WorldWideScience

Sample records for subject category cybernetics

  1. Negotiating Deaf Bodies and Corporeal Experiences: The Cybernetic Deaf Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P. Horejes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Deaf people negotiate their embodiment through corporeal experiences to provide a perception of what it means to be human. Some deaf people search for a framework where being deaf is human, not a disability. Other deaf people experience their deafness as a disability and use technology as a means to negotiate their embodiment and experiences. The role of technology or cybernetics, particularly cochlear implants, for the deaf will be examined as a way to understand cultural identities and diverse ideological perspectives concerning what it means to be deaf and normal. Then, this paper focuses on social constructed ‘bodies’ for the deaf using embodied theory and action as a part of a theoretical framework to showcase theoretical ideas and actualities of some deaf people’s lives and experiences. These discussions are ways to open dialogues and collaborative inquiries on larger important issues such as what it means to be deaf and, in essence, human.

  2. Horizons of cybernetical physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradkov, Alexander L

    2017-03-06

    The subject and main areas of a new research field-cybernetical physics-are discussed. A brief history of cybernetical physics is outlined. The main areas of activity in cybernetical physics are briefly surveyed, such as control of oscillatory and chaotic behaviour, control of resonance and synchronization, control in thermodynamics, control of distributed systems and networks, quantum control.This article is part of the themed issue 'Horizons of cybernetical physics'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. CYBERNETICS AND GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION: CYBERNETICS OF LEARNING AND LEARNING OF CYBERNETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Arpentieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern geographical education implies a broad implementation of innovative technologies, allowing students to fully and deeply understand the subject and methods of professional activity, and effectively and productively act upon this understanding. Therefore, in the work of modern geographer computer and media technologies occupy a significant place, and geographic education occupies an important place in learning cybernetic disciplines: computer technologies act as an important condition for obtaining high quality professional education, as well as an important tool of professional activity of modern specialist-geographer. The article is devoted to comparing three modern approaches to the study and optimization of training Cybernetics and programming in the framework of geographical education: an approach devoted to the study of “learning styles”; the metacognitive approach to learning computer science and programming; and intersubjective, evergetic or actually cybernetic, approach. It describes their advantages and limitations in the context of geographical education, as well as the internal unity as different forms of study of productivity and conditions of the dialogical interaction between teacher and student in the context of obtaining high-quality geographical education.

  4. Cybernetic functioning in stuttering

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    Ursula Zsilavecz

    1981-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate different kinds of masking noise and DAF, in order to identify the condition which would elicit the highest incidence of fluency in a group of stutterers. The study demonstrates that masking noise and DAF can be effectively applied as an aid in a therapy programme, viz. noise can effectively be put to use so as to encourage and reinforce somesthesia. Stuttering is viewed as defective functioning in the cybernetic system.

  5. Cybernetic functioning in stuttering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Zsilavecz

    1981-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate different kinds of masking noise and DAF, in order to identify the condition which would elicit the highest incidence of fluency in a group of stutterers. The study demonstrates that masking noise and DAF can be effectively applied as an aid in a therapy programme, viz. noise can effectively be put to use so as to encourage and reinforce somesthesia. Stuttering is viewed as defective functioning in the cybernetic system.

  6. Cybernetics from past to future

    CERN Document Server

    Novikov, D A

    2016-01-01

    This book is a concise navigator across the history of cybernetics, its state-of-the-art and prospects. The evolution of cybernetics (from N. Wiener to the present day) and the reasons of its ups and downs are presented. The correlation of cybernetics with the philosophy and methodology of control, as well as with system theory and systems analysis is clearly demonstrated. The book presents a detailed analysis focusing on the modern trends of research in cybernetics. A new development stage of cybernetics (the so-called cybernetics 2.0) is discussed as a science on general regularities of systems organization and control. The author substantiates the topicality of elaborating a new branch of cybernetics, i.e. organization theory which studies an organization as a property, process and system. The book is intended for theoreticians and practitioners, as well as for students, postgraduates and doctoral candidates. In the first place, the target audience includes tutors and lecturers preparing courses on cyberne...

  7. Computer, Informatics, Cybernetics and Applications : Proceedings of the CICA 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Hua, Ertian; Lin, Yun; Liu, Xiaozhu

    2012-01-01

    Computer Informatics Cybernetics and Applications offers 91 papers chosen for publication from among 184 papers accepted for presentation to the International Conference on Computer, Informatics, Cybernetics and Applications 2011 (CICA 2011), held in Hangzhou, China, September 13-16, 2011. The CICA 2011 conference provided a forum for engineers and scientists in academia, industry, and government to address the most innovative research and development including technical challenges and social, legal, political, and economic issues, and to present and discuss their ideas, results, work in progress and experience on all aspects of Computer, Informatics, Cybernetics and Applications. Reflecting the broad scope of the conference, the contents are organized in these topical categories: Communication Technologies and Applications Intelligence and Biometrics Technologies Networks Systems and Web Technologies Data Modeling and Programming Languages Digital Image Processing Optimization and Scheduling Education and In...

  8. Cognitive Cybernetics vs. Captology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Balaž

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In acronym Captology – Computers as Persuasive Technology, a persuasive component (lat. persuasibilibus – enticing refers to the persuasive stimulation by intelligent technologies. Latter being transitive and interactive as intelligent systems, they have imposed, by their persuasivity, a ‘cult of information’, after which information has become a type of goods that as a utilitarian resource must be exploited quickly and efficiently. Such a widely accepted fact resulted as hype, presenting a perspective that the approach to a large amount of information and faster ‘digestion’ of their content will enable users to quickly get desired knowledge. Recent investigations about persuasion processes have shown its dependence on intelligent technology factors (design, interactive computer products, web, desktop and others. Such technologies are also used to influence people’s attitudes, beliefs, learning, and behaviour. Development strategies for global computer production and sales head in that direction and confirm latter statement with the promoted 3-P model: persuasive, permissive and pervasive components. Cognitive level of human integrated development is increasingly overshadowed by the contribution of artificial intelligence through its products, i.e. ‘smart’ creations, and by the array of shortcomings and problems that the same interactive technology brings. This paper presents a parallel between captological component of intelligent and interactive technologies on one side and illustrates examples of captological influences proved by confirmed trials within cognitive science through computer simulations of human thinking on the other side. Many studies have shown that the success of persuasion depends on the factors which have been exposed by cognitive cybernetics. Next to it, people’s behavior system is transforming through the very development of society. Therefore, the influence of latter can be either positive or negative

  9. The Myth of Omniscient Cybernetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-03

    his military captains at the tactical battlefield. STAGY CYBERNETICS The collapse of the vast empires of Egypt, Persia , Rome and Chin& au’d the return... missionaries and five officials held as hostages; hundreds of other foreign nationals were also hostage. STRICOM developed several plans in three days

  10. Redefining the pharmacology and pharmacy subject category in the journal citation reports using medical subject headings (MeSH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguet, Fernando; Salgado, Teresa M; Santopadre, Claudio; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando

    2017-10-01

    Background The Journal Citation Reports (JCR) Pharmacology and Pharmacy subject category is heterogeneous. The inclusion of journals with basic and clinical scopes, which have different citation patterns, compromises comparability of impact factors among journals within the category. Objective To subdivide the Pharmacology and Pharmacy category into basic pharmacology, clinical pharmacology, and pharmacy based on the analyses of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) as a proxy of journals' scopes. Setting JCR. Method All articles, and respective MeSH, published in 2013, 2014, and 2015 in all journals included in the 2014 JCR Pharmacology and Pharmacy category were retrieved from PubMed. Several models using a combination of the 14 MeSH categories and specific MeSH tree branches were tested using hierarchical cluster analysis. Main outcome measure Distribution of journals across the subcategories of the JCR Pharmacology and Pharmacy subject category. Results A total of 107,847 articles from 214 journals were included. Nine different models combining the MeSH categories M (Persons) and N (Health Care) with specific MeSH tree branches (selected ad-hoc) and Pharmacy-specific MeSH (identified in previous research) consistently grouped 142 journals (66.4%) in homogeneous groups reflecting their basic and clinical pharmacology, and pharmacy scopes. Ultimately, journals were clustered into: 150 in basic pharmacology, 43 in clinical pharmacology, 16 in basic pharmacology and clinical pharmacology, and 5 in pharmacy. Conclusion The reformulation of the Pharmacology and Pharmacy category into three categories was demonstrated by the consistent results obtained from testing nine different clustering models using the MeSH terms assigned to their articles.

  11. The Cybernetic Metaphor in Organisation Theory: Epistemological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Abstract. Cybernetics is the metaphorical term that describes and characterises the field of study which is concerned with the control and communication in animal and machine. Broadly speaking, developments have occurred in two directions, one of which builds upon early cybernetic insights which sought to build ...

  12. The Cybernetic Metaphor in Organisation Theory: Epistemological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cybernetics is the metaphorical term that describes and characterises the field of study which is concerned with the control and communication in animal and machine. Broadly speaking, developments have occurred in two directions, one of which builds upon early cybernetic insights which sought to build machines upon ...

  13. A global map of science based on the ISI subject categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Rafols, I

    2009-01-01

    The decomposition of scientific literature into disciplinary and subdisciplinary structures is one of the core goals of scientometrics. How can we achieve a good decomposition? The ISI subject categories classify journals included in the Science Citation Index (SCI). The aggregated journal-journal

  14. Cybernetical Physics From Control of Chaos to Quantum Control

    CERN Document Server

    Fradkov, Alexander L

    2007-01-01

    The control of complex systems is one of the most important aspects in dealing with systems exhibiting nonlinear behaviour or similar features that defy traditional control techniques. This specific subject is gradually becoming known as cybernetical physics, borrowing methods from both theoretical physics and control engineering. This book is, perhaps, the first attempt to present a unified exposition of the subject and methodology of cybernetical physics as well as solutions to some of its problems. Emphasis of the book is on the examination of fundamental limits on energy transformation by means of control procedures in both conservative and dissipative systems. A survey of application in physics includes the control of chaos, synchronisation of coupled oscillators, pendulum chains, reactions in physical chemistry and of quantum systems such as the dissociation of diatomic molecules. This book has been written having researchers from various backgrounds in physics, mathematics and engineering in mind and i...

  15. Discrimination and subjective well-being: protective influences of membership in a discriminated category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnilica, Karel

    2011-03-01

    Research reveals that discrimination has harmful effects on health and quality of life. Among the most frequent types of discrimination pertains gender and age discrimination. Research results show that discriminatory behaviours based on gender afflict predominantly women; age discrimination afflicts mainly older adults. At the same time, it has been found that members of these traditionally discriminated categories often use strategies that mitigate the effects of discrimination. Discrimination will have detrimental effects on subjective well-being. But its effects will be most harmful for persons who are not members of the traditionally discriminated categories. These hypotheses were tested on data from three waves of the European Social Survey that the Czech Republic also participated in. Data were analyzed in a series of multilevel random coefficients regression analyses with respondents nested within states and states nested within years of study. Both perceived gender discrimination and perceived age discrimination have negative effects on subjective well-being. However, gender discrimination had more harmful effects on the subjective well-being of men than women and age discrimination had the most harmful effects on the subjective well-being of people in their middle ages, not the elderly ones. Discrimination does not need to have most harmful effects on the quality of life of members of the categories that are discriminated against most often.

  16. The New Science of Cybernetics: A Primer

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    Karl H. Müller

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Four years after the publication of the first volume on the new science of cybernetics (NSC (Müller, 2009 and after two more books on NSC (Müller, 2011, 2012 it is time to present and to summarize the main features and characteristics of the new science of cybernetics within a single article. - Historically, the new science of cybernetics can be viewed as a potential outline of Heinz von Foerster's vision of second-order cybernetics as the science of observing systems or, alternatively, of living systems by living systems for living systems. Heinz von Foerster introduced the concept of second-order cybernetics on several occasions, without specifying, however, its content and cognitive organization (Foerster, 1974, 2003 - Systematically, the new science of cybernetics operates on a new level which, not quite unexpectedly and surprisingly, can be characterized as second-order level. This second-order level is self-reflexive by nature and by design, because this level comes into play whenever a concept, a model or an academic field turns onto itself, like in understanding or in cybernetics of cybernetics. - Functionally, the new science of cybernetics can be viewed as a trans- or post-disciplinary second-order field for navigating through an ocean of first-order level science. NSC operates primarily with objects or with operations from first-order science and transforms them into new components which exhibit strong comparative advantages in terms of novelty and robustness. This list of historic, systemic and functional features of the new science of cybernetics(NSC may look strange or incomprehensible at first sight. It will become, thus, the main purpose of this article to transform these seemingly vague and unclear descriptions into concise ones which readers with only a weak familiarity with the old science of cybernetics can understand. Eventually, even the short set above of critical characteristics of the new science of cybernetics should

  17. Cybernetic brain sketches of another future

    CERN Document Server

    Pickering, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Cybernetics is often thought of as a grim military or industrial science of control. But as Andrew Pickering reveals in this beguiling book, a much more lively and experimental strain of cybernetics can be traced from the 1940s to the present.The Cybernetic Brain explores a largely forgotten group of British thinkers, including Grey Walter, Ross Ashby, Gregory Bateson, R. D. Laing, Stafford Beer, and Gordon Pask, and their singular work in a dazzling array of fields. Psychiatry, engineering, management, politics, music, architecture, education, tantric yoga, the Beats, and the sixties counterc

  18. Underground spaces/cybernetic spaces

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    Tomaž Novljan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A modern city space is a space where in the vertical and horizontal direction dynamic, non-linear processes exist, similar as in nature. Alongside the “common” city surface, cities have underground spaces as well that are increasingly affecting the functioning of the former. It is the space of material and cybernetic communication/transport. The psychophysical specifics of using underground places have an important role in their conceptualisation. The most evident facts being their limited volume and often limited connections to the surface and increased level of potential dangers of all kinds. An efficient mode for alleviating the effects of these specific features are artistic interventions, such as: shape, colour, lighting, all applications of the basic principles of fractal theory.

  19. Class categories and the subjective dimension of class: the case of Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer; Pedersen, Helene Helboe

    2017-09-15

    Class relations have been proven to affect various aspects of social life, even in modern individualized societies. However, following claims on individualization and the so-called 'death of class' thesis, studying the subjective dimension of class - that is, the way individuals perceive of class relations and their own position within them - has gone out of style. We argue that even in equalized societies, subjective class perceptions may still influence attitudes and behaviour as they evolve to fit modern class relations. To explore the existence as well as structure and content of perceived social classes, this article investigates how people describe society and social groups in focus group discussions. We find that groups in different positions in terms of education and economy all tend to apply hierarchical class categories to describe Danish society, which is normally seen as one of the most equal societies and political systems in the world. In addition, we find that economic resources serve as a baseline for the hierarchical ordering, often supplemented with notions of education, lifestyle and/or occupational profile. Even though people are somewhat uncomfortable with the notion of class, their descriptions of Danish society and classes are surprisingly similar within and across groups. We conclude that not only do class relations matter; people are also highly aware of the existing classes and able to position themselves and others according to their notion of classes. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  20. Enzymatic cybernetics: an unpublished work by Jacques Monod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayon, Jean

    2015-06-01

    In 1959, Jacques Monod wrote a manuscript entitled Cybernétique enzymatique [Enzymatic cybernetics]. Never published, this unpublished manuscript presents a synthesis of how Monod interpreted enzymatic adaptation just before the publication of the famous papers of the 1960s on the operon. In addition, Monod offers an example of a philosophy of biology immersed in scientific investigation. Monod's philosophical thoughts are classified into two categories, methodological and ontological. On the methodological side, Monod explicitly hints at his preferences regarding the scientific method in general: hypothetical-deductive method, and use of theoretical models. He also makes heuristic proposals regarding molecular biology: the need to analyse the phenomena in question at the level of individual cells, and the dual aspect of all biological explanation, functional and evolutionary. Ontological issues deal with the notions of information and genetic determinism, "cellular memory", the irrelevance of the notion of "living matter", and the usefulness of a cybernetic comprehension of molecular biology. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. The Cybernetic Metaphor in Organisation Theory: Epistemological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    1961) for example, reports on the direct links between the study of the nervous system of cats, the design of anti-aircraft guns, and learning machines based upon cybernetic principles. Early computers were directly modeled upon the analogy ...

  2. A Study of Subject Overlap between the Main Categories of Knowledge Management within the Web of Science

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    Afsaneh Hazeri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although a relatively new discipline, Knowledge Management (KM is an area with a wide range of theoretical concepts and practical implications. The applicability of KM in different environments, and the vast value and benefits of its application, have led to great developments within the discipline over the last few years. The interdisciplinary nature of KM has also provided the opportunity for contributions by people from different disciplines, which in turn has lead to the rapid advancement of KM boundaries. This paper aims to examine the subject structure of the KM discipline through keyword analysis of documents in the Web of Science, using a hierarchical clustering approach and an inclusion index. Within the Web of Science categories, according to the findings, the three categories of "Management", "Computer Science Information Systems" and "Information Science Library Science" claim the highest number of documents in this area. Of 5570 author keywords, , 96 keywords are identified as "highly used" keywords. Three hierarchical clusters (dendrograms are formed from co-occurrence analysis of highly used keywords in the three categories. A comparison of these denrograms indicates that six clusters, including a total of 16 keywords, are common in the three categories. Looking at clusters of the three categories revealed that two categories - Management and Information Science Library Science - have 14 common/shared clusters, and therefore the highest degree of similarities. However, the category of Computer Science Information Systems, with 28 unique clusters, differs most markedly from the other two categories. To investigate the rate of common keywords from one category to another, the inclusion index is calculated. Results of this exercise indicate that the category of Information Science Library Science has the highest number of common keywords.

  3. 2012 International Conference on Cybernetics and Informatics

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Cybernetics and informatics being a high-profile and fast-moving fields, the papers included in this proceedings will command a wide professional and academic readership. This book covers the very latest developments in the field of cybernetics and informatics. The 2012 conference in Chongqing, China, combined a focus on innovative technologies with an emphasis on sustainable solutions and strategies. Attended by leading figures from academia and industry whose work is represented here, the conference allowed effective cross-pollination between the theoretical and applied sectors of the field. Conference organizers received more than 1,000 papers, of which only ten percent were chosen to be featured in this publication. All of the papers are at the leading edge of developments, and so this book will not only ensure that the very best current work is disseminated, but that it also acts as a spur to future research.

  4. How Search for Meaning Interacts with Complex Categories of Meaning in Life and Subjective Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damásio, Bruno Figueiredo; Koller, Sílvia Helena

    2015-03-03

    This study sought to assess how the search for meaning interacts with crisis of meaning and with different categories of meaning in life (meaningfulness, crisis of meaning, existential indifference, and existential conflict). Furthermore, the moderation role of search for meaning between the relation of categories of meaning and subjective well-being (SWB) was also evaluated. Participants included 3,034 subjects (63.9% women) ranging in age from 18 to 91 (M = 33.90; SD = 15.01) years old from 22 Brazilian states. Zero-order correlations and a factorial MANOVA were implemented. Positive low correlations were found for search for meaning and crisis of meaning (r = .258; p meaning presented a small-effect size moderation effect on the relation of the different categories of meaning with subjective happiness, F(6, 3008) = 2.698, p life, F(6, 3008) = .935, p = .47; η2 = .002. The differences on the levels of subjective happiness of those inserted in existential indifferent and conflicting categories differ depending on the levels of search for meaning. Further directions for future studies are proposed.

  5. A Missing Link in Cybernetics Logic and Continuity

    CERN Document Server

    Andrew, Alex M

    2009-01-01

    Reviews the origins and aims of cybernetics with reference to Warren McCulloch's declared lifetime quest of 'understanding man's understanding'. This book examines implications for neuroscience and Artificial Intelligence (AI). It is suitable for researchers in AI, psychology, cybernetics and systems science

  6. Comparing journals from different fields of Science and Social Science through a JCR Subject Categories Normalized Impact Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Dorta-Gonzalez, Pablo; Dorta-Gonzalez, Maria Isabel

    2013-01-01

    The journal Impact Factor (IF) is not comparable among fields of Science and Social Science because of systematic differences in publication and citation behaviour across disciplines. In this work, a decomposing of the field aggregate impact factor into five normally distributed variables is presented. Considering these factors, a Principal Component Analysis is employed to find the sources of the variance in the JCR subject categories of Science and Social Science. Although publication and c...

  7. [Physiology and cybernetics: the history of mutual penetration of ideas, modern state and perspectives. To a 60-th anniversary of a writing the book "Cybernetics"by N. Wiener].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, V I

    2007-01-01

    Description of the history of cybernetics origin and physiology influence on it is given. Role of Russian and foreign physiologists in becoming and development of cybernetics and contribution of cybernetic theorists (N. Wiener and A.A. Lyapunov) to physiology are shown. Becoming and a modern state of various sections of cybernetic physiology and perspective of connection of cybernetics with integrative physiology are considered.

  8. The management process, management information and control systems, and cybernetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannetos, Z. S.; Wilcox, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    An attempt has been made to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the cybernetics approach as applied to management. The conclusion is that cybernetics can serve not only as a conceptual philosophical aid, but also as an operational tool in both managerial planning and control. So far, however, most of its promise is yet unrealized; especially in the planning sphere. Only in the area of control of operations has the impact of this promising field shown tangible results.

  9. Fourier power, subjective distance and object categories all provide plausible models of BOLD responses in scene-selective visual areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Daniel Lescroart

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Perception of natural visual scenes activates several functional areas in the human brain, including the Parahippocampal Place Area (PPA, Retrosplenial Complex (RSC, and the Occipital Place Area (OPA. It is currently unclear what specific scene-related features are represented in these areas. Previous studies have suggested that PPA, RSC, and/or OPA might represent at least three qualitatively different classes of features: (1 2D features related to Fourier power; (2 3D spatial features such as the distance to objects in a scene; or (3 abstract features such as the categories of objects in a scene. To determine which of these hypotheses best describes the visual representation in scene-selective areas, we applied voxel-wise modeling (VM to BOLD fMRI responses elicited by a set of 1,386 images of natural scenes. VM provides an efficient method for testing competing hypotheses by comparing predictions of brain activity based on encoding models that instantiate each hypothesis. Here we evaluated three different encoding models that instantiate each of the three hypotheses listed above. We used linear regression to fit each encoding model to the fMRI data recorded from each voxel, and we evaluated each fit model by estimating the amount of variance it predicted in a withheld portion of the data set. We found that voxel-wise models based on Fourier power or the subjective distance to objects in each scene predicted much of the variance predicted by a model based on object categories. Furthermore, the response variance explained by these three models is largely shared, and the individual models explain little unique variance in responses. Based on an evaluation of previous studies and the data we present here, we conclude that there is currently no good basis to favor any one of the three alternative hypotheses about visual representation in scene-selective areas. We offer suggestions for further studies that may help resolve this issue.

  10. Fourier power, subjective distance, and object categories all provide plausible models of BOLD responses in scene-selective visual areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescroart, Mark D.; Stansbury, Dustin E.; Gallant, Jack L.

    2015-01-01

    Perception of natural visual scenes activates several functional areas in the human brain, including the Parahippocampal Place Area (PPA), Retrosplenial Complex (RSC), and the Occipital Place Area (OPA). It is currently unclear what specific scene-related features are represented in these areas. Previous studies have suggested that PPA, RSC, and/or OPA might represent at least three qualitatively different classes of features: (1) 2D features related to Fourier power; (2) 3D spatial features such as the distance to objects in a scene; or (3) abstract features such as the categories of objects in a scene. To determine which of these hypotheses best describes the visual representation in scene-selective areas, we applied voxel-wise modeling (VM) to BOLD fMRI responses elicited by a set of 1386 images of natural scenes. VM provides an efficient method for testing competing hypotheses by comparing predictions of brain activity based on encoding models that instantiate each hypothesis. Here we evaluated three different encoding models that instantiate each of the three hypotheses listed above. We used linear regression to fit each encoding model to the fMRI data recorded from each voxel, and we evaluated each fit model by estimating the amount of variance it predicted in a withheld portion of the data set. We found that voxel-wise models based on Fourier power or the subjective distance to objects in each scene predicted much of the variance predicted by a model based on object categories. Furthermore, the response variance explained by these three models is largely shared, and the individual models explain little unique variance in responses. Based on an evaluation of previous studies and the data we present here, we conclude that there is currently no good basis to favor any one of the three alternative hypotheses about visual representation in scene-selective areas. We offer suggestions for further studies that may help resolve this issue. PMID:26594164

  11. On the cybernetic arrangement of feedback in serious games: A systems-theoretical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, Wim

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the cybernetic regulation of complex human learning and teaching. It provides a theoretical description of the arrangement of adaptive, machine- generated learner feedback which relies on cybernetic principles. Cybernetics — today often referred to as control theory, or

  12. [The application of cybernetic modeling methods for the forensic medical personality identification based on the voice and sounding speech characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaganov, A Sh; Kir'yanov, P A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present publication was to discuss the possibility of application of cybernetic modeling methods to overcome the apparent discrepancy between two kinds of the speech records, viz. initial ones (e.g. obtained in the course of special investigation activities) and the voice prints obtained from the persons subjected to the criminalistic examination. The paper is based on the literature sources and the materials of original criminalistics expertises performed by the authors.

  13. Jens Glad Balchen: A Norwegian Pioneer in Engineering Cybernetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Breivik

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper tells the story of Jens Glad Balchen (1926-2009, a Norwegian research scientist and engineer who is widely regarded as the father of Engineering Cybernetics in Norway. In 1954, he founded what would later become the Department of Automatic Control at the Norwegian Institute of Technology in Trondheim. This name was changed to the Department of Engineering Cybernetics in 1972 to reflect the broader efforts being made, not only within the purely technical disciplines, but also within biology, oceanography and medicine. Balchen established an advanced research community in cybernetics in postwar Norway, whose applications span everything from the process industry and positioning of ships to control of fish and lobster farming. He was a chief among the tribe of Norwegian cybernetics engineers and made a strong impact on his colleagues worldwide. He planted the seeds of a whole generation of Norwegian industrial companies through his efforts of seeking applications for every scientific breakthrough. His strength and his wisdom in combination with his remarkable stubbornness gave extraordinary results.

  14. Brainwashing the cybernetic spectator: The Ipcress File, 1960s cinematic spectacle and the sciences of mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This article argues that the mid-1960s saw a dramatic shift in how ‘brainwashing’ was popularly imagined, reflecting Anglo-American developments in the sciences of mind as well as shifts in mass media culture. The 1965 British film The Ipcress File (dir. Sidney J. Furie, starr. Michael Caine) provides a rich case for exploring these interconnections between mind control, mind science and media, as it exemplifies the era’s innovations for depicting ‘brainwashing’ on screen: the film’s protagonist is subjected to flashing lights and electronic music, pulsating to the ‘rhythm of brainwaves’. This article describes the making of The Ipcress File’s brainwashing sequence and shows how its quest for cinematic spectacle drew on developments in cybernetic science, multimedia design and modernist architecture (developments that were also influencing the 1960s psychedelic counter-culture). I argue that often interposed between the disparate endeavours of 1960s mind control, psychological science and media was a vision of the human mind as a ‘cybernetic spectator’: a subject who scrutinizes how media and other demands on her sensory perception can affect consciousness, and seeks to consciously participate in this mental conditioning and guide its effects. PMID:28781433

  15. Brainwashing the cybernetic spectator: The Ipcress File, 1960s cinematic spectacle and the sciences of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Marcia

    2017-07-01

    This article argues that the mid-1960s saw a dramatic shift in how 'brainwashing' was popularly imagined, reflecting Anglo-American developments in the sciences of mind as well as shifts in mass media culture. The 1965 British film The Ipcress File (dir. Sidney J. Furie, starr. Michael Caine) provides a rich case for exploring these interconnections between mind control, mind science and media, as it exemplifies the era's innovations for depicting 'brainwashing' on screen: the film's protagonist is subjected to flashing lights and electronic music, pulsating to the 'rhythm of brainwaves'. This article describes the making of The Ipcress File's brainwashing sequence and shows how its quest for cinematic spectacle drew on developments in cybernetic science, multimedia design and modernist architecture (developments that were also influencing the 1960s psychedelic counter-culture). I argue that often interposed between the disparate endeavours of 1960s mind control, psychological science and media was a vision of the human mind as a 'cybernetic spectator': a subject who scrutinizes how media and other demands on her sensory perception can affect consciousness, and seeks to consciously participate in this mental conditioning and guide its effects.

  16. The operationalization of "fields" as WoS subject categories (WCs) in evaluative bibliometrics: The cases of "library and information science" and "science & technology studies"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Bornmann, L.

    Normalization of citation scores using reference sets based on Web of Science subject categories (WCs) has become an established (“best”) practice in evaluative bibliometrics. For example, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings are, among other things, based on this operationalization.

  17. An Analysis of Document Category Prediction Responses to Classifier Model Parameter Treatment Permutations within the Software Design Patterns Subject Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankau, Brian L.

    2009-01-01

    This empirical study evaluates the document category prediction effectiveness of Naive Bayes (NB) and K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) classifier treatments built from different feature selection and machine learning settings and trained and tested against textual corpora of 2300 Gang-Of-Four (GOF) design pattern documents. Analysis of the experiment's…

  18. A Multi-Party Imaginary Dialogue about Power and Cybernetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Guddemi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is written as a multi-sided dialogue intended to present a number of ideas about power. Some of these ideas are my own, expressed in a kind of evolutionary idiom of adaptation though they were partly developed in reaction to Foucault (and are far more indebted to Foucault and cybernetics than to contemporary evolutionist thinking. There is a deep irony in that my way of thinking is primarily rooted in the cybernetic anthropology of Gregory Bateson; however, he was deeply skeptical of the concept of power. My personification of him in this dialogue, as “Bateson,” demonstrates this skepticism and brings into the discussion other relevant ideas of his. The third participant in the dialogue, Mary Midgley, is included because her consideration of Hobbes’ ideas leads us to consider yet another, probabilistic, way of thinking about power.

  19. Immune Response to Electromagnetic Fields through Cybernetic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godina-Nava, J. J.; Segura, M. A. Rodríguez; Cadena, S. Reyes; Sierra, L. C. Gaitán

    2008-08-01

    We study the optimality of the humoral immune response through a mathematical model, which involves the effect of electromagnetic fields over the large lymphocytes proliferation. Are used the so called cybernetic variables in the context of the matching law of microeconomics or mathematical psychology, to measure the large lymphocytes population and to maximize the instantaneous antibody production rate in time during the immunologic response in order to most efficiently inactivate the antigen.

  20. [Characteristics of blood aggregation in human subjects of different age categories during normobaric interval hypo-oxytraining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbotina, L A; Stepanov, V K; Dvornikov, M V

    2006-01-01

    Blood aggregation was studied in human subjects of different age groups given normobaric hypooxytraining. The experiment was performed with participation of two groups of volunteers: experienced human subjects well-adapted to hypoxia and young non-adapted subjects. NOT protocol included 7 min of breathing hypoxic mixture (90% N2 and 10% O2) and 3 min of breathing atmospheric air at room temperature, 6 cycles every other day during one month. Blood aggregation was assessed by 26 parameters with the use of a multifunctional diagnostic system that permitted biophysical (rheologic), biochemical (coagulative) and mathematic (systemic) diagnostics. Two groups of the human subjects displayed significantly different reactions to of blood aggregation to the extreme factor (NOT). There was a marked dependence of the blood aggregation reaction to the hypoxic factor on the body protective-adaptive potential. Our data substantiate the need to develop NOT protocols for pilots of specific ages.

  1. The Operationalization of "Fields" as WoS Subject Categories (WCs) in Evaluative Bibliometrics: The cases of "Library and Information Science" and "Science & Technology Studies"

    OpenAIRE

    Leydesdorff, Loet; Bornmann, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Normalization of citation scores using reference sets based on Web-of-Science Subject Categories (WCs) has become an established ("best") practice in evaluative bibliometrics. For example, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings are, among other things, based on this operationalization. However, WCs were developed decades ago for the purpose of information retrieval and evolved incrementally with the database; the classification is machine-based and partially manually corrected. ...

  2. Command and Control: Cybernetics and BDSM

    OpenAIRE

    Behar, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores correlations between restrictive interfaces in computational systems and restrictive interfaces in BDSM (Bondage & Discipline/Dominance & Submission/Sadism & Masochism) culture. Novel technologies often serve as pet fetish objects, but how do technologies perform as subjects in fetish culture? When digital technologies appear to us as objects, they present us with an illusion of mastery. In reality, technologies are active subjects and we, their "users," must bend to their...

  3. Cybernetic Serendipity Revisited: Interaction, Play & Fun from the Universe of Electronic Art to Metaverse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akdağ, A.; Schouten, B.

    2011-01-01

    Since its first introduction, the concept of cybernetics spread widely through many branches of academy and percolated into the everyday life soon after. Even now, it continues to affect our social and cultural life greatly. Here, we will trace the impact of cybernetics on electronic art, and how

  4. Category fluency test: effects of age, gender and education on total scores, clustering and switching in Brazilian Portuguese-speaking subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brucki S.M.D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Verbal fluency tests are used as a measure of executive functions and language, and can also be used to evaluate semantic memory. We analyzed the influence of education, gender and age on scores in a verbal fluency test using the animal category, and on number of categories, clustering and switching. We examined 257 healthy participants (152 females and 105 males with a mean age of 49.42 years (SD = 15.75 and having a mean educational level of 5.58 (SD = 4.25 years. We asked them to name as many animals as they could. Analysis of variance was performed to determine the effect of demographic variables. No significant effect of gender was observed for any of the measures. However, age seemed to influence the number of category changes, as expected for a sensitive frontal measure, after being controlled for the effect of education. Educational level had a statistically significant effect on all measures, except for clustering. Subject performance (mean number of animals named according to schooling was: illiterates, 12.1; 1 to 4 years, 12.3; 5 to 8 years, 14.0; 9 to 11 years, 16.7, and more than 11 years, 17.8. We observed a decrease in performance in these five educational groups over time (more items recalled during the first 15 s, followed by a progressive reduction until the fourth interval. We conclude that education had the greatest effect on the category fluency test in this Brazilian sample. Therefore, we must take care in evaluating performance in lower educational subjects.

  5. Cybernetics and Social Order. Models and Images of Society in Norbert Wiener and Karl Deutsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Carradore

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution aims at defining the relation between cybernetics and social theory from the perspective of society as order. After an historical framework of the cybernetic movement, a careful reading of the works of Norbert Wiener, in which he introduced the concept of feed-back and the idea of information society, has revealed a keen awareness about the social effects of technological innovation. Among the social scientists who had made use of cybernetic concepts, it has been considered the work of Karl Deutsch, which was one of the first completely cybernetic perspective for the study of political and social phenomena. The main conclusion is that cybernetics, as a meeting point between different disciplines, has produced an image of self-regulated society in line with the image of society as order.

  6. The general entity of life: a cybernetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielecki, Andrzej

    2015-06-01

    Life, not only in the well-known context of biochemical metabolism but also in the context of hypothetical life synthesized laboratorially or possibly found on other planets, is considered in this paper. The three-component information-energetic-structural irreducible processing in autonomous systems is the core of the proposed approach. The cybernetic organization of a general entity of life--the alivon--is postulated. The crucial properties of life and evolution are derived from the proposed approach. Information encoded in biological structures is also studied.

  7. Cybernetic appropriateness review. Does it change physician hospital utilization patterns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studnicki, J; Stevens, C E

    1985-01-01

    All hospital care can be characterized as either appropriate (i.e., efficatious and necessary) or inappropriate (i.e., services without benefit or services that could be provided in a less costly setting). A demonstration project combining an appropriateness determination methodology with a cybernetic control system was implemented in a study area that included six hospitals and approximately 400 practicing physicians. Project results to date indicate substantial improvements in the ratio of appropriate to inappropriate care for both hospitals and individual physicians. Evaluation research design problems and areas of future research are also discussed.

  8. Functional Information: Towards Synthesis of Biosemiotics and Cybernetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei A. Sharov

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Biosemiotics and cybernetics are closely related, yet they are separated by the boundary between life and non-life: biosemiotics is focused on living organisms, whereas cybernetics is applied mostly to non-living artificial devices. However, both classes of systems are agents that perform functions necessary for reaching their goals. I propose to shift the focus of biosemiotics from living organisms to agents in general, which all belong to a pragmasphere or functional universe. Agents should be considered in the context of their hierarchy and origin because their semiosis can be inherited or induced by higher-level agents. To preserve and disseminate their functions, agents use functional information - a set of signs that encode and control their functions. It includes stable memory signs, transient messengers, and natural signs. The origin and evolution of functional information is discussed in terms of transitions between vegetative, animal, and social levels of semiosis, defined by Kull. Vegetative semiosis differs substantially from higher levels of semiosis, because signs are recognized and interpreted via direct code-based matching and are not associated with ideal representations of objects. Thus, I consider a separate classification of signs at the vegetative level that includes proto-icons, proto-indexes, and proto-symbols. Animal and social semiosis are based on classification, and modeling of objects, which represent the knowledge of agents about their body (Innenwelt and environment (Umwelt.

  9. Fuzzy differential inclusions in atmospheric and medical cybernetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Kausik Kumar; Majumder, Dwijesh Dutta

    2004-04-01

    Uncertainty management in dynamical systems is receiving attention in artificial intelligence, particularly in the fields of qualitative and model based reasoning. Fuzzy dynamical systems occupy a very important position in the class of uncertain systems. It is well established that the fuzzy dynamical systems represented by a set of fuzzy differential inclusions (FDI) are very convenient tools for modeling and simulation of various uncertain systems. In this paper, we discuss about the mathematical modeling of two very complex natural phenomena by means of FDIs. One of them belongs to the atmospheric cybernetics (the term has been used in a broad sense) of the genesis of a cyclonic storm (cyclogenesis), and the other belongs to the bio-medical cybernetics of the evolution of tumor in a human body. Since a discussion of the former already appears in a previous paper by the first author, here, we present very briefly a theoretical formalism of cyclone formation. On the other hand, we treat the latter system more elaborately. We solve the FDIs with the help of an algorithm developed in this paper to numerically simulate the mathematical models. From the simulation results thus obtained, we have drawn a number of interesting conclusions, which have been verified, and this vindicates the validity of our models.

  10. The Smarter Planet: Built on Informatics and Cybernetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maymir-Ducharme Fred A.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available IBM's Smarter Planet initiative is a multi-disciplined approach that integrates the key tenets of the IMSCI 2014 (The 8th International Multi-Conference on Society, Cybernetics, and Informatics conference [1]. Industry has seen a tremendous explosion of data growth. Organizations that dealt with Terabytes (TB and Petabytes (PB just a couple of years ago are now faced with the challenge of dealing with Exabytes (EB of data. An Exabyte is 1018 Bytes – a million times a billion bytes! The amount of information available today is truly remarkable; so much that it is considered by many in industry as a new "natural resource." Computing has similarly grown and made major advances. Today's fastest supercomputer is a 33.8 PFLOPS machine (33.8 x 1015 floating point operations per second and applies analytics to predict weather to a degree that was unimaginable ten years ago. The Smarter Planet approach goes beyond the traditional data sources to include a plethora of sensor data (e.g., utility readings, concrete pressure sensors on a bridge, etc. and applies analytics to provide new Informatics, which in turn can be used to advance new Cybernetics (e.g., Smarter Buildings, Smarter Cities to address Societal needs in new, innovative ways. [2] [1] Callaos, Nagib (March, 2013, http://www.iiis.org/Nagib-Callaos/Cognition-and-Knowledge [2] Palmisano, Sam "A Smarter Planet: The Next Leadership Agenda," Speech to the Council on Foreign Relations, New York, NY, 6 November 2008.

  11. Adhesive Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lack, Stephen; Sobocinski, Pawel

    2003-01-01

    We introduce adhesive categories, which are categories with structure ensuring that pushouts along monomorphisms are well-behaved. Many types of graphical structures used in computer science are shown to be examples of adhesive categories. Double-pushout graph rewriting generalises well...... to rewriting on arbitrary adhesive categories....

  12. Adhesive Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lack, Stephen; Sobocinski, Pawel

    2004-01-01

    We introduce adhesive categories, which are categories with structure ensuring that pushouts along monomorphisms are well-behaved. Many types of graphical structures used in computer science are shown to be examples of adhesive categories. Double-pushout graph rewriting generalises well...... to rewriting on arbitrary adhesive categories....

  13. The lifetime prevalence, health services utilization and risk of suicide of bipolar spectrum subjects, including subthreshold categories in the São Paulo ECA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Doris Hupfeld; Andrade, Laura Helena

    2005-08-01

    Identifying the bipolar (BP) spectrum, including the classic Bipolar I subtype (BP-I), Bipolar II (BP-II) and subthreshold bipolar disorders not meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria has raised growing interest, as these softer expressions of bipolar spectrum have been underdiagnosed in spite of clinical consequences. Data are from the Sao Paulo Epidemiological Catchment Area Study (N=1464). Non-affective controls were compared to BP spectrum groups, based on DSM-IIIR and on the "clinical significance" criteria: Subsyndromal Hypomania (SSH) and Manic Symptoms (MS). The lifetime prevalence of BP subgroups was 8.3% (N=122). All BP-I and -II and around 75% of SSH and MS subjects had a lifetime depressive syndrome. Compared to controls and MS subjects, BP-I, BP-II and SSH groups searched more medical help and mental health services. SSH group displayed higher rates of clinical significance than BP-I subjects, and suicidality was higher in BP groups compared to controls. Even the softer MS group had higher rate of suicide attempts than SSH subjects. This is a cross-sectional study and interviews were conducted by lay personnel. Replication in bigger community samples using a mood spectrum approach is necessary to confirm these findings. However, our findings were very similar to those obtained by other authors. Softer expressions of BP disorders appear in 6.6% of this community sample and have serious clinical consequences, which supports the importance of including these categories in the BP spectrum.

  14. The Need of the Autopoietic Cybernetics for Biosemiotics to become Embodied

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brier, Søren

    creation of individuals and their interpretative ability. That is done much better through the bio-cybernetics concepts of autopoiesis developed in second order cybernetics by Maturana and Varela. Here cybernetic feedback loops help the body closing its organization and thereby defending it vital...... causation is vital in order to bring for the signs interpretant (merkmale) to arise. Maturana and Varela have no conception of signs and semiosis, as their theory lacks a phenomenological and hermeneutical basis. But they explicitly reject the cognitive view of cognition as the nervous system picking up...

  15. Crime, sujeito e sujeição criminal: aspectos de uma contribuição analítica sobre a categoria "bandido" Crime, subject and criminal subjection: aspects of a contribution towards bandit category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Misse

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O autor toma, neste artigo, o conceito de "sujeição criminal" (Misse, 1999, visando contribuir para uma melhor compreensão de como opera a categoria "bandido" na sociedade brasileira. Nesse sentido, recupera temas contemporâneos da chamada "teoria do sujeito" bem como das abordagens clássicas sobre ator e agência, rótulo e estigma, para melhor definir o conjunto de questões envolvidas em sua contribuição.In this article the author recovers the concept of "criminal subjection" (Misse, 1999, to contribute to a better understanding of how operates the category of "bandido" (bandit in Brazilian society. In this sense, the contemporary themes of the so-called "theory of the subject" are discussed as well as the classical approaches of actor and agency, label and stigma, to better define the range of issues involved in its contribution.

