dependence: it was enhanced over the right hemisphere for cars and over the left hemisphere for faces as a result of adding phase noise to the stimuli, but remained stable across noise levels for cars over the left and for faces over the right hemisphere. Moreover, noise modulation altered the category-selectivity of the N170, while the P2 ERP component, typically associated with task decision difficulty, was larger for the more noisy stimuli regardless of stimulus category. Our results suggest that the category-specificity of noise-induced modulations of ERP responses starts at around 100 ms post-stimulus.

  11. Seismicity and faulting attributable to fluid extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerkes, R.F.; Castle, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    The association between fluid injection and seismicity has been well documented and widely publicized. Less well known, but probably equally widespread are faulting and shallow seismicity attributable solely to fluid extraction, particularly in association with petroleum production. Two unequivocable examples of seismicity and faulting associated with fluid extraction in the United States are: The Goose Creek, Texas oil field event of 1925 (involving surface rupture); and the Wilmington, California oil field events (involving subsurface rupture) of 1947, 1949, 1951 (2), 1955, and 1961. Six additional cases of intensity I-VII earthquakes (M pressure and attendant increase in effective stress. Surface and subsurface measurements and theoretical and model studies show that differential compaction leads not only to differential subsidence and centripetally-directed horizontal displacements, but to changes in both vertical- and horizontal-strain regimes. Study of well-documented examples indicates that the occurrence and nature of faulting and seismicity associated with compaction are functions chiefly of: (1) the pre-exploitation strain regime, and (2) the magnitude of contractional horizontal strain centered over the compacting materials relative to that of the surrounding annulus of extensional horizontal strain. The examples cited include natural systems strained only by extraction of fluids, as well as some subsequently subjected to injection. Faulting and seismicity have accompanied both decrease and subsequent increase of fluid pressures; reversal of fluid-pressure decline by injection may enhance the likelihood of subsurface faulting and seismicity due chiefly to earlier fluid pressure reduction. A consistent common denominator appears to be continuing compaction at depth; the relative effects of fluid extraction followed by injection are not easily separated. ?? 1976.

  12. Incidental Learning of Sound Categories is Impaired in Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, Yafit; Holt, Lori L.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is commonly thought to arise from specific phonological impairments. However, recent evidence is consistent with the possibility that phonological impairments arise as symptoms of an underlying dysfunction of procedural learning. The nature of the link between impaired procedural learning and phonological dysfunction is unresolved. Motivated by the observation that speech processing involves the acquisition of procedural category knowledge, the present study investigates the possibility that procedural learning impairment may affect phonological processing by interfering with the typical course of phonetic category learning. The present study tests this hypothesis while controlling for linguistic experience and possible speech-specific deficits by comparing auditory category learning across artificial, nonlinguistic sounds among dyslexic adults and matched controls in a specialized first-person shooter videogame that has been shown to engage procedural learning. Nonspeech auditory category learning was assessed online via within-game measures and also with a post-training task involving overt categorization of familiar and novel sound exemplars. Each measure reveals that dyslexic participants do not acquire procedural category knowledge as effectively as age- and cognitive-ability matched controls. This difference cannot be explained by differences in perceptual acuity for the sounds. Moreover, poor nonspeech category learning is associated with slower phonological processing. Whereas phonological processing impairments have been emphasized as the cause of dyslexia, the current results suggest that impaired auditory category learning, general in nature and not specific to speech signals, could contribute to phonological deficits in dyslexia with subsequent negative effects on language acquisition and reading. Implications for the neuro-cognitive mechanisms of developmental dyslexia are discussed. PMID:26409017

  13. Tumor interstitial fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina; Olsen, Charlotta J.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) is a proximal fluid that, in addition to the set of blood soluble phase-borne proteins, holds a subset of aberrantly externalized components, mainly proteins, released by tumor cells and tumor microenvironment through various mechanisms, which include classical...... into the regulatory mechanisms and functions of secretion-related processes in tumor development. Secondly, the anomalous secretion of molecules that is innate to tumors and the tumor microenvironment, being associated with cancer progression, offers a valuable source for biomarker discovery and possible targets...... for therapeutic intervention. Here we provide an overview of the features of tumor-associated interstitial fluids, based on recent and updated information obtained mainly from our studies of breast cancer. Data from the study of interstitial fluids recovered from several other types of cancer are also discussed...

  14. Amniotic Fluid Embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type, as well as a complete blood count (CBC) Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) to evaluate your heart's ... mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/amniotic-fluid-embolism/basics/definition/CON-20035462 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  15. Peritoneal Fluid Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Analysis Kidney Stone Risk Panel KRAS Mutation Lactate Lactate Dehydrogenase (LD) Lactoferrin Lactose Tolerance Tests LDL Cholesterol LDL ... Peritoneal fluid glucose, amylase, tumor markers, bilirubin, creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase (LD) Microscopic examination – may be performed if infection ...

  16. Pleural Fluid Analysis Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Analysis Kidney Stone Risk Panel KRAS Mutation Lactate Lactate Dehydrogenase (LD) Lactoferrin Lactose Tolerance Tests LDL Cholesterol LDL ... set of tests (cell count, protein, albumin, and lactate dehydrogenase (LD) level, and appearance of the fluid) to ...

  17. Peritoneal Fluid Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Get Tested? To help diagnose the cause of peritonitis, an inflammation of the membrane lining the abdomen, ... fever and your healthcare practitioner suspects you have peritonitis or ascites Sample Required? A peritoneal fluid sample ...

  18. Amniotic fluid inflammatory cytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Larsen, Nanna; Grove, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze cytokine profiles in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of children developing autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and controls, adjusting for maternal autoimmune disorders and maternal infections during pregnancy.......The aim of the study was to analyze cytokine profiles in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of children developing autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and controls, adjusting for maternal autoimmune disorders and maternal infections during pregnancy....

