WorldWideScience

Sample records for subject category fluid

  1. Subject categories and scope descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series. It defines the subject categories and provides the scope descriptions to be used for categorization of the nuclear literature for the preparation of INIS and ETDE input by national and regional centres. Together with the other volumes of the INIS Reference Series it defines the rules, standards and practices and provides the authorities to be used in the International Nuclear Information System and ETDE. A complete list of the volumes published in the INIS Reference Series may be found on the inside front cover of this publication. This INIS/ETDE Reference Series document is intended to serve two purposes: to define the subject scope of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) and the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and to define the subject classification scheme of INIS and ETDE. It is thus the guide to the inputting centres in determining which items of literature should be reported, and in determining where the full bibliographic entry and abstract of each item should be included in INIS or ETDE database. Each category is identified by a category code consisting of three alphanumeric characters. A scope description is given for each subject category. The scope of INIS is the sum of the scopes of all the categories. With most categories cross references are provided to other categories where appropriate. Cross references should be of assistance in finding the appropriate category; in fact, by indicating topics that are excluded from the category in question, the cross references help to clarify and define the scope of the category to which they are appended. A Subject Index is included as an aid to subject classifiers, but it is only an aid and not a means for subject classification. It facilitates the use of this document, but is no substitute for the description of the scope of the subject categories

  2. Energy Data Base: subject categories and scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bost, D.E.

    1985-03-01

    The subject scope of the Energy Data Base (EDB) encompasses all DOE-sponsored research. Broadly defined, EDB subject scope includes all technological aspects of energy production, conversion, and efficient utilization, and the economic, social, and political aspects as well. Scope notes are provided to define the extent of interest in certain subject areas, particularly areas of basic research. Cross references between categories are provided to aid both the categorization of information and its retrieval. Citations entered into DOE's computerized bibliographic information system are assigned six-digit subject category numbers to broadly group information for storage, retrieval, and manipulation. These numbers are used in the preparation of printed documents, such as bibliographies and abstract journals, to arrange the citations and to aid searching on the DOE/RECON on-line system

  3. Subject categories with scope definitions and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bost, D.E.

    1983-08-01

    Citations entered into DOE's computerized bibliographic information system are assigned six-digit subject category numbers to broadly group information for storage, retrieval, and manipulation. These numbers are used in the preparation of printed documents, such as bibliographies and abstract journals, to arrange the citations and to aid searching on the DOE/RECON on-line system. This document has been prepared for use by (1) those individuals responsible for the assignment of category numbers to documents being entered into the Technical Information Center (TIC) system, (2) those individuals and organizations processing magnetic tape copies of the files, (3) those individuals doing on-line searching for information in TIC-created files, and (4) others who, having no access to RECON, need a printed copy

  4. Energy Data Base: Subject categories and scope: A reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grissom, M.C.

    1987-04-01

    The subject scope of the Energy Data Base (EDB) is defined, encompassing all technological aspects of energy production, conversion, and efficient utilization, and the economic, social, and political aspects as well. Coverage also includes the basic sciences as applicable. The subject areas within the scope of EDB are defined and hierarchically numbered, and scope notes are provided to define the extent of interest in certain areas, particularly areas of basic research

  5. A global map of science based on the ISI subject categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Rafols, I

    2009-01-01

    The decomposition of scientific literature into disciplinary and subdisciplinary structures is one of the core goals of scientometrics. How can we achieve a good decomposition? The ISI subject categories classify journals included in the Science Citation Index (SCI). The aggregated journal-journal

  6. Amniotic Fluid Cells Proliferation in Normal and Down Syndrome Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honcea Adina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Down Syndrome/Trisomy 21 is the most common chromosomal anomaly, and it represents the most common congenital cause of infants’ intellectual disability. Subjects with this syndrome are affected by degenerative processes caused by accelerated aging or unknown ethyologies. In recent years, accumulating evidence revealed increased potential of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells to be used in regenerative therapy. Our aim was to assess differences in immunophenotype, cell morphology and proliferation of amniotic fluid cells from normal and Down Syndrome pregnancies using a quantitative cytometry approach. Results revealed the emergence of a population of small sized cells in Down Syndrome derived amniotic fluid cells that are readily visible upon microscopic inspection. Hence, the fluorescence–based quantitative image cytometry determinations showed a tendency of decrease in both cell and nuclei size in trisomy, with no significant modification in nuclei circularity, as measured following actin cytoskeleton and nuclei labeling. The propensity of Ki67 positive cells was found to be increased in Down Syndrome derived cells (48.92% as compared to normal specimens (28.68%. However, cells in S and G2/M cell cycle phases decreased from 32.91% to 4.49% in diseased cells. Further studies are devoted to understanding the molecular basis of the observed differences in the proliferation ability of Down Syndrome amniotic cells, in order to evaluate the potential therapeutic effect of amniotic fluid stem cells for tissue regeneration in subjects with trisomy and to find correlations between amniotic cells phenotype and patient prognosis.

  7. Warping similarity space in category learning by human subjects: the role of task difficulty

    OpenAIRE

    Pevtzow, Rachel; Harnad, Stevan

    1997-01-01

    In innate Categorical Perception (CP) (e.g., colour perception), similarity space is "warped," with regions of increased within-category similarity (compression) and regions of reduced between-category similarity (separation) enh ancing the category boundaries and making categorisation reliable and all-or-none rather than graded. We show that category learning can likewise warp similarity space, resolving uncertainty near category boundaries. Two Hard and two Easy texture learning tasks were ...

  8. Attitudes and evaluative practices: category vs. item and subjective vs. objective constructions in everyday food assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Sally; Potter, Jonathan

    2003-12-01

    In social psychology, evaluative expressions have traditionally been understood in terms of their relationship to, and as the expression of, underlying 'attitudes'. In contrast, discursive approaches have started to study evaluative expressions as part of varied social practices, considering what such expressions are doing rather than their relationship to attitudinal objects or other putative mental entities. In this study the latter approach will be used to examine the construction of food and drink evaluations in conversation. The data are taken from a corpus of family mealtimes recorded over a period of months. The aim of this study is to highlight two distinctions that are typically obscured in traditional attitude work ('subjective' vs. 'objective' expressions, category vs. item evaluations). A set of extracts is examined to document the presence of these distinctions in talk that evaluates food and the way they are used and rhetorically developed to perform particular activities (accepting/refusing food, complimenting the food provider, persuading someone to eat). The analysis suggests that researchers (a) should be aware of the potential significance of these distinctions; (b) should be cautious when treating evaluative terms as broadly equivalent and (c) should be cautious when blurring categories and instances. This analysis raises the broader question of how far evaluative practices may be specific to particular domains, and what this specificity might consist in. It is concluded that research in this area could benefit from starting to focus on the role of evaluations in practices and charting their association with specific topics and objects.

  9. Subjective evaluation of HDTV stereoscopic videos in IPTV scenarios using absolute category rating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Barkowsky, M.; Cousseau, R.; Brunnström, K.; Olsson, R.; Le Callet, P.; Sjöström, M.

    2011-03-01

    Broadcasting of high definition (HD) stereobased 3D (S3D) TV are planned, or has already begun, in Europe, the US, and Japan. Specific data processing operations such as compression and temporal and spatial resampling are commonly used tools for saving network bandwidth when IPTV is the distribution form, as this results in more efficient recording and transmission of 3DTV signals, however at the same time it inevitably brings quality degradations to the processed video. This paper investigated observers quality judgments of state of the art video coding schemes (simulcast H.264/AVC or H.264/MVC), with or without added temporal and spatial resolution reduction of S3D videos, by subjective experiments using the Absolute Category Rating method (ACR) method. The results showed that a certain spatial resolution reduction working together with high quality video compressing was the most bandwidth efficient way of processing video data when the required video quality is to be judged as "good" quality. As the subjective experiment was performed in two different laboratories in two different countries in parallel, a detailed analysis of the interlab differences was performed.

  10. Class categories and the subjective dimension of class: the case of Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer; Pedersen, Helene Helboe

    2018-03-01

    Class relations have been proven to affect various aspects of social life, even in modern individualized societies. However, following claims on individualization and the so-called 'death of class' thesis, studying the subjective dimension of class - that is, the way individuals perceive of class relations and their own position within them - has gone out of style. We argue that even in equalized societies, subjective class perceptions may still influence attitudes and behaviour as they evolve to fit modern class relations. To explore the existence as well as structure and content of perceived social classes, this article investigates how people describe society and social groups in focus group discussions. We find that groups in different positions in terms of education and economy all tend to apply hierarchical class categories to describe Danish society, which is normally seen as one of the most equal societies and political systems in the world. In addition, we find that economic resources serve as a baseline for the hierarchical ordering, often supplemented with notions of education, lifestyle and/or occupational profile. Even though people are somewhat uncomfortable with the notion of class, their descriptions of Danish society and classes are surprisingly similar within and across groups. We conclude that not only do class relations matter; people are also highly aware of the existing classes and able to position themselves and others according to their notion of classes. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  11. Levels of lipocalin-2 in crevicular fluid and tear fluid in chronic periodontitis and obesity subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, Avani Raju; Nagpal, Kanika; Karvekar, Shruti; Patnaik, Kaushik

    2016-11-01

    Lipocalin-2, a 25 kDa secretory glycoprotein, was first found in the neutrophilic granules of humans and in mouse kidney cells. It has been shown to have an important role in inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of lipocalin-2 in gingival crevicular fluid and tear fluid in patients with obesity and chronic periodontitis. A total of 40 subjects in the age group 25-40 years were divided into four groups based on probing depth, gingival index, clinical attachment level, body mass index, and radiographic evidence of bone loss. The groups were: nonobese healthy group; obese healthy group; nonobese chronic periodontitis group; obese chronic periodontitis group Gingival crevicular fluid and tear fluid samples were collected on the subsequent day. There was an increase in lipocalin-2 levels from group 1 to group 4 (with the nonobese healthy group showing the least levels and obese chronic periodontitis group showing the highest levels) in both gingival crevicular fluid and tear fluid. Lipocalin-2 may be an important inflammatory marker that may help link obesity and chronic periodontitis. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. A Study of Subject Overlap between the Main Categories of Knowledge Management within the Web of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Hazeri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although a relatively new discipline, Knowledge Management (KM is an area with a wide range of theoretical concepts and practical implications. The applicability of KM in different environments, and the vast value and benefits of its application, have led to great developments within the discipline over the last few years. The interdisciplinary nature of KM has also provided the opportunity for contributions by people from different disciplines, which in turn has lead to the rapid advancement of KM boundaries. This paper aims to examine the subject structure of the KM discipline through keyword analysis of documents in the Web of Science, using a hierarchical clustering approach and an inclusion index. Within the Web of Science categories, according to the findings, the three categories of "Management", "Computer Science Information Systems" and "Information Science Library Science" claim the highest number of documents in this area. Of 5570 author keywords, , 96 keywords are identified as "highly used" keywords. Three hierarchical clusters (dendrograms are formed from co-occurrence analysis of highly used keywords in the three categories. A comparison of these denrograms indicates that six clusters, including a total of 16 keywords, are common in the three categories. Looking at clusters of the three categories revealed that two categories - Management and Information Science Library Science - have 14 common/shared clusters, and therefore the highest degree of similarities. However, the category of Computer Science Information Systems, with 28 unique clusters, differs most markedly from the other two categories. To investigate the rate of common keywords from one category to another, the inclusion index is calculated. Results of this exercise indicate that the category of Information Science Library Science has the highest number of common keywords.

  13. How Search for Meaning Interacts with Complex Categories of Meaning in Life and Subjective Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damásio, Bruno Figueiredo; Koller, Sílvia Helena

    2015-03-03

    This study sought to assess how the search for meaning interacts with crisis of meaning and with different categories of meaning in life (meaningfulness, crisis of meaning, existential indifference, and existential conflict). Furthermore, the moderation role of search for meaning between the relation of categories of meaning and subjective well-being (SWB) was also evaluated. Participants included 3,034 subjects (63.9% women) ranging in age from 18 to 91 (M = 33.90; SD = 15.01) years old from 22 Brazilian states. Zero-order correlations and a factorial MANOVA were implemented. Positive low correlations were found for search for meaning and crisis of meaning (r = .258; p < .001). Search for meaning presented a small-effect size moderation effect on the relation of the different categories of meaning with subjective happiness, F(6, 3008) = 2.698, p < .05; η2 = .004, but not for satisfaction with life, F(6, 3008) = .935, p = .47; η2 = .002. The differences on the levels of subjective happiness of those inserted in existential indifferent and conflicting categories differ depending on the levels of search for meaning. Further directions for future studies are proposed.

  14. Comparison of stable cesium and radiocesium on dietary intakes by Japanese subjects using 18 food categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, K.; Ban-nai, T.; Muramatsu, Y.; Yamamoto, M.

    1999-01-01

    Dietary intakes of radiocesium and non-radioactive cesium in Japanese were estimated using a market basket study and found to be 61 mBq and 9.1 ng per person per day, respectively. Food categories having higher Cs contents (per g-fresh) were found to be as follows: mushrooms 35.9 ng; nuts and seeds 33.6 ng; meats 26.8 ng; fishes and shellfishes 21.6 ng; potatoes 19.2 ng; seaweeds 10.2 ng; and milk and milk products 7.19 ng. For 137 Cs, higher contents (per kg-fresh) were as follows: mushrooms 1.7 Bq; nuts and seeds 0.23 Bq; fishes and shellfishes 0.16 Bq; meats 0.13 Bq; potatoes 0.11 Bq; seaweeds 0.092 Bq; and milk and milk products 0.089 Bq. Distributions of stable cesium in the 18 food categories were similar to those of radiocesium. (author)

  15. The subjective nature of Linnaean categories and its impact in evolutionary biology and biodiversity studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurin, M.

    2010-01-01

    Absolute (Linnaean) ranks are essential to rank-based nomenclature (RN), which has been used by the vast majority of systematists for the last 150 years. They are widely recognized as being subjective among taxonomists, but not necessarily in other fields. For this reason, phylogenetic nomenclature

  16. Vibration of a group of circular cylinders subjected to fluid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.

    1981-01-01

    Many structural and mechanical components consist of multiple circular cylinders, such as heat exchanger tubes and nuclear fuel bundles. These components are subjected to fluid flow. The fluid flow represents a source of energy that can induce and sustain vibration. The fluid moving with vibrating structures has an important effect on the dynamic characteristics of the structure. The objective of this paper is to review the dynamics of multiple circular cylinders in stationary fluid, parallel flow and cross flow, and to present general design guides to avoid detrimental vibration and instability. 77 refs

  17. Fourier power, subjective distance, and object categories all provide plausible models of BOLD responses in scene-selective visual areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescroart, Mark D.; Stansbury, Dustin E.; Gallant, Jack L.

    2015-01-01

    Perception of natural visual scenes activates several functional areas in the human brain, including the Parahippocampal Place Area (PPA), Retrosplenial Complex (RSC), and the Occipital Place Area (OPA). It is currently unclear what specific scene-related features are represented in these areas. Previous studies have suggested that PPA, RSC, and/or OPA might represent at least three qualitatively different classes of features: (1) 2D features related to Fourier power; (2) 3D spatial features such as the distance to objects in a scene; or (3) abstract features such as the categories of objects in a scene. To determine which of these hypotheses best describes the visual representation in scene-selective areas, we applied voxel-wise modeling (VM) to BOLD fMRI responses elicited by a set of 1386 images of natural scenes. VM provides an efficient method for testing competing hypotheses by comparing predictions of brain activity based on encoding models that instantiate each hypothesis. Here we evaluated three different encoding models that instantiate each of the three hypotheses listed above. We used linear regression to fit each encoding model to the fMRI data recorded from each voxel, and we evaluated each fit model by estimating the amount of variance it predicted in a withheld portion of the data set. We found that voxel-wise models based on Fourier power or the subjective distance to objects in each scene predicted much of the variance predicted by a model based on object categories. Furthermore, the response variance explained by these three models is largely shared, and the individual models explain little unique variance in responses. Based on an evaluation of previous studies and the data we present here, we conclude that there is currently no good basis to favor any one of the three alternative hypotheses about visual representation in scene-selective areas. We offer suggestions for further studies that may help resolve this issue. PMID:26594164

  18. Flows of Incompressible Fluids subject to Navier’s slip on the boundary

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hron, J.; Le Roux, C.; Málek, Josef; Rajagopal, K.R.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 8 (2008), s. 2128-2143 ISSN 0898-1221 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/05/2537 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : boundary conditions * navier’s slip * no-slip Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.997, year: 2008 http://www.sciencedirect.com

  19. Alzheimer’s disease cerebrospinal fluid biomarker in cognitively normal subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Jon B.; Zetterberg, Henrik; van Harten, Argonde C.; Glodzik, Lidia; Martinez-Lage, Pablo; Bocchio-Chiavetto, Luisella; Rami, Lorena; Hansson, Oskar; Sperling, Reisa; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; Osorio, Ricardo S.; Vanderstichele, Hugo; Vandijck, Manu; Hampel, Harald; Teipl, Stefan; Moghekar, Abhay; Albert, Marilyn; Hu, William T.; Monge Argilés, Jose A.; Gorostidi, Ana; Teunissen, Charlotte E.; De Deyn, Peter P.; Hyman, Bradley T.; Molinuevo, Jose L.; Frisoni, Giovanni B.; Linazasoro, Gurutz; de Leon, Mony J.; van der Flier, Wiesje M.; Scheltens, Philip; Blennow, Kaj; Shaw, Leslie M.

    2015-01-01

    In a large multicentre sample of cognitively normal subjects, as a function of age, gender and APOE genotype, we studied the frequency of abnormal cerebrospinal fluid levels of Alzheimer’s disease biomarkers including: total tau, phosphorylated tau and amyloid-β1-42. Fifteen cohorts from 12 different centres with either enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays or Luminex® measurements were selected for this study. Each centre sent nine new cerebrospinal fluid aliquots that were used to measure total tau, phosphorylated tau and amyloid-β1-42 in the Gothenburg laboratory. Seven centres showed a high correlation with the new Gothenburg measurements; therefore, 10 cohorts from these centres are included in the analyses here (1233 healthy control subjects, 40–84 years old). Amyloid-β amyloid status (negative or positive) and neurodegeneration status (negative or positive) was established based on the pathological cerebrospinal fluid Alzheimer’s disease cut-off values for cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β1-42 and total tau, respectively. While gender did not affect these biomarker values, APOE genotype modified the age-associated changes in cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers such that APOE ε4 carriers showed stronger age-related changes in cerebrospinal fluid phosphorylated tau, total tau and amyloid-β1-42 values and APOE ε2 carriers showed the opposite effect. At 40 years of age, 76% of the subjects were classified as amyloid negative, neurodegeneration negative and their frequency decreased to 32% at 85 years. The amyloid-positive neurodegeneration-negative group remained stable. The amyloid-negative neurodegeneration-positive group frequency increased slowly from 1% at 44 years to 16% at 85 years, but its frequency was not affected by APOE genotype. The amyloid-positive neurodegeneration-positive frequency increased from 1% at 53 years to 28% at 85 years. Abnormally low cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β1-42 levels were already frequent in midlife and APOE genotype

  20. The operationalization of "fields" as WoS subject categories (WCs) in evaluative bibliometrics: The cases of "library and information science" and "science & technology studies"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Bornmann, L.

    Normalization of citation scores using reference sets based on Web of Science subject categories (WCs) has become an established (“best”) practice in evaluative bibliometrics. For example, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings are, among other things, based on this operationalization.

  1. Main factors for fatigue failure probability of pipes subjected to fluid thermal fluctuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Hideo; Suzuki, Masaaki; Kasahara, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    It is very important to grasp failure probability and failure mode appropriately to carry out risk reduction measures of nuclear power plants. To clarify the important factors for failure probability and failure mode of pipes subjected to fluid thermal fluctuation, failure probability analyses were performed by changing the values of a stress range, stress ratio, stress components and threshold of stress intensity factor range. The important factors for the failure probability are range, stress ratio (mean stress condition) and threshold of stress intensity factor range. The important factor for the failure mode is a circumferential angle range of fluid thermal fluctuation. When a large fluid thermal fluctuation acts on the entire circumferential surface of the pipe, the probability of pipe breakage increases, calling for measures to prevent such a failure and reduce the risk to the plant. When the circumferential angle subjected to fluid thermal fluctuation is small, the failure mode of piping is leakage and the corrective maintenance might be applicable from the viewpoint of risk to the plant. (author)

  2. Fluid electrolyte excretion during different hypokinetic body positions of trained subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Naexu, Konstantin A.; Federenko, Youri F.

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different body positions on renal excretion of fluid and electrolytes after exposure to 364 days of decreased number of steps per day (hypokinesia, HK). The studies were performed on 18 endurance trained male volunteers aged 19-24 years who had an average of VO 2max 67 ml/kg body/min. All volunteers were divided into three equal groups: the 1st group subjected to 12 h orthostatic position (OP) and 12 h clinostatic position (CP)/day, the 2nd group exposed to 8 h orthostatic position and 14 h clinostatic position/day, and the 3rd group submitted to 10 h orthostatic position and 16 h clinostatic position/day for 364 days. For the simulation of the hypokinetic effect all volunteers were kept under an average of 3000 steps/day for 364 days. Diuresis and the concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium and magnesium as well as excretion of creatine were determined in 24-h urine samples. By the end of the hypokinetic period all volunteers, regardless of their body position during HK, manifested a significant increase in renal excretion of fluid and electrolytes as compared to prehypokinetic period values. It was concluded that prolonged restriction of motor activity induced a significant increase in renal excretion of fluid and electrolytes in endurance trained subjects regardless to their body position and duration thereof per day.

  3. Optimum Design of FGX-CNT-Reinforced Reddy Pipes Conveying Fluid Subjected to Moving Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Vakili Tahami

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The harmony search algorithm is applied to the optimum designs of functionally graded (FG-carbon nanotubes (CNTs-reinforced pipes conveying fluid which are subjected to a moving load. The structure is modeled by the Reddy cylindrical shell theory, and the motion equations are derived by Hamilton's principle. The dynamic displacement of the system is derived based on the differential quadrature method (DQM. Moreover, the length, thickness, diameter, velocity, and acceleration of the load, the temperature and velocity of the fluid, and the volume fraction of CNT are considered for the design variables. The results illustrate that the optimum diameter of the pipe is decreased by increasing the volume percentage of CNTs. In addition, by increasing the moving load velocity and acceleration, the FS is decreased.

  4. Method for identification of fluid mixing zones subject to thermal fatigue damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vole, O.; Beaud, F.

    2009-01-01

    High cycle thermal fatigue due to the mixing of hot and cold fluids may initiate cracking in pipes of safety related circuits. A method has been developed to identify such fluid mixing zones subjected to potential thermal fatigue damage. This method is based on a loading model and a mechanical model that depend on the main characteristics of the mixing zone and on the material properties. It is supported by a large experimental program. This method has been applied to all the mixing zones of safety related circuits of the EDF pressurised water reactors, allowing to identify sensitive zones and to apply an appropriate inspection program that ensures the control of the risk due to this damage mechanism. (authors)

  5. HIV-1 viral escape in cerebrospinal fluid of subjects on suppressive antiretroviral treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edén, Arvid; Fuchs, Dietmar; Hagberg, Lars; Nilsson, Staffan; Spudich, Serena; Svennerholm, Bo; Price, Richard W; Gisslén, Magnus

    2010-12-15

    Occasional cases of viral escape in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) despite suppression of plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA have been reported. We investigated CSF viral escape in subjects treated with commonly used antiretroviral therapy regimens in relation to intrathecal immune activation and central nervous system penetration effectiveness (CPE) rank. Sixty-nine neurologically asymptomatic subjects treated with antiretroviral therapy >6 months and plasma HIV-1 RNA penetration effectiveness rank was not a significant predictor of detectable CSF virus or CSF neopterin levels. Viral escape in CSF is more common than previously reported, suggesting that low-grade central nervous system infection may continue in treated patients. Although these findings need extension in longitudinal studies, they suggest the utility of monitoring CSF responses, as new treatment combinations and strategies modify clinical practice.

  6. Category fluency test: effects of age, gender and education on total scores, clustering and switching in Brazilian Portuguese-speaking subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brucki S.M.D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Verbal fluency tests are used as a measure of executive functions and language, and can also be used to evaluate semantic memory. We analyzed the influence of education, gender and age on scores in a verbal fluency test using the animal category, and on number of categories, clustering and switching. We examined 257 healthy participants (152 females and 105 males with a mean age of 49.42 years (SD = 15.75 and having a mean educational level of 5.58 (SD = 4.25 years. We asked them to name as many animals as they could. Analysis of variance was performed to determine the effect of demographic variables. No significant effect of gender was observed for any of the measures. However, age seemed to influence the number of category changes, as expected for a sensitive frontal measure, after being controlled for the effect of education. Educational level had a statistically significant effect on all measures, except for clustering. Subject performance (mean number of animals named according to schooling was: illiterates, 12.1; 1 to 4 years, 12.3; 5 to 8 years, 14.0; 9 to 11 years, 16.7, and more than 11 years, 17.8. We observed a decrease in performance in these five educational groups over time (more items recalled during the first 15 s, followed by a progressive reduction until the fourth interval. We conclude that education had the greatest effect on the category fluency test in this Brazilian sample. Therefore, we must take care in evaluating performance in lower educational subjects.

  7. Supercritical Nonlinear Vibration of a Fluid-Conveying Pipe Subjected to a Strong External Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Lei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear vibration of a fluid-conveying pipe subjected to a transverse external harmonic excitation is investigated in the case with two-to-one internal resonance. The excitation amplitude is in the same magnitude of the transverse displacement. The fluid in the pipes flows in the speed larger than the critical speed so that the straight configuration becomes an unstable equilibrium and two curved configurations bifurcate as stable equilibriums. The motion measured from each of curved equilibrium configurations is governed by a nonlinear integro-partial-differential equation with variable coefficients. The Galerkin method is employed to discretize the governing equation into a gyroscopic system consisting of a set of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The method of multiple scales is applied to analyze approximately the gyroscopic system. A set of first-order ordinary differential equations governing the modulations of the amplitude and the phase are derived via the method. In the supercritical regime, the subharmonic, superharmonic, and combination resonances are examined in the presence of the 2 : 1 internal resonance. The steady-state responses and their stabilities are determined. The various jump phenomena in the amplitude-frequency response curves are demonstrated. The effects of the viscosity, the excitation amplitude, the nonlinearity, and the flow speed are observed. The analytical results are supported by the numerical integration.

  8. Fluid-structure interaction analysis for pressurizer surge line subjected to thermal stratification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dong Gu; Jhung, Myung Jo; Chang, Soon Heung

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Temperature of surge line due to stratified flow is defined using CFD analysis. → Fluid-structure interaction analysis is performed to investigate the response characteristics due to thermal stress. → Fatigue usage factors due to thermal stratification are relatively low. → Simplifying temperature distribution in surge line is not always conservative. - Abstract: Serious mechanical damages such as cracks and plastic deformations due to excessive thermal stress caused by thermal stratification have been experienced in several nuclear power plants. In particular, the thermal stratification in the pressurizer surge line has been addressed as one of the significant safety and technical issues. In this study, a detailed unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis involving conjugate heat transfer analysis is performed to obtain the transient temperature distributions in the wall of the pressurizer surge line subjected to stratified internal flows either during out-surge or in-surge operation. The thermal loads from CFD calculations are transferred to the structural analysis code which is employed for the thermal stress analysis to investigate the response characteristics, and the fatigue analysis is ultimately performed. In addition, the thermal stress and fatigue analysis results obtained by applying the realistic temperature distributions from CFD calculations are compared with those by assuming the simplified temperature distributions to identify some requirements for a realistic and conservative thermal stress analysis from a safety point of view.

  9. Osteocytes subjected to pulsating fluid flow regulate osteoblast proliferation and differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vezeridis, Peter S.; Semeins, Cornelis M.; Chen Qian; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke

    2006-01-01

    Osteocytes are thought to orchestrate bone remodeling, but it is unclear exactly how osteocytes influence neighboring bone cells. Here, we tested whether osteocytes, osteoblasts, and periosteal fibroblasts subjected to pulsating fluid flow (PFF) produce soluble factors that modulate the proliferation and differentiation of cultured osteoblasts and periosteal fibroblasts. We found that osteocyte PFF conditioned medium (CM) inhibited bone cell proliferation, and osteocytes produced the strongest inhibition of proliferation compared to osteoblasts and periosteal fibroblasts. The nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) attenuated the inhibitory effects of osteocyte PFF CM, suggesting that a change in NO release is at least partially responsible for the inhibitory effects of osteocyte PFF CM. Furthermore, osteocyte PFF CM stimulated osteoblast differentiation measured as increased alkaline phosphatase activity, and L-NAME decreased the stimulatory effects of osteocyte PFF CM on osteoblast differentiation. We conclude that osteocytes subjected to PFF inhibit proliferation but stimulate differentiation of osteoblasts in vitro via soluble factors and that the release of these soluble factors was at least partially dependent on the activation of a NO pathway in osteocytes in response to PFF. Thus, the osteocyte appears to be more responsive to PFF than the osteoblast or periosteal fibroblast with respect to the production of soluble signaling molecules affecting osteoblast proliferation and differentiation

  10. Contested Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drawing on social science perspectives, Contested Categories presents a series of empirical studies that engage with the often shifting and day-to-day realities of life sciences categories. In doing so, it shows how such categories remain contested and dynamic, and that the boundaries they create...

  11. Water flow patterns induced by bridge oscillation of magnetic fluid between two permanent magnets subjected to alternating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, Seiichi; Yamamoto, Kazuki; Ishimoto, Yukitaka; Nix, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of water flow induced by the bridge oscillation of magnetic fluid between two permanent magnets subject to an external alternating magnetic field. The magnetic fluid bridge is formed in the space between a pair of identical coaxial cylindrical permanent magnets submerged in water. The direction of alternating magnetic field is parallel /antiparallel to the magnetic field produced by two permanent magnets. The magnetic fluid bridge responds to the external alternating magnetic field with harmonic oscillation. The oscillation of magnetic fluid bridge generates water flow around the bridge. Water flow is visualized using a thin milk film at the container bottom. Water flows are observed with a high-speed video camera analysis system. The experimental results show that the flow pattern induced by the bridge oscillation depends on the Keulegan–Carpenter number.

  12. Water flow patterns induced by bridge oscillation of magnetic fluid between two permanent magnets subjected to alternating magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudo, Seiichi, E-mail: sudo@akita-pu.ac.jp [Faculty of Systems Science and Technology, Akita Prefectural University, Ebinokuchi 84-4, Yurihonjo 015-0055 (Japan); Yamamoto, Kazuki [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Ishimoto, Yukitaka; Nix, Stephanie [Faculty of Systems Science and Technology, Akita Prefectural University, Ebinokuchi 84-4, Yurihonjo 015-0055 (Japan)

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of water flow induced by the bridge oscillation of magnetic fluid between two permanent magnets subject to an external alternating magnetic field. The magnetic fluid bridge is formed in the space between a pair of identical coaxial cylindrical permanent magnets submerged in water. The direction of alternating magnetic field is parallel /antiparallel to the magnetic field produced by two permanent magnets. The magnetic fluid bridge responds to the external alternating magnetic field with harmonic oscillation. The oscillation of magnetic fluid bridge generates water flow around the bridge. Water flow is visualized using a thin milk film at the container bottom. Water flows are observed with a high-speed video camera analysis system. The experimental results show that the flow pattern induced by the bridge oscillation depends on the Keulegan–Carpenter number.

  13. Comparison of PRRSV Nucleic Acid and Antibody Detection in Pen-Based Oral Fluid and Individual Serum Samples in Three Different Age Categories of Post-Weaning Pigs from Endemically Infected Farms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick De Regge

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV is the causative agent of an economically important disease in swine. Since it has been shown that PRRSV and PRRSV specific antibodies can be detected in oral fluid, many different aspects have been studied to show that oral fluid could be a worthy alternative diagnostic sample to serum for monitoring and surveillance of this disease. Thorough field evaluations are however missing to convincingly show its usefulness under representative field conditions.Pen-based oral fluid samples and serum samples from all individual pigs in the corresponding pens were collected from post-weaning pigs of three different age categories in eight endemically PRRSV infected farms and one PRRSV free farm in Belgium. All samples were tested by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and ELISA to detect PRRSV RNA and PRRSV specific antibodies, respectively.While the relative specificity of PRRSV detection by qRT-PCR in pen-based oral fluid compared to serum collected from individual pigs was high in all age categories (>90%, the relative sensitivity decreased with the age of the pigs (89, 93 and 10% in 8-12w, 16-20w and 24-28w old pigs, respectively. The latter correlated with a lower percentage of PRRSV positive pigs in serum/pen in the different age categories (55, 29 and 6%, respectively. Irrespective of the age category, pen-based oral fluid samples were always found PCR positive when at least 30% of the individual pigs were positive in serum. PRRSV specific antibody detection in oral fluid by ELISA showed a 100% relative sensitivity to detection in serum since oral fluid samples were always positive as soon as one pig in the pen was positive in serum. On the other hand, two false positive oral fluid samples in 11 pens without serum positive pigs were found, resulting in a relative specificity of 82%. Indications are however present that the oral fluid result indicated the

  14. Fluid-Structure Interaction of a Reed Type Valve Subjected to Piston Displacement

    OpenAIRE

    Estruch, Olga; Lehmkuhl, Oriol; Rigola, Joaquim; Pérez-Segarra, Carles David

    2014-01-01

    In the field of reciprocating compressors, the developing of reed type valves is a challenging task. The understanding of the fluid flow behaviour through the valve reed is essential to improve the valve design. Hence, this work attempts the dynamic simulation of this fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problem, taking into account valve movement due to piston displacement. In this work attends the in-house implemented CFD&HT and moving mesh coupled code TermoFluids [1]. The CFD&HT solver consi...

  15. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  16. Slip behaviour of experimental faults subjected to fluid pressure stimulation: carbonates vs. shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collettini, C.; Scuderi, M. M.; Marone, C.

    2017-12-01

    Fluid overpressure is one of the primary mechanisms for triggering tectonic fault slip and human-induced seismicity. This mechanism has been invoked to explain the dramatic increase in seismicity associated with waste water disposal in intra-plate setting, and it is appealing because fluids lubricate the fault and reduce the effective normal stress that holds the fault in place. Although, this basic physical mechanism is well understood, several fundamental questions remain including the apparent delay between fluid injection and seismicity, the role of fault zone rheology, and the relationship between injection volume and earthquake size. Moreover, models of earthquake nucleation predict that a reduction in normal stress, as expected for fluid overpressure, should stabilize fault slip. Here, we address these questions using laboratory experiments, conducted in the double direct shear configuration in a true-triaxial machine on carbonates and shale fault gouges. In particular, we: 1) evaluate frictional strength and permeability, 2) characterize the rate- and state- friction parameters and 3) study fault slip evolution during fluid pressure stimulations. With increasing fluid pressure, when shear and effective normal stresses reach the failure condition, in calcite gouges, characterized by slightly velocity strengthening behaviour, we observe an acceleration of slip that spontaneously evolves into dynamic failure. For shale gouges, with a strong rate-strengthening behaviour, we document complex fault slip behavior characterized by periodic accelerations and decelerations with slip velocity that remains slow (i.e. v 200 µm/s), never approaching dynamic slip rates. Our data indicate that fault rheology and fault stability is controlled by the coupling between fluid pressure and rate- and state- friction parameters suggesting that their comprehensive characterization is fundamental for assessing the role of fluid pressure in natural and human induced earthquakes.

  17. Adult and child use of love, like, don't like and hate during family mealtimes. Subjective category assessments as food preference talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Sally

    2014-09-01

    Food preference is now a ubiquitous concept in eating research, and closely associated with actual consumption, particularly in relation to children's food preferences. Research in this area is beginning to reveal the effects of parent-child interaction on eating practices though relatively little attention has been paid to the discursive and lexical processes involved. Food preferences are typically associated with the terms 'likes' and 'dislikes' in food preference research. By contrast, adults and children typically use the terms 'love', 'like', 'don't like' and 'hate' to construct and manage food preferences in everyday meal conversations. A corpus of 270 video- and audio-recorded English and Scottish family mealtimes, involving children aged 1-17 years, was searched and analysed for any and all occurrences of subjective category assessments (SCAs; e.g., 'I like X'), featuring the terms 'love', 'like', 'don't like' and 'hate'. Discursive psychology was used to analyse the transcripts and recordings, and illustrated the disparity between adult and child use of SCAs and food preference talk. Within the data set, parents typically made claims about what their children like, and in doing so claimed epistemic primacy over their children's food preferences. Children, by contrast, typically made claims about their own 'don't likes' and likes, and these were frequently countered by their parents or treated as inappropriate claims. Implications for how parents and researchers might reorient to the food preferences lexicon are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cerebrospinal fluid GABA concentration: relationship with impulsivity and history of suicidal behavior, but not aggression, in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Royce; Petty, Frederick; Coccaro, Emil F

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and measures of impulsivity and related behaviors (aggression and suicidality) in healthy volunteer and personality disordered subjects. CSF GABA levels, and measures of impulsivity, aggression, and history of suicidal behavior were obtained by morning lumbar puncture in 57 healthy volunteer subjects and in subjects with personality disorder. CSF GABA levels were not found to correlate with measures of aggression but were found to correlate directly with measures of impulsivity; e.g., a composite measure of impulsivity in all subjects (r=0.35, df=46, P=0.015) and in personality disordered subjects examined separately (r=0.39, df=30, P=0.029). In the personality disorder group, CSF GABA levels were higher among subjects with a history of suicidal behavior compared with those without this history. These data suggest that central GABAergic function correlates directly with impulsiveness and history of suicidal behavior, but not aggressiveness, in personality disordered subjects. This may be consistent with observations that high doses of benzodiazepines can lead to "behavioral disinhibition" in human subjects. Further work assessing this and other aspects of the central GABA system in personality disordered subjects are warranted.

  19. Multiple γ-secretase product peptides are coordinately increased in concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid of a subpopulation of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hata Saori

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcadeinα (Alcα is a neuronal membrane protein that colocalizes with the Alzheimer's amyloid-β precursor protein (APP. Successive cleavage of APP by β- and γ-secretases generates the aggregatable amyloid-β peptide (Aβ, while cleavage of APP or Alcα by α- and γ-secretases generates non-aggregatable p3 or p3-Alcα peptides. Aβ and p3-Alcα can be recovered from human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. We have previously reported alternative processing of APP and Alcα in the CSF of some patients with sporadic mild cognitive impairment (MCI and AD (SAD. Results Using the sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA system that detects total p3-Alcα, we determined levels of total p3-Alcα in CSF from subjects in one of four diagnostic categories (elderly controls, MCI, SAD, or other neurological disease derived from three independent cohorts. Levels of Aβ40 correlated with levels of total p3-Alcα in all cohorts. Conclusions We confirm that Aβ40 is the most abundant Aβ species, and we propose a model in which CSF p3-Alcα can serve as a either (1 a nonaggregatable surrogate marker for γ-secretase activity; (2 as a marker for clearance of transmembrane domain peptides derived from integral protein catabolism; or (3 both. We propose the specification of an MCI/SAD endophenotype characterized by co-elevation of levels of both CSF p3-Alcα and Aβ40, and we propose that subjects in this category might be especially responsive to therapeutics aimed at modulation of γ-secretase function and/or transmembrane domain peptide clearance. These peptides may also be used to monitor the efficacy of therapeutics that target these steps in Aβ metabolism

  20. Intra-well relaxation process in magnetic fluids subjected to strong polarising fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, C.N., E-mail: cmarin@physics.uvt.ro [West University of Timisoara, Faculty of Physics, B-dul V. Parvan, No. 4, Timisoara 300223 (Romania); Fannin, P.C. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Malaescu, I.; Barvinschi, P.; Ercuta, A. [West University of Timisoara, Faculty of Physics, B-dul V. Parvan, No. 4, Timisoara 300223 (Romania)

    2012-02-15

    We report on the frequency and field dependent complex magnetic susceptibility measurements of a kerosene-based magnetic fluid with iron oxide nanoparticles, stabilized with oleic acid, in the frequency range 0.1-6 GHz and over the polarising field range of 0-168.4 kA/m. By increasing polarising field, H, a subsidiary loss-peak clearly occurs in the vicinity of the ferromagnetic resonance peak, from which it remains distinct even in strong polarising fields of 168.4 kA/m. This is in contrast to other reported cases in which the intra-well relaxation process is manifested only as a shoulder of the resonance peak, which vanishes in polarising fields larger than that of 100 kA/m. The results of the XRD analysis connected to the anisotropy field results confirm that the investigated sample contains particles of magnetite and of the tetragonal phase of maghemite. Taking into account the characteristics of our sample, the theoretical analysis revealed that the intra-well relaxation process of the small particles of the tetragonal phase of maghemite may be responsible for the subsidiary loss peak of the investigated magnetic fluid. - Highlights: > Intra-well relaxation process in a magnetic fluid is studied. > Sample consists of the tetragonal phase of maghemite and magnetite particles. > A subsidiary relaxation peak is observed in the vicinity of the resonance peak. > Relaxation peak is correlated to the intra-well relaxation process. > It is assigned to the tetragonal phase of maghemite particles.

  1. A Comparison in Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in the Gingival Crevicular Fluid from Subjects with Periodontitis and Healthy Individuals using Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Salehi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori among the microorganisms isolated from the oral environment brings up the question of whether oral cavity acts as a reservoir for this bacterium. The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the prevalence of H. pylori in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF of patients with chronic periodontitis (CP as an infectious disease and healthy subjects using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Materials and methods. Periodontal examination was performed for all participants. Two sterilized paper points were inserted to the maximum depth of the periodontal pockets of selected teeth. The presence of H. pylori was determined by PCR. In the CP group, the severity of disease was defined as moderate or severe. Further, the frequency of Helicobacter pylori in GCF of each category, and the association between the presence of Helicobacter pylori in GCF and periodontitis were determined. Results. There was no statistically significant association between CP and the presence of H. pylori in the GCF (P = 0.62, there was no significant correlation between the presence of H. pylori in the GCF and gender of the subjects (P = 0.28 in CP group and P = 0.25 in control group, and there was no significant correlation between the presence of H. pylori in the GCF and severity of periodontitis (P = 0.20. Conclusion. Oral cavity acts as a reservoir for H. pylori; however, the results do not show that H. pylori is involved in periodontal disease

  2. Protein carbonyl: An oxidative stress marker in gingival crevicular fluid in healthy, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avani R Pradeep

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A defined role for reactive oxygen species (ROS in the tissue destruction that characterizes periodontitis has been described. Protein carbonyl (PC is the most widely used biomarker for oxidative damage to proteins, and reflects cellular damage induced by multiple forms of ROS. The purpose of this study is to determine the presence of PC in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF in healthy, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis (CP subjects and to find an association, if any. Materials and Methods: A total number of 75 subjects (38 males and 37 females were selected based on their clinical parameters into three groups: Group 1 (25 healthy subjects, Group 2 (25 gingivitis subjects, and Group 3 (25 CP subjects. GCF samples were collected to estimate the levels of PC. Results: The PC concentration in GCF was highest in subjects with CP as compared to gingivitis and healthy subjects and a significant association was observed between GCF PC levels and all periodontal parameters. Conclusion: There was an increase in PC levels in GCF as the disease process progressed from healthy to gingivitis and CP, suggesting a role for increased oxidative stress in CP.

  3. Nonsmoker Exposure to Secondhand Cannabis Smoke. III. Oral Fluid and Blood Drug Concentrations and Corresponding Subjective Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, Edward J; Bigelow, George E; Herrmann, Evan S; Mitchell, John M; LoDico, Charles; Flegel, Ronald; Vandrey, Ryan

    2015-09-01

    The increasing use of highly potent strains of cannabis prompted this new evaluation of human toxicology and subjective effects following passive exposure to cannabis smoke. The study was designed to produce extreme cannabis smoke exposure conditions tolerable to drug-free nonsmokers. Six experienced cannabis users smoked cannabis cigarettes [5.3% Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in Session 1 and 11.3% THC in Sessions 2 and 3] in a closed chamber. Six nonsmokers were seated alternately with smokers during exposure sessions of 1 h duration. Sessions 1 and 2 were conducted with no ventilation and ventilation was employed in Session 3. Oral fluid, whole blood and subjective effect measures were obtained before and at multiple time points after each session. Oral fluid was analyzed by ELISA (4 ng/mL cutoff concentration) and by LC-MS-MS (limit of quantitation) for THC (1 ng/mL) and total THCCOOH (0.02 ng/mL). Blood was analyzed by LC-MS-MS (0.5 ng/mL) for THC, 11-OH-THC and free THCCOOH. Positive tests for THC in oral fluid and blood were obtained for nonsmokers up to 3 h following exposure. Ratings of subjective effects correlated with the degree of exposure. Subjective effect measures and amounts of THC absorbed by nonsmokers (relative to smokers) indicated that extreme secondhand cannabis smoke exposure mimicked, though to a lesser extent, active cannabis smoking. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Equivalent isentropic expansion efficiency of real fluid subject to concurrent pressure drop and heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, P.; Ganni, V.

    2017-12-01

    Concurrent pressure drop and cooling of a super-critical or sub-cooled liquid stream can have the same effect as adiabatic expansion even though there is no work extraction. A practical implementation is as straight forward as counter-flow heat exchange with a colder fluid. The concurrent pressure drop need not be continuous with respect to the heat exchange, but may occur in a step-wise manner, in between heat exchange. Two aspects of this effect of pressure drop with heat transfer are examined; a thermodynamic and a practical process equivalent isentropic expansion efficiency. This real fluid phenomenon is useful to understand in applications where work extraction is either not practical or has not been developed. A super-critical helium supply, often around 3 bar and 4.5 K, being ultimately used as a superfluid (usually around 1.8 to 2.1 K) to cool a Niobium superconducting radio frequency cavity or a superconducting magnet is one such particular application. This paper examines the thermodynamic nature of this phenomenon.