  16. Quantum Cybernetics and Complex Quantum Systems Science - A Quantum Connectionist Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Carlos Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Quantum cybernetics and its connections to complex quantum systems science is addressed from the perspective of complex quantum computing systems. In this way, the notion of an autonomous quantum computing system is introduced in regards to quantum artificial intelligence, and applied to quantum artificial neural networks, considered as autonomous quantum computing systems, which leads to a quantum connectionist framework within quantum cybernetics for complex quantum computing systems. Sever...

  17. Cybernetic Security and Business Intelligence in the System of Diagnostics of Economic Security of the Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Skrynkovskyy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to determine the place, the role and features of cybernetic security and improve the business intelligence scheme in the system of diagnosing economic security of the enterprise. It had been found out that: 1 the term “cybernetic security of an enterprise” should be understood as the state of the protection of the cybernetic space of the whole enterprise or individual objects of its information infrastructure (computer system, computer data, etc. from the risk of external cybernetic influence, which ensures their sustainable development and the formation of prospects, as well as timely detection, prevention and neutralization of real and potential cybernetic interruptions and threats to the interests of the enterprise; 2 the main components of cybernetic security in the system of diagnostics of economic security of the enterprise are: investigation of information and telecommunication systems and cryptosystems of the opposing sides; cybernetic effects; protection of information sphere. It was established that the main task of business intelligence in the system of diagnosing economic security of the enterprise is the verification of the reliability of business information, the provision of cybernetic protection of information resources, information and communication technologies and systems and the elimination of the possibility of misinformation of senior management by the managers of the middle level, suppliers, marketing intermediaries, clientele, competitors or contact audiences of the enterprise. The prospect of further research in this direction is the development of a system of goals of the polycriterial diagnostics of the activity (economic diagnostics of the enterprise (on the basis of the isolation and systematization of its diagnostic purposes, taking into account the presented results of the study.

  18. Platform for the analysis of written texts in terms of conceptual graphs: study case, Cybernetics of Cybernetics course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Contreras

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to observe and analyze the conceptual-relation structures in texts written in Spanish, from the perspective of second-order cybernetics. Texts are shaped by the syntactic structure of the sentences they contain. Conceptual-relationships emerge by transforming the text, using a text analysis platform named PAST. The transformation is guided by a set of established rules, permitting to observe a system. PAST can be defined as a powerful operator to transform texts written by the students in a Master's Program class. The platform is introduced as a tool enabling a graph representation of relationships among the concepts in the text. The internal procedure of the platform and the graph construction concerns the linguistic analysis. Although the resulting graphic representation does not follow a formal definition, it reflects an iterative construction to define a topology to create a semantic network. This network only makes sense to the author of the text. In other words, the author (observer, based on the cybernetics of the observing systems, uses a tool that enables him to make a second-order observation of a document that he/she has linearly written. The main epistemological concepts mentioned throughout the development of the proposal are discourse and distinction. The contribution of this work is the application of a methodology that conducts a recursive observation of both the direct and indirect relationships established by the words the author puts together in his/her written discourse. In the discussion of results the next phases of this work are presented.

  19. On the history of Ludwig von Bertalanffy's "General Systemology", and on its relationship to cybernetics - part III: convergences and divergences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drack, Manfred; Pouvreau, David

    2015-07-04

    Bertalanffy's so-called "general system theory" (GST) and cybernetics were and are often confused: this calls for clarification. In this article, Bertalanffy's conceptions and ideas are compared with those developed in cybernetics in order to investigate the differences and convergences. Bertalanffy was concerned with first order cybernetics. Nonetheless, his perspectivist epistemology is also relevant with regard to developments in second order cybernetics, and the latter is therefore also considered to some extent. W. Ross Ashby's important role as mediator between GST and cybernetics is analysed. The respective basic epistemological approaches, scientific approaches and inherent world views are discussed. We underline the complementarity of cybernetic and "organismic" trends in systems research within the unitary hermeneutical framework of "general systemology".

  20. Contested Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drawing on social science perspectives, Contested Categories presents a series of empirical studies that engage with the often shifting and day-to-day realities of life sciences categories. In doing so, it shows how such categories remain contested and dynamic, and that the boundaries they create...... to life science categories. With contributions from an international team of scholars, this book will be essential reading for anyone interested in the social, legal, policy and ethical implications of science and technology and the life sciences....

  1. Categorial Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, E.; Reichel, H.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we present a denotational semantics for a class of database definition languages. We present a language, called categorial graph language, that combines both graphical and textual phrases and is tailored to define databases. The categorial graph language is modeled after a number of

  2. SECOND-ORDER CYBERNETICS, SEMIOTICS AND THE ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculae V. Mihaita

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We take into consideration the concept of second order cybernetics and Pierce‘s approach of semiotics fundamentals. I am also an observer, experimenter and mental interpreter of metasigns given to the audience by Eugene Ionesco‘s absurd theatre. The interpreting of signs meaning is determinate by the context. From Semiotics ‗point of view, the objects I‘m studying (The Love Poem Lucifer or Evening Star, the short play Foursome and the most known, The Chairs gives me a lot of information about differences or NOT between actors, positive and negative interactions and become knowledge when I see them as signs. Second order cybernetics brings to the semiotics the idea of closure of structural coupling, interpretation and language [Soren, Cybersemiotics, 2008]. Them, the objects chosen are, for EXPERIMENTER, the YOYO in figure 1, and signifies the OBJECT of recursion. Boje [Boje, David, 2005] redefines antenarrative communication more holistically as an enactive phenomenon, and makes connections between varieties of disciplines in order to find out how antenarratives help us understand communication in the world. Instead of the finite event of producing an artifact, betting is a process and an end in itself, through which the practitioners might gain self-awareness. By synthesizing enactive-thinking in virtual space and the practice of communicating we appeal for valuable insights into the creative mind, challenging scholars and practitioners alike. Drawing contributions as above ideograms are useful for practicing cyberneticians, statisticians, researchers and academics, Informational Statistics applications [Mihaita, 2010] explores the ways in which liberal arts writers seek to involve, create and engage with new and diverse audiences from beginners encountering and participating in the work unexpectedly, to professionals from other disciplines and members of particular communities. Taking into consideration the Second-order Cybernetics

  3. FCJ-184 Interpassive User: Complicity and the Returns of Cybernetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Matviyenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay discusses the notions of “extension” and “prosthesis” as two different logics and modes of being with technology. I trace the two terms to the work of Marshall McLuhan, influenced by the work of Norbert Wiener and Buckminster Fuller. I argue that the logic of softwarisation (Manovich, 2013 is similar to the logic of extension, while the logic of appification (IDC, 2010 is similar to that of prosthesis. I argue that these logics also map onto the logics of metonymy and metaphor. I explain why such a distinction is useful for reading mobile apps and the computing practices they enable. I conclude by raising questions about users’ complicity within the bio-technological cybernetic assemblage: What does the user of these technologies want? Is she able to confront her desire through their use? Why is the demanding swarm of parasitic ‘media species’, such as apps, so determined to get under the user’s skin?

  4. PROFESSIONAL CATEGORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Fildan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The transition process which Romanian commercial law underwent has affected both the term of ‘trader’, by redefining it, and the classification of professional categories. Currently, the term of ‘professional’ is conveyed by a descriptive listing of the categories of persons it comprises: traders, entrepreneurs, business operators, as well as any other person authorized to carry out economic or professional activities.

  5. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  6. Cybernetic Basis and System Practice of Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, X.; Jing, X.; Chen, R.; Ming, Z.; He, L.; Sun, Y.; Sun, X.; Yan, L.

    2017-09-01

    Cybernetics provides a new set of ideas and methods for the study of modern science, and it has been fully applied in many areas. However, few people have introduced cybernetics into the field of remote sensing. The paper is based on the imaging process of remote sensing system, introducing cybernetics into the field of remote sensing, establishing a space-time closed-loop control theory for the actual operation of remote sensing. The paper made the process of spatial information coherently, and improved the comprehensive efficiency of the space information from acquisition, procession, transformation to application. We not only describes the application of cybernetics in remote sensing platform control, sensor control, data processing control, but also in whole system of remote sensing imaging process control. We achieve the information of output back to the input to control the efficient operation of the entire system. This breakthrough combination of cybernetics science and remote sensing science will improve remote sensing science to a higher level.

  7. Relationship Between Cybernetics Management and Organizational Trust Among Librarians of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiasi, Mitra; Shahrabi, Afsaneh; Siamian, Hasan

    2017-12-01

    Organization must keep current skills, abilities, and in the current field of competition, and move one step ahead of other competitors; for this purpose, must be a high degree of trust inside the organization. Cybernetic management is a new approach in management of organizations that its main task according to internal issues. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between cybernetics management and organizational trust among librarians of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. This is applied and analytical survey. which its population included all librarians of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, amounting to 42 people which were selected by census and participated in this research. There has no relationship between components of Cybernetics management (participative decision making, commitment, pay equity, Correct flow of information, develop a sense of ownership, online education) with organizational trust amongst librarians of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. And there has a significant relationship between flat Structure of cybernetics management and organizational trust. For data analysis was used Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and linear regression. There is no significant relationship between Cybernetic management and organizational trust amongst librarians of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences.

  8. On the history of Ludwig von Bertalanffy?s ?General Systemology?, and on its relationship to cybernetics ? part III: convergences and divergences

    OpenAIRE

    Drack, Manfred; Pouvreau, David

    2015-01-01

    Bertalanffy?s so-called ?general system theory? (GST) and cybernetics were and are often confused: this calls for clarification. In this article, Bertalanffy?s conceptions and ideas are compared with those developed in cybernetics in order to investigate the differences and convergences. Bertalanffy was concerned with first order cybernetics. Nonetheless, his perspectivist epistemology is also relevant with regard to developments in second order cybernetics, and the latter is therefore also c...

  9. THE ESTIMATION OF HUMAN-OPERATOR CYBERNETIC ABILITIES DURING THE IMPACT OF DESTABILIZING FACTORS OF EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergii T. Polishchuk

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available  The method of estimation of human-operator cybernetics abilities during of the impacting of destabilizing factors of external environment is suggested. It was proved that up-to-date biomedical approach for periodical health examination of pilots in civil aviation isn’t guarantees theirs cybernetics abilities in cases of influence of destabilizing factors.

  10. Tensor categories

    CERN Document Server

    Etingof, Pavel; Nikshych, Dmitri; Ostrik, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Is there a vector space whose dimension is the golden ratio? Of course not-the golden ratio is not an integer! But this can happen for generalizations of vector spaces-objects of a tensor category. The theory of tensor categories is a relatively new field of mathematics that generalizes the theory of group representations. It has deep connections with many other fields, including representation theory, Hopf algebras, operator algebras, low-dimensional topology (in particular, knot theory), homotopy theory, quantum mechanics and field theory, quantum computation, theory of motives, etc. This bo

  11. Automation, communication and cybernetics in science and engineering 2013/2014

    CERN Document Server

    Isenhardt, Ingrid; Hees, Frank; Henning, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    This book continues the tradition of its predecessors “Automation, Communication and Cybernetics in Science and Engineering 2009/2010 and 2011/2012” and includes a representative selection of scientific publications from researchers at the institute cluster IMA/ZLW & IfU.   IMA - Institute of Information Management in Mechanical Engineering
 ZLW - Center for Learning and Knowledge Management
 IfU - Associated Institute for Management Cybernetics e.V.
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, RWTH Aachen University   The book presents a range of innovative fields of application, including: cognitive systems, cyber-physical production systems, robotics, automation technology, machine learning, natural language processing, data mining, predictive data analytics, visual analytics, innovation and diversity management, demographic models, virtual and remote laboratories, virtual and augmented realities, multimedia learning environments, organizational development and management cybernetics. The contributio...

  12. From the classical cybernetics to cyberculture: conceptual tools to look at the wordl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña GROS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of Cybernetics until the development of the information technology half of century has gone with very fast changes of great importance. Not only because the rapid development of the technology, but also, because the social and personal implications that this technology has nowadays.The main goal of this article is to review the fundamental concepts of the cybernetics and to establish the changes of this discipline until the beginning of the cyberculture, as a maximun expression of the social interconnection, communication and globalisation.

  13. Cybernetic control model from ethology for adaptive coordination of robot behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlueter, Bernd

    1992-08-01

    In this paper we propose a cybernetic approach to behavior based robotics. We present a distributed adaptive control architecture for coordination of different motivations and behaviors of an autonomous vehicle. The system is based on the Zurich Model of Social Motivation, a cybernetic approach to mammalian behavior by the Swiss ethologist BISCHOF. Our system controls a simulated autonomous robot by teaching a reflective associative memory to propose an action based on the input of eight range sensors. The emerging behavior at every stage reflects the system's experience, and the robust in unexpected situations.

  14. Thirty Years of Research on the Application of Cybernetic Methods in Fisheries and Aquaculture Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens G. Balchen

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper surveys the research activities at the Department of Engineering Cybernetics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway, in the application of cybernetic principles in fisheries technology, aqua-culture technology and ocean ranching during the period 1969-1999. It is believed that the results obtained in these activities will have an impact upon the future developments in one of the most important sectors of the Norwegian economy. Numerous reports and publications are listed in the comprehensive bibliography.

  15. The Tyranny of Cybernetics in Kurt Vonnegut’s Player Piano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzbeh Babaee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kurt Vonnegut’s Player Piano (1952 illustrates people who become enslaved to a controlling system of cybernetics that enhances its power through computer, consumer culture, and advertising industry in postwar America. In this study, I investigate Player Piano through the idea of cybernetics that reduces human beings into intelligent machines and mindless bodies. Player Piano constitutes an effort to make sense of powerful systems through the metaphors of the machine. It is a struggle to illustrate a deterministic attitude of the universe that leaves human with no choice.

  16. Cybernetic principles of aging and rejuvenation: the buffering- challenging strategy for life extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heylighen, Francis

    2014-01-01

    Aging is analyzed as the spontaneous loss of adaptivity and increase in fragility that characterizes dynamic systems. Cybernetics defines the general regulatory mechanisms that a system can use to prevent or repair the damage produced by disturbances. According to the law of requisite variety, disturbances can be held in check by maximizing buffering capacity, range of compensatory actions, and knowledge about which action to apply to which disturbance. This suggests a general strategy for rejuvenating the organism by increasing its capabilities of adaptation. Buffering can be optimized by providing sufficient rest together with plenty of nutrients: amino acids, antioxidants, methyl donors, vitamins, minerals, etc. Knowledge and the range of action can be extended by subjecting the organism to an as large as possible variety of challenges. These challenges are ideally brief so as not to deplete resources and produce irreversible damage. However, they should be sufficiently intense and unpredictable to induce an overshoot in the mobilization of resources for damage repair, and to stimulate the organism to build stronger capabilities for tackling future challenges. This allows them to override the trade-offs and limitations that evolution has built into the organism's repair processes in order to conserve potentially scarce resources. Such acute, "hormetic" stressors strengthen the organism in part via the "order from noise" mechanism that destroys dysfunctional structures by subjecting them to strong, random variations. They include heat and cold, physical exertion, exposure, stretching, vibration, fasting, food toxins, micro-organisms, environmental enrichment and psychological challenges. The proposed buffering-challenging strategy may be able to extend life indefinitely, by forcing a periodic rebuilding and extension of capabilities, while using the Internet as an endless source of new knowledge about how to deal with disturbances.

  17. A Cybernetic Approach to Assess the Training of Manual Control Skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, D.M.; Zaal, P.M.T.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a cybernetic approach to assess the training of manual control skills in simulators. The approach uses multi-channel pilot models that separate pilots’ responses to visual and motion stimuli. This allows for a quantitative analysis of pilots’ use of visual and motion cues for

  18. Impact of a Cybernetic System of Feedback to Physicians on Inappropriate Hospital Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studnicki, James; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A cybernetic control program was designed to reduce inappropriate days of hospitalization for Medicare patients in four Western Maryland counties. Hospital stays for patients of 282 physicians were reviewed by physician advisers, with attention to the physician's volume of hospitalized patients and the number of inappropriate days of care.…

  19. Organizational Categories as Viewing Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    I elucidate how the two rehabilitation organizations local history, legislation, structural features of the present labour market and of social work result in a number of contradictions which make it difficult to deliver client-centred care. This exact goal is according to the staff one of the most......This paper explores how two Danish rehabilitation organizations textual guidelines for assessment of clients' personality traits influence the actual evaluation of clients. The analysis will show how staff members produce institutional identities corresponding to organizational categories, which...... very often have little or no relevance for the clients evaluated. The goal of the article is to demonstrate how the institutional complex that frames the work of the organizations produces the client types pertaining to that organization. By applying the analytical strategy of institutional ethnography...

  20. On the history of Ludwig von Bertalanffy’s “General Systemology”, and on its relationship to cybernetics – part III: convergences and divergences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drack, Manfred; Pouvreau, David

    2015-01-01

    Bertalanffy’s so-called “general system theory” (GST) and cybernetics were and are often confused: this calls for clarification. In this article, Bertalanffy’s conceptions and ideas are compared with those developed in cybernetics in order to investigate the differences and convergences. Bertalanffy was concerned with first order cybernetics. Nonetheless, his perspectivist epistemology is also relevant with regard to developments in second order cybernetics, and the latter is therefore also considered to some extent. W. Ross Ashby’s important role as mediator between GST and cybernetics is analysed. The respective basic epistemological approaches, scientific approaches and inherent world views are discussed. We underline the complementarity of cybernetic and “organismic” trends in systems research within the unitary hermeneutical framework of “general systemology”. PMID:26612966

  1. Railway management : an evaluation of management cybernetics in a public enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Paradissopoulos, Iordanis K.

    1989-01-01

    Two are the objectives of this thesis: To identify structural and cultural causes of ineffectiveness in a state-owned railway enterprise in the light of the management cybernetics area of knowledge. To assess the capacity of this area of knowledge, especially in its abstract and coded form (Beer's Model of the Viable System), to provide adequate explanations of organizational performance and organizational failure. The objectives are sought in the analysis of an actual enter...

  2. Revised enzyme synthesis rate expression in cybernetic models of bacterial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, B G; Ramkrishna, D

    1988-01-01

    A revised enzyme synthesis rate expression for cybernetic models of bacterial growth is presented. The rate expression, which is comprised of inducible and constitutive contributions, provides for a basal enzyme level that is necessary to predict certain types of commonly observed continuous culture transients. The response of a continuous culture to a step change in feed stream composition is simulated using both the old and new formulations, and the ramifications for the "matching-law" formulation are discussed.

  3. American Gadgets: Cybernetics, Consumer Electronics, and Twentieth-Century US Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeone, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Challenging the argument that liberal humanism faces extinction in the face of ubiquitous digital technologies, my dissertation analyzes the ways in which consumer electronics reinscribe the human subject as a privileged category in the information age. Through spaces like the Matrix, Windows 7, or even the single row of play controls on a…

  4. Category of A_infinity-categories

    OpenAIRE

    Lyubashenko, Volodymyr

    2002-01-01

    We define natural A_infinity-transformations and construct A_infinity-category of A_infinity-functors. The notion of non-strict units in an A_infinity-category is introduced. The 2-category of (unital) A_infinity-categories, (unital) functors and transformations is described.

  5. [What is the subject of science "bioinformatics"?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaĭlakhian, L M

    2005-01-01

    The paper is concerned with some problems of terminology, in particular the term "bioinformatics". In the last few years, the term "bioinformatics" has been intensively used among molecular biologists to indicate a subject that is only a constituent of genomics and is considered to involve a computer-assisted analysis of all data on nucleotide sequences of DNA. However, a wide circle of scientists, including biologists, physicists, mathematicians, and specialists in the field of cybernetics, informatics, and other disciplines have accepted and accept, as a rule, the "bioinformatics" as a synonym of science cybernetics and as a successor of this science. In this case, the subject of science "bioinformatics" should embrace not only genomics but practically all sections of the biological science. It should involve a study of information processes (storage, transfer, and processing of information, etc.) participating in the regulation and control at all levels of living systems, from macromolecules to the brain of higher animals and human.

  6. Cybernetic structured modeling of the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by Alcaligenes Eutrophus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. FERRAZ

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a cybernetic structured mathematical model developed for the fermentation step of the process of production of the copolymer of polyhydroxyalkanoates by the bacteria Alcaligenes eutrophus. This process is performed in two different fermentation stages. The first emphasizes the growth of the microorganism in a batch operation without substrates limitations, while in the second, the focus is on copolymer production by a fed-batch operation in the absence of the nitrogen source. This paper presents the results of the treatment of experimental data and of preliminary parameter estimation. The fitting of the proposed model to the experimental data of a standard experiment showed a good agreement.

  7. Development of Mentalizing and Communication: From Viewpoint of Developmental Cybernetics and Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itakura, Shoji

    The ability to mentalize is essential for human socialization. Such ability is strongly related to communication. In this paper, I discuss the development of mentalizing and communication from the perspectives of a new idea, Developmental Cybernetics, and developmental cognitive neuroscience. Children only attributed intention to a robot when they saw it behaving as a human and displaying social signals such as eye gaze. The emergence of powerful new methods and tools, such as neuroimaging, now allows questions about mentalizing to resolved more directly than before.

  8. Decision Support System and Customer Relationship Management as Components of the Cybernetic System Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra MISDOLEA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the role played by the information system and its component, the software system, in a larger system - the Enterprise. In this context, the paper focuses on the structure of Decision Support System and Customer Relationship Management and their benefits in the functioning of the global system, by examining the conditions of implementation of these tools in the organization. We will show that used independently these tools offer reduced services, but when interconnected, they become a very powerful tool for command and control. Viability, evolution and autonomy requested by users for their information system are obtained more easily by a systemic-cybernetic approach to the Enterprise.

  9. The Ungraded Derived Category

    OpenAIRE

    Stai, Torkil Utvik

    2012-01-01

    By means of the ungraded derived category we prove that the orbit category of the bounded derived category of an iterated tilted algebra with respect to translation is triangulated in such a way that the canonical functor from the bounded derived category to the orbit category becomes a triangle functor.

  10. Section of Cybernetics in Mining of Mining Committee of Polish Academy of Sciences - Pro Memoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojaczek, Antoni; Miśkiewicz, Kazimierz

    2017-09-01

    Section of Cybernetics in Mining of Mining Committee of Polish Academy of Science (PAN) has been created by PAN Mining Committee in 1969. It was a section in Mining Committee of PAN, whose operation range included widely understood issues of automation, telecommunication and informatics in mining industry. The main operation method of the Section was to organize the periodic conferences dedicated to issues of control systems in mining. The first conference took place in 1971 in Katowice. Together with new (the current one) term of office of Mining Committee of PAN this Section ceased to exist. The paper presents (pro memoria) over 40 year long conference output of this Section that functioned within the scope of operation of Mining Committee of PAN up to 12th January 2016.

  11. Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Informatics, Cybernetics, and Computer Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This volume includes a set of selected papers extended and revised from the International Conference on Informatics, Cybernetics, and Computer Engineering. A computer network is a collection of computers and devices interconnected by communications channels that facilitate communications and allows sharing of resources and information among interconnected devices. Networks may be classified according to a wide variety of characteristics such as medium used to transport the data, communications protocol used, scale, topology, organizational scope, etc. Electronics engineering is an engineering discipline where non-linear and active electrical components such as electron tubes, and semiconductor devices, especially transistors, diodes and integrated circuits, are utilized to design electronic circuits, devices and systems, typically also including passive electrical components and based on printed circuit boards. ICCE 2011 Volume 3 is to provide a forum for researchers, educators, engineers, and government offi...

  12. Concepts to Analyze the Vulnerability of Critical Infrastructures - Taking into account Cybernetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Petit

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Critical Infrastructures (CIs are complex systems. For their operations, these infrastructures are increasingly using Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA systems. Management practices are therefore highly dependent on the cyber tools, but also on the data needed to make these tools work. Therefore, CIs are greatly vulnerable to degradation of data. In this context, this paper aims at presenting the fundamentals of a method for analyzing the vulnerabilities of CIs towards the use of cyber data. By characterizing cyber vulnerability of CIs, it will be possible to improve the resilience of these networks and to foster a proactive approach to risk management not only by considering cybernetics from a cyber-attack point of view but also by considering the consequences of the use of corrupted data.

  13. Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Informatics, Cybernetics, and Computer Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The volume includes a set of selected papers extended and revised from the International Conference on Informatics, Cybernetics, and Computer Engineering. Intelligent control is a class of control techniques, that use various AI computing approaches like neural networks, Bayesian probability, fuzzy logic, machine learning, evolutionary computation and genetic algorithms. Intelligent control can be divided into the following major sub-domains: Neural network control Bayesian control Fuzzy (logic) control Neuro-fuzzy control Expert Systems Genetic control Intelligent agents (Cognitive/Conscious control) New control techniques are created continuously as new models of intelligent behavior are created and computational methods developed to support them. Networks may be classified according to a wide variety of characteristics such as medium used to transport the data, communications protocol used, scale, topology, organizational scope, etc. ICCE 2011 Volume 1 is to provide a forum for researchers, educators, engi...

  14. Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Informatics, Cybernetics, and Computer Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The volume includes a set of selected papers extended and revised from the International Conference on Informatics, Cybernetics, and Computer Engineering. An information system (IS) is any combination of information technology and people's activities using that technology to support operations, management.  Computer engineering is a discipline that integrates several fields of electrical engineering and computer science required to develop computer systems. ICCE 2011 Volume 2 is to provide a forum for researchers, educators, engineers, and government officials involved in the general areas of Information system and Software Engineering to disseminate their latest research results and exchange views on the future research directions of these fields. 81 high-quality papers are included in the volume. Each paper has been peer-reviewed by at least 2 program committee members and selected by the volume editor.

  15. Issues of organizational cybernetics and viability beyond Beer's viable systems model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechansky, Helmut

    2013-11-01

    The paper starts summarizing the claims of Beer's viable systems model to identify five issues any viable organizations has to deal with in an unequivocal hierarchical structure of five interrelated systems. Then the evidence is introduced for additional issues and related viable structures of organizations, which deviate from Beer's model. These issues are: (1) the establishment and (2) evolution of an organization; (3) systems for independent top-down control (like "Six Sigma"); (4) systems for independent bottom-up correction of performance problems (like "Kaizen"), both working outside a hierarchical structure; (5) pull production systems ("Just in Time") and (6) systems for checks and balances of top-level power (like boards and shareholder meetings). Based on that an evolutionary approach to organizational cybernetics is outlined, addressing the establishment of organizations and possible courses of developments, including recent developments in quality and production engineering, as well as problems of setting and changing goal values determining organizational policies.

  16. Valuation, Categories and Attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Galperin, Inna; Sorenson, Olav

    2014-01-01

    Existing research on categories has only examined indirectly the value associated with being a member of a category relative to the value of the set of attributes that determine membership in that category. This study uses survey data to analyze consumers' preferences for the "organic" label versus for the attributes underlying that label. We found that consumers generally preferred products with the category label to those with the attributes required for the organic label but without the la...

  17. Formalizing Restriction Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Chapman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Restriction categories are an abstract axiomatic framework by Cockett and Lack for reasoning about (generalizations of the idea of partiality of functions. In a restriction category, every map defines an endomap on its domain, the corresponding partial identity map. Restriction categories cover a number of examples of different flavors and are sound and complete with respect to the more synthetic and concrete partial map categories. A partial map category is based on a given category (of total maps and a map in it is a map from a subobject of the domain. In this paper, we report on an Agda formalization of the first chapters of the theory of restriction categories, including the challenging completeness result. We explain the mathematics formalized, comment on the design decisions we made for the formalization, and illustrate them at work.

  18. The cybernetic constructivism as a metatheory of education: some contributions to the study and regulation of teaching and learning processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara ROMERO PÉREZ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the basic propositions from the constructivist theory and the second-order cybernetics to study the teaching and learning processes. As a metatheory, the cybernetic constructivism provides a new theoretical framework to analyse and better regulate the educational process with the aid of a new approaches. First, this article analyses the most representative metatheory ideas: cognition, self-awareness and structural fine-tuning in order to infer a new approach to rethink the educational praxis and to promote the pupil individual autonomy. In addition, we infer to the educational process a new pedagogical approach focused to the individual autonomy, the co-operation and the communication on the educational intra-system.

  19. Incidental auditory category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, Yafit; Dick, Frederic K; Zevin, Jason D; Holt, Lori L

    2015-08-01

    Very little is known about how auditory categories are learned incidentally, without instructions to search for category-diagnostic dimensions, overt category decisions, or experimenter-provided feedback. This is an important gap because learning in the natural environment does not arise from explicit feedback and there is evidence that the learning systems engaged by traditional tasks are distinct from those recruited by incidental category learning. We examined incidental auditory category learning with a novel paradigm, the Systematic Multimodal Associations Reaction Time (SMART) task, in which participants rapidly detect and report the appearance of a visual target in 1 of 4 possible screen locations. Although the overt task is rapid visual detection, a brief sequence of sounds precedes each visual target. These sounds are drawn from 1 of 4 distinct sound categories that predict the location of the upcoming visual target. These many-to-one auditory-to-visuomotor correspondences support incidental auditory category learning. Participants incidentally learn categories of complex acoustic exemplars and generalize this learning to novel exemplars and tasks. Further, learning is facilitated when category exemplar variability is more tightly coupled to the visuomotor associations than when the same stimulus variability is experienced across trials. We relate these findings to phonetic category learning. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Valuation, categories and attributes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Galperin

    Full Text Available Existing research on categories has only examined indirectly the value associated with being a member of a category relative to the value of the set of attributes that determine membership in that category. This study uses survey data to analyze consumers' preferences for the "organic" label versus for the attributes underlying that label. We found that consumers generally preferred products with the category label to those with the attributes required for the organic label but without the label. We also found that the value accorded to the organic label increased with the number of attributes that an individual associated with the category. Category membership nevertheless still had greater value than even that of the sum of the attributes associated with it.

  1. Valuation, categories and attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galperin, Inna; Sorenson, Olav

    2014-01-01

    Existing research on categories has only examined indirectly the value associated with being a member of a category relative to the value of the set of attributes that determine membership in that category. This study uses survey data to analyze consumers' preferences for the "organic" label versus for the attributes underlying that label. We found that consumers generally preferred products with the category label to those with the attributes required for the organic label but without the label. We also found that the value accorded to the organic label increased with the number of attributes that an individual associated with the category. Category membership nevertheless still had greater value than even that of the sum of the attributes associated with it.

  2. D-brane categories

    OpenAIRE

    Lazaroiu, C. I.

    2003-01-01

    This is an exposition of recent progress in the categorical approach to D-brane physics. I discuss the physical underpinnings of the appearance of homotopy categories and triangulated categories of D-branes from a string field theoretic perspective, and with a focus on applications to homological mirror symmetry.

  3. MOOCs Definition & Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández López, Arantxa; Gil Rodríguez, Eva Patrícia; Peña López, Ismael

    2013-01-01

    Infographics about MOOCs Definition and Categories, by Learning Technologies Office. Infografía sobre definición y categorías de MOOC, por Tecnología educativa. Infografia sobre definició i categories de MOOC, per Tecnologia educativa.

  4. Using Cybernetics for Early Detection of Instructional Problems in the Chilean Educational System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Schaffernicht

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available We have posulated that in order to avoid the loss of opportunities in education, it is desirable and feasible to develop a detection system for problems during the teaching processes. We have based this on two disciplines. From cybernetics we took the idea of the logically autoreferential system which adjusts itself automatically and is analogous to Beer’s viable system model. From theories of learning, we presented a learning-action focus that distinguishes various hierarchical cycles. We distinguished two time horizons: one, for courses that managed the improvements between two versions of themselves; the other, concerned with improving the processes while the course is being carried out. At this level, we differentiated between the student, the group of students, and the teacher, as possible sources of imbalances. The general process of three cycles proposed indicators for the early detection of problems; furthermore, it has shown an capability for self-adjustment, and is under further investigation. The experience has been developed in the context of computer-training associated with the ENLACES Network which the University of Talca offers to teachers of middle schools and high schools, as well as subsidized private schools in the Maule Region of Chile.

  5. Towards the Accuracy of Cybernetic Strategy Planning Models: Causal Proof and Function Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian A. Hillbrand

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available All kind of strategic tasks within an enterprise require a deep understanding of its critical key success factors and their interrelations as well as an in-depth analysis of relevant environmental influences. Due to the openness of the underlying system, there seems to be an indefinite number of unknown variables influencing strategic goals. Cybernetic or systemic planning techniques try to overcome this intricacy by modeling the most important cause-and-effect relations within such a system. Although it seems to be obvious that there are specific influences between business variables, it is mostly impossible to identify the functional dependencies underlying such relations. Hence simulation or evaluation techniques based on such hypothetically assumed models deliver inaccurate results or fail completely. This paper addresses the need for accurate strategy planning models and proposes an approach to prove their cause-andeffect relations by empirical evidence. Based on this foundation an approach for the approximation of the underlying cause-andeffect function by the means of Artificial Neural Networks is developed.

  6. Triangulated categories (AM-148)

    CERN Document Server

    Neeman, Amnon

    2014-01-01

    The first two chapters of this book offer a modern, self-contained exposition of the elementary theory of triangulated categories and their quotients. The simple, elegant presentation of these known results makes these chapters eminently suitable as a text for graduate students. The remainder of the book is devoted to new research, providing, among other material, some remarkable improvements on Brown''s classical representability theorem. In addition, the author introduces a class of triangulated categories""--the ""well generated triangulated categories""--and studies their properties. This

  7. International Conference on Category Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pedicchio, Maria; Rosolini, Guiseppe

    1991-01-01

    With one exception, these papers are original and fully refereed research articles on various applications of Category Theory to Algebraic Topology, Logic and Computer Science. The exception is an outstanding and lengthy survey paper by Joyal/Street (80 pp) on a growing subject: it gives an account of classical Tannaka duality in such a way as to be accessible to the general mathematical reader, and to provide a key for entry to more recent developments and quantum groups. No expertise in either representation theory or category theory is assumed. Topics such as the Fourier cotransform, Tannaka duality for homogeneous spaces, braided tensor categories, Yang-Baxter operators, Knot invariants and quantum groups are introduced and studies. From the Contents: P.J. Freyd: Algebraically complete categories.- J.M.E. Hyland: First steps in synthetic domain theory.- G. Janelidze, W. Tholen: How algebraic is the change-of-base functor?.- A. Joyal, R. Street: An introduction to Tannaka duality and quantum groups.- A. Jo...

  8. Consumer Product Category Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use...

  9. Variation within categories.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das-Smaal, E.A.; Swart, de J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Two aspects of variation within categories, relating to different models of categorization, were investigated - frequency of dimensional values and typicality differences within values. The influence of range of typicality experienced during learning and of informational value of feedback was also

  10. Analysis of rare categories

    CERN Document Server

    He, Jingrui

    2012-01-01

    This book focuses on rare category analysis where the majority classes have smooth distributions and the minority classes exhibit the compactness property. It focuses on challenging cases where the support regions of the majority and minority classes overlap.

  11. Categories without structures

    OpenAIRE

    Rodin, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    The popular view according to which Category theory provides a support for Mathematical Structuralism is erroneous. Category-theoretic foundations of mathematics require a different philosophy of mathematics. While structural mathematics studies invariant forms (Awodey) categorical mathematics studies covariant transformations which, generally, don t have any invariants. In this paper I develop a non-structuralist interpretation of categorical mathematics and show its consequences for history...

  12. Models as Relational Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkonen, Tommi

    2017-10-01

    Model-based learning (MBL) has an established position within science education. It has been found to enhance conceptual understanding and provide a way for engaging students in authentic scientific activity. Despite ample research, few studies have examined the cognitive processes regarding learning scientific concepts within MBL. On the other hand, recent research within cognitive science has examined the learning of so-called relational categories. Relational categories are categories whose membership is determined on the basis of the common relational structure. In this theoretical paper, I argue that viewing models as relational categories provides a well-motivated cognitive basis for MBL. I discuss the different roles of models and modeling within MBL (using ready-made models, constructive modeling, and generative modeling) and discern the related cognitive aspects brought forward by the reinterpretation of models as relational categories. I will argue that relational knowledge is vital in learning novel models and in the transfer of learning. Moreover, relational knowledge underlies the coherent, hierarchical knowledge of experts. Lastly, I will examine how the format of external representations may affect the learning of models and the relevant relations. The nature of the learning mechanisms underlying students' mental representations of models is an interesting open question to be examined. Furthermore, the ways in which the expert-like knowledge develops and how to best support it is in need of more research. The discussion and conceptualization of models as relational categories allows discerning students' mental representations of models in terms of evolving relational structures in greater detail than previously done.

  13. A 2-categories companion

    OpenAIRE

    Lack, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    This paper is a rather informal guide to some of the basic theory of 2-categories and bicategories, including notions of limit and colimit, 2-dimensional universal algebra, formal category theory, and nerves of bicategories. As is the way of these things, the choice of topics is somewhat personal. No attempt is made at either rigour or completeness. Nor is it completely introductory: you will not find a definition of bicategory; but then nor will you really need one to read it. In keeping wit...

  14. Homological algebra in -abelian categories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deren Luo

    2017-08-16

    13]. He developed the classical abelian category and exact category theory to higher-dimensional n-abelian category and n-exact category theory [13]. He also proved that n-cluster tilting subcategories are n-abelian categories ...

  15. Beyond the Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Jeffrey

    2015-07-01

    Shushu is a Turkish Cypriot drag performance artist and the article begins with a discussion of a short film about him by a Greek Cypriot playwright, film maker, and gay activist. The film is interesting in its own right as a documentary about a complex personality, but it is also relevant to wider discussion of sexual and gender identity and categorization in a country divided by history, religion, politics, and military occupation. Shushu rejects easy identification as gay or transgender, or anything else. He is his own self. But refusing a recognized and recognizable identity brings problems, and I detected a pervasive mood of melancholy in his portrayal. The article builds from this starting point to explore the problematic nature of identities and categorizations in the contemporary world. The analysis opens with the power of words and language in defining and classifying sexuality. The early sexologists set in motion a whole catalogue of categories which continue to shape sexual thinking, believing that they were providing a scientific basis for a more humane treatment of sexual variations. This logic continues in DSM-5. The historical effect, however, has been more complex. Categorizations have often fixed individuals into a narrow band of definitions and identities that marginalize and pathologize. The emergence of radical sexual-social movements from the late 1960s offered new forms of grassroots knowledge in opposition to the sexological tradition, but at first these movements worked to affirm rather than challenge the significance of identity categories. Increasingly, however, identities have been problematized and challenged for limiting sexual and gender possibilities, leading to the apparently paradoxical situation where sexual identities are seen as both necessary and impossible. There are emotional costs both in affirming a fixed identity and in rejecting one. Shushu is caught in this dilemma, leading to the pervasive sense of loss that shapes the

  16. 28 CFR 60.2 - Authorized categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authorized categories. 60.2 Section 60.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) AUTHORIZATION OF FEDERAL LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS... the United States. (f) Any civilian agent of the Department of Defense not subject to military...

  17. An introduction to the language of category theory

    CERN Document Server

    Roman, Steven

    2017-01-01

    This textbook provides an introduction to elementary category theory, with the aim of making what can be a confusing and sometimes overwhelming subject more accessible. In writing about this challenging subject, the author has brought to bear all of the experience he has gained in authoring over 30 books in university-level mathematics. The goal of this book is to present the five major ideas of category theory: categories, functors, natural transformations, universality, and adjoints in as friendly and relaxed a manner as possible while at the same time not sacrificing rigor. These topics are developed in a straightforward, step-by-step manner and are accompanied by numerous examples and exercises, most of which are drawn from abstract algebra. The first chapter of the book introduces the definitions of category and functor and discusses diagrams, duality, initial and terminal objects, special types of morphisms, and some special types of categories, particularly comma categories and hom-set categories. Chap...

  18. Constraints on Colour Category Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jraissati, Yasmina; Wakui, Elley; Decock, Lieven; Douven, Igor

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses two questions related to colour categorization, to wit, the question what a colour category is, and the question how we identify colour categories. We reject both the relativist and universalist answers to these questions. Instead, we suggest that colour categories can be

  19. Structural similarity and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that category-specific recognition disorders for natural objects may reflect that natural objects are more structurally (visually) similar than artefacts and therefore more difficult to recognize following brain damage. On this account one might expect a positive relationship...... range of candidate integral units will be activated and compete for selection, thus explaining the higher error rate associated with animals. We evaluate the model based on previous evidence from both normal subjects and patients with category-specific disorders and argue that this model can help...

  20. Discriminating among diagnostic categories using the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Colin A; Ellason, Joan Weathersbee

    2005-04-01

    The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule was administered to 1,308 subjects in eight diagnostic categories, including 296 with dissociative identity disorder. The study tested three hypotheses: (1) the Mahalanobis distance between dissociative identity disorder and each of seven other diagnostic categories would be large, (2) the closest diagnostic category to dissociative identity disorder would be dissociative disorder not otherwise specified, and (3) nondissociative diagnostic categories would be closer to each other than any one to dissociative identity disorder. All three hypotheses were confirmed by these data. The findings support the conclusion that dissociative identity disorder is a discrete category or taxon.

  1. Citation analysis of scientific categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory S. Patience

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Databases catalogue the corpus of research literature into scientific categories and report classes of bibliometric data such as the number of citations to articles, the number of authors, journals, funding agencies, institutes, references, etc. The number of articles and citations in a category are gauges of productivity and scientific impact but a quantitative basis to compare researchers between categories is limited. Here, we compile a list of bibliometric indicators for 236 science categories and citation rates of the 500 most cited articles of each category. The number of citations per paper vary by several orders of magnitude and are highest in multidisciplinary sciences, general internal medicine, and biochemistry and lowest in literature, poetry, and dance. A regression model demonstrates that citation rates to the top articles in each category increase with the square root of the number of articles in a category and decrease proportionately with the age of the references: articles in categories that cite recent research are also cited more frequently. The citation rate correlates positively with the number of funding agencies that finance the research. The category h-index correlates with the average number of cites to the top 500 ranked articles of each category (R2=0.997. Furthermore, only a few journals publish the top 500 cited articles in each category: four journals publish 60% (σ=±20% of these and ten publish 81% (σ=±15%.

  2. Citation analysis of scientific categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patience, Gregory S; Patience, Christian A; Blais, Bruno; Bertrand, Francois

    2017-05-01

    Databases catalogue the corpus of research literature into scientific categories and report classes of bibliometric data such as the number of citations to articles, the number of authors, journals, funding agencies, institutes, references, etc. The number of articles and citations in a category are gauges of productivity and scientific impact but a quantitative basis to compare researchers between categories is limited. Here, we compile a list of bibliometric indicators for 236 science categories and citation rates of the 500 most cited articles of each category. The number of citations per paper vary by several orders of magnitude and are highest in multidisciplinary sciences, general internal medicine, and biochemistry and lowest in literature, poetry, and dance. A regression model demonstrates that citation rates to the top articles in each category increase with the square root of the number of articles in a category and decrease proportionately with the age of the references: articles in categories that cite recent research are also cited more frequently. The citation rate correlates positively with the number of funding agencies that finance the research. The category h-index correlates with the average number of cites to the top 500 ranked articles of each category ([Formula: see text]). Furthermore, only a few journals publish the top 500 cited articles in each category: four journals publish 60% ([Formula: see text]) of these and ten publish 81% ([Formula: see text]).