  19. [Diagnosis: synovial fluid analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo Vallejo, Francisco Javier; Giner Ruiz, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Synovial fluid analysis in rheumatological diseases allows a more accurate diagnosis in some entities, mainly infectious and microcrystalline arthritis. Examination of synovial fluid in patients with osteoarthritis is useful if a differential diagnosis will be performed with other processes and to distinguish between inflammatory and non-inflammatory forms. Joint aspiration is a diagnostic and sometimes therapeutic procedure that is available to primary care physicians. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  20. Chord diagrams, contact-topological quantum field theory, and contact categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Daniel

    In this thesis we study some interesting mathematics arising at the intersection of the studies of contact topology and sutured Floer homology. Although this work was originally motivated by the study of contact elements in sutured Floer homology, we also obtain results in pure contact topology. We consider contact elements in the sutured Floer homology of solid tori, as part of the (1+1)-dimensional topological quantum field theory defined by Honda-Kazez-Matic. We find that the Z2 sutured Floer homology of solid tori with longitudinal sutures forms a "categorification of Pascal's triangle", a triangle of vector spaces. Contact structures on solid tori with longitudinal sutures correspond bijectively to chord diagrams, which are sets of disjoint properly embedded arcs in the disc; these may in turn be identified with contact elements. The contact elements form distinguished subsets of the vector spaces in the categorified Pascal's triangle, of order given by the Narayana numbers. We find natural "creation and annihilation operators" which allow us to define a QFT-type basis of each SFH vector space, consisting of contact elements. We show that sutured Floer homology in this case reduces to the combinatorics of chord diagrams. We prove that contact elements are in bijective correspondence with comparable pairs of basis elements with respect to a certain partial order, and in a natural and explicit way. We also prove numerous results about the structure of contact elements and investigate various algebraic structures which arise. Our main theorem, describing how contact elements lie in sutured Floer homology, has a purely combinatorial interpretation, as a statement about chords on discs subject to a certain surgery and a single addition relation. The algebraic and combinatorial structures which naturally arise in this description have intrinsic contact-topological meaning. In particular, the QFT-type basis of sutured Floer homology, and its partial order, have a

  1. Evaluation of dentinal fluid flow behaviours: a fluid-structure interaction simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kuo-Chih; Chuang, Shu-Fen; Ng, Eddie Yin-Kwee; Chang, Chih-Han

    2014-11-01

    This study uses the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) method to investigate the fluid flow in dental pulp. First, the FSI method is used for the biomechanical simulation of dental intrapulpal responses during force loading (50, 100 and 150 N) on a tooth. The results are validated by comparison with experimental outcomes. Second, the FSI method is used to investigate an intact tooth subjected to a mechanical stimulus during loading at various loading rates. Force loading (0-100 N) is applied gradually to an intact tooth surface with loading rates of 125, 62.5, 25 and 12.5 N/s, respectively, and the fluid flow changes in the pulp are evaluated. FSI analysis is found to be suitable for examining intrapulpal biomechanics. An external force applied to a tooth with a low loading rate leads to a low fluid flow velocity in the pulp chamber, thus avoiding tooth pain.

  2. Picture reality decision, semantic categories and gender. A new set of pictures, with norms and an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarotto, Riccardo; Laiacona, Marcella; Macchi, Valeria; Capitani, Erminio

    2002-01-01

    We present a new corpus of 80 pictures of unreal objects, useful for a controlled assessment of object reality decision. The new pictures were assembled from parts of the Snodgrass and Vanderwart [J. Exp. Psychol., Hum. Learning Memory 6; 1980: 174] set and were devised for the purpose of contrasting natural categories (animals, fruits and vegetables), artefacts (tools, vehicles and furniture), body parts and musical instruments. We examined 140 normal subjects in a free-choice and a multiple-choice object decision task, assembled with 80 pictures of real objects and above 80 new pictures of unreal objects in order to obtain a difficulty index for each picture. We found that the tasks were more difficult with pictures representing natural entities than with pictures of artefacts. We found a gender by category interaction, with a female superiority with some natural categories (fruits and vegetables, but not animals), and a male advantage with artefacts. On this basis, the difficulty index we calculated for each picture is separately reported for males and females. We discuss the possible origin of the gender effect, which has been found with the same categories in other tasks and has a counterpart in the different familiarity of the stimuli for males and females. In particular, we contrast explanations based on socially determined gender differences with accounts based on evolutionary pressures. We further comment on the relationship between data from normal subjects and the domain-specific account of semantic category dissociations observed in brain-damaged patients.

  3. Fullerol ionic fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Fernandes, Nikhil

    2010-01-01

    We report for the first time an ionic fluid based on hydroxylated fullerenes (fullerols). The ionic fluid was synthesized by neutralizing the fully protonated fullerol with an amine terminated polyethylene/polypropylene oxide oligomer (Jeffamine®). The ionic fluid was compared to a control synthesized by mixing the partially protonated form (sodium form) of the fullerols with the same oligomeric amine in the same ratio as in the ionic fluids (20 wt% fullerol). In the fullerol fluid the ionic bonding significantly perturbs the thermal transitions and melting/crystallization behavior of the amine. In contrast, both the normalized heat of fusion and crystallization of the amine in the control are similar to those of the neat amine consistent with a physical mixture of the fullerols/amine with minimal interactions. In addition to differences in thermal behavior, the fullerol ionic fluid exhibits a complex viscoelastic behavior intermediate between the neat Jeffamine® (liquid-like) and the control (solid-like). © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  4. Numerical study of shear thickening fluid with discrete particles embedded in a base fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Zhu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Shear Thickening Fluid (STF is a dilatant material, which displays non-Newtonian characteristics in its unique ability to transit from a low viscosity fluid to a high viscosity fluid. The research performed investigates the STF behavior by modeling and simulation of the interaction between the base flow and embedded rigid particles when subjected to shear stress. The model considered the Lagrangian description of the rigid particles and the Eulerian description of fluid flow. The numerical analysis investigated key parameters such as applied flow acceleration, particle distribution and arrangement, volume concentration of particles, particle size, shape and their behavior in a Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid base. The fluid-particle interaction model showed that the arrangement, size, shape and volume concentration of the particles had a significant effect on the behavior of the STF. Although non-conclusive, the addition of particles in non-Newtonian fluids showed a promising trend of improved shear thickening effects at high shear strain rates.

  5. Zero-G fluid mechanics in animal and man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, H.

    1986-01-01

    Significant cardiovascular change occurs with spaceflight. Loss of normal hydrostatic pressure gradients (head-to-foot), present while upright on earth, results in significant headward fluid shift of vascular and interstitial fluids. The resultant fluid change also shifts the hydrostatic indifference point for the circulation. The persistent distention of neck veins and change in upper body tissue compliance initiates steps to adapt to and compensate for the sensed excess fluid. These result in a loss of intravascular volume through neuro-humoral mechanisms and the presence of a smaller heart size, leading to a state where the subject has a reduced adaptive capacity to stress, particularly to fluid shifts to the lower body as occurs when once again returning to earth. This article reviews what is known about the weightlessness-induced headward fluid shift and its effects on cardiovascular function.