  5. Chaotic Darcy-Brinkman convection in a fluid saturated porous layer subjected to gravity modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moli Zhao

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of Darcy-Brinkman model, the chaotic convection in a couple stress fluid saturated porous media under gravity modulation is investigated using the nonlinear stability analyses. The transition from steady convection to chaos is analysed with the effect of Darcy-Brinkman couple stress parameter and the gravity modulation. The results show that the chaotic behavior is connected with the critical value of Rayleigh number which is dependent upon the oscillation frequency and the Darcy-Brinkman couple stress parameter. If the oscillation frequency Ω is not zero, the Rayleigh number value R of the chaotic behavior increases with the increase of the Darcy-Brinkman couple stress parameter. The Darcy-Brinkman couple stress parameter and the gravity modulation decrease the rate of heat transfer. Keywords: Darcy-Brinkman model, Gravity modulation, Nonlinear stability, Chaotic convection

  6. Thyroid Autoantibodies in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Subjects with and without Thyroid Disease: Implications for Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Ilias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Plasma antithyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (anti-Tg are widely used in the diagnosis of autoimmune thyroiditis. No research has compared anti-TPO and anti-Tg both in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of healthy individuals vis-à-vis patients with thyroid disease. Methods. We measured anti-TPO and anti-Tg antibodies in plasma and CSF in nine subjects (mean age ± SD: 73 ± 6 years with hypothyroidism and nine subjects (mean age ± SD: 73 ± 8 years without thyroid disease. Results. The concentration of anti-TPO autoantibodies in CSF was very low compared to plasma in both subjects with thyroid and without thyroid disease (P=0.007. CSF anti-Tg autoantibodies titers were very low compared to the plasma in subjects with thyroid disease (P=0.004, whereas, in subjects without thyroid disease, this difference did not reach statistical significance (P=0.063. Conclusions. Thyroid autoantibodies levels were low in plasma and CSF; we did not observe any transfer of thyroid autoantibodies from the peripheral blood to the CSF. Therefore, regarding Hashimoto’s encephalopathy, where elevated antithyroid autoantibodies are often measured in blood, it is more likely that thyroiditis and encephalopathy represent nonspecific, but distinct, events of an aggressive immune system.

  7. Inviscid linear stability analysis of two fluid columns of different densities subject to gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathama, Aditya; Pantano, Carlos

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the inviscid linear stability of vertical interface between two fluid columns of different densities under the influence of gravity. In this flow arrangement, the two free streams are continuously accelerating, in contrast to the canonical Kelvin-Helmholtz or Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities whose base flows are stationary (or weakly time dependent). In these classical cases, the temporal evolution of the interface can be expressed as Fourier or Laplace solutions in time. This is not possible in our case; instead, we employ the initial value problem method to solve the equations analytically. The results, expressed in terms of the well-known parabolic cylinder function, indicate that the instability grows as the exponential of a quadratic function of time. The analysis shows that in this accelerating Kelvin-Helmholtz configuration, the interface is unconditionally unstable at all wave modes, despite the presence of surface tension. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (Award No. DE-NA0002382) and the California Institute of Technology.

  8. Large Deformation of an Elastic Rod with Structural Anisotropy Subjected to Fluid Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Masoud; Mureithi, Njuki; Gosselin, Frederick

    2015-11-01

    In the present work, we seek to understand the fundamental mechanisms of three-dimensional reconfiguration of plants by studying the large deformation of a flexible rod in fluid flow. Flexible rods made of Polyurethane foam and reinforced with Nylon fibers are tested in a wind tunnel. The rods have bending-torsion coupling which induces a torsional deformation during asymmetric bending. A mathematical model is also developed by coupling the Kirchhoff rod theory with a semi-empirical drag formulation. Different alignments of the material frame with respect to the flow direction and a range of structural properties are considered to study their effect on the deformation of the flexible rod and its drag scaling. Results show that twisting causes the flexible rods to reorient and bend with the minimum bending rigidity. It is also found that the drag scaling of the rod in the large deformation regime is not affected by torsion. Finally, using a proper set of dimensionless numbers, the state of a bending and twisting rod is characterized as a beam undergoing a pure bending deformation.

  9. Disturbed Glucose Metabolism in Rat Neurons Exposed to Cerebrospinal Fluid Obtained from Multiple Sclerosis Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepali Mathur

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Axonal damage is widely accepted as a major cause of permanent functional disability in Multiple Sclerosis (MS. In relapsing-remitting MS, there is a possibility of remyelination by myelin producing cells and restoration of neurological function. The purpose of this study was to delineate the pathophysiological mechanisms underpinning axonal injury through hitherto unknown factors present in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF that may regulate axonal damage, remyelinate the axon and make functional recovery possible. We employed primary cultures of rat unmyelinated cerebellar granule neurons and treated them with CSF obtained from MS and Neuromyelitis optica (NMO patients. We performed microarray gene expression profiling to study changes in gene expression in treated neurons as compared to controls. Additionally, we determined the influence of gene-gene interaction upon the whole metabolic network in our experimental conditions using the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins (STRING program. Our findings revealed the downregulated expression of genes involved in glucose metabolism in MS-derived CSF-treated neurons and upregulated expression of genes in NMO-derived CSF-treated neurons. We conclude that factors in the CSF of these patients caused a perturbation in metabolic gene(s expression and suggest that MS appears to be linked with metabolic deformity.

  10. Organizational Categories as Viewing Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores how two Danish rehabilitation organizations textual guidelines for assessment of clients’ personality traits influence the actual evaluation of clients. The analysis will show how staff members produce institutional identities corresponding to organizational categories, which very often have little or no relevance for the clients evaluated. The goal of the article is to demonstrate how the institutional complex that frames the work of the organizations produces the client ...

  11. Radioactive mercury distribution in biological fluids and excretion in human subjects after inhalation of mercury vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherian, M.G.; Hursh, J.B.; Clarkson, T.W.; Allen, J.

    1978-01-01

    The distribution of mercury in red blood cells (RBCs) and plasma, and its excretion in urine and feces are described in five human subjects during the first 7 days following inhalation of radioactive mercury vapor. A major portion (98%) of radioactive mercury in whole blood is initially accumulated in the RBCs and is transferred partly to the plasma compartment until the ratio of mercury in RBCs to plasma is about 2 within 20 h. The cumulative urinary and fecal excretion of mercury for 7 days is about 11.6% of the retained dose, and is closely related to the percent decline in body burden of mercury. There is little correlation between either the urinary excretion and plasma radioactivity of mercury, or the specific activities of urine and plasma mercury, suggesting a mechanism other than a direct glomerular filtration involved in the urinary excretion of recently exposed mercury. These studies suggest that blood mercury levels can be used as an index of recent exposure, while urinary levels may be an index of renal concentration of mercury. However, there is no reliable index for mercury concentration in the brain

  12. The Effect of Fin Pitch on Fluid Elastic Instability of Tube Arrays Subjected to Cross Flow of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Sandeep Rangrao; Pavitran, Sampat

    2018-02-01

    Failure of tubes in shell and tube exchangers is attributed to flow induced vibrations of such tubes. There are different excitations mechanisms due to which flow induced vibration occurs and among such mechanisms, fluid elastic instability is the most prominent one as it causes the most violent vibrations and may lead to rapid tube failures within short time. Fluid elastic instability is the fluid-structure interaction phenomenon which occurs when energy input by the fluid force exceeds energy expended in damping. This point is referred as instability threshold and corresponding velocity is referred as critical velocity. Once flow velocity exceeds critical flow velocity, the vibration amplitude increases very rapidly with flow velocity. An experimental program is carried out to determine the critical velocity at instability for plain and finned tube arrays subjected to cross flow of water. The tube array geometry is parallel triangular with cantilever end condition and pitch ratios considered are 2.6 and 2.1. The objective of research is to determine the effect of increase in pitch ratio on instability threshold for plain tube arrays and to assess the effect of addition of fins as well as increase in fin density on instability threshold for finned tube arrays. Plain tube array with two different pitch ratios; 2.1 and 2.6 and finned tube arrays with same pitch ratio; 2.6 but with two different fin pitches; such as fine (10 fpi) and coarse (4 fpi) are considered for the experimentation. Connors' equation that relates critical velocity at instability to different parameters, on which instability depends, has been used as the basis for analysis and the concept of effective diameter is used for the present investigation. The modal parameters are first suitably modified using natural frequency reduction setup that is already designed and developed to reduce natural frequency and hence to achieve experimental simulation of fluid elastic instability within the limited

  13. Comparison of Omadacycline and Tigecycline Pharmacokinetics in the Plasma, Epithelial Lining Fluid, and Alveolar Cells of Healthy Adult Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotfried, Mark H; Horn, Karolyn; Garrity-Ryan, Lynne; Villano, Stephen; Tzanis, Evan; Chitra, Surya; Manley, Amy; Tanaka, S Ken; Rodvold, Keith A

    2017-09-01

    The steady-state concentrations of omadacycline and tigecycline in the plasma, epithelial lining fluid (ELF), and alveolar cells (AC) of 58 healthy adult subjects were obtained. Subjects were administered either omadacycline at 100 mg intravenously (i.v.) every 12 h for two doses followed by 100 mg i.v. every 24 h for three doses or tigecycline at an initial dose of 100 mg i.v. followed by 50 mg i.v. every 12 h for six doses. A bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage were performed once in each subject following the start of the fifth dose of omadacycline at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, or 24 h and after the start of the seventh dose of tigecycline at 2, 4, 6, or 12 h. The value of the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) from time zero to 24 h postdosing (AUC 0-24 ) (based on mean concentrations) in ELF and the ratio of the ELF to total plasma omadacycline concentration based on AUC 0-24 values were 17.23 mg · h/liter and 1.47, respectively. The AUC 0-24 value in AC was 302.46 mg · h/liter, and the ratio of the AC to total plasma omadacycline concentration was 25.8. In comparison, the values of the AUC from time zero to 12 h postdosing (AUC 0-12 ) based on the mean concentrations of tigecycline in ELF and AC were 3.16 and 38.50 mg · h/liter, respectively. The ratio of the ELF and AC to total plasma concentrations of tigecycline based on AUC 0-12 values were 1.71 and 20.8, respectively. The pharmacokinetic advantages of higher and sustained concentrations of omadacycline compared to those of tigecycline in plasma, ELF, and AC suggest that omadacycline is a promising antibacterial agent for the treatment of lower respiratory tract bacterial infections caused by susceptible pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Gotfried et al.

  14. The radiation and variable viscosity effects on electrically conducting fluid over a vertically moving plate subjected to suction and heat flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malekzadeh, P., E-mail: malekzadeh@pgu.ac.i [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75168 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence for Computational Mechanics, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghimi, M.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Shaid Bahonar University, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nickaeen, M. [K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: {yields} A new application of the differential quadrature method in thermo-fluid fields. {yields} Moving vertical plate with suction and heat flux is considered. {yields} Fluid with variable viscosity subjected to thermal radiation is studied. -- Abstract: In this paper, firstly, the applicability of the differential quadrature method (DQM) as an efficient and accurate numerical method for solving the problem of variable viscosity and thermally radiative unsteady magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) flow over a moving vertical plate with suction and heat flux is investigated. The spatial as well as the temporal domains are discretized using the DQM. The fast rate of convergence of the method is demonstrated and for the cases that a solution is available, comparison is done. Then, effects of the temperature dependence of viscosity and different fluid parameters on the velocity and temperature of transient MHD flow subjected to the above mentioned boundary condition are studied.

  15. Association of Progranulin and High Sensitivity CRP Concentrations in Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Serum in Chronic Periodontitis Subjects with and without Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Pradeep

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is considered as a strong risk factor of inflammatory periodontal tissue destruction. The purpose of this study is to determine presence of progranulin (PGRN and high sensitivity C reactive protein (hs CRP levels in serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF in obese subjects with chronic periodontitis and to find an association, if any.

  16. Analytical solution for the transient response of a fluid/saturated porous medium halfspace system subjected to an impulsive line source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Zhendong; Ling, Daosheng; Jing, Liping; Li, Yongqiang

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, transient wave propagation is investigated within a fluid/saturated porous medium halfspace system with a planar interface that is subjected to a cylindrical P-wave line source. Assuming the permeability coefficient is sufficiently large, analytical solutions for the transient response of the fluid/saturated porous medium halfspace system are developed. Moreover, the analytical solutions are presented in simple closed forms wherein each term represents a transient physical wave, especially the expressions for head waves. The methodology utilised to determine where the head wave can emerge within the system is also given. The wave fields within the fluid and porous medium are first defined considering the behaviour of two compressional waves and one tangential wave in the saturated porous medium and one compressional wave in the fluid. Substituting these wave fields into the interface continuity conditions, the analytical solutions in the Laplace domain are then derived. To transform the solutions into the time domain, a suitable distortion of the contour is provided to change the integration path of the solution, after which the analytical solutions in the Laplace domain are transformed into the time domain by employing Cagniard's method. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate some interesting features of the fluid/saturated porous medium halfspace system. In particular, the interface wave and head waves that propagate along the interface between the fluid and saturated porous medium can be observed.

  17. Fluid-elastic Instability of Helical Tubes Subjected to Single-Phase External Flow and Two-Phase Internal Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong Chull Jo; Myung Jo Jhung; Woong Sik Kim; Hho Jung Kim

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the fluid-elastic instability characteristics of steam generator helical type tubes in operating nuclear power plants. The thermal-hydraulic conditions of both tube side and shell side flow fields are predicted by a general purpose computational fluid dynamics code employing the finite volume element modeling. To get the natural frequency, corresponding mode shape and participation factor, modal analyses are performed for helical type tubes with various conditions. Investigated are the effects of the helix angle, the number of supports and the status of the inner fluid on the modal, and fluid-elastic instability characteristics of the tubes, which are expressed in terms of the natural frequency, corresponding mode shape, and stability ratio. (authors)

  18. Flutter instability of cantilevered carbon nanotubes caused by magnetic fluid flow subjected to a longitudinal magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi-Goughari, Moslem; Jeon, Soo; Kwon, Hyock-Ju

    2018-04-01

    CNT (Carbon nanotube)-based fluidic systems hold a great potential for emerging medical applications such as drug delivery for cancer therapy. CNTs can be used to deliver anticancer drugs into a target site under a magnetic field guidance. One of the critical issues in designing such systems is how to avoid the vibration induced by the fluid flow, which is undesirable and may even promote the structural instability. The main objective of the present research is to develop a fluid structure interaction (FSI) model to investigate the flutter instability of a cantilevered CNT induced by a magnetic fluid flow under a longitudinal magnetic field. The CNT is assumed to be embedded in a viscoelastic matrix to consider the effect of biological medium around it. To obtain a dynamical model for the system, the Navier-Stokes theory of magnetic-fluid flow is coupled to the Euler-Bernoulli beam model for CNT. The small size effects of the magnetic fluid and CNT are considered through the small scale parameters including Knudsen number (Kn) and the nonlocal parameter. Then, the extended Galerkin's method is applied to solve the FSI governing equations, and to derive the stability diagrams of the system. Results show how the magnetic properties of the fluid flow have an effect on improving the stability of the cantilevered CNT by increasing the flutter velocity.

  19. The effect of LCZ696 (sacubitril/valsartan) on amyloid‐β concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubouchi, Chiaki; Ayalasomayajula, Surya; Pal, Parasar; Valentin, Marie‐Anne; Hinder, Markus; Jhee, Stanford; Gevorkyan, Hakop; Rajman, Iris

    2016-01-01

    Aims LCZ696 (angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor) is a novel drug developed for the treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Neprilysin is one of multiple enzymes degrading amyloid‐β (Aβ). Its inhibition may increase Aβ levels. The potential exists that treatment of LCZ696, through the inhibition of neprilysin by LBQ657 (an LCZ696 metabolite), may result in accumulation of Aβ. The aim of this study was to assess the blood–brain‐barrier penetration of LBQ657 and the potential effects of LCZ696 on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of Aβ isoforms in healthy human volunteers. Methods In a double‐blind, randomized, parallel group, placebo‐controlled study, healthy subjects received once daily LCZ696 (400 mg, n = 21) or placebo (n = 22) for 14 days. Results LCZ696 had no significant effect on CSF AUEC(0,36 h) of the aggregable Aβ species 1–42 or 1–40 compared with placebo (estimated treatment ratios 0.98 [95% CI 0.73, 1.34; P = 0.919] and 1.05 [95% CI 0.82, 1.34; P = 0.702], respectively). A 42% increase in CSF AUEC(0,36 h) of soluble Aβ 1–38 was observed (estimated treatment ratio 1.42 [95% CI 1.05, 1.91; P = 0.023]). CSF levels of LBQ657 and CSF Aβ 1–42, 1–40, and 1–38 concentrations were not related (r 2 values 0.022, 0.010, and 0.008, respectively). Conclusions LCZ696 did not cause changes in CSF levels of aggregable Aβ isoforms (1–42 and 1–40) compared with placebo, despite achieving CSF concentrations of LBQ657 sufficient to inhibit neprilysin. The clinical relevance of the increase in soluble CSF Aβ 1–38 is currently unknown. PMID:26663387

  20. Electro-osmotically actuated oscillatory flow of a physiological fluid on a porous microchannel subject to an external AC electric field having dissimilar frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Jagadis C.; Chandra, Sukumar

    2014-04-01

    Electro-osmotic flow of a physiological fluid with prominent micropolar characteristics, flowing over a microchannel has been analyzed for a situation, where the system is subject to the action of an external AC electric field. In order to account for the rotation of the micro-particles suspended in the physiological fluid, the fluid has been treated as a micropolar fluid. The microchannel is considered to be bounded by two porous plates executing oscillatory motion. Such motion of the plates will normally induce oscillatory flow of the fluid. The governing equations of the fluid include a second-order partial differential equation depicting Gauss's law of electrical charge distributions and two other partial differential equations of second order that arise out of the laws of conservation of linear and angular momenta. These equations have been solved under the sole influence of electrokinetic forces, by using appropriate boundary conditions. This enabled us to determine explicit analytical expressions for the electro-osmotic velocity of the fluid and the microrotation of the suspended micro-particles. These expressions have been used to obtain numerical estimates of important physical variables associated with the oscillatory electro-osmotic flow of a blood sample inside a micro-bio-fluidic device. The numerical results presented in graphical form clearly indicate that the formation of an electrical double layer near the vicinity of the wall causes linear momentum to reduce. In contrast, the angular momentum increases with the enhancement of microrotation of the suspended microparticles. The study will find important applications in the validation of results of further experimental and numerical models pertaining to flow in micro-bio-fluidic devices. It will also be useful in the improvement of the design and construction of various micro-bio-fluidic devices.

  1. Skeletal Adaptation to Intramedullary Pressure-Induced Interstitial Fluid Flow Is Enhanced in Mice Subjected to Targeted Osteocyte Ablation

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Ronald Y.; Meays, Diana R.; Meilan, Alexander S.; Jones, Jeremiah; Miramontes, Rosa; Kardos, Natalie; Yeh, Jiunn-Chern; Frangos, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Interstitial fluid flow (IFF) is a potent regulatory signal in bone. During mechanical loading, IFF is generated through two distinct mechanisms that result in spatially distinct flow profiles: poroelastic interactions within the lacunar-canalicular system, and intramedullary pressurization. While the former generates IFF primarily within the lacunar-canalicular network, the latter generates significant flow at the endosteal surface as well as within the tissue. This gives rise to the intrigu...

  2. Textural and fluid phase analysis of rock salt subjected to the combined effects of pressure, heat and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huertas, F.; Major, J.C.; Del Olmo, C.

    1992-01-01

    The formation of colloidal sodium by radiolytic processes is a main concern with respect to the safety of disposal of high-level radioactive waste in salt formations. The research work seeks to assess the irradiation damage in natural rock salt when exposed to a different dose, dose rate, temperature and time of gamma irradiation. The work encompasses four major tasks: (i) detailed characterization of both solid and fluid phases of natural rock salt; (ii) gamma irradiation of salt samples; (iii) determination of the amount of colloidal sodium present in irradiated samples; (iv) calculation of radiation damage. 40 refs., 36 figs., 34 tabs

  3. Osmotic relations of the coelomic fluid and body wall tissues in Arenicola marina subjected to salinity change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.; Spaargaren, D.H.

    1979-01-01

    nitrogenous organic molecules (ninhydrin-positive substances, NPS) in the body wall tissues and in the coelomic fluid of specimens of Arenicola in response to sudden changes in salinity. The coelomic solutes consist almost entirely of electrolytes and the osmotic contribution of NPS is essentially negligible....... In the body wall extracts, however, NPS accounts for at least one third of the osmotic concentration and for most of the substantial non-electrolyte fraction. There is no evidence from coelomic NPS measurements for extrusion of cellular amino acids during adaptation to lowered salinity. In diluted sea water...

  4. Coupling of electromagnetics and structural/fluid dynamics - application to the dual coolant blanket subjected to plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, T.

    1996-01-01

    Some aspects concerning the coupling of quasi-stationary electromagnetics and the dynamics of structure and fluid are investigated. The necessary equations are given in a dimensionless form. The dimensionless parameters in these equations are used to evaluate the importance of the different coupling effects. A finite element formulation of the eddy-current damping in solid structures is developed. With this formulation, an existing finite element method (FEM) structural dynamics code is extended and coupled to an FEM eddy-current code. With this program system, the influence of the eddy-current damping on the dynamic loading of the dual coolant blanket during a centered plasma disruption is determined. The analysis proves that only in loosely fixed or soft structures will eddy-current damping considerably reduce the resulting stresses. Additionally, the dynamic behavior of the liquid metal in the blankets' poloidal channels is described with a simple two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic approach. The analysis of the dimensionless parameters shows that for small-scale experiments, which are designed to model the coupled electromagnetic and structural/fluid dynamic effects in such a blanket, the same magnetic fields must be applied as in the real fusion device. This will be the easiest way to design experiments that produce transferable results. 10 refs., 7 figs

  5. Relativistic fluid theories - Self organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahajan, S.M.; Hazeltine, R.D.; Yoshida, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Developments in two distinct but related subjects are reviewed: 1) Formulation and investigation of closed fluid theories which transcend the limitations of standard magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), in particular, theories which are valid in the long mean free path limit and in which pressure anisotropy, heat flow, and arbitrarily strong sheared flows are treated consistently, and 2) Exploitation of the two-fluid theories to derive new plasma configurations in which the flow-field is a co-determinant of the overall dynamics; some of these states belong to the category of self-organized relaxed states. Physical processes which may provide a route to self-organization and complexity are also explored. (author)

  6. An analytical model for the prediction of fluid-elastic forces in a rod bundle subjected to axial flow: theory, experimental validation and application to PWR fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaud, F.

    1997-01-01

    A model predicting the fluid-elastic forces in a bundle of circular cylinders subjected to axial flow is presented in this paper. Whereas previously published models were limited to circular flow channel, the present one allows to take a rectangular flow external boundary into account. For that purpose, an original approach is derived from the standard method of images. This model will eventually be used to predict the fluid-structure coupling between the flow of primary coolant and a fuel assemblies in PWR nuclear reactors. It is indeed of major importance since the flow is shown to induce quite high damping and could therefore mitigate the incidence of an external load like a seismic excitation on the dynamics of the assemblies. The proposed model is validated on two cases from the literature but still needs further comparisons with the experiments being currently carried out on the EDF set-up. The flow has been shown to induce an approximate 12% damping on a PWR fuel assembly, at nominal reactor conditions. The possible grid effect on the fluid-structure coupling has been neglected so far but will soon be investigated at EDF. (author)

  7. Categories from scratch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poss, R.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of category from mathematics happens to be useful to computer programmers in many ways. Unfortunately, all "good" explanations of categories so far have been designed by mathematicians, or at least theoreticians with a strong background in mathematics, and this makes categories

  8. Nonlocal and surface effects on the flutter instability of cantilevered nanotubes conveying fluid subjected to follower forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahaadini, Reza [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sirjan University of Technology, 78137-33385 Sirjan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseini, Mohammad, E-mail: hosseini@sirjantech.ac.ir [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sirjan University of Technology, 78137-33385 Sirjan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jamalpoor, Ali [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    On the basis of nonlocal elasticity theory, this paper studies the dynamic structural instability behavior of cantilever nanotubes conveying fluid incorporating end concentrated follower force and distributed tangential load, resting on the visco-Pasternak substrate. In order to improve the accuracy of the results, surface effects, i.e. surface elasticity and residual stresses are considered. Extended Hamilton’s principle is implemented to obtain the nonlocal governing partial differential equation and related boundary conditions. Then, the extended Galerkin technique is used to convert partial differential equations into a general set of ordinary differential equations. Numerical results are expressed to reveal the variations of the critical flow velocity for flutter phenomenon of cantilever nanotubes with the various values of nonlocal parameter, mass ratios, nanotubes thickness, surface effects, various parameters of the visco-Pasternak medium, constant follower force and distributed compressive tangential load. Some numerical results of this research illustrated that the values of critical flutter flow velocity and stable region increase by considering surface effects. Also, critical flutter flow velocity decreases towards zero by increasing the value of the distributed compressive tangential load and constant follower force.

  9. Effect of Ultrasonic Surface Impact on the Fatigue Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V Subject to Simulated Body Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojian Cao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification (UNSM on the fatigue behavior of Ti6Al4V (TC4 in simulated body fluid (SBF was investigated. UNSM with the condition of a static load of 25 N, vibration amplitude of 30 μm and 36,000 strikes per unit produced about 35 μm surface severe plastic deformation (SPD layers on the TC4 specimens. One group was treated with a hybrid surface treatment (UNSM + TiN film. UNSM technique improves the micro hardness and the compressive residual stress. The surface roughness is increased slightly, but it can be remarkably improved by the TiN film. The fatigue strength of TC4 is improved by about 7.9% after UNSM. Though the current density of corrosion is increased and the pitting corrosion is accelerated, UNSM still improved the fatigue strength of TC4 after pre-soaking in SBF by 10.8%. Interior cracks initiate at the deformed carbide and oxide inclusions due to the ultrasonic impacts of UNSM. Corrosion products are always observed at the edge of fracture surface to both interior cracks and surface cracks. Coating a TiN film on the UNSMed surface helps to improve the whole properties of TC4 further.

  10. Fluid-elastic instability in tube arrays subjected to air-water and steam-water cross-flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, D.; Dhir, V. K.; Catton, I.

    2009-10-01

    Flow induced vibrations in heat exchanger tubes have led to numerous accidents and economic losses in the past. Efforts have been made to systematically study the cause of these vibrations and develop remedial design criteria for their avoidance. In this research, experiments were systematically carried out with air-water and steam-water cross-flow over horizontal tubes. A normal square tube array of pitch-to-diameter ratio of 1.4 was used in the experiments. The tubes were suspended from piano wires and strain gauges were used to measure the vibrations. Tubes made of aluminum; stainless steel and brass were systematically tested by maintaining approximately the same stiffness in the tube-wire systems. Instability was clearly seen in single phase and two-phase flow and the critical flow velocity was found to be proportional to tube mass. The present study shows that fully flexible arrays become unstable at a lower flow velocity when compared to a single flexible tube surrounded by rigid tubes. It is also found that tubes are more stable in steam-water flow as compared to air-water flow. Nucleate boiling on the tube surface is also found to have a stabilizing effect on fluid-elastic instability.

  11. Lower leukotriene C4 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of asthmatic subjects after 2.5 years of inhaled corticosteroid therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Oosterhoff

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term treatment with inhaled corticosteroids has been shown to result in improvement of symptoms and lung function in subjects with asthma. Arachidonic acid (AA metabolites are thought to play a role in the pathophysiology of asthma. It was assessed whether differences could be found in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL AA metabolite levels between subjects with asthma who were treated for 2.5 years with inhaled bronchodilators alone or in combination with inhaled corticosteroids. Prostaglandin (PGD2, PGF2α, 6-keto-PGF1α, thromboxane B2, leukotriene (LTC4 and LTB4 levels and cell numbers were assessed in BAL fluid from 22 non-smoking asthmatic subjects. They were participating in a randomized, double-blind multicentre drug trial over a period of 2.5 years. Results of the group treated with inhaled corticosteroids (CS+: beclomethasone 200 μg four times daily were compared with the other group (CS− which was treated with either ipratropium bromide (40 μg four times daily or placebo. BAL LTC4 levels of asthmatic subjects were significantly lower after 2.5 years inhaled corticosteroid therapy (CS+, 9(1–17 pg/ml vs. CS−, 16(6-53 pg/ml; p = 0.01. The same trend was observed for the PGD2 levels. The results suggest that inhaled corticosteroids may exert their beneficial effect on lung function via a mechanism in which inhibition of LTC4 synthesis in the airways is involved.

  12. Skeletal adaptation to intramedullary pressure-induced interstitial fluid flow is enhanced in mice subjected to targeted osteocyte ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ronald Y; Meays, Diana R; Meilan, Alexander S; Jones, Jeremiah; Miramontes, Rosa; Kardos, Natalie; Yeh, Jiunn-Chern; Frangos, John A

    2012-01-01

    Interstitial fluid flow (IFF) is a potent regulatory signal in bone. During mechanical loading, IFF is generated through two distinct mechanisms that result in spatially distinct flow profiles: poroelastic interactions within the lacunar-canalicular system, and intramedullary pressurization. While the former generates IFF primarily within the lacunar-canalicular network, the latter generates significant flow at the endosteal surface as well as within the tissue. This gives rise to the intriguing possibility that loading-induced IFF may differentially activate osteocytes or surface-residing cells depending on the generating mechanism, and that sensation of IFF generated via intramedullary pressurization may be mediated by a non-osteocytic bone cell population. To begin to explore this possibility, we used the Dmp1-HBEGF inducible osteocyte ablation mouse model and a microfluidic system for modulating intramedullary pressure (ImP) to assess whether structural adaptation to ImP-driven IFF is altered by partial osteocyte depletion. Canalicular convective velocities during pressurization were estimated through the use of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and computational modeling. Following osteocyte ablation, transgenic mice exhibited severe losses in bone structure and altered responses to hindlimb suspension in a compartment-specific manner. In pressure-loaded limbs, transgenic mice displayed similar or significantly enhanced structural adaptation to Imp-driven IFF, particularly in the trabecular compartment, despite up to ∼50% of trabecular lacunae being uninhabited following ablation. Interestingly, regression analysis revealed relative gains in bone structure in pressure-loaded limbs were correlated with reductions in bone structure in unpressurized control limbs, suggesting that adaptation to ImP-driven IFF was potentiated by increases in osteoclastic activity and/or reductions in osteoblastic activity incurred independently of pressure loading

  13. Skeletal adaptation to intramedullary pressure-induced interstitial fluid flow is enhanced in mice subjected to targeted osteocyte ablation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Y Kwon

    Full Text Available Interstitial fluid flow (IFF is a potent regulatory signal in bone. During mechanical loading, IFF is generated through two distinct mechanisms that result in spatially distinct flow profiles: poroelastic interactions within the lacunar-canalicular system, and intramedullary pressurization. While the former generates IFF primarily within the lacunar-canalicular network, the latter generates significant flow at the endosteal surface as well as within the tissue. This gives rise to the intriguing possibility that loading-induced IFF may differentially activate osteocytes or surface-residing cells depending on the generating mechanism, and that sensation of IFF generated via intramedullary pressurization may be mediated by a non-osteocytic bone cell population. To begin to explore this possibility, we used the Dmp1-HBEGF inducible osteocyte ablation mouse model and a microfluidic system for modulating intramedullary pressure (ImP to assess whether structural adaptation to ImP-driven IFF is altered by partial osteocyte depletion. Canalicular convective velocities during pressurization were estimated through the use of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and computational modeling. Following osteocyte ablation, transgenic mice exhibited severe losses in bone structure and altered responses to hindlimb suspension in a compartment-specific manner. In pressure-loaded limbs, transgenic mice displayed similar or significantly enhanced structural adaptation to Imp-driven IFF, particularly in the trabecular compartment, despite up to ∼50% of trabecular lacunae being uninhabited following ablation. Interestingly, regression analysis revealed relative gains in bone structure in pressure-loaded limbs were correlated with reductions in bone structure in unpressurized control limbs, suggesting that adaptation to ImP-driven IFF was potentiated by increases in osteoclastic activity and/or reductions in osteoblastic activity incurred independently of

  14. Blocking in Category Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bott, Lewis; Hoffman, Aaron B.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2007-01-01

    Many theories of category learning assume that learning is driven by a need to minimize classification error. When there is no classification error, therefore, learning of individual features should be negligible. We tested this hypothesis by conducting three category learning experiments adapted from an associative learning blocking paradigm. Contrary to an error-driven account of learning, participants learned a wide range of information when they learned about categories, and blocking effe...

  15. Category I structures program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endebrock, E.G.; Dove, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of the Category I Structure Program is to supply experimental and analytical information needed to assess the structural capacity of Category I structures (excluding the reactor cntainment building). Because the shear wall is a principal element of a Category I structure, and because relatively little experimental information is available on the shear walls, it was selected as the test element for the experimental program. The large load capacities of shear walls in Category I structures dictates that the experimental tests be conducted on small size shear wall structures that incorporates the general construction details and characteristics of as-built shear walls

  16. Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Salivary Periostin Levels in Non-Smoker Subjects With Chronic and Aggressive Periodontitis : Periostin Levels in Chronic and Aggressive Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aral, Cüneyt A; Köseoğlu, Serhat; Sağlam, Mehmet; Pekbağrıyanık, Tuğba; Savran, Levent

    2016-06-01

    Periostin, an extracellular matrix protein functioning as an important structural mediator and adhesion molecule, has been shown to be an important regulator of connective tissue integrity. This study aimed to evaluate the levels of periostin in chronic periodontitis (CP) and aggressive periodontitis (AgP) compared to non-periodontitis (NP). Individuals were submitted to gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and saliva sampling. Periodontal examination consisted of plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), bleeding on probing (BOP), and clinical attachment level (CAL) measurements. Assays for periostin were performed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Periodontitis patients presented more severe clinical indices compared to the NP group (p periodontitis. The results suggest that subjects with CP and AgP exhibit a different periostin profile. Periostin in GCF may have a protective role against periodontal disease. Furthermore, salivary periostin concentrations may have a promising diagnostic potential for the aggressive forms of periodontal disease.

  17. Setting of methods for analysis of mucosal antibodies in seminal and vaginal fluids of HIV seropositive subjects from Cambodian and Italian cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Donadoni

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Genital mucosae play a key role in protection from STD and HIV infection, due to their involvement in both horizontal and vertical disease transmission. High variability of published observations concerning IgA isolation and quantification underlies the strong requirement of specific methods able to maximize investigation on HIV-specific IgA.Genital fluids from 109 subjects, including male and female cohorts from Italy and Cambodia, were collected, aliquoted and processed with different techniques, to assess optimal conditions maximizing mucosal antibody recovery. Three sampling techniques, up to sixteen preservation conditions, six ELISA methods and four purifications protocols were compared.The optimal method here described took advantage of Weck-Cel sampling of female mucosal fluids. Immediate processing of genital fluids, with the addition of antibiotics and EDTA, improved recovery of vaginal IgA, while the triple addition of EDTA, antibiotics and protease inhibitors provided the highest amount of seminal IgA. Due to low amount of IgA in mucosal fluids, a high sensitive sandwich ELISA assay was set; sensitivity was enhanced by milk-based overcoating buffer and by a two-step biotin-streptavidin signal amplification. Indeed, commercial antisera to detect human immunoglobulins showed weak cross-reactivity to different antibody types. Three-step affinity purification provided reproducible immunoglobulin recovery from genital specimens, while conventional immuno-affinity IgA purification was found poorly manageable. Affinity columns were suitable to isolate mucosal IgA, which are ten-fold less concentrated than IgG in genital specimens, and provided effective separation of IgA monomers, dimers, and J-chains. Jacalin-bound resin successfully separated IgA1 from IgA2 subfraction.Specific, effective and reliable methods to study local immunity are key items in understanding host mucosal response. The sequence of methods here described is effective

  18. Categories and logical syntax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klev, Ansten Morch

    2014-01-01

    The notions of category and type are here studied through the lens of logical syntax: Aristotle's as well as Kant's categories through the traditional form of proposition `S is P', and modern doctrines of type through the Fregean form of proposition `F(a)', function applied to argument. Topics

  19. Computing color categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yendrikhovskij, S.N.; Rogowitz, B.E.; Pappas, T.N.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to develop a coherent framework for understanding, modeling, and computing color categories. The main assumption is that the structure of color category systems originates from the statistical structure of the perceived color environment. This environment can be modeled as

  20. Operadic categories and duoidal Deligne's conjecture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Batanin, M.; Markl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 285, 5 November (2015), s. 1630-1687 ISSN 0001-8708 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : operadic category * duoidal category * Deligne's conjecture Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.405, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0001870815002467

  1. Fluids engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Fluids engineering has played an important role in many applications, from ancient flood control to the design of high-speed compact turbomachinery. New applications of fluids engineering, such as in high-technology materials processing, biotechnology, and advanced combustion systems, have kept up unwaining interest in the subject. More accurate and sophisticated computational and measurement techniques are also constantly being developed and refined. On a more fundamental level, nonlinear dynamics and chaotic behavior of fluid flow are no longer an intellectual curiosity and fluid engineers are increasingly interested in finding practical applications for these emerging sciences. Applications of fluid technology to new areas, as well as the need to improve the design and to enhance the flexibility and reliability of flow-related machines and devices will continue to spur interest in fluids engineering. The objectives of the present seminar were: to exchange current information on arts, science, and technology of fluids engineering; to promote scientific cooperation between the fluids engineering communities of both nations, and to provide an opportunity for the participants and their colleagues to explore possible joint research programs in topics of high priority and mutual interest to both countries. The Seminar provided an excellent forum for reviewing the current state and future needs of fluids engineering for the two nations. With the Seminar ear-marking the first formal scientific exchange between Korea and the United States in the area of fluids engineering, the scope was deliberately left broad and general

  2. Order of 28 April 1989 fixing the categories of products not subject to the new article R5235 of the Public Health Code in implementation of paragraph eight b and c of that article

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    This Order establishes the categories of products containing radioelements with a low specific activity or having a limited radiotoxicity which are exempted from the licensing regime for artificial radioelements for non-medical or other uses or which do not concern human biology [fr

  3. Triangulated categories (AM-148)

    CERN Document Server

    Neeman, Amnon

    2014-01-01

    The first two chapters of this book offer a modern, self-contained exposition of the elementary theory of triangulated categories and their quotients. The simple, elegant presentation of these known results makes these chapters eminently suitable as a text for graduate students. The remainder of the book is devoted to new research, providing, among other material, some remarkable improvements on Brown''s classical representability theorem. In addition, the author introduces a class of triangulated categories""--the ""well generated triangulated categories""--and studies their properties. This

  4. International Conference on Category Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pedicchio, Maria; Rosolini, Guiseppe

    1991-01-01

    With one exception, these papers are original and fully refereed research articles on various applications of Category Theory to Algebraic Topology, Logic and Computer Science. The exception is an outstanding and lengthy survey paper by Joyal/Street (80 pp) on a growing subject: it gives an account of classical Tannaka duality in such a way as to be accessible to the general mathematical reader, and to provide a key for entry to more recent developments and quantum groups. No expertise in either representation theory or category theory is assumed. Topics such as the Fourier cotransform, Tannaka duality for homogeneous spaces, braided tensor categories, Yang-Baxter operators, Knot invariants and quantum groups are introduced and studies. From the Contents: P.J. Freyd: Algebraically complete categories.- J.M.E. Hyland: First steps in synthetic domain theory.- G. Janelidze, W. Tholen: How algebraic is the change-of-base functor?.- A. Joyal, R. Street: An introduction to Tannaka duality and quantum groups.- A. Jo...

  5. Regional Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR at 7 Tesla correlates with Amyloid beta in Hippocampus and Brainstem of cognitively normal elderly subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J Schreiner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ may occur during healthy aging and is a risk factor for Alzheimer Disease (AD. While individual Aβ-accumulation can be measured non-invasively using Pittsburgh compound-B positron-emission-tomography (PiB-PET, Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR is a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI sequence, capable of indicating heterogeneous age-related brain pathologies associated with tissue-edema. In the current study cognitively normal elderly subjects were investigated for regional correlation of PiB- and FLAIR- intensity. Methods: 14 healthy elderly subjects without known history of cognitive impairment received 11C-PiB-PET for estimation of regional Aβ-load. In addition, whole brain T1-MPRAGE and FLAIR-MRI sequences were acquired at high field strength of 7 Tesla (7T. Volume-normalized intensities of brain regions were assessed by applying an automated subcortical segmentation algorithm for spatial definition of brain structures. Statistical dependence between FLAIR- and PiB-PET intensities was tested using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rho, followed by Holm-Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. Results: Neuropsychological testing revealed normal cognitive performance levels in all participants. Mean regional PiB-PET and FLAIR intensities were normally distributed and independent. Significant correlation between volume-normalized PiB-PET signals and FLAIR intensities resulted for Hippocampus (right:rho=0.86; left:rho=0.84, Brainstem (rho=0.85 and left Basal Ganglia vessel region (rho=0.82. Conclusions: Our finding of a significant relationship between PiB- and FLAIR-intensity mainly observable in the Hippocampus and Brainstem, indicates regional Aβ associated tissue-edema in cognitively normal elderly subjects. Further studies including clinical populations are necessary to clarify the relevance of our findings for estimating individual risk for age-related neurodegenerative

  6. Regional Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) at 7 Tesla correlates with amyloid beta in hippocampus and brainstem of cognitively normal elderly subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Simon J.; Liu, Xinyang; Gietl, Anton F.; Wyss, Michael; Steininger, Stefanie C.; Gruber, Esmeralda; Treyer, Valerie; Meier, Irene B.; Kälin, Andrea M.; Leh, Sandra E.; Buck, Alfred; Nitsch, Roger M.; Pruessmann, Klaas P.; Hock, Christoph; Unschuld, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) may occur during healthy aging and is a risk factor for Alzheimer Disease (AD). While individual Aβ-accumulation can be measured non-invasively using Pittsburgh Compund-B positron emission tomography (PiB-PET), Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) is a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) sequence, capable of indicating heterogeneous age-related brain pathologies associated with tissue-edema. In the current study cognitively normal elderly subjects were investigated for regional correlation of PiB- and FLAIR intensity. Methods: Fourteen healthy elderly subjects without known history of cognitive impairment received 11C-PiB-PET for estimation of regional Aβ-load. In addition, whole brain T1-MPRAGE and FLAIR-MRI sequences were acquired at high field strength of 7 Tesla (7T). Volume-normalized intensities of brain regions were assessed by applying an automated subcortical segmentation algorithm for spatial definition of brain structures. Statistical dependence between FLAIR- and PiB-PET intensities was tested using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rho), followed by Holm–Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. Results: Neuropsychological testing revealed normal cognitive performance levels in all participants. Mean regional PiB-PET and FLAIR intensities were normally distributed and independent. Significant correlation between volume-normalized PiB-PET signals and FLAIR intensities resulted for Hippocampus (right: rho = 0.86; left: rho = 0.84), Brainstem (rho = 0.85) and left Basal Ganglia vessel region (rho = 0.82). Conclusions: Our finding of a significant relationship between PiB- and FLAIR intensity mainly observable in the Hippocampus and Brainstem, indicates regional Aβ associated tissue-edema in cognitively normal elderly subjects. Further studies including clinical populations are necessary to clarify the relevance of our findings for estimating individual risk for age-related neurodegenerative

  7. Analysis of rare categories

    CERN Document Server

    He, Jingrui

    2012-01-01

    This book focuses on rare category analysis where the majority classes have smooth distributions and the minority classes exhibit the compactness property. It focuses on challenging cases where the support regions of the majority and minority classes overlap.