  3. Procedural learning of unstructured categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Matthew J; Madsen, Nils R; Ashby, F Gregory

    2012-12-01

    Unstructured categories are those in which the stimuli are assigned to each contrasting category randomly, and thus there is no rule- or similarity-based strategy for determining category membership. Intuition suggests that unstructured categories are likely to be learned via explicit memorization that is under the control of declarative memory. In contrast to this prediction, neuroimaging studies of unstructured-category learning have reported task-related activation in the striatum, but typically not in the hippocampus--results that seem more consistent with procedural learning than with a declarative-memory strategy. This article reports the first known behavioral test of whether unstructured-category learning is mediated by explicit strategies or by procedural learning. Our results suggest that the feedback-based learning of unstructured categories is mediated by procedural memory.

  4. Traditional and New Enhancing Human Cybernetic and Nanotechnological Body Modification Technologies: A Comparative Study of Roman Catholic and Transhumanist Ethical Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiuri, Michael J.

    Advances in cybernetic and nanotechnological body modifications currently allow for enhancements to human physical and mental function which exceed human species-based norms. This thesis examines body modification and human enhancement from two perspectives---Roman Catholicism and Transhumanism--- in order to contribute to bioethical deliberations regarding enhancement technologies. Roman Catholicism has a longstanding tradition of bioethical discourse, informing the healthcare directives of Roman Catholic institutions. Transhumanism is more recent movement that endorses body modifications and human enhancements as a means of individual betterment and social evolution. The thesis first considers definitions of human enhancement and levels of normalcy in connection to cybernetic and nanotechnological bionic implants, and outlines a series of criteria to assess a technology's potential bioethical acceptability: implantability, permanency, power, and public interaction. The thesis then describes Roman Catholicism's response to non-enhancing decorative body modifications (cosmetic surgeries, common decorative modifications such as tattoos and piercings, and uncommon modifications such as scarifications and brandings) in order to establish a basis for possible Roman Catholic responses to enhancing cybernetic and nanotechnological modifications. This is followed by an analysis from a Roman Catholic perspective of the major social issues brought forward by enhancement technologies: commodification, eugenics, vulnerability, and distributive justice. Turning to Transhumanism, the thesis describes the origins and philosophy of the movement, and then discusses the bioethical principles it advances with regard to human enhancement. The thesis concludes by locating points of convergence between Transhumanism and Roman Catholicism that could be the basis of more widely accepted ethical guidelines regarding modification technologies.

  5. Influence of emotionally charged information on category-based induction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Zhu

    Full Text Available Categories help us make predictions, or inductions, about new objects. However, we cannot always be certain that a novel object belongs to the category we are using to make predictions. In such cases, people should use multiple categories to make inductions. Past research finds that people often use only the most likely category to make inductions, even if it is not certain. In two experiments, subjects read stories and answered questions about items whose categorization was uncertain. In Experiment 1, the less likely category was either emotionally neutral or dangerous (emotionally charged or likely to pose a threat. Subjects used multiple categories in induction when one of the categories was dangerous but not when they were all neutral. In Experiment 2, the most likely category was dangerous. Here, people used multiple categories, but there was also an effect of avoidance, in which people denied that dangerous categories were the most likely. The attention-grabbing power of dangerous categories may be balanced by a higher-level strategy to reject them.

  6. Functional categories in comparative linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    Functional categories in comparative linguistics Even after many decades of typological research, the biggest methodological problem still concerns the fundamental question: how can we be sure that we identify and compare the same linguistic form, structure, meaning etc. across languages? Very few...... linguistic categories, if any, appear to be ‘universal’ in the sense that they are attested in each and every language (Evans and Levinson 2009). The language-specific nature of form-based (structural, morphosyntactic) categories is well known, which is why typologists usually resort to ‘Greenbergian......’, meaning-based categories. The use of meaning-based or semantic categories, however, does not necessarily result in the identification of cross-linguistically comparable data either, as was already shown by Greenberg (1966: 88) himself. Whereas formal categories are too narrow in that they do not cover all...

  7. Category vs. Object Knowledge in Category-Based Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gregory L.; Ross, Brian H.

    2010-01-01

    In one form of category-based induction, people make predictions about unknown properties of objects. There is a tension between predictions made based on the object's specific features (e.g., objects above a certain size tend not to fly) and those made by reference to category-level knowledge (e.g., birds fly). Seven experiments with artificial…

  8. How do Category Managers Manage?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Sigurbjornsson, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to explore the managerial role of category managers in purchasing. A network management perspective is adopted. A case based research methodology is applied, and three category managers managing a diverse set of component and service categories in a global production...... firm is observed while providing accounts of their progress and results in meetings. We conclude that the network management classification scheme originally deve loped by Harland and Knight (2001) and Knight and Harland (2005) is a valuable and fertile theoretical framework for the analysis...... of the role of the category manager in purchasing....

  9. Two Categories of Dirac Manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Milburn, Brett

    2007-01-01

    We define two categories of Dirac manifolds, i.e. manifolds with complex Dirac structures. The first notion of maps I call \\emph{Dirac maps}, and the category of Dirac manifolds is seen to contain the categories of Poisson and complex manifolds as full subcategories. The second notion, \\emph{dual-Dirac maps}, defines a \\emph{dual-Dirac category} which contains presymplectic and complex manifolds as full subcategories. The dual-Dirac maps are stable under B-transformations. In particular we ge...

  10. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

  11. How categories come to matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohn, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    In a study of users' interactions with Siri, the iPhone personal assistant application, we noticed the emergence of overlaps and blurrings between explanatory categories such as "human" and "machine". We found that users work to purify these categories, thus resolving the tensions related...

  12. Categories of theories and interpretations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    In this paper we study categories of theories and interpretations. In these categories, notions of sameness of theories, like synonymy, bi-interpretability and mutual interpretability, take the form of isomorphism. We study the usual notions like monomorphism and product in the various theories.

  13. Categories for the working mathematician

    CERN Document Server

    MacLane, Saunders

    1971-01-01

    Category Theory has developed rapidly. This book aims to present those ideas and methods which can now be effectively used by Mathe­ maticians working in a variety of other fields of Mathematical research. This occurs at several levels. On the first level, categories provide a convenient conceptual language, based on the notions of category, functor, natural transformation, contravariance, and functor category. These notions are presented, with appropriate examples, in Chapters I and II. Next comes the fundamental idea of an adjoint pair of functors. This appears in many substantially equivalent forms: That of universal construction, that of direct and inverse limit, and that of pairs offunctors with a natural isomorphism between corresponding sets of arrows. All these forms, with their interrelations, are examined in Chapters III to V. The slogan is "Adjoint functors arise everywhere". Alternatively, the fundamental notion of category theory is that of a monoid -a set with a binary operation of multiplicati...

  14. Effects of task and category membership on representation stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Manetta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the within-subject stability of 150 participants who performed both a sorting task and a property-generation task over multiple sessions, focusing on three concrete concept categories (food, animals and bathroom products. We hypothesized that (1 the within-subject stability would be higher in the sorting task than in the property-generation task and (2 the nature of the category would influence both the within-subject stability of the classification groups in the sorting task and the properties generated to define these groups. The results show that the within-subject stability of conceptual representations depends both on the task and on the nature of the category. The stability of the representations was greater in the sorting task than in the property-generation task and in the food category. These results are discussed from a longitudinal perspective.

  15. On Anaphora and the Binding Principles in Categorial Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Glyn; Valentín, Oriol

    In type logical categorial grammar the analysis of an expression is a resource-conscious proof. Anaphora represents a particular challenge to this approach in that the antecedent resource is multiplied in the semantics. This duplication, which corresponds logically to the structural rule of contraction, may be treated lexically or syntactically. Furthermore, anaphora is subject to constraints, which Chomsky (1981) formulated as Binding Principles A, B, and C. In this paper we consider English anaphora in categorial grammar including reference to the binding principles. We invoke displacement calculus, modal categorial calculus, categorial calculus with limited contraction, and entertain addition of negation as failure.

  16. Ethnicity in censuses: Changeable and inconstant category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrđen Snježana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of ethnicity was set in all censuses of SFRY, as well as in the first censuses in countries that were created after its disintegration. When analyzing the censuses it can be concluded that it is a changeable category. Not only was the manner of forming the question in censuses changing, but also the number of categories of nationality and their order in published census' results. It depended on state policy and the political situation preceding the censuses. Since the answer on the issues of ethnicity is a subjective criterion, and it was written down according to the freely declared statement of the residents, guaranteed by the Constitution. It has often happened that same individuals have declared themselves differently from one census to another, and also some categories of ethnicity have vanished and some others were created. Although in SFRY nations and ethnicities were equal, still indirectly in published results, existence of these two categories was indicated. But, in newly created countries, the manner of forming the question of ethnicity was changed, their number and order were also changed and the notion of 'minority' was again introduced, indicating, beyond doubt, a different status of nationality (except the majority from the one in the former Yugoslavia.

  17. Constraint-Based Categorial Grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Bouma, G; Bouma, Gosse; Noord, Gertjan van

    1994-01-01

    We propose a generalization of Categorial Grammar in which lexical categories are defined by means of recursive constraints. In particular, the introduction of relational constraints allows one to capture the effects of (recursive) lexical rules in a computationally attractive manner. We illustrate the linguistic merits of the new approach by showing how it accounts for the syntax of Dutch cross-serial dependencies and the position and scope of adjuncts in such constructions. Delayed evaluation is used to process grammars containing recursive constraints.

  18. Data categories for marine planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsom, Frances L.; Cicchetti, Giancarlo; Wahle, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. National Ocean Policy calls for a science- and ecosystem-based approach to comprehensive planning and management of human activities and their impacts on America’s oceans. The Ocean Community in Data.gov is an outcome of 2010–2011 work by an interagency working group charged with designing a national information management system to support ocean planning. Within the working group, a smaller team developed a list of the data categories specifically relevant to marine planning. This set of categories is an important consensus statement of the breadth of information types required for ocean planning from a national, multidisciplinary perspective. Although the categories were described in a working document in 2011, they have not yet been fully implemented explicitly in online services or geospatial metadata, in part because authoritative definitions were not created formally. This document describes the purpose of the data categories, provides definitions, and identifies relations among the categories and between the categories and external standards. It is intended to be used by ocean data providers, managers, and users in order to provide a transparent and consistent framework for organizing and describing complex information about marine ecosystems and their connections to humans.

  19. PRECEDENCE AS A PSYCHOLINGUISTIC CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panarina Nadezhda Sergeevna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of particular linguistic units by representatives of a linguacultural community as the most preferable verbal actions is not necessary to be a case of verbal operations with some culturally specific knowledge. The analysis of a psychosocial mechanism used for generation and verbalization of such a knowledge allows to define the nature of precedence as a characteristic of meaning that is being effected in a speech act. The development of precedent meaning indispensably assumes not only generation of the definition component, but also entry into a structure of a culturological component meaning. The culturological component reflects a relationship between a subject-concept component of the meaning and the other elements of a speech situation – the relationship, which is notional for a person. Importance of the relationship consists in fact that definition of its content represents to a person their social identity. Until a person understands the content of relationship, which is represented by the culturological component, the use of corresponding linguistic units to nominate new objects of reality is a supraliminal appeal to the precedent knowledge, a speech act. But for new acts of usage the main thing is definitely quality of relationship as a characteristic of the cultural group stability, and the linguistic unit usage derives a new function. When the culturological component of the meaning is not included into generalization, since it is irrelevant one, and the core of meaning is composed of new and more relevant for the usage features, you can no more realize the inner form of the precedent meaning. The outer form is still relevant, since it is kept in mind by the representatives of linguaculture as the one which is preferable for usage. In this case the linguistic unit is just a tool not related to verbal representation of socially significant attitude, and its usage is a speech operation, a way to perform different speech acts

  20. FINANCIAL CONTROL AS A CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Yu. Volkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the basics of “financial control” as a category. The main attention is concentrated on the “control” itself (asa term, multiplicity of interpretation of“financial control” term and its juristic-practical matching. The duality of financial control category is detected. The identity of terms “financial control” and “state financial control” is justified. The article also offers ways of development of financial control juristical regulation.

  1. Essays on diffusion and categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hugten, Joeri

    2015-01-01

    Essay’ derives from the French ‘to try’. Accordingly, in this book, I try three new interpretations of diffusion and categories. That is, I try to divide observations into groups in a new way. Some ways of dividing lead to confusion and frustration. For example, people’s default division seems to be

  2. Acquiring auditory and phonetic categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudbeek, M.B.; Smits, R.; Swingley, D.; Cutler, A.

    2005-01-01

    Infants' first steps in language acquisition involve learning the relevant contrasts of the language-specific phonemic repertoire. This learning is viewed as the formation of categories in a multidimensional psychophysical space. Categorization research in the visual modality has shown that adults

  3. Linguistic Markedness and Category Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Todd R.; Mansfield, Cade D.; Brewer, Katherine M.

    2011-01-01

    Several psycholinguistic theories have appealed to the linguistic notion of markedness to help explain asymmetrical patterns of behavioural data. We suggest that this sort of markedness is best thought of as a derived rather than a primitive notion, emerging when the distributional properties of linguistic categories interact with general-purpose…

  4. A category of its own?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Jørgen; Roberts, Nigel S.

    1996-01-01

    At first sight, the electoral systems in Denmark, Germany, South Africa and Sweden may seem different and attaempt to categorize them together odd. All four, however, belong to the same category, which Arend Lijphart calls 'proportional representation two-tier districting systems', and the effects...

  5. Mosquito and Blackfly Category Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, James S.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Section one is concerned with the morphology, life cycle and breeding areas of mosquitoes and the diseases resulting from their presence. The second section covers similar categories in relation to the black fly population. Calculation methods and…

  6. Learnable Classes of Categorial Grammars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Makoto

    Learnability theory is an attempt to illuminate the concept of learnability using a mathematical model of learning. Two models of learning of categorial grammars are examined here: the standard model, in which sentences presented to the learner are flat strings of words, and one in which sentences are presented in the form of functor-argument…

  7. On the Category of Partial Bijections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Schwab

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Categories of partial functions have become increasingly important principally because of their applications in theoretical computer science. In this note we prove that the category of partial bijections between sets as an inverse-Baer*-category with closed projections and in which the idempotents split is an exact category. Finally the Noether isomorphism theorems are given for this exact category.

  8. A Morphism Double Category and Monoidal Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikat Chatterjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide a recipe for “fattening” a category that leads to the construction of a double category. Motivated by an example where the underlying category has vector spaces as objects, we show how a monoidal category leads to a law of composition, satisfying certain coherence properties, on the object set of the fattened category.

  9. Task-Modulated Cortical Representations of Natural Sound Source Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens; Kassuba, Tanja; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

    2018-01-01

    In everyday sound environments, we recognize sound sources and events by attending to relevant aspects of an acoustic input. Evidence about the cortical mechanisms involved in extracting relevant category information from natural sounds is, however, limited to speech. Here, we used functional MRI...... discriminability. Action categories were more accurately decoded in auditory cortex when subjects identified action information. Conversely, the material of the same sound sources was decoded with higher accuracy in the inferior frontal cortex during material identification. Representational similarity analyses...

  10. Category Learning in the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seger, Carol A.; Miller, Earl K.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to group items and events into functional categories is a fundamental characteristic of sophisticated thought. It is subserved by plasticity in many neural systems, including neocortical regions (sensory, prefrontal, parietal, and motor cortex), the medial temporal lobe, the basal ganglia, and midbrain dopaminergic systems. These systems interact during category learning. Corticostriatal loops may mediate recursive, bootstrapping interactions between fast reward-gated plasticity in the basal ganglia and slow reward-shaded plasticity in the cortex. This can provide a balance between acquisition of details of experiences and generalization across them. Interactions between the corticostriatal loops can integrate perceptual, response, and feedback-related aspects of the task and mediate the shift from novice to skilled performance. The basal ganglia and medial temporal lobe interact competitively or cooperatively, depending on the demands of the learning task. PMID:20572771

  11. A Formal Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José

    This dissertation studies the logic underlying category theory. In particular we present a formal calculus for reasoning about universal properties. The aim is to systematise judgements about functoriality and naturality central to categorical reasoning. The calculus is based on a language which...... extends the typed lambda calculus with new binders to represent universal constructions. The types of the languages are interpreted as locally small categories and the expressions represent functors. The logic supports a syntactic treatment of universality and duality. Contravariance requires a definition...... of universality generous enough to deal with functors of mixed variance. Ends generalise limits to cover these kinds of functors and moreover provide the basis for a very convenient algebraic manipulation of expressions. The equational theory of the lambda calculus is extended with new rules for the definitions...

  12. Grammatical Constructions as Relational Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Micah B

    2017-07-01

    This paper argues that grammatical constructions, specifically argument structure constructions that determine the "who did what to whom" part of sentence meaning and how this meaning is expressed syntactically, can be considered a kind of relational category. That is, grammatical constructions are represented as the abstraction of the syntactic and semantic relations of the exemplar utterances that are expressed in that construction, and it enables the generation of novel exemplars. To support this argument, I review evidence that there are parallel behavioral patterns between how children learn relational categories generally and how they learn grammatical constructions specifically. Then, I discuss computational simulations of how grammatical constructions are abstracted from exemplar sentences using a domain-general relational cognitive architecture. Last, I review evidence from adult language processing that shows parallel behavioral patterns with expert behavior from other cognitive domains. After reviewing the evidence, I consider how to integrate this account with other theories of language development. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  13. Virtue Ethics: The Misleading Category

    OpenAIRE

    Nussbaum, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Virtue ethics is frequently considered to be a single category of ethical theory, and a rival to Kantianismand Utilitarianism. I argue that this approach is a mistake, because both Kantians and Utilitarians can, and do, have an interest in the virtues and the forrnation of character. But even if we focus on the group of ethical theorists who are most commonly called "virtue theorists" because they reject the guidance of both Kantianism and Utilitarianism, and derive inspiration from ancient G...

  14. Cosmetics, categories, and the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2012-01-01

    Cosmetics is an interesting unregulated category of over-the-counter products designed to enhance appearance and skin health. The coloring agents used in cosmetics are regulated along with their preservative constituents. New understandings of skin physiology have allowed cosmetics to advance beyond appearance issues into the functional arena. Cosmeceuticals is an unrecognized term from a regulatory perspective that conveys the new cosmetic formulations ability to improve skin health. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The Cybernetics of Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-30

    Livingston (ed.), Disorder and Order, Stanford Literature Stud- ies 1, Anma Libri, Stanford, 1984. 19. H. R. Maturana and F. J. Varela, Autopoicsi, and...Cognition, D. Reidel, Boston, 1980. 20. F. J. Varele, Principles of Biological Autonomy, Elsevier, North. Holland, New York, 1979. 21. H. R. Maturana ... Maturana paid extraordinary attention to questions of anatomy and structure in general as the key to an understanding of the operation of the nervous system

  16. Cybernetics, Art and Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichardt, Jasia, Ed.

    The essays in this volume deal with the relationship of the computer and the arts, especially the exploration and demonstration of connections between creativity and technology, the links between scientific or mathematical approaches, intuitions, and the more irrational and oblique urges associated with the making of music, art, and poetry. The…

  17. 14 CFR 23.3 - Airplane categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane categories. 23.3 Section 23.3... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 23.3 Airplane categories. (a) The normal category is limited to airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding pilot...

  18. Task-Modulated Cortical Representations of Natural Sound Source Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjortkjær, Jens; Kassuba, Tanja; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Skov, Martin; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2017-10-23

    In everyday sound environments, we recognize sound sources and events by attending to relevant aspects of an acoustic input. Evidence about the cortical mechanisms involved in extracting relevant category information from natural sounds is, however, limited to speech. Here, we used functional MRI to measure cortical response patterns while human listeners categorized real-world sounds created by objects of different solid materials (glass, metal, wood) manipulated by different sound-producing actions (striking, rattling, dropping). In different sessions, subjects had to identify either material or action categories in the same sound stimuli. The sound-producing action and the material of the sound source could be decoded from multivoxel activity patterns in auditory cortex, including Heschl's gyrus and planum temporale. Importantly, decoding success depended on task relevance and category discriminability. Action categories were more accurately decoded in auditory cortex when subjects identified action information. Conversely, the material of the same sound sources was decoded with higher accuracy in the inferior frontal cortex during material identification. Representational similarity analyses indicated that both early and higher-order auditory cortex selectively enhanced spectrotemporal features relevant to the target category. Together, the results indicate a cortical selection mechanism that favors task-relevant information in the processing of nonvocal sound categories. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. Duality as a category-theoretic concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corfield, David

    2017-08-01

    In a paper published in 1939, Ernest Nagel described the role that projective duality had played in the reformulation of mathematical understanding through the turn of the nineteenth century, claiming that the discovery of the principle of duality had freed mathematicians from the belief that their task was to describe intuitive elements. While instances of duality in mathematics have increased enormously through the twentieth century, philosophers since Nagel have paid little attention to the phenomenon. In this paper I will argue that a reassessment is overdue. Something beyond doubt is that category theory has an enormous amount to say on the subject, for example, in terms of arrow reversal, dualising objects and adjunctions. These developments have coincided with changes in our understanding of identity and structure within mathematics. While it transpires that physicists have employed the term 'duality' in ways which do not always coincide with those of mathematicians, analysis of the latter should still prove very useful to philosophers of physics. Consequently, category theory presents itself as an extremely important language for the philosophy of physics.

  20. Application of the principles of systems biology and Wiener's cybernetics for analysis of regulation of energy fluxes in muscle cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzun, Rita; Saks, Valdur

    2010-03-08

    The mechanisms of regulation of respiration and energy fluxes in the cells are analyzed based on the concepts of systems biology, non-equilibrium steady state kinetics and applications of Wiener's cybernetic principles of feedback regulation. Under physiological conditions cardiac function is governed by the Frank-Starling law and the main metabolic characteristic of cardiac muscle cells is metabolic homeostasis, when both workload and respiration rate can be changed manifold at constant intracellular level of phosphocreatine and ATP in the cells. This is not observed in skeletal muscles. Controversies in theoretical explanations of these observations are analyzed. Experimental studies of permeabilized fibers from human skeletal muscle vastus lateralis and adult rat cardiomyocytes showed that the respiration rate is always an apparent hyperbolic but not a sigmoid function of ADP concentration. It is our conclusion that realistic explanations of regulation of energy fluxes in muscle cells require systemic approaches including application of the feedback theory of Wiener's cybernetics in combination with detailed experimental research. Such an analysis reveals the importance of limited permeability of mitochondrial outer membrane for ADP due to interactions of mitochondria with cytoskeleton resulting in quasi-linear dependence of respiration rate on amplitude of cyclic changes in cytoplasmic ADP concentrations. The system of compartmentalized creatine kinase (CK) isoenzymes functionally coupled to ANT and ATPases, and mitochondrial-cytoskeletal interactions separate energy fluxes (mass and energy transfer) from signalling (information transfer) within dissipative metabolic structures - intracellular energetic units (ICEU). Due to the non-equilibrium state of CK reactions, intracellular ATP utilization and mitochondrial ATP regeneration are interconnected by the PCr flux from mitochondria. The feedback regulation of respiration occurring via cyclic fluctuations of

  1. Historical Roots of International Biomedical and Health Informatics: The Road to IFIP-TC4 and IMIA through Cybernetic Medicine and the Elsinore Meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikowski, C A

    2017-08-01

    Background: It is 50 years since the International Federation of Information Processing (IFIP) Societies approved the formation of a new Technical Committee (TC) 4 on Medical Information Processing under the leadership of Professor Francois Grémy, which was the direct precursor of the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA). Objectives: The goals of this paper are to give a very brief overview of early international developments leading to informatics in medicine, with the origins of the applications of computers to medicine in the USA and Europe, and two meetings - of the International Society of Cybernetic Medicine, and the Elsinore Meetings on Hospital Information Systems-that took place in 1966. These set the stage for the formation of IFIP-TC4 the following year, with later sponsorship of the first MEDINFO in 1974, setting the path for the evolution to IMIA. Methods: This paper reviews and analyzes some of the earliest research and publications, together with two critical contrasting meetings in 1966 involving international activities in what evolved into biomedical and health informatics in terms of their probable influence on the formation of IFIP-TC4. Conclusion: The formation of IFIP-TC 4 in 1967 by Francois Grémy arose out of his concerns for merging, at an international level, the diverse strands from the more abstract work on cybernetic medicine and its basis in biophysical and neural modeling, with the more concrete and health-oriented medical information processing that was developing at the time for hospitals and clinical decision-making. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.

  2. Task-Modulated Cortical Representations of Natural Sound Source Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens; Kassuba, Tanja; Madsen, Kristoffer H.

    2017-01-01

    discriminability. Action categories were more accurately decoded in auditory cortex when subjects identified action information. Conversely, the material of the same sound sources was decoded with higher accuracy in the inferior frontal cortex during material identification. Representational similarity analyses...... indicated that both early and higher-order auditory cortex selectively enhanced spectrotemporal features relevant to the target category. Together, the results indicate a cortical selection mechanism that favors task-relevant information in the processing of nonvocal sound categories.......In everyday sound environments, we recognize sound sources and events by attending to relevant aspects of an acoustic input. Evidence about the cortical mechanisms involved in extracting relevant category information from natural sounds is, however, limited to speech. Here, we used functional MRI...

  3. Category theoretic analysis of single-photon decision maker

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Makoto Naruse Song-Ju; Berthel, Martin; Drezet, Aurélien; Huant, Serge; Hori, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    Decision making is a vital function in the era of artificial intelligence; however, its physical realizations and their theoretical fundamentals are not yet known. In our former study [Sci. Rep. 5, 513253 (2015)], we demonstrated that single photons can be used to make decisions in uncertain, dynamically changing environments. The multi-armed bandit problem was successfully solved using the dual probabilistic and particle attributes of single photons. Herein, we present the category theoretic foundation of the single-photon-based decision making, including quantitative analysis that agrees well with the experimental results. The category theoretic model unveils complex interdependencies of the entities of the subject matter in the most simplified manner, including a dynamically changing environment. In particular, the octahedral structure in triangulated categories provides a clear understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the single-photon decision maker. This is the first demonstration of a category the...

  4. Organized simultaneous displays facilitate learning of complex natural science categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Brian J; Carvalho, Paulo F; Goldstone, Robert L; Nosofsky, Robert M

    2017-12-01

    Subjects learned to classify images of rocks into the categories igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary. In accord with the real-world structure of these categories, the to-be-classified rocks in the experiments had a dispersed similarity structure. Our central hypothesis was that learning of these complex categories would be improved through observational study of organized, simultaneous displays of the multiple rock tokens. In support of this hypothesis, a technique that included the presentation of the simultaneous displays during phases of the learning process yielded improved acquisition (Experiment 1) and generalization (Experiment 2) compared to methods that relied solely on sequential forms of study and testing. The technique appears to provide a good starting point for application of cognitive-psychology principles of effective category learning to the science classroom.

  5. Does Category A Anchor Text Improve Category B Results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Research and Development Activity (ARDA). U.S. Government or Federal Rights License 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...Tech- nical Report TR-CTIT-10-15, Centre for Telematics and Information Technology University of Twente, Enschede. April.

  6. The history of psychological categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Roger

    2005-03-01

    Psychological terms, such as 'mind', 'memory', 'emotion' and indeed 'psychology' itself, have a history. This history, I argue, supports the view that basic psychological categories refer to historical and social entities, and not to 'natural kinds'. The case is argued through a wide ranging review of the historiography of western psychology, first, in connection with the field's extreme modern diversity; second, in relation to the possible antecedents of the field in the early modern period; and lastly, through a brief introduction to usage of the words 'soul', 'mind', 'memory' and 'emotion'. The discussion situates the history of psychology within a large historical context, questions assumptions about the continuity of meaning, and draws out implications for the philosophical and social constitution of 'psychology' and 'the psychological' from the existing literature. The historical evidence, this paper concludes, does not support the conventional presumption that modern psychological terms describe 'natural kinds'.

  7. Structural similarity and category-specificity: a refined account

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B.

    2004-01-01

    range of candidate integral units will be activated and compete for selection, thus explaining the higher error rate associated with animals. We evaluate the model based on previous evidence from both normal subjects and patients with category-specific disorders and argue that this model can help...

  8. Quotients of unital ${A}_\\infty$-categories

    OpenAIRE

    Lyubashenko, Volodymyr; Manzyuk, Oleksandr

    2003-01-01

    For a full subcategory B of a unital A_infinity-category C a quotient unital A_infinity-category `C/B' is defined. For differential graded categories such quotient is constructed by V.Drinfeld. Our construction is explicit and uses freely generated A_infinity-categories. The quotient D=`C/B' represents the A_infinity-2-functor A \\mapsto A_\\infty^u(C,A)_{modulo B}, which associates with a given unital A_infinity-category A the A_infinity-category of unital A_infinity-functors C -> A, whose res...

  9. Color categories and color appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue–green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary were perceptually exaggerated. This task did not require overt judgments of the perceived colors, and the tendency to group showed only a weak and inconsistent categorical bias. In a second case, we analyzed results from two prior studies of hue scaling of chromatic stimuli (De Valois, De Valois, Switkes, & Mahon, 1997; Malkoc, Kay, & Webster, 2005), to test whether color appearance changed more rapidly around the blue–green boundary. In this task observers directly judge the perceived color of the stimuli and these judgments tended to show much stronger categorical effects. The differences between these tasks could arise either because different signals mediate color grouping and color appearance, or because linguistic categories might differentially intrude on the response to color and/or on the perception of color. Our results suggest that the interaction between language and color processing may be highly dependent on the specific task and cognitive demands and strategies of the observer, and also highlight pronounced individual differences in the tendency to exhibit categorical responses. PMID:22176751

  10. Product sounds : Basic concepts and categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan Vieira, E.; Van Egmond, R.; Jacobs, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigated which categories of product sounds listeners can distinguish. We explored the perceptual domain of product sounds in order to be able to derive perceptually similar categories and determine how users are able to describe these categories by merely listening to them.

  11. Incremental Bayesian Category Learning From Natural Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frermann, Lea; Lapata, Mirella

    2016-08-01

    Models of category learning have been extensively studied in cognitive science and primarily tested on perceptual abstractions or artificial stimuli. In this paper, we focus on categories acquired from natural language stimuli, that is, words (e.g., chair is a member of the furniture category). We present a Bayesian model that, unlike previous work, learns both categories and their features in a single process. We model category induction as two interrelated subproblems: (a) the acquisition of features that discriminate among categories, and (b) the grouping of concepts into categories based on those features. Our model learns categories incrementally using particle filters, a sequential Monte Carlo method commonly used for approximate probabilistic inference that sequentially integrates newly observed data and can be viewed as a plausible mechanism for human learning. Experimental results show that our incremental learner obtains meaningful categories which yield a closer fit to behavioral data compared to related models while at the same time acquiring features which characterize the learned categories. (An earlier version of this work was published in Frermann and Lapata .). Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  12. Cross-language perceptual category mapping: Korean perception of English obstruents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanyong; de Jong, Kenneth; Silbert, Noah

    2004-05-01

    Models, such as SLM and PAM, predict that performance on second language sounds is determined by the perceptual relationship of the sounds to the original language categories. To measure this relationship, Schmidt [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 99, 3201-3211] had native Korean speakers classify English consonant productions into Korean orthographic categories, and assess the similarity of the consonants to the chosen categories. The current experiment further examines how Korean labeling relates to accuracy in using English orthographic categories. Results show Koreans poorly identify sounds rated as dissimilar from Korean categories. Similarly, sounds that are inconsistently labeled with Korean labels are less accurately identified. These results suggest that accuracy varies with the nearness of the English and a Korean category, and thus English categories are developed from original Korean categories. However, other results indicate that sounds straddling Korean categories can be very accurately labeled, suggesting a complete suppression of native contrasts. In addition, identification accuracy for subjectively odd sounds can be very high, suggesting the development of a new category. Similarly, cases in which both Korean and English labeling is inconsistent show no relationship between the Korean and the English labels, indicating that the English categories are constructed apart from the existing Korean categories.

  13. John Duns Scotus: Questions on Aristotle’s Categories, qq. 1-3

    OpenAIRE

    Salinas Leal, Héctor Hernando; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

    2016-01-01

    This is the first Spanish translation of the three first questions, of Scotus’s commentary on Aristotle’s Categories. The Franciscan distinguishes the subject matter of the Aristotelian treatise under the logical concept of «category», grounding the unity of their treatment as a scientific object on the unity of this concept. To do so, Scotus distinguishes the properly logic study of categories, from its linguistic treatment (which grounds in their utterance) and from the metaphysician’s stud...

  14. How far could we make ourselves understood by the Andromedans? - an evolutionary cybernetic problem in hierarchical dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoli, Salvatore

    1994-01-01

    The mechanistic interpretation of the communication process between cognitive hierarchical systems as an iterated pair of convolutions between the incoming discrete time series signals and the chaotic dynamics (CD) at the nm-scale of the perception (energy) wetware level, with the consequent feeding of the resulting collective properties to the CD software (symbolic) level, shows that the category of quality, largely present in Galilean quantitative-minded science, is to be increasingly made into quantity for finding optimum common codes for communication between different intelligent beings. The problem is similar to that solved by biological evolution, of communication between the conscious logic brain and the underlying unfelt ultimate extra-logical processes, as well as to the problem of the mind-body or the structure-function dichotomies. Perspective cybernated nanotechnological and/or nanobiological interfaces, and time evolution of the 'contact language' (the iterated dialogic process) as a self-organising system might improve human-alien understanding.

  15. Global maps of science based on the new Web-of-Science categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Carley, S.; Rafols, I.

    2013-01-01

    In August 2011, Thomson Reuters launched version 5 of the Science and Social Science Citation Index in the Web of Science (WoS). Among other things, the 222 ISI Subject Categories (SCs) for these two databases in version 4 of WoS were renamed and extended to 225 WoS Categories (WCs). A new set of

  16. The Theory of Empty Categories and the Pro-drop Parameter in Modern Greek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippaki-Warburton, Irene

    1987-01-01

    Examines the theory of empty categories in a Government and Binding analysis of Modern Greek syntax. No empty subject category is found and so the pro-drop parameter is a misnomer here. Further support for the correlation between parametric variation and inflexional or morphological properties of a language is presented. (Author/LMO)

  17. Mirror Asymmetry of Category and Letter Fluency in Traumatic Brain Injury and Alzheimer's Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitani, Erminio; Rosci, Chiara; Saetti, Maria Cristina; Laiacona, Marcella

    2009-01-01

    In this study we contrasted the Category fluency and Letter fluency performance of 198 normal subjects, 57 Alzheimer's patients and 57 patients affected by traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim was to check whether, besides the prevalence of Category fluency deficit often reported among Alzheimer's patients, the TBI group presented the opposite…

  18. Protein secondary structure: category assignment and predictability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus A.; Bohr, Henrik; Brunak, Søren

    2001-01-01

    structures. Single sequence prediction of the new three category assignment gives an overall prediction improvement of 3.1% and 5.1%, compared to the DSSP assignment and schemes where the helix category consists of a-helix and 3(10)-helix, respectively. These results were achieved using a standard feed-forward...

  19. Conformal field theories and tensor categories. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Chengming [Nankai Univ., Tianjin (China). Chern Institute of Mathematics; Fuchs, Juergen [Karlstad Univ. (Sweden). Theoretical Physics; Huang, Yi-Zhi [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Kong, Liang [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. for Advanced Study; Runkel, Ingo; Schweigert, Christoph (eds.) [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Mathematics

    2014-08-01

    First book devoted completely to the mathematics of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications. Contributors include both mathematicians and physicists. Some long expository articles are especially suitable for beginners. The present volume is a collection of seven papers that are either based on the talks presented at the workshop ''Conformal field theories and tensor categories'' held June 13 to June 17, 2011 at the Beijing International Center for Mathematical Research, Peking University, or are extensions of the material presented in the talks at the workshop. These papers present new developments beyond rational conformal field theories and modular tensor categories and new applications in mathematics and physics. The topics covered include tensor categories from representation categories of Hopf algebras, applications of conformal field theories and tensor categories to topological phases and gapped systems, logarithmic conformal field theories and the corresponding non-semisimple tensor categories, and new developments in the representation theory of vertex operator algebras. Some of the papers contain detailed introductory material that is helpful for graduate students and researchers looking for an introduction to these research directions. The papers also discuss exciting recent developments in the area of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications and will be extremely useful for researchers working in these areas.

  20. Biased allocation of faces to social categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dotsch, R.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2011-01-01

    Three studies show that social categorization is biased at the level of category allocation. In all studies, participants categorized faces. In Studies 1 and 2, participants overallocated faces with criminal features-a stereotypical negative trait-to the stigmatized Moroccan category, especially if

  1. Parsing with Structure-Preserving Categorial Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelletti, M.

    2007-01-01

    This book is a study of the logical and computational properties of structure-preserving categorial grammars. The first part of the book presents chart-parsers for non-associative categorial grammars in the style of Ajdukiewicz and Bar-Hillel. These are proposed in Chapter 3 as deductive parsers,

  2. Homological algebra in n-abelian categories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we study the homological theory in n -abelian categories. First, we prove some useful properties of n -abelian categories, such as ( n + 2 ) × ( n + 2 ) -lemma, 5-lemma and n -Horseshoes lemma. Secondly, we introduce the notions of right(left) n -derived functors of left(right) n -exact functors, n -(co)resolutions, ...

  3. Generalized Categorial Grammar for Unbounded Dependencies Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Luan Viet

    2014-01-01

    Accurate recovery of predicate-argument dependencies is vital for interpretation tasks like information extraction and question answering, and unbounded dependencies may account for a significant portion of the dependencies in any given text. This thesis describes a Generalized Categorial Grammar (GCG) which, like other categorial grammars,…

  4. The ethnic category from a linguistic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan Săftoiu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I put forward an analysis from a linguistic perspective of an ethnic category in Romania that is defined by at least two terms: gypsy and Romany. The concept of category refers to the members of a particular group that sets apart from other groups by a set of specific elements acknowledged at the level of a larger community. In interaction, individuals frequently use categories and the set of features that a certain category is characterized by, since it is easier to deal with sets of knowledge than with references for each individual separately. The analysis is based on a series of expressions and phrases, proverbs and jokes which were (or still are getting about in the Romanian space and which delineated, at the level of the collective mentality, the image of an ethnic category whose name (still oscillates between two terms. The texts were grouped depending on the different stereotypes associated with the ethnic category under discussion, by highlighting the pejorative connotations of the uses of the term gypsy in relation to the ethnic category Romany, a significance-free category that can be ‘filled up’ by elements that can sketch a positive image.

  5. Diagnostic Categories in Autobiographical Accounts of Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Working within frameworks drawn from the writings of Immanuel Kant, Alfred Schutz, and Kenneth Burke, this article examines the role that diagnostic categories play in autobiographical accounts of illness, with a special focus on chronic disease. Four lay diagnostic categories, each with different connections to formal medical diagnostic categories, serve as typifications to make sense of the way the lifeworld changes over the course of chronic illness. These diagnostic categories are used in conjunction with another set of typifications: lay epidemiologies, lay etiologies, lay prognostics, and lay therapeutics. Together these serve to construct and reconstruct the self at the center of the lifeworld. Embedded within the lay diagnostic categories are narratives of progression, regression, or stability, forms of typification derived from literary and storytelling genres. These narratives are developed by the self in autobiographical accounts of illness.

  6. Better mood and better performance. Learning rule-described categories is enhanced by positive mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Ruby T; Rabi, Rahel; Minda, John Paul

    2010-12-01

    Theories of mood and its effect on cognitive processing suggest that positive mood may allow for increased cognitive flexibility. This increased flexibility is associated with the prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex, both of which play crucial roles in hypothesis testing and rule selection. Thus, cognitive tasks that rely on behaviors such as hypothesis testing and rule selection may benefit from positive mood, whereas tasks that do not rely on such behaviors should not be affected by positive mood. We explored this idea within a category-learning framework. Positive, neutral, and negative moods were induced in our subjects, and they learned either a rule-described or a non-rule-described category set. Subjects in the positive-mood condition performed better than subjects in the neutral- or negative-mood conditions in classifying stimuli from rule-described categories. Positive mood also affected the strategy of subjects who classified stimuli from non-rule-described categories.

  7. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Mashiach-Arazi, Yael; Nouriel, Ariella; Raz, Raanan; Constantini, Naama W

    2015-09-29

    In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes. Height and weight of 169 child and adolescent competitive karate athletes were measured. Participants were divided into eleven hypothetical weight categories of 5 kg increments, and eleven hypothetical height categories of 5 cm increments. We calculated the coefficient of variation of height and weight by each division method. We also calculated how many participants fit into corresponding categories of both height and weight, and how many would shift a category if divided by height. There was a high correlation between height and weight (r = 0.91, p<0.001). The mean range of heights seen within current weight categories was reduced by 83% when participants were divided by height. When allocating athletes by height categories, 74% of athletes would shift up or down one weight category at most, compared with the current categorization method. We conclude that dividing young karate athletes by height categories significantly reduced the range of heights of competitors within the category. Such categorization would not cause athletes to compete against much heavier opponents in most cases. Using height categories as a means to reduce eating disorders in combat sports should be further examined.

  8. EDUCATIONAL EVENT AS THE PEDAGOGICAL CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor V. Lobanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to reveal the essence of the educational event as a pedagogical category. The reason to study the issue is the methodological generality of the term that came into pedagogical everyday life, but which semantic content is still not clear enough. Methods. The methods involve a theoretical analysis of the philosophical and pedagogical literature on the study, the categorical analysis, surveys of students and teachers. Results. The concept content of «event» is looked upon in both historical scholarship and pedagogy, «educational event» is analyzed in unity with the «educational situation» and «educational process». The attitude of students and teachers to educational events was clarified through the surveys; emotional and rational responses of the respondents were differentiated and the peculiarities of events organization in the education system were classified. While teachers and students are considered as subjects of educational events, their goals are delineated. Scientific novelty. The author's own definition of is given. Educational event is defined as a specially organized and unique pedagogical fact limited, but not rigidly determined by the educational situation, and capable of changing the educational process going beyond the boundaries of its conformism. The formulation above is the result of analysis how the concepts of «event», «situation» and «process» may interact in pedagogical discourse. Practical significance. The results can be used while designing the educational programs and projects, as well as in the development of academic courses of innovative pedagogy. 

  9. God's Categories: The Effect of Religiosity on Children's Teleological and Essentialist Beliefs about Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesendruck, Gil; Haber, Lital

    2009-01-01

    Creationism implies that God imbued each category with a unique nature and purpose. These implications closely correspond to what some cognitive psychologists define as an essentialistic and teleological stance towards categories. This study assessed to what extent the belief in God as creator of categories is related to the mappings of these…

  10. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubnov-Raz Gal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes.