  6. Deep-learning-based classification of FDG-PET data for Alzheimer's disease categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shibani; Srivastava, Anant; Mi, Liang; Caselli, Richard J.; Chen, Kewei; Goradia, Dhruman; Reiman, Eric M.; Wang, Yalin

    2017-11-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) measures the decline in the regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose, offering a reliable metabolic biomarker even on presymptomatic Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. PET scans provide functional information that is unique and unavailable using other types of imaging. However, the computational efficacy of FDG-PET data alone, for the classification of various Alzheimers Diagnostic categories, has not been well studied. This motivates us to correctly discriminate various AD Diagnostic categories using FDG-PET data. Deep learning has improved state-of-the-art classification accuracies in the areas of speech, signal, image, video, text mining and recognition. We propose novel methods that involve probabilistic principal component analysis on max-pooled data and mean-pooled data for dimensionality reduction, and multilayer feed forward neural network which performs binary classification. Our experimental dataset consists of baseline data of subjects including 186 cognitively unimpaired (CU) subjects, 336 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects with 158 Late MCI and 178 Early MCI, and 146 AD patients from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) dataset. We measured F1-measure, precision, recall, negative and positive predictive values with a 10-fold cross validation scheme. Our results indicate that our designed classifiers achieve competitive results while max pooling achieves better classification performance compared to mean-pooled features. Our deep model based research may advance FDG-PET analysis by demonstrating their potential as an effective imaging biomarker of AD.

  7. Effect of explicit dimension instruction on speech category learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Yi, Han-Gyol; Smayda, Kirsten E.; Maddox, W. Todd

    2015-01-01

    Learning non-native speech categories is often considered a challenging task in adulthood. This difficulty is driven by cross-language differences in weighting critical auditory dimensions that differentiate speech categories. For example, previous studies have shown that differentiating Mandarin tonal categories requires attending to dimensions related to pitch height and direction. Relative to native speakers of Mandarin, the pitch direction dimension is under-weighted by native English speakers. In the current study, we examined the effect of explicit instructions (dimension instruction) on native English speakers' Mandarin tone category learning within the framework of a dual-learning systems (DLS) model. This model predicts that successful speech category learning is initially mediated by an explicit, reflective learning system that frequently utilizes unidimensional rules, with an eventual switch to a more implicit, reflexive learning system that utilizes multidimensional rules. Participants were explicitly instructed to focus and/or ignore the pitch height dimension, the pitch direction dimension, or were given no explicit prime. Our results show that instruction instructing participants to focus on pitch direction, and instruction diverting attention away from pitch height resulted in enhanced tone categorization. Computational modeling of participant responses suggested that instruction related to pitch direction led to faster and more frequent use of multidimensional reflexive strategies, and enhanced perceptual selectivity along the previously underweighted pitch direction dimension. PMID:26542400

  8. Anthropometric Profile in Different Event Categories of Acrobatic Gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taboada-Iglesias Yaiza

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a specific anthropometric profile for each sport, which may be differentiated even in relation to the position, role or event category within each sport discipline. However, there are few studies on acrobatic gymnastics, and the goal of this work was to determine the anthropometric profile depending on the event category, as well as factors that predisposed to performance in these categories. The sample consisted of 150 gymnasts from Spain, divided into 8 groups according to the event category and the role played. The kinanthropometric measurements were taken through the procedures established by the International Society for the Advancement of Kineantropometry. The anthropometric characteristics, including body mass index, somatotype, body composition and proportionality using the Phantom stratagem were analyzed, and the results obtained from the different groups were compared. A regression analysis was performed with particular groups of gymnasts. No significant differences (p < 0.05 were observed between groups of female tops or male bases, although differences were found between female group bases and female pair bases. It could be suggested that higher values of body height, sitting height, the minimum abdominal circumference, percentage of fat and low biliocristal breadth predispose female bases to work in pairs rather than in groups. The conclusion is that the anthropometric measurements are not decisive when guiding a gymnast toward choosing one event category or another, except for female bases.

  9. Operator Algebras in Rigid C*-Tensor Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Corey; Penneys, David

    2017-11-01

    In this article, we define operator algebras internal to a rigid C*-tensor category C. A C*/W*-algebra object in C is an algebra object A in ind-C whose category of free modules {FreeMod_C(A)} is a C-module C*/W*-category respectively. When C= Hilb_fd, the category of finite dimensional Hilbert spaces, we recover the usual notions of operator algebras. We generalize basic representation theoretic results, such as the Gelfand-Naimark and von Neumann bicommutant theorems, along with the GNS construction. We define the notion of completely positive morphisms between C*-algebra objects in C and prove the analog of the Stinespring dilation theorem. As an application, we discuss approximation and rigidity properties, including amenability, the Haagerup property, and property (T) for a connected W*-algebra M in C. Our definitions simultaneously unify the definitions of analytic properties for discrete quantum groups and rigid C*-tensor categories.

  10. Open-ended category learning for language acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra Lopes, Luis; Chauhan, Aneesh

    2008-12-01

    Motivated by the need to support language-based communication between robots and their human users, as well as grounded symbolic reasoning, this paper presents a learning architecture that can be used by robotic agents for long-term and open-ended category acquisition. To be more adaptive and to improve learning performance as well as memory usage, this learning architecture includes a metacognitive processing component. Multiple object representations and multiple classifiers and classifier combinations are used. At the object level, the main similarity measure is based on a multi-resolution matching algorithm. Categories are represented as sets of known instances. In this instance-based approach, storing and forgetting rules optimise memory usage. Classifier combinations are based on majority voting and the Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. All learning computations are carried out during the normal execution of the agent, which allows continuous monitoring of the performance of the different classifiers. The measured classification successes of the individual classifiers support an attentional selection mechanism, through which classifier combinations are dynamically reconfigured and a specific classifier is chosen to predict the category of a new unseen object. A simple physical agent, incorporating these learning capabilities, is used to test the approach. A long-term experiment was carried out having in mind the open-ended nature of category learning. With the help of a human mediator, the agent incrementally learned 68 categories of real-world objects visually perceivable through an inexpensive camera. Various aspects of the approach are evaluated through systematic experiments.

  11. Problems in the Study of the Concepts of Underlying Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzel R. Faizova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the concepts of underlying categories. The economic good is one of such categories. In this regard, we considered such characteristics of an economic good as utility, value, and cost. The public goods, which are the goods that can benefit society and have two distinctive features, are an important category as well. In this regard, we characterized the characteristics and features of public goods and identified the main problems in this category. At present, the actual problem faced by the state is the production and evaluation of the effectiveness of public goods. The difficulty is that it is impossible to accurately determine the production volume of goods necessary for the society. Assessment of the effectiveness of the state activities requires the development of special tools. The existing legislatively defined methods have a number of shortcomings and do not allow obtaining an objective picture. Financing of most public goods occurs at the expense of the state, so it is very important to ensure and increase the efficiency of their spending at the moment. Public-private partnership is the most promising tool for better satisfying the needs of the population. The main goal of this work is to identify and discuss the main characteristics of the concepts of underlying categories and explain possible problems, issues faced by the state and the society.