  8. Consumer Product Category Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use...

  9. Effects of 0.2 ppm ozone on biomarkers of inflammation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and bronchial mucosa of healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, M.T.; Madden, J.; Teran, L.M. [and others

    1998-08-01

    Short-term exposure to ozone at peak ambient levels induces neutrophil influx and impairs lung function in healthy humans. In order to investigate the mechanisms contributing to neutrophil recruitment and to examine the role of T-cells in the acute inflammatory response, we exposed 12 healthy humans to 0.2 parts per million (ppm) of ozone and filtered air on two separate occasions for 2 h with intermittent periods of rest and exercise (minute ventilation=30 L x min{sup -1}). Fibreoptic bronchoscopy was performed 6 h after the end of exposures. Total protein, tryptase, histamine, myeloperoxidase, interleukin (IL)-8 and growth-related oncogene-{alpha} (Gro-{alpha}) were measured and total and differential cell counts were performed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Flow cytometry was performed on BAL cells to study total T-cells, T-cell receptors ({alpha}{beta} and {gamma}{delta}), T-cell subsets (CD4+ and CD8+ cells) and activated T-cell subsets (CD25+). Using immunohistochemistry, neutrophils, mast cells, total T-cell numbers, T-cell subsets, CD25+ T-cells and leukocyte endothelial adhesion molecules including P-selectin, E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and vascular adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 were quantified in the bronchial biopsies. Paired samples were available from nine subjects. Following ozone exposure there was a threefold increase in the proportion of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) (p=0.07) and epithelial cells (p=0.05) in BAL fluid. This was accompanied by increased concentrations of IL-8 (p=0.01), Gro-{alpha} (p=0.05) and total protein (p=0.058). A significant positive correlation was demonstrated between the two chemokines and proportion of PMNs in BAL fluid. After ozone exposure there was a significant decrease in the CD4/CD8 ratio (p=0.05) and the proportion of activated CD4+ (p=001) and CD8+ T-cells (p=0.04). However, no significant changes were demonstrable in any of the inflammatory markers studied in the biopsies

  10. Product Category Management Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Żukowska, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present the issues related to category management. It includes the overview of category management definitions and the correct process of exercising it. Moreover, attention is paid to the advantages of brand management, the benefits the supplier and retailer may obtain in this way. The risk element related to this topics is also presented herein. Joanna Żukowska

  11. The effects of physical exercise and smoking habits on the expression of SPLUNC1 in nasal lavage fluids from allergic rhinitis subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irander, K; Borres, M P; Ghafouri, B

    2014-04-01

    Palate lung nasal epithelial clone (PLUNC) is a family of proteins, which are proposed to participate in the innate immune defense against infections in the upper aero-digestive tract. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of SPLUNC1 in allergic rhinitis subjects with considerations taken to the mucosal function and smoking habits. The participants, recruited from a cohort followed from infancy, were re-examined at the age of 18 years regarding allergy development. Based on medical histories and skin prick tests the participants were classified into groups with persistent allergic rhinitis (n=18), intermittent allergic rhinitis (n = 8) and healthy controls (n = 13). Seven subjects (3, 2 and 2 in each group, respectively) reported smoking habits. The SPLUNC1 levels in nasal lavage fluids were analyzed by Western blot. Changes in the volume of the proper nasal cavity before and after physical exercise (Vol2(increase)) were analyzed by acoustic rhinometry. Compared to the control group the SPLUNC1 level was significantly lower in the persistent allergy group (3.8 ± 3.4 OD vs. 1.3 ± 1.5 OD; p = 0.02), but not in the intermittent allergy group without current exposure to allergens (3.6 ± 4.7 OD). No differences were found in Vol2(increase) between any of the allergy groups and controls. In smokers Vol2(increase) was significantly reduced (p exercise was not affected by allergy in contrast to smoking habits. The correlation between SPLUNC1 levels and Vol2(increase) in non-smokers may indicate involvement of SPLUNC1in the regulation of the normal function of the nasal mucosa. Complementary studies are needed to confirm the smoke-related reduction of SPLUNC1 expression and to analyze the possible participation of SPLUNC1 in the nasal mucosa regulation. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Striking differences in glucose and lactate levels between brain extracellular fluid and plasma in conscious human subjects: effects of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abi-Saab, Walid M; Maggs, David G; Jones, Tim; Jacob, Ralph; Srihari, Vinod; Thompson, James; Kerr, David; Leone, Paola; Krystal, John H; Spencer, Dennis D; During, Matthew J; Sherwin, Robert S

    2002-03-01

    Brain levels of glucose and lactate in the extracellular fluid (ECF), which reflects the environment to which neurons are exposed, have never been studied in humans under conditions of varying glycemia. The authors used intracerebral microdialysis in conscious human subjects undergoing electrophysiologic evaluation for medically intractable epilepsy and measured ECF levels of glucose and lactate under basal conditions and during a hyperglycemia-hypoglycemia clamp study. Only measurements from nonepileptogenic areas were included. Under basal conditions, the authors found the metabolic milieu in the brain to be strikingly different from that in the circulation. In contrast to plasma, lactate levels in brain ECF were threefold higher than glucose. Results from complementary studies in rats were consistent with the human data. During the hyperglycemia-hypoglycemia clamp study the relationship between plasma and brain ECF levels of glucose remained similar, but changes in brain ECF glucose lagged approximately 30 minutes behind changes in plasma. The data demonstrate that the brain is exposed to substantially lower levels of glucose and higher levels of lactate than those in plasma; moreover, the brain appears to be a site of significant anaerobic glycolysis, raising the possibility that glucose-derived lactate is an important fuel for the brain.

  13. Models as Relational Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkonen, Tommi

    2017-11-01

    Model-based learning (MBL) has an established position within science education. It has been found to enhance conceptual understanding and provide a way for engaging students in authentic scientific activity. Despite ample research, few studies have examined the cognitive processes regarding learning scientific concepts within MBL. On the other hand, recent research within cognitive science has examined the learning of so-called relational categories. Relational categories are categories whose membership is determined on the basis of the common relational structure. In this theoretical paper, I argue that viewing models as relational categories provides a well-motivated cognitive basis for MBL. I discuss the different roles of models and modeling within MBL (using ready-made models, constructive modeling, and generative modeling) and discern the related cognitive aspects brought forward by the reinterpretation of models as relational categories. I will argue that relational knowledge is vital in learning novel models and in the transfer of learning. Moreover, relational knowledge underlies the coherent, hierarchical knowledge of experts. Lastly, I will examine how the format of external representations may affect the learning of models and the relevant relations. The nature of the learning mechanisms underlying students' mental representations of models is an interesting open question to be examined. Furthermore, the ways in which the expert-like knowledge develops and how to best support it is in need of more research. The discussion and conceptualization of models as relational categories allows discerning students' mental representations of models in terms of evolving relational structures in greater detail than previously done.

  14. Categories of transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter discusses the types of wholesale sales made by utilities. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), which regulates inter-utility sales, divides these sales into two broad categories: requirements and coordination. A variety of wholesale sales do not fall neatly into either category. For example, power purchased to replace the Three Mile Island outage is in a sense a reliability purchase, since it is bought on a long-term firm basis to meet basic load requirements. However, it does not fit the traditional model of a sale considered as part of each utility's long range planning. In addition, this chapter discusses transmission services, with a particular emphasis on wheeling

  15. Consumer Product Category Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use information is compiled from multiple sources while product information is gathered from publicly available Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). EPA researchers are evaluating the possibility of expanding the database with additional product and use information.

  16. Histamine and tele-methylhistamine quantification in cerebrospinal fluid from narcoleptic subjects by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with precolumn derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croyal, Mikaël; Dauvilliers, Yves; Labeeuw, Olivier; Capet, Marc; Schwartz, Jean-Charles; Robert, Philippe

    2011-02-01

    An ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC™-MS/MS) assay was developed for the simultaneous analysis of histamine, its major metabolite tele-methylhistamine, and an internal standard (N-tele-(R)-α-dimethylhistamine) from human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. The method involves derivatization of primary amines with 4-bromobenzenesulfonyl chloride and subsequent analysis by reversed phase liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection and positive electrospray ionization. The separation of derivatized biogenic amines was achieved within 3.5 min on an Acquity® BEH C(18) column by elution with a linear gradient of acetonitrile/water/formic acid (0.1%). The assay was linear in the concentration range of 50-5000 pM for each amine (5.5-555 pg/ml for histamine and 6.25-625 pg/ml for tele-methylhistamine). For repeatability and precision determination, coefficients of variation (CVs) were less than 11.0% over the tested concentration ranges, within acceptance criteria. Thus, the developed method provides the rapid, easy, highly sensitive, and selective requirement to quantify these amines in human CSF. No significant difference was found in the mean ± standard error levels of these amines between a group of narcoleptic patients (histamine=392 ± 64 pM, tele-methylhistamine=2431 ± 461 pM, n=7) and of neurological control subjects (histamine=402 ± 72 pM, tele-methylhistamine=2209 ± 463 pM, n=32). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Basic category theory

    CERN Document Server

    Leinster, Tom

    2014-01-01

    At the heart of this short introduction to category theory is the idea of a universal property, important throughout mathematics. After an introductory chapter giving the basic definitions, separate chapters explain three ways of expressing universal properties: via adjoint functors, representable functors, and limits. A final chapter ties all three together. The book is suitable for use in courses or for independent study. Assuming relatively little mathematical background, it is ideal for beginning graduate students or advanced undergraduates learning category theory for the first time. For each new categorical concept, a generous supply of examples is provided, taken from different parts of mathematics. At points where the leap in abstraction is particularly great (such as the Yoneda lemma), the reader will find careful and extensive explanations. Copious exercises are included.

  18. CHURCH, Category, and Speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinderknecht Jakob Karl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Roman Catholic definition of “church”, especially as applied to groups of Protestant Christians, creates a number of well-known difficulties. The similarly complex category, “species,” provides a model for applying this term so as to neither lose the centrality of certain examples nor draw a hard boundary to rule out border cases. In this way, it can help us to more adequately apply the complex ecclesiology of the Second Vatican Council. This article draws parallels between the understanding of speciation and categorization and the definition of Church since the council. In doing so, it applies the work of cognitive linguists, including George Lakoff, Zoltan Kovecses, Giles Fauconnier and Mark Turner on categorization. We tend to think of categories as containers into which we sort objects according to essential criteria. However, categories are actually built inductively by making associations between objects. This means that natural categories, including species, are more porous than we assume, but nevertheless bear real meaning about the natural world. Taxonomists dispute the border between “zebras” and “wild asses,” but this distinction arises out of genetic and evolutionary reality; it is not merely arbitrary. Genetic descriptions of species has also led recently to the conviction that there are four species of giraffe, not one. This engagement will ground a vantage point from which the Council‘s complex ecclesiology can be more easily described so as to authentically integrate its noncompetitive vision vis-a-vis other Christians with its sense of the unique place held by Catholic Church.

  19. Visual memory needs categories

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Henrik; Poom, Leo

    2005-01-01

    Capacity limitations in the way humans store and process information in working memory have been extensively studied, and several memory systems have been distinguished. In line with previous capacity estimates for verbal memory and memory for spatial information, recent studies suggest that it is possible to retain up to four objects in visual working memory. The objects used have typically been categorically different colors and shapes. Because knowledge about categories is stored in long-t...

  20. Libertarianism & Category-Mistake

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers a defense against two accusations according to which libertarianism incurs in a category-mistake. The philosophy of Gilbert Ryle will be used to explain the reasons which ground these accusations. Further, it will be shown why, although certain sorts of libertarianism based on agent-causation or Cartesian dualism incur in these mistakes, there is at least one version of libertarianism to which this criticism does not necessarily apply: the version that seeks to find in physi...

  1. Convergence semigroup categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Richardson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Properties of the category consisting of all objects of the form (X, S, λ are investigated, where X is a convergence space, S is a commutative semigroup, and λ: X × S → X is a continuous action. A “generalized quotient” of each object is defined without making the usual assumption that for each fixed g ∈ S, λ(., g : X  → X is an injection.

  2. Categories and Commutative Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Salmon, P

    2011-01-01

    L. Badescu: Sur certaines singularites des varietes algebriques.- D.A. Buchsbaum: Homological and commutative algebra.- S. Greco: Anelli Henseliani.- C. Lair: Morphismes et structures algebriques.- B.A. Mitchell: Introduction to category theory and homological algebra.- R. Rivet: Anneaux de series formelles et anneaux henseliens.- P. Salmon: Applicazioni della K-teoria all'algebra commutativa.- M. Tierney: Axiomatic sheaf theory: some constructions and applications.- C.B. Winters: An elementary lecture on algebraic spaces.

  3. Interface behavior of a multi-layer fluid configuration subject to acceleration in a microgravity environment, supplement 1. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyell, M. J.; Roh, Michael

    1991-01-01

    With the increasing opportunities for research in a microgravity environment, there arises a need for understanding fluid mechanics under such conditions. In particular, a number of material processing configurations involve fluid-fluid interfaces which may experience instabilities in the presence of external forcing. In a microgravity environment, these accelerations may be periodic or impulse-type in nature. This research investigates the behavior of a multi-layer idealized fluid configuration which is infinite in extent. The analysis is linear, and each fluid region is considered inviscid, incompressible, and immiscible. An initial parametric study of confiquration stability in the presence of a constant acceleration field is performed. The zero mean gravity limit case serves as the base state for the subsequent time-dependent forcing cases. A stability analysis of the multi-layer fluid system in the presence of periodic forcing is investigated. Floquet theory is utilized. A parameter study is performed, and regions of stability are identified. For the impulse-type forcing case, asymptotic stability is established for the configuration. Using numerical integration, the time response of the interfaces is determined.

  4. LIBERTARISMO & ERROR CATEGORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se ofrece una defensa del libertarismo frente a dos acusaciones según las cuales éste comete un error categorial. Para ello, se utiliza la filosofía de Gilbert Ryle como herramienta para explicar las razones que fundamentan estas acusaciones y para mostrar por qué, pese a que ciertas versiones del libertarismo que acuden a la causalidad de agentes o al dualismo cartesiano cometen estos errores, un libertarismo que busque en el indeterminismo fisicalista la base de la posibilidad de la libertad humana no necesariamente puede ser acusado de incurrir en ellos.

  5. Libertarianism & Category-Mistake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a defense against two accusations according to which libertarianism incurs in a category-mistake. The philosophy of Gilbert Ryle will be used to explain the reasons which ground these accusations. Further, it will be shown why, although certain sorts of libertarianism based on agent-causation or Cartesian dualism incur in these mistakes, there is at least one version of libertarianism to which this criticism does not necessarily apply: the version that seeks to find in physical indeterminism the grounding of human free will.

  6. Libertarismo & Error Categorial

    OpenAIRE

    PATARROYO G, CARLOS G

    2009-01-01

    En este artículo se ofrece una defensa del libertarismo frente a dos acusaciones según las cuales éste comete un error categorial. Para ello, se utiliza la filosofía de Gilbert Ryle como herramienta para explicar las razones que fundamentan estas acusaciones y para mostrar por qué, pese a que ciertas versiones del libertarismo que acuden a la causalidad de agentes o al dualismo cartesiano cometen estos errores, un libertarismo que busque en el indeterminismo fisicalista la base de la posibili...

  7. Concentrations of garenoxacin in plasma, bronchial mucosa, alveolar macrophages and epithelial lining fluid following a single oral 600 mg dose in healthy adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J; Honeybourne, D; Jevons, G; Boyce, M; Wise, R; Bello, A; Gajjar, D

    2003-03-01

    A microbiological assay was used to measure concentrations of garenoxacin (BMS-284756) in plasma, bronchial mucosa (BM), alveolar macrophages (AM) and epithelial lining fluid (ELF), following a single 600 mg oral dose. Twenty-four healthy subjects were allocated into four nominal time intervals after the dose, 2.5-3.5, 4.5-5.5, 10.5-11.5 and 23.5-24.5 h. Mean concentrations in plasma, BM, AM and ELF, respectively, for the four nominal time windows were for 2.5-3.5 h 10.0 mg/L (S.D. 2.8), 7.0 mg/kg (S.D. 1.3), 106.1 mg/L (S.D. 60.3) and 9.2 mg/L (S.D. 3.6); 4.5-5.5 h 8.7 mg/L (S.D. 2.2), 6.0 mg/kg (S.D. 1.9), 158.6 mg/L (S.D. 137.4) and 14.3 mg/L (S.D. 8.2); 10.5-11.5 h 6.1 mg/L (S.D. 1.9), 4.0 mg/kg (S.D. 1.4), 76.0 mg/L (S.D. 47.7) and 7.9 mg/L (S.D. 4.6); and 23.5-24.5 h 2.1 mg/L (S.D. 0.5), 1.7 mg/kg (S.D. 0.7), 30.7 mg/L (S.D. 12.9) and 3.3 mg/L (S.D. 2.3). Concentrations at all sites exceeded MIC(90)s for the common respiratory pathogens Haemophilus influenzae (0.03 mg/L), Moraxella catarrhalis (0.015 mg/L) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (0.06 mg/L). These data suggest that garenoxacin should be effective in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  8. Category-specificity in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Are all categories of objects recognized in the same manner visually? Evidence from neuropsychology suggests they are not: some brain damaged patients are more impaired in recognizing natural objects than artefacts whereas others show the opposite impairment. Category-effects have also been...... demonstrated in neurologically intact subjects, but the findings are contradictory and there is no agreement as to why category-effects arise. This article presents a Pre-semantic Account of Category Effects (PACE) in visual object recognition. PACE assumes two processing stages: shape configuration (the...... binding of shape elements into elaborate shape descriptions) and selection (among competing representations in visual long-term memory), which are held to be differentially affected by the structural similarity between objects. Drawing on evidence from clinical studies, experimental studies...

  9. Visual object recognition and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    This thesis is based on seven published papers. The majority of the papers address two topics in visual object recognition: (i) category-effects at pre-semantic stages, and (ii) the integration of visual elements into elaborate shape descriptions corresponding to whole objects or large object parts...... (shape configuration). In the early writings these two topics were examined more or less independently. In later works, findings concerning category-effects and shape configuration merge into an integrated model, termed RACE, advanced to explain category-effects arising at pre-semantic stages in visual...... in visual long-term memory. In the thesis it is described how this simple model can account for a wide range of findings on category-specificity in both patients with brain damage and normal subjects. Finally, two hypotheses regarding the neural substrates of the model's components - and how activation...

  10. Energy information data base: energy categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    Citations entered into DOE's computerized bibliographic information system are assigned six-digit subject category numbers to group information broadly for storage, retrieval, and manipulation. These numbers are used in the preparation of printed documents, such as bibliographies and abstract journals, to arrange the citations and as searching aids in the on-line system, DOE/RECON. This document has been prepared for use by those individuals responsible for the assignment of category numbers to documents being entered into the Technical Information Center (TIC) system, those individuals and organizations processing magnetic tape copies of the files, those individuals doing on-line searching for information in TIC-created files, and others who, having no access to RECON, need printed copy. The six-digit numbers assigned to documents are listed, along with the category names and text to define the scope of interest. Asterisks highlight those categories added or changed since the previous printing, and a subject index further details the subject content of each category

  11. Beyond the Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Jeffrey

    2015-07-01

    Shushu is a Turkish Cypriot drag performance artist and the article begins with a discussion of a short film about him by a Greek Cypriot playwright, film maker, and gay activist. The film is interesting in its own right as a documentary about a complex personality, but it is also relevant to wider discussion of sexual and gender identity and categorization in a country divided by history, religion, politics, and military occupation. Shushu rejects easy identification as gay or transgender, or anything else. He is his own self. But refusing a recognized and recognizable identity brings problems, and I detected a pervasive mood of melancholy in his portrayal. The article builds from this starting point to explore the problematic nature of identities and categorizations in the contemporary world. The analysis opens with the power of words and language in defining and classifying sexuality. The early sexologists set in motion a whole catalogue of categories which continue to shape sexual thinking, believing that they were providing a scientific basis for a more humane treatment of sexual variations. This logic continues in DSM-5. The historical effect, however, has been more complex. Categorizations have often fixed individuals into a narrow band of definitions and identities that marginalize and pathologize. The emergence of radical sexual-social movements from the late 1960s offered new forms of grassroots knowledge in opposition to the sexological tradition, but at first these movements worked to affirm rather than challenge the significance of identity categories. Increasingly, however, identities have been problematized and challenged for limiting sexual and gender possibilities, leading to the apparently paradoxical situation where sexual identities are seen as both necessary and impossible. There are emotional costs both in affirming a fixed identity and in rejecting one. Shushu is caught in this dilemma, leading to the pervasive sense of loss that shapes the

  12. An introduction to the language of category theory

    CERN Document Server

    Roman, Steven

    2017-01-01

    This textbook provides an introduction to elementary category theory, with the aim of making what can be a confusing and sometimes overwhelming subject more accessible. In writing about this challenging subject, the author has brought to bear all of the experience he has gained in authoring over 30 books in university-level mathematics. The goal of this book is to present the five major ideas of category theory: categories, functors, natural transformations, universality, and adjoints in as friendly and relaxed a manner as possible while at the same time not sacrificing rigor. These topics are developed in a straightforward, step-by-step manner and are accompanied by numerous examples and exercises, most of which are drawn from abstract algebra. The first chapter of the book introduces the definitions of category and functor and discusses diagrams, duality, initial and terminal objects, special types of morphisms, and some special types of categories, particularly comma categories and hom-set categories. Chap...

  13. Language categories in Russian morphology

    OpenAIRE

    زهرایی زهرایی

    2009-01-01

    When studying Russian morphology, one can distinguish two categories. These categories are “grammatical” and “lexico-grammatical”. Grammatical categories can be specified through a series of grammatical features of words. Considering different criteria, Russian grammarians and linguists divide grammatical categories of their language into different types. In determining lexico-grammatical types, in addition to a series of grammatical features, they also consider a series of lexico-semantic fe...

  14. Functional categories in agrammatism: evidence from Greek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrakaki, Stavroula; Kouvava, Sofia

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study is twofold. First, to investigate the use of functional categories by two Greek agrammatic aphasics. Second, to discuss the implications of our findings for the characterization of the deficit in agrammatism. The functional categories under investigation were the following: definite and indefinite articles, personal pronouns, aspect, tense, subject-verb agreement, wh-pronouns, complementizers and the mood marker na (=to). Based on data collected through different methods, it is argued that the deficit in agrammatism cannot be described in terms of a structural account but rather by means of difficulties in the implementation of grammatical knowledge.

  15. Fluid Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; hide

    2017-01-01

    pulsatility); (5) ocular measures (optical coherence tomography; intraocular pressure; 2-dimensional ultrasound including optic nerve sheath diameter, globe flattening, and retina-choroid thickness; Doppler ultrasound of ophthalmic and retinal arteries and veins); (6) cardiac variables by ultrasound (inferior vena cava, tricuspid flow and tissue Doppler, pulmonic valve, stroke volume, right heart dimensions and function, four-chamber views); and (7) ICP measures (tympanic membrane displacement, otoacoustic emissions). Pre- and post-flight, acute head-down tilt will induce cephalad fluid shifts, whereas lower body negative pressure will oppose these shifts. Controlled Mueller maneuvers will manipulate cardiovascular variables. Through interventions applied before, during, and after flight, we intend to fully evaluate the relationship between fluid shifts and the VIIP syndrome. Discussion. Ten subjects have consented to participate in this experiment, including the recent One-Year Mission crewmembers, who have recently completed R plus180 testing; all other subjects have completed pre-flight testing. Preliminary results from the One-Year Mission crewmembers will be presented, including measures of ocular structure and function, vascular dimensions, fluid distribution, and non-invasive estimates of intracranial pressure.

  16. Thermo-mechanical nonlinear vibration analysis of fluid-conveying structures subjected to different boundary conditions using Galerkin-Newton-Harmonic balancing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbeminiyi Sobamowo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of mathematical models for describing the dynamic behaviours of fluid conveying pipes, micro-pipes and nanotubes under the influence of some thermo-mechanical parameters results into nonlinear equations that are very difficult to solve analytically. In cases where the exact analytical solutions are presented either in implicit or explicit forms, high skills and rigorous mathematical analyses were employed. It is noted that such solutions do not provide general exact solutions. Inevitably, comparatively simple, flexible yet accurate and practicable solutions are required for the analyses of these structures. Therefore, in this study, approximate analytical solutions are provided to the nonlinear equations arising in flow-induced vibration of pipes, micro-pipes and nanotubes using Galerkin-Newton-Harmonic Method (GNHM. The developed approximate analytical solutions are shown to be valid for both small and large amplitude oscillations. The accuracies and explicitness of these solutions were examined in limiting cases to establish the suitability of the method.

  17. Mechanical and Non-Destructive Study of CFRP Adhesive Bonds Subjected to Pre-Bond Thermal Treatment and De-Icing Fluid Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł H. Malinowski

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Composite materials are commonly used in many branches of industry. One of the effective methods to join the carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP parts includes the use of adhesives. There is a search on effective methods for quality assurance of bonded parts. In the research here reported the influence of surface pre-bond modification on the adhesive bonds of CFRP plates has been analyzed. Adherends surface modifications, to include defects affecting the bonding quality, were obtained through surface thermal treatment, surface contamination with de-icing fluid and a combination of both the previously described treatments. Characterization of bonded joints was performed by means of mechanical testing, ultrasounds and electromechanical impedance (EMI measurements. The study here proposed has also the aim to evaluate the ability of different destructive and non-destructive techniques to assess the quality of the bonds. While mechanical tests were strongly affected by the surface modifications, results obtained ultrasound and EMI test have demonstrate only a limited ability of these techniques to differentiate between the different samples. In fact, ultrasounds did not show any changes in the bondline, due to pre-bond modifications. However, this technique was able to detect delamination in CFRP for one of the samples thermally treated at 280 °C. Electromechanical impedance (EMI measurements showed similar behavior as mechanical tests for samples thermally treated at 260 °C and 280 °C, and for the sample whose surface modification was made with a combination of thermally and de-icing fluid treatments.

  18. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research

  19. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

  20. How categories come to matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leahu, Lucian; Cohn, Marisa; March, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    In a study of users' interactions with Siri, the iPhone personal assistant application, we noticed the emergence of overlaps and blurrings between explanatory categories such as "human" and "machine". We found that users work to purify these categories, thus resolving the tensions related to the ...... initial data analysis, due to our own forms of latent purification, and outline the particular analytic techniques that helped lead to this discovery. We thus provide an illustrative case of how categories come to matter in HCI research and design.......In a study of users' interactions with Siri, the iPhone personal assistant application, we noticed the emergence of overlaps and blurrings between explanatory categories such as "human" and "machine". We found that users work to purify these categories, thus resolving the tensions related...

  1. The composition of category conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Russell R C; Crisp, Richard J

    2005-05-01

    In three experiments, the authors investigated the impression formation process resulting from the perception of familiar or unfamiliar social category combinations. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to generate attributes associated with either a familiar or unfamiliar social category conjunction. Compared to familiar combinations, the authors found that when the conjunction was unfamiliar, participants formed their impression less from the individual constituent categories and relatively more from novel emergent attributes. In Experiment 2, the authors replicated this effect using alternative experimental materials. In Experiment 3, the effect generalized to additional (orthogonally combined) gender and occupation categories. The implications of these findings for understanding the processes involved in the conjunction of social categories, and the formation of new stereotypes, are discussed.

  2. The 24-hour skin hydration and barrier function effects of a hyaluronic 1%, glycerin 5%, and Centella asiatica stem cells extract moisturizing fluid: an intra-subject, randomized, assessor-blinded study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Massimo; Sparavigna, Adele

    2017-01-01

    Moisturizing products are commonly used to improve hydration in skin dryness conditions. However, some topical hydrating products could have negative effects on skin barrier function. In addition, hydrating effects of moisturizers are not commonly evaluated up to 24 hours after a single application. Hyaluronic acid (HA) and glycerin are very well-known substances able to improve skin hydration. Centella asiatica extract (CAE) could exert lenitive, anti-inflammatory and reepithelialization actions. Furthermore, CAE could inhibit hyaluronidase enzyme activity, therefore prolonging the effect of HA. A fluid containing HA 1%, glycerin 5% and stem cells CAE has been recently developed (Jaluronius CS [JCS] fluid). To evaluate and compare the 24-hour effects of JCS fluid on skin hydration and on transepidermal water loss (TEWL) in healthy subjects in comparison with the control site. Twenty healthy women, mean age 40 years, were enrolled in an intra-subject (right vs left), randomized, assessor-blinded, controlled, 1-day trial. The primary end points were the skin hydration and TEWL, evaluated at the volar surface of the forearm and in standardized conditions (temperature- and humidity-controlled room: 23°C and 30% of humidity) using a corneometer and a vapometer device at baseline, 1, 8 and 24 hours after JCS fluid application. Measurements were performed by an operator blinded for the treatments. Skin hydration after 24 hours was significantly higher ( P =0.001; Mann-Whitney U test) in the JCS-treated area in comparison with the control site. JCS induced a significant ( P =0.0001) increase in skin hydration at each evaluation time (+59% after 1 hour, +48% after 8 hours and +29% after 24 hours) in comparison with both baseline ( P =0.0001) and non-treated control site ( P =0.001). TEWL after 24 hours was significantly lower ( P =0.049; Mann-Whitney U test) in the JCS-treated area in comparison with the control site (13±4 arbitrary units [AU] vs 16±6 AU). JCS fluid

  3. Effects of task and category membership on representation stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Manetta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the within-subject stability of 150 participants who performed both a sorting task and a property-generation task over multiple sessions, focusing on three concrete concept categories (food, animals and bathroom products. We hypothesized that (1 the within-subject stability would be higher in the sorting task than in the property-generation task and (2 the nature of the category would influence both the within-subject stability of the classification groups in the sorting task and the properties generated to define these groups. The results show that the within-subject stability of conceptual representations depends both on the task and on the nature of the category. The stability of the representations was greater in the sorting task than in the property-generation task and in the food category. These results are discussed from a longitudinal perspective.

  4. On Anaphora and the Binding Principles in Categorial Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Glyn; Valentín, Oriol

    In type logical categorial grammar the analysis of an expression is a resource-conscious proof. Anaphora represents a particular challenge to this approach in that the antecedent resource is multiplied in the semantics. This duplication, which corresponds logically to the structural rule of contraction, may be treated lexically or syntactically. Furthermore, anaphora is subject to constraints, which Chomsky (1981) formulated as Binding Principles A, B, and C. In this paper we consider English anaphora in categorial grammar including reference to the binding principles. We invoke displacement calculus, modal categorial calculus, categorial calculus with limited contraction, and entertain addition of negation as failure.

  5. How do Category Managers Manage?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Sigurbjornsson, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to explore the managerial role of category managers in purchasing. A network management perspective is adopted. A case based research methodology is applied, and three category managers managing a diverse set of component and service categories in a global production...... firm is observed while providing accounts of their progress and results in meetings. We conclude that the network management classification scheme originally deve loped by Harland and Knight (2001) and Knight and Harland (2005) is a valuable and fertile theoretical framework for the analysis...

  6. Ethnicity in censuses: Changeable and inconstant category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrđen Snježana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of ethnicity was set in all censuses of SFRY, as well as in the first censuses in countries that were created after its disintegration. When analyzing the censuses it can be concluded that it is a changeable category. Not only was the manner of forming the question in censuses changing, but also the number of categories of nationality and their order in published census' results. It depended on state policy and the political situation preceding the censuses. Since the answer on the issues of ethnicity is a subjective criterion, and it was written down according to the freely declared statement of the residents, guaranteed by the Constitution. It has often happened that same individuals have declared themselves differently from one census to another, and also some categories of ethnicity have vanished and some others were created. Although in SFRY nations and ethnicities were equal, still indirectly in published results, existence of these two categories was indicated. But, in newly created countries, the manner of forming the question of ethnicity was changed, their number and order were also changed and the notion of 'minority' was again introduced, indicating, beyond doubt, a different status of nationality (except the majority from the one in the former Yugoslavia.

  7. Compressible generalized Newtonian fluids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Málek, Josef; Rajagopal, K.R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 6 (2010), s. 1097-1110 ISSN 0044-2275 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : power law fluid * uniform temperature * compressible fluid Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.290, year: 2010

  8. Homological algebra in -abelian categories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deren Luo

    2017-08-16

    Aug 16, 2017 ... Homological algebra in n-abelian categories. 627. We recall the Comparison lemma, together with its dual, plays a central role in the sequel. Lemma 2.1 [13, Comparison lemma 2.1]. Let C be an additive category and X ∈ Ch. ≥0(C) a complex such that for all k ≥ 0the morphism dk+1. X is a weak cokernel ...

  9. Cytologic features of nipple aspirate fluid using an automated non-invasive collection device: a prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe Leslie R

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection of cytologic atypia in nipple aspirate fluid (NAF has been shown to be a predictor of risk for development of breast carcinoma. Manual collection of NAF for cytologic evaluation varies widely in terms of efficacy, ease of use, and patient acceptance. We investigated a new automated device for the non-invasive collection of NAF in the office setting. Methods A multi-center prospective observational clinical trial involving asymptomatic women designed to assess fluid production, adequacy, safety and patient acceptance of the HALO NAF Collection System (NeoMatrix, Irvine, CA. Cytologic evaluation of all NAF samples was performed using previously described classification categories. Results 500 healthy women were successfully enrolled. Thirty-eight percent (190/500 produced fluid and 187 were available for cytologic analysis. Cytologic classification of fluid producers showed 50% (93/187 Category 0 (insufficient cellular material, 38% (71/187 Category I (benign non-hyperplastic ductal epithelial cells, 10% (18/187 Category II (benign hyperplastic ductal epithelial cells, 3% (5/187 Category III (atypical ductal epithelial cells and none were Category IV (unequivocal malignancy. Overall, 19% of the subjects produced NAF with adequate cellularity and 1% were found to have cytologic atypia. Conclusion The HALO system is a simple, safe, rapid, automated method for standardized collection of NAF which is acceptable to patients. Cytologic assessment of HALO-collected NAF showed the ability to detect benign and pre-neoplastic ductal epithelial cells from asymptomatic volunteers.

  10. Data categories for marine planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsom, Frances L.; Cicchetti, Giancarlo; Wahle, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. National Ocean Policy calls for a science- and ecosystem-based approach to comprehensive planning and management of human activities and their impacts on America’s oceans. The Ocean Community in Data.gov is an outcome of 2010–2011 work by an interagency working group charged with designing a national information management system to support ocean planning. Within the working group, a smaller team developed a list of the data categories specifically relevant to marine planning. This set of categories is an important consensus statement of the breadth of information types required for ocean planning from a national, multidisciplinary perspective. Although the categories were described in a working document in 2011, they have not yet been fully implemented explicitly in online services or geospatial metadata, in part because authoritative definitions were not created formally. This document describes the purpose of the data categories, provides definitions, and identifies relations among the categories and between the categories and external standards. It is intended to be used by ocean data providers, managers, and users in order to provide a transparent and consistent framework for organizing and describing complex information about marine ecosystems and their connections to humans.

  11. PRECEDENCE AS A PSYCHOLINGUISTIC CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panarina Nadezhda Sergeevna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of particular linguistic units by representatives of a linguacultural community as the most preferable verbal actions is not necessary to be a case of verbal operations with some culturally specific knowledge. The analysis of a psychosocial mechanism used for generation and verbalization of such a knowledge allows to define the nature of precedence as a characteristic of meaning that is being effected in a speech act. The development of precedent meaning indispensably assumes not only generation of the definition component, but also entry into a structure of a culturological component meaning. The culturological component reflects a relationship between a subject-concept component of the meaning and the other elements of a speech situation – the relationship, which is notional for a person. Importance of the relationship consists in fact that definition of its content represents to a person their social identity. Until a person understands the content of relationship, which is represented by the culturological component, the use of corresponding linguistic units to nominate new objects of reality is a supraliminal appeal to the precedent knowledge, a speech act. But for new acts of usage the main thing is definitely quality of relationship as a characteristic of the cultural group stability, and the linguistic unit usage derives a new function. When the culturological component of the meaning is not included into generalization, since it is irrelevant one, and the core of meaning is composed of new and more relevant for the usage features, you can no more realize the inner form of the precedent meaning. The outer form is still relevant, since it is kept in mind by the representatives of linguaculture as the one which is preferable for usage. In this case the linguistic unit is just a tool not related to verbal representation of socially significant attitude, and its usage is a speech operation, a way to perform different speech acts

  12. Electrorheological fluids and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Peter F.; McIntyre, Ernest C.

    2015-06-02

    Electrorheological fluids and methods include changes in liquid-like materials that can flow like milk and subsequently form solid-like structures under applied electric fields; e.g., about 1 kV/mm. Such fluids can be used in various ways as smart suspensions, including uses in automotive, defense, and civil engineering applications. Electrorheological fluids and methods include one or more polar molecule substituted polyhedral silsesquioxanes (e.g., sulfonated polyhedral silsesquioxanes) and one or more oils (e.g., silicone oil), where the fluid can be subjected to an electric field.

  13. Category O for quantum groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Haahr; Mazorchuk, Volodymyr

    2015-01-01

    We study the BGG-categories O_q associated to quantum groups. We prove that many properties of the ordinary BGG-category O for a semisimple complex Lie algebra carry over to the quantum case. Of particular interest is the case when q is a complex root of unity. Here we prove a tensor decomposition...... for simple modules, projective modules, and indecomposable tilting modules. Using the known Kazhdan–Lusztig conjectures for O and for finite-dimensional U_q-modules we are able to determine all irreducible characters as well as the characters of all indecomposable tilting modules in O_q . As a consequence......, we also recover the known result that the generic quantum case behaves like the classical category O....

  14. FINANCIAL CONTROL AS A CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Yu. Volkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the basics of “financial control” as a category. The main attention is concentrated on the “control” itself (asa term, multiplicity of interpretation of“financial control” term and its juristic-practical matching. The duality of financial control category is detected. The identity of terms “financial control” and “state financial control” is justified. The article also offers ways of development of financial control juristical regulation.

  15. A minimally invasive system for glucose area under the curve measurement using interstitial fluid extraction technology: evaluation of the accuracy and usefulness with oral glucose tolerance tests in subjects with and without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Kazuhiko; Hirota, Yushi; Hashimoto, Naoko; Ogawa, Wataru; Sato, Toshiyuki; Okada, Seiki; Hagino, Kei; Asakura, Yoshihiro; Kikkawa, Yasuo; Kojima, Junko; Maekawa, Yasunori; Nakajima, Hiromu

    2012-06-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the importance of managing postprandial hyperglycemia, but adequate monitoring of postprandial glucose remains difficult because of wide variations in levels. We have therefore developed a minimally invasive system to monitor postprandial glucose area under the curve (AUC). This system involves no blood sampling and uses interstitial fluid glucose (IG) AUC (IG-AUC) as a surrogate marker of postprandial glucose. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of this system by comparing data with the findings of oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) in subjects with and without diabetes. The glucose AUC monitoring system was validated by OGTTs in 37 subjects with and 10 subjects without diabetes. A plastic microneedle array was stamped on the forearm to extract IG. A hydrogel patch was then placed on the pretreated area to accumulate IG. Glucose and sodium ion concentrations in the hydrogel were measured to calculate IG-AUC at 2-h postload glucose. Plasma glucose (PG) levels were measured every 30 min to calculate reference PG-AUC. IG-AUC correlated strongly with reference PG-AUC (r=0.93) over a wide range. The level of correlation between IG-AUC and maximum PG level was also high (r=0.86). The painless nature of the technique was confirmed by the response of patients to questionnaires. The glucose AUC monitoring system using IG provided good estimates of reference PG-AUC and maximum PG level during OGTTs in subjects with and without diabetes. This system provides easy-to-use monitoring of glucose AUC, which is a good indicator of postprandial glucose.

  16. Learnable Classes of Categorial Grammars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Makoto

    Learnability theory is an attempt to illuminate the concept of learnability using a mathematical model of learning. Two models of learning of categorial grammars are examined here: the standard model, in which sentences presented to the learner are flat strings of words, and one in which sentences are presented in the form of functor-argument…

  17. Language universals without universal categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croft, W.; van Lier, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors present their views on an article by author Sandra Chung related to lexical categories. According to them, Chung's article critiques an analysis of word classes in Chamorro by author Donald M. Topping. They discuss the restatements made by Chung on Topping's criteria for

  18. Auditory and phonetic category formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudbeek, Martijn; Cutler, A.; Smits, R.; Swingley, D.; Cohen, Henri; Lefebvre, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Among infants' first steps in language acquisition is learning the relevant contrasts of the language-specific phonemic repertoire. This learning is viewed as the formation of categories in a multidimensional psychophysical space. Research in the visual modality has shown that for adults, some kinds

  19. Typicality effects in artificial categories: is there a hemisphere difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, L G; Chiarello, C

    1990-07-01

    In category classification tasks, typicality effects are usually found: accuracy and reaction time depend upon distance from a prototype. In this study, subjects learned either verbal or nonverbal dot pattern categories, followed by a lateralized classification task. Comparable typicality effects were found in both reaction time and accuracy across visual fields for both verbal and nonverbal categories. Both hemispheres appeared to use a similarity-to-prototype matching strategy in classification. This indicates that merely having a verbal label does not differentiate classification in the two hemispheres.

  20. Grammatical Constructions as Relational Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Micah B

    2017-07-01

    This paper argues that grammatical constructions, specifically argument structure constructions that determine the "who did what to whom" part of sentence meaning and how this meaning is expressed syntactically, can be considered a kind of relational category. That is, grammatical constructions are represented as the abstraction of the syntactic and semantic relations of the exemplar utterances that are expressed in that construction, and it enables the generation of novel exemplars. To support this argument, I review evidence that there are parallel behavioral patterns between how children learn relational categories generally and how they learn grammatical constructions specifically. Then, I discuss computational simulations of how grammatical constructions are abstracted from exemplar sentences using a domain-general relational cognitive architecture. Last, I review evidence from adult language processing that shows parallel behavioral patterns with expert behavior from other cognitive domains. After reviewing the evidence, I consider how to integrate this account with other theories of language development. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. A Formal Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José

    This dissertation studies the logic underlying category theory. In particular we present a formal calculus for reasoning about universal properties. The aim is to systematise judgements about functoriality and naturality central to categorical reasoning. The calculus is based on a language which...... extends the typed lambda calculus with new binders to represent universal constructions. The types of the languages are interpreted as locally small categories and the expressions represent functors. The logic supports a syntactic treatment of universality and duality. Contravariance requires a definition...... of universality generous enough to deal with functors of mixed variance. Ends generalise limits to cover these kinds of functors and moreover provide the basis for a very convenient algebraic manipulation of expressions. The equational theory of the lambda calculus is extended with new rules for the definitions...

  2. Seismic Category I Structures Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endebrock, E.G.; Dove, R.C.; Anderson, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Seismic Category I Structures Program currently being carried out at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is sponsored by the Mechanical/Structural Engineering Branch, Division of Engineering Technology of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This project is part of a program designed to increase confidence in the assessment of Category I nuclear power plant structural behavior beyond the design limit. The program involves the design, construction, and testing of heavily reinforced concrete models of auxiliary buildings, fuel-handling buildings, etc., but doe not include the reactor containment building. The overall goal of the program is to supply to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission experimental information and a validated procedure to establish the sensitivity of the dynamic response of these structures to earthquakes of magnitude beyond the design basis earthquake

  3. Different Categories of Business Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Valeria TOMA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Every business organisation involves some element of risk. Unmitigated risks can result in lost opportunity, financial losses, loss of reputation, or loss of the right to operate in a jurisdiction. Like any other risk type, understanding business risks is quite important for every business to garner profits instead of facing losses. A business risk is a universal risk type; this means that every business in the world faces business risks. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the different categories of business risk in order to create the appropriate strategies. The aim of this paper is to describe the most important categories of business risks and to make sure that every type of risk receives equal treatment and consideration.

  4. Virtue Ethics: The Misleading Category

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Nussbaum

    1998-01-01

    Virtue ethics is frequently considered to be a single category of ethical theory, and a rival to Kantianismand Utilitarianism. I argue that this approach is a mistake, because both Kantians and Utilitarians can, and do, have an interest in the virtues and the forrnation of character. But even if we focus on the group of ethical theorists who are most commonly called "virtue theorists" because they reject the guidance of both Kantianism and Utilitarianism, and derive inspiration from ancient G...

  5. Virtue Ethics: The Misleading Category

    OpenAIRE

    Nussbaum, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Virtue ethics is frequently considered to be a single category of ethical theory, and a rival to Kantianismand Utilitarianism. I argue that this approach is a mistake, because both Kantians and Utilitarians can, and do, have an interest in the virtues and the forrnation of character. But even if we focus on the group of ethical theorists who are most commonly called "virtue theorists" because they reject the guidance of both Kantianism and Utilitarianism, and derive inspiration from ancient G...

  6. 1999 who's who category index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A classified index and alphabetical directory of Canadian corporate entities involved in the production, manufacturing, conversion, service, retail sales, research and development, transportation, insurance, legal and communications aspects of propane in Canada is provided. The alphabetical directory section provides the usual business information (name, postal address, phone, fax, e-mail and Internet addresses), names of principal officers, affiliations, products or services produced or marketed, and the category under which the company is listed in the classified index

  7. Relativistic thermodynamics of fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souriau, J.-M.

    1977-05-01

    The relativistic covariant definition of a statistical equilibrium, applied to a perfect gas, involves a 'temperature four-vector', whose direction is the mean velocity of the fluid, and whose length is the reciprocal temperature. The hypothesis of this 'temperature four-vector' being a relevant variable for the description of the dissipative motions of a simple fluid is discussed. The kinematics is defined by using a vector field and measuring the number of molecules. Such a dissipative fluid is subject to motions involving null entropy generation; the 'temperature four-vector' is then a Killing vector; the equations of motion can be completely integrated. Perfect fluids can be studied by this way and the classical results of Lichnerowicz are obtained. In weakly dissipative motions two viscosity coefficient appear together with the heat conductibility coefficient. Two other coefficients perharps measurable on real fluids. Phase transitions and shock waves are described with using the model [fr

  8. Immunotherapy With Magentorheologic Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    anti-tumor effects are weakened by removal of the tumor antigen pool (i.e. surgery) or use of cytoreductive and immunosuppressive therapies (i.e...particles were injected as magneto -rheological fluid (MRF) into an orthotopic primary breast cancer and followed by application of a magnetic field to...SUBJECT TERMS MRF: Magneto -rehological fluid iron particles, IT: immunotherapy, necrotic death, DCs: dendritic cells, cytokines, chemokines

  9. Fluid Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  10. A category of its own?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Jørgen; Roberts, Nigel S.

    1996-01-01

    of these systems on the proportionality of the representation of political parties are, indeed, comparable. The four electoral systems were the basis of their countries' general elections during 1994. The results of these elections are used for analyses and discussions of the relative importance of the differences......At first sight, the electoral systems in Denmark, Germany, South Africa and Sweden may seem different and attaempt to categorize them together odd. All four, however, belong to the same category, which Arend Lijphart calls 'proportional representation two-tier districting systems', and the effects...

  11. Functional categories in comparative linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    , Roger M. 1979. Linguistic knowledge and cultural knowledge: some doubts and speculation. American Anthropologist 81-1, 14-36. Levinson, Stephen C. 1997. From outer to inner space: linguistic categories and non-linguistic thinking. In J. Nuyts and E. Pederson (eds.), Language and Conceptualization, 13......). Furthermore certain ‘ontological categories’ are language-specific (Malt 1995). For example, speakers of Kalam (New Guinea) do not classify the cassowary as a bird, because they believe it has a mythical kinship relation with humans (Bulmer 1967).       In this talk I will discuss the role of functional...

  12. 14 CFR 23.3 - Airplane categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane categories. 23.3 Section 23.3... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 23.3 Airplane categories. (a) The normal category is limited to airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding pilot...

  13. Aspect as a Communicative Category

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durst-Andersen, Per

    2018-01-01

    On the basis of internal evidence from primarily the use of imperfective forms and external evidence from primarily first language acquisition, it is argued that English, Russian, and French aspect differ from one another, because they go back to an obligatory choice among three possible communic......On the basis of internal evidence from primarily the use of imperfective forms and external evidence from primarily first language acquisition, it is argued that English, Russian, and French aspect differ from one another, because they go back to an obligatory choice among three possible...... communicative directions: should a grammatical category be grounded in the speaker's experience of a situation, in the situation referred to or in the hearer as information about the situation? The progressive vs. non-progressive distinction in English is acquired in the present tense of atelic (simplex) verbs...... to the meta-distinction between atelic (simplex) and telic (complex) verbs. It is second-person oriented. The specific order arrived at reflects the Peircean categories of Firstness, Secondness, and Thirdness and their predictions. This can account for the fact that the English and Russian types can be found...