  11. The impact of category structure and training methodology on learning and generalizing within-category representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ell, Shawn W; Smith, David B; Peralta, Gabriela; Hélie, Sébastien

    2017-08-01

    When interacting with categories, representations focused on within-category relationships are often learned, but the conditions promoting within-category representations and their generalizability are unclear. We report the results of three experiments investigating the impact of category structure and training methodology on the learning and generalization of within-category representations (i.e., correlational structure). Participants were trained on either rule-based or information-integration structures using classification (Is the stimulus a member of Category A or Category B?), concept (e.g., Is the stimulus a member of Category A, Yes or No?), or inference (infer the missing component of the stimulus from a given category) and then tested on either an inference task (Experiments 1 and 2) or a classification task (Experiment 3). For the information-integration structure, within-category representations were consistently learned, could be generalized to novel stimuli, and could be generalized to support inference at test. For the rule-based structure, extended inference training resulted in generalization to novel stimuli (Experiment 2) and inference training resulted in generalization to classification (Experiment 3). These data help to clarify the conditions under which within-category representations can be learned. Moreover, these results make an important contribution in highlighting the impact of category structure and training methodology on the generalization of categorical knowledge.

  12. A Higher-Order Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A calculus for a fragment of category theory is presented. The types in the language denote categories and the expressions functors. The judgements of the calculus systematise categorical arguments such as: an expression is functorial in its free variables; two expressions are naturally isomorphic...... in their free variables. There are special binders for limits and more general ends. The rules for limits and ends support an algebraic manipulation of universal constructions as opposed to a more traditional diagrammatic approach. Duality within the calculus and applications in proving continuity are discussed...... with examples. The calculus gives a basis for mechanising a theory of categories in a generic theorem prover like Isabelle....

  13. Category fluency in a latino sample: associations with age, education, gender, and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Wendy J; Teng, Evelyn; Zheng, Ling; Paz, Sylvia; Chui, Helena; Varma, Rohit

    2005-07-01

    The authors know of no published studies that have evaluated the effect of Spanish- versus English-language on category fluency within a sample of United States Latinos only. As part of a pilot study for the institution of a cognitive screening program in a cohort of Latinos, we assessed category fluency (fruits, vegetables, and "other" supermarket items) in a sample of 90 self-identified Latino community residents (aged 52-84, 0-18 years of education). The primary demographic correlates of category fluency were age and education. The decrement in naming of fruits with age was limited to the older old subjects (>age 70). Relatively younger old subjects (aged 61-70) did not differ from middle-aged subjects on category fluency. Gender showed little relationship to category naming. Persons naming in Spanish named significantly fewer 'other supermarket' items, but did not differ from English speakers in the more common fluency categories of fruits and vegetables. This analysis of category fluency in an ethnically homogenous sample with a wide range of formal education provided an evaluation of the effects of chosen language free of possible confounding by cultural differences, and also provided a more complete evaluation of the influence of education on category fluency.

  14. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  15. Words can slow down category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brojde, Chandra L; Porter, Chelsea; Colunga, Eliana

    2011-08-01

    Words have been shown to influence many cognitive tasks, including category learning. Most demonstrations of these effects have focused on instances in which words facilitate performance. One possibility is that words augment representations, predicting an across the-board benefit of words during category learning. We propose that words shift attention to dimensions that have been historically predictive in similar contexts. Under this account, there should be cases in which words are detrimental to performance. The results from two experiments show that words impair learning of object categories under some conditions. Experiment 1 shows that words hurt performance when learning to categorize by texture. Experiment 2 shows that words also hurt when learning to categorize by brightness, leading to selectively attending to shape when both shape and hue could be used to correctly categorize stimuli. We suggest that both the positive and negative effects of words have developmental origins in the history of word usage while learning categories. [corrected

  16. Topoi the categorial analysis of logic

    CERN Document Server

    Goldblatt, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A classic exposition of a branch of mathematical logic that uses category theory, this text is suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students and accessible to both philosophically and mathematically oriented readers.

  17. Review of adverb category in Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Satorre Grau

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Among all word classes, the adverb is the worst defined and studied grammatical category. All grammarians accept that this category includes very heterogeneous elements, which come from very different origins and have very different functions. There is thus an urgent need to review this grammatical category. With this work, I intend to find an answer to the following questions: How the grammatical theory on the adverb has been developed? Which have been the mistakes of the grammatical tradition by producing a theory on the adverb? What should we actually understand by an adverb? How can we order, in a proper and reasonable way, the elements which are presently grouped in the so called «adverb» category? And finally, is the grammatical theory on the adverb also applicable to adverbial phrases? The result is a rearrangement of the words which have been considered as adverbs by the grammatical tradition so far.

  18. Automatically Modeling Linguistic Categories in Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luise, M. D. López; Hisgen, D.; Soffer, M.

    This paper presents an approach to process Spanish linguistic categories automatically. The approach is based in a module of a prototype named WIH (Word Intelligent Handler), which is a project to develop a conversational bot. It basically learns category usage sequence in a sentence. It extracts a weighting metric to discriminate most common structures in real dialogs. Such a metric is important to define the preferred organization to be used by the robot to build an answer.

  19. Categories of difference in science and policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Bak

    2012-01-01

    Categories of difference have a crucial position in academic research as well as policymaking. They serve to distinguish and differentiate between groups in society. They can appear in the shape of crude dichotomies or in complex and sophisticated forms resting on constructivist and intersectiona......Categories of difference have a crucial position in academic research as well as policymaking. They serve to distinguish and differentiate between groups in society. They can appear in the shape of crude dichotomies or in complex and sophisticated forms resting on constructivist...... and intersectionalist perspectives. Nevertheless, using categories of difference also creates something into existence and there may be implications through the particular application of specific categories. This article reflects on how categories of difference are constructed and employed in research, legislation...... and policy discourse. By looking at different approaches used by qualitative and quantitative researchers, as well as at how specific concepts enter policy-making and legislation, I want to address a number of questions about how we as researchers understand and work with categories of differences...

  20. Monoidal categories and topological field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Turaev, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to monoidal categories and their connections with 3-dimensional topological field theories. Starting with basic definitions, it proceeds to the forefront of current research. Part 1 introduces monoidal categories and several of their classes, including rigid, pivotal, spherical, fusion, braided, and modular categories. It then presents deep theorems of Müger on the center of a pivotal fusion category. These theorems are proved in Part 2 using the theory of Hopf monads. In Part 3 the authors define the notion of a topological quantum field theory (TQFT) and construct a Turaev-Viro-type 3-dimensional state sum TQFT from a spherical fusion category. Lastly, in Part 4 this construction is extended to 3-manifolds with colored ribbon graphs, yielding a so-called graph TQFT (and, consequently, a 3-2-1 extended TQFT). The authors then prove the main result of the monograph: the state sum graph TQFT derived from any spherical fusion category is isomorphic to the Reshetikhin-Turaev surgery gr...

  1. TV MEDIA ANALYSIS FOR BANKING CATEGORY (2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Elena POȘTOACĂ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article represents a short overview of the media landscape for the banking category in Romania in 2012. Unlike the other categories (for example FMCG – fast moving consumer goods, the banking category is more complex because every bank can communicate for a wider range of products (credits, deposits, packages dedicated to students, pensioners and other types of banking products. In the first part of this paper, there will be presented some theoretical notions about media planning and media analyses in order for the lecturer to easily go through the second part of the article. The second part of the paper will only refer to TV analyses. This media channel owns the highest budget share in our category, and also in the media mix of every important player, active in the Romanian market. The analyses will show which bank communicated most effectively, which is the most important spender on TV, what banking products had the largest budget allocated, which is the pattern for this category when it comes to allocating audience points for each day interval and so on. The starting point of this analyses is based on the secondary data obtained from InfoSys+ which is the world’s leading TV analyses software, used in more than 29 countries by 8000+ users.

  2. Writing and the 'Subject'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Charlotte

    /reading subject) manifests itself in the material mark on the page. The study shows how this indexical reference to a ‘subject’ is manipulated and used as a mask through which a writer/painter can perform a certain ‘subject’. Through analyses of the various levels on which the ‘subject’ is represented...... in the early as well as the contemporary avant-garde, it becomes clear that the ‘subject’ is an unstable category that can be exposed to manipulation and play. Handwriting is performing as a signature (as an index), but is at the same time similar to the signature of a subject (an icon) and a verbal construct...

  3. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B

    2006-01-01

    and fragmented drawings. We also examined whether fragmentation had different impact on the recognition of natural objects and artefacts and found that recognition of artefacts was more affected by fragmentation than recognition of natural objects. Thus, the usual finding of an advantage for artefacts...... in difficult object decision tasks, which is also found in the present experiments with outlines, is reversed when the stimuli are fragmented. This interaction between category (natural versus artefacts) and stimulus type (outlines versus fragmented forms) is in accordance with predictions derived from...... a recent account of category-specificity and lends support to the notion that category-specific impairments can occur for both natural objects and artefacts following damage to pre-semantic stages in visual object recognition. The implications of the present findings are discussed in relation to theories...

  4. Glamour in the system of aesthetic categories. Part I. Glamour and high categories: cosmic incompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolsky Evgeny Vladimirovich

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article for the first time in the Russian Humanities considers the phenomenon of glamour through the prism of universal aesthetic categories. The essence of the conception is to explore the phenomenon of glamour not in the sphere of its existence, but to perform global ontological phenomena to which its genesis leads. Following the methodology of Alexander Baumgarten the author of the article consistently compares glamour to aesthetic categories. In this article the author relates glamour with the categories of the beautiful, the sublime and the tragic. The article demonstrates the incompatibility of glamour with high aesthetic categories.

  5. Higher categories, colimits, and the blob complex

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Scott; Walker, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    We summarize our axioms for higher categories, and describe the blob complex. Fixing an n-category C, the blob complex associates a chain complex B_*(W;C)$ to any n-manifold W. The 0-th homology of this chain complex recovers the usual topological quantum field theory invariants of W. The higher homology groups should be viewed as generalizations of Hochschild homology (indeed, when W=S^1 they coincide). The blob complex has a very natural definition in terms of homotopy colimits along decomp...

  6. Retail beer market. Opportunities for beer category

    OpenAIRE

    Caldová, Marie

    2015-01-01

    My bachelors thesis deals with design of better utilization of sales space in traditional retail formats. I focus on the beer category . I describe the basic principles of retailing. I imagine the food retailing division according to the company Pilsner Urquell. I mention all the legal requirements for the labeling of beer products. I mention the beer category share in total sales in the retail market . I describe the main beer producers who are active on the Czech market. The main topic is t...

  7. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  8. Gender-related dissociations of categorical fluency in normal subjects and in subjects with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Camillo; Ferraccioli, Monica; Gainotti, Guido

    2007-03-01

    Semantic fluency tasks, with the categories of birds and furniture as stimuli, were administered to normal subjects and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Normal subjects showed a gender-related double dissociation consistent with the literature data because men were more fluent with the birds category and women with the furniture category. Also, patients with AD showed a Gender x Category interaction, but the double dissociation between birds and furniture was not present because of a prevalent impairment of the living category birds that was irrespective of gender. This pattern of impairment in patients with AD was independent from the disease stage. The authors conclude that (a) gender-related categorical effects cannot be considered as inborn, sex-related cognitive differences but as familiarity effects and (b) both lesion-related and familiarity-related factors must be taken into account to explain category-specific effects of patients with brain damage and patients with AD.

  9. Transforming feminine categories: genealogies of virginity and sainthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiritz, Susan E; Schiller, Britt-Marie

    2005-01-01

    The categories of virginity and sainthood, often used as norms of femininity, are historically and contextually constructed. Genealogies of these categories reveal definitions of female subjectivity in accordance with male desires. Traditional conceptions of virginity have implications for theories of female development and sexuality, conceptions of the psychoanalytic process, and theories of social symbolism. Notions of virginity as an unblemished state, the first penetration by a penis as an irrevocable transformation to womanhood, and defloration as a developmental milestone in female sexuality derive from male fantasies of female purity that translate into justifications for social structures of control and ownership. While fantasies of sainthood played significant roles in the work of both Sigmund and Anna Freud, their images of saints, which they did not analyze, were unconsciously shaped by a Victorian sensibility. Because the psychoanalytic legacy is androcentrically informed, analysts may be hampered in their efforts to treat the pathologies of perfection that continue to plague women. Contesting and unsettling conventional epistemological assumptions open up the categories of virginity and sainthood to images and representations of female autonomy and integrity. The critical analyses offered here contribute to theories of the plasticity of gender and the social construction of femininity.

  10. Ontological semantics in modified categorial grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymczak, Bartlomiej Antoni

    2009-01-01

    Categorial Grammar is a well established tool for describing natural language semantics. In the current paper we discuss some of its drawbacks and how it could be extended to overcome them. We use the extended version for deriving ontological semantics from text. A proof-of-concept implementation...

  11. Biased allocation of faces to social categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotsch, Ron; Wigboldus, Daniël H J; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2011-06-01

    Three studies show that social categorization is biased at the level of category allocation. In all studies, participants categorized faces. In Studies 1 and 2, participants overallocated faces with criminal features--a stereotypical negative trait--to the stigmatized Moroccan category, especially if they were prejudiced. On the contrary, the stereotype-irrelevant negative trait stupid did not lead to overallocation to the Moroccan category. In Study 3, using the stigmatized category homosexual, the previously used negative trait criminal--irrelevant to the homosexual stereotype--did not lead to overallocation, but the stereotype-relevant positive trait femininity did. These results demonstrate that normative fit is higher for faces with stereotype-relevant features regardless of valence. Moreover, individual differences in implicit prejudice predicted the extent to which stereotype-relevant traits elicited overallocation: Whereas more negatively prejudiced people showed greater overallocation of faces associated with negative stereotype-relevant traits, they showed less overallocation of faces associated with positive stereotype-relevant traits. These results support our normative fit hypothesis: In general, normative fit is better for faces with stereotypical features. Moreover, normative fit is enhanced for prejudiced individuals when these features are evaluatively congruent. Social categorization thus may be biased in itself. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Development of Implicit and Explicit Category Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.; Maddox, W. Todd; Karalunas, Sarah L.

    2011-01-01

    We present two studies that examined developmental differences in the implicit and explicit acquisition of category knowledge. College-attending adults consistently outperformed school-age children on two separate information-integration paradigms due to children's more frequent use of an explicit rule-based strategy. Accuracy rates were also…

  13. Using Wikipedia's category structure for entity search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, R.; Kamps, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how the category structure of Wikipedia can be exploited for Entity Ranking. In the last decade, theWeb has not only grown in size, but also changed its character, due to collaborative content creation and an increasing amount of structure. Current Search Engines find

  14. Multimedia Category Preferences of Working Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baukal, Charles E., Jr.; Ausburn, Lynna J.

    2016-01-01

    Many have argued for the importance of continuing engineering education (CEE), but relatively few recommendations were found in the literature for how to use multimedia technologies to deliver it most effectively. The study reported here addressed this gap by investigating the multimedia category preferences of working engineers. Four categories…

  15. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, I; Paulson, Olaf B.

    2006-01-01

    in difficult object decision tasks, which is also found in the present experiments with outlines, is reversed when the stimuli are fragmented. This interaction between category (natural versus artefacts) and stimulus type (outlines versus fragmented forms) is in accordance with predictions derived from...

  16. Reasoning with Polarity in Categorial Type Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernardi, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis follows the parsing as deduction approach to lin- guistics. We use the tools of Categorial Type Logic (CTL) to study the interface of natural language syntax and semantics. Our aim is to investigate the mathematical structure of CTL and explore the

  17. 32 CFR 901.10 - Presidential category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... purpose of this category, children are defined as the natural children of a parent and adopted children... SCHOOLS APPOINTMENT TO THE UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ACADEMY Nomination Procedures and Requirements § 901.10... merit. One hundred appointments are authorized each year. (a) The child of a Regular or Reserve member...

  18. Categories of Large Numbers in Line Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, David; Charlesworth, Arthur; Ottmar, Erin

    2017-01-01

    How do people stretch their understanding of magnitude from the experiential range to the very large quantities and ranges important in science, geopolitics, and mathematics? This paper empirically evaluates how and whether people make use of numerical categories when estimating relative magnitudes of numbers across many orders of magnitude. We…

  19. Rhythmic categories in spoken-word recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, A.; Otake, T.

    2002-01-01

    Rhythmic categories such as morae in Japanese or stress units in English play a role in the perception of spoken language. We examined this role in Japanese, since recent evidence suggests that morae may intervene as structural units in word recognition. First, we found that traditional puns more

  20. Learning about Tool Categories via Eavesdropping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Brenda; Seston, Rebecca; Kelemen, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has found that toddlers will form enduring artifact categories after direct exposure to an adult using a novel tool. Four studies explored whether 2- (N = 48) and 3-year-olds (N = 32) demonstrate this same capacity when learning by eavesdropping. After surreptitiously observing an adult use 1 of 2 artifacts to operate a bell via a…

  1. Evolution of Wikipedia’s Category Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suchecki, K.; Salah, A.A.; Gao, C.; Scharnhorst, A.

    2012-01-01

    Wikipedia, as a social phenomenon of collaborative knowledge creation, has been studied extensively from various points of view. The category system of Wikipedia, introduced in 2004, has attracted relatively little attention. In this study, we focus on the documentation of knowledge, and the

  2. Competition in Learning Language-Based Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taraban, Roman; Roark, Bret

    1996-01-01

    In this study, non-French participants learned gender-appropriate adjectives for 24 French nouns. Findings indicate that learning the same set of feminine French nouns could be made more or less difficult when the nouns in the masculine category created more or less competition. (45 references) (Author/CK)

  3. New Evidence for Infant Colour Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anna; Davies, Ian R. L.

    2004-01-01

    Bornstein, Kessen, and Weiskopf (1976) reported that pre-linguistic infants perceive colour categorically for primary boundaries: Following habituation, dishabituation only occurred if the test stimulus was from a different adult category to the original. Here, we replicated this important study and extended it to include secondary boundaries,…

  4. 40 CFR 1042.310 - Engine selection for Category 1 and Category 2 engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... engines from the same engine family from the next fifteen engines produced or within seven days, whichever... Category 1 engine families, whichever is greater. (2) For Category 2 engines, the minimum sample size is... engine families, whichever is greater. (b) Randomly select one engine from each engine family early in...

  5. Category labels induce boundary-dependent perceptual warping in learned speech categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Kristen; Myers, Emily

    2013-10-01

    Adults tend to perceive speech sounds from their native language as members of distinct and stable categories; however, they fail to perceive differences between many non-native speech sounds without a great deal of training. The present study investigates the effects of categorization training on adults' ability to discriminate non-native phonetic contrasts. It was hypothesized that only individuals who successfully learned the appropriate categories would show selective improvements in discriminating between-category contrasts. Participants were trained to categorize progressively narrow phonetic contrasts across one of two non-native boundaries, with discrimination pre- and post-tests completed to measure the effects of training on participants' perceptual sensitivity. Results suggest that changes in adults' ability to discriminate a non-native contrast depend on their successful learning of the relevant category structure. Furthermore, post-training identification functions show that changes in perceptual categories specifically correspond to their relative placement of the category boundary. Taken together, these results indicate that learning to assign category labels to a non-native speech continuum is sufficient to induce discontinuous perception of between- versus within-category contrasts.

  6. Category Label Effects on Chinese Children's Inductive Inferences: Modulation by Perceptual Detail and Category Specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Changquan; Lu, Xiaoying; Zhang, Li; Li, Hong; Deak, Gedeon O.

    2012-01-01

    Inductive generalization of novel properties to same-category or similar-looking objects was studied in Chinese preschool children. The effects of category labels on generalizations were investigated by comparing basic-level labels, superordinate-level labels, and a control phrase applied to three kinds of stimulus materials: colored photographs…

  7. Structural similarity and category-specificity: a refined account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that category-specific recognition disorders for natural objects may reflect that natural objects are more structurally (visually) similar than artefacts and therefore more difficult to recognize following brain damage. On this account one might expect a positive relationship between blood flow and structural similarity in areas involved in visual object recognition. Contrary to this expectation we report a negative relationship in that identification of articles of clothing cause more extensive activation than identification of vegetables/fruit and animals even though items from the categories of animals and vegetables/fruit are rated as more structurally similar than items from the category of articles of clothing. Given that this pattern cannot be explained in terms of a tradeoff between activation and accuracy, we interpret these findings within a model where the matching of visual forms to memory incorporates two operations: (i) the integration of stored object features into whole object representations (integral units), and (ii) the competition between activated integral units for selection (i.e. identification). In addition, we suggest that these operations are differentially affected by structural similarity in that high structural similarity may be beneficial for the integration of stored features into integral units, thus explaining the greater activation found with articles of clothing, whereas it may be harmful for the selection process proper because a greater range of candidate integral units will be activated and compete for selection, thus explaining the higher error rate associated with animals. We evaluate the model based on previous evidence from both normal subjects and patients with category-specific disorders and argue that this model can help reconcile otherwise conflicting data.

  8. Global Maps of Science based on the new Web-of-Science Categories

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet; Rafols, Ismael

    2012-01-01

    In August 2011, Thomson Reuters launched version 5 of the Science and Social Science Citation Index in the Web of Science (WoS). Among other things, the 222 ISI Subject Categories (SCs) for these two databases in version 4 of WoS were renamed and extended to 225 WoS Categories (WCs). A new set of 74 Subject Categories (SCs) was added, but at a higher level of aggregation. Since we previously used the ISI SCs as the baseline for a global map in Pajek (Rafols et al., 2010) and brought this facility online (at http://www.leydesdorff.net/overlaytoolkit), we recalibrated this map for the new WC categories using the Journal Citation Reports 2010. In the new installation, the base maps can also be made using VOSviewer (Van Eck & Waltman, 2010).

  9. Higher categories, colimits, and the blob complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Scott; Walker, Kevin

    2011-05-17

    We summarize our axioms for higher categories, and describe the "blob complex." Fixing an n-category , the blob complex associates a chain complex B(*)(W;C) to any n-manifold W. The zeroth homology of this chain complex recovers the usual topological quantum field theory invariants of W. The higher homology groups should be viewed as generalizations of Hochschild homology (indeed, when W = S(1), they coincide). The blob complex has a very natural definition in terms of homotopy colimits along decompositions of the manifold W. We outline the important properties of the blob complex and sketch the proof of a generalization of Deligne's conjecture on Hochschild cohomology and the little discs operad to higher dimensions.

  10. Visual object recognition and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    (shape configuration). In the early writings these two topics were examined more or less independently. In later works, findings concerning category-effects and shape configuration merge into an integrated model, termed RACE, advanced to explain category-effects arising at pre-semantic stages in visual...... object recognition. RACE assumes two operations: shape configuration and selection. Shape configuration refers to the binding of visual elements into elaborate shape descriptions corresponding to whole objects or large object parts (operation 1). The output of the shape configuration operation...... is a description that can be matched with structural representations of whole objects or object parts stored in visual long-term memory. The process of finding a match between the configured description and stored object representations is thought of as a race among stored object representations that compete...

  11. Security threats categories in healthcare information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samy, Ganthan Narayana; Ahmad, Rabiah; Ismail, Zuraini

    2010-09-01

    This article attempts to investigate the various types of threats that exist in healthcare information systems (HIS). A study has been carried out in one of the government-supported hospitals in Malaysia.The hospital has been equipped with a Total Hospital Information System (THIS). The data collected were from three different departments, namely the Information Technology Department (ITD), the Medical Record Department (MRD), and the X-Ray Department, using in-depth structured interviews. The study identified 22 types of threats according to major threat categories based on ISO/IEC 27002 (ISO 27799:2008). The results show that the most critical threat for the THIS is power failure followed by acts of human error or failure and other technological factors. This research holds significant value in terms of providing a complete taxonomy of threat categories in HIS and also an important component in the risk analysis stage.

  12. Categories of definiteness in Classical Armenian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Müth

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of the definite article in semantic and pragmatic categories in the Greek and Classical Armenian New Testament translation is compared. Greek and Classical Armenian agree in their use of the definite article only in NPs determined by contrastive attributes. In all other categories the systems of both languages differ. Generally, Armenian avoids the definite article with proper nouns and nouns with unique reference, while definite articles with proper names in Greek are common (with the exception of sacred or especially “respected” persons such as prophets. If the definite article is present in Greek, it is often motivated by pragmatic factors (e.g. re-topicalization, etc.. There is no clear evidence in Armenian for the use of the definite article as a marker of generic reference, nor for the use in NPs determined by superlative, comparative or ordinal attributes.

  13. Network graph analysis of category fluency testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Alan J; Ogrocki, Paula K; Thomas, Peter J

    2009-03-01

    Category fluency is impaired early in Alzheimer disease (AD). Graph theory is a technique to analyze complex relationships in networks. Features of interest in network analysis include the number of nodes and edges, and variables related to their interconnectedness. Other properties important in network analysis are "small world properties" and "scale-free" properties. The small world property (popularized as the so-called "6 degrees of separation") arises when the majority of connections are local, but a number of connections are to distant nodes. Scale-free networks are characterized by the presence of a few nodes with many connections, and many more nodes with fewer connections. To determine if category fluency data can be analyzed using graph theory. To compare normal elderly, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD network graphs, and characterize changes seen with increasing cognitive impairment. Category fluency results ("animals" recorded over 60 s) from normals (n=38), MCI (n=33), and AD (n=40) completing uniform data set evaluations were converted to network graphs of all unique cooccurring neighbors, and compared for network variables. For Normal, MCI and AD, mean clustering coefficients were 0.21, 0.22, 0.30; characteristic path lengths were 3.27, 3.17, and 2.65; small world properties decreased with increasing cognitive impairment, and all graphs showed scale-free properties. Rank correlations of the 25 commonest items ranged from 0.75 to 0.83. Filtering of low-degree nodes in normal and MCI graphs resulted in properties similar to the AD network graph. Network graph analysis is a promising technique for analyzing changes in category fluency. Our technique results in nonrandom graphs consistent with well-characterized properties for these types of graphs.

  14. On Learning Natural-Science Categories That Violate the Family-Resemblance Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosofsky, Robert M; Sanders, Craig A; Gerdom, Alex; Douglas, Bruce J; McDaniel, Mark A

    2017-01-01

    The general view in psychological science is that natural categories obey a coherent, family-resemblance principle. In this investigation, we documented an example of an important exception to this principle: Results of a multidimensional-scaling study of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks (Experiment 1) suggested that the structure of these categories is disorganized and dispersed. This finding motivated us to explore what might be the optimal procedures for teaching dispersed categories, a goal that is likely critical to science education in general. Subjects in Experiment 2 learned to classify pictures of rocks into compact or dispersed high-level categories. One group learned the categories through focused high-level training, whereas a second group was required to simultaneously learn classifications at a subtype level. Although high-level training led to enhanced performance when the categories were compact, subtype training was better when the categories were dispersed. We provide an interpretation of the results in terms of an exemplar-memory model of category learning.

  15. Glamour in the system of aesthetic categories. Part I. Glamour and high categories: cosmic incompatibility

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolsky Evgeny Vladimirovich

    2017-01-01

    The article for the first time in the Russian Humanities considers the phenomenon of glamour through the prism of universal aesthetic categories. The essence of the conception is to explore the phenomenon of glamour not in the sphere of its existence, but to perform global ontological phenomena to which its genesis leads. Following the methodology of Alexander Baumgarten the author of the article consistently compares glamour to aesthetic categories. In this article the author relates glamour...

  16. Category label effects on Chinese children's inductive inferences: Modulation by perceptual detail and category specificity

    OpenAIRE

    Long, C.; Lu, X; Zhang, L.; Li, H.; Deák, GO

    2012-01-01

    Inductive generalization of novel properties to same-category or similar-looking objects was studied in Chinese preschool children. The effects of category labels on generalizations were investigated by comparing basic-level labels, superordinate-level labels, and a control phrase applied to three kinds of stimulus materials: colored photographs (Experiment 1), realistic line drawings (Experiment 2), and cartoon-like line drawings (Experiment 3). No significant labeling effects were found for...

  17. From groups to categorial algebra introduction to protomodular and mal’tsev categories

    CERN Document Server

    Bourn, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    This book gives a thorough and entirely self-contained, in-depth introduction to a specific approach to group theory, in a large sense of that word. The focus lie on the relationships which a group may have with other groups, via “universal properties”, a view on that group “from the outside”. This method of categorical algebra, is actually not limited to the study of groups alone, but applies equally well to other similar categories of algebraic objects. By introducing protomodular categories and Mal’tsev categories, which form a larger class, the structural properties of the category Gp of groups, show how they emerge from four very basic observations about the algebraic litteral calculus and how, studied for themselves at the conceptual categorical level, they lead to the main striking features of the category Gp of groups. Hardly any previous knowledge of category theory is assumed, and just a little experience with standard algebraic structures such as groups and monoids. Examples and exercises...

  18. Category theoretic analysis of hierarchical protein materials and social networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I Spivak

    Full Text Available Materials in biology span all the scales from Angstroms to meters and typically consist of complex hierarchical assemblies of simple building blocks. Here we describe an application of category theory to describe structural and resulting functional properties of biological protein materials by developing so-called ologs. An olog is like a "concept web" or "semantic network" except that it follows a rigorous mathematical formulation based on category theory. This key difference ensures that an olog is unambiguous, highly adaptable to evolution and change, and suitable for sharing concepts with other olog. We consider simple cases of beta-helical and amyloid-like protein filaments subjected to axial extension and develop an olog representation of their structural and resulting mechanical properties. We also construct a representation of a social network in which people send text-messages to their nearest neighbors and act as a team to perform a task. We show that the olog for the protein and the olog for the social network feature identical category-theoretic representations, and we proceed to precisely explicate the analogy or isomorphism between them. The examples presented here demonstrate that the intrinsic nature of a complex system, which in particular includes a precise relationship between structure and function at different hierarchical levels, can be effectively represented by an olog. This, in turn, allows for comparative studies between disparate materials or fields of application, and results in novel approaches to derive functionality in the design of de novo hierarchical systems. We discuss opportunities and challenges associated with the description of complex biological materials by using ologs as a powerful tool for analysis and design in the context of materiomics, and we present the potential impact of this approach for engineering, life sciences, and medicine.

  19. Category Theoretic Analysis of Hierarchical Protein Materials and Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, David I.; Giesa, Tristan; Wood, Elizabeth; Buehler, Markus J.

    2011-01-01

    Materials in biology span all the scales from Angstroms to meters and typically consist of complex hierarchical assemblies of simple building blocks. Here we describe an application of category theory to describe structural and resulting functional properties of biological protein materials by developing so-called ologs. An olog is like a “concept web” or “semantic network” except that it follows a rigorous mathematical formulation based on category theory. This key difference ensures that an olog is unambiguous, highly adaptable to evolution and change, and suitable for sharing concepts with other olog. We consider simple cases of beta-helical and amyloid-like protein filaments subjected to axial extension and develop an olog representation of their structural and resulting mechanical properties. We also construct a representation of a social network in which people send text-messages to their nearest neighbors and act as a team to perform a task. We show that the olog for the protein and the olog for the social network feature identical category-theoretic representations, and we proceed to precisely explicate the analogy or isomorphism between them. The examples presented here demonstrate that the intrinsic nature of a complex system, which in particular includes a precise relationship between structure and function at different hierarchical levels, can be effectively represented by an olog. This, in turn, allows for comparative studies between disparate materials or fields of application, and results in novel approaches to derive functionality in the design of de novo hierarchical systems. We discuss opportunities and challenges associated with the description of complex biological materials by using ologs as a powerful tool for analysis and design in the context of materiomics, and we present the potential impact of this approach for engineering, life sciences, and medicine. PMID:21931622

  20. Semi-supervised Phonetic Category Learning: Does Word-level Information Enhance the Efficacy of Distributional Learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Poppels

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To test whether word-level information facilitates the learning of phonetic categories, 40 adult native English speakers were exposed to a bimodal distribution of vowels embedded in non-words. Half of the subjects received phonetic categories aligned with lexical categories, while the other half received no such cue. It was hypothesized that the subjects exposed to lexically-informative training stimuli that were aligned with the target categories would outperform the control subjects on a perceptual categorization task after training. While the results revealed no such group differences, the data indicated that many subjects used the relevant dimension for categorization before having received any training. Implications regarding experimental design and suggestions for future research based on the results are discussed.

  1. Is conversion therapy possible in stage IV gastric cancer: the proposal of new biological categories of classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Okumura, Naoki; Tanahashi, Toshiyuki; Kodera, Yasuhiro

    2016-04-01

    Conversion therapy for gastric cancer (GC) has been the subject of much recent attention. It is defined as a surgical treatment aiming at an R0 resection after chemotherapy for tumors that were originally unresectable or marginally resectable for technical and/or oncological reasons. However, the indications for resection remain to be clarified. In the present review, we focus on the biology and heterogeneous characteristics of stage IV GC and propose new categories of classification. Stage IV GC patients can be divided based on the absence (categories 1 and 2) or presence (categories 3 and 4) of macroscopically detectable peritoneal dissemination, which has a different biological outcome compared to hematological metastasis. Category 1 is defined oncologically as stage IV but the metastasis is technically resectable. Category 2 includes a marginally resectable metastasis or patients for whom the operation would not necessarily be the best choice. Category 3 includes a potentially unresectable metastasis of peritoneal dissemination that is only macroscopically detectable. Category 4 includes noncurable metastasis with peritoneal and other organ metastasis. The indications for conversion therapy might include the patients from category 2, some patients from category 3 and a very small number of patients from category 4. The longer survival can be expected for patients corresponding to categories 1, 2 and, to a lesser extent, 3, while the treatment of other patients focuses on "care." The provision of conversion therapy for stage IV GC patients might be one of the main roles of surgical oncologists in the near future.

  2. Antisocial behavior: Dimension or category(ies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biro Mikloš

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Classificatory systems (DSM-IV, ICD-10 use different criteria for defining a rather common antisocial disorder, traditionally referred as psychopathy. Most empirical studies of this phenomenon use Cleckley's operational definition that was applied and amended in Hare's revised Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R. In modern literature, the fact that there is less than a perfect correspondence between classificatory systems and Hare's PCL-R is often cited as an indication that antisocial behavior is not confined to a distinct category of people but is rather a continuous personality dimension. In order to further elucidate the nosology of antisocial behaviors, a Psychopathy Assessment Questionnaire (PAQ based on Cleckley - Hare's criteria and consisting of 40 binary items was administered to 339 men (135 prisoners and 204 members of the general population. Four distinct clusters of respondents were identified by means of hierarchical cluster analysis: Psychopathic type (characterized by high positive scores on dimension of Unemotionality; Antisocial type (characterized by high positive scores on Social deviance dimension; Adapted type (characterized by negative scores on all dimensions; and Hyper-controlled type (characterized by extremely negative scores on dimension Social deviance accompanied with positive scores on Unemotionality dimension. Additional comparison with MMPI profiles which classified prison sample in two groups ("Psychopathic profiles" and "Non- Psychopathic profiles" shows that there is no expected compatibility between MMPI and PAQ. We conclude that Antisocial type can be treated as a distinct category, while Psychopathic type displays characteristics of dimensional distribution.

  3. African Journals Online: Browse by Category

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Education (35) Environmental Sciences (28) Finance & Management (16) Fish & Fisheries (4) General Science (broad subject range) (86) Health (167) ... Philosophy (7) Political Science & Law (18) Psychology & Psychiatry (16) Religion (6) Sociology & Anthropology (41) Technology, Computer Science & Engineering (29)

  4. Hypostases of THEM category in mass media communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanysheva Zulfira Zakievna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the reflection of the US/THEM category in mass media communication in conditions of sharp confrontation of ideological opponents. It is aimed at revealing the potential of lingvocultural signs to be used as units of generating desirable senses in leading English periodical issues. The alien culture is shown to possess three basic hypostases with xenocultural axiological semantic space taking the lead. The article proves that intercultural massmedia communication is marked by reciprocal influence of semantic spaces and subjective evaluation of information. Xenoprecedent phenomena are viewed as supporting clamps in the process of semantic transformations of national and cultural signs designed to exert a manipulative effect on the target reader.

  5. The Category of Immaturity in a Legal Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedonkina A.A

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We presented psychological and legal approaches to the concept of immaturity, and the definition of the perpetrator. We analyzed the differences of age aspects of the subject of crime in different countries, the criteria for establishing a minimum age of criminal responsibility. We discuss the problem of the possibility of lowering the age of criminal responsibility in the Russian Federation from the point of view of psychological science. We considered the legal category of "mental retardation not associated with mental illness" and its psychological equivalent - "personal immaturity". We describe the main problems arising in the course of the complex judicial, psychological and psychiatric examination for the presence of a mental retardation not associated with mental illness in minor. We presented psychological approaches to the concept of "personal immaturity", described the concept of "mature personality".

  6. Risk as economic category: systematics scientific approach and refinement contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Vygovskyy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the categorical-conceptual apparatus of risk and its refinement based on a critical analysis of existing systematic scientific approaches. Determined that in the refinement of the economic nature of the risk of a number of controversial issues: the definition of the objective or subjective nature of risk; matching of concepts such as «risk», «danger», «loss», «probability of loss»; definition of negative or positive consequences of risk; identification of risk with its consequences, or source of origin, which makes the relevance of research topics. As a result of scientific research has been refined interpretation of risk as an economic category, the characteristics of the company associated with the probability of unforeseen situations that may lead to negative and positive impacts, assessment of which requires the development of alternatives for management decisions. Clarification of the definition focuses on the possibility (probability of a favorable (unfavorable events which require certain corrective action management unit of the enterprise. The author emphasizes the mandatory features of the category of «risk», in particular: the concept of risk is always associated with the uncertainty of the future; event occurring has implications for the enterprise (both negative and positive; consequences for necessitates the development of a number of alternative solutions to the possible elimination of the negative consequences of risky events; risk – a mandatory attribute of modern management (its value is enhanced in terms of market conditions; subject to risk assessment and management by the company. Dedicated and updated features contribute to the clarification of the nature of the economic risk and categorical conceptual apparatus of risk management.

  7. Sacrality and worldmaking: new categorial perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Paden

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The category of the sacred in particular and the role of transcultural concept-formation in general have undergone an obvious crisis. For the most part, "the sacred," if not an empty label, has been linked with theologism, and transcultural concepts have been condemned for their general non-comparability and colonialist intent. The author approaches the matter of transcultural templates through an analysis of certain concepts of sacrality. With some exceptions, the discourse of sacrality has indeed been dominated by a single model, where "the sacred" became a reified noun—a substantive term for a supernatural reality, a label for the transcendent, or even an epithet for divinity, mystery, the wholly other. As such, the expression has functioned to bestow a sense of unity to the diversity of cultures, link that unity with a transcendent reality, and offer a simple way of making sense of otherwise foreign beliefs and practices by giving them a familiar, generic referent.

  8. [Toothpastes: ingredients, brands, categories and their utilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavnai, N

    2010-04-01

    Toothpaste is one of the most widely used dental products, with the largest sales. Its use is one of the most popular oral hygiene behaviors in developed countries. In the last 30 years there has been a large variety of changes in toothpaste composition. One of the main changes is utilizing the toothpaste as a delivery system for therapeutic agents to the oral cavity. A large variety of toothpastes can be found on the market, for different purposes: caries prevention, gingivitis prevention, anti calculus formation, dentine hypersensitivity prevention and for teeth whitening. Toothpastes have a wide range of ingredients: abrasives, humectants, preservatives, thickening or binding agents, detergents, flavoring agents and therapeutic agents. This review provides details on the ingredients of dentifrices, the evidence about the different brands and categories, and questions about their utilization.

  9. The land: Primary category of faith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J. Volschenk

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This review article of Walter Brueggemann’s book “The land: Place as gift, promise, and challenge in biblical faith” (2002 mainly focuses on land as the primary category of faith in the Bible. The main focus is on the dialectical interrelationship between land possession and land-loss. A holistic, systemic and triangular interrelationship exists between God, land, Israel and Torah/covenant. The balance in this triangular relationship is essential for equilibrium in the system. The pendulum thus swings between land, exile and kingdom or in other words, between “landedness” and “landlessness”. The conclusion is that ignorance of this holistic and triangular interrelationship is of great cost and peril to any generation’s perspective on land.

  10. Eyetracking and selective attention in category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehder, Bob; Hoffman, Aaron B

    2005-08-01

    An eyetracking version of the classic Shepard, Hovland, and Jenkins (1961) experiment was conducted. Forty years of research has assumed that category learning often involves learning to selectively attend to only those stimulus dimensions useful for classification. We confirmed that participants learned to allocate their attention optimally. We also found that learners tend to fixate all stimulus dimensions early in learning. This result obtained despite evidence that participants were also testing one-dimensional rules during this period. Finally, the restriction of eye movements to only relevant dimensions tended to occur only after errors were largely (or completely) eliminated. We interpret these findings as consistent with multiple-systems theories of learning which maximize information input in order to maximize the number of learning modules involved, and which focus solely on relevant information only after one module has solved the learning problem.

  11. Category of diversity in linguaphilosophic prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulpina Valentina Grigorievna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Category of diversity is described in subcategories of homogeneous and inhomogeneous multitudes, allowing to reveal a natural categorization within the category of quantity. An integral multitude, presented within the category of quantity, is formed, among other things of countable nouns, like: штуки, головы, кочаны, etc.: булочек четыре штуки, сорок голов скота, два кочана капусты. When account is carried out on the basis of countable nouns (explicable or implied, a man is abstracted from the individual characteristics of objects, they are thought of as the same person and attention to their differences is not focused on. It is described a type of homogeneous multitudes as the “group” refer to the number of the type стадо etc.: стадо овец, косяк рыб, лежбище тюленейстадо и др.: стадо овец, косяк рыб, лежбище тюленей. It is established cross-language differences filling lexical units within the multitude uniform on the basis of a comparison of the Russian and Polish languages. The focus of the article is the heterogeneity of the multitude category, designated as a complementary multitude, in which the union objects to the group is based on the complementary elements provided in various multitudes, multitudes with different nominations and acting in conjunction with the names of the objects themselves, which form these multitudes: ассорти, коллекция, канцтовары. The essence of such multitudes is that elements within the group combined a certain connection (as opposed to a uniform multitude, are not the same, but different and complementary. It is nalyzed different groups of such multitudes in the household, business, the scientific field, in onomastics. Among the non-uniform multitudes, groups of people, for example, are viewed on the material of the Polish and German groups

  12. The role of grammatical category information in spoken word retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duràn, Carolina Palma; Pillon, Agnesa

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the role of lexical syntactic information such as grammatical gender and category in spoken word retrieval processes by using a blocking paradigm in picture and written word naming experiments. In Experiments 1, 3, and 4, we found that the naming of target words (nouns) from pictures or written words was faster when these target words were named within a list where only words from the same grammatical category had to be produced (homogeneous category list: all nouns) than when they had to be produced within a list comprising also words from another grammatical category (heterogeneous category list: nouns and verbs). On the other hand, we detected no significant facilitation effect when the target words had to be named within a homogeneous gender list (all masculine nouns) compared to a heterogeneous gender list (both masculine and feminine nouns). In Experiment 2, using the same blocking paradigm by manipulating the semantic category of the items, we found that naming latencies were significantly slower in the semantic category homogeneous in comparison with the semantic category heterogeneous condition. Thus semantic category homogeneity caused an interference, not a facilitation effect like grammatical category homogeneity. Finally, in Experiment 5, nouns in the heterogeneous category condition had to be named just after a verb (category-switching position) or a noun (same-category position). We found a facilitation effect of category homogeneity but no significant effect of position, which showed that the effect of category homogeneity found in Experiments 1, 3, and 4 was not due to a cost of switching between grammatical categories in the heterogeneous grammatical category list. These findings supported the hypothesis that grammatical category information impacts word retrieval processes in speech production, even when words are to be produced in isolation. They are discussed within the context of extant theories of lexical production.