  12. Salience Not Status: How Category Labels Influence Feature Inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Mark K; Savage, Justin; Fouquet, Nathalie; Shanks, David R

    2015-09-01

    Two main uses of categories are classification and feature inference, and category labels have been widely shown to play a dominant role in feature inference. However, the nature of this influence remains unclear, and we evaluate two contrasting hypotheses formalized as mathematical models: the label special-mechanism hypothesis and the label super-salience hypothesis. The special-mechanism hypothesis is that category labels, unlike other features, trigger inference decision making in reference to the category prototypes. This results in a tendency for prototype-compatible inferences because the labels trigger a special mechanism rather than because of any influences they have on similarity evaluation. The super-salience hypothesis assumes that the large label influence is due to their high salience and corresponding impact on similarity without any need for a special mechanism. Application of the two models to a feature inference task based on a family resemblance category structure yields strong support for the label super-salience hypothesis and in particular does not support the need for a special mechanism based on prototypes. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  13. A Study of Anti-Sperm Antibodies among Infertile Subjects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: to evaluate the contribution of ASA to infertility in male and female subjects investigated for infertility and to correlate their presence with seminal fluid viscosity. Materials and methods: Two hundred and two infertile subjects: males (n=110) and females (n=92) irrespective of the etiologies were consecutively ...

  14. statistical fluid theory for associating fluids containing alternating ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Statistical associating fluid theory of homonuclear dimerized chain fluids and homonuclear monomer-dimer mixture chain fluids are extended to fluids containing al- ternating heteronuclear chain molecules separately. The proposed models account for the appropriate site-site correlation functions at contact.

  15. A Compositional Treatment of Polysemous Arguments in Categorial Grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Mineur, A M; Mineur, Anne-Marie; Buitelaar, Paul

    1995-01-01

    We discuss an extension of the standard logical rules (functional application and abstraction) in Categorial Grammar (CG), in order to deal with some specific cases of polysemy. We borrow from Generative Lexicon theory which proposes the mechanism of {\\em coercion}, next to a rich nominal lexical semantic structure called {\\em qualia structure}. In a previous paper we introduced coercion into the framework of {\\em sign-based} Categorial Grammar and investigated its impact on traditional Fregean compositionality. In this paper we will elaborate on this idea, mostly working towards the introduction of a new semantic dimension. Where in current versions of sign-based Categorial Grammar only two representations are derived: a prosodic one (form) and a logical one (modelling), here we introduce also a more detaled representation of the lexical semantics. This extra knowledge will serve to account for linguistic phenomena like {\\em metonymy\\/}.

  16. Evaluation of Bosniak category IIF complex renal cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graumann, Ole; Osther, Susanne Sloth; Karstoft, Jens

    2013-01-01

    complex cystic lesions in the kidney (n = 550 in the same number of patients) were reclassified according to the Bosniak classification by two radiologists in consensus. If a patient had more than one lesion, only the highest Bosniak category was recorded. All Bosniak IIF lesions with ≥2-year follow......PURPOSE: To evaluate moderately complex renal cysts of Bosniak category IIF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The regional ethics committee approved the study. In the period 2003-2009, radiological CT reports of 8,402 CT examinations of the kidneys were analysed retrospectively by one radiologist. All...... to comorbidity the remaining two patients were followed with CT without intervention. Ten lesions (31 %) with follow-up periods >5 years had no further radiological changes and clinical follow-up was stopped. CONCLUSION: The use of Bosniak category IIF is clinically applicable, resulting in an overall surgical...

  17. Adding sentence types to a model of syntactic category acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Stella; Goldwater, Sharon; Keller, Frank

    2013-07-01

    The acquisition of syntactic categories is a crucial step in the process of acquiring syntax. At this stage, before a full grammar is available, only surface cues are available to the learner. Previous computational models have demonstrated that local contexts are informative for syntactic categorization. However, local contexts are affected by sentence-level structure. In this paper, we add sentence type as an observed feature to a model of syntactic category acquisition, based on experimental evidence showing that pre-syntactic children are able to distinguish sentence type using prosody and other cues. The model, a Bayesian Hidden Markov Model, allows for adding sentence type in a few different ways; we find that sentence type can aid syntactic category acquisition if it is used to characterize the differences in word order between sentence types. In these models, knowledge of sentence type permits similar gains to those found by extending the local context. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  18. Quantum Field Theories on Categories Fibered in Groupoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benini, Marco; Schenkel, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    We introduce an abstract concept of quantum field theory on categories fibered in groupoids over the category of spacetimes. This provides us with a general and flexible framework to study quantum field theories defined on spacetimes with extra geometric structures such as bundles, connections and spin structures. Using right Kan extensions, we can assign to any such theory an ordinary quantum field theory defined on the category of spacetimes and we shall clarify under which conditions it satisfies the axioms of locally covariant quantum field theory. The same constructions can be performed in a homotopy theoretic framework by using homotopy right Kan extensions, which allows us to obtain first toy-models of homotopical quantum field theories resembling some aspects of gauge theories.

  19. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  20. Average activity, but not variability, is the dominant factor in the representation of object categories in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Rouzbahani, Hamid; Bagheri, Nasour; Ebrahimpour, Reza

    2017-03-27

    To categorize the perceived objects, brain utilizes a broad set of its resources and encoding strategies. Yet, it remains elusive how the category information is encoded in the brain. While many classical studies have sought the category information in the across-trial-averaged activity of neurons/neural populations, several recent studies have observed category information also in the within-trial correlated variability of activities between neural populations (i.e. dependent variability). Moreover, other studies have observed that independent variability of activity, which is the variability of the measured neural activity without any influence from correlated variability with other neurons/populations, could also be modulated for improved categorization. However, it was unknown how important each of the three factors (i.e. average activity, dependent and independent variability of activities) was in category encoding. Therefore, we designed an EEG experiment in which human subjects viewed a set of object exemplars from four categories. Using a computational model, we evaluated the contribution of each factor separately in category encoding. Results showed that the average activity played a significant role while the independent variability, although effective, contributed moderately to the category encoding. The inter-channel dependent variability showed an ignorable effect on the encoding. We also investigated the role of those factors in the encoding of variations which showed similar effects. These results imply that the brain, rather than variability, seems to use the average activity to convey information on the category of the perceived objects. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Predicting changes in flow category in patients with severe aortic stenosis and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction on medical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngiam, Jinghao Nicholas; Kuntjoro, Ivandito; Tan, Benjamin Y Q; Sim, Hui-Wen; Kong, William K F; Yeo, Tiong-Cheng; Poh, Kian-Keong