  14. Writing and the 'Subject'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Charlotte

    /page. It is, moreover, an index pointing to the painting/writing subject; it is a special deictic mode of painting/writing. The handwriting of the Russian avant-garde books, the poetics of handwriting, and the way handwriting is represented in poetry emphasize the way the subject (the speaking and the viewing...... in the early as well as the contemporary avant-garde, it becomes clear that the ‘subject’ is an unstable category that can be exposed to manipulation and play. Handwriting is performing as a signature (as an index), but is at the same time similar to the signature of a subject (an icon) and a verbal construct...

  15. Contribution to the study of fluids transfers within a concrete wall: application to the case of a containment wall subjected to air tightness tests conditions and to accidental situation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billard, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The correlation between the leak rate of a containment wall of nuclear power plants reactor buildings measured during periodic airtightness tests and the leak rate during a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) is a fundamental element in the security analysis of reactor building. The aim of this work is to contribute to the study of the transfers of fluids induced by these two types of loading in the case of a concrete wall integrating inhomogeneities and singularities capable to exist within the containment wall. In a first experimental phase, the development of a test rig allowing to work with concrete specimens having the same height as the thickness of containment wall of future nuclear power plant (1.3 m) permits to develop concrete compositions representative of these high air permeability zones. Their characterization is focused on the types of gaseous flow being able to exist within these high diffuse permeability concretes and on the structuring of their porous network. This step is completed by water vapour sorption measurements and by mercury porosimetry tests in the case of a concrete qualified according a leak flow criterion. In a second experimental phase, this concrete is subjected to air tightness tests conditions and to an accidental situation of LOCA type (141 deg C, effective humid air pressure equal to 4,2 bar) always with a thickness of 1.3 m. The analysis of pressure and temperature fields and the water content distributions is performed by an appropriate instrumentation which also permits the study of kinetics of the mass flux (both gaseous and liquid) crossing to the extrados of the wall. The numerical investigation is carried out with the Thermal-Hydro-Mechanic of non-saturated porous media model, recently implemented in Code Aster (developed by EDF). This model allows to consider all the fluid phases in presence. From a interpretation work of experimental data according to hypotheses of the model, notably towards the particular aspects bound up

  16. Standardization of radioactive waste categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    A large amount of information about most aspects of radioactive waste management has been accumulated and made available to interested nations in recent years. The efficiency of this service has been somewhat hampered because the terminology used to describe the different types of radioactive waste has varied from country to country and indeed from installation to installation within a given country. This publication is the outcome of a panel meeting on Standardization of Radioactive Waste Categories. It presents a simple standard to be used as a common language between people working in the field of waste management at nuclear installations. The purpose of the standard is only to act as a practical tool for increasing efficiency in communicating, collecting and assessing technical and economical information in the common interest of all nations and the developing countries in particular. 20 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  17. El Convenio de Estambul y los sujetos de la violencia de género. El cuestionamiento de la violencia doméstica como categoría jurídica // The Istanbul Convention and the subjects of gender violence. The questioned legal category of domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asunción Ventura Franch

    2016-12-01

    the definition of gender violence and subjects who exercise and suffer. To determine what is gender violence is needed start from the concepts by which it is built juridically and argumentatively the violence product of patriarchy as a social structure and gender as a consequence of that organization. From these criteria the conceptualization of violence that includes the Convention is analyzed, observing some contradictions that could introduce elements of confusion by raising a legal category of domestic violence and not to determine the active and passive subjects of gender violence. On this basis, an interpretation of the concept of violence as specified in Article 3 of the Convention, according to the parameters established by the doctrine to gender violence, while it intends to begin the process of tabling amendments proposed its modification provided for in the Convention itself.

  18. A Category Mistake: Why Contemporary Australian Religious Education in Catholic Schools May Be Doomed to Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Brendan

    2013-01-01

    Assuming religious education to be the same as other subject areas of a Catholic school's curriculum by, for example, applying the outcomes based philosophy and language of other subject areas to religious education renders a category mistake. A prominent notion in the work of metaphysical philosopher Gilbert Ryle, a category mistake arises when…

  19. Centers and homotopy centers in enriched monoidal categories

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Batanin, M.; Markl, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 230, 4-6 (2012), s. 1811-1858 ISSN 0001-8708 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/0397 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : monoidal categories * center * Hochschild complex Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.373, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0001870812001508

  20. Beknopte literatuurstudie inzake categorie-indeling van wegen.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, A. & Twisk, D.A.M.

    1992-01-01

    This literature study describes the road categorization from the road user point of view. The study describes the following subjects: (1) the mental load of road users; (2) road categories in relation to road safety; (3) a model for the traffic and transport system; (4) recognition of road types;

  1. Buffer fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzadzhanzade, A Kh; Dedusanko, G Ya; Dinaburg, L S; Markov, Yu M; Rasizade, Ya N; Rozov, V N; Sherstnev, N M

    1979-08-30

    A drilling fluid is suggested for separating the drilling and plugging fluids which contains as the base increased solution of polyacrylamide and additive. In order to increase the viscoelastic properties of the liquid with simultaneous decrease in the periods of its fabrication, the solution contains as an additive dry bentonite clay. In cases of the use of a buffer fluid under conditions of negative temperatures, it is necessary to add to it table salt or ethylene glycol.

  2. Fluid mechanics. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truckenbrodt, E.

    1980-01-01

    The second volume contains the chapter 4 to 6. Whereas chapter 1 deals with the introduction into the mechanics of fluids and chapter 2 with the fundamental laws of fluid and thermal fluid dynamics, in chapter 3 elementary flow phenomena in fluids with constant density are treated. Chapter 4 directly continues chapter 3 and describes elementary flow phenomena in fluids with varying density. Fluid statics again is treated as a special case. If compared with the first edition the treatment of unsteady laminar flow and of pipe flow for a fluid with varying density were subject to a substantial extension. In chapter 5 rotation-free and rotating potential flows are presented together. By this means it is achieved to explain the behaviour of the multidimensional fictionless flow in closed form. A subchapter describes some related problems of potential theory like the flow along a free streamline and seepage flow through a porous medium. The boundary layer flows in chapter 6 are concerned with the flow and temperature boundary layer in laminar and turbulent flows at a fired wall. In it differential and integral methods are applied of subchapter reports on boundary layer flows without a fixed boundary, occurring e.g. in an open jet and in a wake flow. The problems of intermittence and of the Coanda effect are briefly mentioned. (orig./MH)

  3. Color categories and color appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue–green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary were perceptually exaggerated. This task did not require overt judgments of the perceived colors, and the tendency to group showed only a weak and inconsistent categorical bias. In a second case, we analyzed results from two prior studies of hue scaling of chromatic stimuli (De Valois, De Valois, Switkes, & Mahon, 1997; Malkoc, Kay, & Webster, 2005), to test whether color appearance changed more rapidly around the blue–green boundary. In this task observers directly judge the perceived color of the stimuli and these judgments tended to show much stronger categorical effects. The differences between these tasks could arise either because different signals mediate color grouping and color appearance, or because linguistic categories might differentially intrude on the response to color and/or on the perception of color. Our results suggest that the interaction between language and color processing may be highly dependent on the specific task and cognitive demands and strategies of the observer, and also highlight pronounced individual differences in the tendency to exhibit categorical responses. PMID:22176751

  4. Incompressible ionized fluid mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roubíček, Tomáš

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 7 (2006), s. 493-509 ISSN 0935-1175 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : chemically reacting fluids * Navier-Stokes * Nernst-Planck * Possion equation s * heat equation s Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.954, year: 2006

  5. The Micro-Category Account of Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam E.; Fugelsang, Jonathan A.; Kraemer, David J. M.; Dunbar, Kevin N.

    2008-01-01

    Here, we investigate how activation of mental representations of categories during analogical reasoning influences subsequent cognitive processing. Specifically, we present and test the central predictions of the "Micro-Category" account of analogy. This account emphasizes the role of categories in aligning terms for analogical mapping. In a…

  6. Individual differences in attention during category learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, M.D.; Wetzels, R.

    2010-01-01

    A central idea in many successful models of category learning—including the Generalized Context Model (GCM)—is that people selectively attend to those dimensions of stimuli that are relevant for dividing them into categories. We use the GCM to re-examine some previously analyzed category learning

  7. Schroedinger fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, K.K.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of nuclear internal flow and collective inertia, the difference of this flow from that of a classical fluid, and the approach of this flow to rigid flow in independent-particle model rotation are elucidated by reviewing the theory of Schroedinger fluid and its implications for collective vibration and rotation. (author)

  8. Bundles of C*-categories and duality

    OpenAIRE

    Vasselli, Ezio

    2005-01-01

    We introduce the notions of multiplier C*-category and continuous bundle of C*-categories, as the categorical analogues of the corresponding C*-algebraic notions. Every symmetric tensor C*-category with conjugates is a continuous bundle of C*-categories, with base space the spectrum of the C*-algebra associated with the identity object. We classify tensor C*-categories with fibre the dual of a compact Lie group in terms of suitable principal bundles. This also provides a classification for ce...

  9. Manual for subject analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series and also constitutes a part of the ETDE Procedures Manual. It presents the rules, guidelines and procedures to be adopted by centers submitting input to the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) or the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE). It is a manual for the subject analysis part of input preparation, meaning the selection, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing of relevant publications, and is to be used in conjunction with the Thesauruses, Subject Categories documents and the documents providing guidelines for the preparation of abstracts. The concept and structure of the new manual are intended to describe in a logical and efficient sequence all the steps comprising the subject analysis of documents to be reported to INIS or ETDE. The manual includes new chapters on preparatory analysis, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing, as well as rules, guidelines, procedures, examples and a special chapter on guidelines and examples for subject analysis in particular subject fields. (g.t.; a.n.)

  10. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool......-Saxon and continental traditions, this special issue provides examples of the use of researcher subjectivity, informed by psychoanalytic thinking, in expanding research understanding....

  11. Design guide for calculating fluid damping for circular cylindrical structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.S.

    1983-06-01

    Fluid damping plays an important role for structures submerged in fluid, subjected to flow, or conveying fluid. This design guide presents a summary of calculational procedures and design data for fluid damping for circular cylinders vibrating in quiescent fluid, crossflow, and parallel flow

  12. CISM Course on Rotating Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    1992-01-01

    The volume presents a comprehensive overview of rotation effects on fluid behavior, emphasizing non-linear processes. The subject is introduced by giving a range of examples of rotating fluids encountered in geophysics and engineering. This is then followed by a discussion of the relevant scales and parameters of rotating flow, and an introduction to geostrophic balance and vorticity concepts. There are few books on rotating fluids and this volume is, therefore, a welcome addition. It is the first volume which contains a unified view of turbulence in rotating fluids, instability and vortex dynamics. Some aspects of wave motions covered here are not found elsewhere.

  13. Procedural-Based Category Learning in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Impact of Category Number and Category Continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vincent eFiloteo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Previously we found that Parkinson's disease (PD patients are impaired in procedural-based category learning when category membership is defined by a nonlinear relationship between stimulus dimensions, but these same patients are normal when the rule is defined by a linear relationship (Filoteo et al., 2005; Maddox & Filoteo, 2001. We suggested that PD patients' impairment was due to a deficit in recruiting ‘striatal units' to represent complex nonlinear rules. In the present study, we further examined the nature of PD patients' procedural-based deficit in two experiments designed to examine the impact of (1 the number of categories, and (2 category discontinuity on learning. Results indicated that PD patients were impaired only under discontinuous category conditions but were normal when the number of categories was increased from two to four. The lack of impairment in the four-category condition suggests normal integrity of striatal medium spiny cells involved in procedural-based category learning. In contrast, and consistent with our previous observation of a nonlinear deficit, the finding that PD patients were impaired in the discontinuous condition suggests that these patients are impaired when they have to associate perceptually distinct exemplars with the same category. Theoretically, this deficit might be related to dysfunctional communication among medium spiny neurons within the striatum, particularly given that these are cholinergic neurons and a cholinergic deficiency could underlie some of PD patients’ cognitive impairment.

  14. Feature-Based versus Category-Based Induction with Uncertain Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Oren; Hayes, Brett K.; Newell, Ben R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that when feature inferences have to be made about an instance whose category membership is uncertain, feature-based inductive reasoning is used to the exclusion of category-based induction. These results contrast with the observation that people can and do use category-based induction when category membership is…

  15. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a focused, readable account of the principal physical and mathematical ideas at the heart of fluid dynamics. Graduate students in engineering, applied math, and physics who are taking their first graduate course in fluids will find this book invaluable in providing the background in physics and mathematics necessary to pursue advanced study. The book includes a detailed derivation of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations, followed by many examples of their use in studying the dynamics of fluid flows. Modern tensor analysis is used to simplify the mathematical derivations, thus allowing a clearer view of the physics. Peter Bernard also covers the motivation behind many fundamental concepts such as Bernoulli's equation and the stream function. Many exercises are designed with a view toward using MATLAB or its equivalent to simplify and extend the analysis of fluid motion including developing flow simulations based on techniques described in the book.

  16. Introduction: youth, subjectivity and Utopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salemink, Oscar; Bregnbæk, Susanne; Hirslund, Dan Vesalainen

    2018-01-01

    As a fluid age cohort and a social category between childhood and adulthood – and hence with tenuous links to the status quo – youth are variously described as ‘at risk’, as victims of precarious and unpredictable circumstances, or as agents of social change who embody the future. From this futur...... when political and religiously inspired Utopias motivate youth in the Global South to imagine, enact and embody what was missing in the past and present....

  17. TV MEDIA ANALYSIS FOR BANKING CATEGORY (2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Elena POȘTOACĂ; Dorian – Laurențiu FLOREA

    2014-01-01

    This article represents a short overview of the media landscape for the banking category in Romania in 2012. Unlike the other categories (for example FMCG – fast moving consumer goods), the banking category is more complex because every bank can communicate for a wider range of products (credits, deposits, packages dedicated to students, pensioners and other types of banking products). In the first part of this paper, there will be presented some theoretical notions about media planning a...

  18. When more is less: Feedback effects in perceptual category learning ☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, W. Todd; Love, Bradley C.; Glass, Brian D.; Filoteo, J. Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Rule-based and information-integration category learning were compared under minimal and full feedback conditions. Rule-based category structures are those for which the optimal rule is verbalizable. Information-integration category structures are those for which the optimal rule is not verbalizable. With minimal feedback subjects are told whether their response was correct or incorrect, but are not informed of the correct category assignment. With full feedback subjects are informed of the correctness of their response and are also informed of the correct category assignment. An examination of the distinct neural circuits that subserve rule-based and information-integration category learning leads to the counterintuitive prediction that full feedback should facilitate rule-based learning but should also hinder information-integration learning. This prediction was supported in the experiment reported below. The implications of these results for theories of learning are discussed. PMID:18455155

  19. The perceptual effects of learning object categories that predict perceptual goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gulick, Ana E.; Gauthier, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    In classic category learning studies, subjects typically learn to assign items to one of two categories, with no further distinction between how items on each side of the category boundary should be treated. In real life, however, we often learn categories that dictate further processing goals, for instance with objects in only one category requiring further individuation. Using methods from category learning and perceptual expertise, we studied the perceptual consequences of experience with objects in tasks that rely on attention to different dimensions in different parts of the space. In two experiments, subjects first learned to categorize complex objects from a single morphspace into two categories based on one morph dimension, and then learned to perform a different task, either naming or a local feature judgment, for each of the two categories. A same-different discrimination test before and after each training measured sensitivity to feature dimensions of the space. After initial categorization, sensitivity increased along the category-diagnostic dimension. After task association, sensitivity increased more for the category that was named, especially along the non-diagnostic dimension. The results demonstrate that local attentional weights, associated with individual exemplars as a function of task requirements, can have lasting effects on perceptual representations. PMID:24820671

  20. Biased Allocation of Faces to Social Categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dotsch, R.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2011-01-01

    Three studies show that social categorization is biased at the level of category allocation. In all studies, participants categorized faces. In Studies 1 and 2, participants overallocated faces with criminal features-a stereotypical negative trait-to the stigmatized Moroccan category, especially if

  1. The ethnic category from a linguistic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan Săftoiu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I put forward an analysis from a linguistic perspective of an ethnic category in Romania that is defined by at least two terms: gypsy and Romany. The concept of category refers to the members of a particular group that sets apart from other groups by a set of specific elements acknowledged at the level of a larger community. In interaction, individuals frequently use categories and the set of features that a certain category is characterized by, since it is easier to deal with sets of knowledge than with references for each individual separately. The analysis is based on a series of expressions and phrases, proverbs and jokes which were (or still are getting about in the Romanian space and which delineated, at the level of the collective mentality, the image of an ethnic category whose name (still oscillates between two terms. The texts were grouped depending on the different stereotypes associated with the ethnic category under discussion, by highlighting the pejorative connotations of the uses of the term gypsy in relation to the ethnic category Romany, a significance-free category that can be ‘filled up’ by elements that can sketch a positive image.

  2. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B.

    2006-01-01

    a recent account of category-specificity and lends support to the notion that category-specific impairments can occur for both natural objects and artefacts following damage to pre-semantic stages in visual object recognition. The implications of the present findings are discussed in relation to theories...

  3. Conformal field theories and tensor categories. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Chengming [Nankai Univ., Tianjin (China). Chern Institute of Mathematics; Fuchs, Juergen [Karlstad Univ. (Sweden). Theoretical Physics; Huang, Yi-Zhi [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Kong, Liang [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. for Advanced Study; Runkel, Ingo; Schweigert, Christoph (eds.) [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Mathematics

    2014-08-01

    First book devoted completely to the mathematics of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications. Contributors include both mathematicians and physicists. Some long expository articles are especially suitable for beginners. The present volume is a collection of seven papers that are either based on the talks presented at the workshop ''Conformal field theories and tensor categories'' held June 13 to June 17, 2011 at the Beijing International Center for Mathematical Research, Peking University, or are extensions of the material presented in the talks at the workshop. These papers present new developments beyond rational conformal field theories and modular tensor categories and new applications in mathematics and physics. The topics covered include tensor categories from representation categories of Hopf algebras, applications of conformal field theories and tensor categories to topological phases and gapped systems, logarithmic conformal field theories and the corresponding non-semisimple tensor categories, and new developments in the representation theory of vertex operator algebras. Some of the papers contain detailed introductory material that is helpful for graduate students and researchers looking for an introduction to these research directions. The papers also discuss exciting recent developments in the area of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications and will be extremely useful for researchers working in these areas.

  4. Color descriptors for object category recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Sande, K.E.A.; Gevers, T.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Category recognition is important to access visual information on the level of objects. A common approach is to compute image descriptors first and then to apply machine learning to achieve category recognition from annotated examples. As a consequence, the choice of image descriptors is of great

  5. Conformal field theories and tensor categories. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Chengming; Fuchs, Juergen; Huang, Yi-Zhi; Kong, Liang; Runkel, Ingo; Schweigert, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    First book devoted completely to the mathematics of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications. Contributors include both mathematicians and physicists. Some long expository articles are especially suitable for beginners. The present volume is a collection of seven papers that are either based on the talks presented at the workshop ''Conformal field theories and tensor categories'' held June 13 to June 17, 2011 at the Beijing International Center for Mathematical Research, Peking University, or are extensions of the material presented in the talks at the workshop. These papers present new developments beyond rational conformal field theories and modular tensor categories and new applications in mathematics and physics. The topics covered include tensor categories from representation categories of Hopf algebras, applications of conformal field theories and tensor categories to topological phases and gapped systems, logarithmic conformal field theories and the corresponding non-semisimple tensor categories, and new developments in the representation theory of vertex operator algebras. Some of the papers contain detailed introductory material that is helpful for graduate students and researchers looking for an introduction to these research directions. The papers also discuss exciting recent developments in the area of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications and will be extremely useful for researchers working in these areas.

  6. Connections between realcompactifications in various categories ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The author gives a detailed analysis of the relation between the theories of realcompactications and compactications in the category of ditopological texture spaces and in the categories of bitopological spaces and topological spaces. Keywords: Bitopology, texture, ditopology, Stone-Čech compactication, Hewitt real- ...

  7. Finding biomedical categories in Medline®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeganova Lana

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are several humanly defined ontologies relevant to Medline. However, Medline is a fast growing collection of biomedical documents which creates difficulties in updating and expanding these humanly defined ontologies. Automatically identifying meaningful categories of entities in a large text corpus is useful for information extraction, construction of machine learning features, and development of semantic representations. In this paper we describe and compare two methods for automatically learning meaningful biomedical categories in Medline. The first approach is a simple statistical method that uses part-of-speech and frequency information to extract a list of frequent nouns from Medline. The second method implements an alignment-based technique to learn frequent generic patterns that indicate a hyponymy/hypernymy relationship between a pair of noun phrases. We then apply these patterns to Medline to collect frequent hypernyms as potential biomedical categories. Results We study and compare these two alternative sets of terms to identify semantic categories in Medline. We find that both approaches produce reasonable terms as potential categories. We also find that there is a significant agreement between the two sets of terms. The overlap between the two methods improves our confidence regarding categories predicted by these independent methods. Conclusions This study is an initial attempt to extract categories that are discussed in Medline. Rather than imposing external ontologies on Medline, our methods allow categories to emerge from the text.

  8. Appropriate Pupilness: Social Categories Intersecting in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofoed, Jette

    2008-01-01

    The analytical focus in this article is on how social categories intersect in daily school life and how intersections intertwine with other empirically relevant categories such as normality, pupilness and (in)appropriatedness. The point of empirical departure is a daily ritual where teams for football are selected. The article opens up for a…

  9. Mirror Asymmetry of Category and Letter Fluency in Traumatic Brain Injury and Alzheimer's Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitani, Erminio; Rosci, Chiara; Saetti, Maria Cristina; Laiacona, Marcella

    2009-01-01

    In this study we contrasted the Category fluency and Letter fluency performance of 198 normal subjects, 57 Alzheimer's patients and 57 patients affected by traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim was to check whether, besides the prevalence of Category fluency deficit often reported among Alzheimer's patients, the TBI group presented the opposite…

  10. Global maps of science based on the new Web-of-Science categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Carley, S.; Rafols, I.

    2013-01-01

    In August 2011, Thomson Reuters launched version 5 of the Science and Social Science Citation Index in the Web of Science (WoS). Among other things, the 222 ISI Subject Categories (SCs) for these two databases in version 4 of WoS were renamed and extended to 225 WoS Categories (WCs). A new set of

  11. Diagnostic Categories in Autobiographical Accounts of Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Working within frameworks drawn from the writings of Immanuel Kant, Alfred Schutz, and Kenneth Burke, this article examines the role that diagnostic categories play in autobiographical accounts of illness, with a special focus on chronic disease. Four lay diagnostic categories, each with different connections to formal medical diagnostic categories, serve as typifications to make sense of the way the lifeworld changes over the course of chronic illness. These diagnostic categories are used in conjunction with another set of typifications: lay epidemiologies, lay etiologies, lay prognostics, and lay therapeutics. Together these serve to construct and reconstruct the self at the center of the lifeworld. Embedded within the lay diagnostic categories are narratives of progression, regression, or stability, forms of typification derived from literary and storytelling genres. These narratives are developed by the self in autobiographical accounts of illness.

  12. Modular categories and 3-manifold invariants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tureav, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give a concise introduction to the theory of knot invariants and 3-manifold invariants which generalize the Jones polynomial and which may be considered as a mathematical version of the Witten invariants. Such a theory was introduced by N. Reshetikhin and the author on the ground of the theory of quantum groups. here we use more general algebraic objects, specifically, ribbon and modular categories. Such categories in particular arise as the categories of representations of quantum groups. The notion of modular category, interesting in itself, is closely related to the notion of modular tensor category in the sense of G. Moore and N. Seiberg. For simplicity we restrict ourselves in this paper to the case of closed 3-manifolds

  13. SUSTAIN: a network model of category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Bradley C; Medin, Douglas L; Gureckis, Todd M

    2004-04-01

    SUSTAIN (Supervised and Unsupervised STratified Adaptive Incremental Network) is a model of how humans learn categories from examples. SUSTAIN initially assumes a simple category structure. If simple solutions prove inadequate and SUSTAIN is confronted with a surprising event (e.g., it is told that a bat is a mammal instead of a bird), SUSTAIN recruits an additional cluster to represent the surprising event. Newly recruited clusters are available to explain future events and can themselves evolve into prototypes-attractors-rules. SUSTAIN's discovery of category substructure is affected not only by the structure of the world but by the nature of the learning task and the learner's goals. SUSTAIN successfully extends category learning models to studies of inference learning, unsupervised learning, category construction, and contexts in which identification learning is faster than classification learning.

  14. Perspectives in Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, G. K.; Moffatt, H. K.; Worster, M. G.

    2002-12-01

    With applications ranging from modelling the environment to automotive design and physiology to astrophysics, conventional textbooks cannot hope to give students much information on what topics in fluid dynamics are currently being researched, or how to choose between them. This book rectifies matters. It consists of eleven chapters that introduce and review different branches of the subject for graduate-level courses, or for specialists seeking introductions to other areas. Hb ISBN (2001): 0-521-78061-6

  15. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Mashiach-Arazi, Yael; Nouriel, Ariella; Raz, Raanan; Constantini, Naama W

    2015-09-29

    In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes. Height and weight of 169 child and adolescent competitive karate athletes were measured. Participants were divided into eleven hypothetical weight categories of 5 kg increments, and eleven hypothetical height categories of 5 cm increments. We calculated the coefficient of variation of height and weight by each division method. We also calculated how many participants fit into corresponding categories of both height and weight, and how many would shift a category if divided by height. There was a high correlation between height and weight (r = 0.91, p<0.001). The mean range of heights seen within current weight categories was reduced by 83% when participants were divided by height. When allocating athletes by height categories, 74% of athletes would shift up or down one weight category at most, compared with the current categorization method. We conclude that dividing young karate athletes by height categories significantly reduced the range of heights of competitors within the category. Such categorization would not cause athletes to compete against much heavier opponents in most cases. Using height categories as a means to reduce eating disorders in combat sports should be further examined.

  16. EDUCATIONAL EVENT AS THE PEDAGOGICAL CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor V. Lobanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to reveal the essence of the educational event as a pedagogical category. The reason to study the issue is the methodological generality of the term that came into pedagogical everyday life, but which semantic content is still not clear enough. Methods. The methods involve a theoretical analysis of the philosophical and pedagogical literature on the study, the categorical analysis, surveys of students and teachers. Results. The concept content of «event» is looked upon in both historical scholarship and pedagogy, «educational event» is analyzed in unity with the «educational situation» and «educational process». The attitude of students and teachers to educational events was clarified through the surveys; emotional and rational responses of the respondents were differentiated and the peculiarities of events organization in the education system were classified. While teachers and students are considered as subjects of educational events, their goals are delineated. Scientific novelty. The author's own definition of is given. Educational event is defined as a specially organized and unique pedagogical fact limited, but not rigidly determined by the educational situation, and capable of changing the educational process going beyond the boundaries of its conformism. The formulation above is the result of analysis how the concepts of «event», «situation» and «process» may interact in pedagogical discourse. Practical significance. The results can be used while designing the educational programs and projects, as well as in the development of academic courses of innovative pedagogy. 

  17. Fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granger, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    This text offers the most comprehensive approach available to fluid mechanics. The author takes great care to insure a physical understanding of concepts grounded in applied mathematics. The presentation of theory is followed by engineering applications, helping students develop problem-solving skills from the perspective of a professional engineer. Extensive use of detailed examples reinforces the understanding of theoretical concepts

  18. Observation versus classification in supervised category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levering, Kimery R; Kurtz, Kenneth J

    2015-02-01

    The traditional supervised classification paradigm encourages learners to acquire only the knowledge needed to predict category membership (a discriminative approach). An alternative that aligns with important aspects of real-world concept formation is learning with a broader focus to acquire knowledge of the internal structure of each category (a generative approach). Our work addresses the impact of a particular component of the traditional classification task: the guess-and-correct cycle. We compare classification learning to a supervised observational learning task in which learners are shown labeled examples but make no classification response. The goals of this work sit at two levels: (1) testing for differences in the nature of the category representations that arise from two basic learning modes; and (2) evaluating the generative/discriminative continuum as a theoretical tool for understand learning modes and their outcomes. Specifically, we view the guess-and-correct cycle as consistent with a more discriminative approach and therefore expected it to lead to narrower category knowledge. Across two experiments, the observational mode led to greater sensitivity to distributional properties of features and correlations between features. We conclude that a relatively subtle procedural difference in supervised category learning substantially impacts what learners come to know about the categories. The results demonstrate the value of the generative/discriminative continuum as a tool for advancing the psychology of category learning and also provide a valuable constraint for formal models and associated theories.

  19. How the Medical Category of ‘Brown Phlegm’ Came to Tibet (abstract and PPT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blezer, H.W.A.

    Drugs, Fluids, and Other Matters: Medical History through the Lens of Things (Natalie Köhle) How the Medical Category of ‘Brown Phlegm’ Came to Tibet? This is a modest contribution to ongoing investigation of so-called ‘brown phlegm’ (disorders) in Tibet (Tib. bad kan smug po). The main hypothesis

  20. The impact of category structure and training methodology on learning and generalizing within-category representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ell, Shawn W; Smith, David B; Peralta, Gabriela; Hélie, Sébastien

    2017-08-01

    When interacting with categories, representations focused on within-category relationships are often learned, but the conditions promoting within-category representations and their generalizability are unclear. We report the results of three experiments investigating the impact of category structure and training methodology on the learning and generalization of within-category representations (i.e., correlational structure). Participants were trained on either rule-based or information-integration structures using classification (Is the stimulus a member of Category A or Category B?), concept (e.g., Is the stimulus a member of Category A, Yes or No?), or inference (infer the missing component of the stimulus from a given category) and then tested on either an inference task (Experiments 1 and 2) or a classification task (Experiment 3). For the information-integration structure, within-category representations were consistently learned, could be generalized to novel stimuli, and could be generalized to support inference at test. For the rule-based structure, extended inference training resulted in generalization to novel stimuli (Experiment 2) and inference training resulted in generalization to classification (Experiment 3). These data help to clarify the conditions under which within-category representations can be learned. Moreover, these results make an important contribution in highlighting the impact of category structure and training methodology on the generalization of categorical knowledge.

  1. A Higher-Order Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A calculus for a fragment of category theory is presented. The types in the language denote categories and the expressions functors. The judgements of the calculus systematise categorical arguments such as: an expression is functorial in its free variables; two expressions are naturally isomorphic...... in their free variables. There are special binders for limits and more general ends. The rules for limits and ends support an algebraic manipulation of universal constructions as opposed to a more traditional diagrammatic approach. Duality within the calculus and applications in proving continuity are discussed...... with examples. The calculus gives a basis for mechanising a theory of categories in a generic theorem prover like Isabelle....

  2. Kuranishi spaces as a 2-category

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    This is a survey of the author's in-progress book arXiv:1409.6908. 'Kuranishi spaces' were introduced in the work of Fukaya, Oh, Ohta and Ono in symplectic geometry (see e.g. arXiv:1503.07631), as the geometric structure on moduli spaces of $J$-holomorphic curves. We propose a new definition of Kuranishi space, which has the nice property that they form a 2-category $\\bf Kur$. Thus the homotopy category Ho$({\\bf Kur})$ is an ordinary category of Kuranishi spaces. Any Fukaya-Oh-Ohta-Ono (FOOO)...

  3. Categories of space in music and lifestyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Pavle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the connection between categories of space in music, music production and lifestyles. The relations between the symbolic space of social connections and musical contents in the social space of various status interactions is complex and contradictory. Category of space in the music exists in four forms. Categories of space in the description of the experience of the musical works, as well as in the way of music production (spacing are the integral part of the special way of consumption of these works (home Hi-Fi, and represent the social status, ways of cultural consumption and habitus in general.

  4. Fluid dynamics of dilatant fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakanishi, Hiizu; Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Mitarai, Namiko

    2012-01-01

    of the state variable, we demonstrate that the model can describe basic features of the dilatant fluid such as the stress-shear rate curve that represents discontinuous severe shear thickening, hysteresis upon changing shear rate, and instantaneous hardening upon external impact. An analysis of the model...

  5. Words can slow down category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brojde, Chandra L; Porter, Chelsea; Colunga, Eliana

    2011-08-01

    Words have been shown to influence many cognitive tasks, including category learning. Most demonstrations of these effects have focused on instances in which words facilitate performance. One possibility is that words augment representations, predicting an across the-board benefit of words during category learning. We propose that words shift attention to dimensions that have been historically predictive in similar contexts. Under this account, there should be cases in which words are detrimental to performance. The results from two experiments show that words impair learning of object categories under some conditions. Experiment 1 shows that words hurt performance when learning to categorize by texture. Experiment 2 shows that words also hurt when learning to categorize by brightness, leading to selectively attending to shape when both shape and hue could be used to correctly categorize stimuli. We suggest that both the positive and negative effects of words have developmental origins in the history of word usage while learning categories. [corrected

  6. Uniform Reserve Training and Retirement Category Administration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kohner, D

    1997-01-01

    This Instruction implement policy as provided in DoD Directive 1215.6, assigns responsibilities and prescribes procedures that pertain to the designation and use of uniform Reserve component (RC) categories (RCCs...

  7. Topoi the categorial analysis of logic

    CERN Document Server

    Goldblatt, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A classic exposition of a branch of mathematical logic that uses category theory, this text is suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students and accessible to both philosophically and mathematically oriented readers.

  8. Comparing two K-category assignments by a K-category correlation coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorodkin, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Predicted assignments of biological sequences are often evaluated by Matthews correlation coefficient. However, Matthews correlation coefficient applies only to cases where the assignments belong to two categories, and cases with more than two categories are often artificially forced into two...... categories by considering what belongs and what does not belong to one of the categories, leading to the loss of information. Here, an extended correlation coefficient that applies to K-categories is proposed, and this measure is shown to be highly applicable for evaluating prediction of RNA secondary...

  9. Mixed quantum states in higher categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Heunen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are two ways to describe the interaction between classical and quantum information categorically: one based on completely positive maps between Frobenius algebras, the other using symmetric monoidal 2-categories. This paper makes a first step towards combining the two. The integrated approach allows a unified description of quantum teleportation and classical encryption in a single 2-category, as well as a universal security proof applicable simultaneously to both scenarios.

  10. Derivation of plutonium-239 materials disposition categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brough, W.G.

    1995-01-01

    At this time, the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition within the DOE, is assessing alternatives for the disposition of excess fissile materials. To facilitate the assessment, the Plutonium-Bearing Materials Feed Report for the DOE Fissile Materials Disposition Program Alternatives report was written. The development of the material categories and the derivation of the inventory quantities associated with those categories is documented in this report

  11. Monoidal categories and topological field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Turaev, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to monoidal categories and their connections with 3-dimensional topological field theories. Starting with basic definitions, it proceeds to the forefront of current research. Part 1 introduces monoidal categories and several of their classes, including rigid, pivotal, spherical, fusion, braided, and modular categories. It then presents deep theorems of Müger on the center of a pivotal fusion category. These theorems are proved in Part 2 using the theory of Hopf monads. In Part 3 the authors define the notion of a topological quantum field theory (TQFT) and construct a Turaev-Viro-type 3-dimensional state sum TQFT from a spherical fusion category. Lastly, in Part 4 this construction is extended to 3-manifolds with colored ribbon graphs, yielding a so-called graph TQFT (and, consequently, a 3-2-1 extended TQFT). The authors then prove the main result of the monograph: the state sum graph TQFT derived from any spherical fusion category is isomorphic to the Reshetikhin-Turaev surgery gr...

  12. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ruban, Anatoly I

    This is the first book in a four-part series designed to give a comprehensive and coherent description of Fluid Dynamics, starting with chapters on classical theory suitable for an introductory undergraduate lecture course, and then progressing through more advanced material up to the level of modern research in the field. The present Part 1 consists of four chapters. Chapter 1 begins with a discussion of Continuum Hypothesis, which is followed by an introduction to macroscopic functions, the velocity vector, pressure, density, and enthalpy. We then analyse the forces acting inside a fluid, and deduce the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible and compressible fluids in Cartesian and curvilinear coordinates. In Chapter 2 we study the properties of a number of flows that are presented by the so-called exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations, including the Couette flow between two parallel plates, Hagen-Poiseuille flow through a pipe, and Karman flow above an infinite rotating disk. Chapter 3 is d...

  13. Quantum groups, quantum categories and quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fröhlich, Jürg

    1993-01-01

    This book reviews recent results on low-dimensional quantum field theories and their connection with quantum group theory and the theory of braided, balanced tensor categories. It presents detailed, mathematically precise introductions to these subjects and then continues with new results. Among the main results are a detailed analysis of the representation theory of U (sl ), for q a primitive root of unity, and a semi-simple quotient thereof, a classfication of braided tensor categories generated by an object of q-dimension less than two, and an application of these results to the theory of sectors in algebraic quantum field theory. This clarifies the notion of "quantized symmetries" in quantum fieldtheory. The reader is expected to be familiar with basic notions and resultsin algebra. The book is intended for research mathematicians, mathematical physicists and graduate students.

  14. Preliminary data summary for the hospitals point-source category

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strassler, E.; Hund, F.H.

    1989-09-01

    The summaries were prepared in order to allow EPA to respond to the mandate of Section 304(m) of the Clean Water Act. Summaries for categories already subject to rulemaking were developed for comparison purposes, and contain only the minimum amount of data needed to provide some perspective on the relative magnitude of the pollution problems created across the categories. The document summarizes the most current information available regarding the discharge of wastewater and solid wastes containing priority and hazardous non-priority pollutants by hospitals. The document provides a technical basis for determining whether additional national regulations should be developed pursuant to the Clean Water Act (CWA), and makes available preliminary information regarding the discharge of priority and hazardous non-priority pollutants by the hospital industry

  15. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORD CLASSES AND PHRASAL CATEGORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mevlüt ERDEM

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Phrasal categories in traditional studies increase because of the structural and semantic connection between the head and complements. However, the syntactic category of the head identifies the type of a phrasal category. The lexical classes which act as a head are nouns, adjectives, adverbs, verbs and postpositions. Therefore, the phrasal categories are noun phrases, adjectival phrases, adverbial phrases, verb phrases and postpositional phrases. Modern linguistic studies evaluate phrasal categories differently. In modern linguistic studies, the essential part of the sentence is verb phrase. Verb phrase reflects lexical categories as well as grammatical relations (subject, object etc.. The arguments which belong to verb phrase express certain semantic roles. Moreover, according to modern linguistic approach, even one word is enough to constitute a phrasal category Geleneksel çalışmalarda sözcük öbekleri ana ve yardımcı unsurlar arasında kurulan çeşitli anlam ilgisi ve yapısal ilgilerden dolayı sayıca fazlalaşır. Fakat sözcük öbeklerinin türünü başın sentaktik kategorisi belirler. Ana unsur olan sözlüksel türler ad, sıfat, zarf, fiil ve edattır ve öbekler de AÖ, SÖ, ZÖ, FÖ ve EÖ’dür. Modern dilbilimsel çalışmalar öbek yapılarını da farklı değerlendirir. Modern çalışmalarda cümlenin temelini fiil öbeği oluşturur. Fiil öbeği, sözlüksel kategorilerle birlikte cümlenin gramatik ilişkilerini (özne, nesne vb. de yansıtır. Fiil öbeğine ait unsurlar belli anlamsal roller de ifade eder. Modern anlayışa göre bir sözcük tek başına bir öbek kurabilir.

  16. Fluid dynamics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Rieutord, Michel

    2015-01-01

    This book is dedicated to readers who want to learn fluid dynamics from the beginning. It assumes a basic level of mathematics knowledge that would correspond to that of most second-year undergraduate physics students and examines fluid dynamics from a physicist’s perspective. As such, the examples used primarily come from our environment on Earth and, where possible, from astrophysics. The text is arranged in a progressive and educational format, aimed at leading readers from the simplest basics to more complex matters like turbulence and magnetohydrodynamics. Exercises at the end of each chapter help readers to test their understanding of the subject (solutions are provided at the end of the book), and a special chapter is devoted to introducing selected aspects of mathematics that beginners may not be familiar with, so as to make the book self-contained.

  17. When does fading enhance perceptual category learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashler, Harold; Mozer, Michael C

    2013-07-01

    Training that uses exaggerated versions of a stimulus discrimination (fading) has sometimes been found to enhance category learning, mostly in studies involving animals and impaired populations. However, little is known about whether and when fading facilitates learning for typical individuals. This issue was explored in 7 experiments. In Experiments 1 and 2, observers discriminated stimuli based on a single sensory continuum (time duration and line length, respectively). Adaptive fading dramatically improved performance in training (unsurprisingly) but did not enhance learning as assessed in a final test. The same was true for nonadaptive linear fading (Experiment 3). However, when variation in length (predicting category membership) was embedded among other (category-irrelevant) variation, fading dramatically enhanced not only performance in training but also learning as assessed in a final test (Experiments 4 and 5). Fading also helped learners to acquire a color saturation discrimination amid category-irrelevant variation in hue and brightness, although this learning proved transitory after feedback was withdrawn (Experiment 7). Theoretical implications are discussed, and we argue that fading should have practical utility in naturalistic category learning tasks, which involve extremely high dimensional stimuli and many irrelevant dimensions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. TV MEDIA ANALYSIS FOR BANKING CATEGORY (2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Elena POȘTOACĂ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article represents a short overview of the media landscape for the banking category in Romania in 2012. Unlike the other categories (for example FMCG – fast moving consumer goods, the banking category is more complex because every bank can communicate for a wider range of products (credits, deposits, packages dedicated to students, pensioners and other types of banking products. In the first part of this paper, there will be presented some theoretical notions about media planning and media analyses in order for the lecturer to easily go through the second part of the article. The second part of the paper will only refer to TV analyses. This media channel owns the highest budget share in our category, and also in the media mix of every important player, active in the Romanian market. The analyses will show which bank communicated most effectively, which is the most important spender on TV, what banking products had the largest budget allocated, which is the pattern for this category when it comes to allocating audience points for each day interval and so on. The starting point of this analyses is based on the secondary data obtained from InfoSys+ which is the world’s leading TV analyses software, used in more than 29 countries by 8000+ users.

  19. Fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paraschivoiu, I.; Prud'homme, M.; Robillard, L.; Vasseur, P.

    2003-01-01

    This book constitutes at the same time theoretical and practical base relating to the phenomena associated with fluid mechanics. The concept of continuum is at the base of the approach developed in this work. The general advance proceeds of simple balances of forces as into hydrostatic to more complex situations or inertias, the internal stresses and the constraints of Reynolds are taken into account. This advance is not only theoretical but contains many applications in the form of solved problems, each chapter ending in a series of suggested problems. The major part of the applications relates to the incompressible flows

  20. Principles of fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreider, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    This book is an introduction on fluid mechanics incorporating computer applications. Topics covered are as follows: brief history; what is a fluid; two classes of fluids: liquids and gases; the continuum model of a fluid; methods of analyzing fluid flows; important characteristics of fluids; fundamentals and equations of motion; fluid statics; dimensional analysis and the similarity principle; laminar internal flows; ideal flow; external laminar and channel flows; turbulent flow; compressible flow; fluid flow measurements

  1. Grammatical category dissociation in multilingual aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Waked, Arifi N

    2010-03-01

    Word retrieval deficits for specific grammatical categories, such as verbs versus nouns, occur as a consequence of brain damage. Such deficits are informative about the nature of lexical organization in the human brain. This study examined retrieval of grammatical categories across three languages in a trilingual person with aphasia who spoke Arabic, French, and English. In order to delineate the nature of word production difficulty, comprehension was tested, and a variety of concomitant lexical-semantic variables were analysed. The patient demonstrated a consistent noun-verb dissociation in picture naming and narrative speech, with severely impaired production of verbs across all three languages. The cross-linguistically similar noun-verb dissociation, coupled with little evidence of semantic impairment, suggests that (a) the patient has a true "nonsemantic" grammatical category specific deficit, and (b) lexical organization in multilingual speakers shares grammatical class information between languages. The findings of this study contribute to our understanding of the architecture of lexical organization in bilinguals.

  2. From Perceptual Categories to Concepts: What Develops?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloutsky, Vladimir M.

    2010-01-01

    People are remarkably smart: they use language, possess complex motor skills, make non-trivial inferences, develop and use scientific theories, make laws, and adapt to complex dynamic environments. Much of this knowledge requires concepts and this paper focuses on how people acquire concepts. It is argued that conceptual development progresses from simple perceptual grouping to highly abstract scientific concepts. This proposal of conceptual development has four parts. First, it is argued that categories in the world have different structure. Second, there might be different learning systems (sub-served by different brain mechanisms) that evolved to learn categories of differing structures. Third, these systems exhibit differential maturational course, which affects how categories of different structures are learned in the course of development. And finally, an interaction of these components may result in the developmental transition from perceptual groupings to more abstract concepts. This paper reviews a large body of empirical evidence supporting this proposal. PMID:21116483

  3. Lectures on tensor categories and modular functors

    CERN Document Server

    Bakalov, Bojko

    2000-01-01

    This book gives an exposition of the relations among the following three topics: monoidal tensor categories (such as a category of representations of a quantum group), 3-dimensional topological quantum field theory, and 2-dimensional modular functors (which naturally arise in 2-dimensional conformal field theory). The following examples are discussed in detail: the category of representations of a quantum group at a root of unity and the Wess-Zumino-Witten modular functor. The idea that these topics are related first appeared in the physics literature in the study of quantum field theory. Pioneering works of Witten and Moore-Seiberg triggered an avalanche of papers, both physical and mathematical, exploring various aspects of these relations. Upon preparing to lecture on the topic at MIT, however, the authors discovered that the existing literature was difficult and that there were gaps to fill. The text is wholly expository and finely succinct. It gathers results, fills existing gaps, and simplifies some pro...

  4. Multimedia category preferences of working engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baukal, Charles E.; Ausburn, Lynna J.