  13. The role of grammatical category information in spoken word retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina ePalma Duràn

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of lexical syntactic information such as grammatical gender and category in spoken word retrieval processes by using a blocking paradigm in picture and written word naming experiments. In Experiments 1, 3, and 4, we found that the naming of target words (nouns from pictures or written words was faster when these target words were named within a list where only words from the same grammatical category had to be produced (homogeneous category list: all nouns than when they had to be produced within a list comprising also words from another grammatical category (heterogeneous category list: nouns and verbs. On the other hand, no significant facilitation effect was detected when the target words had to be named within a homogeneous gender list (all masculine nouns compared to a heterogeneous gender list (both masculine and feminine nouns. In Experiment 2, using the same blocking paradigm by manipulating the semantic category of the items, we found that naming times were significantly slower in the semantic category homogeneous in comparison with the semantic category heterogeneous condition. Thus semantic category homogeneity caused an interference, not a facilitation effect like grammatical category homogeneity. Finally, in Experiment 5, nouns in the heterogeneous category condition had to be named just after a verb (category-switching position or a noun (same-category position. We found a facilitation effect of category homogeneity but no significant effect of position, which showed that the effect of category homogeneity found in Experiments 1, 3, and 4 was not due to a cost of switching between grammatical categories in the heterogeneous grammatical category list. These findings supported the hypothesis that grammatical category information could impact word retrieval processes in speech production, even when words are to be produced in isolation. They are discussed within the context of extant theories of lexical

  14. Understanding Vulnerability: From Categories to Experiences of Young Congolese People in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christina R.

    2007-01-01

    This article problematises the "vulnerables" category that the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees applies to groups of refugees. Drawing on 9 months' qualitative research with young Congolese refugees in Uganda, it presents research subjects' self-identification and lived realities that do not correspond to the homogenous,…

  15. Investigating cross-category brand loyalty behavior in FMCG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boztug, Yasemin; Hildebrandt, Lutz; Silberhorn, Nadja

    In competitive markets, customer retention is more efficient than trying to attract new customers. Brand loyalty is an intrinsic commitment to repeatedly purchase a particular brand. But most analyses have been conducted in one specific category only. It has been shown that product purchases in one...... category depend on purchases in other categories. The aspect of cross-category related brand loyalty has been somewhat neglected so far. We concentrate on cross-category relationships of strong national brands and on how customers' brand choice decisions are related across several product categories....

  16. Category Specificity in Normal Episodic Learning: Applications to Object Recognition and Category-Specific Agnosia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukach, Cindy M.; Bub, Daniel N.; Masson, Michael E. J.; Lindsay, D. Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Studies of patients with category-specific agnosia (CSA) have given rise to multiple theories of object recognition, most of which assume the existence of a stable, abstract semantic memory system. We applied an episodic view of memory to questions raised by CSA in a series of studies examining normal observers' recall of newly learned attributes…

  17. Ad hoc categories and false memories: Memory illusions for categories created on-the-spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soro, Jerônimo C; Ferreira, Mário B; Semin, Gün R; Mata, André; Carneiro, Paula

    2017-11-01

    Three experiments were designed to test whether experimentally created ad hoc associative networks evoke false memories. We used the DRM (Deese, Roediger, McDermott) paradigm with lists of ad hoc categories composed of exemplars aggregated toward specific goals (e.g., going for a picnic) that do not share any consistent set of features. Experiment 1 revealed considerable levels of false recognitions of critical words from ad hoc categories. False recognitions occurred even when the lists were presented without an organizing theme (i.e., the category's label). Experiments 1 and 2 tested whether (a) the ease of identifying the categories' themes, and (b) the lists' backward associative strength could be driving the effect. List identifiability did not correlate with false recognition, and the effect remained even when backward associative strength was controlled for. Experiment 3 manipulated the distractor items in the recognition task to address the hypothesis that the salience of unrelated items could be facilitating the occurrence of the phenomenon. The effect remained when controlling for this source of facilitation. These results have implications for assumptions made by theories of false memories, namely the preexistence of associations in the activation-monitoring framework and the central role of gist extraction in fuzzy-trace theory, while providing evidence of the occurrence of false memories for more dynamic and context-dependent knowledge structures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Three drowsiness categories assessment by electroencephalogram in driving simulator environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Izzat A; Rumagit, Arthur M; Utsunomiya, Mitaku; Morie, Takamasa; Igasaki, Tomohiko

    2017-07-01

    Traffic accidents remain one of the most critical issues in many countries. One of the major causes of traffic accidents is drowsiness while driving. Since drowsiness is related to human physiological conditions, drowsiness is hard to prevent. Several studies have been conducted in assessing drowsiness, especially in a driving environment. One of the common methods used is the electroencephalogram (EEG). It is known that drowsiness occurs in the central nervous system; thus, estimating drowsiness using EEG is the promising way to assess drowsiness accurately. In this study, we tried to estimate drowsiness using frequency-domain and time-domain analysis of EEG. To validate the physiological conditions of the subjects, the Karolinska sleepiness scale (KSS), a subject-based assessment of drowsiness condition; and an examiner-based assessment known as facial expression evaluation (FEE) were applied. Three categories were considered; alert (KSS drowsiness (KSS 6-7; FEE 1-2) and strong drowsiness (KSS > 7; FEE > 2). The six parameters (absolute and relative power of alpha, ratio of β/α and (θ+α)/β, and Hjorth activity and mobility parameters) had statistically significant differences between the three drowsiness conditions (P drowsiness (up to 92.9%). Taken together, we suggest that EEG parameters can be used in detecting the three drowsiness conditions in a simulated driving environment.

  19. Category selectivity in human visual cortex: Beyond visual object recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peelen, M.V.; Downing, P.E.

    2017-01-01

    Human ventral temporal cortex shows a categorical organization, with regions responding selectively to faces, bodies, tools, scenes, words, and other categories. Why is this? Traditional accounts explain category selectivity as arising within a hierarchical system dedicated to visual object

  20. The Cape Observatory: all Categories of Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Ian S.

    2012-09-01

    In this presentation I will give an outline of the various types of heritage related to the Royal Observatory, Cape of Good Hope, established in 1820 and now the headquarters campus of the South African Astronomical Observatory, located quite close to downtown Cape Town. In terms of tangible, fixed heritage, the campus itself, the domes and the various other buildings are obviously relevant. This category includes the Classical Revival Main Building of 1828 and the McClean dome of 1895 by the leading colonial architect Herbert Baker as well as many other buildings and even the graves of two directors. Tangible movable items include, in principle, the telescopes, the accessory instruments and many pieces of apparatus that have been preserved. In addition, extensive collections of antique paintings, drawings, furniture and books add to the site's cultural significance. Many of the Observatory's archives are still kept locally. The intangible heritage of the Observatory consists for example of its history, its major discoveries, its interaction with the City, its central role in the history of science in South Africa and its appeal as a living cultural institution. Especially notable were the observations by Henderson (ca 1831) leading to the distance of a Cen and the early sky survey known as the Cape Photographic Durchmusterung.

  1. AMUC: Associated Motion capture User Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Sally Jane; Lawson, Sian E M; Olivier, Patrick; Watson, Paul; Chan, Anita M-A; Dade-Robertson, Martyn; Dunphy, Paul; Green, Dave; Hiden, Hugo; Hook, Jonathan; Jackson, Daniel G

    2009-07-13

    The AMUC (Associated Motion capture User Categories) project consisted of building a prototype sketch retrieval client for exploring motion capture archives. High-dimensional datasets reflect the dynamic process of motion capture and comprise high-rate sampled data of a performer's joint angles; in response to multiple query criteria, these data can potentially yield different kinds of information. The AMUC prototype harnesses graphic input via an electronic tablet as a query mechanism, time and position signals obtained from the sketch being mapped to the properties of data streams stored in the motion capture repository. As well as proposing a pragmatic solution for exploring motion capture datasets, the project demonstrates the conceptual value of iterative prototyping in innovative interdisciplinary design. The AMUC team was composed of live performance practitioners and theorists conversant with a variety of movement techniques, bioengineers who recorded and processed motion data for integration into the retrieval tool, and computer scientists who designed and implemented the retrieval system and server architecture, scoped for Grid-based applications. Creative input on information system design and navigation, and digital image processing, underpinned implementation of the prototype, which has undergone preliminary trials with diverse users, allowing identification of rich potential development areas.

  2. Conciliating neuroscience and phenomenology via category theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehresmann, Andrée C; Gomez-Ramirez, Jaime

    2015-12-01

    The paper discusses how neural and mental processes correlate for developing cognitive abilities like memory or spatial representation and allowing the emergence of higher cognitive processes up to embodied cognition, consciousness and creativity. It is done via the presentation of MENS (for Memory Evolutive Neural System), a mathematical methodology, based on category theory, which encompasses the neural and mental systems and analyzes their dynamics in the process of 'becoming'. Using the categorical notion of a colimit, it describes the generation of mental objects through the iterative binding of distributed synchronous assemblies of neurons, and presents a new rationale of spatial representation in the hippocampus (Gómez-Ramirez and Sanz, 2011). An important result is that the degeneracy of the neural code (Edelman, 1989) is the property allowing for the formation of mental objects and cognitive processes of increasing complexity order, with multiple neuronal realizabilities; it is essential "to explain certain empirical phenomena like productivity and systematicity of thought and thinking (Aydede 2010)". Rather than restricting the discourse to linguistics or philosophy of mind, the formal methods used in MENS lead to precise notions of Compositionality, Productivity and Systematicity, which overcome the dichotomic debate of classicism vs. connectionism and their multiple facets. It also allows developing the naturalized phenomenology approach asked for by Varela (1996) which "seeks articulations by mutual constraints between phenomena present in experience and the correlative field of phenomena established by the cognitive sciences", while avoiding their pitfalls. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Within-category discrimination of musical chords: perceptual magnet or anchor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, B E; Pastore, R E; Hall, M D

    1995-08-01

    Recent speech research has begun to evaluate the internal structure of categories. In one such study, Kuhl (1991) found that discrimination was poorer for vowel stimuli that were more representative of the category (prototype, or P, set) than it was for less representative stimuli (nonprototype, or NP, set). This finding was interpreted as indicating that a category prototype may function as a "perceptual magnet", effectively decreasing perceptual distance, and thus discriminability, between stimuli. The present study examines the function of prototypes in a musical category--another natural, but nonspeech category. Paralleling the Kuhl study, representative (P) and less representative (NP) sets of major triad stimuli were constructed, based on equal temperament. Musically experienced subjects rated the stimuli in each set for a goodness as a major triad, with the highest rated stimulus serving as a prototype standard for a subsequent discrimination task. Results from the discrimination task demonstrated better performance in the P context than in the NP context. The current nonspeech results indicate that a prototype functions as an anchor rather than a magnet. In addition to providing a natural, nonspeech standard for comparison with speech findings, the results provide some important insights into the nature of musical categories.

  4. Generalization in Category Learning: The Roles of Representational and Decisional Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunlich, Kurt; Wehe, Hillary S.

    2015-01-01

    Effective generalization in a multiple-category situation involves both assessing potential membership in individual categories and resolving conflict between categories while implementing a decision bound. We separated generalization from decision bound implementation using an information integration task in which category exemplars varied over two incommensurable feature dimensions. Human subjects first learned to categorize stimuli within limited training regions, and then, during fMRI scanning, they also categorized transfer stimuli from new regions of perceptual space. Transfer stimuli differed both in distance from the training region prototype and distance from the decision bound, allowing us to independently assess neural systems sensitive to each. Across all stimulus regions, categorization was associated with activity in the extrastriate visual cortex, basal ganglia, and the bilateral intraparietal sulcus. Categorizing stimuli near the decision bound was associated with recruitment of the frontoinsular cortex and medial frontal cortex, regions often associated with conflict and which commonly coactivate within the salience network. Generalization was measured in terms of greater distance from the decision bound and greater distance from the category prototype (average training region stimulus). Distance from the decision bound was associated with activity in the superior parietal lobe, lingual gyri, and anterior hippocampus, whereas distance from the prototype was associated with left intraparietal sulcus activity. The results are interpreted as supporting the existence of different uncertainty resolution mechanisms for uncertainty about category membership (representational uncertainty) and uncertainty about decision bound (decisional uncertainty). PMID:26063914

  5. 40 CFR 98.340 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., construction and demolition landfills, or industrial landfills. (c) This source category consists of the... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 98.340 Definition of the source category. (a) This source category applies to municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills that accepted...

  6. 14 CFR 61.159 - Aeronautical experience: Airplane category rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aeronautical experience: Airplane category... Transport Pilots § 61.159 Aeronautical experience: Airplane category rating. (a) Except as provided in... certificate with an airplane category and class rating must have at least 1,500 hours of total time as a pilot...

  7. Quasi-coherent Hecke category and Demazure descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arkhipov, Sergey; Kanstrup, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Let G be a reductive algebraic group with a Borel subgroup B. We define the quasi-coherent Hecke category for the pair (G,B). For any regular Noetherian G- scheme X we construct a monoidal action of the Hecke category on the derived category of B-equivariant quasi-coherent sheaves on X. Using the...

  8. The Empirical Case for Role-Governed Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Micah B.; Markman, Arthur B.; Stilwell, C. Hunt

    2011-01-01

    Most theories of categorization posit feature-based representations. Markman and Stilwell (2001) argued that many natural categories name roles in relational systems and therefore they are role-governed categories. There is little extant empirical evidence to support the existence of role-governed categories. Three experiments examine predictions…

  9. 40 CFR 98.270 - Definition of source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Pulp and Paper Manufacturing § 98.270 Definition of source category. (a) The pulp and paper manufacturing source category consists of facilities that produce market... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of source category. 98.270...

  10. Preschool Children Differentiation According to the Lingua- Grammatical Categories Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. V. Polivara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The parallel existence of languages and cultures brings forward the necessity of studying this linguistic phenomenon and designing special methods of speech development for the bilingual children. The particular attention should be given to the preschool age, for according to A. A. Leontyev’s study, the parallel acquiring of two languages often results in insufficient development of socio-linguistic speech standards. The research is devoted to the phenomenon of the two language systems coexistence in a bilingual person’s consciousness, both of them functioning and encoding the same subjects and phenomena. The peculiarities of language interference are described with the reference to the Russian-Tatar bilingual environment. The author believes that the bilingual interference problems are not caused by the phonetic and grammar system differences of the two languages. To find out the potential source of inter-language transition and interrelations between the native and non-native languages, it is necessary to identify the cognitive, neurolinguistic and psycho-linguistic aspects. Therefore, the regional phenomenon of mass bilingualism among the Tatar population is examined by the author in the framework of the psycho-linguistic and cognitive approaches. The paper presents the model of the lexical and grammar categories formation based on differentiated preschool teaching of the bilingual children. The proposed model makes it possible to overcome the limited viewpoint on the general speech dysfunctions, as well as the specifics of lexical and grammar categories development. It can be used for the further development of educational programs in psycho-linguistics, ethno-linguistics, onto-linguistics, cognitive linguistics, social-linguistics, contrastive linguistics and the language theory by means of extending the teaching course content. 

  11. Ego depletion interferes with rule-defined category learning but not non-rule-defined category learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Minda, John P; Rabi, Rahel

    2015-01-01

    ...) categories as opposed to the learning of non-rule-defined (NRD) categories. Prior research has also suggested that ego depletion can temporarily reduce the capacity for executive functioning and cognitive flexibility...

  12. Categorizing the meanings of craft: A multi-perspectival framework for eight interrelated meaning categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kouhia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The meaning and value of crafts as bearers of the cultural heritage are widely acknowledged, and deserved attention has also been paid to the pedagogical applications of craft in practice. Still, research relating to subjectively interpreted meanings of crafts has remained rather scarce. The main interest of the study is to examine subjectively construed meanings of craft associated both to the self-reflective act of making and to the tangible craft object, and categorize the discovered meanings into representative categories. In presenting a multi-perspectival framework for the categories that portray the common kinds of meanings that crafts have, a substance that surpasses cultural boundaries is also captured due to the multicultural research setting. The primary empirical data of the study are composed of interviews of six women from different cultural backgrounds; the supporting data feature a participant observation of a multicultural craft activity group and photographic notes. The wide range of different meanings captured from the data is, during the conducted qualitative content analysis, critically classified into representational categories that typify the personally experienced meanings. The analysis revealed eight interrelated meaning categories regarding the meanings of craft that go beyond cultural boundaries: Meanings proceed from the subjective process of interpreting craft in a socially constructed, personalized setting, but still the meanings given to craft have been given similar characterizations in the several cultural contexts examined. This study adds to an understanding of how personalized meanings contribute to building intercultural reciprocity. Keywords: craft, culture, meanings, interculturality, meaning making

  13. Predicting Success Study Using Students GPA Category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awan Setiawan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Maintaining student graduation rates are the main tasks of a University. High rates of student graduation and the quality of graduates is a success indicator of a university, which will have an impact on public confidence as stakeholders of higher education and the National Accreditation Board as a regulator (government. Making predictions of student graduation and determine the factors that hinders will be a valuable input for University. Data mining system facilitates the University to create the segmentation of students’ performance and prediction of their graduation. Segmentation of student by their performance can be classified in a quadrant chart is divided into 4 segments based on grade point average and the growth rate of students performance index per semester. Standard methodology in data mining i.e CRISP-DM (Cross Industry Standard Procedure for Data Mining will be implemented in this research. Making predictions, graduation can be done through the modeling process by utilizing the college database. Some algorithms such as C5, C & R Tree, CHAID, and Logistic Regression tested in order to find the best model. This research utilizes student performance data for several classes. Parameters used in addition to GPA also included the master's students data are expected to build the student profile data. The outcome of the study is the student category based on their study performance and prediction of graduation. Based on this prediction, the  university may recommend actions to be taken to improve the student  achievement index and graduation rates.Keywords: graduation, segmentation, quadrant GPA, data mining, modeling algorithms

  14. Comparing English, Mandarin, and Russian Hydrographic and Terrain Categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Chen-Chieh [National University of Singapore; Sorokine, Alexandre [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The paper compares hydrographic and terrain categories in the geospatial data standards of the US, Taiwan, and Russian Federation where the dominant languages used are from di erent language families. It aims to identify structural and semantic di erences between similar categories across three geospatial data standards. By formalizing the data standard structures and identifying the properties that di erentiate sibling categories in each geospatial data standard using well-known formal relations and quality universals, we develop a common basis on which hydrographic and terrain categories in the three data standards can be compared. The result suggests that all three data standards structure categories with a mixture of relations with di erent meaning even though most of them are well-known relations in top-level ontologies. Similar categories can be found across all three standards but exact match between similar categories are rare.

  15. A tool for sharing annotated research data: the "Category 0" UMLS (Unified Medical Language System) vocabularies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Jules J

    2003-06-16

    Large biomedical data sets have become increasingly important resources for medical researchers. Modern biomedical data sets are annotated with standard terms to describe the data and to support data linking between databases. The largest curated listing of biomedical terms is the the National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). The UMLS contains more than 2 million biomedical terms collected from nearly 100 medical vocabularies. Many of the vocabularies contained in the UMLS carry restrictions on their use, making it impossible to share or distribute UMLS-annotated research data. However, a subset of the UMLS vocabularies, designated Category 0 by UMLS, can be used to annotate and share data sets without violating the UMLS License Agreement. The UMLS Category 0 vocabularies can be extracted from the parent UMLS metathesaurus using a Perl script supplied with this article. There are 43 Category 0 vocabularies that can be used freely for research purposes without violating the UMLS License Agreement. Among the Category 0 vocabularies are: MESH (Medical Subject Headings), NCBI (National Center for Bioinformatics) Taxonomy and ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Diseases-9-Clinical Modifiers). The extraction file containing all Category 0 terms and concepts is 72,581,138 bytes in length and contains 1,029,161 terms. The UMLS Metathesaurus MRCON file (January, 2003) is 151,048,493 bytes in length and contains 2,146,899 terms. Therefore the Category 0 vocabularies, in aggregate, are about half the size of the UMLS metathesaurus.A large publicly available listing of 567,921 different medical phrases were automatically coded using the full UMLS metatathesaurus and the Category 0 vocabularies. There were 545,321 phrases with one or more matches against UMLS terms while 468,785 phrases had one or more matches against the Category 0 terms. This indicates that when the two vocabularies are evaluated by their fitness to find at least one term

  16. A tool for sharing annotated research data: the "Category 0" UMLS (Unified Medical Language System vocabularies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berman Jules J

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large biomedical data sets have become increasingly important resources for medical researchers. Modern biomedical data sets are annotated with standard terms to describe the data and to support data linking between databases. The largest curated listing of biomedical terms is the the National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System (UMLS. The UMLS contains more than 2 million biomedical terms collected from nearly 100 medical vocabularies. Many of the vocabularies contained in the UMLS carry restrictions on their use, making it impossible to share or distribute UMLS-annotated research data. However, a subset of the UMLS vocabularies, designated Category 0 by UMLS, can be used to annotate and share data sets without violating the UMLS License Agreement. Methods The UMLS Category 0 vocabularies can be extracted from the parent UMLS metathesaurus using a Perl script supplied with this article. There are 43 Category 0 vocabularies that can be used freely for research purposes without violating the UMLS License Agreement. Among the Category 0 vocabularies are: MESH (Medical Subject Headings, NCBI (National Center for Bioinformatics Taxonomy and ICD-9-CM (International Classification of Diseases-9-Clinical Modifiers. Results The extraction file containing all Category 0 terms and concepts is 72,581,138 bytes in length and contains 1,029,161 terms. The UMLS Metathesaurus MRCON file (January, 2003 is 151,048,493 bytes in length and contains 2,146,899 terms. Therefore the Category 0 vocabularies, in aggregate, are about half the size of the UMLS metathesaurus. A large publicly available listing of 567,921 different medical phrases were automatically coded using the full UMLS metatathesaurus and the Category 0 vocabularies. There were 545,321 phrases with one or more matches against UMLS terms while 468,785 phrases had one or more matches against the Category 0 terms. This indicates that when the two vocabularies are

  17. The Survival Processing Effect with Intentional Learning of Ad Hoc Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Savchenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that memory is adapted to remember information when it is processed in a survival context. This study investigates how procedural changes in Marinho (2012 study might have led to her failure to replicate the survival mnemonic advantage. In two between-subjects design experiments, participants were instructed to learn words from ad hoc categories and to rate their relevance to a survival or a control scenario. No survival advantage was obtained in either experiment. The Adjusted Ratio of Clustering (ARC scores revealed that including the category labels made the participants rely more on the category structure of the list. Various procedural aspects of the conducted experiments are discussed as possible reasons underlying the absence of the survival effect.

  18. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components among Japanese Workers by Clustered Business Category.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoo Hidaka

    Full Text Available The present study was a cross-sectional study conducted to reveal the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components and describe the features of such prevalence among Japanese workers by clustered business category using big data. The data of approximately 120,000 workers were obtained from a national representative insurance organization, and the study analyzed the health checkup and questionnaire results according to the field of business of each subject. Abnormalities found during the checkups such as excessive waist circumference, hypertension or glucose intolerance, and metabolic syndrome, were recorded. All subjects were classified by business field into 18 categories based on The North American Industry Classification System. Based on the criteria of the Japanese Committee for the Diagnostic Criteria of Metabolic Syndrome, the standardized prevalence ratio (SPR of metabolic syndrome and its components by business category was calculated, and the 95% confidence interval of the SPR was computed. Hierarchical cluster analysis was then performed based on the SPR of metabolic syndrome components, and the 18 business categories were classified into three clusters for both males and females. The following business categories were at significantly high risk of metabolic syndrome: among males, Construction, Transportation, Professional Services, and Cooperative Association; and among females, Health Care and Cooperative Association. The results of the cluster analysis indicated one cluster for each gender with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome components; among males, a cluster consisting of Manufacturing, Transportation, Finance, and Cooperative Association, and among females, a cluster consisting of Mining, Transportation, Finance, Accommodation, and Cooperative Association. These findings reveal that, when providing health guidance and support regarding metabolic syndrome, consideration must be given to its components and the

  19. La autorregulación a nivel social desde una perspectiva cibernético axiológica. Social level self regulation from a cybernetic and axiological point of view.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo José Sánchez Hernández

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available El autor comienza explicando el origen del término cibernética y su relación con la teoría de los valores ético-morales. Mas adelante conceptúa los términos: sistema, autorregulación, adaptación, equilibrio, homeostasis, entropía, eficacia y eficiencia. Continúa dando respuesta a la interrogante: ¿Cómo se efectúa la autorregulación a nivel social?, explicando los elementos que participan en la misma. Por último argumenta las características que esta debe tener para que sea correcta desde el punto de vista ético-moralThe author begins explaining the origin of the term cybernetics and its relationship with the ethical -moral values theory. Alter that he defines the terms: system, self-regulation, adaptation, balance, homeostasis, entropy, effectiveness and efficiency. He continues giving answers to the question: How is self-regulation made at social level? Explaining the elements that participate in it. Lastly he argues the characteristics that it should have so that  it be correct from the ethical-moral point of view

  20. Categorial compositionality: a category theory explanation for the systematicity of human cognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Phillips

    Full Text Available Classical and Connectionist theories of cognitive architecture seek to explain systematicity (i.e., the property of human cognition whereby cognitive capacity comes in groups of related behaviours as a consequence of syntactically and functionally compositional representations, respectively. However, both theories depend on ad hoc assumptions to exclude specific instances of these forms of compositionality (e.g. grammars, networks that do not account for systematicity. By analogy with the Ptolemaic (i.e. geocentric theory of planetary motion, although either theory can be made to be consistent with the data, both nonetheless fail to fully explain it. Category theory, a branch of mathematics, provides an alternative explanation based on the formal concept of adjunction, which relates a pair of structure-preserving maps, called functors. A functor generalizes the notion of a map between representational states to include a map between state transformations (or processes. In a formal sense, systematicity is a necessary consequence of a higher-order theory of cognitive architecture, in contrast to the first-order theories derived from Classicism or Connectionism. Category theory offers a re-conceptualization for cognitive science, analogous to the one that Copernicus provided for astronomy, where representational states are no longer the center of the cognitive universe--replaced by the relationships between the maps that transform them.

  1. Categorial compositionality: a category theory explanation for the systematicity of human cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Steven; Wilson, William H

    2010-07-22

    Classical and Connectionist theories of cognitive architecture seek to explain systematicity (i.e., the property of human cognition whereby cognitive capacity comes in groups of related behaviours) as a consequence of syntactically and functionally compositional representations, respectively. However, both theories depend on ad hoc assumptions to exclude specific instances of these forms of compositionality (e.g. grammars, networks) that do not account for systematicity. By analogy with the Ptolemaic (i.e. geocentric) theory of planetary motion, although either theory can be made to be consistent with the data, both nonetheless fail to fully explain it. Category theory, a branch of mathematics, provides an alternative explanation based on the formal concept of adjunction, which relates a pair of structure-preserving maps, called functors. A functor generalizes the notion of a map between representational states to include a map between state transformations (or processes). In a formal sense, systematicity is a necessary consequence of a higher-order theory of cognitive architecture, in contrast to the first-order theories derived from Classicism or Connectionism. Category theory offers a re-conceptualization for cognitive science, analogous to the one that Copernicus provided for astronomy, where representational states are no longer the center of the cognitive universe--replaced by the relationships between the maps that transform them.

  2. Category mistakes: A barrier to effective environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ken J; Jago, Mark

    2017-09-01

    How entities, the things that exist, are defined and categorised affects all aspects of environmental management including technical descriptions, quantitative analyses, participatory processes, planning, and decisions. Consequently, ambiguous definitions and wrongly assigning entities to categories, referred to as category mistakes, are barriers to effective management. Confusion caused by treating the term 'biodiversity' variously as the property of an area, the biota of an area, and a preferred end state (a value) - quite different categories of entities - is one example. To overcome such difficulties, we develop and define four entity categories - elements, processes, properties, and values - and two derived categories - states and systems. We argue that adoption of these categories and definitions will significantly improve environmental communication and analysis, and thus strengthen planning and decision-making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A role for the developing lexicon in phonetic category acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Naomi H; Griffiths, Thomas L; Goldwater, Sharon; Morgan, James L

    2013-10-01

    Infants segment words from fluent speech during the same period when they are learning phonetic categories, yet accounts of phonetic category acquisition typically ignore information about the words in which sounds appear. We use a Bayesian model to illustrate how feedback from segmented words might constrain phonetic category learning by providing information about which sounds occur together in words. Simulations demonstrate that word-level information can successfully disambiguate overlapping English vowel categories. Learning patterns in the model are shown to parallel human behavior from artificial language learning tasks. These findings point to a central role for the developing lexicon in phonetic category acquisition and provide a framework for incorporating top-down constraints into models of category learning. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Interpretation of response categories in patient-reported rating scales: a controlled study among people with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knutsson Ida

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unambiguous interpretation of ordered rating scale response categories requires distinct meanings of category labels. Also, summation of item responses into total scores assumes equal intervals between categories. While studies have identified problems with rating scale response category functioning there is a paucity of empirical studies regarding how respondents interpret response categories. We investigated the interpretation of commonly used rating scale response categories and attempted to identify distinct and roughly equally spaced response categories for patient-reported rating scales in Parkinson's disease (PD and age-matched control subjects. Methods Twenty-one rating scale response categories representing frequency, intensity and level of agreement were presented in random order to 51 people with PD (36 men; mean age, 66 years and 36 age-matched controls (14 men; mean age, 66. Respondents indicated their interpretation of each category on 100-mm visual analog scales (VAS anchored by Never - Always, Not at all - Extremely, and Totally disagree - Completely agree. VAS values were compared between groups, and response categories with mean values and non-overlapping 95% CIs corresponding to equally spaced locations on the VAS line were sought to identify the best options for three-, four-, five-, and six-category scales. Results VAS values did not differ between the PD and control samples (P = 0.286 or according to educational level (P = 0.220, age (P = 0.220, self-reported physical functioning (P = 0.501 and mental health (P = 0.238, or (for the PD sample PD duration (P = 0.213 or presence of dyskinesias (P = 0.212. Attempts to identify roughly equally spaced response categories for three-, four-, five-, and six-category scales were unsuccessful, as the 95% CIs of one or several of the identified response categories failed to include the criterion values for equal distances. Conclusions This study offers an evidence

  5. Prior auditory information shapes visual category-selectivity in ventral occipito-temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Ruth; Noppeney, Uta

    2010-10-01

    Objects in our natural environment generate signals in multiple sensory modalities. This fMRI study investigated the influence of prior task-irrelevant auditory information on visually-evoked category-selective activations in the ventral occipito-temporal cortex. Subjects categorized pictures as landmarks or animal faces, while ignoring the preceding congruent or incongruent sound. Behaviorally, subjects responded slower to incongruent than congruent stimuli. At the neural level, the lateral and medial prefrontal cortices showed increased activations for incongruent relative to congruent stimuli consistent with their role in response selection. In contrast, the parahippocampal gyri combined visual and auditory information additively: activation was greater for visual landmarks than animal faces and landmark-related sounds than animal vocalizations resulting in increased parahippocampal selectivity for congruent audiovisual landmarks. Effective connectivity analyses showed that this amplification of visual landmark-selectivity was mediated by increased negative coupling of the parahippocampal gyrus with the superior temporal sulcus for congruent stimuli. Thus, task-irrelevant auditory information influences visual object categorization at two stages. In the ventral occipito-temporal cortex auditory and visual category information are combined additively to sharpen visual category-selective responses. In the left inferior frontal sulcus, as indexed by a significant incongruency effect, visual and auditory category information are integrated interactively for response selection. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Perceptual and category processing of the Uncanny Valley hypothesis' dimension of human likeness: some methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, Marcus; Jancke, Lutz

    2013-06-03

    Mori's Uncanny Valley Hypothesis(1,2) proposes that the perception of humanlike characters such as robots and, by extension, avatars (computer-generated characters) can evoke negative or positive affect (valence) depending on the object's degree of visual and behavioral realism along a dimension of human likeness (DHL) (Figure 1). But studies of affective valence of subjective responses to variously realistic non-human characters have produced inconsistent findings (3, 4, 5, 6). One of a number of reasons for this is that human likeness is not perceived as the hypothesis assumes. While the DHL can be defined following Mori's description as a smooth linear change in the degree of physical humanlike similarity, subjective perception of objects along the DHL can be understood in terms of the psychological effects of categorical perception (CP) (7). Further behavioral and neuroimaging investigations of category processing and CP along the DHL and of the potential influence of the dimension's underlying category structure on affective experience are needed. This protocol therefore focuses on the DHL and allows examination of CP. Based on the protocol presented in the video as an example, issues surrounding the methodology in the protocol and the use in "uncanny" research of stimuli drawn from morph continua to represent the DHL are discussed in the article that accompanies the video. The use of neuroimaging and morph stimuli to represent the DHL in order to disentangle brain regions neurally responsive to physical human-like similarity from those responsive to category change and category processing is briefly illustrated.

  7. Right away: A late, right-lateralized category effect complements an early, left-lateralized category effect in visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, Merryn D; Becker, Stefanie I

    2017-10-01

    According to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, learned semantic categories can influence early perceptual processes. A central finding in support of this view is the lateralized category effect-namely, the finding that categorically different colors (e.g., blue and green hues) can be discriminated faster than colors within the same color category (e.g., different hues of green), especially when they are presented in the right visual field. Because the right visual field projects to the left hemisphere, this finding has been popularly couched in terms of the left-lateralization of language. However, other studies have reported bilateral category effects, which has led some researchers to question the linguistic origins of the effect. Here we examined the time course of lateralized and bilateral category effects in the classical visual search paradigm by means of eyetracking and RT distribution analyses. Our results show a bilateral category effect in the manual responses, which is combined of an early, left-lateralized category effect and a later, right-lateralized category effect. The newly discovered late, right-lateralized category effect occurred only when observers had difficulty locating the target, indicating a specialization of the right hemisphere to find categorically different targets after an initial error. The finding that early and late stages of visual search show different lateralized category effects can explain a wide range of previously discrepant findings.

  8. The Category-Demand Effects of Price Promotions

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent R. Nijs; Marnik G. Dekimpe; Jan-Benedict E.M. Steenkamps; Hanssens, Dominique M

    2001-01-01

    Although price promotions have increased in both commercial use and quantity of academic research over the last decade, most of the attention has been focused on their effects on brand choice and brand sales. By contrast, little is known about the conditions under which price promotions expand short-run and long-run category demand, even though the benefits of category expansion can be substantial to manufacturers and retailers alike. This paper studies the category-demand effects of consumer...

  9. Undecidability of Equality in the Free Locally Cartesian Closed Category

    OpenAIRE

    Castellan, Simon; Clairambault, Pierre; Dybjer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    International audience; We show that a version of Martin-Löf type theory with extensional identity, a unit type N 1 , Σ, Π, and a base type is a free category with families (supporting these type formers) both in a 1-and a 2-categorical sense. It follows that the underlying category of contexts is a free locally cartesian closed category in a 2-categorical sense because of a previously proved biequivalence. We then show that equality in this category is undecidable by reducing it to the undec...

  10. Attentional accounting: Voluntary spatial attention increases budget category prioritization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrkva, Kellen; Van Boven, Leaf

    2017-09-01

    Too often, people fail to prioritize the most important activities, life domains, and budget categories. One reason for misplaced priorities, we argue, is that activities and categories people have frequently or recently attended to seem higher priority than other activities and categories. In Experiment 1, participants were cued to direct voluntary spatial attention toward 1 side of a screen while images depicting different budget categories were presented: 1 category on the cued side and 1 on the noncued side of the screen. Participants rated cued budget categories as higher priority than noncued budget categories. Cued attention also increased perceived distinctiveness, and a mediation model was consistent with the hypothesis that distinctiveness mediates the effect of cued attention on prioritization. Experiment 2 orthogonally manipulated 2 components of a spatial cuing manipulation-heightened visual attention and heightened mental attention-to examine how each influences prioritization. Visual attention and mental attention additively increased prioritization. In Experiment 3, attention increased prioritization even when prioritization decisions were incentivized, and even when heightened attention was isolated from primacy and recency. Across experiments, cued categories were prioritized more than noncued categories even though measures were taken to disguise the purpose of the experiments and manipulate attention incidentally (i.e., as a by-product of an unrelated task). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. On the (un)suitability of semantic categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Since Greenberg’s groundbreaking publication on universals of grammar, typologists have used semantic categories to investigate (constraints on) morphological and syntactic variation in the world’s languages and this tradition has been continued in the WALS project. It is argued here that the emp......Since Greenberg’s groundbreaking publication on universals of grammar, typologists have used semantic categories to investigate (constraints on) morphological and syntactic variation in the world’s languages and this tradition has been continued in the WALS project. It is argued here...... that the employment of semantic categories has some serious drawbacks, however, suggesting that semantic categories, just like formal categories, cannot be equated across languages in morphosyntactic typology. Whereas formal categories are too narrow in that they do not cover all structural variants attested across...... languages, semantic categories can be too wide, including too many structural variants. Furthermore, it appears that in some major typological studies semantic categories have been confused with formal categories. A possible solution is pointed out: typologists first need to make sure that the forms...

  12. Learning of role-governed and thematic categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Micah B; Bainbridge, Rebecca; Murphy, Gregory L

    2016-02-01

    Natural categories are often based on intrinsic characteristics, such as shared features, but they can also be based on extrinsic relationships to items outside the categories. Examples of relational categories include items that share a thematic relation or items that share a common role. Five experiments used an artificial category learning paradigm to investigate whether people can learn role-governed and thematic categories without explicit instruction or linguistic support. Participants viewed film clips in which objects were engaged in similar actions and then were asked to group together objects that they believed were in the same category. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that while people spontaneously grouped items using both role-governed and thematic relations, when forced to choose between the two, most preferred role-governed categories. In Experiment 3, category labels increased this preference. Experiment 4 found that people failed to group items based on more abstract role relations when the specific relations differed (e.g., objects that prevented different actions). However, Experiment 5 showed that people could identify them with the aid of comparison. We concluded that people can form role-governed categories even with minimal perceptual and linguistic cues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 40 CFR 98.210 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: limestone, dolomite, ankerite, magnesite, siderite, rhodochrosite, or sodium carbonate. Facilities are... sufficient to allow the calcination reaction to occur. (b) This source category does not include equipment...

  14. Category search speeds up face-selective fMRI responses in a non-hierarchical cortical face network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fang; Badler, Jeremy B; Righi, Giulia; Rossion, Bruno

    2015-05-01

    The human brain is extremely efficient at detecting faces in complex visual scenes, but the spatio-temporal dynamics of this remarkable ability, and how it is influenced by category-search, remain largely unknown. In the present study, human subjects were shown gradually-emerging images of faces or cars in visual scenes, while neural activity was recorded using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Category search was manipulated by the instruction to indicate the presence of either a face or a car, in different blocks, as soon as an exemplar of the target category was detected in the visual scene. The category selectivity of most face-selective areas was enhanced when participants were instructed to report the presence of faces in gradually decreasing noise stimuli. Conversely, the same regions showed much less selectivity when participants were instructed instead to detect cars. When "face" was the target category, the fusiform face area (FFA) showed consistently earlier differentiation of face versus car stimuli than did the "occipital face area" (OFA). When "car" was the target category, only the FFA showed differentiation of face versus car stimuli. These observations provide further challenges for hierarchical models of cortical face processing and show that during gradual revealing of information, selective category-search may decrease the required amount of information, enhancing and speeding up category-selective responses in the human brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Science, public health and nursing: highlighting the gender and generation categories in the episteme of praxis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egry, Emiko Yoshikawa; da Fonseca, Rosa Maria Godoy Serpa; Oliveira, Maria Amélia de Campos

    2013-09-01

    This essay aims to show the relevance of sociological categories gender and generation that underlie the phenomenon of nursing in public health, the episteme of praxis. We understand praxis as the foundation of the historical and dialectic materialism, demonstrating its importance in the process of construction of knowledge in public health nursing. The sociological categories of gender and generation were chosen in this paper because it has the privilege to better illuminate certain phenomena that have been the subject of scientific concern, such as violence against women, children and the elderly, in all its vulnerabilities. The dialectical method was adopted, with an emphasis on the secondary laws of "essence and phenomena" and "reality and possibility". Finally, given that the choice of the approach to the object, as well as the instruments for intervention towards a purpose in the process of scientific knowledge is the choice of the knowing subject, the ethics was related to praxis.

  16. The changing role of the subject specialist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cotta-Schønberg

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available As we all know, libraries are these years rapidly undergoing change on unparalleled scale. Evidently, this applies to librarians, too, and not the least to that important category of library staff, the subject specialist. As recruiting and education of library workers differ from country to country it is difficult to give a detailed, generally valid description of the subject librarian in libraries, but I believe that you can describe an ideal model of subject librarianship as follows: Within each of the major subject disciplines covered by the library, the library should have a subject specialist preferably with a master degree or at least a bachelor degree in the particular subject discipline. The role of the subject specialist is to perform four basic functions where extensive subject knowledge is considered to be necessary: selecting and classifying books, assisting users with advanced subject inquiries, giving subject-specific courses in information retrieval, and maintaining liaison with relevant academic departments and centres. Personally, I know this system very well since I got employment in the Royal Library in Copenhagen as a subject specialist in psychology in the very month I finished my degree in psychology from the University of Copenhagen, back in 1973. The subject librarian system at the Royal Library in Copenhagen was patterned on the ideal model, as I just described it, and it was closely paralleled in the other academic libraries in Denmark, also the new university libraries which were founded in the seventies.

  17. 47 CFR 36.126 - Circuit equipment-Category 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... is used for the amplification, modulation, regeneration, testing, balancing or control of signals... Equipment Excluding Wideband—Category 4.13—The cost of Circuit Equipment associated with exchange line plant... included in this category: Jointly used message circuits, i.e., message switching plant circuits carrying...

  18. 41 CFR 105-62.101 - Security classification categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security classification categories. 105-62.101 Section 105-62.101 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... classification categories. As set forth in Executive Order 12065, official information or material which requires...

  19. Normal and abnormal category-effects in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2017-01-01

    . These limitations have led to the development of a new model of category-effects at pre-semantic stages in visual object processing, which can be considered a further development of the Cascade model: the Pre-semantic Account of Category-Effects (PACE). Here I give a slightly historical, but primarily integrative...