    2017-11-01

    Controversy surrounds the prognosis and management of patients with paradoxical low-flow severe aortic stenosis (AS) with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). It was not certain if patients in a particular flow category remained in the same category as disease progressed. We investigated whether there were switches in categories and if so, their predictors. Consecutive subjects (n = 203) with isolated severe AS and paired echocardiography (>180 days apart) were studied. They were divided into 4 groups, based on their flow categories and if they progressed on subsequent echocardiography to switch or remain in the same flow category. Univariate analyses of clinical and echocardiographic parameters identified predictors of these changes in flow category. One hundred eighteen were normal flow (SVI ≥ 35 mL/m2 ), while 85 were low flow on index echocardiography. In the patients with normal flow, 33% switched to low flow. This was associated with higher valvuloarterial impedance (Zva, P 4.77 mm Hg/mL/m2 , AUC = 0.81 [95% CI:0.75-0.87, P flow, 25% switched to normal flow, which was associated with lower Zva and higher SAC and the switch was predicted by a higher initial mean transaortic pressure gradient. A significant number of patients switched flow categories in severe AS with preserved LVEF on subsequent echocardiography. Changes in flow were reflected by respective changes in Zva and SAC. Identifying echocardiographic predictors of a switch in category may guide prognostication and management of such patients. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The representation of material categories in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Richard H. A. H.; Baumgartner, Elisabeth; Gegenfurtner, Karl R.

    2014-01-01

    Using textures mapped onto virtual nonsense objects, it has recently been shown that early visual cortex plays an important role in processing material properties. Here, we examined brain activation to photographs of materials, consisting of wood, stone, metal and fabric surfaces. These photographs were close-ups in the sense that the materials filled the image. In the first experiment, observers categorized the material in each image (i.e., wood, stone, metal, or fabric), while in an fMRI-scanner. We predicted the assigned material category using the obtained voxel patterns using a linear classifier. Region-of-interest and whole-brain analyses demonstrated material coding in the early visual regions, with lower accuracies for more anterior regions. There was little evidence for material coding in other brain regions. In the second experiment, we used an adaptation paradigm to reveal additional brain areas involved in the perception of material categories. Participants viewed images of wood, stone, metal, and fabric, presented in blocks with images of either different material categories (no adaptation) or images of different samples from the same material category (material adaptation). To measure baseline activation, blocks with the same material sample were presented (baseline adaptation). Material adaptation effects were found mainly in the parahippocampal gyrus, in agreement with fMRI-studies of texture perception. Our findings suggest that the parahippocampal gyrus, early visual cortex, and possibly the supramarginal gyrus are involved in the perception of material categories, but in different ways. The different outcomes from the two studies are likely due to inherent differences between the two paradigms. A third experiment suggested, based on anatomical overlap between activations, that spatial frequency information is important for within-category material discrimination. PMID:24659972

  3. The representation of material categories in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Henrikus Augustinus Hubertus Jacobs

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Using textures mapped onto virtual nonsense objects, it has recently been shown that early visual cortex plays an important role in processing material properties. Here, we examined brain activation to photographs of materials, consisting of wood, stone, metal and fabric surfaces. These photographs were close-ups in the sense that the materials filled the image. In the first experiment, observers categorized the material in each image (i.e., wood, stone, metal, or fabric, while in an fMRI-scanner. We predicted the assigned material category using the obtained voxel patterns using a linear classifier. Region-of-interest and whole-brain analyses demonstrated material coding in the early visual regions, with lower accuracies for more anterior regions. There was little evidence for material coding in other brain regions. In the second experiment, we used an adaptation paradigm to reveal additional brain areas involved in the perception of material categories. Participants viewed images of wood, stone, metal, and fabric, presented in blocks with images of either different material categories (no adaptation or images of different samples from the same material category (material adaptation. To measure baseline activation, blocks with the same material sample were presented (baseline adaptation. Material adaptation effects were found mainly in the parahippocampal gyrus, in agreement with fMRI-studies of texture perception. Our findings suggest that the parahippocampal gyrus, early visual cortex, and possibly the supramarginal gyrus are involved in the perception of material categories, but in different ways. The different outcomes from the two studies are likely due to inherent differences between the two paradigms. A third experiment suggested, based on anatomical overlap between activations, that spatial frequency information is important for within-category material discrimination.

  4. Pattern-Induced Covert Category Learning in Songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comins, Jordan A; Gentner, Timothy Q

    2015-07-20

    Language is uniquely human, but its acquisition may involve cognitive capacities shared with other species. During development, language experience alters speech sound (phoneme) categorization. Newborn infants distinguish the phonemes in all languages but by 10 months show adult-like greater sensitivity to native language phonemic contrasts than non-native contrasts. Distributional theories account for phonetic learning by positing that infants infer category boundaries from modal distributions of speech sounds along acoustic continua. For example, tokens of the sounds /b/ and /p/ cluster around different mean voice onset times. To disambiguate overlapping distributions, contextual theories propose that phonetic category learning is informed by higher-level patterns (e.g., words) in which phonemes normally occur. For example, the vowel sounds /Ι/ and /e/ can occupy similar perceptual spaces but can be distinguished in the context of "with" and "well." Both distributional and contextual cues appear to function in speech acquisition. Non-human species also benefit from distributional cues for category learning, but whether category learning benefits from contextual information in non-human animals is unknown. The use of higher-level patterns to guide lower-level category learning may reflect uniquely human capacities tied to language acquisition or more general learning abilities reflecting shared neurobiological mechanisms. Using songbirds, European starlings, we show that higher-level pattern learning covertly enhances categorization of the natural communication sounds. This observation mirrors the support for contextual theories of phonemic category learning in humans and demonstrates a general form of learning not unique to humans or language. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimizing intraoperative fluid therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Robert; Mythen, Monty

    2003-08-01

    Correcting the fluid status of the surgical patient is an integral part of good anaesthetic practice. There have been few areas in anaesthesia and perioperative medicine as controversial as fluid resuscitation. Uncertainties still exist as to what the best solution to give is, whether it be a colloid or a crystalloid, and how and when to give it. As well as increasing awareness of the different properties of various colloids, there has been interest in the nature of the carrier solutions, essentially a choice between saline or Ringer's lactate (compound sodium lactate or Hartmann's solution). In this article we review recent studies involving crystalloids, the 'new colloids', and on the amount and timing of fluid therapy. Saline based fluids (including most colloids) are associated with a hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, and a hypocoagulable state, although these may not necessarily harm the patient. Saline may have deleterious effects on renal function. Colloids in solutions similar to Ringer's lactate ('balanced solutions') may avoid these effects although few are currently available. Several studies that have used fluids (along with other therapies) to improve organ perfusion around the time of surgery have been associated with a better outcome. Compared with Ringer's lactate, saline, and saline-based colloids are associated with a hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, and a hypocoagulable state although they may not be associated with adverse patient outcomes. Increasing awareness of the 'Stewart hypothesis' has led to new ways of managing hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. The 'crystalloid-colloid debate' continues, and has led to an awareness that these different fluids, along with their carrier solutions are drugs with different effects. Several studies, in which patients have received more fluid in the protocol group, have found better clinical outcomes in the 'optimized' patients.