    2016-09-01

    Many have argued for the importance of continuing engineering education (CEE), but relatively few recommendations were found in the literature for how to use multimedia technologies to deliver it most effectively. The study reported here addressed this gap by investigating the multimedia category preferences of working engineers. Four categories of multimedia, with two types in each category, were studied: verbal (text and narration), static graphics (drawing and photograph), dynamic non-interactive graphics (animation and video), and dynamic interactive graphics (simulated virtual reality (VR) and photo-real VR). The results showed that working engineers strongly preferred text over narration and somewhat preferred drawing over photograph, animation over video, and simulated VR over photo-real VR. These results suggest that a variety of multimedia types should be used in the instructional design of CEE content.

  5. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, I; Paulson, Olaf B.

    2006-01-01

    and fragmented drawings. We also examined whether fragmentation had different impact on the recognition of natural objects and artefacts and found that recognition of artefacts was more affected by fragmentation than recognition of natural objects. Thus, the usual finding of an advantage for artefacts...... in difficult object decision tasks, which is also found in the present experiments with outlines, is reversed when the stimuli are fragmented. This interaction between category (natural versus artefacts) and stimulus type (outlines versus fragmented forms) is in accordance with predictions derived from...... a recent account of category-specificity and lends support to the notion that category-specific impairments can occur for both natural objects and artefacts following damage to pre-semantic stages in visual object recognition. The implications of the present findings are discussed in relation to theories...

  6. Disappearing fluid?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graney, K.; Chu, J.; Lin, P.C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A 78-year old male in end stage renal failure (ESRF) with a background of NIDDM retinopathy, nephropathy, and undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) presented with anorexia, clinically unwell, decreased mobility and right scrotal swelling. There was no difficulty during CAPD exchange except there was a positive fluid balance Peritoneal dialysates remained clear A CAPD peritoneal study was requested. 100Mbq 99mTc Sulphur Colloid was injected into a standard dialysate bag containing dialysate. Anterior dynamic images were acquired over the abdomen pelvis while the dialysate was infused Static images with anatomical markers were performed 20 mins post infusion, before and after patient ambulation and then after drainage. The study demonstrated communication between the peritoneal cavity and the right scrotal sac. Patient underwent right inguinal herniaplasty with a marlex mesh. A repeat CAPD flow study was performed as follow up and no abnormal connection between the peritoneal cavity and the right scrotal sac was demonstrated post operatively. This case study shows that CAPD flow studies can be undertaken as a simple, minimally invasive method to evaluate abnormal peritoneal fluid flow dynamics in patients undergoing CAPD, and have an impact on dialysis management. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  7. Auxillary Fluid Flowmeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    RezaNejad Gatabi, Javad; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Ebrahimi Darkhaneh, Hadi

    2010-01-01

    The Auxiliary Fluid Flow meter is proposed to measure the fluid flow of any kind in both pipes and open channels. In this kind of flow measurement, the flow of an auxiliary fluid is measured Instead of direct measurement of the main fluid flow. The auxiliary fluid is injected into the main fluid ...

  8. How to Do Things with Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, Anders Dahl

    Consumers and other audiences draw upon cognitive categories when evaluating technological products (Clark, 1985; Kaplan and Tripsas, 2008). Categories such as “mini-van” or “computer” provide labels and conceptual meaning structures that consumers and other market actors draw upon in making sense...... the majority of archival data was collected. Finally, to trace consumer reception of innovations in the design of products and technological innovations, I constructed a data set based on posts from an online hearing aid consumer forum. The initial analysis each spawned into three distinct trajectories...

  9. Fluid Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Explorations and analysis of soundscapes have, since Canadian R. Murray Schafer's work during the early 1970's, developed into various established research - and artistic disciplines. The interest in sonic environments is today present within a broad range of contemporary art projects and in arch......Explorations and analysis of soundscapes have, since Canadian R. Murray Schafer's work during the early 1970's, developed into various established research - and artistic disciplines. The interest in sonic environments is today present within a broad range of contemporary art projects...... and in architectural design. Aesthetics, psychoacoustics, perception, and cognition are all present in this expanding field embracing such categories as soundscape composition, sound art, sonic art, sound design, sound studies and auditory culture. Of greatest significance to the overall field is the investigation...

  10. The Category of Value in the Corporate Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shvydanenko Genefa O.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article examines evolution of the category of value and its provisioning with economic arguments, considering the legacy of the modern school of strategic management. Analyzing, systematizing and generalizing the scientific work of the subject area of the study have led to the identification of some problematic aspects, namely: prevalence of consumerism in disclosing the essence of value and its assessment through the prism of value expression, as well as the lack of a systemic approach that would take into account the multidisciplinary nature of this category. The origins of the definition of «corporate values» have been identified. As result, a classification of the specific manifestations of the values of enterprise are presented, the notions of «values» and «value orientations» are delineated. It has been substantiated that value is the economic category that has a polysemic nature and, accordingly, its ontological essence can be systemically disclosed only in the light of the interests of all stakeholders in business.

  11. Gyroelastic fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerbel, G.D.

    1981-01-20

    A study is made of a scale model in three dimensions of a guiding center plasma within the purview of gyroelastic (also known as finite gyroradius-near theta pinch) magnetohydrodynamics. The (nonlinear) system sustains a particular symmetry called isorrhopy which permits the decoupling of fluid modes from drift modes. Isorrhopic equilibria are analyzed within the framework of geometrical optics resulting in (local) dispersion relations and ray constants. A general scheme is developed to evolve an arbitrary linear perturbation of a screwpinch equilibrium as an invertible integral transform (over the complete set of generalized eigenfunctions defined naturally by the equilibrium). Details of the structure of the function space and the associated spectra are elucidated. Features of the (global) dispersion relation owing to the presence of gyroelastic stabilization are revealed. An energy principle is developed to study the stability of the tubular screwpinch.

  12. Gyroelastic fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerbel, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    A study is made of a scale model in three dimensions of a guiding center plasma within the purview of gyroelastic (also known as finite gyroradius-near theta pinch) magnetohydrodynamics. The (nonlinear) system sustains a particular symmetry called isorrhopy which permits the decoupling of fluid modes from drift modes. Isorrhopic equilibria are analyzed within the framework of geometrical optics resulting in (local) dispersion relations and ray constants. A general scheme is developed to evolve an arbitrary linear perturbation of a screwpinch equilibrium as an invertible integral transform (over the complete set of generalized eigenfunctions defined naturally by the equilibrium). Details of the structure of the function space and the associated spectra are elucidated. Features of the (global) dispersion relation owing to the presence of gyroelastic stabilization are revealed. An energy principle is developed to study the stability of the tubular screwpinch

  13. Language specific bootstraps for UG categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kampen, N.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that the universal categories N/V are not applied to content words before the grammatical markings for reference D(eterminers) and predication I(nflection) have been acquired (van Kampen, 1997, contra Pinker, 1984). Child grammar starts as proto-grammar with language-specific

  14. Quantum logic in dagger kernel categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heunen, C.; Jacobs, B.P.F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates quantum logic from the perspective of categorical logic, and starts from minimal assumptions, namely the existence of involutions/daggers and kernels. The resulting structures turn out to (1) encompass many examples of interest, such as categories of relations, partial

  15. Quantum logic in dagger kernel categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heunen, C.; Jacobs, B.P.F.; Coecke, B.; Panangaden, P.; Selinger, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates quantum logic from the perspective of categorical logic, and starts from minimal assumptions, namely the existence of involutions/daggers and kernels. The resulting structures turn out to (1) encompass many examples of interest, such as categories of relations, partial

  16. New Evidence for Infant Colour Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anna; Davies, Ian R. L.

    2004-01-01

    Bornstein, Kessen, and Weiskopf (1976) reported that pre-linguistic infants perceive colour categorically for primary boundaries: Following habituation, dishabituation only occurred if the test stimulus was from a different adult category to the original. Here, we replicated this important study and extended it to include secondary boundaries,…

  17. 40 CFR 2.105 - Exemption categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the mandatory disclosure requirements of 5 U.S.C. 552(a): (1)(i) Specifically authorized under... enforcement investigations or prosecutions if such disclosure could reasonably be expected to risk... for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 2.105 Exemption categories. (a) The...

  18. Categories for Observing Language Arts Instruction (COLAI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benterud, Julianna G.

    Designed to study individual use of time spent in reading during regularly scheduled language arts instruction in a natural classroom setting, this coding sheet consists of nine categories: (1) engagement, (2) area of language arts, (3) instructional setting, (4) partner (teacher or pupil(s)), (5) source of content, (6) type of unit, (7) assigned…

  19. Reliability of Multi-Category Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard I.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Davis, John L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of multi-category scales is increasing for the monitoring of IEP goals, classroom and school rules, and Behavior Improvement Plans (BIPs). Although they require greater inference than traditional data counting, little is known about the inter-rater reliability of these scales. This simulation study examined the performance of nine…

  20. 21 CFR 330.5 - Drug categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug categories. 330.5 Section 330.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN...) Stimulants. (r) Antitussives. (s) Allergy treatment products. (t) Cold remedies. (u) Antirheumatic products...

  1. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B

    2006-01-01

    in difficult object decision tasks, which is also found in the present experiments with outlines, is reversed when the stimuli are fragmented. This interaction between category (natural versus artefacts) and stimulus type (outlines versus fragmented forms) is in accordance with predictions derived from...

  2. Structural similarity and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that category-specific recognition disorders for natural objects may reflect that natural objects are more structurally (visually) similar than artefacts and therefore more difficult to recognize following brain damage. On this account one might expect a positive relationshi...

  3. Ontological semantics in modified categorial grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymczak, Bartlomiej Antoni

    2009-01-01

    Categorial Grammar is a well established tool for describing natural language semantics. In the current paper we discuss some of its drawbacks and how it could be extended to overcome them. We use the extended version for deriving ontological semantics from text. A proof-of-concept implementation...

  4. Semantic category interference in overt picture naming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maess, B.; Friederici, A.D.; Damian, M.F.; Meyer, A.S.; Levelt, W.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The study investigated the neuronal basis of the retrieval of words from the mental lexicon. The semantic category interference effect was used to locate lexical retrieval processes in time and space. This effect reflects the finding that, for overt naming, volunteers are slower when naming pictures

  5. Multimedia Category Preferences of Working Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baukal, Charles E., Jr.; Ausburn, Lynna J.

    2016-01-01

    Many have argued for the importance of continuing engineering education (CEE), but relatively few recommendations were found in the literature for how to use multimedia technologies to deliver it most effectively. The study reported here addressed this gap by investigating the multimedia category preferences of working engineers. Four categories…

  6. Typicality Mediates Performance during Category Verification in Both Ad-Hoc and Well-Defined Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Chaleece; Sebastian, Rajani; Kiran, Swathi

    2012-01-01

    Background: The typicality effect is present in neurologically intact populations for natural, ad-hoc, and well-defined categories. Although sparse, there is evidence of typicality effects in persons with chronic stroke aphasia for natural and ad-hoc categories. However, it is unknown exactly what influences the typicality effect in this…

  7. Uncovering Contrast Categories in Categorization with a Probabilistic Threshold Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheyen, Steven; De Deyne, Simon; Dry, Matthew J.; Storms, Gert

    2011-01-01

    A contrast category effect on categorization occurs when the decision to apply a category term to an entity not only involves a comparison between the entity and the target category but is also influenced by a comparison of the entity with 1 or more alternative categories from the same domain as the target. Establishing a contrast category effect…

  8. Heat transfer fluids for solar DHW systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedel, S.; Bezzel, E.

    2000-07-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the sudden clogging of the pipes in collectors as a consequence of liquid deterioration after repeated boiling during stagnation. A method to perform simple screening as accelerated tests of a large number liquid of samples subjected to various chemical- and physical environments have been designed. The acceleration factor of experiments relative to real systems is quite substantial primarily due to the extensive stress cycles in tests. Possible degradation mechanisms have been investigated and generally, there are two different paths to degradation of glycol: Thermal degradation and oxidative degradation primarily yielding propylene derivatives and carboxylic acids respectively. Polymerisation is an obvious possibility in a system containing various organic compounds such as acids and alcohols. Consequently, the reaction patterns alter making room for alternative interconnected mechanisms thus generating a broad spectrum of possible degradation products. Reserve alkalinity and pH are somewhat unreliable means of solely estimating the state of a liquid in relation to degradation and precipitation, as curvature of the RA-pH relations are different from liquid to liquid. For the majority of liquids, precipitation is not correlated with pH and RA. Coloration and precipitation in the liquid phase during stagnation separated liquids in two sub-categories. Fluids with inhibitor have sparing to moderate sedimentation and are brownish-black due to deterioration. Glycols without additives were either pale or colourless and did not precipitate. During normal operation, all fluids are clear and transparent and the majority has the same initial colour. The same distinction in liquids was observed on examination on the inside surface of the tubes concerning extent and the quantity of deposit. Liquids with additives tend to have significantly more deposit covering a larger surface than liquids without. Visual evaluation has proved that

  9. Computational Fluid Dynamics in Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Allard, Francis; Awbi, Hazim B.

    2008-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics in Ventilation Design is a new title in the is a new title in the REHVA guidebook series. The guidebook is written for people who need to use and discuss results based on CFD predictions, and it gives insight into the subject for those who are not used to work with CFD...

  10. Essential Fluid Dynamics for Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Jonathan

    2017-12-01

    The book is an introduction to the subject of fluid mechanics, essential for students and researchers in many branches of science. It illustrates its fundamental principles with a variety of examples drawn mainly from astrophysics and geophysics as well as from everyday experience. Prior familiarity with basic thermodynamics and vector calculus is assumed.

  11. Automatic phoneme category selectivity in the dorsal auditory stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevillet, Mark A; Jiang, Xiong; Rauschecker, Josef P; Riesenhuber, Maximilian

    2013-03-20

    Debates about motor theories of speech perception have recently been reignited by a burst of reports implicating premotor cortex (PMC) in speech perception. Often, however, these debates conflate perceptual and decision processes. Evidence that PMC activity correlates with task difficulty and subject performance suggests that PMC might be recruited, in certain cases, to facilitate category judgments about speech sounds (rather than speech perception, which involves decoding of sounds). However, it remains unclear whether PMC does, indeed, exhibit neural selectivity that is relevant for speech decisions. Further, it is unknown whether PMC activity in such cases reflects input via the dorsal or ventral auditory pathway, and whether PMC processing of speech is automatic or task-dependent. In a novel modified categorization paradigm, we presented human subjects with paired speech sounds from a phonetic continuum but diverted their attention from phoneme category using a challenging dichotic listening task. Using fMRI rapid adaptation to probe neural selectivity, we observed acoustic-phonetic selectivity in left anterior and left posterior auditory cortical regions. Conversely, we observed phoneme-category selectivity in left PMC that correlated with explicit phoneme-categorization performance measured after scanning, suggesting that PMC recruitment can account for performance on phoneme-categorization tasks. Structural equation modeling revealed connectivity from posterior, but not anterior, auditory cortex to PMC, suggesting a dorsal route for auditory input to PMC. Our results provide evidence for an account of speech processing in which the dorsal stream mediates automatic sensorimotor integration of speech and may be recruited to support speech decision tasks.

  12. Correspondence between Grammatical Categories and Grammatical Functions in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Fu

    1993-01-01

    A correspondence is shown between grammatical categories and grammatical functions in Chinese. Some syntactic properties distinguish finite verbs from nonfinite verbs, nominals from other categories, and verbs from other categories. (Contains seven references.) (LB)

  13. Scale interactions in compressible rotating fluids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard; Novotný, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 193, č. 6 (2014), s. 1703-1725 ISSN 0373-3114 Keywords : compressible fluid * rotating fluid * singular limit Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.065, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10231-013-0353-7

  14. Technical fluid dynamics. 7. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, E.; Piltz, E.

    1993-01-01

    An introductory textbook for students of engineering containing the following subjects: Definition and properties of fluids, hydrostatics, Bernoulli's equation, theorem of momentum for steadystate flows, wing lattice and single wing, plane parallel flow of a viscous fluid, pipe flow, boundary layers, gas flows. (orig.) [de

  15. Category-length and category-strength effects using images of scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Oliver; Vromen, Joyce M G; Boddy, Adam C; Crawshaw, Eloise; Humphreys, Michael S

    2018-06-21

    Global matching models have provided an important theoretical framework for recognition memory. Key predictions of this class of models are that (1) increasing the number of occurrences in a study list of some items affects the performance on other items (list-strength effect) and that (2) adding new items results in a deterioration of performance on the other items (list-length effect). Experimental confirmation of these predictions has been difficult, and the results have been inconsistent. A review of the existing literature, however, suggests that robust length and strength effects do occur when sufficiently similar hard-to-label items are used. In an effort to investigate this further, we had participants study lists containing one or more members of visual scene categories (bathrooms, beaches, etc.). Experiments 1 and 2 replicated and extended previous findings showing that the study of additional category members decreased accuracy, providing confirmation of the category-length effect. Experiment 3 showed that repeating some category members decreased the accuracy of nonrepeated members, providing evidence for a category-strength effect. Experiment 4 eliminated a potential challenge to these results. Taken together, these findings provide robust support for global matching models of recognition memory. The overall list lengths, the category sizes, and the number of repetitions used demonstrated that scene categories are well-suited to testing the fundamental assumptions of global matching models. These include (A) interference from memories for similar items and contexts, (B) nondestructive interference, and (C) that conjunctive information is made available through a matching operation.

  16. TO THE QUESTION OF PROFIT CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Myamlin

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The economic category “profit” is considered. The discrepancies and inconsistency of the existing financial-andeconomic model of management based only upon the “profitable” paradigm is demonstrated. It is shown how a “profit” affects a discrepancy between the supply of goods and the related solvent demand. It is suggested to build the laws of economics starting not from the private interests of separate social groups but from the universal laws of the Nature. The transition from “profit” maximization to wages/salary maximization is recommended. It is proposed to exclude a category “profit” from the financial-and-economic model of management as an unnecessary and imaginary one that continuously leads the economic system to crisis.

  17. Sacrality and worldmaking: new categorial perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    William E. Paden

    1999-01-01

    The category of the sacred in particular and the role of transcultural concept-formation in general have undergone an obvious crisis. For the most part, "the sacred," if not an empty label, has been linked with theologism, and transcultural concepts have been condemned for their general non-comparability and colonialist intent. The author approaches the matter of transcultural templates through an analysis of certain concepts of sacrality. With some exceptions, the discourse of sacrality has ...

  18. 40 CFR 156.62 - Toxicity Category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Acute Toxicity Categories for Pesticide Products Hazard Indicators I II III IV Oral LD50 Up to and including 50 mg/kg >50 thru 500 mg/kg >500 thru 5,000 mg/kg >5,000 mg/kg Dermal LD50 Up to and including 200 mg/kg >200 thru 2000 mg/kg >2000 thru 20,000 mg/kg >20,000 mg/kg Inhalation LC50 Up to and including...

  19. Metacognitive control of categorial neurobehavioral decision systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Robert Foxall

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The competing neuro-behavioral decision systems (CNDS model proposes that the degree to which an individual discounts the future is a function of the relative hyperactivity of an impulsive system based on the limbic and paralimbic brain regions and the relative hypoactivity of an executive system based in prefrontal cortex (PFC. The model depicts the relationship between these categorial systems in terms of the antipodal neurophysiological, behavioral, and decision (cognitive functions that engender classes normal and addictive responding. However, a case may be made for construing several components of the impulsive and executive systems depicted in the model as categories (elements of additional systems that are concerned with the metacognitive control of behavior. Hence, this paper proposes a category-based structure for understanding the effects on behavior of CNDS, which includes not only the impulsive and executive systems of the basic model but, a superordinate level of reflective or rational decision-making. Following recent developments in the modeling of cognitive control which contrasts Type 1 (rapid, autonomous, parallel processing with Type 2 (slower, computationally-demanding, sequential processing, the proposed model incorporates an arena in which the potentially conflicting imperatives of impulsive and executive systems are examined and from which a more appropriate behavioral response than impulsive choice emerges. This configuration suggests a forum in which the interaction of picoeconomic interests, which provide a cognitive dimension for CNDS, can be conceptualized. This proposition is examined in light of the resolution of conflict by means of bundling.

  20. On Learning Natural-Science Categories That Violate the Family-Resemblance Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosofsky, Robert M; Sanders, Craig A; Gerdom, Alex; Douglas, Bruce J; McDaniel, Mark A

    2017-01-01

    The general view in psychological science is that natural categories obey a coherent, family-resemblance principle. In this investigation, we documented an example of an important exception to this principle: Results of a multidimensional-scaling study of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks (Experiment 1) suggested that the structure of these categories is disorganized and dispersed. This finding motivated us to explore what might be the optimal procedures for teaching dispersed categories, a goal that is likely critical to science education in general. Subjects in Experiment 2 learned to classify pictures of rocks into compact or dispersed high-level categories. One group learned the categories through focused high-level training, whereas a second group was required to simultaneously learn classifications at a subtype level. Although high-level training led to enhanced performance when the categories were compact, subtype training was better when the categories were dispersed. We provide an interpretation of the results in terms of an exemplar-memory model of category learning.

  1. Is better beautiful or is beautiful better? Exploring the relationship between beauty and category structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Megan; Davis, Tyler; Love, Bradley C

    2013-06-01

    We evaluate two competing accounts of the relationship between beauty and category structure. According to the similarity-based view, beauty arises from category structure such that central items are favored due to their increased fluency. In contrast, the theory-based view holds that people's theories of beauty shape their perceptions of categories. In the present study, subjects learned to categorize abstract paintings into meaningfully labeled categories and rated the paintings' beauty, value, and typicality. Inconsistent with the similarity-based view, beauty ratings were highly correlated across conditions despite differences in fluency and assigned category structure. Consistent with the theory-based view, beautiful paintings were treated as central members for categories expected to contain beautiful paintings (e.g., art museum pieces), but not in others (e.g., student show pieces). These results suggest that the beauty of complex, real-world stimuli is not determined by fluency within category structure but, instead, interacts with people's prior knowledge to structure categories.

  2. Synovial fluid analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joint fluid analysis; Joint fluid aspiration ... El-Gabalawy HS. Synovial fluid analysis, synovial biopsy, and synovial pathology. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, McInnes IB, O'Dell JR, eds. Kelly's Textbook of ...

  3. From groups to categorial algebra introduction to protomodular and mal’tsev categories

    CERN Document Server

    Bourn, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    This book gives a thorough and entirely self-contained, in-depth introduction to a specific approach to group theory, in a large sense of that word. The focus lie on the relationships which a group may have with other groups, via “universal properties”, a view on that group “from the outside”. This method of categorical algebra, is actually not limited to the study of groups alone, but applies equally well to other similar categories of algebraic objects. By introducing protomodular categories and Mal’tsev categories, which form a larger class, the structural properties of the category Gp of groups, show how they emerge from four very basic observations about the algebraic litteral calculus and how, studied for themselves at the conceptual categorical level, they lead to the main striking features of the category Gp of groups. Hardly any previous knowledge of category theory is assumed, and just a little experience with standard algebraic structures such as groups and monoids. Examples and exercises...

  4. Fluid mechanics problems and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Spurk, Joseph H

    1997-01-01

    his collection of over 200 detailed worked exercises adds to and complements the textbook Fluid Mechanics by the same author, and illustrates the teaching material through examples. In the exercises the fundamental concepts of Fluid Mechanics are applied to obtaining the solution of diverse concrete problems, and in doing this the student's skill in the mathematical modeling of practical problems is developed. In addition, 30 challenging questions without detailed solutions have been included, and while lecturers will find these questions suitable for examinations and tests, the student himself can use them to check his understanding of the subject.

  5. The Effects of Mode of Presentation and Number of Categories on 4-Year-Olds' Proportion Estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Ginsburg, Herbert

    Two experiments investigate the effects of mode of presentation and number of categories on 4-year-olds' proportion estimates. Experiment I compares simultaneous and successive presentations of proportion problems using two categories of elements. The subjects were 40 children chosen randomly and tested individually. Four problems were presented…

  6. Energy performance indicator report: fluid milk plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In Canada, the dairy sector consumes significant amounts of energy and is looking for new ways of saving energy. The aim of this study, performed by the Competitive Analysis Centre Inc., was to find novel energy savings ideas for fluid milk plants. For this purpose, the energy consumption of 17 fluid milk plants, which accounts for over 50% of total Canadian output, was analyzed; first, at the plant level, and then by 8 categories at the sub-plant level in order to develop benchmarks that could be applied at both these levels. The paper provides background information on Canada's fluid milk sector and outlines the methodology used to develop and apply energy efficiency measures in the sector; the study findings are also presented. This report found that the energy consumption of the Canadian fluid milk sector could be lowered by applying the energy saving proposals developed herein.

  7. Self lubricating fluid bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapich, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    The invention concerns self lubricating fluid bearings, which are used in a shaft sealed system extending two regions. These regions contain fluids, which have to be isolated. A first seal is fluid tight for the first region between the carter shaft and the shaft. The second seal is fluid tight between the carter and the shaft, it communicates with the second region. The first fluid region is the environment surrounding the shaft carter. The second fluid region is a part of a nuclear reactor which contains the cooling fluid. The shaft is conceived to drive a reactor circulating and cooling fluid [fr

  8. Modern fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinstreuer, Clement

    2018-01-01

    Modern Fluid Dynamics, Second Edition provides up-to-date coverage of intermediate and advanced fluids topics. The text emphasizes fundamentals and applications, supported by worked examples and case studies. Scale analysis, non-Newtonian fluid flow, surface coating, convection heat transfer, lubrication, fluid-particle dynamics, microfluidics, entropy generation, and fluid-structure interactions are among the topics covered. Part A presents fluids principles, and prepares readers for the applications of fluid dynamics covered in Part B, which includes computer simulations and project writing. A review of the engineering math needed for fluid dynamics is included in an appendix.

  9. Standard distribution for unclassified scientific and technical reports: instructions and category scope notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Technical Information Center (DOE/TIC) uses a subject category scheme for classifying and distributing DOE-originated or -sponsored unclassified scientific and technical reports. This document contains the subject category scope notes used for these purposes. Originators of DOE or DOE-sponsored scientific and technical reports are urged to adhere to the instructions contained this publication. A limited number of copies of the unabridged version (addresses included) are available to Department of Energy offices and their contractors as DOE/TIC-4500(Rev.69)(Unabridged)

  10. Order of Presentation Effects in Learning Color Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhofer, Catherine M.; Doumas, Leonidas A. A.

    2008-01-01

    Two studies, an experimental category learning task and a computational simulation, examined how sequencing training instances to maximize comparison and memory affects category learning. In Study 1, 2-year-old children learned color categories with three training conditions that varied in how categories were distributed throughout training and…

  11. Supervised and Unsupervised Learning of Multidimensional Acoustic Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudbeek, Martijn; Swingley, Daniel; Smits, Roel

    2009-01-01

    Learning to recognize the contrasts of a language-specific phonemic repertoire can be viewed as forming categories in a multidimensional psychophysical space. Research on the learning of distributionally defined visual categories has shown that categories defined over 1 dimension are easy to learn and that learning multidimensional categories is…

  12. Fluid Mechanics An Introduction to the Theory of Fluid Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Durst, Franz

    2008-01-01

    Advancements of fluid flow measuring techniques and of computational methods have led to new ways to treat laminar and turbulent flows. These methods are extensively used these days in research and engineering practise. This also requires new ways to teach the subject to students at higher educational institutions in an introductory manner. The book provides the knowledge to students in engineering and natural science needed to enter fluid mechanics applications in various fields. Analytical treatments are provided, based on the Navier-Stokes equations. Introductions are also given into numerical and experimental methods applied to flows. The main benefit the reader will derive from the book is a sound introduction into all aspects of fluid mechanics covering all relevant subfields.

  13. Category theoretic analysis of hierarchical protein materials and social networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I Spivak

    Full Text Available Materials in biology span all the scales from Angstroms to meters and typically consist of complex hierarchical assemblies of simple building blocks. Here we describe an application of category theory to describe structural and resulting functional properties of biological protein materials by developing so-called ologs. An olog is like a "concept web" or "semantic network" except that it follows a rigorous mathematical formulation based on category theory. This key difference ensures that an olog is unambiguous, highly adaptable to evolution and change, and suitable for sharing concepts with other olog. We consider simple cases of beta-helical and amyloid-like protein filaments subjected to axial extension and develop an olog representation of their structural and resulting mechanical properties. We also construct a representation of a social network in which people send text-messages to their nearest neighbors and act as a team to perform a task. We show that the olog for the protein and the olog for the social network feature identical category-theoretic representations, and we proceed to precisely explicate the analogy or isomorphism between them. The examples presented here demonstrate that the intrinsic nature of a complex system, which in particular includes a precise relationship between structure and function at different hierarchical levels, can be effectively represented by an olog. This, in turn, allows for comparative studies between disparate materials or fields of application, and results in novel approaches to derive functionality in the design of de novo hierarchical systems. We discuss opportunities and challenges associated with the description of complex biological materials by using ologs as a powerful tool for analysis and design in the context of materiomics, and we present the potential impact of this approach for engineering, life sciences, and medicine.

  14. Antisocial behavior: Dimension or category(ies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biro Mikloš

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Classificatory systems (DSM-IV, ICD-10 use different criteria for defining a rather common antisocial disorder, traditionally referred as psychopathy. Most empirical studies of this phenomenon use Cleckley's operational definition that was applied and amended in Hare's revised Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R. In modern literature, the fact that there is less than a perfect correspondence between classificatory systems and Hare's PCL-R is often cited as an indication that antisocial behavior is not confined to a distinct category of people but is rather a continuous personality dimension. In order to further elucidate the nosology of antisocial behaviors, a Psychopathy Assessment Questionnaire (PAQ based on Cleckley - Hare's criteria and consisting of 40 binary items was administered to 339 men (135 prisoners and 204 members of the general population. Four distinct clusters of respondents were identified by means of hierarchical cluster analysis: Psychopathic type (characterized by high positive scores on dimension of Unemotionality; Antisocial type (characterized by high positive scores on Social deviance dimension; Adapted type (characterized by negative scores on all dimensions; and Hyper-controlled type (characterized by extremely negative scores on dimension Social deviance accompanied with positive scores on Unemotionality dimension. Additional comparison with MMPI profiles which classified prison sample in two groups ("Psychopathic profiles" and "Non- Psychopathic profiles" shows that there is no expected compatibility between MMPI and PAQ. We conclude that Antisocial type can be treated as a distinct category, while Psychopathic type displays characteristics of dimensional distribution.

  15. Hippocampal activation during episodic and semantic memory retrieval: comparing category production and category cued recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Lee; Cox, Christine; Hayes, Scott M; Nadel, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Whether or not the hippocampus participates in semantic memory retrieval has been the focus of much debate in the literature. However, few neuroimaging studies have directly compared hippocampal activation during semantic and episodic retrieval tasks that are well matched in all respects other than the source of the retrieved information. In Experiment 1, we compared hippocampal fMRI activation during a classic semantic memory task, category production, and an episodic version of the same task, category cued recall. Left hippocampal activation was observed in both episodic and semantic conditions, although other regions of the brain clearly distinguished the two tasks. Interestingly, participants reported using retrieval strategies during the semantic retrieval task that relied on autobiographical and spatial information; for example, visualizing themselves in their kitchen while producing items for the category kitchen utensils. In Experiment 2, we considered whether the use of these spatial and autobiographical retrieval strategies could have accounted for the hippocampal activation observed in Experiment 1. Categories were presented that elicited one of three retrieval strategy types, autobiographical and spatial, autobiographical and nonspatial, and neither autobiographical nor spatial. Once again, similar hippocampal activation was observed for all three category types, regardless of the inclusion of spatial or autobiographical content. We conclude that the distinction between semantic and episodic memory is more complex than classic memory models suggest.

  16. Behavioral evidence for differences in social and non-social category learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucile eGamond

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available When meeting someone for the very first time one spontaneously categorizes the seen person on the basis of his/her appearance. Categorization is based on the association between some physical features and category labels that can be social (character trait… or non-social (tall, thin. Surprisingly little is known about how such associations are formed, particularly in the social domain. Here, we aimed at testing whether social and non-social category learning may be dissociated. We presented subjects with a large number of faces that had to be rated according to social or non-social labels, and induced an association between a facial feature (inter-eye distance and the category labels using two different procedures. In a first experiment, we used a feedback procedure to reinforce the association; behavioral measures revealed an association between the physical feature manipulated and abstract non-social categories, while no evidence for an association with social labels could be found. In a second experiment, we used passive exposure to the association between physical features and labels; we obtained behavioral evidence for learning of both social and non-social categories. These results support the view of the specificity of social category learning; they suggest that social categories are best acquired through unsupervised procedures that can be considered as a simplified proxy for group transmission.

  17. The Category Cued Recall test in very mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Mortensen, E.L.; Gade, A.

    2007-01-01

    Episodic memory tests that measure cued recall may be particularly effective in the diagnosis of early Alzheimer's disease (AD) because they examine both episodic and semantic memory functions. The Category Cued Recall (CCR) test provides superordinate semantic cues at encoding and retrieval...... was taken as the standard. It was also investigated whether the two episodic memory tests correlated with measures of semantic memory. The tests were administered to 35 patients with very mild AD (Mini Mental State Examination score > 22) and 28 control subjects. Both tests had high sensitivity (>88......%) with high specificity (>89%). One out of the five semantic memory tests was significantly correlated to performances on CCR, whereas delayed recall on the ADAS-cog memory test was significantly correlated to two semantic tests. In conclusion, the discriminative validity of the CCR test and the ADAS...

  18. The Category of Immaturity in a Legal Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedonkina A.A

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We presented psychological and legal approaches to the concept of immaturity, and the definition of the perpetrator. We analyzed the differences of age aspects of the subject of crime in different countries, the criteria for establishing a minimum age of criminal responsibility. We discuss the problem of the possibility of lowering the age of criminal responsibility in the Russian Federation from the point of view of psychological science. We considered the legal category of "mental retardation not associated with mental illness" and its psychological equivalent - "personal immaturity". We describe the main problems arising in the course of the complex judicial, psychological and psychiatric examination for the presence of a mental retardation not associated with mental illness in minor. We presented psychological approaches to the concept of "personal immaturity", described the concept of "mature personality".

  19. Perceptual differentiation and category effects in normal object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, I; Gade, A

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present PET study was (i) to investigate the neural correlates of object recognition, i.e. the matching of visual forms to memory, and (ii) to test the hypothesis that this process is more difficult for natural objects than for artefacts. This was done by using object decision...... tasks where subjects decided whether pictures represented real objects or non-objects. The object decision tasks differed in their difficulty (the degree of perceptual differentiation needed to perform them) and in the category of the real objects used (natural objects versus artefacts). A clear effect...... be the neural correlate of matching visual forms to memory, and the amount of activation in these regions may correspond to the degree of perceptual differentiation required for recognition to occur. With respect to behaviour, it took significantly longer to make object decisions on natural objects than...

  20. Hypostases of THEM category in mass media communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanysheva Zulfira Zakievna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the reflection of the US/THEM category in mass media communication in conditions of sharp confrontation of ideological opponents. It is aimed at revealing the potential of lingvocultural signs to be used as units of generating desirable senses in leading English periodical issues. The alien culture is shown to possess three basic hypostases with xenocultural axiological semantic space taking the lead. The article proves that intercultural massmedia communication is marked by reciprocal influence of semantic spaces and subjective evaluation of information. Xenoprecedent phenomena are viewed as supporting clamps in the process of semantic transformations of national and cultural signs designed to exert a manipulative effect on the target reader.

  1. Fluid discrimination based on rock physics templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qian; Yin, Xingyao; Li, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Reservoir fluid discrimination is an indispensable part of seismic exploration. Reliable fluid discrimination helps to decrease the risk of exploration and to increase the success ratio of drilling. There are many kinds of fluid indicators that are used in fluid discriminations, most of which are single indicators. But single indicators do not always work well under complicated reservoir conditions. Therefore, combined fluid indicators are needed to increase accuracies of discriminations. In this paper, we have proposed an alternative strategy for the combination of fluid indicators. An alternative fluid indicator, the rock physics template-based indicator (RPTI) has been derived to combine the advantages of two single indicators. The RPTI is more sensitive to the contents of fluid than traditional indicators. The combination is implemented based on the characteristic of the fluid trend in the rock physics template, which means few subjective factors are involved. We also propose an inversion method to assure the accuracy of the RPTI input data. The RPTI profile is an intuitionistic interpretation of fluid content. Real data tests demonstrate the applicability and validity. (paper)

  2. Fluid mechanics in fluids at rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Howard

    2012-07-01

    Using readily available experimental thermophoretic particle-velocity data it is shown, contrary to current teachings, that for the case of compressible flows independent dye- and particle-tracer velocity measurements of the local fluid velocity at a point in a flowing fluid do not generally result in the same fluid velocity measure. Rather, tracer-velocity equality holds only for incompressible flows. For compressible fluids, each type of tracer is shown to monitor a fundamentally different fluid velocity, with (i) a dye (or any other such molecular-tagging scheme) measuring the fluid's mass velocity v appearing in the continuity equation and (ii) a small, physicochemically and thermally inert, macroscopic (i.e., non-Brownian), solid particle measuring the fluid's volume velocity v(v). The term "compressibility" as used here includes not only pressure effects on density, but also temperature effects thereon. (For example, owing to a liquid's generally nonzero isobaric coefficient of thermal expansion, nonisothermal liquid flows are to be regarded as compressible despite the general perception of liquids as being incompressible.) Recognition of the fact that two independent fluid velocities, mass- and volume-based, are formally required to model continuum fluid behavior impacts on the foundations of contemporary (monovelocity) fluid mechanics. Included therein are the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations, which are now seen to apply only to incompressible fluids (a fact well-known, empirically, to experimental gas kineticists). The findings of a difference in tracer velocities heralds the introduction into fluid mechanics of a general bipartite theory of fluid mechanics, bivelocity hydrodynamics [Brenner, Int. J. Eng. Sci. 54, 67 (2012)], differing from conventional hydrodynamics in situations entailing compressible flows and reducing to conventional hydrodynamics when the flow is incompressible, while being applicable to both liquids and gases.

  3. Encoding tasks dissociate the effects of divided attention on category-cued recall and category-exemplar generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil; Munley, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The combined effects of encoding tasks and divided attention upon category-exemplar generation and category-cued recall were examined. Participants were presented with pairs of words each comprising a category name and potential example of that category. They were then asked to indicate either (i) their liking for both of the words or (ii) if the exemplar was a member of the category. It was found that divided attention reduced performance on the category-cued recall task under both encoding conditions. However, performance on the category-exemplar generation task remained invariant across the attention manipulation following the category judgment task. This provides further evidence that the processes underlying performance on conceptual explicit and implicit memory tasks can be dissociated, and that the intentional formation of category-exemplar associations attenuates the effects of divided attention on category-exemplar generation.

  4. Reduced abrasion drilling fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    A reduced abrasion drilling fluid system and method of drilling a borehole by circulating the reduced abrasion drilling fluid through the borehole is disclosed. The reduced abrasion drilling fluid comprises a drilling fluid, a first additive and a weighting agent, wherein the weighting agent has a

  5. Reduced abrasion drilling fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    A reduced abrasion drilling fluid system and method of drilling a borehole by circulating the reduced abrasion drilling fluid through the borehole is disclosed. The reduced abrasion drilling fluid comprises a drilling fluid, a first additive and a weighting agent, wherein the weighting agent has a

  6. Process fluid cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farquhar, N.G.; Schwab, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A system of heat exchangers is disclosed for cooling process fluids. The system is particularly applicable to cooling steam generator blowdown fluid in a nuclear plant prior to chemical purification of the fluid in which it minimizes the potential of boiling of the plant cooling water which cools the blowdown fluid

  7. The helpfulness of category labels in semi-supervised learning depends on category structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vong, Wai Keen; Navarro, Daniel J; Perfors, Amy

    2016-02-01

    The study of semi-supervised category learning has generally focused on how additional unlabeled information with given labeled information might benefit category learning. The literature is also somewhat contradictory, sometimes appearing to show a benefit to unlabeled information and sometimes not. In this paper, we frame the problem differently, focusing on when labels might be helpful to a learner who has access to lots of unlabeled information. Using an unconstrained free-sorting categorization experiment, we show that labels are useful to participants only when the category structure is ambiguous and that people's responses are driven by the specific set of labels they see. We present an extension of Anderson's Rational Model of Categorization that captures this effect.

  8. Risk as economic category: systematics scientific approach and refinement contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Vygovskyy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the categorical-conceptual apparatus of risk and its refinement based on a critical analysis of existing systematic scientific approaches. Determined that in the refinement of the economic nature of the risk of a number of controversial issues: the definition of the objective or subjective nature of risk; matching of concepts such as «risk», «danger», «loss», «probability of loss»; definition of negative or positive consequences of risk; identification of risk with its consequences, or source of origin, which makes the relevance of research topics. As a result of scientific research has been refined interpretation of risk as an economic category, the characteristics of the company associated with the probability of unforeseen situations that may lead to negative and positive impacts, assessment of which requires the development of alternatives for management decisions. Clarification of the definition focuses on the possibility (probability of a favorable (unfavorable events which require certain corrective action management unit of the enterprise. The author emphasizes the mandatory features of the category of «risk», in particular: the concept of risk is always associated with the uncertainty of the future; event occurring has implications for the enterprise (both negative and positive; consequences for necessitates the development of a number of alternative solutions to the possible elimination of the negative consequences of risky events; risk – a mandatory attribute of modern management (its value is enhanced in terms of market conditions; subject to risk assessment and management by the company. Dedicated and updated features contribute to the clarification of the nature of the economic risk and categorical conceptual apparatus of risk management.

  9. Sacrality and worldmaking: new categorial perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Paden

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The category of the sacred in particular and the role of transcultural concept-formation in general have undergone an obvious crisis. For the most part, "the sacred," if not an empty label, has been linked with theologism, and transcultural concepts have been condemned for their general non-comparability and colonialist intent. The author approaches the matter of transcultural templates through an analysis of certain concepts of sacrality. With some exceptions, the discourse of sacrality has indeed been dominated by a single model, where "the sacred" became a reified noun—a substantive term for a supernatural reality, a label for the transcendent, or even an epithet for divinity, mystery, the wholly other. As such, the expression has functioned to bestow a sense of unity to the diversity of cultures, link that unity with a transcendent reality, and offer a simple way of making sense of otherwise foreign beliefs and practices by giving them a familiar, generic referent.

  10. The structure and formation of natural categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Langley, Pat

    1990-01-01

    Categorization and concept formation are critical activities of intelligence. These processes and the conceptual structures that support them raise important issues at the interface of cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence. The work presumes that advances in these and other areas are best facilitated by research methodologies that reward interdisciplinary interaction. In particular, a computational model is described of concept formation and categorization that exploits a rational analysis of basic level effects by Gluck and Corter. Their work provides a clean prescription of human category preferences that is adapted to the task of concept learning. Also, their analysis was extended to account for typicality and fan effects, and speculate on how the concept formation strategies might be extended to other facets of intelligence, such as problem solving.

  11. Radiation hardness assurances categories for COTS technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hash, G.L.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Sexton, F.W.; Winokur, P.S.

    1997-01-01

    A comparison of the radiation tolerance of three commercial, and one radiation hardened SRAM is presented for four radiation environments. This work has shown the difficulty associated with strictly categorizing a device based solely on its radiation response, since its category depends on the specific radiation environment considered. For example, the 3.3-V Paradigm SRAM could be considered a radiation-tolerant device except for its SEU response. A more useful classification depends on the methods the manufacturer uses to ensure radiation hardness, i.e. whether specific design and process techniques have been used to harden the device. Finally, this work has shown that burned-in devices may fail functionally as much as 50% lower in total dose environments than non-burned-in devices. No burn-in effect was seen in dose-rate upset, latchup, or SEE environments. The user must ensure that total dose lot acceptance testing was performed on burned-in devices

  12. Housekeeping category corrective action unit work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Work Plan is to provide a strategy to be used by the US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), the US Department of Defense (DoD) Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA) (formerly the Defense Nuclear Agency), and contractor personnel for conducting corrective actions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and Nevada off-site locations including the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), the Project Shoal Area, and the Central Nevada Test Area. This Work Plan applies to housekeeping category CAUs already listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) Appendices (FFACO, 1996) as well as newly identified Corrective Action Sites (CASs) that will follow the housekeeping process

  13. Classification versus inference learning contrasted with real-world categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Erin L; Ross, Brian H

    2011-07-01

    Categories are learned and used in a variety of ways, but the research focus has been on classification learning. Recent work contrasting classification with inference learning of categories found important later differences in category performance. However, theoretical accounts differ on whether this is due to an inherent difference between the tasks or to the implementation decisions. The inherent-difference explanation argues that inference learners focus on the internal structure of the categories--what each category is like--while classification learners focus on diagnostic information to predict category membership. In two experiments, using real-world categories and controlling for earlier methodological differences, inference learners learned more about what each category was like than did classification learners, as evidenced by higher performance on a novel classification test. These results suggest that there is an inherent difference between learning new categories by classifying an item versus inferring a feature.