  20. The Role of Corticostriatal Systems in Speech Category Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Han-Gyol; Maddox, W. Todd; Mumford, Jeanette A.; Chandrasekaran, Bharath

    2016-01-01

    One of the most difficult category learning problems for humans is learning nonnative speech categories. While feedback-based category training can enhance speech learning, the mechanisms underlying these benefits are unclear. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated neural and computational mechanisms underlying feedback-dependent speech category learning in adults. Positive feedback activated a large corticostriatal network including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal lobule, middle temporal gyrus, caudate, putamen, and the ventral striatum. Successful learning was contingent upon the activity of domain-general category learning systems: the fast-learning reflective system, involving the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex that develops and tests explicit rules based on the feedback content, and the slow-learning reflexive system, involving the putamen in which the stimuli are implicitly associated with category responses based on the reward value in feedback. Computational modeling of response strategies revealed significant use of reflective strategies early in training and greater use of reflexive strategies later in training. Reflexive strategy use was associated with increased activation in the putamen. Our results demonstrate a critical role for the reflexive corticostriatal learning system as a function of response strategy and proficiency during speech category learning. Keywords: category learning, fMRI, corticostriatal systems, speech, putamen PMID:25331600

  1. 14 CFR 121.199 - Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.199 Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a...

  2. Priming Ability-Relevant Social Categories Improves Intellectual Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Phoebe S.; Kennette, Lynne N.; Van Havermaet, Lisa R.; Frank, Nichole M.; McIntyre, Rusty B.

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that priming affects behavioral tasks; fewer studies, however, have been conducted on how social category primes affect cognitive tasks. The present study aimed to examine the effects of social category primes on math performance and word recall. It was hypothesized that Asian prime words would improve math performance and word…

  3. Semantic categories in the indigenous languages of Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, K.; Braga, M.L.; de Melo Barbosa, E.; Silveira Coriolano, J.; Jezuino da Costa, J.; de Souza Martins, M.; Leite de Oliveira, D.; Maciel de Oliveira, V.; Gomes Pereira, L.; Santana, L.; do Carmo Santos, C.L.; dos Ramos Soares, V.

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates which semantic categories, as defined in Functional Discourse Grammar, formally manifest themselves in a sample of native languages of Brazil, and the extent to which the distribution of these manifestations across categories can be described systematically in terms of

  4. The Spacing Effect in Children's Memory and Category Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlach, Haley A.; Sandhofer, Catherine M.; Kornell, Nate

    2008-01-01

    The spacing effect describes the robust phenomenon whereby memory is enhanced when learning events are distributed, instead of being presented in succession. We investigated the effect of spacing on children's memory and category induction. Three-year-old children were presented with two tasks, a memory task and a category induction task. In the…

  5. A novel particle swarm optimization based on population category

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingying; Qu, Jianhua

    2017-10-01

    This paper raised a novel particle swarm optimization algorithm based on population category. Traditional particle swarm optimization algorithm is easily to trap in local optimum. In order to avoid standard algorithm appearing premature convergence, this novel algorithm use population category strategy to find new directions for particles. At last, computational results show that the new method is effective and has a high-performance.

  6. 40 CFR 98.180 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Lead Production § 98.180 Definition of the source category. The lead production source category consists of primary lead smelters and secondary lead smelters. A primary lead smelter is a facility engaged in the production of lead metal from lead sulfide ore...

  7. 77 FR 20281 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... and concrete stains. Today's final rule designates the proposed product categories within which... designated product category can compete with similar re- refined lubricating oil products with recycled... found in the Comprehensive Procurement Guideline, 40 CFR 247.17. Sec. 3201.87 Wood and concrete stains...

  8. Representation of categories: metaphorical use of the container schema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, I.; Pecher, D.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we investigated whether the mental representation of the concept categories is represented by the container image schema (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980). In two experiments participants decided whether two pictures were from the same category (animal or vehicle). Pictures were

  9. Skew category algebras associated with partially defined dynamical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundström, Patrik; Öinert, Per Johan

    2012-01-01

    We introduce partially defined dynamical systems defined on a topological space. To each such system we associate a functor s from a category G to Topop and show that it defines what we call a skew category algebra A ⋊σ G. We study the connection between topological freeness of s and, on the one...

  10. Eyetracking reveals multiple-category use in induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Stephanie Y; Ross, Brian H; Murphy, Gregory L

    2016-07-01

    Category information is used to predict properties of new category members. When categorization is uncertain, people often rely on only one, most likely category to make predictions. Yet studies of perception and action often conclude that people combine multiple sources of information near-optimally. We present a perception-action analog of category-based induction using eye movements as a measure of prediction. The categories were objects of different shapes that moved in various directions. Experiment 1 found that people integrated information across categories in predicting object motion. The results of Experiment 2 suggest that the integration of information found in Experiment 1 were not a result of explicit strategies. Experiment 3 tested the role of explicit categorization, finding that making a categorization judgment, even an uncertain one, stopped people from using multiple categories in our eye-movement task. Experiment 4 found that induction was indeed based on category-level predictions rather than associations between object properties and directions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. A review of functional imaging studies on category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2007-01-01

    such as familiarity and visual complexity. Of the most consistent activations found, none appear to be selective for natural objects or artefacts. The findings reviewed are compatible with theories of category-specificity that assume a widely distributed conceptual system not organized by category....

  12. Development of Category-based Induction and Semantic Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Anna V.; Godwin, Karrie E.; Matlen, Bryan J.; Unger, Layla

    2015-01-01

    Category-based induction is a hallmark of mature cognition; however, little is known about its origins. This study evaluated the hypothesis that category-based induction is related to semantic development. Computational studies suggest that early on there is little differentiation among concepts, but learning and development lead to increased…

  13. Towards the development of a salinity impact category for South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards the development of a salinity impact category for South African life cycle assessments: part 3 - salinity potentials. ... Surface water 0.165. Natural surfaces 0.031. Agricultural surfaces 1.000. An additional impact category for salinity effects is therefore proposed, and the derived salinity potentials (also known as ...

  14. Abstract: Category Allocation and Education for Accident/Emergency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Category Allocation and Education for Accident/Emergency Department Nurses at Referral Hospital in Kigali, Rwanda. ... might have been other factors such as a change in triage practice and institution of a day care room in A/E. Staff knowledge increased in accuracy of triage category allocation from 51% to 64%.

  15. 40 CFR 98.190 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of the source category. 98... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Lime Manufacturing § 98.190 Definition of the source category... non-marketed lime manufacturing facilities. (c) Lime kilns at pulp and paper manufacturing facilities...

  16. 40 CFR 98.240 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petrochemical Production § 98.240 Definition of the source... makes methanol, hydrogen, and/or ammonia from synthesis gas is part of the petrochemical source category... category. (f) A process that produces a petrochemical from bio-based feedstock is not part of the...

  17. Anthropometric Profile in Different Event Categories of Acrobatic Gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboada-Iglesias, Yaiza; Santana, Mercedes Vernetta; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, Águeda

    2017-06-01

    There is a specific anthropometric profile for each sport, which may be differentiated even in relation to the position, role or event category within each sport discipline. However, there are few studies on acrobatic gymnastics, and the goal of this work was to determine the anthropometric profile depending on the event category, as well as factors that predisposed to performance in these categories. The sample consisted of 150 gymnasts from Spain, divided into 8 groups according to the event category and the role played. The kinanthropometric measurements were taken through the procedures established by the International Society for the Advancement of Kineantropometry. The anthropometric characteristics, including body mass index, somatotype, body composition and proportionality using the Phantom stratagem were analyzed, and the results obtained from the different groups were compared. A regression analysis was performed with particular groups of gymnasts. No significant differences (p gymnast toward choosing one event category or another, except for female bases.

  18. Relational categories as a bridge between cognitive and educational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Micah B; Schalk, Lennart

    2016-07-01

    Both cognitive and educational psychology literature strive to investigate human category and concept learning. However, both literatures focus on different phenomena and often use different methodologies. We identify and discuss commonalities and differences between the literatures. This literature comparison reveals that research on relational category learning offers a promising avenue to integration. We suggest that this integration would be especially beneficial to advance our understanding of conceptual change essentially, how complex scientific concepts and categories are acquired and developed in educational contexts elaborating or correcting students' prior conceptions. Furthermore, the focus on relational categories allows us to provide an integrative discussion on how recent lines of research on analogy, memory and category learning, and knowledge restructuring relate to and can inform education. In general, this article advocates the complementary nature of cognitive and educational psychology and identifies viable, and potentially synergistic paths for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Client contribution in negotiations on employability – categories revised?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskelinen, L.; Olesen, Søren Peter; Caswell, D.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we explore how the institutional category ‘unemployed’ is specified in everyday practice when implementing an active employment policy. We illustrate the process of categorisation as an aspect of the in situ positioning and self-representation of the client by examining one social...... worker–client talk: how the category unemployed is shaped and ‘translated’ when the client negotiates her situation with the social worker. Two types of category revisions are identified. First, the employability of the client, rather than her unemployment situation, is the issue under negotiation....... Second, the client introduces new categories that are compatible with the demands of the employment system. She contributes by drawing on discursive resources related to the category of ‘active job seeker’ but does this with an own agenda of looking for a suitable job. The analysis elucidates the client...

  20. Categorical perception of color: evidence from secondary category boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-rasheed, Abdulrahman Saud

    2015-01-01

    Despite a plethora of behavioral research exploring the phenomenon of color categorical perception (CP) known as “better discrimination between pair of colors stimuli from different categories and pair of colors stimuli from the same category even when the stimulus differences between the pairs of stimuli are equal”, most of the evidence for the CP of color was derived from Roman or top-to-down script readers and very rarely from right-to-left script readers in primary category. To date, no studies of color CP have been conducted on right-to-left script readers in secondary category boundary to support this theory. Three experiments have been conducted: Experiments 1 and 2 established the Arabic blue–purple secondary category boundary, and Experiment 3 tested the CP of color in the blue–purple category boundary. Sixty participants (30 men and 30 women) took part in this study. All spoke Arabic as their first language, and all were undergraduate or postgraduate students at King Saud University. Their ages ranged from 18–35 years with a mean age of 21.9 years (SD =5.2). The result indicated that for Experiments 1 and 2, it appeared that the Arabic blue–purple category boundary was approximately 10PB and it is in the same location as for English. For Experiment 3, reaction times in the between-categories condition were significantly faster than those in the within-category condition; this suggested that CP of color was shown in the Arabic’s blue–purple secondary category boundary. PMID:26648764

  1. Basketball ability testing and category for players with mental retardation: 8-month training effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciosi, Emanuele; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Baldari, Carlo; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Guidetti, Laura

    2012-06-01

    Although sport for athletes with mental retardation (MR) is achieving an important role, the literature concerning basketball tests and training is still poor. The aims of this study were to verify whether the basketball test battery could be an appropriate modality to classify the players in the Promotion (Pro) category, to assess basketball abilities before (PRE) and after (POST) an 8-month training in players with MR in relation to Competitive (Comp) and Pro categories, to analyze the variation of specific basketball abilities based on subjects' MR diagnosis. Forty-one male basketball players with MR (17 Comp and 24 Pro; age range 18-45 years; MR: 15% mild, 54% moderate, 29% severe, and 2% profound) were assessed PRE and POST training through the basketball test battery, which assessed 4 ability levels of increasing difficulty (from I to IV), each one characterized by the analysis of fundamental areas (ball handling, reception, passing, and shooting). Level I was significantly changed after the intervention period regardless of the Category, whereas shooting was affected by the interaction between Category and Intervention. The results showed significant differences between categories in the scores of individual global, level I, level II, level III, and in all fundamental areas. Individual global score in both categories significantly increased. The players of Comp significantly improved in level III, in ball handling, reception, passing, and shooting scores. The players of Pro improved significantly in level II, in ball handling, reception, and passing scores. Individual global, ability levels I-III, and fundamental area scores were negatively correlated to the MR level indicating that the players with a lower MR obtained higher ability scores. In conclusion, it was found that the basketball test battery could be useful for improving and monitoring training in both Comp and Pro players.

  2. Combining features from ERP components in single-trial EEG for discriminating four-category visual objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changming; Xiong, Shi; Hu, Xiaoping; Yao, Li; Zhang, Jiacai

    2012-10-01

    Categorization of images containing visual objects can be successfully recognized using single-trial electroencephalograph (EEG) measured when subjects view images. Previous studies have shown that task-related information contained in event-related potential (ERP) components could discriminate two or three categories of object images. In this study, we investigated whether four categories of objects (human faces, buildings, cats and cars) could be mutually discriminated using single-trial EEG data. Here, the EEG waveforms acquired while subjects were viewing four categories of object images were segmented into several ERP components (P1, N1, P2a and P2b), and then Fisher linear discriminant analysis (Fisher-LDA) was used to classify EEG features extracted from ERP components. Firstly, we compared the classification results using features from single ERP components, and identified that the N1 component achieved the highest classification accuracies. Secondly, we discriminated four categories of objects using combining features from multiple ERP components, and showed that combination of ERP components improved four-category classification accuracies by utilizing the complementarity of discriminative information in ERP components. These findings confirmed that four categories of object images could be discriminated with single-trial EEG and could direct us to select effective EEG features for classifying visual objects.

  3. Comparison of four different categories of prosthetic feet during ramp ambulation in unilateral transtibial amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Vibhor; Gailey, Robert S; Gaunaurd, Ignacio A; O'Toole, Christopher; Finnieston, Adam; Tolchin, Ronald

    2015-10-01

    Comparative effectiveness of prosthetic feet during ramp ambulation in unilateral transtibial amputees, who function at different Medicare Functional Classification Levels, has not been published. To determine differences in symmetry in external work between four categories of prosthetic feet in K-Level-2 and K-Level-3 unilateral transtibial amputees during ramp ascent and descent. Randomized repeated-measures trial. Ten subjects completed six testing sessions during which symmetry in external work was calculated using F-scan in-sole sensors. Between testing sessions 1 and 2, subjects received standardized functional prosthetic training. In Sessions 3-6, subjects tested four feet--solid ankle cushion heel, stationary attachment flexible endoskeleton, Talux (categories K1, K2, and K3, respectively), and Proprio-Foot (microprocessor ankle)--using a study socket and had a 10- to 14-day accommodation period with each foot. During ramp descent, K-Level-2 subjects demonstrated higher symmetry in external work values with Talux and Proprio-Foot compared to the solid ankle cushion heel foot. K-Level-3 subjects also had higher symmetry in external work values with the Talux foot than the solid ankle cushion heel foot. Ramp ascent symmetry in external work values were not significantly different between feet. Prosthetic foot category appears to influence symmetry in external work more during decline walking than incline walking. K-Level-2 unilateral transtibial amputees achieve greater symmetry from K3 dynamic response prosthetic feet with J-shaped ankle and microprocessor ankles while descending ramps. The findings suggest that K-Level-2 unilateral transtibial amputees benefit from K3 dynamic response prosthetic feet with J-shaped ankle. These results support the prescription of K3 feet for K-Level-2 amputees who frequently negotiate ramps. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  4. Comparing two K-category assignments by a K-category correlation coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorodkin, Jan

    2004-01-01

    categories by considering what belongs and what does not belong to one of the categories, leading to the loss of information. Here, an extended correlation coefficient that applies to K-categories is proposed, and this measure is shown to be highly applicable for evaluating prediction of RNA secondary...... structure in cases where some predicted pairs go into the category "unknown" due to lack of reliability in predicted pairs or unpaired residues. Hence, predicting base pairs of RNA secondary structure can be a three-category problem. The measure is further shown to be well in agreement with existing...... performance measures used for ranking protein secondary structure predictions. Server and software is available at http://rk.kvl.dk/....

  5. Categories of fruit and vegetables: Attributes and definitions in Serbian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilparić Branislava M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the results of an empirical investigation performed by E. Rosch and K. Mervis (1975, the prototype structures of the categories FRUIT and VEGETABLES, the two superordinate and neighbouring categories with no clear-cut boundaries between them, are formed by family resemblances. Each category has only two attributes ('(part of a plant' and 'edible' which are common to all its members and yet not sufficient to define the category and separate it from other categories of edible (parts of plants. Through the analysis and comparison of a number of definitions for FRUIT and VEGETABLES (obtained in a questionnaire-based survey from a hundred native speakers of Serbian; taken from Lexicography and Conceptual Analysis by A. Wierzbicka; taken from five general dictionaries of the Serbian language, the author of this paper attempts to determine the group of attributes that could play a key role in differentiating the observed categories and to search for the most appropriate way to define the two categories in Serbian which would hopefully be acceptable to both modern (prototype semantics and practical lexicography.

  6. Visual Images of Subjective Perception of Time in a Literary Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterik, Ella V.; Issina, Gaukhar I.; Pecherskikh, Taliya F.; Belikova, Oxana V.

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the subjective perception of time, or psychological time, as a text category and a literary image. It focuses on the visual images that are characteristic of different types of literary time--accelerated, decelerated and frozen (vanished). The research is based on the assumption that the category of subjective perception…

  7. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  8. Primacy or recency effects in forming inductive categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Sean; Crawford, L Elizabeth

    2008-04-01

    Five experiments provide evidence for a primacy effect in the formation of inductive categories. Participants completed a category induction task in which they observed and reproduced a set of lines that varied in length but were serially ordered so that they increased or decreased in length. Subsequent estimates of the average of the distribution were systematically biased in the direction of stimuli encountered at the beginning of the induction task, suggesting that initially encountered stimuli exert greater weight in a category representation than do subsequent stimuli. We offer possible explanations for why this primacy effect might arise.

  9. The Importance of Developing a Foundation for Naive Category Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Cabbolet, Marcoen J. T. F.

    2015-01-01

    Recently Feferman (Rev. Symb. Logic 6: 6-15, 2013) has outlined a program for the development of a foundation for naive category theory. While Ernst (ibid. 8: 306-327, 2015) has shown that the resulting axiomatic system is still inconsistent, the purpose of this note is to show that nevertheless some foundation has to be developed before naive category theory can replace axiomatic set theory as a foundational theory for mathematics. It is argued that in naive category theory currently a 'cook...

  10. The Category of Time in English, Russian and French Phraseology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Makleeva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we make an attempt to analyze linguistic and cultural descriptions of phraseological units of English, Russian and French reflecting the category of time. In the study of each language about 200 of phraseological units associated with the category of time were taken, which were divided into 5 groups representing different phraseo-semantic concepts. We have carried out a semantic analysis of the data of phraseological units identified by national-cultural peculiarities of expression of time category. The results can be used in the practice of teaching English, Russian and French as foreign languages, in courses on linguistics, and are also taken into account compiling dictionaries.

  11. Bicategories of fractions for groupoids in monadic categories

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqmin, Pierre-Alain; Vitale, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    The bicategory of fractions of the 2-category of internal groupoids and internal functors in groups with respect to weak equivalences (i.e., functors which are internally full, faithful and essentially surjective) has an easy description: one has just to replace internal functors by monoidal functors. In the present paper, we generalize this result from groups to any monadic category over a regular category C; assuming that the axiom of choice holds in C: For T a monad on C; the bicategory of...

  12. Anthropometric and Somatotype Characteristics of Young Soccer Players: Differences Among Categories, Subcategories, and Playing Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perroni, Fabrizio; Vetrano, Mario; Camolese, Giancarlo; Guidetti, Laura; Baldari, Carlo

    2015-08-01

    Considering that anthropometric parameters are important factors in the performance of the soccer players, the aim of this study was to explore the differences in anthropometric and somatotype characteristics of Italian young soccer players. Weight, height, body mass index, and somatotype of 112 young soccer players, grouped in Giovanissimi "A" (14 years), "B" (13 years), and "C" (12 years) as well as Allievi "B" (15 years) and "A" (16 years) and "Juniores" (older than 17 years), were evaluated. Statistical analysis tests were computed at p ≤ 0.05, and an analysis of variance for each somatotype was calculated to analyze the main effects and interactions of the factors: categories, subcategories, and playing position. Bonferroni's post hoc analysis was used to identify differences among mean values. Considering all subjects, we have found significant differences in categories, subcategories, and playing position between anthropometric values and a somatotype value of 2.8-3.8-2.9. Significant differences have found among goalkeepers and the others playing position in endomorphy (p ≤ 0.001) and with defenders and midfielders in ectomorphy (p somatotype differences for playing position within categories also in the youngest categories and subcategories, in particular, in the endomorphy component. Young soccer players should be trained with more appropriate and specific training load to avoid the increased injury risk during adolescence.

  13. Clinical patterns in asthma based on proximal and distal airway nitric oxide categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aledia Anna S

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The exhaled nitric oxide (eNO signal is a marker of inflammation, and can be partitioned into proximal [J'awNO (nl/s, maximum airway flux] and distal contributions [CANO (ppb, distal airway/alveolar NO concentration]. We hypothesized that J'awNO and CANO are selectively elevated in asthmatics, permitting identification of four inflammatory categories with distinct clinical features. Methods In 200 consecutive children with asthma, and 21 non-asthmatic, non-atopic controls, we measured baseline spirometry, bronchodilator response, asthma control and morbidity, atopic status, use of inhaled corticosteroids, and eNO at multiple flows (50, 100, and 200 ml/s in a cross-sectional study design. A trumpet-shaped axial diffusion model of NO exchange was used to characterize J'awNO and CANO. Results J'awNO was not correlated with CANO, and thus asthmatic subjects were grouped into four eNO categories based on upper limit thresholds of non-asthmatics for J'awNO (≥ 1.5 nl/s and CANO (≥ 2.3 ppb: Type I (normal J'awNO and CANO, Type II (elevated J'awNO and normal CANO, Type III (elevated J'awNO and CANO and Type IV (normal J'awNO and elevated CANO. The rate of inhaled corticosteroid use (lowest in Type III and atopy (highest in Type II varied significantly amongst the categories influencing J'awNO, but was not related to CANO, asthma control or morbidity. All categories demonstrated normal to near-normal baseline spirometry; however, only eNO categories with increased CANO (III and IV had significantly worse asthma control and morbidity when compared to categories I and II. Conclusions J'awNO and CANO reveal inflammatory categories in children with asthma that have distinct clinical features including sensitivity to inhaled corticosteroids and atopy. Only categories with increase CANO were related to poor asthma control and morbidity independent of baseline spirometry, bronchodilator response, atopic status, or use of inhaled

  14. Identity, gender, and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Using the self-reported level of happiness as a measure of subjective well-being, this study examines the relationship between gender identity and subjective well-being with data from Taiwan. The findings suggest that an individual's perceptions about the ideals of women's gender roles in the labor market, the family, and politics are strongly related to his or her assigned social category, the prescriptions and characteristics associated with the social category, and the actions taken to match the ideals of gender identity. Consistent with Akerlof and Kranton's (2000) identity model, it is also found that an individual's gains or losses in gender identity lead to increases or decreases in the level of happiness.

  15. Ego depletion interferes with rule-defined category learning but not non-rule-defined category learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minda, John P.; Rabi, Rahel

    2015-01-01

    Considerable research on category learning has suggested that many cognitive and environmental factors can have a differential effect on the learning of rule-defined (RD) categories as opposed to the learning of non-rule-defined (NRD) categories. Prior research has also suggested that ego depletion can temporarily reduce the capacity for executive functioning and cognitive flexibility. The present study examined whether temporarily reducing participants’ executive functioning via a resource depletion manipulation would differentially impact RD and NRD category learning. Participants were either asked to write a story with no restrictions (the control condition), or without using two common letters (the ego depletion condition). Participants were then asked to learn either a set of RD categories or a set of NRD categories. Resource depleted participants performed more poorly than controls on the RD task, but did not differ from controls on the NRD task, suggesting that self regulatory resources are required for successful RD category learning. These results lend support to multiple systems theories and clarify the role of self-regulatory resources within this theory. PMID:25688220

  16. LexGram - a practical categorial grammar formalism -

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, Esther

    1995-01-01

    We present the LexGram system, an amalgam of (Lambek) categorial grammar and Head Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG), and show that the grammar formalism it implements is a well-structured and useful tool for actual grammar development.

  17. Goguen categories a categorical approach to l-fuzzy relations

    CERN Document Server

    Winter, Michael; Mundici, Daniele

    2007-01-01

    Goguen categories extend the relational calculus and its categorical formalization to the fuzzy world. Starting from the fundamental concepts of sets, binary relations and lattices this book introduces several categorical formulations of an abstract theory of relations such as allegories, Dedekind categories and related structures. It is shown that neither theory is sufficiently rich to describe basic operations on fuzzy relations. The book then introduces Goguen categories and provides a comprehensive study of these structures including their representation theory, and the definability of norm-based operations. The power of the theory is demonstrated by a comprehensive example. A certain Goguen category is used to specify and to develop a fuzzy controller. Based on its abstract description as well as certain desirable properties and their formal proofs, a verified controller is derived without compromising the - sometimes - intuitive choice of norm-based operations by fuzzy engineers.

  18. Category superiority effects in young and elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharps, M J

    1997-06-01

    Recent research indicates that some elderly persons experience an age-related visual processing deficit, for which they may attempt to compensate through the use of relational information. This hypothesis was tested, using the category superiority effect as a model system. In studies of young adults, the category superiority effect has been shown to be confined to relatively abstract stimulus materials such as verbal items, and to be absent for more concrete representations such as photographs of actual objects. However, it was predicted that, contrary to the data from young adults, a category superiority effect would be present in elderly adults for both verbal and pictorial stimuli, because elderly people would be expected to use category information to compensate for imageric deficits. This prediction was confirmed, consistent with the hypothesis.

  19. Anthropometric Profile in Different Event Categories of Acrobatic Gymnastics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yaiza Taboada-Iglesias; Mercedes Vernetta Santana; Águeda Gutiérrez-Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    .... However, there are few studies on acrobatic gymnastics, and the goal of this work was to determine the anthropometric profile depending on the event category, as well as factors that predisposed...

  20. Effects of contrasting category, conjoint frequency and typicality on categorization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das-Smaal, E.A.; Swart, de J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether (a) experience with a contrasting category, (b) conjoint frequency of dimensional values, (c) range of typicality of values, and (d) type of information administered during learning influenced subsequent test performance. Each experiment began

  1. Early warning reporting categories analysis of recall and complaints data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-31

    This analysis was performed to assist the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) in identifying components and systems to be included in early warning reporting (EWR) categories that would be based upon historical safety-related recal...

  2. Remanufacture Systems for Category 1 and 2 Marine Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA maintains a list of remanufacture systems, or “kits”, certified for use with Category 1 and 2 marine diesel engines according to the provisions of 40 CFR Part 1042, Subpart I, and is periodically updated.

  3. Solving the Selective Multi-Category Parallel-Servicing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Range, Troels Martin; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    In this paper we present a new scheduling problem and describe a shortest path based heuristic as well as a dynamic programming based exact optimization algorithm to solve it. The Selective Multi-Category Parallel-Servicing Problem (SMCPSP) arises when a set of jobs has to be scheduled on a server...... (machine) with limited capacity. Each job requests service in a prespecified time window and belongs to a certain category. Jobs may be serviced partially, incurring a penalty; however, only jobs of the same category can be processed simultaneously. One must identify the best subset of jobs to process...... in each time interval of a given planning horizon while respecting the server capacity and scheduling requirements. We compare the proposed solution methods with a MILP formulation and show that the dynamic programming approach is faster when the number of categories is large, whereas the MILP can...

  4. Category 3 threshold quantities for hazard categorization of nonreactor facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandigo, R.L.

    1996-02-13

    This document provides the information necessary to determine Hazard Category 3 threshold quantities for those isotopes of interest not listed in WHC-CM-4-46, Section 4, Table 1.''Threshold Quantities.''

  5. A Baire Category Approach to the Bang-Bang Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, A.; Piccoli, B.

    The aim of this paper is to develop a new technique, based on the Baire category theorem, in order to establish the closedness of reachable sets and the existence of optimal trajectories for control systems, without the usual convexity assumptions. The bang-bang property is proved for a new class of "concave" multifunctions, characterized by the existence of suitable linear selections. The proofs rely on Lyapunov's theorem in connection with a Baire category argument.

  6. Anisotropic thermal expansion in crystals of different categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamkovskaya, A.; Maksimova, E.

    2015-12-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) indicatory surfaces of thermal expansion in crystals of different categories were constructed in program MathCad. Indicatory surface of thermal expansion is a sphere, spheroid, ellipsoid or surface of multiple parts, depending on the category of the crystal symmetry. The symmetry elements of thermal expansion include the symmetry elements of the point group of the crystal according Neumann's Principle.

  7. Memory of ordinal number categories in macaque monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Tanya; Amit, Daniel J; Yakovlev, Volodya; Zohary, Ehud; Hochstein, Shaul

    2006-03-01

    What mechanism underlies serial order memory? Studying preverbal serial memory shows that macaque monkeys reproducing a sequence of items can acquire knowledge of item ordinal position. In our previous experiment, macaques were repeatedly presented with image lists (first shown sequentially and then simultaneously on a touch screen together with a distractor chosen randomly from other lists). The task was to touch list images in the correct order. The monkeys' natural tendency was to categorize images by their ordinal position or number because their most common error was touching the distractor when it had the same ordinal number (in its own list) as the correct image. Item-to-item associations were used to complete the categorization strategy. Proposing a dynamic image-salience hypothesis for serial recall (based on category-to-image influence and a salience computation for identifying touch targets), we now study the category label characteristics in the context of this hypothesis. We found that these category labels are absolute, ordinal-number-based categories (first, second, etc.), not relative memorized as relative distance from the beginning and the end of the list, and not based on fixed ranking of reward contingency/image familiarity. Even isolated from item-item associations, the categories demonstrate category tuning (as well as the corresponding overlap of adjacent ordinal number codes). Moreover, monkeys choose images by proximity of their category to the current touch number, irrespective of the accuracy of the preceding choice. Category tuning itself is symmetric relative to correct ordinal position, but is skewed by other factors (reward, etc.). Tuning width increases with list length, with a concurrent increased use of item-to-item associations for determining touch order.

  8. Calabi-Yau structures on categories of matrix factorizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shklyarov, Dmytro

    2017-09-01

    Using tools of complex geometry, we construct explicit proper Calabi-Yau structures, that is, non-degenerate cyclic cocycles on differential graded categories of matrix factorizations of regular functions with isolated critical points. The formulas involve the Kapustin-Li trace and its higher corrections. From the physics perspective, our result yields explicit 'off-shell' models for categories of topological D-branes in B-twisted Landau-Ginzburg models.

  9. The social context of the category "emotional and behavioural disorders"

    OpenAIRE

    Razpotnik, Špela

    2015-01-01

    It is the aim of the following study to call attention to the question of the extent to which categories and discourses surrounding the classification and categorization of children with special needs, particularly the category ‘emotional and behavioural disorders’, reflect the significance, influence and presence of wider socio-political and socio-economic conditions. Although designations change with time, it seems that even existing classifications and designations have n...

  10. Adaptive response-time-based category sequencing in perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, Everett; Kellman, Philip J

    2014-06-01

    Although much recent work in perceptual learning (PL) has focused on basic sensory discriminations, recent analyses suggest that PL in a variety of tasks depends on processes that discover and select information relevant to classifications being learned (Kellman & Garrigan, 2009; Petrov, Dosher, & Lu, 2005). In complex, real-world tasks, discovery involves finding structural invariants amidst task-irrelevant variation (Gibson, 1969), allowing learners to correctly classify new stimuli. The applicability of PL methods to such tasks offers important opportunities to improve learning. It also raises questions about how learning might be optimized in complex tasks and whether variables that influence other forms of learning also apply to PL. We investigated whether an adaptive, response-time-based, category sequencing algorithm implementing laws of spacing derived from memory research would also enhance perceptual category learning and transfer to novel cases. Participants learned to classify images of 12 different butterfly genera under conditions of: (1) random presentation, (2) adaptive category sequencing, and (3) adaptive category sequencing with 'mini-blocks' (grouping 3 successive category exemplars). We found significant effects on efficiency of learning for adaptive category sequencing, reliably better than for random presentation and mini-blocking (Experiment 1). Effects persisted across a 1-week delay and were enhanced for novel items. Experiment 2 showed even greater effects of adaptive learning for perceptual categories containing lower variability. These results suggest that adaptive category sequencing increases the efficiency of PL and enhances generalization of PL to novel stimuli, key components of high-level PL and fundamental requirements of learning in many domains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Online Consumer Reviews: The Moderating Effect of Product Category

    OpenAIRE

    Bjering, Einar; Havro, Lars Jaakko

    2014-01-01

    This paper tests a previously proposed model for assessing consumer generated online reviews effect on sales, the review impact continuum. Product category is found to play an important role as a moderating factor of several properties concerning user generated online reviews - including its impact on sales. The authors introduce a novel method for product category classification using natural language processing (NLP), and by applying this method show that reviews are more influential for su...

  12. Threat Identification Parameters for a Stolen Category 1 Radioactive Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ussery, Larry Eugene [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Winkler, Ryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, Steven Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-18

    Radioactive sources are used very widely for research and practical applications across medicine, industry, government, universities, and agriculture. The risks associated with these sources vary widely depending on the specific radionuclide used to make the source, source activity, and its chemical and physical form. Sources are categorized by a variety of classification schemes according to the specific risk they pose to the public. This report specifically addresses sources that are classified in the highest category for health risk (category 1). Exposure to an unshielded or lightly shielded category 1 source is extremely dangerous to life and health and can be fatal in relatively short exposure times measured in seconds to minutes. A Category 1 source packaged according to the guidelines dictated by the NRC and U.S. Department of Transportation will typically be surrounded by a large amount of dense shielding material, but will still exhibit a significant dose rate in close proximity. Detection ranges for Category 1 gamma ray sources can extend beyond 5000 ft, but will depend mostly on the source isotope and activity, and the level of shielding around the source. Category 1 sources are easy to detect, but difficult to localize. Dose rates in proximity to an unshielded Category 1 source are extraordinarily high. At distances of a few hundred feet, the functionality of many commonly used handheld instruments will be extremely limited for both the localization and identification of the source. Radiation emitted from a Category 1 source will scatter off of both solid material (ground and buildings) and the atmosphere, a phenomenon known as skyshine. This scattering affects the ability to easily localize and find the source.

  13. Converging modalities ground abstract categories: the case of politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Ana Rita; Garrido, Margarida V; Semin, Gün R

    2013-01-01

    Three studies are reported examining the grounding of abstract concepts across two modalities (visual and auditory) and their symbolic representation. A comparison of the outcomes across these studies reveals that the symbolic representation of political concepts and their visual and auditory modalities is convergent. In other words, the spatial relationships between specific instances of the political categories are highly overlapping across the symbolic, visual and auditory modalities. These findings suggest that abstract categories display redundancy across modal and amodal representations, and are multimodal.

  14. Modulating the granularity of category formation by global cortical states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihwa Kim

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The unsupervised categorization of sensory stimuli is typically attributed to feedforward processing in a hierarchy of cortical areas. This purely sensory-driven view of cortical processing, however, ignores any internal modulation, e.g., by top-down attentional signals or neuromodulator release. To isolate the role of internal signaling on category formation, we consider an unbroken continuum of stimuli without intrinsic category boundaries. We show that a competitive network, shaped by recurrent inhibition and endowed with Hebbian and homeostatic synaptic plasticity, can enforce stimulus categorization. The degree of competition is internally controlled by the neuronal gain and the strength of inhibition. Strong competition leads to the formation of many attracting network states, each being evoked by a distinct subset of stimuli and representing a category. Weak competition allows more neurons to be co-active, resulting in fewer but larger categories. We conclude that the granularity of cortical category formation, i.e., the number and size of emerging categories, is not simply determined by the richness of the stimulus environment, but rather by some global internal signal modulating the network dynamics. The model also explains the salient non-additivity of visual object representation observed in the monkey inferotemporal (IT cortex. Furthermore, it offers an explanation of a previously observed, demand-dependent modulation of IT activity on a stimulus categorization task and of categorization-related cognitive deficits in schizophrenic patients.

  15. 77 FR 19282 - Draft NPDES General Permit for Discharges From the Oil and Gas Extraction Point Source Category...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... AGENCY Draft NPDES General Permit for Discharges From the Oil and Gas Extraction Point Source Category to... Elimination System (NPDES) general permit regulating discharges from oil and gas wells in the Coastal... adversely affect an Essential Fish Habitat is subject to the consultation provisions of the Manguson-Stevens...

  16. Graded Responses and Joining Categories: A Rejoinder to Andrich'"Models for Measurement, Precision, and Nondichotomization of Graded Responses."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, Edward E.

    1995-01-01

    The Jansen and Roskam (1986) approach to joining categories of graded responses presents valid arguments that are subject to empirical test. The multiplicative Poisson (MPM) model of D. Andrich can be seen as an approximation to the continuous response model of Muller (1987). An extension of the MPM is suggested. (SLD)

  17. Category specificity in early perception: face and word n170 responses differ in both lateralization and habituation properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Urs; Rossion, Bruno; McCandliss, Bruce D

    2008-01-01

    N170 event-related potential (ERP) responses to both faces and visual words raises questions about category specific processing mechanisms during early perception and their neural basis. Topographic differences across word and face N170s suggests a form of category specific processing in early perception - the word N170 is consistently left-lateralized, while less consistent evidence supports a right-lateralization for the face N170. Additionally, the face N170 shows a reduction in amplitude across consecutive individual faces, a form of habituation that might differ across studies thereby helping to explain inconsistencies in lateralization. This effect remains unexplored for visual words. The current study directly contrasts N170 responses to words and faces within the same subjects, examining both category-level habituation and lateralization effects. ERP responses to a series of different faces and words were collected under two contexts: blocks that alternated faces and words vs. pure blocks of a single category designed to induce category-level habituation. Global and occipito-temporal measures of N170 amplitude demonstrated an interaction between category (words, faces) and block context (alternating categories, same category). N170 amplitude demonstrated class-level habituation for faces but not words. Furthermore, the pure block context diminished the right-lateralization of the face N170, pointing to class-level habituation as a factor that might drive inconsistencies in findings of right-lateralization across different paradigms. No analogous effect for the word N170 was found, suggesting category specificity for this form of habituation. Taken together, topographic and habituation effects suggest distinct forms of perceptual processing drive the face N170 and the visual word form N170.

  18. Effects of category-specific costs on neural systems for perceptual decision-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming, Stephen M; Whiteley, Louise Emma; Hulme, Oliver James

    2010-01-01

    Perceptual judgments are often biased by prospective losses, leading to changes in decision criteria. Little is known about how and where sensory evidence and cost information interact in the brain to influence perceptual categorization. Here we show that prospective losses systematically bias...... the perception of noisy face-house images. Asymmetries in category-specific cost were associated with enhanced blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal in a frontoparietal network. We observed selective activation of parahippocampal gyrus for changes in category-specific cost in keeping with the hypothesis that loss...... functions enact a particular task set that is communicated to visual regions. Across subjects, greater shifts in decision criteria were associated with greater activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Our results support a hypothesis that costs bias an intermediate representation between...

  19. Phase noise reveals early category-specific modulation of the event-related potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornél eNémeth

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found that the amplitude of the early event-related potential (ERP components evoked by faces, such as N170 and P2, changes systematically as a function of noise added to the stimuli. This change has been linked to an increased perceptual processing demand and to enhanced difficulty in perceptual decision making about faces. However, to date it has not yet been tested whether noise manipulation affects the neural correlates of decisions about face and non-face stimuli similarly. To this end, we measured the event-related potentials for faces and cars at three different phase noise levels. Subjects performed the same two-alternative age-discrimination task on stimuli chosen from young-old morphing continua that were created from faces as well as cars and were calibrated to lead to similar performances at each noise-level. Adding phase noise to the stimuli reduced performance and enhanced response latency for the two categories to the same extent. Parallel to that, phase noise reduced the amplitude and prolonged the latency of the face-specific N170 component. The amplitude of the P1 showed category-specific noise dependence: it was enhanced over the right hemisphere for cars and over the left hemisphere for faces as a result of adding phase noise to the stimuli, but remained stable across noise levels for cars over the left and for faces over the right hemisphere. Moreover, noise modulation altered the category-selectivity of the N170, while the P2 ERP component, typically associated with task decision difficulty, was larger for the more noisy stimuli regardless of stimulus category. Our results suggest that the category-specificity of noise-induced modulations of ERP responses starts at around 100 ms post-stimulus.

  20. Incidental Learning of Sound Categories is Impaired in Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, Yafit; Holt, Lori L.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is commonly thought to arise from specific phonological impairments. However, recent evidence is consistent with the possibility that phonological impairments arise as symptoms of an underlying dysfunction of procedural learning. The nature of the link between impaired procedural learning and phonological dysfunction is unresolved. Motivated by the observation that speech processing involves the acquisition of procedural category knowledge, the present study investigates the possibility that procedural learning impairment may affect phonological processing by interfering with the typical course of phonetic category learning. The present study tests this hypothesis while controlling for linguistic experience and possible speech-specific deficits by comparing auditory category learning across artificial, nonlinguistic sounds among dyslexic adults and matched controls in a specialized first-person shooter videogame that has been shown to engage procedural learning. Nonspeech auditory category learning was assessed online via within-game measures and also with a post-training task involving overt categorization of familiar and novel sound exemplars. Each measure reveals that dyslexic participants do not acquire procedural category knowledge as effectively as age- and cognitive-ability matched controls. This difference cannot be explained by differences in perceptual acuity for the sounds. Moreover, poor nonspeech category learning is associated with slower phonological processing. Whereas phonological processing impairments have been emphasized as the cause of dyslexia, the current results suggest that impaired auditory category learning, general in nature and not specific to speech signals, could contribute to phonological deficits in dyslexia with subsequent negative effects on language acquisition and reading. Implications for the neuro-cognitive mechanisms of developmental dyslexia are discussed. PMID:26409017

  1. Chord diagrams, contact-topological quantum field theory, and contact categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Daniel

    In this thesis we study some interesting mathematics arising at the intersection of the studies of contact topology and sutured Floer homology. Although this work was originally motivated by the study of contact elements in sutured Floer homology, we also obtain results in pure contact topology. We consider contact elements in the sutured Floer homology of solid tori, as part of the (1+1)-dimensional topological quantum field theory defined by Honda-Kazez-Matic. We find that the Z2 sutured Floer homology of solid tori with longitudinal sutures forms a "categorification of Pascal's triangle", a triangle of vector spaces. Contact structures on solid tori with longitudinal sutures correspond bijectively to chord diagrams, which are sets of disjoint properly embedded arcs in the disc; these may in turn be identified with contact elements. The contact elements form distinguished subsets of the vector spaces in the categorified Pascal's triangle, of order given by the Narayana numbers. We find natural "creation and annihilation operators" which allow us to define a QFT-type basis of each SFH vector space, consisting of contact elements. We show that sutured Floer homology in this case reduces to the combinatorics of chord diagrams. We prove that contact elements are in bijective correspondence with comparable pairs of basis elements with respect to a certain partial order, and in a natural and explicit way. We also prove numerous results about the structure of contact elements and investigate various algebraic structures which arise. Our main theorem, describing how contact elements lie in sutured Floer homology, has a purely combinatorial interpretation, as a statement about chords on discs subject to a certain surgery and a single addition relation. The algebraic and combinatorial structures which naturally arise in this description have intrinsic contact-topological meaning. In particular, the QFT-type basis of sutured Floer homology, and its partial order, have a

  2. Picture reality decision, semantic categories and gender. A new set of pictures, with norms and an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarotto, Riccardo; Laiacona, Marcella; Macchi, Valeria; Capitani, Erminio

    2002-01-01

    We present a new corpus of 80 pictures of unreal objects, useful for a controlled assessment of object reality decision. The new pictures were assembled from parts of the Snodgrass and Vanderwart [J. Exp. Psychol., Hum. Learning Memory 6; 1980: 174] set and were devised for the purpose of contrasting natural categories (animals, fruits and vegetables), artefacts (tools, vehicles and furniture), body parts and musical instruments. We examined 140 normal subjects in a free-choice and a multiple-choice object decision task, assembled with 80 pictures of real objects and above 80 new pictures of unreal objects in order to obtain a difficulty index for each picture. We found that the tasks were more difficult with pictures representing natural entities than with pictures of artefacts. We found a gender by category interaction, with a female superiority with some natural categories (fruits and vegetables, but not animals), and a male advantage with artefacts. On this basis, the difficulty index we calculated for each picture is separately reported for males and females. We discuss the possible origin of the gender effect, which has been found with the same categories in other tasks and has a counterpart in the different familiarity of the stimuli for males and females. In particular, we contrast explanations based on socially determined gender differences with accounts based on evolutionary pressures. We further comment on the relationship between data from normal subjects and the domain-specific account of semantic category dissociations observed in brain-damaged patients.