  6. Intravenous Fluid Generation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillen, John; McKay, Terri; Brown, Daniel; Zoldak, John

    2013-01-01

    The ability to stabilize and treat patients on exploration missions will depend on access to needed consumables. Intravenous (IV) fluids have been identified as required consumables. A review of the Space Medicine Exploration Medical Condition List (SMEMCL) lists over 400 medical conditions that could present and require treatment during ISS missions. The Intravenous Fluid Generation System (IVGEN) technology provides the scalable capability to generate IV fluids from indigenous water supplies. It meets USP (U.S. Pharmacopeia) standards. This capability was performed using potable water from the ISS; water from more extreme environments would need preconditioning. The key advantage is the ability to filter mass and volume, providing the equivalent amount of IV fluid: this is critical for remote operations or resource- poor environments. The IVGEN technology purifies drinking water, mixes it with salt, and transfers it to a suitable bag to deliver a sterile normal saline solution. Operational constraints such as mass limitations and lack of refrigeration may limit the type and volume of such fluids that can be carried onboard the spacecraft. In addition, most medical fluids have a shelf life that is shorter than some mission durations. Consequently, the objective of the IVGEN experiment was to develop, design, and validate the necessary methodology to purify spacecraft potable water into a normal saline solution, thus reducing the amount of IV fluids that are included in the launch manifest. As currently conceived, an IVGEN system for a space exploration mission would consist of an accumulator, a purifier, a mixing assembly, a salt bag, and a sterile bag. The accumulator is used to transfer a measured amount of drinking water from the spacecraft to the purifier. The purifier uses filters to separate any air bubbles that may have gotten trapped during the drinking water transfer from flowing through a high-quality deionizing cartridge that removes the impurities in

  7. Determination of reservoir fluid and reservoir fluid behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Mihočová

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The report gives the comprehensive information about reservoir fluids. The five reservoir fluids (black oils, volatile oils,retrograde gas – condensates, wet gases and dry gases are defined because production of each fluid requires different engineeringtechniques. The fluid type must be determined very early in the life of a reservoir (often before sampling or initial production becausefluid type is the critical factor in many of the decisions that must be made about producing the fluid form the reservoir.

  8. Two-phase cooling fluids; Les fluides frigoporteurs diphasiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lallemand, A. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 69 - Lyon (France)

    1997-12-31

    In the framework of the diminution of heat transfer fluid consumption, the concept of indirect refrigerating circuits, using cooling intermediate fluids, is reviewed and the fluids that are currently used in these systems are described. Two-phase cooling fluids advantages over single-phase fluids are presented with their thermophysical characteristics: solid fraction, two-phase mixture enthalpy, thermal and rheological properties, determination of heat and mass transfer characteristics, and cold storage through ice slurry

  9. Viscous Flow with Large Fluid-Fluid Interface Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole; Saasen, Arild

    1998-01-01

    The arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) kinematic description has been implemented in a 3D transient finite element program to simulate multiple fluid flows with fluid-fluid interface or surface displacements. The description of fluid interfaces includes variable interfacial tension, and the formulation...... is useful in the simulation of low and intermediate Reynolds number viscous flow. The displacement of two immiscible Newtonian fluids in a vertical (concentric and eccentric) annulus and a (vertical and inclined)tube is simulated....

  10. Solving the selective multi-category parallel-servicing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Range, Troels Martin; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new scheduling problem and describe a shortest path-based heuristic as well as a dynamic programming-based exact optimization algorithm to solve it. The selective multi-category parallel-servicing problem arises when a set of jobs has to be scheduled on a server (machine...... interval of a given planning horizon, while respecting the server capacity and scheduling requirements. We compare the proposed solution methods with a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) formulation and show that the dynamic programming approach is faster when the number of categories is large...

  11. A primer on quantum fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Barenghi, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this primer is to cover the essential theoretical information, quickly and concisely, in order to enable senior undergraduate and beginning graduate students to tackle projects in topical research areas of quantum fluids, for example, solitons, vortices and collective modes. The selection of the material, both regarding the content and level of presentation, draws on the authors analysis of the success of relevant research projects with newcomers to the field, as well as of the students feedback from many taught and self-study courses on the subject matter. Starting with a brief historical overview, this text covers particle statistics, weakly interacting condensates and their dynamics and finally superfluid helium and quantum turbulence. At the end of each chapter (apart from the first) there will be some exercises. Detailed solutions can be made available to instructors upon request to the authors. .

  12. SALIVA AS A DIAGNOSTIC FLUID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezelj-Ribarić Sonja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Saliva is a readily available oral fluid with many functions, from digestion, maintenance of oral tissues' integrity, to caries prevention. Changes regarding its secretion may be divided into qualitative and quantitative: both of them are a consequence of certain conditions/diseases (e.g. internal factors or nutrients/drugs ingested (e.g. external factors. During the last 15 years, technological advances gave a significant momentum to utilization of saliva as a diagnostic tool. Analysis of saliva, just like the blood analysis, has two main objectives: to identify the subjects suffering from a certain disorder, and to follow the development and progress of therapy. This paper provides an overview of possibilities for the use of saliva for diagnostic purposes and gives specific examples of some clinical investigations, with the final aim to stimulate the use of this noninvasive means for the health care promotion.

  13. 40 CFR 405.70 - Applicability; description of the fluid mix for ice cream and other frozen desserts subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mix for ice cream and other frozen desserts subcategory. 405.70 Section 405.70 Protection of... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fluid Mix for Ice Cream and Other Frozen Desserts Subcategory § 405.70 Applicability; description of the fluid mix for ice cream and other frozen desserts subcategory. The provisions...

  14. Boiler using combustible fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

    1974-07-03

    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  15. Fluid Mechanics: The Pamphlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variano, Evan

    2012-11-01

    One impediment to student learning in introductory fluid mechanics courses is that the fundamental laws of physics can become lost in the ``noise'' of dozens of semi-empirical equations describing special cases. This can be exacerbated by trends in textbooks and other teaching media. This talk will explore a minimalist approach, whereby the entire content of introductory fluids is distilled to a single 1-page pamphlet, designed to emphasize the governing equations and their near-universal applicability. We are particularly interested in hearing feedback from the audience on ways to further distill the content while keeping it accessible and useful. To further emphasize the difference between the fundamental laws and the many specific cases, we have begun assembling a complementary resource: a field guide to fluid phenomena, which mixes the approach of Van Dyke's book with a standard field guide. This is designed to emphasize that there is a ``zoology'' of fluid phenomena, to which the same small set of fundamental laws has been applied repeatedly. These materials may be useful in helping AP Physics teachers cover fluid mechanics, which is an under-utilized opportunity to introduce young scientists to our field of study.