  14. Drugged Driving in Wisconsin: Oral Fluid Versus Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lorrine D; Smith, Katherine L; Savage, Theodore

    2017-07-01

    A pilot project was conducted in Dane County, Wisconsin, to evaluate the frequency of individuals driving under the influence of drugs (DUID). Evidentiary blood specimens, collected from subjects arrested for Operating While Intoxicated (OWI), were compared to oral fluid (OF) results obtained with the Alere DDS2®, a handheld screening device. The project objectives were to evaluate (i) the Alere DDS2® for use by police officers in the field, (ii) the frequency of individuals DUID and drugs combined with alcohol among OWI cases, (iii) the differences between detecting drugs in OF and in blood, and (iv) the effect of the laboratory drug testing cancellation policy (LCP) when the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) exceeds 0.100 g/100 mL. Following the arrest and collection of blood, subjects were asked to voluntarily participate in the project and provide an OF specimen. The OF was presumptively screened with the Alere DDS2® for six drug categories including (ng/mL) amphetamine (50), benzodiazepines (temazepam, 20), cocaine (benzoylecgonine, 30), methamphetamine (50), opioids (morphine, 40) and THC (delta-9-THC, 25). Results obtained with the OF screening instrument were not confirmed. A total of 104 subjects (22 female, 82 male), ages 18-72, were included in the project. Blood specimens were tested by gas chromatography-headspace (GCHS-FID) for volatiles, enzyme immunoassay (Siemens Viva-E Drug Testing System), and an alkaline basic drug screen with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis. To compensate for differences between the EIA and the Alere DDS2® drug categories, results from the enzyme immunoassay and the alkaline basic drug screen were combined for purposes of comparing OF to blood. Seventy-six of 104 (73%) subjects arrested for OWI were driving under the influence of alcohol; 71 of the 76 had a BAC exceeding 0.10 g/100 mL. Subjects with a BAC exceeding the LCP, screened positive for drugs in both OF (n = 29) and blood (n = 28). Overall, one

  15. The role of grammatical category information in spoken word retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duràn, Carolina Palma; Pillon, Agnesa

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the role of lexical syntactic information such as grammatical gender and category in spoken word retrieval processes by using a blocking paradigm in picture and written word naming experiments. In Experiments 1, 3, and 4, we found that the naming of target words (nouns) from pictures or written words was faster when these target words were named within a list where only words from the same grammatical category had to be produced (homogeneous category list: all nouns) than when they had to be produced within a list comprising also words from another grammatical category (heterogeneous category list: nouns and verbs). On the other hand, we detected no significant facilitation effect when the target words had to be named within a homogeneous gender list (all masculine nouns) compared to a heterogeneous gender list (both masculine and feminine nouns). In Experiment 2, using the same blocking paradigm by manipulating the semantic category of the items, we found that naming latencies were significantly slower in the semantic category homogeneous in comparison with the semantic category heterogeneous condition. Thus semantic category homogeneity caused an interference, not a facilitation effect like grammatical category homogeneity. Finally, in Experiment 5, nouns in the heterogeneous category condition had to be named just after a verb (category-switching position) or a noun (same-category position). We found a facilitation effect of category homogeneity but no significant effect of position, which showed that the effect of category homogeneity found in Experiments 1, 3, and 4 was not due to a cost of switching between grammatical categories in the heterogeneous grammatical category list. These findings supported the hypothesis that grammatical category information impacts word retrieval processes in speech production, even when words are to be produced in isolation. They are discussed within the context of extant theories of lexical production.

  16. The development of automaticity in short-term memory search: Item-response learning and category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Rui; Nosofsky, Robert M; Shiffrin, Richard M

    2017-05-01

    In short-term-memory (STM)-search tasks, observers judge whether a test probe was present in a short list of study items. Here we investigated the long-term learning mechanisms that lead to the highly efficient STM-search performance observed under conditions of consistent-mapping (CM) training, in which targets and foils never switch roles across trials. In item-response learning, subjects learn long-term mappings between individual items and target versus foil responses. In category learning, subjects learn high-level codes corresponding to separate sets of items and learn to attach old versus new responses to these category codes. To distinguish between these 2 forms of learning, we tested subjects in categorized varied mapping (CV) conditions: There were 2 distinct categories of items, but the assignment of categories to target versus foil responses varied across trials. In cases involving arbitrary categories, CV performance closely resembled standard varied-mapping performance without categories and departed dramatically from CM performance, supporting the item-response-learning hypothesis. In cases involving prelearned categories, CV performance resembled CM performance, as long as there was sufficient practice or steps taken to reduce trial-to-trial category-switching costs. This pattern of results supports the category-coding hypothesis for sufficiently well-learned categories. Thus, item-response learning occurs rapidly and is used early in CM training; category learning is much slower but is eventually adopted and is used to increase the efficiency of search beyond that available from item-response learning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Investigating cross-category brand loyalty behavior in FMCG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boztug, Yasemin; Hildebrandt, Lutz; Silberhorn, Nadja

    category depend on purchases in other categories. The aspect of cross-category related brand loyalty has been somewhat neglected so far. We concentrate on cross-category relationships of strong national brands and on how customers' brand choice decisions are related across several product categories.......In competitive markets, customer retention is more efficient than trying to attract new customers. Brand loyalty is an intrinsic commitment to repeatedly purchase a particular brand. But most analyses have been conducted in one specific category only. It has been shown that product purchases in one...

  18. Simulation of cerebrospinal fluid transport

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Otáhal, Jakub; Štěpáník, Z.; Kaczmarská, A.; Maršík, František; Brož, Z.; Otáhal, S.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 38, 11-12 (2007), s. 802-809 ISSN 0965-9978 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 112/2005; GA UK(CZ) 114/2005; GA ČR(CZ) GA106/03/0958 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : cerebrospinal fluid * pulsation * mathematical modeling Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 0.529, year: 2007

  19. Practical organization of medical supervision for the various categories of exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strambi, E.

    1975-01-01

    As an introduction to the discussion of the practical problems or organizing medical supervision for the various categories of workers exposed to the hazards of ionizing radiation, the following points were investigated: the kind of activities which should be subject to special medical supervision; the authorization of doctors responsible for this supervision; the extent of medical examination

  20. Category Rating Is Based on Prototypes and Not Instances: Evidence from Feedback-Dependent Context Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Alexander A.

    2011-01-01

    Context effects in category rating on a 7-point scale are shown to reverse direction depending on feedback. Context (skewed stimulus frequencies) was manipulated between and feedback within subjects in two experiments. The diverging predictions of prototype- and exemplar-based scaling theories were tested using two representative models: ANCHOR…

  1. Ad Hoc Categories and False Memories: Memory Illusions for Categories Created On-The-Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soro, Jerônimo C.; Ferreira, Mário B.; Semin, Gün R.; Mata, André; Carneiro, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Three experiments were designed to test whether experimentally created ad hoc associative networks evoke false memories. We used the DRM (Deese, Roediger, McDermott) paradigm with lists of ad hoc categories composed of exemplars aggregated toward specific goals (e.g., going for a picnic) that do not share any consistent set of features. Experiment…

  2. Category Specificity in Normal Episodic Learning: Applications to Object Recognition and Category-Specific Agnosia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukach, Cindy M.; Bub, Daniel N.; Masson, Michael E. J.; Lindsay, D. Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Studies of patients with category-specific agnosia (CSA) have given rise to multiple theories of object recognition, most of which assume the existence of a stable, abstract semantic memory system. We applied an episodic view of memory to questions raised by CSA in a series of studies examining normal observers' recall of newly learned attributes…

  3. Category Formation in Autism: Can Individuals with Autism Form Categories and Prototypes of Dot Patterns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastgeb, Holly Zajac; Dundas, Eva M.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Strauss, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing amount of evidence suggesting that individuals with autism have difficulty with categorization. One basic cognitive ability that may underlie this difficulty is the ability to abstract a prototype. The current study examined prototype and category formation with dot patterns in high-functioning adults with autism and matched…

  4. Cultural Studies of Education: Filming Fluid Subjectivities in Indonesian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logli, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the Indonesian film "Cin(T)a," which features the interfaith and multiethnic love between two college students. I apply intergroup contact theory, critical pedagogy and grounded cosmopolitanism to the reading of the movie in order to demonstrate two key points. First, higher education is a contact zone, where…

  5. 28 CFR 60.2 - Authorized categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... officer of the Virgin Islands, Guam, or the Canal Zone. (d) Any officer of the Metropolitan Police... the United States. (f) Any civilian agent of the Department of Defense not subject to military... Uniform Code of Military Justice. (h) Any military agent of the Department of Defense who is authorized to...

  6. Relationships Among Categories of Vocational Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, K.

    1972-01-01

    The dimensions of preference were arranged in two independent groups: the first defined by occupational titles, curriculum subjects, and vocational life goals; and the second by job attributes and general life goals. The implications of this finding for the nature of vocational preference and certain counseling activities are discussed. (Author)

  7. Growth and the Category of Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yandell, John

    2016-01-01

    In John Dixon's account of Dartmouth, experience is seen as central to the business of English as a school subject. Experience, for Dixon, is the raw material that is worked on in the classroom. What kinds of theory inform this emphasis on experience, and what are the curricular and pedagogic implications of this version of English? How does…

  8. Proteomic analysis of bovine blastocoel fluid and blastocyst cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Linnert; Grøndahl, Marie Louise; Beck, Hans Christian

    2014-01-01

    by micromanipulation. From two independent replicates, 23 proteins were identified in the blastocoel fluid while 803 proteins were identified in the remaining cell material. The proteins were grouped into categories according to their gene ontology (GO) terms by which proteins involved in cell differentiation, cell...... proliferation, development, and reproduction could be derived. Proteins classified in these categories could be candidates for further functional studies to understand pluripotency and early mammalian development....

  9. Advances in fluid modeling and turbulence measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Akira; Ninokata, Hisashi; Tanaka, Nobukazu

    2002-01-01

    The context of this book consists of four fields: Environmental Fluid Mechanics; Industrial Fluid Mechanics; Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics; and Turbulence Measurements. Environmental Fluid Mechanics includes free surface flows in channels, rivers, seas, and estuaries. It also discusses wind engineering issues, ocean circulation model and dispersion problems in atmospheric, water and ground water environments. In Industrial Fluid Mechanics, fluid phenomena in energy exchanges, modeling of turbulent two- or multi-phase flows, swirling flows, flows in combustors, variable density flows and reacting flows, flows in turbo-machines, pumps and piping systems, and fluid-structure interaction are discussed. In Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, progress in modeling turbulent flows and heat/mass transfers, computational fluid dynamics/numerical techniques, parallel computing algorithms, applications of chaos/fractal theory in turbulence are reported. In Turbulence Measurements, experimental studies of turbulent flows, experimental and post-processing techniques, quantitative and qualitative flow visualization techniques are discussed. Separate abstracts were presented for 15 of the papers in this issue. The remaining 89 were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (J.P.N.)

  10. Correlation of the verb transitivity with other grammatical categories

    OpenAIRE

    LIUBCHENKO TATIANA VIKTOROVNA

    2016-01-01

    The correlation of the verb transitivity with other categories, including voice and aspect is specified in investigation. The article also deals with interpretation of categories “voice” and “diathesis” in linguistics.

  11. 40 CFR 98.410 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Industrial Greenhouse Gases § 98.410 Definition of the source category. (a) The industrial gas supplier source category consists of any facility that...

  12. School based assessment module for invasion games category in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    School based assessment module for invasion games category in physical education. ... This study identify the level of basic skills of invasion games category when using School Based Assessment Module. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  13. 40 CFR 98.110 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Ferroalloy Production § 98.110 Definition of the source category. The ferroalloy production source category consists of any facility that uses pyrometallurgical techniques to produce any of the following metals: ferrochromium, ferromanganese, ferromolybdenum...

  14. FOREWORD Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power (FMFP)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This section of the Special Issue carries selected articles from the Fluid Mechanics and Fluid. Power Conference held during 12–14 December 2013 at the National Institute of Technology,. Hamirpur (HP). The section includes three review articles and nine original research articles. These were selected on the basis of their ...

  15. Subject search study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todeschini, C.

    1995-01-01

    The study gathered information on how users search the database of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS), using indicators such as Subject categories, Controlled terms, Subject headings, Free-text words, combinations of the above. Users participated from the Australian, French, Russian and Spanish INIS Centres, that have different national languages. Participants, both intermediaries and end users, replied to a questionnaire and executed search queries. The INIS Secretariat at the IAEA also participated. A protocol of all search strategies used in actual searches in the database was kept. The thought process for Russian and Spanish users is predominantly non-English and also the actual initial search formulation is predominantly non-English among Russian and Spanish users while it tends to be more in English among French users. A total of 1002 searches were executed by the five INIS centres including the IAEA. The search protocols indicate the following search behaviour: 1) free text words represent about 40% of search points on an average query; 2) descriptors used as search keys have the widest range as percentage of search points, from a low of 25% to a high of 48%; 3) search keys consisting of free text that coincides with a descriptor account for about 15% of search points; 4) Subject Categories are not used in many searches; 5) free text words are present as search points in about 80% of all searches; 6) controlled terms (descriptors) are used very extensively and appear in about 90% of all searches; 7) Subject Headings were used in only a few percent of searches. From the results of the study one can conclude that there is a greater reluctance on the part of non-native English speakers in initiating their searches by using free text word searches. Also: Subject Categories are little used in searching the database; both free text terms and controlled terms are the predominant types of search keys used, whereby the controlled terms are used more

  16. AMUC: Associated Motion capture User Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Sally Jane; Lawson, Sian E M; Olivier, Patrick; Watson, Paul; Chan, Anita M-A; Dade-Robertson, Martyn; Dunphy, Paul; Green, Dave; Hiden, Hugo; Hook, Jonathan; Jackson, Daniel G

    2009-07-13

    The AMUC (Associated Motion capture User Categories) project consisted of building a prototype sketch retrieval client for exploring motion capture archives. High-dimensional datasets reflect the dynamic process of motion capture and comprise high-rate sampled data of a performer's joint angles; in response to multiple query criteria, these data can potentially yield different kinds of information. The AMUC prototype harnesses graphic input via an electronic tablet as a query mechanism, time and position signals obtained from the sketch being mapped to the properties of data streams stored in the motion capture repository. As well as proposing a pragmatic solution for exploring motion capture datasets, the project demonstrates the conceptual value of iterative prototyping in innovative interdisciplinary design. The AMUC team was composed of live performance practitioners and theorists conversant with a variety of movement techniques, bioengineers who recorded and processed motion data for integration into the retrieval tool, and computer scientists who designed and implemented the retrieval system and server architecture, scoped for Grid-based applications. Creative input on information system design and navigation, and digital image processing, underpinned implementation of the prototype, which has undergone preliminary trials with diverse users, allowing identification of rich potential development areas.

  17. Health and morality: two conceptually distinct categories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengland, Per-Anders

    2012-03-01

    When seeing immoral actions, criminal or not, we sometimes deem the people who perform them unhealthy. This is especially so if the actions are of a serious nature, e.g. involving murder, assault, or rape. We turn our moral evaluation into an evaluation about health and illness. This tendency is partly supported by some diagnoses found in the DMS-IV, such as Antisocial personality disorder, and the ICD-10, such as Dissocial personality disorder. The aim of the paper is to answer the question: How analytically sound is the inclusion of morality into a theory of health? The holistic theory of Lennart Nordenfelt is used as a starting point, and it is used as an example of a theory where morality and health are conceptually distinct categories. Several versions of a pluralistic holistic theory are then discussed in order to see if, and if so, how, morality can be conceptually related to health. It is concluded that moral abilities (and dispositions) can be seen as being part of the individual's health. It is harder to incorporate moral virtues and moral actions into such a theory. However, if immoral actions "cluster" in an individual, and are of a severe kind, causing serious harm to other people, it is more likely that the person, for those reasons only, be deemed unhealthy.

  18. Licensing system for primary category radioactive installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Riquelme, Angelica Beatriz

    1997-01-01

    The development of a licensing system for primary category radioactive installations is described, which aims to satisfy the needs of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission's Department of Nuclear and Radiological Safety, particularly the sections for Licensing Outside Radioactive Installations and Safety Control. This system involves the identification, control and inspection of the installations, their personnel and connected activities, for the purpose of protecting the population's health and the environment. Following the basic cycle methodology, a systems analysis and engineering stage was prepared, establishing the functions of the system's elements and defining the requirements, based on interviews with the users. This stage was followed by the design stage, focusing on the data structure, the software architecture and the procedural detail. The codification stage followed, which translated the design into legible machine-readable format. In the testing stage, the entries that were defined were proven to produce the expected data. Finally and operational and maintenance stage was developed, when the system was installed and put to use. All the above generated a useful system for the Licensing section of the Department of Nuclear and Radiological Safety, since it provides faster and easier access to information. A project is described that introduces new development tools in the Computer department following standards established by the C.CH.E.N. (author)

  19. More than words: Adults learn probabilities over categories and relationships between them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson Kam, Carla L

    2009-04-01

    This study examines whether human learners can acquire statistics over abstract categories and their relationships to each other. Adult learners were exposed to miniature artificial languages containing variation in the ordering of the Subject, Object, and Verb constituents. Different orders (e.g. SOV, VSO) occurred in the input with different frequencies, but the occurrence of one order versus another was not predictable. Importantly, the language was constructed such that participants could only match the overall input probabilities if they were tracking statistics over abstract categories, not over individual words. At test, participants reproduced the probabilities present in the input with a high degree of accuracy. Closer examination revealed that learner's were matching the probabilities associated with individual verbs rather than the category as a whole. However, individual nouns had no impact on word orders produced. Thus, participants learned the probabilities of a particular ordering of the abstract grammatical categories Subject and Object associated with each verb. Results suggest that statistical learning mechanisms are capable of tracking relationships between abstract linguistic categories in addition to individual items.

  20. Are tent halls subject to property tax?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Macudziński

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The presented publication is a response to currently asked questions and interpretative doubts of taxpayers and tax authorities, namely whether tent halls are subject to property tax. General issues connected with an entity and a subject of taxation of this tax are presented herein. The answer to the question asked is then provided through the qualification of constructions works and the allocation of tent halls in the proper category of the works, with the use of the current law.

  1. Identifying demand effects in a large network of product categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelper, S.E.C.; Wilms, I.; Croux, C.

    2016-01-01

    Planning marketing mix strategies requires retailers to understand within- as well as cross-category demand effects. Most retailers carry products in a large variety of categories, leading to a high number of such demand effects to be estimated. At the same time, we do not expect cross-category

  2. A note on thick subcategories of stable derived categories

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Henning; Stevenson, Greg

    2013-01-01

    For an exact category having enough projective objects, we establish a bijection between thick subcategories containing the projective objects and thick subcategories of the stable derived category. Using this bijection, we classify thick subcategories of finitely generated modules over strict local complete intersections and produce generators for the category of coherent sheaves on a separated Noetherian scheme with an ample family of line bundles.

  3. 14 CFR 61.159 - Aeronautical experience: Airplane category rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aeronautical experience: Airplane category... Transport Pilots § 61.159 Aeronautical experience: Airplane category rating. (a) Except as provided in... certificate with an airplane category and class rating must have at least 1,500 hours of total time as a pilot...

  4. 47 CFR 36.126 - Circuit equipment-Category 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... separating property associated with special services, circuit equipment included in Categories 4.12 (other... Equipment Excluding Wideband—Category 4.13—The cost of Circuit Equipment associated with exchange line plant... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit equipment-Category 4. 36.126 Section 36...

  5. Quasi-coherent Hecke category and Demazure descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arkhipov, Sergey; Kanstrup, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Let G be a reductive algebraic group with a Borel subgroup B. We define the quasi-coherent Hecke category for the pair (G,B). For any regular Noetherian G- scheme X we construct a monoidal action of the Hecke category on the derived category of B-equivariant quasi-coherent sheaves on X. Using the...

  6. An Analysis of Category Management of Service Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    comprised of four steps to guide future category management teams in analyzing data and applying Category Management principles through the use of...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT AN ANALYSIS OF CATEGORY MANAGEMENT OF SERVICE CONTRACTS December 2017...Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project

  7. Racialized Subjects in a Colour Blind School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagermann, Laila Colding

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I examine processes of racialization in a school in Copenhagen, Denmark. On the basis of the data produced in 2009, which is part of a larger study, I investigate themes of race as a difference-making and constituting category for subjective (human) becoming and racialization as contingent and negotiated processes (Butler, 1997). As…

  8. Fluid dynamics theory, computation, and numerical simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Pozrikidis, C

    2001-01-01

    Fluid Dynamics Theory, Computation, and Numerical Simulation is the only available book that extends the classical field of fluid dynamics into the realm of scientific computing in a way that is both comprehensive and accessible to the beginner The theory of fluid dynamics, and the implementation of solution procedures into numerical algorithms, are discussed hand-in-hand and with reference to computer programming This book is an accessible introduction to theoretical and computational fluid dynamics (CFD), written from a modern perspective that unifies theory and numerical practice There are several additions and subject expansions in the Second Edition of Fluid Dynamics, including new Matlab and FORTRAN codes Two distinguishing features of the discourse are solution procedures and algorithms are developed immediately after problem formulations are presented, and numerical methods are introduced on a need-to-know basis and in increasing order of difficulty Matlab codes are presented and discussed for a broad...

  9. Fluid Dynamics Theory, Computation, and Numerical Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Pozrikidis, Constantine

    2009-01-01

    Fluid Dynamics: Theory, Computation, and Numerical Simulation is the only available book that extends the classical field of fluid dynamics into the realm of scientific computing in a way that is both comprehensive and accessible to the beginner. The theory of fluid dynamics, and the implementation of solution procedures into numerical algorithms, are discussed hand-in-hand and with reference to computer programming. This book is an accessible introduction to theoretical and computational fluid dynamics (CFD), written from a modern perspective that unifies theory and numerical practice. There are several additions and subject expansions in the Second Edition of Fluid Dynamics, including new Matlab and FORTRAN codes. Two distinguishing features of the discourse are: solution procedures and algorithms are developed immediately after problem formulations are presented, and numerical methods are introduced on a need-to-know basis and in increasing order of difficulty. Matlab codes are presented and discussed for ...

  10. Preschool Children Differentiation According to the Lingua- Grammatical Categories Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. V. Polivara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The parallel existence of languages and cultures brings forward the necessity of studying this linguistic phenomenon and designing special methods of speech development for the bilingual children. The particular attention should be given to the preschool age, for according to A. A. Leontyev’s study, the parallel acquiring of two languages often results in insufficient development of socio-linguistic speech standards. The research is devoted to the phenomenon of the two language systems coexistence in a bilingual person’s consciousness, both of them functioning and encoding the same subjects and phenomena. The peculiarities of language interference are described with the reference to the Russian-Tatar bilingual environment. The author believes that the bilingual interference problems are not caused by the phonetic and grammar system differences of the two languages. To find out the potential source of inter-language transition and interrelations between the native and non-native languages, it is necessary to identify the cognitive, neurolinguistic and psycho-linguistic aspects. Therefore, the regional phenomenon of mass bilingualism among the Tatar population is examined by the author in the framework of the psycho-linguistic and cognitive approaches. The paper presents the model of the lexical and grammar categories formation based on differentiated preschool teaching of the bilingual children. The proposed model makes it possible to overcome the limited viewpoint on the general speech dysfunctions, as well as the specifics of lexical and grammar categories development. It can be used for the further development of educational programs in psycho-linguistics, ethno-linguistics, onto-linguistics, cognitive linguistics, social-linguistics, contrastive linguistics and the language theory by means of extending the teaching course content. 

  11. Drug utilization and teratogenicity risk categories during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basgül, Alin; Akici, Ahmet; Uzuner, Arzu; Kalaça, Sibel; Kavak, Zehra N; Tural, Alper; Oktay, Sule

    2007-01-01

    A limited number of studies have investigated in detail the use of drugs during pregnancy. Researchers in the present study investigated the details of drug utilization in pregnant women during the month before pregnancy, at the time that they became aware of the pregnancy, and during the first trimester. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 359 pregnant women who were admitted to the fetal medicine unit at a university hospital for diagnosis and follow-up. A questionnaire was used to document sociodemographic characteristics and details of drug use. Drugs were categorized according to the US Food and Drug Administration fetal risk classification. Mean maternal age was 29.9+/-5.1 y, and mean gestational age was 19.6+/-9.5 wk. Many of the pregnant women studied (46.6%) were university graduates, and most (61.9%) had a relatively high annual income. Mean gestational age when participants first learned of their pregnancy was 39.8+/-16.4 d. One hundred seventeen participants (32.6%) used drugs during the month before conception, 54 (15%) at the time when they learned of their pregnancy, 180 (50.1%) at the time of the interview, and 289 (80.5%) during the first trimester. The percentages of drugs in categories D and X used by these subjects were 14%, 13.5%, 2.9%, and 5.9%, respectively. Most of the drugs were hormones. The total rate of drug utilization was not high before and during the first trimester of pregnancy. A considerable number of women were using drugs from the D and X categories; however, these numbers decreased significantly when women learned of their pregnancies. Intake of folic acid, vitamins, and iron was very low during the preconception period and was not high enough during the first trimester; this suggests that particular attention should be paid to the use of beneficial "safe" drugs during the preconception and early pregnancy periods.

  12. Lectures on fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Shinbrot, Marvin

    2012-01-01

    Readable and user-friendly, this high-level introduction explores the derivation of the equations of fluid motion from statistical mechanics, classical theory, and a portion of the modern mathematical theory of viscous, incompressible fluids. 1973 edition.

  13. Synovial Fluid Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Plasma Free Metanephrines Platelet Count Platelet Function Tests Pleural Fluid Analysis PML-RARA Porphyrin Tests Potassium Prealbumin ... is being tested? Synovial fluid is a thick liquid that acts as a lubricant for the body's ...

  14. Electric fluid pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dam, Jeremy Daniel; Turnquist, Norman Arnold; Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2015-09-29

    An electric machine is presented. The electric machine includes a hollow rotor; and a stator disposed within the hollow rotor, the stator defining a flow channel. The hollow rotor includes a first end portion defining a fluid inlet, a second end portion defining a fluid outlet; the fluid inlet, the fluid outlet, and the flow channel of the stator being configured to allow passage of a fluid from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet via the flow channel; and wherein the hollow rotor is characterized by a largest cross-sectional area of hollow rotor, and wherein the flow channel is characterized by a smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel, wherein the smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel is at least about 25% of the largest cross-sectional area of the hollow rotor. An electric fluid pump and a power generation system are also presented.

  15. Cerebrospinal fluid culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternative Names Culture - CSF; Spinal fluid culture; CSF culture Images Pneumococci organism References Karcher DS, McPherson RA. Cerebrospinal, synovial, serous body fluids, and alternative specimens. In: McPherson RA, Pincus ...

  16. Cerebrospinal fluid leak (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... brain and spinal cord by acting like a liquid cushion. The fluid allows the organs to be buoyant protecting them from blows or other trauma. Inside the skull the cerebrospinal fluid is contained by the dura which covers ...

  17. Radioimmunoassay of aldosterone in ascitic fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maleeva, A; Kekhajova, M [Nauchno-Izsledovatelski Inst. po Radiologiya i Radiatsionna Khigiena, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1988-01-01

    A method was developed dor determination of aldosterone in ascitic fluid. Elevated aldosterone levels in plasma and ascitic fluid of 10 patients with advanced cirrhosis of the liver were recorded, as compared to the plasma levels in normal subjects. Elevated aldosterone levels in these patients was of definite importance for the choice of adequate diuretic drug, since the effectiveness of diuretic treatment largely depended on renin activity and aldosterone level.

  18. Radioimmunoassay of aldosterone in ascitic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maleeva, A.; Kekhajova, M.

    1988-01-01

    A method was developed dor determination of aldosterone in ascitic fluid. Elevated aldosterone levels in plasma and ascitic fluid of 10 patients with advanced cirrhosis of the liver were recorded, as compared to the plasma levels in normal subjects. Elevated aldosterone levels in these patients was of definite importance for the choice of adequate diuretic drug, since the effectiveness of diuretic treatment largely depended on renin activity and aldosterone level

  19. Prior knowledge of category size impacts visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rachel; McGee, Brianna; Echiverri, Chelsea; Zinszer, Benjamin D

    2018-03-30

    Prior research has shown that category search can be similar to one-item search (as measured by the N2pc ERP marker of attentional selection) for highly familiar, smaller categories (e.g., letters and numbers) because the finite set of items in a category can be grouped into one unit to guide search. Other studies have shown that larger, more broadly defined categories (e.g., healthy food) also can elicit N2pc components during category search, but the amplitude of these components is typically attenuated. Two experiments investigated whether the perceived size of a familiar category impacts category and exemplar search. We presented participants with 16 familiar company logos: 8 from a smaller category (social media companies) and 8 from a larger category (entertainment/recreation manufacturing companies). The ERP results from Experiment 1 revealed that, in a two-item search array, search was more efficient for the smaller category of logos compared to the larger category. In a four-item search array (Experiment 2), where two of the four items were placeholders, search was largely similar between the category types, but there was more attentional capture by nontarget members from the same category as the target for smaller rather than larger categories. These results support a growing literature on how prior knowledge of categories affects attentional selection and capture during visual search. We discuss the implications of these findings in relation to assessing cognitive abilities across the lifespan, given that prior knowledge typically increases with age. © 2018 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  20. Predicting Success Study Using Students GPA Category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awan Setiawan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Maintaining student graduation rates are the main tasks of a University. High rates of student graduation and the quality of graduates is a success indicator of a university, which will have an impact on public confidence as stakeholders of higher education and the National Accreditation Board as a regulator (government. Making predictions of student graduation and determine the factors that hinders will be a valuable input for University. Data mining system facilitates the University to create the segmentation of students’ performance and prediction of their graduation. Segmentation of student by their performance can be classified in a quadrant chart is divided into 4 segments based on grade point average and the growth rate of students performance index per semester. Standard methodology in data mining i.e CRISP-DM (Cross Industry Standard Procedure for Data Mining will be implemented in this research. Making predictions, graduation can be done through the modeling process by utilizing the college database. Some algorithms such as C5, C & R Tree, CHAID, and Logistic Regression tested in order to find the best model. This research utilizes student performance data for several classes. Parameters used in addition to GPA also included the master's students data are expected to build the student profile data. The outcome of the study is the student category based on their study performance and prediction of graduation. Based on this prediction, the  university may recommend actions to be taken to improve the student  achievement index and graduation rates.Keywords: graduation, segmentation, quadrant GPA, data mining, modeling algorithms

  1. Predicting Success Study Using Students GPA Category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awan Setiawan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Maintaining student graduation rates are the main tasks of a University. High rates of student graduation and the quality of graduates is a success indicator of a university, which will have an impact on public confidence as stakeholders of higher education and the National Accreditation Board as a regulator (government. Making predictions of student graduation and determine the factors that hinders will be a valuable input for University. Data mining system facilitates the University to create the segmentation of students’ performance and prediction of their graduation. Segmentation of student by their performance can be classified in a quadrant chart is divided into 4 segments based on grade point average and the growth rate of students performance index per semester. Standard methodology in data mining i.e CRISP-DM (Cross Industry Standard Procedure for Data Mining will be implemented in this research. Making predictions, graduation can be done through the modeling process by utilizing the college database. Some algorithms such as C5, C & R Tree, CHAID, and Logistic Regression tested in order to find the best model. This research utilizes student performance data for several classes. Parameters used in addition to GPA also included the master's students data are expected to build the student profile data. The outcome of the study is the student category based on their study performance and prediction of graduation. Based on this prediction, the university may recommend actions to be taken to improve the student achievement index and graduation rates. Keywords: graduation, segmentation, quadrant GPA, data mining, modeling algorithms

  2. Computational Fluid Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myeong, Hyeon Guk

    1999-06-01

    This book deals with computational fluid dynamics with basic and history of numerical fluid dynamics, introduction of finite volume method using one-dimensional heat conduction equation, solution of two-dimensional heat conduction equation, solution of Navier-Stokes equation, fluid with heat transport, turbulent flow and turbulent model, Navier-Stokes solution by generalized coordinate system such as coordinate conversion, conversion of basic equation, program and example of calculation, application of abnormal problem and high speed solution of numerical fluid dynamics.

  3. 14 CFR 17.11 - Matters not subject to protest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Acquisition: (a) FAA purchases from or through, state, local, and tribal governments and public authorities...) Other transactions which do not fall into the category of procurement contracts subject to the AMS. ...

  4. Classification of hydrocephalus: critical analysis of classification categories and advantages of "Multi-categorical Hydrocephalus Classification" (Mc HC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oi, Shizuo

    2011-10-01

    Hydrocephalus is a complex pathophysiology with disturbed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation. There are numerous numbers of classification trials published focusing on various criteria, such as associated anomalies/underlying lesions, CSF circulation/intracranial pressure patterns, clinical features, and other categories. However, no definitive classification exists comprehensively to cover the variety of these aspects. The new classification of hydrocephalus, "Multi-categorical Hydrocephalus Classification" (Mc HC), was invented and developed to cover the entire aspects of hydrocephalus with all considerable classification items and categories. Ten categories include "Mc HC" category I: onset (age, phase), II: cause, III: underlying lesion, IV: symptomatology, V: pathophysiology 1-CSF circulation, VI: pathophysiology 2-ICP dynamics, VII: chronology, VII: post-shunt, VIII: post-endoscopic third ventriculostomy, and X: others. From a 100-year search of publication related to the classification of hydrocephalus, 14 representative publications were reviewed and divided into the 10 categories. The Baumkuchen classification graph made from the round o'clock classification demonstrated the historical tendency of deviation to the categories in pathophysiology, either CSF or ICP dynamics. In the preliminary clinical application, it was concluded that "Mc HC" is extremely effective in expressing the individual state with various categories in the past and present condition or among the compatible cases of hydrocephalus along with the possible chronological change in the future.

  5. Fluid Statics and Archimedes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    librium of a vertical slice fluid (Figure Id) of height H and again using the fact .... same fluid having the same shape and same volume as the body. This fluid volume .... example, can be caused by the heating of air near the ground by the sun ...

  6. Fullerol ionic fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Fernandes, Nikhil; Dallas, Panagiotis; Rodriguez, Robert; Bourlinos, Athanasios B.; Georgakilas, Vasilios; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2010-01-01

    ®). The ionic fluid was compared to a control synthesized by mixing the partially protonated form (sodium form) of the fullerols with the same oligomeric amine in the same ratio as in the ionic fluids (20 wt% fullerol). In the fullerol fluid the ionic bonding

  7. Chromatic Perceptual Learning but No Category Effects without Linguistic Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandison, Alexandra; Sowden, Paul T; Drivonikou, Vicky G; Notman, Leslie A; Alexander, Iona; Davies, Ian R L

    2016-01-01

    Perceptual learning involves an improvement in perceptual judgment with practice, which is often specific to stimulus or task factors. Perceptual learning has been shown on a range of visual tasks but very little research has explored chromatic perceptual learning. Here, we use two low level perceptual threshold tasks and a supra-threshold target detection task to assess chromatic perceptual learning and category effects. Experiment 1 investigates whether chromatic thresholds reduce as a result of training and at what level of analysis learning effects occur. Experiment 2 explores the effect of category training on chromatic thresholds, whether training of this nature is category specific and whether it can induce categorical responding. Experiment 3 investigates the effect of category training on a higher level, lateralized target detection task, previously found to be sensitive to category effects. The findings indicate that performance on a perceptual threshold task improves following training but improvements do not transfer across retinal location or hue. Therefore, chromatic perceptual learning is category specific and can occur at relatively early stages of visual analysis. Additionally, category training does not induce category effects on a low level perceptual threshold task, as indicated by comparable discrimination thresholds at the newly learned hue boundary and adjacent test points. However, category training does induce emerging category effects on a supra-threshold target detection task. Whilst chromatic perceptual learning is possible, learnt category effects appear to be a product of left hemisphere processing, and may require the input of higher level linguistic coding processes in order to manifest.

  8. Radiation protection in category III large gamma irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Neivaldo; Furlan, Gilberto Ribeiro; Itepan, Natanael Marcio

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the advantages of category III large gamma irradiator compared to the others, with emphasis on aspects of radiological protection, in the industrial sector. This category is a kind of irradiators almost unknown to the regulators authorities and the industrial community, despite its simple construction and greater radiation safety intrinsic to the model, able to maintain an efficiency of productivity comparable to those of category IV. Worldwide, there are installed more than 200 category IV irradiators and there is none of a category III irradiator in operation. In a category III gamma irradiator, the source remains fixed in the bottom of the tank, always shielded by water, negating the exposition risk. Taking into account the benefits in relation to radiation safety, the category III large irradiators are highly recommended for industrial, commercial purposes or scientific research. (author)

  9. Dose mapping in category I irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, Sandip; Shinde, S.H.; Mhatre, S.G.V.

    2012-01-01

    Category I irradiators such as Gamma Chambers and Blood Irradiators are compact self shielded, dry source storage gamma irradiators offering irradiation volume of few hundred cubic centimeters. In the present work, dose distribution profiles along the central vertical plane of the irradiation volume of Gamma Chamber 900 and Blood Irradiator 2000 were measured using Fricke, FBX, and alanine dosimeters. Measured dose distribution profiles in Gamma Chamber 900 differed from the typical generic dose distribution pattern whereas that in Blood Irradiator 2000 was in agreement with the typical pattern. All reagents used were of analytical reagent grade and were used without further purification. Preparation and dose estimations of Fricke and FBX were carried out as recommended. Alanine pellets were directly placed in precleaned polystyrene container having dimensions 6.5 mm o.d., 32 mm height and 3 mm wall thickness. For these dosimeters, dose measurements were made using e-scan Bruker BioSpin alanine dedicated ESR spectrometer. Specially designed perspex jigs were used during irradiation in Gamma Chamber 900 and Blood Irradiator 2000. These jigs provided the reproducible geometry during irradiation, Absorbance measurements were made using a spectrophotometer calibrated as per the recommended procedure. In Gamma Chamber 900, there is a dose distribution variation of about 34% from top to the center, 18% from center to the bottom, and 15% from center to the periphery. Such a dose distribution profile is largely deviating from the typical profile wherein 15% variation is observed from center to the periphery on all sides. Further investigation showed that there was a nonalignment in the source and sample chamber. However, in Blood Irradiator 2000, there is a dose distribution variation of about 20% from top to the center, 15% from center to the bottom, and 12% from center to the periphery. This pattern is very much similar to the typical profile. Hence it is recommended

  10. Fluid and particle mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Michell, S J

    2013-01-01

    Fluid and Particle Mechanics provides information pertinent to hydraulics or fluid mechanics. This book discusses the properties and behavior of liquids and gases in motion and at rest. Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the science of fluid mechanics that is subdivided accordingly into two main branches, namely, fluid statics and fluid dynamics. This text then examines the flowmeter devices used for the measurement of flow of liquids and gases. Other chapters consider the principle of resistance in open channel flow, which is based on improper application of th

  11. Fluid inclusion geothermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, C.G.

    1977-01-01

    Fluid inclusions trapped within crystals either during growth or at a later time provide many clues to the histories of rocks and ores. Estimates of fluid-inclusion homogenization temperature and density can be obtained using a petrographic microscope with thin sections, and they can be refined using heating and freezing stages. Fluid inclusion studies, used in conjunction with paragenetic studies, can provide direct data on the time and space variations of parameters such as temperature, pressure, density, and composition of fluids in geologic environments. Changes in these parameters directly affect the fugacity, composition, and pH of fluids, thus directly influencing localization of ore metals. ?? 1977 Ferdinand Enke Verlag Stuttgart.

  12. Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power (FMFP)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amitabh Bhattacharya

    of renewable energy (e.g., via wind, hydrokinetic generators), creating low-cost healthcare ... multiphase flow, turbulence, bio-fluid dynamics, atmospheric flows, microfluidic flows, and ... study the challenging problem of entry of solids in water.

  13. Sex differences in fluid and crystalized intelligence focus on people with psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćosović Vojislav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fluid intelligence is described as ability to rapidly solve novel problems and capacity to manage and easily adapt to new situations. Crystallized intelligence reflects ability to timely use lifetime-learned information and skills. Bearing in mind that intelligence is one of the impaired cognitive functions in psychosis, a question arises there are if any sex differences in patients, regarding total IQ, fluid or crystallized intelligence. Aim: To evaluate sex differences in psychosis and to analyze the differences between patients and sex, age and origin matched healthy controls. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated schizophrenia spectrum patients (F20-29 based on ICD10; n = 52, age = 29,3±5,9 years, illness duration <10 years and controls (n = 51, age = 29,8±6,3 years. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze data. Results: Analyzing sex differences in total IQ, fluid and crystalized IQ, it has been found that women exhibited lower crystallized intelligence scores both in the patient group (p = 0,039 and in the control group (p = 0,016. Among male patients, lower scores were found in comparison to the healthy male controls in all of the categories, while female patients scores in crystallized intelligence were not significantly different in comparison to female healthy group ((p = 0,160. Conclusion: In the male subjects with psychosis, a deficit was found in both subdomains of intelligence, while in female subjects it was found in fluid intelligence only. Factors which could serve as protective from greater cognitive impairment in female patients need further evaluation, as a sign of potential mechanisms that could ameliorate the course and prognosis of schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

  14. Categories and Dimensions of Organizational Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa; Flyverbom, Mikkel

    Transparency is a distinctive area of research across disciplines and presents significant importance for organization studies. However, transparency is rarely subject to structured and critical scrutiny and as a result its relevance for organizational analysis is underestimated. In an attempt...... to foreground the value of transparency studies, we offer an overview of the existing research and indicate two paradigmatic positions underpinning the transparency literature, namely what we term non-performative and performative approaches. The main contribution of the paper lies in this ground......, an approach which remains underexplored. Finally, we discuss some avenues for future studies of the organizing properties of transparency: the secrecy-transparency interplay, the power-transparency nexus and the transparency ‘family tree’ (i.e., intersections between multiple forms of disclosure)....

  15. IDENTITY AS A PHENOMENON AND A CATEGORY OF THE RUSSIAN LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhakova, Ju.A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Linguists often use the notion of “identity”. It is used either in relation to structural peculiarities of constructions or in relation to semantics. In most cases, linguistic units have one identical (i.e. equivalent, similar, resembling distinctive feature: category, grammatical or lexical meaning, structural component, syntactic function. If within one unit we come across functional, structural, and semantic equivalence, we can speak about the linguistic category of identity. Modern science requires more than explication of the term, it calls for a detailed study of constituting phenomena, their interrelationships and interpenetration, their semantic and structural peculiarities, the means of their realization and actualization. The subject of our research is, on the one hand, special “markers” of identity, and, on the other hand, syntactic constructions in which the category of identity is realized.

  16. The Survival Processing Effect with Intentional Learning of Ad Hoc Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Savchenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that memory is adapted to remember information when it is processed in a survival context. This study investigates how procedural changes in Marinho (2012 study might have led to her failure to replicate the survival mnemonic advantage. In two between-subjects design experiments, participants were instructed to learn words from ad hoc categories and to rate their relevance to a survival or a control scenario. No survival advantage was obtained in either experiment. The Adjusted Ratio of Clustering (ARC scores revealed that including the category labels made the participants rely more on the category structure of the list. Various procedural aspects of the conducted experiments are discussed as possible reasons underlying the absence of the survival effect.

  17. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components among Japanese Workers by Clustered Business Category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Tomoo; Hayakawa, Takehito; Kakamu, Takeyasu; Kumagai, Tomohiro; Hiruta, Yuhei; Hata, Junko; Tsuji, Masayoshi; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2016-01-01

    The present study was a cross-sectional study conducted to reveal the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components and describe the features of such prevalence among Japanese workers by clustered business category using big data. The data of approximately 120,000 workers were obtained from a national representative insurance organization, and the study analyzed the health checkup and questionnaire results according to the field of business of each subject. Abnormalities found during the checkups such as excessive waist circumference, hypertension or glucose intolerance, and metabolic syndrome, were recorded. All subjects were classified by business field into 18 categories based on The North American Industry Classification System. Based on the criteria of the Japanese Committee for the Diagnostic Criteria of Metabolic Syndrome, the standardized prevalence ratio (SPR) of metabolic syndrome and its components by business category was calculated, and the 95% confidence interval of the SPR was computed. Hierarchical cluster analysis was then performed based on the SPR of metabolic syndrome components, and the 18 business categories were classified into three clusters for both males and females. The following business categories were at significantly high risk of metabolic syndrome: among males, Construction, Transportation, Professional Services, and Cooperative Association; and among females, Health Care and Cooperative Association. The results of the cluster analysis indicated one cluster for each gender with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome components; among males, a cluster consisting of Manufacturing, Transportation, Finance, and Cooperative Association, and among females, a cluster consisting of Mining, Transportation, Finance, Accommodation, and Cooperative Association. These findings reveal that, when providing health guidance and support regarding metabolic syndrome, consideration must be given to its components and the variety of its

  18. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components among Japanese Workers by Clustered Business Category.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoo Hidaka

    Full Text Available The present study was a cross-sectional study conducted to reveal the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components and describe the features of such prevalence among Japanese workers by clustered business category using big data. The data of approximately 120,000 workers were obtained from a national representative insurance organization, and the study analyzed the health checkup and questionnaire results according to the field of business of each subject. Abnormalities found during the checkups such as excessive waist circumference, hypertension or glucose intolerance, and metabolic syndrome, were recorded. All subjects were classified by business field into 18 categories based on The North American Industry Classification System. Based on the criteria of the Japanese Committee for the Diagnostic Criteria of Metabolic Syndrome, the standardized prevalence ratio (SPR of metabolic syndrome and its components by business category was calculated, and the 95% confidence interval of the SPR was computed. Hierarchical cluster analysis was then performed based on the SPR of metabolic syndrome components, and the 18 business categories were classified into three clusters for both males and females. The following business categories were at significantly high risk of metabolic syndrome: among males, Construction, Transportation, Professional Services, and Cooperative Association; and among females, Health Care and Cooperative Association. The results of the cluster analysis indicated one cluster for each gender with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome components; among males, a cluster consisting of Manufacturing, Transportation, Finance, and Cooperative Association, and among females, a cluster consisting of Mining, Transportation, Finance, Accommodation, and Cooperative Association. These findings reveal that, when providing health guidance and support regarding metabolic syndrome, consideration must be given to its components and the

  19. Grammatical categories in the brain: the role of morphological structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longe, O; Randall, B; Stamatakis, E A; Tyler, L K

    2007-08-01

    The current study addresses the controversial issue of how different grammatical categories are neurally processed. Several lesion-deficit studies suggest that distinct neural substrates underlie the representation of nouns and verbs, with verb deficits associated with damage to left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and noun deficits with damage to left temporal cortex. However, this view is not universally shared by neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies. We have suggested that these inconsistencies may reflect interactions between the morphological structure of nouns and verbs and the processing implications of this, rather than differences in their neural representations (Tyler et al. 2004). We tested this hypothesis using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, to scan subjects performing a valence judgment on unambiguous nouns and verbs, presented as stems ('snail, hear') and inflected forms ('snails, hears'). We predicted that activations for noun and verb stems would not differ, whereas inflected verbs would generate more activation in left frontotemporal areas than inflected nouns. Our findings supported this hypothesis, with greater activation of this network for inflected verbs compared with inflected nouns. These results support the claim that form class is not a first-order organizing principle underlying the representation of words but rather interacts with the processes that operate over lexical representations.