  3. Deep-learning-based classification of FDG-PET data for Alzheimer's disease categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shibani; Srivastava, Anant; Mi, Liang; Caselli, Richard J.; Chen, Kewei; Goradia, Dhruman; Reiman, Eric M.; Wang, Yalin

    2017-11-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) measures the decline in the regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose, offering a reliable metabolic biomarker even on presymptomatic Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. PET scans provide functional information that is unique and unavailable using other types of imaging. However, the computational efficacy of FDG-PET data alone, for the classification of various Alzheimers Diagnostic categories, has not been well studied. This motivates us to correctly discriminate various AD Diagnostic categories using FDG-PET data. Deep learning has improved state-of-the-art classification accuracies in the areas of speech, signal, image, video, text mining and recognition. We propose novel methods that involve probabilistic principal component analysis on max-pooled data and mean-pooled data for dimensionality reduction, and multilayer feed forward neural network which performs binary classification. Our experimental dataset consists of baseline data of subjects including 186 cognitively unimpaired (CU) subjects, 336 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects with 158 Late MCI and 178 Early MCI, and 146 AD patients from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) dataset. We measured F1-measure, precision, recall, negative and positive predictive values with a 10-fold cross validation scheme. Our results indicate that our designed classifiers achieve competitive results while max pooling achieves better classification performance compared to mean-pooled features. Our deep model based research may advance FDG-PET analysis by demonstrating their potential as an effective imaging biomarker of AD.

  4. Effect of explicit dimension instruction on speech category learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Yi, Han-Gyol; Smayda, Kirsten E.; Maddox, W. Todd

    2015-01-01

    Learning non-native speech categories is often considered a challenging task in adulthood. This difficulty is driven by cross-language differences in weighting critical auditory dimensions that differentiate speech categories. For example, previous studies have shown that differentiating Mandarin tonal categories requires attending to dimensions related to pitch height and direction. Relative to native speakers of Mandarin, the pitch direction dimension is under-weighted by native English speakers. In the current study, we examined the effect of explicit instructions (dimension instruction) on native English speakers' Mandarin tone category learning within the framework of a dual-learning systems (DLS) model. This model predicts that successful speech category learning is initially mediated by an explicit, reflective learning system that frequently utilizes unidimensional rules, with an eventual switch to a more implicit, reflexive learning system that utilizes multidimensional rules. Participants were explicitly instructed to focus and/or ignore the pitch height dimension, the pitch direction dimension, or were given no explicit prime. Our results show that instruction instructing participants to focus on pitch direction, and instruction diverting attention away from pitch height resulted in enhanced tone categorization. Computational modeling of participant responses suggested that instruction related to pitch direction led to faster and more frequent use of multidimensional reflexive strategies, and enhanced perceptual selectivity along the previously underweighted pitch direction dimension. PMID:26542400

  5. Anthropometric Profile in Different Event Categories of Acrobatic Gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taboada-Iglesias Yaiza

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a specific anthropometric profile for each sport, which may be differentiated even in relation to the position, role or event category within each sport discipline. However, there are few studies on acrobatic gymnastics, and the goal of this work was to determine the anthropometric profile depending on the event category, as well as factors that predisposed to performance in these categories. The sample consisted of 150 gymnasts from Spain, divided into 8 groups according to the event category and the role played. The kinanthropometric measurements were taken through the procedures established by the International Society for the Advancement of Kineantropometry. The anthropometric characteristics, including body mass index, somatotype, body composition and proportionality using the Phantom stratagem were analyzed, and the results obtained from the different groups were compared. A regression analysis was performed with particular groups of gymnasts. No significant differences (p < 0.05 were observed between groups of female tops or male bases, although differences were found between female group bases and female pair bases. It could be suggested that higher values of body height, sitting height, the minimum abdominal circumference, percentage of fat and low biliocristal breadth predispose female bases to work in pairs rather than in groups. The conclusion is that the anthropometric measurements are not decisive when guiding a gymnast toward choosing one event category or another, except for female bases.

  6. Operator Algebras in Rigid C*-Tensor Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Corey; Penneys, David

    2017-11-01

    In this article, we define operator algebras internal to a rigid C*-tensor category C. A C*/W*-algebra object in C is an algebra object A in ind-C whose category of free modules {FreeMod_C(A)} is a C-module C*/W*-category respectively. When C= Hilb_fd, the category of finite dimensional Hilbert spaces, we recover the usual notions of operator algebras. We generalize basic representation theoretic results, such as the Gelfand-Naimark and von Neumann bicommutant theorems, along with the GNS construction. We define the notion of completely positive morphisms between C*-algebra objects in C and prove the analog of the Stinespring dilation theorem. As an application, we discuss approximation and rigidity properties, including amenability, the Haagerup property, and property (T) for a connected W*-algebra M in C. Our definitions simultaneously unify the definitions of analytic properties for discrete quantum groups and rigid C*-tensor categories.

  7. Open-ended category learning for language acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra Lopes, Luis; Chauhan, Aneesh

    2008-12-01

    Motivated by the need to support language-based communication between robots and their human users, as well as grounded symbolic reasoning, this paper presents a learning architecture that can be used by robotic agents for long-term and open-ended category acquisition. To be more adaptive and to improve learning performance as well as memory usage, this learning architecture includes a metacognitive processing component. Multiple object representations and multiple classifiers and classifier combinations are used. At the object level, the main similarity measure is based on a multi-resolution matching algorithm. Categories are represented as sets of known instances. In this instance-based approach, storing and forgetting rules optimise memory usage. Classifier combinations are based on majority voting and the Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. All learning computations are carried out during the normal execution of the agent, which allows continuous monitoring of the performance of the different classifiers. The measured classification successes of the individual classifiers support an attentional selection mechanism, through which classifier combinations are dynamically reconfigured and a specific classifier is chosen to predict the category of a new unseen object. A simple physical agent, incorporating these learning capabilities, is used to test the approach. A long-term experiment was carried out having in mind the open-ended nature of category learning. With the help of a human mediator, the agent incrementally learned 68 categories of real-world objects visually perceivable through an inexpensive camera. Various aspects of the approach are evaluated through systematic experiments.

  8. Problems in the Study of the Concepts of Underlying Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzel R. Faizova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the concepts of underlying categories. The economic good is one of such categories. In this regard, we considered such characteristics of an economic good as utility, value, and cost. The public goods, which are the goods that can benefit society and have two distinctive features, are an important category as well. In this regard, we characterized the characteristics and features of public goods and identified the main problems in this category. At present, the actual problem faced by the state is the production and evaluation of the effectiveness of public goods. The difficulty is that it is impossible to accurately determine the production volume of goods necessary for the society. Assessment of the effectiveness of the state activities requires the development of special tools. The existing legislatively defined methods have a number of shortcomings and do not allow obtaining an objective picture. Financing of most public goods occurs at the expense of the state, so it is very important to ensure and increase the efficiency of their spending at the moment. Public-private partnership is the most promising tool for better satisfying the needs of the population. The main goal of this work is to identify and discuss the main characteristics of the concepts of underlying categories and explain possible problems, issues faced by the state and the society.

  9. Salience Not Status: How Category Labels Influence Feature Inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Mark K; Savage, Justin; Fouquet, Nathalie; Shanks, David R

    2015-09-01

    Two main uses of categories are classification and feature inference, and category labels have been widely shown to play a dominant role in feature inference. However, the nature of this influence remains unclear, and we evaluate two contrasting hypotheses formalized as mathematical models: the label special-mechanism hypothesis and the label super-salience hypothesis. The special-mechanism hypothesis is that category labels, unlike other features, trigger inference decision making in reference to the category prototypes. This results in a tendency for prototype-compatible inferences because the labels trigger a special mechanism rather than because of any influences they have on similarity evaluation. The super-salience hypothesis assumes that the large label influence is due to their high salience and corresponding impact on similarity without any need for a special mechanism. Application of the two models to a feature inference task based on a family resemblance category structure yields strong support for the label super-salience hypothesis and in particular does not support the need for a special mechanism based on prototypes. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. A Compositional Treatment of Polysemous Arguments in Categorial Grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Mineur, A M; Mineur, Anne-Marie; Buitelaar, Paul

    1995-01-01

    We discuss an extension of the standard logical rules (functional application and abstraction) in Categorial Grammar (CG), in order to deal with some specific cases of polysemy. We borrow from Generative Lexicon theory which proposes the mechanism of {\\em coercion}, next to a rich nominal lexical semantic structure called {\\em qualia structure}. In a previous paper we introduced coercion into the framework of {\\em sign-based} Categorial Grammar and investigated its impact on traditional Fregean compositionality. In this paper we will elaborate on this idea, mostly working towards the introduction of a new semantic dimension. Where in current versions of sign-based Categorial Grammar only two representations are derived: a prosodic one (form) and a logical one (modelling), here we introduce also a more detaled representation of the lexical semantics. This extra knowledge will serve to account for linguistic phenomena like {\\em metonymy\\/}.

  11. Evaluation of Bosniak category IIF complex renal cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graumann, Ole; Osther, Susanne Sloth; Karstoft, Jens

    2013-01-01

    complex cystic lesions in the kidney (n = 550 in the same number of patients) were reclassified according to the Bosniak classification by two radiologists in consensus. If a patient had more than one lesion, only the highest Bosniak category was recorded. All Bosniak IIF lesions with ≥2-year follow......PURPOSE: To evaluate moderately complex renal cysts of Bosniak category IIF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The regional ethics committee approved the study. In the period 2003-2009, radiological CT reports of 8,402 CT examinations of the kidneys were analysed retrospectively by one radiologist. All...... to comorbidity the remaining two patients were followed with CT without intervention. Ten lesions (31 %) with follow-up periods >5 years had no further radiological changes and clinical follow-up was stopped. CONCLUSION: The use of Bosniak category IIF is clinically applicable, resulting in an overall surgical...

  12. Adding sentence types to a model of syntactic category acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Stella; Goldwater, Sharon; Keller, Frank

    2013-07-01

    The acquisition of syntactic categories is a crucial step in the process of acquiring syntax. At this stage, before a full grammar is available, only surface cues are available to the learner. Previous computational models have demonstrated that local contexts are informative for syntactic categorization. However, local contexts are affected by sentence-level structure. In this paper, we add sentence type as an observed feature to a model of syntactic category acquisition, based on experimental evidence showing that pre-syntactic children are able to distinguish sentence type using prosody and other cues. The model, a Bayesian Hidden Markov Model, allows for adding sentence type in a few different ways; we find that sentence type can aid syntactic category acquisition if it is used to characterize the differences in word order between sentence types. In these models, knowledge of sentence type permits similar gains to those found by extending the local context. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  13. Quantum Field Theories on Categories Fibered in Groupoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benini, Marco; Schenkel, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    We introduce an abstract concept of quantum field theory on categories fibered in groupoids over the category of spacetimes. This provides us with a general and flexible framework to study quantum field theories defined on spacetimes with extra geometric structures such as bundles, connections and spin structures. Using right Kan extensions, we can assign to any such theory an ordinary quantum field theory defined on the category of spacetimes and we shall clarify under which conditions it satisfies the axioms of locally covariant quantum field theory. The same constructions can be performed in a homotopy theoretic framework by using homotopy right Kan extensions, which allows us to obtain first toy-models of homotopical quantum field theories resembling some aspects of gauge theories.

  14. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  15. Average activity, but not variability, is the dominant factor in the representation of object categories in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Rouzbahani, Hamid; Bagheri, Nasour; Ebrahimpour, Reza

    2017-03-27

    To categorize the perceived objects, brain utilizes a broad set of its resources and encoding strategies. Yet, it remains elusive how the category information is encoded in the brain. While many classical studies have sought the category information in the across-trial-averaged activity of neurons/neural populations, several recent studies have observed category information also in the within-trial correlated variability of activities between neural populations (i.e. dependent variability). Moreover, other studies have observed that independent variability of activity, which is the variability of the measured neural activity without any influence from correlated variability with other neurons/populations, could also be modulated for improved categorization. However, it was unknown how important each of the three factors (i.e. average activity, dependent and independent variability of activities) was in category encoding. Therefore, we designed an EEG experiment in which human subjects viewed a set of object exemplars from four categories. Using a computational model, we evaluated the contribution of each factor separately in category encoding. Results showed that the average activity played a significant role while the independent variability, although effective, contributed moderately to the category encoding. The inter-channel dependent variability showed an ignorable effect on the encoding. We also investigated the role of those factors in the encoding of variations which showed similar effects. These results imply that the brain, rather than variability, seems to use the average activity to convey information on the category of the perceived objects. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Predicting changes in flow category in patients with severe aortic stenosis and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction on medical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngiam, Jinghao Nicholas; Kuntjoro, Ivandito; Tan, Benjamin Y Q; Sim, Hui-Wen; Kong, William K F; Yeo, Tiong-Cheng; Poh, Kian-Keong

    2017-11-01

    Controversy surrounds the prognosis and management of patients with paradoxical low-flow severe aortic stenosis (AS) with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). It was not certain if patients in a particular flow category remained in the same category as disease progressed. We investigated whether there were switches in categories and if so, their predictors. Consecutive subjects (n = 203) with isolated severe AS and paired echocardiography (>180 days apart) were studied. They were divided into 4 groups, based on their flow categories and if they progressed on subsequent echocardiography to switch or remain in the same flow category. Univariate analyses of clinical and echocardiographic parameters identified predictors of these changes in flow category. One hundred eighteen were normal flow (SVI ≥ 35 mL/m2 ), while 85 were low flow on index echocardiography. In the patients with normal flow, 33% switched to low flow. This was associated with higher valvuloarterial impedance (Zva, P 4.77 mm Hg/mL/m2 , AUC = 0.81 [95% CI:0.75-0.87, P flow, 25% switched to normal flow, which was associated with lower Zva and higher SAC and the switch was predicted by a higher initial mean transaortic pressure gradient. A significant number of patients switched flow categories in severe AS with preserved LVEF on subsequent echocardiography. Changes in flow were reflected by respective changes in Zva and SAC. Identifying echocardiographic predictors of a switch in category may guide prognostication and management of such patients. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The representation of material categories in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Richard H. A. H.; Baumgartner, Elisabeth; Gegenfurtner, Karl R.

    2014-01-01

    Using textures mapped onto virtual nonsense objects, it has recently been shown that early visual cortex plays an important role in processing material properties. Here, we examined brain activation to photographs of materials, consisting of wood, stone, metal and fabric surfaces. These photographs were close-ups in the sense that the materials filled the image. In the first experiment, observers categorized the material in each image (i.e., wood, stone, metal, or fabric), while in an fMRI-scanner. We predicted the assigned material category using the obtained voxel patterns using a linear classifier. Region-of-interest and whole-brain analyses demonstrated material coding in the early visual regions, with lower accuracies for more anterior regions. There was little evidence for material coding in other brain regions. In the second experiment, we used an adaptation paradigm to reveal additional brain areas involved in the perception of material categories. Participants viewed images of wood, stone, metal, and fabric, presented in blocks with images of either different material categories (no adaptation) or images of different samples from the same material category (material adaptation). To measure baseline activation, blocks with the same material sample were presented (baseline adaptation). Material adaptation effects were found mainly in the parahippocampal gyrus, in agreement with fMRI-studies of texture perception. Our findings suggest that the parahippocampal gyrus, early visual cortex, and possibly the supramarginal gyrus are involved in the perception of material categories, but in different ways. The different outcomes from the two studies are likely due to inherent differences between the two paradigms. A third experiment suggested, based on anatomical overlap between activations, that spatial frequency information is important for within-category material discrimination. PMID:24659972

  18. The representation of material categories in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Henrikus Augustinus Hubertus Jacobs

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Using textures mapped onto virtual nonsense objects, it has recently been shown that early visual cortex plays an important role in processing material properties. Here, we examined brain activation to photographs of materials, consisting of wood, stone, metal and fabric surfaces. These photographs were close-ups in the sense that the materials filled the image. In the first experiment, observers categorized the material in each image (i.e., wood, stone, metal, or fabric, while in an fMRI-scanner. We predicted the assigned material category using the obtained voxel patterns using a linear classifier. Region-of-interest and whole-brain analyses demonstrated material coding in the early visual regions, with lower accuracies for more anterior regions. There was little evidence for material coding in other brain regions. In the second experiment, we used an adaptation paradigm to reveal additional brain areas involved in the perception of material categories. Participants viewed images of wood, stone, metal, and fabric, presented in blocks with images of either different material categories (no adaptation or images of different samples from the same material category (material adaptation. To measure baseline activation, blocks with the same material sample were presented (baseline adaptation. Material adaptation effects were found mainly in the parahippocampal gyrus, in agreement with fMRI-studies of texture perception. Our findings suggest that the parahippocampal gyrus, early visual cortex, and possibly the supramarginal gyrus are involved in the perception of material categories, but in different ways. The different outcomes from the two studies are likely due to inherent differences between the two paradigms. A third experiment suggested, based on anatomical overlap between activations, that spatial frequency information is important for within-category material discrimination.

  19. Pattern-Induced Covert Category Learning in Songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comins, Jordan A; Gentner, Timothy Q

    2015-07-20

    Language is uniquely human, but its acquisition may involve cognitive capacities shared with other species. During development, language experience alters speech sound (phoneme) categorization. Newborn infants distinguish the phonemes in all languages but by 10 months show adult-like greater sensitivity to native language phonemic contrasts than non-native contrasts. Distributional theories account for phonetic learning by positing that infants infer category boundaries from modal distributions of speech sounds along acoustic continua. For example, tokens of the sounds /b/ and /p/ cluster around different mean voice onset times. To disambiguate overlapping distributions, contextual theories propose that phonetic category learning is informed by higher-level patterns (e.g., words) in which phonemes normally occur. For example, the vowel sounds /Ι/ and /e/ can occupy similar perceptual spaces but can be distinguished in the context of "with" and "well." Both distributional and contextual cues appear to function in speech acquisition. Non-human species also benefit from distributional cues for category learning, but whether category learning benefits from contextual information in non-human animals is unknown. The use of higher-level patterns to guide lower-level category learning may reflect uniquely human capacities tied to language acquisition or more general learning abilities reflecting shared neurobiological mechanisms. Using songbirds, European starlings, we show that higher-level pattern learning covertly enhances categorization of the natural communication sounds. This observation mirrors the support for contextual theories of phonemic category learning in humans and demonstrates a general form of learning not unique to humans or language. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Solving the selective multi-category parallel-servicing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Range, Troels Martin; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new scheduling problem and describe a shortest path-based heuristic as well as a dynamic programming-based exact optimization algorithm to solve it. The selective multi-category parallel-servicing problem arises when a set of jobs has to be scheduled on a server (machine...... interval of a given planning horizon, while respecting the server capacity and scheduling requirements. We compare the proposed solution methods with a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) formulation and show that the dynamic programming approach is faster when the number of categories is large...

  1. An interplay of fusiform gyrus and hippocampus enables prototype- and exemplar-based category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Robert K; Güntürkün, Onur; Suchan, Boris

    2016-09-15

    The aim of the present study was to examine the contributions of different brain structures to prototype- and exemplar-based category learning using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-eight subjects performed a categorization task in which they had to assign prototypes and exceptions to two different families. This test procedure usually produces different learning curves for prototype and exception stimuli. Our behavioral data replicated these previous findings by showing an initially superior performance for prototypes and typical stimuli and a switch from a prototype-based to an exemplar-based categorization for exceptions in the later learning phases. Since performance varied, we divided participants into learners and non-learners. Analysis of the functional imaging data revealed that the interaction of group (learners vs. non-learners) and block (Block 5 vs. Block 1) yielded an activation of the left fusiform gyrus for the processing of prototypes, and an activation of the right hippocampus for exceptions after learning the categories. Thus, successful prototype- and exemplar-based category learning is associated with activations of complementary neural substrates that constitute object-based processes of the ventral visual stream and their interaction with unique-cue representations, possibly based on sparse coding within the hippocampus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Robust discrimination between EEG responses to categories of environmental sounds in early coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha eCossy

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Humans can recognize categories of environmental sounds, including vocalizations produced by humans and animals and the sounds of man-made objects. Most neuroimaging investigations of environmental sound discrimination have studied subjects while consciously perceiving and often explicitly recognizing the stimuli. Consequently, it remains unclear to what extent auditory object processing occurs independently of task demands and consciousness. Studies in animal models have shown that environmental sound discrimination at a neural level persists even in anesthetized preparations, whereas data from anesthetized humans has thus far provided null results. Here, we studied comatose patients as a model of environmental sound discrimination capacities during unconsciousness. We included nineteen comatose patients treated with therapeutic hypothermia during the first two days of coma, while recording nineteen-channel electroencephalography (EEG. At the level of each individual patient, we applied a decoding algorithm to quantify the differential EEG responses to human versus animal vocalizations as well as to sounds of living vocalizations versus man-made objects. Discrimination between vocalization types was accurate in eleven patients and discrimination between sounds from living and man-made sources in ten patients. At the group level, the results were significant only for the comparison between vocalization types. These results lay the groundwork for disentangling truly preferential activations in response to auditory categories, and the contribution of awareness to auditory category discrimination.

  3. Identifying named entities from PubMed for enriching semantic categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun; Lu, Zhiyong; Wilbur, W John

    2015-02-21

    Controlled vocabularies such as the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) are widely used for biomedical natural language processing (NLP) tasks. However, the standard terminology in such collections suffers from low usage in biomedical literature, e.g. only 13% of UMLS terms appear in MEDLINE. We here propose an efficient and effective method for extracting noun phrases for biomedical semantic categories. The proposed approach utilizes simple linguistic patterns to select candidate noun phrases based on headwords, and a machine learning classifier is used to filter out noisy phrases. For experiments, three NLP rules were tested and manually evaluated by three annotators. Our approaches showed over 93% precision on average for the headwords, "gene", "protein", "disease", "cell" and "cells". Although biomedical terms in knowledge-rich resources may define semantic categories, variations of the controlled terms in literature are still difficult to identify. The method proposed here is an effort to narrow the gap between controlled vocabularies and the entities used in text. Our extraction method cannot completely eliminate manual evaluation, however a simple and automated solution with high precision performance provides a convenient way for enriching semantic categories by incorporating terms obtained from the literature.

  4. Structural similarity and category-specificity: a refined account

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Law, Ian

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that category-specific recognition disorders for natural objects may reflect that natural objects are more structurally (visually) similar than artefacts and therefore more difficult to recognize following brain damage. On this account one might expect a positive relationshi...

  5. 77 FR 72653 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... life-cycle costs for each of the designated product categories. Information on the availability... economic and technological feasibility of using those products, including the life-cycle costs of the... examines evidence pointing to the general commercial use of a product and its life-cycle cost and...

  6. 76 FR 56883 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... those products, including the life-cycle costs of the products. In considering an item's availability... life-cycle costs of product categories proposed for designation, USDA has obtained the necessary input... documented availability, benefits, and life-cycle costs of even a very small percentage of all products that...

  7. 14 CFR 61.68 - Category III pilot authorization requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... certificate or commercial pilot certificate with an instrument rating or an airline transport pilot... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Category III pilot authorization... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Aircraft...

  8. Mental Health Risk Adjustment with Clinical Categories and Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Akritee; Bergquist, Savannah; Montz, Ellen; Rose, Sherri

    2017-12-15

    To propose nonparametric ensemble machine learning for mental health and substance use disorders (MHSUD) spending risk adjustment formulas, including considering Clinical Classification Software (CCS) categories as diagnostic covariates over the commonly used Hierarchical Condition Category (HCC) system. 2012-2013 Truven MarketScan database. We implement 21 algorithms to predict MHSUD spending, as well as a weighted combination of these algorithms called super learning. The algorithm collection included seven unique algorithms that were supplied with three differing sets of MHSUD-related predictors alongside demographic covariates: HCC, CCS, and HCC + CCS diagnostic variables. Performance was evaluated based on cross-validated R 2 and predictive ratios. Results show that super learning had the best performance based on both metrics. The top single algorithm was random forests, which improved on ordinary least squares regression by 10 percent with respect to relative efficiency. CCS categories-based formulas were generally more predictive of MHSUD spending compared to HCC-based formulas. Literature supports the potential benefit of implementing a separate MHSUD spending risk adjustment formula. Our results suggest there is an incentive to explore machine learning for MHSUD-specific risk adjustment, as well as considering CCS categories over HCCs. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  9. CATEGORIES AND PROTOTYPES: FROM CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY TO CONTEMPORARY LINGUISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHIVOKINA MAYYA ALEXANDROVNA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers two approaches to category studies: a classical or logical one pronciples of which were formulated by Aristotle, and a contemporary or cognitive one that deals with such concepts as fuzzy logic, fuzzy sets, prototype, family resemblance.

  10. Automated Discovery of Speech Act Categories in Educational Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Vasile; Moldovan, Cristian; Niraula, Nobal; Graesser, Arthur C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we address the important task of automated discovery of speech act categories in dialogue-based, multi-party educational games. Speech acts are important in dialogue-based educational systems because they help infer the student speaker's intentions (the task of speech act classification) which in turn is crucial to providing adequate…

  11. Mixing Categories and Modal Logics in the Quantum Setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cinà, G.; Aerts, D.; de Ronde, C.; Freytes, H.; Giuntini, R.

    2016-01-01

    The study of the foundations of Quantum Mechanics, especially after the advent of Quantum Computation and Information, has benefited from the application of category-theoretic tools and modal logics to the analysis of Quantum processes: we witness a wealth of theoretical frameworks casted in either

  12. Vowel Category Formation in Korean-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sue Ann S.; Iverson, Gregory K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A previous investigation (Lee & Iverson, 2012) found that English and Korean stop categories were fully distinguished by Korean-English bilingual children at 10 years of age but not at 5 years of age. The present study examined vowels produced by Korean-English bilingual children of these same ages to determine whether and when bilinguals…

  13. 40 CFR 98.390 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... distillation of crude oil. (b) A refiner is the owner or operator of a petroleum refinery. (c) Importer has the... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of the source category. 98... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Petroleum Products § 98.390 Definition of the...

  14. 32 CFR 644.518 - Determination of categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Clearance of Explosive Hazards and Other Contamination from Proposed... report will include proposed methods of neutralization and the costs thereof. (b) Category Two. Those lands or buildings which are suspected of being contaminated with radiological, industrial-military...

  15. On some Historiographic Categories and/in Italian Modernism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    modernism in Italy, the editor Dino Cervigni noted the difficulty of dealing with a such a category from the perspective of a cultural tradition in which modernism remains at best a vague and underdetermined notion. Obviously, the question is not that ...

  16. Is Expressive Language Disorder an Accurate Diagnostic Category?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Laurence B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To propose that the diagnostic category of "expressive language disorder" as distinct from a disorder of both expressive and receptive language might not be accurate. Method: Evidence that casts doubt on a pure form of this disorder is reviewed from several sources, including the literature on genetic findings, theories of language…

  17. 29 CFR 4044.12 - Priority category 2 benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... factors established by the IRS for allocation of accrued benefits between employer and employee... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION PLAN TERMINATIONS ALLOCATION OF ASSETS IN SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Allocation of Assets Allocation of Assets to Benefit Categories § 4044.12...

  18. 29 CFR 4044.11 - Priority category 1 benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION PLAN TERMINATIONS ALLOCATION OF ASSETS IN SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Allocation of Assets Allocation of Assets to Benefit Categories § 4044.11... benefits derived from voluntary employee contributions. (b) Assigning benefits. Absent an election...

  19. The formation of rhythmic categories and metric priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desain, P.W.M.; Honing, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents two experiments on categorical rhythm perception. It investigates how listeners perceive discrete rhythmic categories while listening to rhythms performed on a continuous time scale. This is studied by considering the space of all temporal patterns (all possible rhythms made up

  20. Interobserver agreement for 10% categories of angiographic carotid stenosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); F. van Kooten (Fop); S.L.M. Bakker (Stef)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although the reliability of the assessment of severe 70% to 99% carotid stenosis by carotid angiography has been proven excellent, this may not necessarily be the case for a more detailed classification of carotid stenoses by 10% categories. METHODS: Angiograms

  1. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  2. Evaluation of the efficiency of standard assessment for Category C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article evaluates the application and efficiency of the Ethiopian standard tax assessment, as enshrined in the Income Tax Regulation No. 78/2002, against the tax liability of Category C Taxpayers, commonly known as small business taxpayers, referring to the practice in Eastern Zone Administration of the Tigray ...

  3. D-Va category phenotype and genotype in Japanese families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legler, TJ; Wiemann, [No Value; Ohto, H; Matuda, [No Value; Obara, T; Uchikawa, M; Kohler, M

    2000-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The genetic background of the D-Va category phenotype has been described in two Caucasian individuals. We were interested in the RHD sequence of 7 Japanese D-Va individuals and their families. Materials and Methods: With SSP-PCR we tested exons 4, 5 and 7 of the RHD gene

  4. Categories And Utilization Of Industrial Research And Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The categories of research outputs identified were process technologies, products (consumer items), prototypes/pilot plants, publications, training programmes, technical services and consultancies. The data from the surveys indicated that publications were used mainly by public organizations, while the utilization of ...

  5. Object Category Understanding via Eye Fixations on Freehand Sketches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvadevabhatla, Ravi Kiran; Suresh, Sudharshan; Venkatesh Babu, R.

    2017-05-01

    The study of eye gaze fixations on photographic images is an active research area. In contrast, the image subcategory of freehand sketches has not received as much attention for such studies. In this paper, we analyze the results of a free-viewing gaze fixation study conducted on 3904 freehand sketches distributed across 160 object categories. Our analysis shows that fixation sequences exhibit marked consistency within a sketch, across sketches of a category and even across suitably grouped sets of categories. This multi-level consistency is remarkable given the variability in depiction and extreme image content sparsity that characterizes hand-drawn object sketches. In our paper, we show that the multi-level consistency in the fixation data can be exploited to (a) predict a test sketch's category given only its fixation sequence and (b) build a computational model which predicts part-labels underlying fixations on objects. We hope that our findings motivate the community to deem sketch-like representations worthy of gaze-based studies vis-a-vis photographic images.

  6. Activating Basic Category Exemplars in Sentence Contexts: A Dynamical Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczaszek-Leonardi, Joanna; Shapiro, Lewis P.; Tuller, Betty; Kelso, J. A. Scott

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of context on the processing of category names embedded in sentences. The investigation focuses on the nature of information available immediately after such a word is heard as well as on the dynamics of adaptation to context. An on-line method (Cross Modal Lexical Priming) was used to trace how this process…

  7. Explaining Choice and Share of Category Requirements of Biologic Meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Verhoef (Peter); K. Vlagsma-Brangule (Kristine)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we examine factors determining choice and consumption of biologic or organic meat. In our model explaining choice and share of category requirements, we consider economic/marketing variables (quality, price, and distribution), emotions (fear, empathy, andguilt), social

  8. Confronting the Categories: Equitable Admissions without Apartheid Race Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Z.

    2010-01-01

    South Africa's government requires information on apartheid race classification to implement and monitor racial redress. This has sparked resistance to race classification as a criterion for redress in higher education admissions. I argue that (1) jettisoning apartheid race categories now in favour of either class or "merit" would set…

  9. Towards the development of a salinity impact category for South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Part 1 of the series, it was shown that there is sufficient justification for the creation of a separate salinity impact category. In this paper, the fundamental basis of environmental life cycle assessments (LCA) is examined. The generalised model, and model simplifications on which the life cycle assessment methodology is ...

  10. 12 CFR 1402.21 - Categories of requesters-fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Categories of requesters-fees. 1402.21 Section 1402.21 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION RELEASING INFORMATION Fees for... searches made by computer, the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation will determine the hourly cost of...

  11. Cognitive Predictors of Generalization of Russian Grammatical Gender Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Vera; Brooks, Patricia J.; Kharkhurin, Anatoliy

    2010-01-01

    This study explores how learners generalize grammatical categories such as noun gender. Adult native English speakers with no prior knowledge of Russian (N = 47, ages 17-55 years) were trained to categorize Russian masculine and feminine diminutive nouns according to gender. The training set was morphophonologically homogeneous due to similarities…

  12. Infants Can Use Distributional Cues to Form Syntactic Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerken, Louann; Wilson, Rachel; Lewis, William

    2005-01-01

    Nearly all theories of language development emphasize the importance of distributional cues for segregating words and phrases into syntactic categories like noun, feminine or verb phrase. However, questions concerning whether such cues can be used to the exclusion of referential cues have been debated. Using the headturn preference procedure,…

  13. Category-based query modeling for entity search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balog, K.; Bron, M.; de Rijke, M.

    2010-01-01

    Users often search for entities instead of documents and in this setting are willing to provide extra input, in addition to a query, such as category information and example entities. We propose a general probabilistic framework for entity search to evaluate and provide insight in the many ways of

  14. 50 CFR 229.5 - Requirements for Category III fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for Category III fisheries. 229.5 Section 229.5 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS AUTHORIZATION FOR COMMERCIAL FISHERIES UNDER...

  15. A deep learning method for classifying mammographic breast density categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Aly A; Berg, Wendie A; Peng, Hong; Luo, Yahong; Jankowitz, Rachel C; Wu, Shandong

    2018-01-01

    Mammographic breast density is an established risk marker for breast cancer and is visually assessed by radiologists in routine mammogram image reading, using four qualitative Breast Imaging and Reporting Data System (BI-RADS) breast density categories. It is particularly difficult for radiologists to consistently distinguish the two most common and most variably assigned BI-RADS categories, i.e., "scattered density" and "heterogeneously dense". The aim of this work was to investigate a deep learning-based breast density classifier to consistently distinguish these two categories, aiming at providing a potential computerized tool to assist radiologists in assigning a BI-RADS category in current clinical workflow. In this study, we constructed a convolutional neural network (CNN)-based model coupled with a large (i.e., 22,000 images) digital mammogram imaging dataset to evaluate the classification performance between the two aforementioned breast density categories. All images were collected from a cohort of 1,427 women who underwent standard digital mammography screening from 2005 to 2016 at our institution. The truths of the density categories were based on standard clinical assessment made by board-certified breast imaging radiologists. Effects of direct training from scratch solely using digital mammogram images and transfer learning of a pretrained model on a large nonmedical imaging dataset were evaluated for the specific task of breast density classification. In order to measure the classification performance, the CNN classifier was also tested on a refined version of the mammogram image dataset by removing some potentially inaccurately labeled images. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and the area under the curve (AUC) were used to measure the accuracy of the classifier. The AUC was 0.9421 when the CNN-model was trained from scratch on our own mammogram images, and the accuracy increased gradually along with an increased size of training samples

  16. Anaerobic threshold in different categories of soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Barbosa Coelho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Different variables can be used for the identification and monitoring of aerobic capacity in collective sports, with the anaerobic threshold (AT being commonly used in long-duration team sports such as soccer, basketball, and handball. The aim of this study was to determine AT intensity in different categories of soccer players by evaluating running speed, heart rate (HR and percent maximum HR (%HRmax, and to compare these intensities between three soccer categories. Nineteen U-17, 12 U-20 and 14 professional players volunteered for this study. The AT was defined as the exercise intensity at which blood lactate reaches a concentration of 4 mM (OBLA. AT was determined in a field test consisting of two to five 1000-m runs at constant speed. HR and blood lactate concentration recorded during the test were analyzed bylinear interpolation. The running speed, HR and %HRmax at OBLA were determined. HRmax was higher in U-17 players (202 ± 7 bpm than in professional players (193 ± 10 bpm (p<0.05. AT expressed as %HRmax was lower in the U-17 (87.0 ± 1.1 and U-20 (86.3 ± 0.8 categories when compared to the professional category (91.2 ± 1.1 (p<0.05. Mean AT was 87% HRmax. No differences between categories were observed when AT was expressed as absolute HR values (bpm or running speed. The intensity of AT is considered to be high in this group, with professional players presenting a higher AT than U-17 and U-20 players.

  17. Anaerobic threshold in different categories of soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Barbosa Coelho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n1p81   Different variables can be used for the identification and monitoring of aerobic capacity in collective sports, with the anaerobic threshold (AT being commonly used in long-duration team sports such as soccer, basketball, and handball. The aim of this study was to determine AT intensity in different categories of soccer players by evaluating running speed, heart rate (HR and percent maximum HR (%HRmax, and to compare these intensities between three soccer categories. Nineteen U-17, 12 U-20 and 14 professional players volunteered for this study. The AT was defined as the exercise intensity at which blood lactate reaches a concentration of 4 mM (OBLA. AT was determined in a field test consisting of two to five 1000-m runs at constant speed. HR and blood lactate concentration recorded during the test were analyzed by linear interpolation. The running speed, HR and %HRmax at OBLA were determined. HRmax was higher in U-17 players (202 ± 7 bpm than in professional players (193 ±10 bpm (p<0.05. AT expressed as %HRmax was lower in the U-17 (87.0 ± 1.1 and U-20 (86.3 ± 0.8 categories when compared to the professional category (91.2 ± 1.1 (p<0.05. Mean AT was 87% HRmax. No differences between categories were observed when AT was expressed as absolute HR values (bpm or running speed. The intensity of AT is considered to be high in this group, with professional players presenting a higher AT than U-17 and U-20 players.

  18. Time and category information in pattern-based codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo G Eyherabide

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Sensory stimuli are usually composed of different features (the "what" appearing at irregular times (the "when". Neural responses often use spike patterns to represent sensory information. The "what" is hypothesised to be encoded in the identity of the elicited patterns (the pattern categories, and the "when", in the time positions of patterns (the pattern timing. However, this standard view is oversimplified. In the real world, the "what" and the "when" might not be separable concepts, for instance, if they are correlated in the stimulus. In addition, neuronal dynamics can condition the pattern timing to be correlated with the pattern categories. Hence, timing and categories of patterns may not constitute independent channels of information. In this paper, we assess the role of spike patterns in the neural code, irrespective of the nature of the patterns. We first define information-theoretical quantities that allow us to quantify the information encoded by different aspects of the neural response. We also introduce the notion of synergy/redundancy between time positions and categories of patterns. We subsequently establish the relation between the "what" and the "when" in the stimulus with the timing and the categories of patterns. To that aim, we quantify the mutual information between different aspects of the stimulus and different aspects of the response. This formal framework allows us to determine the precise conditions under which the standard view holds, as well as the departures from this simple case. Finally, we study the capability of different response aspects to represent the "what" and the "when" in the neural response.

  19. Fitness and Anthropometric Profiles of International vs. National Judo Medalists in Half-Heavyweight Category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drid, Patrik; Casals, Cristina; Mekic, Amel; Radjo, Izet; Stojanovic, Marko; Ostojic, Sergej M

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the anthropometric and fitness profiles of European half-heavyweight judokas by success in competition. For this purpose, we compared 5 international medalists (elite) with 5 national medalists (subelite). All male judokas won at least 1 medal in the half-heavyweight category during the previous 2 years. The testing in this cross-sectional study was performed during 4 days. All subjects underwent anthropometric assessment with body mass, height, skinfold, and limb circumference measures, and the body fat percentage was estimated by manual bioimpedance. The physical fitness evaluation consisted in peak torques for thigh and shoulder muscles, handgrip strength, high and long jumps, medicine ball throw, pull-ups, deadlift, bench press, deep squat, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, Max Power, and Tokui Waza tests. The statistical analysis by the Student's t test showed significant differences for forearm and upper-arm circumferences, peak torques, pull-ups, bench press, deadlift, deep squat, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, Max Power, and Tokui Waza tests. Our results showed that elite judokas have a superior fitness profile than subelite athletes from the half-heavyweight category. Moreover, elite judokas seem to have a higher arm muscle mass than subelite athletes but a similar body fat percentage. This study could be of interest for judo coaches with athletes competing in the half-heavyweight category, as some tests that discriminate by judo success for this specific weight category are described. Few studies analyze anthropometric and fitness profiles in half-heavyweight male judokas, so additionally our results can be used as a reference for coaches, athletes, and scientists.

  20. Deep Learning based Classification of FDG-PET Data for Alzheimers Disease Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shibani; Srivastava, Anant; Mi, Liang; Caselli, Richard J; Chen, Kewei; Goradia, Dhruman; Reiman, Eric M; Wang, Yalin

    2017-10-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) measures the decline in the regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose, offering a reliable metabolic biomarker even on presymptomatic Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. PET scans provide functional information that is unique and unavailable using other types of imaging. However, the computational efficacy of FDG-PET data alone, for the classification of various Alzheimers Diagnostic categories, has not been well studied. This motivates us to correctly discriminate various AD Diagnostic categories using FDG-PET data. Deep learning has improved state-of-the-art classification accuracies in the areas of speech, signal, image, video, text mining and recognition. We propose novel methods that involve probabilistic principal component analysis on max-pooled data and mean-pooled data for dimensionality reduction, and multilayer feed forward neural network which performs binary classification. Our experimental dataset consists of baseline data of subjects including 186 cognitively unimpaired (CU) subects, 336 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects with 158 Late MCI and 178 Early MCI, and 146 AD patients from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) dataset. We measured F1-measure, precision, recall, negative and positive predictive values with a 10-fold cross validation scheme. Our results indicate that our designed classifiers achieve competitive results while max pooling achieves better classification performance compared to mean-pooled features. Our deep model based research may advance FDG-PET analysis by demonstrating their potential as an effective imaging biomarker of AD.

  1. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions, and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must...

  2. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2014-01-01

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must ...

  3. Subjective meaning: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen-Huitink, Janneke; van Wijbergen-Huitink, Janneke; Meier, Cécile

    This introductory chapter traces some of the considerations on the basis of which relativistic approaches to subjective meaning became en vogue. In doing so, the chapter provides an overview of the relevant linguistic and philosophical issues when developing a treatment of subjectivity. In addition,

  4. Subjective safety in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The term ‘subjective safety in traffic’ refers to people feeling unsafe in traffic or, more generally, to anxiety regarding being unsafe in traffic for oneself and/or others. Subjective safety in traffic can lead to road users limiting their mobility and social activities, which is one of the

  5. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  6. Witkacy’s Attempt at a Subject – a Subject for a Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Górska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article Witkacego próba podmiotu – podmiot na próbę [Witkacy’s Attempt at a Subject – a Subject for a Test] the subjective identity of S.I. Witkiewicz is characterised by means of the widely understood category of a trial. This latter is interpreted from the view of theatrical aesthetics, but also philosophy, enables to show the biography and oeuvre of the artist from Zakopane as a continuous game between constructing and deconstructing of the subjective identity. The category of subjectivity becomes here a tool of revealing of the mechanisms, making it possible to remove boundaries between art and life, reality and fiction, literature and theory. Whereas in the interpretation proposed this attempt appears as a very literally understood experiencing of oneself, “putting oneself to the test”, but also as an attempt at literature (in the area of theory and an attempt at theory (in the area of literature.