  16. Amniotic fluid embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiranpreet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE is one of the catastrophic complications of pregnancy in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters into the maternal pulmonary circulation, causing cardiovascular collapse. Etiology largely remains unknown, but may occur in healthy women during labour, during cesarean section, after abnormal vaginal delivery, or during the second trimester of pregnancy. It may also occur up to 48 hours post-delivery. It can also occur during abortion, after abdominal trauma, and during amnio-infusion. The pathophysiology of AFE is not completely understood. Possible historical cause is that any breach of the barrier between maternal blood and amniotic fluid forces the entry of amniotic fluid into the systemic circulation and results in a physical obstruction of the pulmonary circulation. The presenting signs and symptoms of AFE involve many organ systems. Clinical signs and symptoms are acute dyspnea, cough, hypotension, cyanosis, fetal bradycardia, encephalopathy, acute pulmonary hypertension, coagulopathy etc. Besides basic investigations lung scan, serum tryptase levels, serum levels of C3 and C4 complements, zinc coproporphyrin, serum sialyl Tn etc are helpful in establishing the diagnosis. Treatment is mainly supportive, but exchange transfusion, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and uterine artery embolization have been tried from time to time. The maternal prognosis after amniotic fluid embolism is very poor though infant survival rate is around 70%.

  17. An interplay of fusiform gyrus and hippocampus enables prototype- and exemplar-based category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Robert K; Güntürkün, Onur; Suchan, Boris

    2016-09-15

    The aim of the present study was to examine the contributions of different brain structures to prototype- and exemplar-based category learning using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-eight subjects performed a categorization task in which they had to assign prototypes and exceptions to two different families. This test procedure usually produces different learning curves for prototype and exception stimuli. Our behavioral data replicated these previous findings by showing an initially superior performance for prototypes and typical stimuli and a switch from a prototype-based to an exemplar-based categorization for exceptions in the later learning phases. Since performance varied, we divided participants into learners and non-learners. Analysis of the functional imaging data revealed that the interaction of group (learners vs. non-learners) and block (Block 5 vs. Block 1) yielded an activation of the left fusiform gyrus for the processing of prototypes, and an activation of the right hippocampus for exceptions after learning the categories. Thus, successful prototype- and exemplar-based category learning is associated with activations of complementary neural substrates that constitute object-based processes of the ventral visual stream and their interaction with unique-cue representations, possibly based on sparse coding within the hippocampus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Robust discrimination between EEG responses to categories of environmental sounds in early coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha eCossy

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Humans can recognize categories of environmental sounds, including vocalizations produced by humans and animals and the sounds of man-made objects. Most neuroimaging investigations of environmental sound discrimination have studied subjects while consciously perceiving and often explicitly recognizing the stimuli. Consequently, it remains unclear to what extent auditory object processing occurs independently of task demands and consciousness. Studies in animal models have shown that environmental sound discrimination at a neural level persists even in anesthetized preparations, whereas data from anesthetized humans has thus far provided null results. Here, we studied comatose patients as a model of environmental sound discrimination capacities during unconsciousness. We included nineteen comatose patients treated with therapeutic hypothermia during the first two days of coma, while recording nineteen-channel electroencephalography (EEG. At the level of each individual patient, we applied a decoding algorithm to quantify the differential EEG responses to human versus animal vocalizations as well as to sounds of living vocalizations versus man-made objects. Discrimination between vocalization types was accurate in eleven patients and discrimination between sounds from living and man-made sources in ten patients. At the group level, the results were significant only for the comparison between vocalization types. These results lay the groundwork for disentangling truly preferential activations in response to auditory categories, and the contribution of awareness to auditory category discrimination.

  19. Identifying named entities from PubMed for enriching semantic categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun; Lu, Zhiyong; Wilbur, W John

    2015-02-21

    Controlled vocabularies such as the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) are widely used for biomedical natural language processing (NLP) tasks. However, the standard terminology in such collections suffers from low usage in biomedical literature, e.g. only 13% of UMLS terms appear in MEDLINE. We here propose an efficient and effective method for extracting noun phrases for biomedical semantic categories. The proposed approach utilizes simple linguistic patterns to select candidate noun phrases based on headwords, and a machine learning classifier is used to filter out noisy phrases. For experiments, three NLP rules were tested and manually evaluated by three annotators. Our approaches showed over 93% precision on average for the headwords, "gene", "protein", "disease", "cell" and "cells". Although biomedical terms in knowledge-rich resources may define semantic categories, variations of the controlled terms in literature are still difficult to identify. The method proposed here is an effort to narrow the gap between controlled vocabularies and the entities used in text. Our extraction method cannot completely eliminate manual evaluation, however a simple and automated solution with high precision performance provides a convenient way for enriching semantic categories by incorporating terms obtained from the literature.

  20. Methamphetamine disposition in oral fluid, plasma, and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huestis, Marilyn A; Cone, Edward J

    2007-03-01

    This review of the disposition of methamphetamine in oral fluid, plasma, and urine is based on a comprehensive controlled dosing study involving five healthy, drug-free research volunteers who resided on a closed clinical ward for 12 weeks. Subjects were administered four low (10 mg) and high (20 mg) daily oral doses of methamphetamine in two separate sessions. Near-simultaneous collections of oral fluid and plasma were performed on the first day of each low- and high-dose session. Thereafter, oral fluid was provided on each day of dosing by different oral fluid collection methods. All urine specimens were collected on an ad libitum basis throughout the study. Specimens were analyzed by gas-chromatography mass spectrometry for methamphetamine and the metabolite, amphetamine, with a limit of quantification of 2.5 ng/mL for each analyte. Methamphetamine and metabolite concentrations in oral fluid appeared to follow a similar time course in oral fluid as in plasma and were dose-proportional, but oral fluid concentrations exceeded plasma concentrations. Urine drug concentrations were substantially higher than those in oral fluid. Some drug accumulation was noted with daily dosing, but generally did not markedly influence detection times or detection rates of oral fluid tests. Detection times and detection rates for oral fluid and urine were determined at cessation of 4 days of dosing. Generally, detection times and rates for urine were longer than those observed for oral fluid at conventional cutoff concentrations. When contemplating selection of oral fluid as a test matrix, the advantages of oral fluid collection should be weighed against its shorter time of detection compared to that of urine.