  20. Typing and grading of cytological category C5 breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, N.; Jamal, S.; Mamoon, N.; Luqman, M.; Anwar, M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the tumour type, cytological grade and nuclear grade on fine-needle aspiration smears in cytological category C5 breast lesions and compare them with histopathological findings. Subjects and Methods: Out of all patients referred to AFIP, Rawalpindi for fine-needle aspiration of breast masses, those adjudged C5 (malignant) were chosen for this study. History, clinical details and mammographic findings were noted. Aspirated smears were examined and an attempt was made to ascertain tumour type, cytological grade and nuclear grade. On excision of these lesions, the cytological findings were compared with those on paraffin-embedded histological sections. Results: A total of 71 patients were included in this study. Of these, 64 (90.14%) were cytologically diagnosed as ductal carcinoma, 4 (5.63%) lobular carcinoma, 2 (2.82%) mucinous carcinoma and 1 (1.41%) as medullary carcinoma. Seventy (98.60%) tumours were correctly typed on aspiration smears. Sixty-eight (95.77%) cases were cytologically graded with accuracy. Nuclear grading was even better on cytology and, excluding one malignant lymphoma, all 70 (100%) smears were assessed correctly. Conclusion: Overall efficiency of the tumour typing, cytological grading and nuclear grading on aspirated material turned out to be quite accurate. In expert hands, cytological examination can be of great help in pre-operative planning and in cases where tumour morphology in paraffin-embedded material has been distorted by neo-adjuvant therapy prior to excision. (author)

  1. A Bulk Microphysics Parameterization with Multiple Ice Precipitation Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, Jerry M.; Mansell, Edward R.

    2005-04-01

    A single-moment bulk microphysics scheme with multiple ice precipitation categories is described. It has 2 liquid hydrometeor categories (cloud droplets and rain) and 10 ice categories that are characterized by habit, size, and density—two ice crystal habits (column and plate), rimed cloud ice, snow (ice crystal aggregates), three categories of graupel with different densities and intercepts, frozen drops, small hail, and large hail. The concept of riming history is implemented for conversions among the graupel and frozen drops categories. The multiple precipitation ice categories allow a range of particle densities and fall velocities for simulating a variety of convective storms with minimal parameter tuning. The scheme is applied to two cases—an idealized continental multicell storm that demonstrates the ice precipitation process, and a small Florida maritime storm in which the warm rain process is important.

  2. Social categories as markers of intrinsic interpersonal obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Marjorie; Chalik, Lisa

    2013-06-01

    Social categorization is an early-developing feature of human social cognition, yet the role that social categories play in children's understanding of and predictions about human behavior has been unclear. In the studies reported here, we tested whether a foundational functional role of social categories is to mark people as intrinsically obligated to one another (e.g., obligated to protect rather than harm). In three studies, children (aged 3-9, N = 124) viewed only within-category harm as violating intrinsic obligations; in contrast, they viewed between-category harm as violating extrinsic obligations defined by explicit rules. These data indicate that children view social categories as marking patterns of intrinsic interpersonal obligations, suggesting that a key function of social categories is to support inferences about how people will relate to members of their own and other groups.

  3. Category mistakes: A barrier to effective environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ken J; Jago, Mark

    2017-09-01

    How entities, the things that exist, are defined and categorised affects all aspects of environmental management including technical descriptions, quantitative analyses, participatory processes, planning, and decisions. Consequently, ambiguous definitions and wrongly assigning entities to categories, referred to as category mistakes, are barriers to effective management. Confusion caused by treating the term 'biodiversity' variously as the property of an area, the biota of an area, and a preferred end state (a value) - quite different categories of entities - is one example. To overcome such difficulties, we develop and define four entity categories - elements, processes, properties, and values - and two derived categories - states and systems. We argue that adoption of these categories and definitions will significantly improve environmental communication and analysis, and thus strengthen planning and decision-making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Categorial compositionality: a category theory explanation for the systematicity of human cognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Phillips

    Full Text Available Classical and Connectionist theories of cognitive architecture seek to explain systematicity (i.e., the property of human cognition whereby cognitive capacity comes in groups of related behaviours as a consequence of syntactically and functionally compositional representations, respectively. However, both theories depend on ad hoc assumptions to exclude specific instances of these forms of compositionality (e.g. grammars, networks that do not account for systematicity. By analogy with the Ptolemaic (i.e. geocentric theory of planetary motion, although either theory can be made to be consistent with the data, both nonetheless fail to fully explain it. Category theory, a branch of mathematics, provides an alternative explanation based on the formal concept of adjunction, which relates a pair of structure-preserving maps, called functors. A functor generalizes the notion of a map between representational states to include a map between state transformations (or processes. In a formal sense, systematicity is a necessary consequence of a higher-order theory of cognitive architecture, in contrast to the first-order theories derived from Classicism or Connectionism. Category theory offers a re-conceptualization for cognitive science, analogous to the one that Copernicus provided for astronomy, where representational states are no longer the center of the cognitive universe--replaced by the relationships between the maps that transform them.

  5. Categorial compositionality: a category theory explanation for the systematicity of human cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Steven; Wilson, William H

    2010-07-22

    Classical and Connectionist theories of cognitive architecture seek to explain systematicity (i.e., the property of human cognition whereby cognitive capacity comes in groups of related behaviours) as a consequence of syntactically and functionally compositional representations, respectively. However, both theories depend on ad hoc assumptions to exclude specific instances of these forms of compositionality (e.g. grammars, networks) that do not account for systematicity. By analogy with the Ptolemaic (i.e. geocentric) theory of planetary motion, although either theory can be made to be consistent with the data, both nonetheless fail to fully explain it. Category theory, a branch of mathematics, provides an alternative explanation based on the formal concept of adjunction, which relates a pair of structure-preserving maps, called functors. A functor generalizes the notion of a map between representational states to include a map between state transformations (or processes). In a formal sense, systematicity is a necessary consequence of a higher-order theory of cognitive architecture, in contrast to the first-order theories derived from Classicism or Connectionism. Category theory offers a re-conceptualization for cognitive science, analogous to the one that Copernicus provided for astronomy, where representational states are no longer the center of the cognitive universe--replaced by the relationships between the maps that transform them.

  6. The changing role of the subject specialist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cotta-Schønberg

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available As we all know, libraries are these years rapidly undergoing change on unparalleled scale. Evidently, this applies to librarians, too, and not the least to that important category of library staff, the subject specialist. As recruiting and education of library workers differ from country to country it is difficult to give a detailed, generally valid description of the subject librarian in libraries, but I believe that you can describe an ideal model of subject librarianship as follows: Within each of the major subject disciplines covered by the library, the library should have a subject specialist preferably with a master degree or at least a bachelor degree in the particular subject discipline. The role of the subject specialist is to perform four basic functions where extensive subject knowledge is considered to be necessary: selecting and classifying books, assisting users with advanced subject inquiries, giving subject-specific courses in information retrieval, and maintaining liaison with relevant academic departments and centres. Personally, I know this system very well since I got employment in the Royal Library in Copenhagen as a subject specialist in psychology in the very month I finished my degree in psychology from the University of Copenhagen, back in 1973. The subject librarian system at the Royal Library in Copenhagen was patterned on the ideal model, as I just described it, and it was closely paralleled in the other academic libraries in Denmark, also the new university libraries which were founded in the seventies.

  7. Right away: A late, right-lateralized category effect complements an early, left-lateralized category effect in visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, Merryn D; Becker, Stefanie I

    2017-10-01

    According to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, learned semantic categories can influence early perceptual processes. A central finding in support of this view is the lateralized category effect-namely, the finding that categorically different colors (e.g., blue and green hues) can be discriminated faster than colors within the same color category (e.g., different hues of green), especially when they are presented in the right visual field. Because the right visual field projects to the left hemisphere, this finding has been popularly couched in terms of the left-lateralization of language. However, other studies have reported bilateral category effects, which has led some researchers to question the linguistic origins of the effect. Here we examined the time course of lateralized and bilateral category effects in the classical visual search paradigm by means of eyetracking and RT distribution analyses. Our results show a bilateral category effect in the manual responses, which is combined of an early, left-lateralized category effect and a later, right-lateralized category effect. The newly discovered late, right-lateralized category effect occurred only when observers had difficulty locating the target, indicating a specialization of the right hemisphere to find categorically different targets after an initial error. The finding that early and late stages of visual search show different lateralized category effects can explain a wide range of previously discrepant findings.

  8. Categorical perception of color: evidence from secondary category boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-rasheed AS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abdulrahman Saud Al-rasheed Department of Psychology, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Abstract: Despite a plethora of behavioral research exploring the phenomenon of color categorical perception (CP known as "better discrimination between pair of colors stimuli from different categories and pair of colors stimuli from the same category even when the stimulus differences between the pairs of stimuli are equal", most of the evidence for the CP of color was derived from Roman or top-to-down script readers and very rarely from right-to-left script readers in primary category. To date, no studies of color CP have been conducted on right-to-left script readers in secondary category boundary to support this theory. Three experiments have been conducted: Experiments 1 and 2 established the Arabic blue–purple secondary category boundary, and Experiment 3 tested the CP of color in the blue–purple category boundary. Sixty participants (30 men and 30 women took part in this study. All spoke Arabic as their first language, and all were undergraduate or postgraduate students at King Saud University. Their ages ranged from 18–35 years with a mean age of 21.9 years (SD =5.2. The result indicated that for Experiments 1 and 2, it appeared that the Arabic blue–purple category boundary was approximately 10PB and it is in the same location as for English. For Experiment 3, reaction times in the between-categories condition were significantly faster than those in the within-category condition; this suggested that CP of color was shown in the Arabic's blue–purple secondary category boundary. Keywords: categorical perception, CP of color, categorization, blue–purple category boundary, secondary category boundary

  9. Generic task problem descriptions: Category B, C, and D tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    This document contains information relating to Category B, C, and D generic technical activities. The specific information provided for each task includes the reactor type to which the generic issue applies, the NRC division with lead responsibility and a description of the problem to be addressed by the task. Also provided in this document is a listing of Category A generic technical activities and definitions of Priority Categories A, B, C, and D

  10. Nature of Emotion Categories: Comment on Cowen and Keltner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Khan, Zulqarnain; Dy, Jennifer; Brooks, Dana

    2017-12-22

    Cowen and Keltner (2017) published the latest installment in a longstanding debate about whether measures of emotion organize themselves into categories or array themselves more continuously along affective dimensions. We discuss several notable features of the study and suggest future studies should consider asking questions more directly about physical and psychological variation within emotion categories as well as similarities between categories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fluid-Structure Interaction in a Fluid-Filled Composite Structure Subjected to Low Velocity Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    and tolerant during late nights and early mornings, my rock when times are tough, and my inspiration every day. Without her, I would not be the...for Determining the Burst Strength and Material Properties of Hollow Cylinders,” M.S. thesis, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

  12. Food and fluid intake of the SENECA population residing in Romans, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, M; Hininger-Favier, I; Sidobre, B; Mathey, M F

    2001-01-01

    to provide information and data on food and fluid intake of free-living elderly aged of 81-86 years old residing in the south of France. using standardised methods data were collected from a random sample born between 1913 and 1918. The French study protocol again included data collection on dietary intake using a standardised modified dietary history consisting of a food frequency list and a 3-day estimated dietary record. Total dietary intake was generally low as compared to the recommended daily intake for elderly subjects. This descriptive part of the SENECA study gives the opportunity to have information on this growing segment of the population. These results should help to adapt the dietary guidelines for this category of the population.

  13. FLUID INGESTION STRATEGIES OF COMPETITIVE CYCLISTS DURING 40 KM TIME TRIAL COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karianne Backx

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Dear Editor-in- ChiefLoss of fluid during prolonged exercise has been purported to be a cause of fatigue (Below et al., 1995; Walsh et al., 1994, for example. A plethora of information regarding 'optimal' fluid replacement strategies exists; perhaps the most prominent of these in the public domain is the position stand on exercise and fluid replacement published by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM. It recommends that one should ingest fluid early and continually at regular intervals in an attempt to replace the volume of fluid lost through sweating or consume as much as can be tolerated (Covertino et al., 1996. Drinking practices associated with different types of endurance activity are not well documented and it may be possible that the guidelines based on empirical data derived from laboratory conditions lack the necessary ecological validity for performance in the field. To our knowledge, there are no data on fluid intake or body mass losses during high-intensity cycling time trials (TT outside of laboratory conditions; although a pilot study questionnaire used by El-Sayed et al., 1997 revealed that the volume ingested in pre-race preparation over a similar TT race distance (46 km ranged between 0.125-0.5 L. Therefore the aim of this investigation was to elucidate the fluid ingestion strategies of competitive cyclists during pre-race preparation and 40 km TT competition and the resultant body mass loss.Seventy-two competitive male cyclists ranging from Elite Category to Category 4 cyclists (according to British Cycling classification volunteered to participated in this investigation from two separate 40 km TT (n = 21 and n = 51, respectively. Mean (±SD body mass, height and age for all participants were 73.4 ± 7.5 kg, 1.77 ± 0.06 m, and 47 ± 13 years. All procedures were approved by the University's Research Ethics Committee and subjects completed informed consent prior to the start of the investigation.Both events were held

  14. Categories of relations as models of quantum theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Heunen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Categories of relations over a regular category form a family of models of quantum theory. Using regular logic, many properties of relations over sets lift to these models, including the correspondence between Frobenius structures and internal groupoids. Over compact Hausdorff spaces, this lifting gives continuous symmetric encryption. Over a regular Mal'cev category, this correspondence gives a characterization of categories of completely positive maps, enabling the formulation of quantum features. These models are closer to Hilbert spaces than relations over sets in several respects: Heisenberg uncertainty, impossibility of broadcasting, and behavedness of rank one morphisms.

  15. Abrupt category shifts during real-time person perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jonathan B

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have suggested that real-time person perception relies on continuous competition, in which partially active categories smoothly compete over time. Here, two studies demonstrated the involvement of a different kind of competition. In Study 1, before participants selected the correct sex category for morphed faces, their mouse trajectories often exhibited a continuous attraction toward the incorrect category that increased with sex-category ambiguity, indicating continuous competition. On other trials, however, trajectories initially pursued the incorrect category and then abruptly redirected toward the correct category, suggesting early incorrect category activation that was rapidly reversed later in processing. These abrupt category reversals also increased with ambiguity. In Study 2, participants were presented with faces containing a sex-typical or sex-atypical hair cue, in a context in which the norm was either sex-typical targets (normative context) or sex-atypical targets (counternormative context). Sex-atypical targets induced greater competition in the normative context, but sex-typical targets induced greater competition in the counternormative context. Together, these results demonstrate that categorizing others involves both smooth competition and abrupt category shifts, and that these flexibly adapt to the social context.

  16. On the (un)suitability of semantic categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Since Greenberg’s groundbreaking publication on universals of grammar, typologists have used semantic categories to investigate (constraints on) morphological and syntactic variation in the world’s languages and this tradition has been continued in the WALS project. It is argued here that the emp......Since Greenberg’s groundbreaking publication on universals of grammar, typologists have used semantic categories to investigate (constraints on) morphological and syntactic variation in the world’s languages and this tradition has been continued in the WALS project. It is argued here...... that the employment of semantic categories has some serious drawbacks, however, suggesting that semantic categories, just like formal categories, cannot be equated across languages in morphosyntactic typology. Whereas formal categories are too narrow in that they do not cover all structural variants attested across...... languages, semantic categories can be too wide, including too many structural variants. Furthermore, it appears that in some major typological studies semantic categories have been confused with formal categories. A possible solution is pointed out: typologists first need to make sure that the forms...

  17. MOST SOLD CATEGORIES FOOD SUPPLEMENTS IN BULGARIAN PHARMACIES - RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Elina Petkova1, Kalin Ivanov2, Stanislava Ivanova2*, Stanislav Gueorguiev3, Radiana Staynova3

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate which are the most sold categories food supplements in Bulgarian pharmacies. The survey covers 820 pharmacies across the country. We have found that the leading category of food supplements is “Immune and digestive health” (41.5%). The second place is for the “Bone and joint health” (12.9%). The “Urology” category (consisted mainly by plant extracts) is about 7.9%. Food supplements in the “Urology” category are not only recommended by pharmacists but of...

  18. Mere exposure alters category learning of novel objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R Folstein

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how mere exposure to complex objects with correlated or uncorrelated object features affects later category learning of new objects not seen during exposure. Correlations among pre-exposed object dimensions influenced later category learning. Unlike other published studies, the collection of pre-exposed objects provided no information regarding the categories to be learned, ruling out unsupervised or incidental category learning during pre-exposure. Instead, results are interpreted with respect to statistical learning mechanisms, providing one of the first demonstrations of how statistical learning can influence visual object learning.

  19. Mere exposure alters category learning of novel objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folstein, Jonathan R; Gauthier, Isabel; Palmeri, Thomas J

    2010-01-01

    We investigated how mere exposure to complex objects with correlated or uncorrelated object features affects later category learning of new objects not seen during exposure. Correlations among pre-exposed object dimensions influenced later category learning. Unlike other published studies, the collection of pre-exposed objects provided no information regarding the categories to be learned, ruling out unsupervised or incidental category learning during pre-exposure. Instead, results are interpreted with respect to statistical learning mechanisms, providing one of the first demonstrations of how statistical learning can influence visual object learning.

  20. Fullerol ionic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Nikhil; Dallas, Panagiotis; Rodriguez, Robert; Bourlinos, Athanasios B.; Georgakilas, Vasilios; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2010-09-01

    We report for the first time an ionic fluid based on hydroxylated fullerenes (fullerols). The ionic fluid was synthesized by neutralizing the fully protonated fullerol with an amine terminated polyethylene/polypropylene oxide oligomer (Jeffamine®). The ionic fluid was compared to a control synthesized by mixing the partially protonated form (sodium form) of the fullerols with the same oligomeric amine in the same ratio as in the ionic fluids (20 wt% fullerol). In the fullerol fluid the ionic bonding significantly perturbs the thermal transitions and melting/crystallization behavior of the amine. In contrast, both the normalized heat of fusion and crystallization of the amine in the control are similar to those of the neat amine consistent with a physical mixture of the fullerols/amine with minimal interactions. In addition to differences in thermal behavior, the fullerol ionic fluid exhibits a complex viscoelastic behavior intermediate between the neat Jeffamine® (liquid-like) and the control (solid-like).

  1. Fiber optic fluid detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, S.M.

    1987-02-27

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element having a cladding or coating of a material which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses. 10 figs.

  2. Fiber optic fluid detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, S. Michael

    1989-01-01

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element (11, 11a to 11j) having a cladding or coating of a material (23, 23a to 23j) which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector (24, 24a to 24j) may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses.

  3. Metalworking and machining fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark

    2010-10-12

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  4. Disposing of fluid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    Toxic liquid waste, eg liquid radioactive waste, is disposed of by locating a sub-surface stratum which, before removal of any fluid, has a fluid pressure in the pores thereof which is less than the hydrostatic pressure which is normal for a stratum at that depth in the chosen area, and then feeding the toxic liquid into the stratum at a rate such that the fluid pressure in the stratum never exceeds the said normal hydrostatic pressure. (author)

  5. Fluid mechanics. 5. enlarged ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalide, W.

    1980-01-01

    Originally written for students in the field of engineering, this book may also be of use in the engineering practice. The subject is presented with a view to practice. Fundamental theorems of fluid mechanics are presented without going too much into theory. The chapter on supersonic flow has been extended in the fifth edition as this is a field of great importance in engineering. The new chapter on gas dynamics takes account of these processes in turbine and compressure construction and aeronautical engineering. There is an appendix with material data, characteristic values, flow resistance coefficients, diagrams and two tables with rated pressure loss values for pipeline flow. (orig./GL)

  6. Experimental Approach to Teaching Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Catalina

    2015-11-01

    For the last 15 years we have promoted experimental work even in the theoretical courses. Fluids appear in the Physics curriculum of the National University of Mexico in two courses: Collective Phenomena in their sophomore year and Continuum Mechanics in their senior year. In both, students are asked for a final project. Surprisingly, at least 85% choose an experimental subject even though this means working extra hours every week. Some of the experiments were shown in this congress two years ago. This time we present some new results and the methodology we use in the classroom. I acknowledge support from the Physics Department, Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM.

  7. [Science, public health and nursing: highlighting the gender and generation categories in the episteme of praxis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egry, Emiko Yoshikawa; da Fonseca, Rosa Maria Godoy Serpa; Oliveira, Maria Amélia de Campos

    2013-09-01

    This essay aims to show the relevance of sociological categories gender and generation that underlie the phenomenon of nursing in public health, the episteme of praxis. We understand praxis as the foundation of the historical and dialectic materialism, demonstrating its importance in the process of construction of knowledge in public health nursing. The sociological categories of gender and generation were chosen in this paper because it has the privilege to better illuminate certain phenomena that have been the subject of scientific concern, such as violence against women, children and the elderly, in all its vulnerabilities. The dialectical method was adopted, with an emphasis on the secondary laws of "essence and phenomena" and "reality and possibility". Finally, given that the choice of the approach to the object, as well as the instruments for intervention towards a purpose in the process of scientific knowledge is the choice of the knowing subject, the ethics was related to praxis.

  8. Color categories only affect post-perceptual processes when same- and different-category colors are equally discriminable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xun; Witzel, Christoph; Forder, Lewis; Clifford, Alexandra; Franklin, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Prior claims that color categories affect color perception are confounded by inequalities in the color space used to equate same- and different-category colors. Here, we equate same- and different-category colors in the number of just-noticeable differences, and measure event-related potentials (ERPs) to these colors on a visual oddball task to establish if color categories affect perceptual or post-perceptual stages of processing. Category effects were found from 200 ms after color presentation, only in ERP components that reflect post-perceptual processes (e.g., N2, P3). The findings suggest that color categories affect post-perceptual processing, but do not affect the perceptual representation of color.

  9. A Finite Element Method for Free-Surface Flows of Incompressible Fluids in Three Dimensions, Part II: Dynamic Wetting Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, T.A.; Cairncross, R.A.; Rao, R.R.; Sackinger, P.A.; Schunk, P.R.

    1999-01-29

    To date, few researchers have solved three-dimensional free-surface problems with dynamic wetting lines. This paper extends the free-surface finite element method described in a companion paper [Cairncross, R.A., P.R. Schunk, T.A. Baer, P.A. Sackinger, R.R. Rao, "A finite element method for free surface flows of incompressible fluid in three dimensions, Part I: Boundary-Fitted mesh motion.", to be published (1998)] to handle dynamic wetting. A generalization of the technique used in two dimensional modeling to circumvent double-valued velocities at the wetting line, the so-called kinematic paradox, is presented for a wetting line in three dimensions. This approach requires the fluid velocity normal to the contact line to be zero, the fluid velocity tangent to the contact line to be equal to the tangential component of web velocity, and the fluid velocity into the web to be zero. In addition, slip is allowed in a narrow strip along the substrate surface near the dynamic contact line. For realistic wetting-line motion, a contact angle which varies with wetting speed is required because contact lines in three dimensions typically advance or recede a different rates depending upon location and/or have both advancing and receding portions. The theory is applied to capillary rise of static fluid in a corner, the initial motion of a Newtonian droplet down an inclined plane, and extrusion of a Newtonian fluid from a nozzle onto a moving substrate. The extrusion results are compared to experimental visualization. Subject Categories

  10. Fluid dynamics transactions

    CERN Document Server

    Fiszdon, W

    1965-01-01

    Fluid Dynamics Transactions, Volume 2 compiles 46 papers on fluid dynamics, a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that deals with fluid flow. The topics discussed in this book include developments in interference theory for aeronautical applications; diffusion from sources in a turbulent boundary layer; unsteady motion of a finite wing span in a compressible medium; and wall pressure covariance and comparison with experiment. The certain classes of non-stationary axially symmetric flows in magneto-gas-dynamics; description of the phenomenon of secondary flows in curved channels by means of co

  11. Plasmas and fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Plasma and fluid physics includes the fields of fusion research and space investigation. This book discusses the most important advances in these areas over the past decade and recommends a stronger commitment to basic research in plasma and fluid physics. The book recommends that plasma and fluid physics be included in physics curriculums because of their increasing importance in energy and defense. The book also lists recent accomplishments in the fields of general plasma physics, fusion plasma confinement and heating, space and astrophysical plasmas, and fluid physics and lists research opportunities in these areas. A funding summary explains how research monies are allocated and suggests ways to improve their effectiveness

  12. Theoretical Fluid Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shivamoggi, Bhimsen K

    1998-01-01

    "Although there are many texts and monographs on fluid dynamics, I do not know of any which is as comprehensive as the present book. It surveys nearly the entire field of classical fluid dynamics in an advanced, compact, and clear manner, and discusses the various conceptual and analytical models of fluid flow." - Foundations of Physics on the first edition. Theoretical Fluid Dynamics functions equally well as a graduate-level text and a professional reference. Steering a middle course between the empiricism of engineering and the abstractions of pure mathematics, the author focuses

  13. THE CATEGORY OF COUNTABILITY IN THE CROATIAN LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Znika

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the category of countability as a category established on the lexical meaning of nouns. The lexical meaning of nouns can be dually structured, in a unit and mass forms, relative to the opposition one ≠ many. The category of countability has its content and expression. The content of the category of countability consists of the feature [± countable], and its marker [+ countable] and [- countable]. A noun is countable if its content can be conceived as a unit opposed to mass (table, apple. A noun is uncoutable if its content cannot be perceived as a unit that could be opposed to mass (water, sugar. The expression of the category of countability depends on its content. In the Croatian language the category of countability has its expression in the grammatical category of number and its grammems: singular and plural. These two grammems are formally, and frequently accentually, distinctive from the majority of nouns. The analysis focuses on the meaning of nouns, while their expression is considered as a possible indicator of semantic relationships the category of countability is based on. The paper analyses pluralia tantum and singularia tantum, and their different status countability-wise. It points out the possibility of semantic recategorization of nouns and thus demonstrates a dynamic quality of the category of countability. It also analyses the process of appelativisation (eponomisation of personal names, and the process of appelative deappelativisation. It shows the relationship between the category of countability and the category of definiteness, when definiteness is expressed by an adjectival aspect.

  14. Fluid-structure interaction of submerged structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, H.T.; Becker, E.B.; Taylor, L.M.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to investigate fluid-structure interaction (FSI) of submerged structures in a confined fluid-structure system. Our particular interest is the load experienced by a rigid submerged structure subject to a pressure excitation in a fluid domain bounded by a structure which is either flexible or rigid. The objective is to see whether the load experienced by the submerged structure will be influenced by its confinement conditions. This investigation is intended to provide insight into the characteristics of FSI and answer the question as to whether one can obtain FSI independent data by constructing a small scale rigid submerged structure inside a flexible fluid-structure system. (orig.)

  15. Relativistic elasticity of stationary fluid branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jay; Obers, Niels A.

    2013-02-01

    Fluid mechanics can be formulated on dynamical surfaces of arbitrary codimension embedded in a background space-time. This has been the main object of study of the blackfold approach in which the emphasis has primarily been on stationary fluid configurations. Motivated by this approach we show under certain conditions that a given stationary fluid configuration living on a dynamical surface of vanishing thickness and satisfying locally the first law of thermodynamics will behave like an elastic brane when the surface is subject to small deformations. These results, which are independent of the number of space-time dimensions and of the fluid arising from a gravitational dual, reveal the (electro)elastic character of (charged) black branes when considering extrinsic perturbations.

  16. International Conference on Mathematical Fluid Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Yukihito

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents original papers ranging from an experimental study on cavitation jets to an up-to-date mathematical analysis of the Navier-Stokes equations for free boundary problems, reflecting topics featured at the International Conference on Mathematical Fluid Dynamics, Present and Future, held 11–14 November 2014 at Waseda University in Tokyo. The contributions address subjects in one- and two-phase fluid flows, including cavitation, liquid crystal flows, plasma flows, and blood flows. Written by internationally respected experts, these papers highlight the connections between mathematical, experimental, and computational fluid dynamics. The book is aimed at a wide readership in mathematics and engineering, including researchers and graduate students interested in mathematical fluid dynamics.

  17. Simulation based engineering in fluid flow design

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, J S

    2017-01-01

    This volume offers a tool for High Performance Computing (HPC). A brief historical background on the subject is first given. Fluid Statics dealing with Pressure in fluids at rest, Buoyancy and Basics of Thermodynamics are next presented. The Finite Volume Method, the most convenient process for HPC, is explained in one-dimensional approach to diffusion with convection and pressure velocity coupling. Adiabatic, isentropic and supersonic flows in quasi-one dimensional flows in axisymmetric nozzles is considered before applying CFD solutions. Though the theory is restricted to one-dimensional cases, three-dimensional CFD examples are also given. Lastly, nozzle flows with normal shocks are presented using turbulence models. Worked examples and exercises are given in each chapter. Fluids transport thermal energy for its conversion to kinetic energy, thus playing a major role that is central to all heat engines. With the advent of rotating machinery in the 20th century, Fluid Engineering was developed in the form o...

  18. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  19. Contextual cueing based on the semantic-category membership of the environment

    OpenAIRE

    GOUJON, A

    2005-01-01

    During the analysis of a visual scene, top-down processing is constantly directing the subject's attention to the zones of interest in the scene. The contextual cueing paradigm developed by Chun and Jiang (1998) shows how contextual regularities can facilitate the search for a particular element via implicit learning mechanisms. In the proposed study, contextual cueing task with lexical displays was used. The semantic-category membership of the contextual words predicted the location of the t...

  20. Involvement and Trust in a Brand as Predictors of Loyalty Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Darsono, Licen Indahwati

    2009-01-01

    Customer loyalty is the most valuable asset for the firm. Several researchs find that customer loyalty is positively related with profitability. The purpose of this research is to investigate the power of involvement and trust in a brand (as cognitive and conative antece-dent of loyalty) to predict loyalty categories. Dick and Basu (1994) conceptualization of loyaly is used as the main reference in this research. The object of this research is facial whitening product, and the subjects are wo...

  1. Violence against adolescents: an analysis based on the categories gender and generation

    OpenAIRE

    Gessner, Rafaela; Fonseca, Rosa Maria Godoy Serpa da; Oliveira, Rebeca Nunes Guedes de

    2014-01-01

    Exploratory and descriptive study based on quantitative and qualitative methods that analyze the phenomenon of violence against adolescents based on gender and generational categories. The data source was reports of violence from the Curitiba Protection Network from 2010 to 2012 and semi-structured interviews with 16 sheltered adolescents. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20.0 and the qualitative data were subjected to content analysis. The adolescents were victims ...

  2. Normal and abnormal category-effects in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Are all categories of objects recognized in the same manner visually? Evidence from neuropsychology suggests they are not, as some brain injured patients are more impaired in recognizing natural objects than artefacts while others show the opposite impairment. In an attempt to explain category-sp...

  3. Accounting for a Functional Category: German "Drohen" "to Threaten"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Bernd; Miyashita, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    In many languages there are words that behave like lexical verbs and on the one hand and like functional categories expressing distinctions of tense, aspect, modality, etc. on the other. The grammatical status of such words is frequently controversial; while some authors treat them as belonging to one and the same grammatical category, others…

  4. Can Semi-Supervised Learning Explain Incorrect Beliefs about Categories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalish, Charles W.; Rogers, Timothy T.; Lang, Jonathan; Zhu, Xiaojin

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments with 88 college-aged participants explored how unlabeled experiences--learning episodes in which people encounter objects without information about their category membership--influence beliefs about category structure. Participants performed a simple one-dimensional categorization task in a brief supervised learning phase, then…

  5. Lifting to cluster-tilting objects in higher cluster categories

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Pin

    2008-01-01

    In this note, we consider the $d$-cluster-tilted algebras, the endomorphism algebras of $d$-cluster-tilting objects in $d$-cluster categories. We show that a tilting module over such an algebra lifts to a $d$-cluster-tilting object in this $d$-cluster category.

  6. 29 CFR 4044.11 - Priority category 1 benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... priority category 1 with respect to that participant is the present value of that annuity. ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Priority category 1 benefits. 4044.11 Section 4044.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION PLAN TERMINATIONS ALLOCATION OF...

  7. 41 CFR 105-62.101 - Security classification categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... three categories: Namely, Top Secret, Secret, or Confidential, depending on its degree of significance... provided by statute. The three classification categories are defined as follows: (a) Top Secret. Top Secret... with the utmost restraint. (b) Secret. Secret refers to that national security information or material...

  8. Towards the development of a salinity impact category for South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DRINIE

    2003-07-03

    Jul 3, 2003 ... nature from existing categories to warrant a separate salinity impact category. A conceptual method is ... compounds to the environment from all stages of a product's life- cycle are ... Marine. - Terrestrial. • Photo-oxidant formation. • Acidification .... algae. Reduced light input. Oxygen depletion near bottom.

  9. CATEGORY OF CIRCUMVENTION OF THE LAW IN RUSSIAN CIVIL LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Kamyshanskiy V. P.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the concept of "circumvention of the law" with respect to Treaty law. The author finds that the direct loan category "circumvention of the law" in Treaty law can be estimated ambiguously. The specified category which is fragmentary reflected in the active Civil codex indicates a regulatory gap

  10. The size of patent categories: USPTO 1976-2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafond, F.D.

    2014-01-01

    Categorization is an important phenomenon in science and society, and classification systems reflect the mesoscale organization of knowledge. The Yule-Simon-Naranan model, which assumes exponential growth of the number of categories and exponential growth of individual categories predicts a power

  11. What Does the Right Hemisphere Know about Phoneme Categories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolmetz, Michael; Poeppel, David; Rapp, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Innate auditory sensitivities and familiarity with the sounds of language give rise to clear influences of phonemic categories on adult perception of speech. With few exceptions, current models endorse highly left-hemisphere-lateralized mechanisms responsible for the influence of phonemic category on speech perception, based primarily on results…

  12. 40 CFR 98.360 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... this rule. (b) A manure management system (MMS) is a system that stabilizes and/or stores livestock... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Manure Management § 98.360 Definition of the source category. (a) This source category consists of livestock facilities with manure management systems that emit 25...

  13. Porcament : category management in de verse varkensvleesketen : AKK eindrapport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immink, V.M.; Heijden, van der C.H.T.M.

    2004-01-01

    Dit rapport geeft inzichten in de belangrijkste aspecten die een rol spelen bij de introductie van category management in de 'vers-vlees' categorie. Het biedt een overzicht van de leerervaringen en hoe daar in de praktijk mee omgegaan kan worden

  14. 40 CFR 98.70 - Definition of source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of source category. 98.70... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Ammonia Manufacturing § 98.70 Definition of source category...-based feedstock produced via steam reforming of a hydrocarbon. (b) Ammonia manufacturing processes in...

  15. 34 CFR 75.264 - Transfers among budget categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transfers among budget categories. 75.264 Section 75.264 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How Grants Are Made Miscellaneous § 75.264 Transfers among budget categories. A grantee may, notwithstanding any...

  16. 14 CFR 1206.701 - Categories of requesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... are representatives of the news media. NASA shall provide documents to requesters in this category for... scientific institutions; representatives of the news media; and all other requesters. The Act prescribes specific levels of fees for each of these categories: (a) Commercial use requesters. When NASA receives a...

  17. Representation of categories: metaphorical use of the container schema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, I.; Pecher, D.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we investigated whether the mental representation of the concept categories is represented by the container image schema (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980). In two experiments participants decided whether two pictures were from the same category (animal or vehicle). Pictures were

  18. 40 CFR 98.40 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of the source category. 98... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Electricity Generation § 98.40 Definition of the source... category does not include portable equipment, emergency equipment, or emergency generators, as defined in...

  19. 14 CFR 61.68 - Category III pilot authorization requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) The addition of another type of aircraft to the applicant's Category III pilot authorization. (2) To... height, as applicable, including use of a radar altimeter; (iii) Recognition of and proper reaction to... an aircraft of the same category and class, and type, as applicable, as the aircraft for which the...

  20. 5 CFR 575.104 - Ineligible categories of employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INCENTIVES Recruitment Incentives § 575.104 Ineligible categories of employees. An agency may not pay a recruitment incentive to an employee in— (a) A position to which an individual is appointed by the President... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ineligible categories of employees. 575...

  1. A review of functional imaging studies on category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2007-01-01

    such as familiarity and visual complexity. Of the most consistent activations found, none appear to be selective for natural objects or artefacts. The findings reviewed are compatible with theories of category-specificity that assume a widely distributed conceptual system not organized by category....

  2. Lexical categories in African languages: The case of adjectives word ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An endeavor to establish typical lexical categories in individual languages as well as a typology of word-classes yields contradictory conclusions. In this paper we provide evidence to substantiate the existence of an independent and indispensable open category of adjectives in the Bantu language Nyakyusa. An argument ...

  3. Space Station fluid management logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Sam M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

  4. Nonlinear transport processes and fluid dynamics: Cylindrical Couette flow of Lennard-Jones fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khayat, R.E.; Eu, B.C.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper we report on calculations of flow profiles for cylindrical Couette flow of a Lennard-Jones fluid. The flow is subjected to a temperature gradient and thermoviscous effects are taken into consideration. We apply the generalized fluid dynamic equations which are provided by the modified moment method for the Boltzmann equation reported previously. The results of calculations are in good agreement with the Monte Carlo direct simulation method by K. Nanbu [Phys. Fluids 27, 2632 (1984)] for most of Knudsen numbers for which the simulation data are available

  5. Fluid dynamics via examples and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Nazarenko, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    "This is an excellent book for fluid dynamics students. It gives a good overview of the theory through a large set of worthy example problems. After many classical textbooks on the subject, there is finally one with solved exercises. I fully appreciate the selection of topics."-Professor Miguel Onorato, Physics Department, University of Torino.

  6. Relativistic elasticity of stationary fluid branes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armas, J.; Obers, N.A.

    2013-01-01

    under certain conditions that a given stationary fluid configuration living on a dynamical surface of vanishing thickness and satisfying locally the first law of thermodynamics will behave like an elastic brane when the surface is subject to small deformations. These results, which are independent...

  7. Isogeometric shape optimization in fluid mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørtoft, Peter; Gravesen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this work is numerical shape optimization in fluid mechanics, based on isogeometric analysis. The generic goal is to design the shape of a 2-dimensional flow domain to minimize some prescribed objective while satisfying given geometric constraints. As part of the design problem...

  8. Rotating compressible fluids under strong stratification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard; Lu, Y.; Novotný, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, October (2014), s. 11-18 ISSN 1468-1218 Keywords : rotating fluid * compressible Navier-Stokes * strong stratification Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.519, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1468121814000212#

  9. Categorical perception of color: evidence from secondary category boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-rasheed, Abdulrahman Saud

    2015-01-01

    Despite a plethora of behavioral research exploring the phenomenon of color categorical perception (CP) known as “better discrimination between pair of colors stimuli from different categories and pair of colors stimuli from the same category even when the stimulus differences between the pairs of stimuli are equal”, most of the evidence for the CP of color was derived from Roman or top-to-down script readers and very rarely from right-to-left script readers in primary category. To date, no studies of color CP have been conducted on right-to-left script readers in secondary category boundary to support this theory. Three experiments have been conducted: Experiments 1 and 2 established the Arabic blue–purple secondary category boundary, and Experiment 3 tested the CP of color in the blue–purple category boundary. Sixty participants (30 men and 30 women) took part in this study. All spoke Arabic as their first language, and all were undergraduate or postgraduate students at King Saud University. Their ages ranged from 18–35 years with a mean age of 21.9 years (SD =5.2). The result indicated that for Experiments 1 and 2, it appeared that the Arabic blue–purple category boundary was approximately 10PB and it is in the same location as for English. For Experiment 3, reaction times in the between-categories condition were significantly faster than those in the within-category condition; this suggested that CP of color was shown in the Arabic’s blue–purple secondary category boundary. PMID:26648764

  10. Pleural fluid smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... into the space around the lungs, called the pleural space. As fluid drains into a collection bottle, you may cough a bit. This is because your lung re-expands to fill the space where fluid had been. This sensation lasts for a few hours after the test.

  11. Peritoneal fluid culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - peritoneal fluid ... sent to the laboratory for Gram stain and culture. The sample is checked to see if bacteria ... The peritoneal fluid culture may be negative, even if you have ... diagnosis of peritonitis is based on other factors, in addition ...

  12. Tumor interstitial fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina; Olsen, Charlotta J.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) is a proximal fluid that, in addition to the set of blood soluble phase-borne proteins, holds a subset of aberrantly externalized components, mainly proteins, released by tumor cells and tumor microenvironment through various mechanisms, which include classical...

  13. Fluid control valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, J.

    1980-01-01

    A fluid control valve is described in which it is not necessary to insert a hand or a tool into the housing to remove the valve seat. Such a valve is particularly suitable for the control of radioactive fluids since maintenance by remote control is possible. (UK)

  14. Time Independent Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collyer, A. A.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses theories underlying Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids by explaining flow curves exhibited by plastic, shear-thining, and shear-thickening fluids and Bingham plastic materials. Indicates that the exact mechanism governing shear-thickening behaviors is a problem of further study. (CC)

  15. Measurement of habituation to noise using the method of continuous judgment by category

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namba, S.; Kuwano, S.

    1988-12-01

    Using "the method of continuous judgment by category", we examined the noisiness of sounds from public loudspeakers, and habituation to them. Subjects judged the noisiness of the sound at any moment of their choice by touching one of seven numbered keys on a computer keyboard, each corresponding to a noisiness category. At the same time, the subjects were required to complete a task as carefully and rapidly as possible. The duration of "no response" to sounds was an index of habituation. Both personality factors and physical factors were analyzed. It was found that the duration of "no response" is a good index to habituation to noise, and that there were wide differences in the "no response" time of different subjects. The reactions of individual subjects in sessions 1 and 2 and the questionnaire survey were, however, consistent. This suggests that there is a group that is relatively sensitive to noise and a group that is less sensitive to noise. It was also found that subjects had difficulty in becoming accustomed to intense noise.

  16. Basketball ability testing and category for players with mental retardation: 8-month training effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciosi, Emanuele; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Baldari, Carlo; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Guidetti, Laura

    2012-06-01

    Although sport for athletes with mental retardation (MR) is achieving an important role, the literature concerning basketball tests and training is still poor. The aims of this study were to verify whether the basketball test battery could be an appropriate modality to classify the players in the Promotion (Pro) category, to assess basketball abilities before (PRE) and after (POST) an 8-month training in players with MR in relation to Competitive (Comp) and Pro categories, to analyze the variation of specific basketball abilities based on subjects' MR diagnosis. Forty-one male basketball players with MR (17 Comp and 24 Pro; age range 18-45 years; MR: 15% mild, 54% moderate, 29% severe, and 2% profound) were assessed PRE and POST training through the basketball test battery, which assessed 4 ability levels of increasing difficulty (from I to IV), each one characterized by the analysis of fundamental areas (ball handling, reception, passing, and shooting). Level I was significantly changed after the intervention period regardless of the Category, whereas shooting was affected by the interaction between Category and Intervention. The results showed significant differences between categories in the scores of individual global, level I, level II, level III, and in all fundamental areas. Individual global score in both categories significantly increased. The players of Comp significantly improved in level III, in ball handling, reception, passing, and shooting scores. The players of Pro improved significantly in level II, in ball handling, reception, and passing scores. Individual global, ability levels I-III, and fundamental area scores were negatively correlated to the MR level indicating that the players with a lower MR obtained higher ability scores. In conclusion, it was found that the basketball test battery could be useful for improving and monitoring training in both Comp and Pro players.

  17. Mathematical Theory of Compressible Viscous, and Heat Conducting Fluids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 4 (2007), s. 461-490 ISSN 0898-1221 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/05/0164 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : compressible fluid * viscous fluid * entropy Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.720, year: 2007

  18. Recognition of Odontogenic Cyst-Fluid Cholesterol Concentration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hypercholesterolaemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Serum cholesterol is usually determined to know if a subject is at a risk of heart diseases. This lipid is found in most fluids in the body including the odontogenic cyst-fluid. We investigated the concentration of cholesterol in the odontogenic ...

  19. The motion of a compressible viscous fluid around rotating body

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kračmar, S.; Nečasová, Šárka; Novotný, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2014), s. 189-208 ISSN 0430-3202 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/11/1304 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : compressible fluids * rotating fluids * Navier-Stokes equations Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11565-014-0212-5

  20. Pharmacokinetic Study of Frusemide in Healthy and Cirrhotic Indian Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Yuvrajsing Dhunnoo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver cirrhosis is associated with various complications such as ascites and fluid retention, progressing to development of hepatorenal syndrome, further compromising fluid elimination. Frusemide, a loop diuretic is normally administered to relieve fluid retentions. The kinetics of frusemide has not been conclusively reported in the three types of cirrhosis and among Indian subjects. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the kinetics of frusemide among healthy and Child’s A, B and C cirrhosis and compare with earlier data. 24 cirrhotic were selected and classified according to the Child’s-Pugh classification. 12 healthy male volunteers were screened and included in the study. 40 mg of frusemide was administered orally to both groups and blood samples were withdrawn at various intervals of time for a duration of 8 hrs. The amount of frusemide present in plasma was analyzed using HPLC. The volumes of distribution (Vd, area under curve (AUC, systemic clearance (CL, maximum concentration (Cmax, time for maximum concentration (tmax in healthy volunteers were respectively 4.56 ± 0.15 L, 2258 ± 530.7, 4.97 ± 1.67 L/h, 892 ± 49.4 ng/ml, 85.20± 7.49 mins. Corresponding values in Group A were 5.00 ± 0.31 L, 2471 ± 228.6, 6.60 ± 2.90L/h, 1021 ± 47.97 ng/ml and 88.25 V 2.12 mins; in Group B 7.73 ± 1.10 L, 4038 ± 154.7, 8.84 ± 0.45 L/h, 1448 ± 43.20 ng/ml and 120 ± 1.89 mins; In group C cirrhosis 9.69 ± 1.32 L, 4085 ± 131.75, 3.49 ± 1.40 L/h, 1551± 59.02 ng/ml and 185.7 ± 2.68 mins respectively. Significant differences at 1% and 5% were observed among the cirrhotic groups and between healthy v/s cirrhotic patients. Data from current study do not correlate with earlier reports, carried mainly in Western population, due to possibly differences in instrumentation, etc but a possible genetic interplay should not be ruled out. Data from cirrhotic patients could not be effectively compared with earlier studies as kinetics of frusemide

  1. Combining features from ERP components in single-trial EEG for discriminating four-category visual objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changming; Xiong, Shi; Hu, Xiaoping; Yao, Li; Zhang, Jiacai

    2012-10-01

    Categorization of images containing visual objects can be successfully recognized using single-trial electroencephalograph (EEG) measured when subjects view images. Previous studies have shown that task-related information contained in event-related potential (ERP) components could discriminate two or three categories of object images. In this study, we investigated whether four categories of objects (human faces, buildings, cats and cars) could be mutually discriminated using single-trial EEG data. Here, the EEG waveforms acquired while subjects were viewing four categories of object images were segmented into several ERP components (P1, N1, P2a and P2b), and then Fisher linear discriminant analysis (Fisher-LDA) was used to classify EEG features extracted from ERP components. Firstly, we compared the classification results using features from single ERP components, and identified that the N1 component achieved the highest classification accuracies. Secondly, we discriminated four categories of objects using combining features from multiple ERP components, and showed that combination of ERP components improved four-category classification accuracies by utilizing the complementarity of discriminative information in ERP components. These findings confirmed that four categories of object images could be discriminated with single-trial EEG and could direct us to select effective EEG features for classifying visual objects.