  1. Inviscid incompressible limits for rotating fluids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Caggio, Matteo; Nečasová, Šárka

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 163, November (2017), s. 1-18 ISSN 0362-546X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-03230S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : compressible Navier-Stokces system * rotating fluids * incompressible limit Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.192, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0362546X17301815?via%3Dihub

  2. Universal fluid droplet ejector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eric R.; Perl, Martin L.

    1999-08-24

    A droplet generator comprises a fluid reservoir having a side wall made of glass or quartz, and an end cap made from a silicon plate. The end cap contains a micromachined aperture through which the fluid is ejected. The side wall is thermally fused to the end cap, and no adhesive is necessary. This means that the fluid only comes into contact with the side wall and the end cap, both of which are chemically inert. Amplitudes of drive pulses received by reservoir determine the horizontal displacements of droplets relative to the ejection aperture. The drive pulses are varied such that the dropper generates a two-dimensional array of vertically-falling droplets. Vertical and horizontal interdroplet spacings may be varied in real time. Applications include droplet analysis experiments such as Millikan fractional charge searches and aerosol characterization, as well as material deposition applications.

  3. Structural similarity and category-specificity: a refined account

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Law, Ian

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that category-specific recognition disorders for natural objects may reflect that natural objects are more structurally (visually) similar than artefacts and therefore more difficult to recognize following brain damage. On this account one might expect a positive relationshi...

  4. 77 FR 72653 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... life-cycle costs for each of the designated product categories. Information on the availability... economic and technological feasibility of using those products, including the life-cycle costs of the... examines evidence pointing to the general commercial use of a product and its life-cycle cost and...

  5. 76 FR 56883 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... those products, including the life-cycle costs of the products. In considering an item's availability... life-cycle costs of product categories proposed for designation, USDA has obtained the necessary input... documented availability, benefits, and life-cycle costs of even a very small percentage of all products that...

  6. 14 CFR 61.68 - Category III pilot authorization requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... certificate or commercial pilot certificate with an instrument rating or an airline transport pilot... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Category III pilot authorization... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Aircraft...

  7. Mental Health Risk Adjustment with Clinical Categories and Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Akritee; Bergquist, Savannah; Montz, Ellen; Rose, Sherri

    2017-12-15

    To propose nonparametric ensemble machine learning for mental health and substance use disorders (MHSUD) spending risk adjustment formulas, including considering Clinical Classification Software (CCS) categories as diagnostic covariates over the commonly used Hierarchical Condition Category (HCC) system. 2012-2013 Truven MarketScan database. We implement 21 algorithms to predict MHSUD spending, as well as a weighted combination of these algorithms called super learning. The algorithm collection included seven unique algorithms that were supplied with three differing sets of MHSUD-related predictors alongside demographic covariates: HCC, CCS, and HCC + CCS diagnostic variables. Performance was evaluated based on cross-validated R 2 and predictive ratios. Results show that super learning had the best performance based on both metrics. The top single algorithm was random forests, which improved on ordinary least squares regression by 10 percent with respect to relative efficiency. CCS categories-based formulas were generally more predictive of MHSUD spending compared to HCC-based formulas. Literature supports the potential benefit of implementing a separate MHSUD spending risk adjustment formula. Our results suggest there is an incentive to explore machine learning for MHSUD-specific risk adjustment, as well as considering CCS categories over HCCs. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  8. CATEGORIES AND PROTOTYPES: FROM CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY TO CONTEMPORARY LINGUISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHIVOKINA MAYYA ALEXANDROVNA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers two approaches to category studies: a classical or logical one pronciples of which were formulated by Aristotle, and a contemporary or cognitive one that deals with such concepts as fuzzy logic, fuzzy sets, prototype, family resemblance.

  9. Automated Discovery of Speech Act Categories in Educational Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Vasile; Moldovan, Cristian; Niraula, Nobal; Graesser, Arthur C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we address the important task of automated discovery of speech act categories in dialogue-based, multi-party educational games. Speech acts are important in dialogue-based educational systems because they help infer the student speaker's intentions (the task of speech act classification) which in turn is crucial to providing adequate…

  10. Mixing Categories and Modal Logics in the Quantum Setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cinà, G.; Aerts, D.; de Ronde, C.; Freytes, H.; Giuntini, R.

    2016-01-01

    The study of the foundations of Quantum Mechanics, especially after the advent of Quantum Computation and Information, has benefited from the application of category-theoretic tools and modal logics to the analysis of Quantum processes: we witness a wealth of theoretical frameworks casted in either

  11. Vowel Category Formation in Korean-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sue Ann S.; Iverson, Gregory K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A previous investigation (Lee & Iverson, 2012) found that English and Korean stop categories were fully distinguished by Korean-English bilingual children at 10 years of age but not at 5 years of age. The present study examined vowels produced by Korean-English bilingual children of these same ages to determine whether and when bilinguals…

  12. 40 CFR 98.390 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... distillation of crude oil. (b) A refiner is the owner or operator of a petroleum refinery. (c) Importer has the... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of the source category. 98... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Petroleum Products § 98.390 Definition of the...

  13. 32 CFR 644.518 - Determination of categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from Proposed... report will include proposed methods of neutralization and the costs thereof. (b) Category Two. Those lands or buildings which are suspected of being contaminated with radiological, industrial-military...

  14. On some Historiographic Categories and/in Italian Modernism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    modernism in Italy, the editor Dino Cervigni noted the difficulty of dealing with a such a category from the perspective of a cultural tradition in which modernism remains at best a vague and underdetermined notion. Obviously, the question is not that ...

  15. Is Expressive Language Disorder an Accurate Diagnostic Category?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Laurence B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To propose that the diagnostic category of "expressive language disorder" as distinct from a disorder of both expressive and receptive language might not be accurate. Method: Evidence that casts doubt on a pure form of this disorder is reviewed from several sources, including the literature on genetic findings, theories of language…

  16. 29 CFR 4044.12 - Priority category 2 benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... factors established by the IRS for allocation of accrued benefits between employer and employee... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION PLAN TERMINATIONS ALLOCATION OF ASSETS IN SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Allocation of Assets Allocation of Assets to Benefit Categories § 4044.12...

  17. 29 CFR 4044.11 - Priority category 1 benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION PLAN TERMINATIONS ALLOCATION OF ASSETS IN SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Allocation of Assets Allocation of Assets to Benefit Categories § 4044.11... benefits derived from voluntary employee contributions. (b) Assigning benefits. Absent an election...

  18. The formation of rhythmic categories and metric priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desain, P.W.M.; Honing, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents two experiments on categorical rhythm perception. It investigates how listeners perceive discrete rhythmic categories while listening to rhythms performed on a continuous time scale. This is studied by considering the space of all temporal patterns (all possible rhythms made up

  19. Interobserver agreement for 10% categories of angiographic carotid stenosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); F. van Kooten (Fop); S.L.M. Bakker (Stef)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although the reliability of the assessment of severe 70% to 99% carotid stenosis by carotid angiography has been proven excellent, this may not necessarily be the case for a more detailed classification of carotid stenoses by 10% categories. METHODS: Angiograms

  20. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…