  2. Heat Transfer in Complex Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehrdad Massoudi

    2012-01-01

    fluids show Newtonian (linear) behavior for a given range of parameters or geometries; there are many empirical or semi-empirical constitutive equations suggested for these fluids. There have also been many non-linear constitutive relations which have been derived based on the techniques of continuum mechanics. The non-linearities oftentimes appear due to higher gradient terms or time derivatives. When thermal and or chemical effects are also important, the (coupled) momentum and energy equations can give rise to a variety of interesting problems, such as instability, for example the phenomenon of double-diffusive convection in a fluid layer. In Conclusion, we have studied the flow of a compressible (density gradient type) non-linear fluid down an inclined plane, subject to radiation boundary condition. The heat transfer is also considered where a source term, similar to the Arrhenius type reaction, is included. The non-dimensional forms of the equations are solved numerically and the competing effects of conduction, dissipation, heat generation and radiation are discussed. It is observed that the velocity increases rapidly in the region near the inclined surface and is slower in the region near the free surface. Since R{sub 7} is a measure of the heat generation due to chemical reaction, when the reaction is frozen (R{sub 7}=0.0) the temperature distributions would depend only on R{sub 1}, and R{sub 2}, representing the effects of the pressure force developed in the material due to the distribution, R{sub 3} and R{sub 4} viscous dissipation, R{sub 5} the normal stress coefficient, R{sub 6} the measure of the emissivity of the particles to the thermal conductivity, etc. When the flow is not frozen (RP{sub 7} > 0) the temperature inside the flow domain is much higher than those at the inclined and free surfaces. As a result, heat is transferred away from the flow toward both the inclined surface and the free surface with a rate that increases as R{sub 7} increases. For a

  3. The Role of Corticostriatal Systems in Speech Category Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Han-Gyol; Maddox, W Todd; Mumford, Jeanette A; Chandrasekaran, Bharath

    2016-04-01

    One of the most difficult category learning problems for humans is learning nonnative speech categories. While feedback-based category training can enhance speech learning, the mechanisms underlying these benefits are unclear. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated neural and computational mechanisms underlying feedback-dependent speech category learning in adults. Positive feedback activated a large corticostriatal network including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal lobule, middle temporal gyrus, caudate, putamen, and the ventral striatum. Successful learning was contingent upon the activity of domain-general category learning systems: the fast-learning reflective system, involving the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex that develops and tests explicit rules based on the feedback content, and the slow-learning reflexive system, involving the putamen in which the stimuli are implicitly associated with category responses based on the reward value in feedback. Computational modeling of response strategies revealed significant use of reflective strategies early in training and greater use of reflexive strategies later in training. Reflexive strategy use was associated with increased activation in the putamen. Our results demonstrate a critical role for the reflexive corticostriatal learning system as a function of response strategy and proficiency during speech category learning. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Categories of fruit and vegetables: Attributes and definitions in Serbian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilparić Branislava M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the results of an empirical investigation performed by E. Rosch and K. Mervis (1975, the prototype structures of the categories FRUIT and VEGETABLES, the two superordinate and neighbouring categories with no clear-cut boundaries between them, are formed by family resemblances. Each category has only two attributes ('(part of a plant' and 'edible' which are common to all its members and yet not sufficient to define the category and separate it from other categories of edible (parts of plants. Through the analysis and comparison of a number of definitions for FRUIT and VEGETABLES (obtained in a questionnaire-based survey from a hundred native speakers of Serbian; taken from Lexicography and Conceptual Analysis by A. Wierzbicka; taken from five general dictionaries of the Serbian language, the author of this paper attempts to determine the group of attributes that could play a key role in differentiating the observed categories and to search for the most appropriate way to define the two categories in Serbian which would hopefully be acceptable to both modern (prototype semantics and practical lexicography.

  5. Texture-modified food and fluids in dementia and residential aged care facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Painter V

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Virginia Painter,1 David G Le Couteur,1–3 Louise M Waite1–3 1Aged and Chronic Care Department, Concord Repatriation General Hospital, Concord, NSW, Australia; 2Ageing and Alzheimer’s Institute, Concord Repatriation General Hospital, Concord, NSW, Australia; 3Centre for Education and Research on Ageing, University of Sydney, Concord, NSW, Australia Introduction: Dysphagia is common in people living with dementia and associated with increased risk of aspiration pneumonia, dehydration, malnutrition, and death. Treatment options are limited and the use of texture-modified food and fluids (TMF is a widespread clinical practice. This review aimed to evaluate the evidence for TMF in dementia.Methods: A literature search using terms “dysphagia,” “texture-modified food and fluids,” “dementia,” and “aged care” was performed by using three electronic databases from 1990 to March 2017. Studies were assessed for suitability, then reviewed with data extracted, and grouped by categories of outcome measures.Results: A total of 3,722 publications were identified, and 22 studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies were heterogeneous in design and methodology. There were no publications examining dementia exclusively; however, many subjects with dementia were included in studies of residential aged care facilities. TMF reduced the risk of aspiration seen on videofluoroscopy but not clinical aspiration and pneumonia. TMF was associated with lower daily energy and fluid intake and variable adherence.Conclusion: There is a lack of evidence for people living with dementia and in residential care facilities that TMF improves clinical outcomes such as aspiration pneumonia, nutrition, hydration, morbidity, and mortality. Adverse effects including poorer energy and fluid intake were identified. Keywords: modified diet, dysphagia, aspiration, aged care, nursing homes, dehydration, nutrition

  6. The fluid linguistic zone of causalities: areas of contrast and overlap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Vinicius Lopes Coneglian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fluid linguistic zone of causalities: areas of contrast and overlap Abstract: This article is an investigation of the fluid linguistic adverbial zone of causalities. By conjugating functional and cognitive premisses in order to analyze language in use, we analyze the adverbial relations of cause, condition and concession aiming at identifying the semantic and pragmatic parameters through which we observe areas of contrast and overlap between these categories. The treatment given these adverbial relations presupposes that they be considered categories which present more prototypical members, that is, exemplar members, and more peripheral members, that may be allocated in areas of transition between categories. Ultimately, we argue in favor of a view a non-rigid grammatical categories, in this case, the category of adverbial relations, giving continuity to a trend of studies in functional and cognitive linguistics such as Dancygier and Sweetser (2005 and Neves (2010, 2012.

  7. Probability based load combinations for design of category I structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, M.; Hwang, H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses a reliability analysis method and a procedure for developing the load combination design criteria for category I structures. For safety evaluation of category I concrete structures under various static and dynamic loads, a probability-based reliability analysis method has been developed. This reliability analysis method is also used as a tool for determining the load factors for design of category I structures. In this paper, the load combinations for design of concrete containments, corresponding to a target limit state probability of 1.0 x 10 -6 in 4 years, are described. A comparison of containments designed using the ASME code and the proposed design criteria is also presented

  8. The Category of Time in English, Russian and French Phraseology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Makleeva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we make an attempt to analyze linguistic and cultural descriptions of phraseological units of English, Russian and French reflecting the category of time. In the study of each language about 200 of phraseological units associated with the category of time were taken, which were divided into 5 groups representing different phraseo-semantic concepts. We have carried out a semantic analysis of the data of phraseological units identified by national-cultural peculiarities of expression of time category. The results can be used in the practice of teaching English, Russian and French as foreign languages, in courses on linguistics, and are also taken into account compiling dictionaries.

  9. Solving the Selective Multi-Category Parallel-Servicing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Range, Troels Martin; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    In this paper we present a new scheduling problem and describe a shortest path based heuristic as well as a dynamic programming based exact optimization algorithm to solve it. The Selective Multi-Category Parallel-Servicing Problem (SMCPSP) arises when a set of jobs has to be scheduled on a server...... (machine) with limited capacity. Each job requests service in a prespecified time window and belongs to a certain category. Jobs may be serviced partially, incurring a penalty; however, only jobs of the same category can be processed simultaneously. One must identify the best subset of jobs to process...

  10. Solving the selective multi-category parallel-servicing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Range, Troels Martin; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new scheduling problem and describe a shortest path-based heuristic as well as a dynamic programming-based exact optimization algorithm to solve it. The selective multi-category parallel-servicing problem arises when a set of jobs has to be scheduled on a server (machine......) with limited capacity. Each job requests service in a prespecified time window and belongs to a certain category. Jobs may be serviced partially, incurring a penalty; however, only jobs of the same category can be processed simultaneously. One must identify the best subset of jobs to process in each time...

  11. Client contribution in negotiations on employability – categories revised?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskelinen, L.; Olesen, Søren Peter; Caswell, D.

    2010-01-01

    worker–client talk: how the category unemployed is shaped and ‘translated’ when the client negotiates her situation with the social worker. Two types of category revisions are identified. First, the employability of the client, rather than her unemployment situation, is the issue under negotiation......In this article, we explore how the institutional category ‘unemployed’ is specified in everyday practice when implementing an active employment policy. We illustrate the process of categorisation as an aspect of the in situ positioning and self-representation of the client by examining one social...

  12. Basis for category B designation for K basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    This Supporting Document analyzes the various fissile material configurations in the 105-K East and K West fuel storage basins to determine the proper firefighting category. Firefighting categories are assigned to fissionable material facilities to provide guidance to firefighters in the allowable uses of water and other extinguishing materials to prevent inadvertent rearrangement of fissile materials or addition of neutron moderators which could lead to a criticality. This document concludes the appropriate category is B, which does not impose any restrictions on the use of water for firefighting purposes

  13. Fluid sampling tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A.R.; Johnston, R.G.; Martinez, R.K.

    1999-05-25

    A fluid sampling tool is described for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall. 6 figs.

  14. Fluid sampling tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Anthony R.; Johnston, Roger G.; Martinez, Ronald K.

    1999-05-25

    A fluid sampling tool for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall.

  15. FRACTURING FLUID CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subhash Shah

    2000-08-01

    Hydraulic fracturing technology has been successfully applied for well stimulation of low and high permeability reservoirs for numerous years. Treatment optimization and improved economics have always been the key to the success and it is more so when the reservoirs under consideration are marginal. Fluids are widely used for the stimulation of wells. The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF) has been established to provide the accurate prediction of the behavior of complex fracturing fluids under downhole conditions. The primary focus of the facility is to provide valuable insight into the various mechanisms that govern the flow of fracturing fluids and slurries through hydraulically created fractures. During the time between September 30, 1992, and March 31, 2000, the research efforts were devoted to the areas of fluid rheology, proppant transport, proppant flowback, dynamic fluid loss, perforation pressure losses, and frictional pressure losses. In this regard, a unique above-the-ground fracture simulator was designed and constructed at the FFCF, labeled ''The High Pressure Simulator'' (HPS). The FFCF is now available to industry for characterizing and understanding the behavior of complex fluid systems. To better reflect and encompass the broad spectrum of the petroleum industry, the FFCF now operates under a new name of ''The Well Construction Technology Center'' (WCTC). This report documents the summary of the activities performed during 1992-2000 at the FFCF.

  16. Thermodynamics of Fluid Polyamorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail A. Anisimov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluid polyamorphism is the existence of different condensed amorphous states in a single-component fluid. It is either found or predicted, usually at extreme conditions, for a broad group of very different substances, including helium, carbon, silicon, phosphorous, sulfur, tellurium, cerium, hydrogen, and tin tetraiodide. This phenomenon is also hypothesized for metastable and deeply supercooled water, presumably located a few degrees below the experimental limit of homogeneous ice formation. We present a generic phenomenological approach to describe polyamorphism in a single-component fluid, which is completely independent of the molecular origin of the phenomenon. We show that fluid polyamorphism may occur either in the presence or in the absence of fluid phase separation depending on the symmetry of the order parameter. In the latter case, it is associated with a second-order transition, such as in liquid helium or liquid sulfur. To specify the phenomenology, we consider a fluid with thermodynamic equilibrium between two distinct interconvertible states or molecular structures. A fundamental signature of this concept is the identification of the equilibrium fraction of molecules involved in each of these alternative states. However, the existence of the alternative structures may result in polyamorphic fluid phase separation only if mixing of these structures is not ideal. The two-state thermodynamics unifies all the debated scenarios of fluid polyamorphism in different areas of condensed-matter physics, with or without phase separation, and even goes beyond the phenomenon of polyamorphism by generically describing the anomalous properties of fluids exhibiting interconversion of alternative molecular states.

  17. Fluid Dynamics for Physicists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, T. E.

    1995-08-01

    This textbook provides an accessible and comprehensive account of fluid dynamics that emphasizes fundamental physical principles and stresses connections with other branches of physics. Beginning with a basic introduction, the book goes on to cover many topics not typically treated in texts, such as compressible flow and shock waves, sound attenuation and bulk viscosity, solitary waves and ship waves, thermal convection, instabilities, turbulence, and the behavior of anisotropic, non-Newtonian and quantum fluids. Undergraduate or graduate students in physics or engineering who are taking courses in fluid dynamics will find this book invaluable.

  18. Thermal Fluid Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Byeong Ju

    1984-01-01

    This book is made up of 5 chapters. They are fluid mechanics, fluid machines, Industrial thermodynamics, steam boiler and steam turbine. It introduces hydrostatics, basic theory of fluid movement and law of momentum. It also deals with centrifugal pump, axial flow pump, general hydraulic turbine, and all phenomena happening in the pump. It covers the law of thermodynamics, perfect gas, properties of steam, and flow of gas and steam and water tube boiler. Lastly it explains basic format, theory, loss and performance as well as principle part of steam turbine.

  19. Norma categorial para el español de Bogotá, Colombia Category norm for the Spanish spoken in Bogota, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albeiro Migue Ángel Ramírez Sarmiento

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo presentamos los resultados de un estudio elaborado en Bogotá con 210 estudiantes universitarios de 5 instituciones con diferentes características sociodemográficas, con el fin de establecer las normas categoriales léxicas. Se utilizaron las 56 categorías léxico-semánticas usadas en el clásico estudio de Battig y Motague (1969 y se recogieron más de 7800 palabras que fueron organizadas por rango y moda. En la revisión bibliográfica realizada no se encontraron trabajos de esta naturaleza para el español colombiano (o latinoamericano, y se espera que sus resultados sean usados en protocolos para el campo de la terapia del lenguaje y los estudios psicolingüísticos. Los datos recogidos fueron comparados con uno de los estudios de norma categorial realizados para el español ibérico.In this article, we present the results of a study carried out in Bogotá, Colombia with 210 university students from five different universities pertaining to diverse socio-demographic groups. The objective of the study was to establish the lexical category norms. 56 lexical-semantic categories used by Battig and Montague (1969 in their classic study were employed. More than 7800 words were collected and organized by range and mode. There are no other studies on this subject for Colombian or Latin American Spanish. We hope that the results presented here will be used both in psycholinguistic and language therapy studies. The collected data were compared to one of the category norm studies made for European Spanish.

  20. The effect of midazolam on implicit and explicit memory in category exemplar production and category cued recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Jason; Passannante, Anthony; Hirshman, Elliot

    2004-03-01

    Transfer-appropriate processing theory (Roediger, Weldon, & Challis, 1989) proposes that dissociations between performance on explicit and implicit memory tests arise because these tests often rely on different types of information processing (e.g., perceptual processing vs conceptual processing). This perspective predicts that implicit and explicit memory tasks that rely primarily on conceptual processing should show comparable results, not dissociations. Numerous studies have demonstrated such similarities. It is, however, possible that these results arise from explicit memory contamination of performance on implicit memory tasks. To address this issue, an experiment was conducted in which participants were administered the sedative midazolam prior to study. Midazolam is known to create a temporary, but dense, period of anterograde amnesia. The effects of blocking stimulus materials by semantic category at study and generation at study were investigated on category exemplar production and category-cued recall. The results of this study demonstrated a dissociation of the effects of midazolam on category exemplar production and category-cued recall. Specifically, midazolam reduced the effect of blocking stimulus materials in category-cued recall, but not in category exemplar production. The differential effect of midazolam on explicit and implicit memory is at odds with transfer-appropriate processing theory and suggests that theories of memory must distinguish the roles of different types of conceptual processing on implicit and explicit memory tests.

  1. Reconceptualizing 'extremism' and 'moderation': from categories of analysis to categories of practice in the construction of collective identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Nick; Kahani-Hopkins, Vered

    2009-03-01

    Much psychological research employs the categories of extremism and moderation as categories of analysis (e.g. to identify the psychological bases for, and consequences of, holding certain positions). This paper argues these categorizations inevitably reflect one's values and taken-for-granted assumptions about social reality and that their use as analytic categories limits our ability to explore what is really important: social actors' own constructions of social reality. In turn we argue that if we are to focus on this latter, there may be merit in exploring how social actors themselves use the categories of moderation and extremism to construct their own terms of reference. That is we propose to re-conceptualize the categories of moderation and extremism as categories of practice rather than analysis. The utility of this approach is illustrated with qualitative data. We argue that these data illustrate the importance of respecting social actors' own constructions of social reality (rather than imposing our own). Moreover, we argue that categories of moderation and extremism may be employed by social actors in diverse ways to construct different terms of reference and so recruit support for different identity-related projects.

  2. XXII Fluid Mechanics Conference (KKMP2016)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    to aerodynamics, atmospheric science, bio-fluids, combustion and reacting flows, computational fluid dynamics, experimental fluid mechanics, flow machinery, general fluid dynamics, hydromechanics, heat and fluid flow, measurement techniques, micro- and nano-flow, multi-phase flow, non-Newtonian fluids, rotating and stratified flows and turbulence. Within the general subjects of this conference, the Professor Janusz W. Eisner's Competition for the best fluid mechanics paper presented during the Conference is organized. Authors holding a M.Sc. or a Ph.D. degree and who are not older than 35 may enter the Competition. Authors with a Ph.D. degree must present individual papers; authors with a M.Sc. degree may present papers with their supervisors as coauthors, including original results of experimental, numerical or analytic research. Six state-of-the-art keynote papers will be delivered by world leading experts. All contributed papers were peer reviewed. Recommendations were received from the Scientific Committee of the Conference; reviewers were from all Polish scientific-academic centres that are involved in fluid mechanics. Accordingly, of the 67 eligible extended abstracts submitted, after a review process by the Scientific Committee, all papers were selected for presentation at XXII Fluid Mechanics Conference. We hope that this publication will be used not only as a guide through the conference's programme but also help in the future to access people and topics in fluid mechanics research. (paper)

  3. COGNITIVE-COMMUNICATIVE PERSONALITY CATEGORY IN THE KAZAKH LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orynay Sagingalievna Zhubaeva

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to reveal the character of anthropocentricity of grammatical categories in their meaning and functioning. Materials and methods. According to the research objectives and goals, the methods used were as follows: the descriptive method, general scientific methods of analysis and synthesis, cognitive analysis, method of experiment, contextual analysis, structural-semantic analysis, transformation technique, comparative analysis. Results. For the first time in the Kazakh linguistics the substantial aspect of grammatical categories is characterized being a result of both conceptualization and categorization processes. Based on generalization and the comparative analysis of nature and forms of the human factor reflection in the Kazakh grammatical categories there has been revealed the national-cultural specific character of grammatical categories. Practical implications. The research materials can be used in theoretical courses onf grammar and linguistics, as well as in the development of special courses on cognitive linguistics, cognitive grammar, etc.

  4. Category 3 threshold quantities for hazard categorization of nonreactor facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandigo, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    This document provides the information necessary to determine Hazard Category 3 threshold quantities for those isotopes of interest not listed in WHC-CM-4-46, Section 4, Table 1.''Threshold Quantities.''

  5. Remanufacture Systems for Category 1 and 2 Marine Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA maintains a list of remanufacture systems, or “kits”, certified for use with Category 1 and 2 marine diesel engines according to the provisions of 40 CFR Part 1042, Subpart I, and is periodically updated.

  6. 77 FR 20281 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... derived from imported oil and natural gas. When USDA designates by rulemaking a product category (a...: Vehicular Products--re-refined lubricating oils. USDA is requesting that manufacturers of these qualifying...

  7. LexGram - a practical categorial grammar formalism -

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, Esther

    1995-01-01

    We present the LexGram system, an amalgam of (Lambek) categorial grammar and Head Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG), and show that the grammar formalism it implements is a well-structured and useful tool for actual grammar development.

  8. Goguen categories a categorical approach to l-fuzzy relations

    CERN Document Server

    Winter, Michael; Mundici, Daniele

    2007-01-01

    Goguen categories extend the relational calculus and its categorical formalization to the fuzzy world. Starting from the fundamental concepts of sets, binary relations and lattices this book introduces several categorical formulations of an abstract theory of relations such as allegories, Dedekind categories and related structures. It is shown that neither theory is sufficiently rich to describe basic operations on fuzzy relations. The book then introduces Goguen categories and provides a comprehensive study of these structures including their representation theory, and the definability of norm-based operations. The power of the theory is demonstrated by a comprehensive example. A certain Goguen category is used to specify and to develop a fuzzy controller. Based on its abstract description as well as certain desirable properties and their formal proofs, a verified controller is derived without compromising the - sometimes - intuitive choice of norm-based operations by fuzzy engineers.

  9. Correlation of Persistence, Initiative and Career Anchors Categories of Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I A Novikova

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the results of comparative empirical study of persistence, initiative and Career Anchors categories of the students on the basis of the systemic-functional approach.

  10. Monoidal categories and the Gerstenhaber bracket in Hochschild cohomology

    CERN Document Server

    Hermann, Reiner

    2016-01-01

    In this monograph, the author extends S. Schwede's exact sequence interpretation of the Gerstenhaber bracket in Hochschild cohomology to certain exact and monoidal categories. Therefore the author establishes an explicit description of an isomorphism by A. Neeman and V. Retakh, which links \\mathrm{Ext}-groups with fundamental groups of categories of extensions and relies on expressing the fundamental group of a (small) category by means of the associated Quillen groupoid. As a main result, the author shows that his construction behaves well with respect to structure preserving functors between exact monoidal categories. The author uses his main result to conclude, that the graded Lie bracket in Hochschild cohomology is an invariant under Morita equivalence. For quasi-triangular bialgebras, he further determines a significant part of the Lie bracket's kernel, and thereby proves a conjecture by L. Menichi. Along the way, the author introduces n-extension closed and entirely extension closed subcategories of abe...

  11. Online Consumer Reviews: The Moderating Effect of Product Category

    OpenAIRE

    Bjering, Einar; Havro, Lars Jaakko

    2014-01-01

    This paper tests a previously proposed model for assessing consumer generated online reviews effect on sales, the review impact continuum. Product category is found to play an important role as a moderating factor of several properties concerning user generated online reviews - including its impact on sales. The authors introduce a novel method for product category classification using natural language processing (NLP), and by applying this method show that reviews are more influential for su...

  12. Calabi-Yau structures on categories of matrix factorizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shklyarov, Dmytro

    2017-09-01

    Using tools of complex geometry, we construct explicit proper Calabi-Yau structures, that is, non-degenerate cyclic cocycles on differential graded categories of matrix factorizations of regular functions with isolated critical points. The formulas involve the Kapustin-Li trace and its higher corrections. From the physics perspective, our result yields explicit 'off-shell' models for categories of topological D-branes in B-twisted Landau-Ginzburg models.

  13. Tangent mappings and convergent sequences in the lipschitz category

    OpenAIRE

    Hyman, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    The standard definition of a derivative in linear spaces is extended to a definition of tangency in the Lipschitz category, without any assumed algebraic structure on the underlying spaces.  Tangency is characterized topologically, that is, solely in terms of continuity, without using any algebraic concepts or other analytical concepts. The mappings in the Lipschitz category are characterized as the class of functions that preserve topologically convergent sequences of finite variation.

  14. Converging modalities ground abstract categories: the case of politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Ana Rita; Garrido, Margarida V; Semin, Gün R

    2013-01-01

    Three studies are reported examining the grounding of abstract concepts across two modalities (visual and auditory) and their symbolic representation. A comparison of the outcomes across these studies reveals that the symbolic representation of political concepts and their visual and auditory modalities is convergent. In other words, the spatial relationships between specific instances of the political categories are highly overlapping across the symbolic, visual and auditory modalities. These findings suggest that abstract categories display redundancy across modal and amodal representations, and are multimodal.

  15. Windshield washer fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tests Chest x-ray CT (computerized tomography, or advanced imaging) scan EKG (electrocardiogram, or heart tracing) Fluids ... Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ...

  16. COUPLED CHEMOTAXIS FLUID MODEL

    KAUST Repository

    LORZ, ALEXANDER

    2010-01-01

    We consider a model system for the collective behavior of oxygen-driven swimming bacteria in an aquatic fluid. In certain parameter regimes, such suspensions of bacteria feature large-scale convection patterns as a result of the hydrodynamic

  17. Phoresis in fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Howard

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents a unified theory of phoretic phenomena in single-component fluids. Simple formulas are given for the phoretic velocities of small inert force-free non-Brownian particles migrating through otherwise quiescent single-component gases and liquids and animated by a gradient in the fluid's temperature (thermophoresis), pressure (barophoresis), density (pycnophoresis), or any combination thereof. The ansatz builds upon a recent paper [Phys. Rev. E 84, 046309 (2011)] concerned with slip of the fluid's mass velocity at solid surfaces--that is, with phenomena arising from violations of the classical no-slip fluid-mechanical boundary condition. Experimental and other data are cited in support of the phoretic model developed herein.

  18. Peritoneal Fluid Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Get Tested? To help diagnose the cause of peritonitis, an inflammation of the membrane lining the abdomen, ... fever and your healthcare practitioner suspects you have peritonitis or ascites Sample Required? A peritoneal fluid sample ...

  19. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  20. A Bayesian Model of Category-Specific Emotional Brain Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Tor D.; Kang, Jian; Johnson, Timothy D.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Satpute, Ajay B.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2015-01-01

    Understanding emotion is critical for a science of healthy and disordered brain function, but the neurophysiological basis of emotional experience is still poorly understood. We analyzed human brain activity patterns from 148 studies of emotion categories (2159 total participants) using a novel hierarchical Bayesian model. The model allowed us to classify which of five categories—fear, anger, disgust, sadness, or happiness—is engaged by a study with 66% accuracy (43-86% across categories). Analyses of the activity patterns encoded in the model revealed that each emotion category is associated with unique, prototypical patterns of activity across multiple brain systems including the cortex, thalamus, amygdala, and other structures. The results indicate that emotion categories are not contained within any one region or system, but are represented as configurations across multiple brain networks. The model provides a precise summary of the prototypical patterns for each emotion category, and demonstrates that a sufficient characterization of emotion categories relies on (a) differential patterns of involvement in neocortical systems that differ between humans and other species, and (b) distinctive patterns of cortical-subcortical interactions. Thus, these findings are incompatible with several contemporary theories of emotion, including those that emphasize emotion-dedicated brain systems and those that propose emotion is localized primarily in subcortical activity. They are consistent with componential and constructionist views, which propose that emotions are differentiated by a combination of perceptual, mnemonic, prospective, and motivational elements. Such brain-based models of emotion provide a foundation for new translational and clinical approaches. PMID:25853490

  1. Category learning in the color-word contingency learning paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, James R; Augustinova, Maria; De Houwer, Jan

    2018-04-01

    In the typical color-word contingency learning paradigm, participants respond to the print color of words where each word is presented most often in one color. Learning is indicated by faster and more accurate responses when a word is presented in its usual color, relative to another color. To eliminate the possibility that this effect is driven exclusively by the familiarity of item-specific word-color pairings, we examine whether contingency learning effects can be observed also when colors are related to categories of words rather than to individual words. To this end, the reported experiments used three categories of words (animals, verbs, and professions) that were each predictive of one color. Importantly, each individual word was presented only once, thus eliminating individual color-word contingencies. Nevertheless, for the first time, a category-based contingency effect was observed, with faster and more accurate responses when a category item was presented in the color in which most of the other items of that category were presented. This finding helps to constrain episodic learning models and sets the stage for new research on category-based contingency learning.

  2. Fluid flow control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rion, Jacky.

    1982-01-01

    Fluid flow control system featuring a series of grids placed perpendicular to the fluid flow direction, characterized by the fact that it is formed of a stack of identical and continuous grids, each of which consists of identical meshes forming a flat lattice. The said meshes are offset from one grid to the next. This system applies in particular to flow control of the coolant flowing at the foot of an assembly of a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor [fr

  3. Amniotic fluid inflammatory cytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Larsen, Nanna; Grove, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze cytokine profiles in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of children developing autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and controls, adjusting for maternal autoimmune disorders and maternal infections during pregnancy.......The aim of the study was to analyze cytokine profiles in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of children developing autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and controls, adjusting for maternal autoimmune disorders and maternal infections during pregnancy....

  4. [Diagnosis: synovial fluid analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo Vallejo, Francisco Javier; Giner Ruiz, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Synovial fluid analysis in rheumatological diseases allows a more accurate diagnosis in some entities, mainly infectious and microcrystalline arthritis. Examination of synovial fluid in patients with osteoarthritis is useful if a differential diagnosis will be performed with other processes and to distinguish between inflammatory and non-inflammatory forms. Joint aspiration is a diagnostic and sometimes therapeutic procedure that is available to primary care physicians. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  5. Supercritical fluid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigdergauz, M. S.; Lobachev, A. L.; Lobacheva, I. V.; Platonov, I. A.

    1992-03-01

    The characteristic features of supercritical fluid chromatography (SCFC) are examined and there is a brief historical note concerning the development of the method. Information concerning the use of supercritical fluid chromatography in the analysis of objects of different nature is presented in the form of a table. The roles of the mobile and stationary phases in the separation process and the characteristic features of the apparatus and of the use of the method in physicochemical research are discussed. The bibliography includes 364 references.

  6. Fullerol ionic fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Fernandes, Nikhil

    2010-01-01

    We report for the first time an ionic fluid based on hydroxylated fullerenes (fullerols). The ionic fluid was synthesized by neutralizing the fully protonated fullerol with an amine terminated polyethylene/polypropylene oxide oligomer (Jeffamine®). The ionic fluid was compared to a control synthesized by mixing the partially protonated form (sodium form) of the fullerols with the same oligomeric amine in the same ratio as in the ionic fluids (20 wt% fullerol). In the fullerol fluid the ionic bonding significantly perturbs the thermal transitions and melting/crystallization behavior of the amine. In contrast, both the normalized heat of fusion and crystallization of the amine in the control are similar to those of the neat amine consistent with a physical mixture of the fullerols/amine with minimal interactions. In addition to differences in thermal behavior, the fullerol ionic fluid exhibits a complex viscoelastic behavior intermediate between the neat Jeffamine® (liquid-like) and the control (solid-like). © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  7. Thermostating highly confined fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Stefano; Todd, B D; Searles, Debra J

    2010-06-28

    In this work we show how different use of thermostating devices and modeling of walls influence the mechanical and dynamical properties of confined nanofluids. We consider a two dimensional fluid undergoing Couette flow using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. Because the system is highly inhomogeneous, the density shows strong fluctuations across the channel. We compare the dynamics produced by applying a thermostating device directly to the fluid with that obtained when the wall is thermostated, considering also the effects of using rigid walls. This comparison involves an analysis of the chaoticity of the fluid and evaluation of mechanical properties across the channel. We look at two thermostating devices with either rigid or vibrating atomic walls and compare them with a system only thermostated by conduction through vibrating atomic walls. Sensitive changes are observed in the xy component of the pressure tensor, streaming velocity, and density across the pore and the Lyapunov localization of the fluid. We also find that the fluid slip can be significantly reduced by rigid walls. Our results suggest caution in interpreting the results of systems in which fluid atoms are thermostated and/or wall atoms are constrained to be rigid, such as, for example, water inside carbon nanotubes.

  8. Digest of current research in the electric-utility industry. Volume 1. Categories 1-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, K.; Bates, P.; Berkey, R.; Gray, K.; Kindt, C.; O'Gara, M.; Pakulski, R.

    1980-01-01

    The major objective of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is to be a prime source of information of R and D activities in the field of electric energy. Therefore, EPRI developed the Research and Development Information System (RDIS) which is a computerized data base of research projects sponsored by EPRI and by individual electric utilities throughout the US. The heart of RDIS is a computerized on-line data base containing approximately 7200 records of R and D projects. The data base is organized into 13 major categories: General R and D support, hydroelectric power, nuclear power, fossil fuels, advanced power systems, transmission, distribution, stations and substations, consumer utilization, economics, personnel, area development, and environmental assessment. This issue of the Digest of Current Research, issued annually and published in two volumes, represents the data base as of August 1980. This volume covers categories 1 through 5. Subject and corporate indexes are included

  9. Digest of current research in the electric-utility industry. Volume 2. Categories 6-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, K.; Bates, P.; Berkey, R.; Gray, K.; Kindt, C.; O'Gara, M.; Pakulski, R.

    1980-01-01

    The major objective of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is to be a prime source of information of R and D activities in the field of electric energy. Therefore, EPRI developed the Research and Development Information System (RDIS) which is a computerized data base of research projects sponsored by EPRI and by individual electric utilities throughout the US. The heart of RDIS is a computerized on-line data base containing approximately 7200 records of R and D projects. The data base is organized into 13 major categories: General R and D Support, hydroelectric power, nuclear power, fossil fuels, advanced power systems, transmission, distribution, stations and substations, consumer utilization, economics, personnel, area development, and environmental assessment. This issue of the Digest of Current Research, issued annually and published in two volumes represents the data base as of August 1980. This volume covers categories 6 through 13. Subject and corporate indexes are included

  10. Inverted emulsion drilling fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ana, I; Astanei, E; Mireanu, G; Orosz, M; Popescu, F; Vasile, I

    1979-07-28

    The subject of the invention is the method of obtaining inverted drilling fluid which is required during stripping of a productive bed and ending of a well where difficulties develop during drilling of the argillaceous rock. Example: in a reservoir with capacity 30 m/sup 3/, 10 m/sup 3/ of diesel fuel are added. A total of 1000 kg of emulsifier are added to the diesel fuel consisting of: 85 mass% of a mixture of sodium and potassium salts of fatty acids, residues of fatty acids or naphthene acids with high molecular weight taken in proportion of 10:90; 5 mass% of a mixture of polymers with hydrophilic-hydrophobic properties obtained by mixing 75 mass% of polyethylene oxide with molecular weight 10,000 and 25 mass% of propylene oxide with molecular weight 15,000, and 10 mass% of salt on alkaline earth metal (preferably calcium chloride). The mixture is mixed into complete dissolving. Then 1200 kg of filtering accelerator are added obtained from concentrated sulfuric acid serving for sulfur oxidation, asphalt substance with softening temperature 85-104/sup 0/C and fatty acids C/sub 10/-C/sub 20/ taken in a proportion of 23.70 and 7 mass% The mixture obtained in this manner is neutralized by adding calcium hydroxide and equal quantities of alumina and activated bentonite clay in a concentration of 1-10 mass%, more preferably 5 mass% in relation to the initial mixture. The obtained mass is mixed until complete dispersion, after which 200 kg of organophilic clay are added obtained from bentonite of the type montmorillonite of sodium by processing with derivate obtained from amine of the type of the quaternary base of ammonium salt, and agent of hydrophobization of the type of fatty alcohols, fatty acids, nonion surfactants of the block-polymer type. After complete dispersion of the organophilic clay, 100 kg of stabilizer of emulsion of the surfactant type was added with molecular weight of 250010,000, more preferably 5000, in concentration of 0.1-5.0 mass%, more

  11. Numerical study of shear thickening fluid with discrete particles embedded in a base fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Zhu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Shear Thickening Fluid (STF is a dilatant material, which displays non-Newtonian characteristics in its unique ability to transit from a low viscosity fluid to a high viscosity fluid. The research performed investigates the STF behavior by modeling and simulation of the interaction between the base flow and embedded rigid particles when subjected to shear stress. The model considered the Lagrangian description of the rigid particles and the Eulerian description of fluid flow. The numerical analysis investigated key parameters such as applied flow acceleration, particle distribution and arrangement, volume concentration of particles, particle size, shape and their behavior in a Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid base. The fluid-particle interaction model showed that the arrangement, size, shape and volume concentration of the particles had a significant effect on the behavior of the STF. Although non-conclusive, the addition of particles in non-Newtonian fluids showed a promising trend of improved shear thickening effects at high shear strain rates.

  12. Category verbal fluency performance may be impaired in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Luiz Figueredo Balthazar

    Full Text Available Abstract To study category verbal fluency (VF for animals in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, mild Alzheimer disease (AD and normal controls. Method: Fifteen mild AD, 15 aMCI, and 15 normal control subjects were included. Diagnosis of AD was based on DSM-IV and NINCDS-ADRDA criteria, while aMCI was based on the criteria of the International Working Group on Mild Cognitive Impairment, using CDR 0.5 for aMCI and CDR 1 for mild AD. All subjects underwent testing of category VF for animals, lexical semantic function (Boston Naming-BNT, CAMCOG Similarities item, WAIS-R forward and backward digit span, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning (RAVLT, Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE, and other task relevant functions such as visual perception, attention, and mood state (with Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia. Data analysis used ANOVA and a post-hoc Tukey test for intergroup comparisons, and Pearson's coefficient for correlations of memory and FV tests with other task relevant functions (statistical significance level was p<0.05. Results: aMCI patients had lower performance than controls on category VF for animals and on the backward digit span subtest of WAIS-R but higher scores compared with mild AD patients. Mild AD patients scored significantly worse than aMCI and controls across all tests. Conclusion: aMCI patients may have poor performance in some non-memory tests, specifically category VF for animals in our study, where this could be attributable to the influence of working memory.

  13. Incidental Learning of Sound Categories is Impaired in Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, Yafit; Holt, Lori L.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is commonly thought to arise from specific phonological impairments. However, recent evidence is consistent with the possibility that phonological impairments arise as symptoms of an underlying dysfunction of procedural learning. The nature of the link between impaired procedural learning and phonological dysfunction is unresolved. Motivated by the observation that speech processing involves the acquisition of procedural category knowledge, the present study investigates the possibility that procedural learning impairment may affect phonological processing by interfering with the typical course of phonetic category learning. The present study tests this hypothesis while controlling for linguistic experience and possible speech-specific deficits by comparing auditory category learning across artificial, nonlinguistic sounds among dyslexic adults and matched controls in a specialized first-person shooter videogame that has been shown to engage procedural learning. Nonspeech auditory category learning was assessed online via within-game measures and also with a post-training task involving overt categorization of familiar and novel sound exemplars. Each measure reveals that dyslexic participants do not acquire procedural category knowledge as effectively as age- and cognitive-ability matched controls. This difference cannot be explained by differences in perceptual acuity for the sounds. Moreover, poor nonspeech category learning is associated with slower phonological processing. Whereas phonological processing impairments have been emphasized as the cause of dyslexia, the current results suggest that impaired auditory category learning, general in nature and not specific to speech signals, could contribute to phonological deficits in dyslexia with subsequent negative effects on language acquisition and reading. Implications for the neuro-cognitive mechanisms of developmental dyslexia are discussed. PMID:26409017

  14. Adherence to oral contraception in women on Category X medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkellner, Amy; Chen, William; Denison, Shannon E

    2010-10-01

    Over 6% of women become pregnant when taking teratogenic medications, and contraceptive counseling appears to occur at suboptimal rates. Adherence to contraception is an important component in preventing unwanted pregnancy and has not been evaluated in this population. We undertook a pharmacy claims-based analysis to evaluate the degree to which women of childbearing age who receive Category X medications adhere to their oral contraception. We evaluated the prescription medication claims for over 6 million women, age 18-44 years, with prescription benefits administered by a pharmacy benefits manager. Women with 2 or more claims for a Category X medication and 2 or more claims for oral contraception were evaluated in further detail. Adherence to oral contraception was measured by analyzing pharmacy claims. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with adherence. There were 146,758 women of childbearing age who received Category X medications, of which 26,136 also took oral contraceptive medication. Women who received Category X medications were prescribed oral contraception (18%) at rates similar to others of childbearing age (17%). Women prescribed both Category X and oral contraception demonstrated adherence similar to the overall population. Age, class of Category X medication, number of medications, prescriber's specialty, and ethnicity correlated with lower adherence rates. Despite added risk associated with unintended pregnancy, many women who receive Category X medications have refill patterns suggesting nonadherence to oral contraception. Compared with all women age 18-44 years, women receiving teratogenic medications do not have better adherence to oral contraception. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Incidental learning of sound categories is impaired in developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, Yafit; Holt, Lori L

    2015-12-01

    Developmental dyslexia is commonly thought to arise from specific phonological impairments. However, recent evidence is consistent with the possibility that phonological impairments arise as symptoms of an underlying dysfunction of procedural learning. The nature of the link between impaired procedural learning and phonological dysfunction is unresolved. Motivated by the observation that speech processing involves the acquisition of procedural category knowledge, the present study investigates the possibility that procedural learning impairment may affect phonological processing by interfering with the typical course of phonetic category learning. The present study tests this hypothesis while controlling for linguistic experience and possible speech-specific deficits by comparing auditory category learning across artificial, nonlinguistic sounds among dyslexic adults and matched controls in a specialized first-person shooter videogame that has been shown to engage procedural learning. Nonspeech auditory category learning was assessed online via within-game measures and also with a post-training task involving overt categorization of familiar and novel sound exemplars. Each measure reveals that dyslexic participants do not acquire procedural category knowledge as effectively as age- and cognitive-ability matched controls. This difference cannot be explained by differences in perceptual acuity for the sounds. Moreover, poor nonspeech category learning is associated with slower phonological processing. Whereas phonological processing impairments have been emphasized as the cause of dyslexia, the current results suggest that impaired auditory category learning, general in nature and not specific to speech signals, could contribute to phonological deficits in dyslexia with subsequent negative effects on language acquisition and reading. Implications for the neuro-cognitive mechanisms of developmental dyslexia are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  16. Fluid dynamics in porous media with Sailfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, Rodrigo C V; Neumann, Rodrigo F

    2016-01-01

    In this work we show the application of Sailfish to the study of fluid dynamics in porous media. Sailfish is an open-source software based on the lattice-Boltzmann method. This application of computational fluid dynamics is of particular interest to the oil and gas industry and the subject could be a starting point for an undergraduate or graduate student in physics or engineering. We built artificial samples of porous media with different porosities and used Sailfish to simulate the fluid flow through them in order to calculate their permeability and tortuosity. We also present a simple way to obtain the specific superficial area of porous media using Python libraries. To contextualise these concepts, we analyse the applicability of the Kozeny–Carman equation, which is a well-known permeability–porosity relation, to our artificial samples. (paper)

  17. Fluid dynamics in porous media with Sailfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Rodrigo C. V.; Neumann, Rodrigo F.

    2016-09-01

    In this work we show the application of Sailfish to the study of fluid dynamics in porous media. Sailfish is an open-source software based on the lattice-Boltzmann method. This application of computational fluid dynamics is of particular interest to the oil and gas industry and the subject could be a starting point for an undergraduate or graduate student in physics or engineering. We built artificial samples of porous media with different porosities and used Sailfish to simulate the fluid flow through them in order to calculate their permeability and tortuosity. We also present a simple way to obtain the specific superficial area of porous media using Python libraries. To contextualise these concepts, we analyse the applicability of the Kozeny-Carman equation, which is a well-known permeability-porosity relation, to our artificial samples.

  18. A dimorphic magnetorheological fluid with improved oxidation and chemical stability under oscillatory shear

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedlačík, M.; Pavlínek, V.; Vyroubal, R.; Peer, Petra; Filip, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 3 (2013) ISSN 0964-1726 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1626 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0111 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : goethites * magnetorheological fluids * MR fluids * tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.449, year: 2013

  19. Viscous Flow with Large Fluid-Fluid Interface Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole; Saasen, Arild

    1998-01-01

    The arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) kinematic description has been implemented in a 3D transient finite element program to simulate multiple fluid flows with fluid-fluid interface or surface displacements. The description of fluid interfaces includes variable interfacial tension, and the formulation...... is useful in the simulation of low and intermediate Reynolds number viscous flow. The displacement of two immiscible Newtonian fluids in a vertical (concentric and eccentric) annulus and a (vertical and inclined)tube is simulated....

  20. Two-phase cooling fluids; Les fluides frigoporteurs diphasiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lallemand, A. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 69 - Lyon (France)

    1997-12-31

    In the framework of the diminution of heat transfer fluid consumption, the concept of indirect refrigerating circuits, using cooling intermediate fluids, is reviewed and the fluids that are currently used in these systems are described. Two-phase cooling fluids advantages over single-phase fluids are presented with their thermophysical characteristics: solid fraction, two-phase mixture enthalpy, thermal and rheological properties, determination of heat and mass transfer characteristics, and cold storage through ice slurry