  7. Perceptual effects of linguistic category priming : The Stapel and Semin paradigm revisited in twelve experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzerman, H.; Regenberg, N.; Saddlemeyer, J.; Koole, S.L.

    2015-01-01

    Linguistic category priming is a novel paradigm to examine automatic influences of language on cognition (Semin, 2008). An initial article reported that priming abstract linguistic categories (adjectives) led to more global perceptual processing, whereas priming concrete linguistic categories

  8. Gordon Conference on Fundamentals of Cybernetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-31

    Richards, Colby college, Maine Principal Speakers: 1. Heinz Von Foerster, University of Illinois (ret.) * 2. Humberto Maturana , University of Chile 3...Binghamton, New York 13901 Humberto Maturana DR205 University of Chile Mary Ellen Pattee IAC of Sciences - Guest of Howard Pattee Cas illa 653 Santiago, Chile

  9. USSR Report, Cybernetics Computers and Automation Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-05

    external interrupt handlers. The device has been used for input and output of speech signals as well as underwater acoustical noise at 10-20 Kbytes...poetry which has been justifiably recognized as the ’most difficult in the world’ both in its pattern scheme, formal requirements and demands for phonic

  10. USSR Report, Cybernetics, Computers and Automation Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-11

    collection, the common standards and rates for processing of pension and insurance information are the most practical. It should be noted that...development of several compilers within short amounts of time. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Zakrevskiy, A.D. and Toropov, N.R. " Sistema programmirovaniya LYAPAS-M

  11. USSR Report, Cybernetics, Computers and Automation Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-02

    price and sum are not posted in the primary documents for the comsumption of material valuables, the average price for the nomenclature number is...at each point can be determined. Novosibirsk Electric Engineering Institute has created a measurement system for implementation of this method. The

  12. Building phonetic categories: an argument for the role of sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sayako Earle

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The current review provides specific predictions for the role of sleep-mediated memory consolidation in the formation of new speech sound representations. Specifically, this discussion will highlight selected literature on the different ideas concerning category representation in speech, followed by a broad overview of memory consolidation and how it relates to human behavior, as relevant to speech/perceptual learning. In combining behavioral and physiological accounts from animal models with insights from the human consolidation literature on auditory skill/word learning, we are in the early stages of understanding how the transfer of experiential information between brain structures during sleep manifests in changes to online perception. Arriving at the conclusion that this process is crucial in perceptual learning and the formation of novel categories, further speculation yields the adjacent claim that the habitual disruption in this process leads to impoverished quality in the representation of speech sounds.

  13. Grapheme-color synaesthesia benefits rule-based Category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Marcus R; Blair, Mark R; Kozik, Pavel; Akins, Kathleen A; Enns, James T

    2012-09-01

    Researchers have long suspected that grapheme-color synaesthesia is useful, but research on its utility has so far focused primarily on episodic memory and perceptual discrimination. Here we ask whether it can be harnessed during rule-based Category learning. Participants learned through trial and error to classify grapheme pairs that were organized into categories on the basis of their associated synaesthetic colors. The performance of synaesthetes was similar to non-synaesthetes viewing graphemes that were physically colored in the same way. Specifically, synaesthetes learned to categorize stimuli effectively, they were able to transfer this learning to novel stimuli, and they falsely recognized grapheme-pair foils, all like non-synaesthetes viewing colored graphemes. These findings demonstrate that synaesthesia can be exploited when learning the kind of material taught in many classroom settings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [The medical rationale category and a new epistemology in health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Marilene Cabral; de Barros, Nelson Filice; Nogueira, Maria Inês; Luz, Madel Therezinha

    2013-12-01

    This article is an analytical report on the 20-year trajectory of the 'medical rationale' category that emerged in the early 1990s in the area of Social and Human Sciences in Health in the field of Public Health. Its objective was to study complex and therapeutic medical systems and traditional, complementary and alternative medicines. Based on a critical review of the literature, it presents some aspects of the cultural, political, institutional and social context of its emergence, as well as its main contributions and developments on a theoretical level and on social policies and practices in health. The southern epistemology concept of Boaventura de Sousa Santos is used to reflect upon the contribution of the 'medical rationale' category to the critique of the post-modern scientific rationale and to the creation of a new epistemology in health.

  15. Disentangling Memories. Complex (Be)longings and Social Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Chistina Hee; Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    of the participants and how meaning making connected to social categories express themselves in language. Two different methodological approaches were in play; Memory Work (Haug 1987, 1992, Haug et al 1994, Hee Pedersen 2008, Hyle et. al 2008, Wiederberg 2011) and Collective Biographies (Davies 2000a, 2000b, Davies...... and consequently widen and/or diminish possibilities for legitimate belonging to society (Anthias, 2005:17). Each memory becomes an opportunity to collectively critically deconstruct naturalised processes of interpretation. It invites the participants to explore human dialogues, mediated by texts, as a way......This presentation analyses the complex workings of social categories in constructions of (be)longing in memories of young university students in Bolivia and Peru. In a methodology course the participants explored how socio economic and socio cultural differences had affected the lives...

  16. Probabilistic orthographic cues to grammatical category in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciuli, Joanne; McMahon, Katie; Zubicaray, Greig de

    2012-12-01

    What helps us determine whether a word is a noun or a verb, without conscious awareness? We report on cues in the way individual English words are spelled, and, for the first time, identify their neural correlates via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We used a lexical decision task with trisyllabic nouns and verbs containing orthographic cues that are either consistent or inconsistent with the spelling patterns of words from that grammatical category. Significant linear increases in response times and error rates were observed as orthography became less consistent, paralleled by significant linear decreases in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in the left supramarginal gyrus of the left inferior parietal lobule, a brain region implicated in visual word recognition. A similar pattern was observed in the left superior parietal lobule. These findings align with an emergentist view of grammatical category processing which results from sensitivity to multiple probabilistic cues. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Categories by Heart: Shortcut Reasoning in a Cardiology Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Jacobsson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the practice of doctors and nurses to invoke the categories of age, sex, class, ethnicity, and/or lifestyle factors when discussing individual patients and patient groups. In what situations are such references explicitly made, and what does this practice accomplish? The material consists of field notes from a cardiology clinic in Sweden, and a theory of descriptive practice guided the analysis. When professionals describe patients, discuss decisions, or explain why a patient is ill, age, sex, class, ethnicity, and/or lifestyle serve as contextualization cues, often including widespread results from epidemiological research about groups of patients at higher or lower risk for cardiac disease. These categories work as shortcut reasoning to nudge interpretations in a certain direction, legitimize decisions, and strengthen arguments. In general, studying the descriptions of patients/clients/students provides an entrance to professional methods of reasoning, including their implicit moral assumptions.

  18. Understanding visualization: a formal approach using category theory and semiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Paul; Faith, Joe; Rossiter, Nick

    2013-06-01

    This paper combines the vocabulary of semiotics and category theory to provide a formal analysis of visualization. It shows how familiar processes of visualization fit the semiotic frameworks of both Saussure and Peirce, and extends these structures using the tools of category theory to provide a general framework for understanding visualization in practice, including: Relationships between systems, data collected from those systems, renderings of those data in the form of representations, the reading of those representations to create visualizations, and the use of those visualizations to create knowledge and understanding of the system under inspection. The resulting framework is validated by demonstrating how familiar information visualization concepts (such as literalness, sensitivity, redundancy, ambiguity, generalizability, and chart junk) arise naturally from it and can be defined formally and precisely. This paper generalizes previous work on the formal characterization of visualization by, inter alia, Ziemkiewicz and Kosara and allows us to formally distinguish properties of the visualization process that previous work does not.

  19. Keys to analyzing the spatial categories in employment records studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Roberti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to carry out a bibliographical review of the ways in which spatial categories have been approached within poor people's employment record studies. The significance of this research lies on the fact that, even though the perspectives from which the concept of "record" emerges give precedence to the analysis of time and space dimensions, the latter has only been scarcely studied. Within such framework, our paper aims to analyze how the space variable is constructed in various empirical investigations and which contributions are made by the record perspective to space variable studies. To approach the issue, we will focus on those spatial categories of analysis which allow us to discern the new characteristics and consequences underlying the spatial segregation phenomenon. Special emphasis will be given to the neighborhood space

  20. The cobordism category and Waldhausen's K-theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bökstedt, M.; Madsen, Ib

    This paper examines the category C^k_{d,n} whose morphisms are d-dimensional smooth manifolds that are properly embedded in the product of a k-dimensional cube with an (d+n-k)-dimensional Euclidean space. There are k directions to compose k-dimensional cubes, so C^k_{d,n} is a (strict) k-tuple ca......-tuple category. The geometric realization of the k-dimensional multi-nerve is the classifying space BC^k_{d,n}. At the end of the paper we construct an infinite loop map to Waldhausens K-theory. \\Omega BC^1_{d,n}-> A(BO(d)), We believe that the map factors through \\Omega...

  1. Revised Subjects of the Current Korean Oriental Pharmacists' Licensing Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Pil Lim

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is designed to draw out new integrated subjects of the Korean Oriental Pharmacists??Licensing Examination (KOPLE. In 2004, for the revision of subjects, we have analyzed the curriculums of the Oriental Pharmacy department, the oriental pharmacist?占퐏 (OP?占퐏 job description book, and the elementary items of KOPLE. We also examined the system of the Chinese Herb Pharmacists??Examination and other health personnel licensing examinations and studied the data of items and compared them with KOPLE. We heard the public opinion on the present KOPLE. We developed a subfield of 18 subjects, a middle category of 188 items, and a small category of 1,026 items. We proposed a new KOPLE that consists of three subjects: basic oriental pharmacy, applied oriental pharmacy, and laws and regulations.

  2. United States Trade Flows for Selected Categories of Specialty Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Lowe, Garfield G.; Davis, Carlton George; Kilmer, Richard L.

    2003-01-01

    Nationally, Florida ranked second in farm cash receipt from all crops and second, based on value, in vegetable production (USDA, 2003). It also ranked fourteenth out of all the states with respect to agricultural exports with its top exports, fruits and vegetables, falling within the category of specialty crops. According to the USDA (2003), Florida's agricultural exports helped to boost farm prices and income and supported approximately 17,000 jobs both on and off farm in 2001. As such, its ...

  3. Changing BMI Categories and Healthcare Expenditures Among Elderly Medicare Beneficiaries

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkins, Tricia Lee; Rust, George S.; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2011-01-01

    To examine the association between changes in BMI categories and health-care expenditures among elderly Medicare beneficiaries using longitudinal data of the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) 2000–2005. Changes in BMI were (i) Stayed Normal: individuals with a normal BMI at baseline and follow-up; (ii) Stayed Overweight individuals with overweight BMI at baseline and follow-up; (iii) Stayed Obese individuals with obese BMI at baseline and follow-up; (iv) Normal-Overweight: individual...

  4. The Troubled Category of Rural Bachelors in Contemporary South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Hannah Saeyoung

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation takes the rural bachelor as a social category through whom to analyze the dialectic relationship between the rural community and state-led industrialization policies in reconfiguring the landscape of contemporary Korean society. This project is the first to examine this figure from an academic perspective and historicizes the surge of cross-border marriages between Korean men and non-Korean women in recent decades. Previous scholarship on contemporary Korea generally focus...

  5. Typical load shapes for six categories of Swedish commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noren, C.

    1997-01-01

    In co-operation with several Swedish electricity suppliers, typical load shapes have been developed for six categories of commercial buildings located in the south of Sweden. The categories included in the study are: hotels, warehouses/grocery stores, schools with no kitchen, schools with kitchen, office buildings, health, health buildings. Load shapes are developed for different mean daily outdoor temperatures and for different day types, normally standard weekdays and standard weekends. The load shapes are presented as non-dimensional normalized 1-hour load. All measured loads for an object are divided by the object`s mean load during the measuring period and typical load shapes are developed for each category of buildings. Thus errors were kept lower as compared to use of W/m{sup 2}-terms. Typical daytime (9 a.m. - 5 p.m.) standard deviations are 7-10% of the mean values for standard weekdays but during very cold or warm weather conditions, single objects can deviate from the typical load shape. On weekends, errors are higher and depending on very different activity levels in the buildings, it is difficult to develop weekend load shapes with good accuracy. The method presented is very easy to use for similar studies and no building simulation programs are needed. If more load data is available, a good method to lower the errors is to make sure that every category only consists of objects with the same activity level, both on weekdays and weekends. To make it easier to use the load shapes, Excel load shape workbooks have been developed, where it is even possible to compare typical load shapes with measured data. 23 refs, 53 figs, 20 tabs

  6. Comparison of physical activity programs in football category U7

    OpenAIRE

    Cintler, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Title: Comparison of physical activity programs in football category U7. Objectives: The aim of this thesis is to determine the effect of two different five-week intervention programs for performance in gaming skills at 7 years old football players. Methods: In this thesis was used experimental plan called Switch replication design and own tests of soccer skills. To compare the effect of selected intervention programs was used method of comparison. Results: For shooting on the goal with prove...

  7. Classifying handheld Augmented Reality: Three categories linked by spatial mappings

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent, Thomas; Nigay, Laurence; Kurata, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    Session 1: Research papers; International audience; Handheld Augmented Reality (AR) relies on a spatial coupling of the on-screen content with the physical surrounding. To help the design of such systems and to classify existing AR systems, we present a framework made of three categories and two spatial relationships. Our framework highlights spatial relationships between the physical world, the representation of the physical world on screen and the augmentation on screen. Within this framewo...

  8. Categories by Heart: Shortcut Reasoning in a Cardiology Clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Katarina Jacobsson

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the practice of doctors and nurses to invoke the categories of age, sex, class, ethnicity, and/or lifestyle factors when discussing individual patients and patient groups. In what situations are such references explicitly made, and what does this practice accomplish? The material consists of field notes from a cardiology clinic in Sweden, and a theory of descriptive practice guided the analysis. When professionals describe patients, discuss decisions, or explain why a pa...

  9. Category Learning Research in the Interactive Online Environment Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jan; Livingston, Ken; Sturm, Joshua; Bliss, Daniel; Hawthorne, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The interactive online environment Second Life allows users to create novel three-dimensional stimuli that can be manipulated in a meaningful yet controlled environment. These features suggest Second Life's utility as a powerful tool for investigating how people learn concepts for unfamiliar objects. The first of two studies was designed to establish that cognitive processes elicited in this virtual world are comparable to those tapped in conventional settings by attempting to replicate the established finding that category learning systematically influences perceived similarity . From the perspective of an avatar, participants navigated a course of unfamiliar three-dimensional stimuli and were trained to classify them into two labeled categories based on two visual features. Participants then gave similarity ratings for pairs of stimuli and their responses were compared to those of control participants who did not learn the categories. Results indicated significant compression, whereby objects classified together were judged to be more similar by learning than control participants, thus supporting the validity of using Second Life as a laboratory for studying human cognition. A second study used Second Life to test the novel hypothesis that effects of learning on perceived similarity do not depend on the presence of verbal labels for categories. We presented the same stimuli but participants classified them by selecting between two complex visual patterns designed to be extremely difficult to label. While learning was more challenging in this condition , those who did learn without labels showed a compression effect identical to that found in the first study using verbal labels. Together these studies establish that at least some forms of human learning in Second Life parallel learning in the actual world and thus open the door to future studies that will make greater use of the enriched variety of objects and interactions possible in simulated environments

  10. Unifying Subjectivity and Objectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Chandrasekaran

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of modern science to the progress of civilization is immeasurable. Even its tendency toward exclusive concentration on the objective world has had salutary effects of great value. Modern science has wiped away much that was merely superstitious or speculative. Its rejection of unfounded opinions and prejudices has helped the thinking mind question conventional beliefs, shed preferences and prejudices, and challenge established authority. But modern systems thinking inherited from natural science is the suppression of the subjective dimension of reality. Many complex systems are an attempt to define and represent all subjective experience in physical terms. The modern man has a bias towards objectivity. The powerful influence of sense impressions on his mind and thinking makes him ignore the subjective experience and consider only objective facts as a valid, legitimate and representation of reality. Observing objective factors that are physical is easier than observing subjective factors that are subtle. The mechanistic view of reality has led to the rejection of the role of the individual in social development as insignificant. The individuals determine the development of society. Their social power has its roots both in subjective factors and objective factors. Economy, politics, society, and culture are inseparable dimensions of a single integrated reality. Subject and object constitute an integrated whole. The mind sees them as separate and independent. Or it views one as completely subordinate to the other. Unbiased approach to the study of all human experiences may prove that subject and object are interdependent dimensions or elements of reality.

  11. Emotion words and categories: evidence from lexical decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Graham G; O'Donnell, Patrick J; Sereno, Sara C

    2014-05-01

    We examined the categorical nature of emotion word recognition. Positive, negative, and neutral words were presented in lexical decision tasks. Word frequency was additionally manipulated. In Experiment 1, "positive" and "negative" categories of words were implicitly indicated by the blocked design employed. A significant emotion-frequency interaction was obtained, replicating past research. While positive words consistently elicited faster responses than neutral words, only low frequency negative words demonstrated a similar advantage. In Experiments 2a and 2b, explicit categories ("positive," "negative," and "household" items) were specified to participants. Positive words again elicited faster responses than did neutral words. Responses to negative words, however, were no different than those to neutral words, regardless of their frequency. The overall pattern of effects indicates that positive words are always facilitated, frequency plays a greater role in the recognition of negative words, and a "negative" category represents a somewhat disparate set of emotions. These results support the notion that emotion word processing may be moderated by distinct systems.

  12. Audiogram Comparison of Workers from Five Professional Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Scalli Mathias Duarte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Noise is a major cause of health disorders in workers and has unique importance in the auditory analysis of people exposed to it. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the arithmetic mean of the auditory thresholds at frequencies of 3, 4, and 6 kHz of workers from five professional categories exposed to occupational noise. Methods. We propose a retrospective cross-sectional cohort study to analyze 2.140 audiograms from seven companies having five sectors of activity: one footwear company, one beverage company, two ceramics companies, two metallurgical companies, and two transport companies. Results. When we compared two categories, we noticed a significant difference only for cargo carriers in comparison to the remaining categories. In all activity sectors, the left ear presented the worst values, except for the footwear professionals (P>0.05. We observed an association between the noise exposure time and the reduction of audiometric values for both ears. Significant differences existed for cargo carriers in relation to other groups. This evidence may be attributed to different forms of exposure. A slow and progressive deterioration appeared as the exposure time increased.

  13. The impact of combining nuclear material categories on uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Tom; Hemphill, Geralyn; Longmire, Victoria; Smith, Morag

    2003-06-01

    There is nearly always some mismatch between the physical properties of items containing nuclear material and standards used to calibrate the assay method. Physical properties include the density and heterogeneity of the item's nonnuclear material and the type of interfering species, such as hydrogen in the case of neutron counting. Some assay techniques are less sensitive to variation in physical properties than others and can be used to generate working standards. Provided that a reference assay method 1 (often calorimetry) is available that is well characterized (having negligible or known dependence on varying physical properties), we can assess the total measurement error of another method 2. In this paper we consider the impact of the number of measurement categories on the measurement error standard deviation of method 2. We assume that working standards (traceable to primary reference standards) are provided by the method 1 assay of actual facility items. Given the same number of working standards, we evaluate the tradeoff between using more working standards for each of a fewer number of categories versus using fewer standards in each of more categories. This leads to a method to determine a good allocation of working standards.

  14. The impact of combining nuclear material categories on uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burr, Tom. E-mail: tburr@lanl.gov; Hemphill, Geralyn; Longmire, Victoria; Smith, Morag

    2003-06-11

    There is nearly always some mismatch between the physical properties of items containing nuclear material and standards used to calibrate the assay method. Physical properties include the density and heterogeneity of the item's nonnuclear material and the type of interfering species, such as hydrogen in the case of neutron counting. Some assay techniques are less sensitive to variation in physical properties than others and can be used to generate working standards. Provided that a reference assay method 1 (often calorimetry) is available that is well characterized (having negligible or known dependence on varying physical properties), we can assess the total measurement error of another method 2. In this paper we consider the impact of the number of measurement categories on the measurement error standard deviation of method 2. We assume that working standards (traceable to primary reference standards) are provided by the method 1 assay of actual facility items. Given the same number of working standards, we evaluate the tradeoff between using more working standards for each of a fewer number of categories versus using fewer standards in each of more categories. This leads to a method to determine a good allocation of working standards.

  15. Diagnosis of vascular cognitive impairment and its main categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez García, P L; Rodríguez García, D

    2015-05-01

    A review of current criteria for the diagnosis of categories related with vascular cognitive impairment, in particular the nomenclature, diagnostic criteria, and differential clinical-radiological findings. The criteria for the diagnosis of vascular cognitive impairment have evolved, but available criteria were designed basically for differentiating between vascular dementia and dementia due to Alzheimer disease, and for research purposes. Nevertheless, in clinical practice precise elements are required for: 1) Clinical diagnosis of dementia and mild cognitive impairment; 2) Clinical and neuroimaging criteria for identification of the various cerebrovascular lesions associated with cognitive dysfunction, and 3) A formulation of the aetiogenic-pathogenic relationship between cognitive impairment and cerebrovascular lesions. For this reason, a review was carried out on the diagnostic elements of vascular cognitive impairment categories, classification, and their most relevant characteristics. It highlights the characteristic for the diagnosis of multi-infarction dementia, strategic single infarct dementia, small vessel disease with dementia, mixed dementia, and vascular mild cognitive impairment. Standardisation is required, by a multidisciplinary expert team, as regards nomenclature and criteria for the diagnosis of the full spectrum associated with vascular cognitive impairment and especially for vascular dementia and its categories. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. CERN to introduce new Local Staff employment category

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    At the June meeting of CERN Council, a new Local Staff employment category was approved. This will cover some 250-300 people in technical and administrative positions between now and 2010, satisfying an urgent need for manpower over the coming years. This article explains the main features of this new category. The Local Staff employment category is an important building block in CERN's new Human Resources Plan, and is essential in the run-up to the LHC. In the immediate future, it will allow some Industrial Services activities to be insourced - corresponding to about 150 additional CERN staff positions. In the longer run, it will allow the Organization to replace more retiring staff members than formerly foreseen - corresponding to 100-150 staff positions. The activities that will lead to Local Staff vacancies were identified at last year's resources planning exercise (the "Morges-III" meetings) as those which could not be outsourced in a Field Support Unit or other type of result-oriented Industrial Serv...

  17. Production and economic viability of feedlot beef cattle categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrônio Batista dos Santos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was realized to evaluate the production and economic viability of finished beef cattle in feedlot in the Cerrado biome of Piauí State, Brazil. One hundred and fifty cattle -50 bulls (B with an body weight of 283.0 ± 20.82 kg, at 30 months of age; and 100 cull cows (CC with an body weight of 296.1 ± 17.80 kg, at 100 months of age- were used in a completely randomized design. The animal performance indicators for the evaluation of economic viability were initial age (months, slaughter age (months, was initial body weight (kg, final body weight (kg, daily feed intake (kg animal-1; kg kg-1 BW, diet cost (R$ kg-1 of diet, cost of kg produced (R$ kg-1 produced, and average price of the kg of meat for finishing (R$. The CC consumed more sorghum silage and concentrate than B (p < 0.05.There was a difference between the categories (p < 0.05 for gross revenue, balance, opportunity cost, and net revenue per animal, with higher values found for the steer category. The animal category did not affect the profitability of the system, although the bulls provided lower revenues than cull cows.

  18. Moving Beyond Motive-based categories of Targeted Violence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weine, Stevan [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Cohen, John [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Brannegan, David [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Today’s categories for responding to targeted violence are motive-based and tend to drive policies, practices, training, media coverage, and research. These categories are based on the assumption that there are significant differences between ideological and non-ideological actors and between domestic and international actors. We question the reliance on these categories and offer an alternative way to frame the response to multiple forms of targeted violence. We propose adopting a community-based multidisciplinary approach to assess risk and provide interventions that are focused on the pre-criminal space. We describe four capabilities that should be implemented locally by establishing and maintaining multidisciplinary response teams that combine community and law-enforcement components: (1) community members are educated, making them better able to identify and report patterns associated with elevated risk for violence; (2) community-based professionals are trained to assess the risks for violent behavior posed by individuals; (3) community-based professionals learn to implement strategies that directly intervene in causal factors for those individuals who are at elevated risk; and (4) community-based professionals learn to monitor and assess an individual’s risk for violent behaviors on an ongoing basis. Community-based multidisciplinary response teams have the potential to identify and help persons in the pre-criminal space and to reduce barriers that have traditionally impeded community/law-enforcement collaboration.

  19. Comparison, basic-level categories, and the teaching of adjectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manders, Katherine; Hall, D Geoffrey

    2002-11-01

    We tested 24 caregivers of preschool children to determine whether their strategies for teaching novel adjectives are consistent with children's demonstrated abilities to learn these words (e.g., Waxman & Klibanoff, 2000). On each of four trials, caregivers had to select one of two cards, both of which showed a familiar object bearing an unfamiliar property. On the within-basic card, the object was accompanied by a second object from the same basic-level category; on the across-basic card, this second object came from a different basic-level category. Caregivers' task was to choose the card that would be more helpful to teach a novel adjective for the unfamiliar property. If the second object differed from the first in terms of a novel target property, caregivers (N = 12) stated a strong preference for the within-basic card. If the two objects agreed in terms of the novel property, caregivers (N = 12) indicated a clear preference for the across-basic card. The findings offer new insight into the speed and efficiency of lexical development, by revealing that word teachers, like word learners (cf. Waxman & Klibanoff, 2000), are sensitive to the conditions under which certain contrasts (in property or in basic-level category) are effective in promoting the successful acquisition of novel adjectives.

  20. Licensing Novel Role-Governed Categories: An ERP Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Micah B; Markman, Arthur B; Trujillo, Logan T; Schnyer, David M

    2015-01-01

    Markman and Stilwell (2001) argued that many natural categories name roles in relational systems, and so they are role-governed categories. This view predicts instantiating a novel relational structure licenses the creation of novel role-governed categories. This paper supports this claim and helps to specify the mechanisms underlying this licensing. Event-related potentials were recorded while participants read passages of text. Participants instantiated novel relational representations by interpreting novel verbs derived from nouns during reading. Sentences later, comprehension of novel role terms derived from the novel verb was facilitated relative to a control condition where the novel verb was paraphrased using the root noun in its familiar form. This comprehension facilitation was marked by a reduced negativity elicited from the role term in the Novel Verb condition relative to the Paraphrase from 400 to 500 ms post-stimulus-onset. This relative difference in negativity is consistent with both the N400, which is a marker of semantic integration, and the Nref effect, which reflects the working memory load required to resolve reference. Additionally, because this increased negativity persisted until 670 ms post-stimulus-onset, and not that the Paraphrase condition elicited an increased positivity (i.e., the P600), we ruled out that the licensing effect is rooted in morphosyntactic processes.

  1. Licensing Novel Role-Governed Categories: An ERP Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micah B. Goldwater

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Markman & Stilwell (2001 argued that many natural categories name roles in relational systems, and so they are role-governed categories. This view predicts instantiating a novel relational structure licenses the creation of novel role-governed categories. This paper supports this claim and helps to specify the mechanisms underlying this licensing. Event-related potentials (ERP’s were recorded while participants read passages of text. Participants instantiated novel relational representations by interpreting novel verbs derived from nouns during reading. Sentences later, comprehension of novel role terms derived from the novel verb was facilitated relative to a control condition where the novel verb was paraphrased using the root noun in its familiar form. This comprehension facilitation was marked by a reduced negativity elicited from the role term in the Novel Verb condition relative to the Paraphrase from 400-500 ms post-stimulus-onset. This relative difference in negativity is consistent with both the N400, which is a marker of semantic integration, and the Nref effect, which reflects the working memory load required to resolve reference. Additionally, because this increased negativity persisted until 670 ms post-stimulus-onset, and not that the Paraphrase condition elicited an increased positivity (i.e., the P600, we ruled out that the licensing effect is rooted in morphosyntactic processes.

  2. Response categories and anger measurement: do fewer categories result in poorer measurement?: development of the DAR5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Graeme; Mouthaan, Joanne; Forbes, David; Novaco, Raymond W

    2006-02-01

    Anger is a key long-term outcome from trauma exposure, regardless of trauma type, and it is implicated as a moderator of response to treatment. It therefore seems important that anger is assessed in both epidemiological studies of trauma sequelae and in intervention evaluation research. This study explored the measurement properties of a recently investigated anger scale, the Dimensions of Anger Reactions (DAR) Scale. In our previous study, the DAR was found to be a measure of trait anger, but although brief, the nine response categories per item may have confused respondents, suggesting fewer response categories may work equally well. Additionally, our previous analysis suggested there were two redundant items within the DAR. Three samples of Australian veterans were used to investigate the psychometric properties associated with alterations to the response categories of the DAR; veterans who participated in the DAR validation study, those participating in group therapy programmes for post-traumatic stress disorder, and veterans participating in lifestyle programmes. Item response theory analysis was used to explore the internal properties of competing DAR models, and models were assessed against external criteria. The results showed that the number of item responses in the DAR exceeded channel capacity, and that response bias occurred in the second half of the instrument. We hypothesized that this was due to respondents not discriminating among the many response categories. Based on a modelling exercise in which we reduced the number of DAR items from 7 to 5 and the number of response categories from 9 to 5, validation tests showed that there was no loss of sensitivity, reliability or validity. To avoid confusion with the DAR, we have referred to the revised version of the DAR as the DAR5. We conclude that the DAR5, which abbreviates the original DAR to half its original length, has similar psychometric properties and is therefore to be preferred especially for

  3. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  4. The Notion of Subject in South Asian Languages. South Asian Studies Publication Series, Number 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Manindra K., Ed.

    The following papers on subject in South Asian languages are compiled here: (1) "Subject in Sanskrit" by George Cardona; (2) "Is Sinhala a Subject Language? (or, How Restricted is Your PNP?)" by James W. Gair; (3) "Some Syntactic Reflexes of Sub-Categories of Agent in Hindi" by Peter Edwin Hook; (4) "The Notion…

  5. Objectivity and Subjectivity: an Argument for Rethinking the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I present, with critique, influential moments in the genesis of the received notions of objectivity and of subjectivity, and argue for the inadequacy of Nagel's problematization of these categories of contemporary thought. With the aim of suggesting a rethink of how philosophy questions are framed in our syllabus I argue two ...

  6. The Data Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article considers whether it is fortunate that data protection rules, as a starting point, apply to all physical persons as data subjects, or whether it would be better to differentiate between kinds of persons on grounds of their ability to act as a data subject. In order to protect all...... persons, it is argued that a principle of care should be part of data protection law....

  7. Strategy for the expansion of renewable energies. An investigation of the pricing strategy of the Renewable Energy Law from the viewpoint of an evolutionary cybernetic theory of economic policy; Die Strategie des Ausbaus erneuerbarer Energien. Eine Untersuchung der Preissetzungsstrategie des EEGs aus Sicht einer evolutorisch-kybernetischen Theorie der Wirtschaftspolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, Fabian

    2015-11-01

    This publication reports on how the steadily increasing costs caused by the Renewable Energy Law (EEG) have brought the German strategy for the expansion of renewable energies under criticism. According to theories of regulatory economic policy, which state that politico-economic incentives of this kind must necessarily result in an inefficient allocation of scarce resources, this cost increase can be interpreted as a direct consequence of the price intervention. The present publication takes a critical stance on this viewpoint, developing for its purpose a new position on regulatory policy referred to as the evolutionary cybernetic theory of economic policy. It starts out from the works of F.A. von Hayek, which it then takes a significant step further however. The author argues that price interventions can be meaningful strategies of economic policy as long as they are aimed at a temporary initiation of market development towards sustainability and efficiency. Based on this model conception of a shrewd pricing strategy the publication undertakes an analysis from the perspective of regulatory policy of the German subsidisation of renewable energies. In the process it not only reveals errors in design of the EEG but also makes a proposal for an amendment that could be effective in cutting through the present price dynamics. In presenting its recommendation of a self-steering expansion policy the publication not only contributes to the further development of an evolutionary cybernetic theory of economic policy but addresses the urgent problem of how to wisely use regulatory policy to create pricing strategies which serve the expansion of renewable energies.

  8. Report of the Racism and Sexism in Subject Analysis Subcommittee to the RTSD/CCS Subject Analysis Committee, Midwinter 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Elizabeth M.; And Others

    Directed toward the eradication of sexual and racial bias in bibliographic systems, the subcommittee reports its progress in the identification of areas of classification systems and subject headings requiring change. A policy statement and six guidelines establish a framework for three categories of projects: (1) the need for changes in Library…

  9. Stratification of persons with diabetes into risk categories for foot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Setting: Diabetic outpatient clinic, at the Kenyatta National Hospital. Subjects: Two hundred and eighteen ambulatory subjects with diabetes mellitus without active foot lesions. Results: The prevalence of previous foot ulceration was 16% while that of previous amputation was 8%. Neuropathy was present in 42% of the study ...

  10. Genes implicated in serotonergic and dopaminergic functioning predict BMI categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuemmeler, Bernard F; Agurs-Collins, Tanya D; McClernon, F Joseph; Kollins, Scott H; Kail, Melanie E; Bergen, Andrew W; Ashley-Koch, Allison E

    2008-02-01

    This study addressed the hypothesis that variation in genes associated with dopamine function (SLC6A3, DRD2, DRD4), serotonin function (SLC6A4, and regulation of monoamine levels (MAOA) may be predictive of BMI categories (obese and overweight + obese) in young adulthood and of changes in BMI as adolescents transition into young adulthood. Interactions with gender and race/ethnicity were also examined. Participants were a subsample of individuals from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative sample of adolescents followed from 1995 to 2002. The sample analyzed included a subset of 1,584 unrelated individuals with genotype data. Multiple logistic regressions were conducted to evaluate the associations between genotypes and obesity (BMI > 29.9) or overweight + obese combined (BMI > or = 25) with normal weight (BMI = 18.5-24.9) as a referent. Linear regression models were used to examine change in BMI from adolescence to young adulthood. Significant associations were found between SLC6A4 5HTTLPR and categories of BMI, and between MAOA promoter variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) among men and categories of BMI. Stratified analyses revealed that the association between these two genes and excess BMI was significant for men overall and for white and Hispanic men specifically. Linear regression models indicated a significant effect of SLC6A4 5HTTLPR on change in BMI from adolescence to young adulthood. Our findings lend further support to the involvement of genes implicated in dopamine and serotonin regulation on energy balance.

  11. Radiomic modeling of BI-RADS density categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jun; Chan, Heang-Ping; Helvie, Mark A.; Roubidoux, Marilyn A.; Zhou, Chuan; Hadjiiski, Lubomir

    2017-03-01

    Screening mammography is the most effective and low-cost method to date for early cancer detection. Mammographic breast density has been shown to be highly correlated with breast cancer risk. We are developing a radiomic model for BI-RADS density categorization on digital mammography (FFDM) with a supervised machine learning approach. With IRB approval, we retrospectively collected 478 FFDMs from 478 women. As a gold standard, breast density was assessed by an MQSA radiologist based on BI-RADS categories. The raw FFDMs were used for computerized density assessment. The raw FFDM first underwent log-transform to approximate the x-ray sensitometric response, followed by multiscale processing to enhance the fibroglandular densities and parenchymal patterns. Three ROIs were automatically identified based on the keypoint distribution, where the keypoints were obtained as the extrema in the image Gaussian scale-space. A total of 73 features, including intensity and texture features that describe the density and the parenchymal pattern, were extracted from each breast. Our BI-RADS density estimator was constructed by using a random forest classifier. We used a 10-fold cross validation resampling approach to estimate the errors. With the random forest classifier, computerized density categories for 412 of the 478 cases agree with radiologist's assessment (weighted kappa = 0.93). The machine learning method with radiomic features as predictors demonstrated a high accuracy in classifying FFDMs into BI-RADS density categories. Further work is underway to improve our system performance as well as to perform an independent testing using a large unseen FFDM set.

  12. The role of body-related and environmental sources of knowledge in the construction of different conceptual categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gainotti eGuido

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Controversies exist about: (a the relationships between perceptual and conceptual activities and (b the format and neuro-anatomical substrates of concepts. Some authors maintain that concepts are represented in the brain in an abstract manner, totally unrelated to the sensory-motor functions of the brain, whereas other authors argue that concepts are represented in the same format in which they have been constructed by the sensory-motor system. The present paper will survey two groups of investigations that play in favour of the second view, devoting particular attention to the role of body movements and somatosensory inputs in the representation of artefacts and, respectively, of visual and other perceptual sources of knowledge in the construction of biological categories. The first group of investigations is represented by studies that have tried to assess the weight that various kinds of information play in the representation of different conceptual categories. This was made by asking normal subjects to rate their subjective evaluation of the role that various perceptual, motor and encyclopaedic sources of knowledge could have in the construction of different semantic categories. The second group of studies deals with research concerning the neuro-anatomical correlates of various types of categorical disorders, because these investigations have shown that the cortical areas damaged in patients with a disorder selectively affecting a given category play a critical role in processing information that have mainly contributed to the construction of the affected category. Both lines of research suggest that body movements and somatosensory information play a major role in the representation of actions and of artefacts mainly known through manipulations and other actions, whereas visual and other perceptual information play a dominant role in the representation of animals and other living entities.

  13. Researcher-participant positioning and the discursive work of categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringer, Agnes

    2013-01-01

    encountered in the fieldwork were indicative of discursive norms within the mental health services. It is argued that the multiple ways the researcher was positioned by participants revealed that the categories “patient” and “staff” were produced as polarized binaries with little leverage for negotiating...... positions in between. At the same time, it is shown that the patients find ways to resist the objectifying practices of the researcher as well as of the mental health services. The conclusions are discussed against recent attempts within the mental health services to promote a more patient-centered approach...

  14. The Category Cued Recall test in very mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Mortensen, E.L.; Gade, A.

    2007-01-01

    Episodic memory tests that measure cued recall may be particularly effective in the diagnosis of early Alzheimer's disease (AD) because they examine both episodic and semantic memory functions. The Category Cued Recall (CCR) test provides superordinate semantic cues at encoding and retrieval......, and high discriminative validity has been claimed for this test. The aim of this study was to investigate the discriminative validity for this test when compared with the 10-word memory list from Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-cog) that measures free recall. The clinical diagnosis of AD...

  15. Grounding grammatical categories: attention bias in hand space influences grammatical congruency judgment of Chinese nominal classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobben, Marit; D'Ascenzo, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Embodied cognitive theories predict that linguistic conceptual representations are grounded and continually represented in real world, sensorimotor experiences. However, there is an on-going debate on whether this also holds for abstract concepts. Grammar is the archetype of abstract knowledge, and therefore constitutes a test case against embodied theories of language representation. Former studies have largely focussed on lexical-level embodied representations. In the present study we take the grounding-by-modality idea a step further by using reaction time (RT) data from the linguistic processing of nominal classifiers in Chinese. We take advantage of an independent body of research, which shows that attention in hand space is biased. Specifically, objects near the hand consistently yield shorter RTs as a function of readiness for action on graspable objects within reaching space, and the same biased attention inhibits attentional disengagement. We predicted that this attention bias would equally apply to the graspable object classifier but not to the big object classifier. Chinese speakers (N = 22) judged grammatical congruency of classifier-noun combinations in two conditions: graspable object classifier and big object classifier. We found that RTs for the graspable object classifier were significantly faster in congruent combinations, and significantly slower in incongruent combinations, than the big object classifier. There was no main effect on grammatical violations, but rather an interaction effect of classifier type. Thus, we demonstrate here grammatical category-specific effects pertaining to the semantic content and by extension the visual and tactile modality of acquisition underlying the acquisition of these categories. We conclude that abstract grammatical categories are subjected to the same mechanisms as general cognitive and neurophysiological processes and may therefore be grounded.

  16. Thresholding lesion overlap difference maps: application to category-related naming and recognition deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudrauf, David; Mehta, Sonya; Bruss, Joel; Tranel, Daniel; Damasio, Hanna; Grabowski, Thomas J

    2008-07-01

    Lesion overlap difference maps have been used in studies designed to test anatomical hypotheses regarding brain systems critical for various cognitive and behavioral tasks, including naming and recognition of concrete entities [Damasio, H., Tranel, D., Grabowski, T., Adolphs, R., Damasio, A., 2004. Neural systems behind word and concept retrieval. Cognition 92, 179-229]. To date, the interpretation of these results has focused on areas of maximum lesion overlap differences. Here we explore formal methods for statistical thresholding and power analysis. We derive exact voxel-wise statistics describing the behavior of lesion overlap difference maps and lesion proportion difference maps under the null hypothesis of no association between lesion and deficit, and we apply the statistics to a large subset of the subjects previously reported in [Damasio, H., Tranel, D., Grabowski, T., Adolphs, R., Damasio, A., 2004. Neural systems behind word and concept retrieval. Cognition 92, 179-229], in order to reassess the lesion correlates of deficits in naming and recognition for five categories of concrete entities. The thresholded maps confirmed many of the results reported previously, but also revealed some differences. Differences in spatial distribution of the lesion correlates of impaired naming of unique versus nonunique entities were confirmed in the inferotemporal region (IT), although overlapping components across categories became apparent in left IT. Additionally, the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was implicated in naming both categories of nonunique natural entities (animals and fruits/vegetables). In corresponding power analyses, we estimated where significant effects could be found under an assumption of maximal effect size given the observed spatial distribution of lesions. Such "effective coverage maps" are valuable for the interpretation of the results, notably because of heterogeneity in lesion coverage encountered in lesion studies. We strongly suggest

  17. Grounding grammatical categories: attention bias in hand space influences grammatical congruency judgment of Chinese nominal classifiers

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    Marit eLobben

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Embodied cognitive theories predict that linguistic conceptual representations are grounded and continually represented in real world, sensorimotor experiences. However, there is an on-going debate on whether this also holds for abstract concepts. Grammar is the archetype of abstract knowledge, and therefore constitutes a test case against embodied theories of language representation. Former studies have largely focussed on lexical-level embodied representations. In the present study we take the grounding-by-modality idea a step further by using reaction time data from the linguistic processing of nominal classifiers in Chinese. We take advantage of an independent body of research, which shows that attention in hand space is biased. Specifically, objects near the hand consistently yield shorter reaction times as a function of readiness for action on graspable objects within reaching space, and the same biased attention inhibits attentional disengagement. We predicted that this attention bias would equally apply to the graspable object classifier but not to the big object classifier. Chinese speakers (N=21 judged grammatical congruency of classifier-noun combinations in two conditions: graspable object classifier and big object classifier. We found that RTs for the graspable object classifier were significantly faster in congruent combinations, and significantly slower in incongruent combinations, than the big object classifier. There was no main effect on grammatical violations, but rather an interaction effect of classifier type. Thus, we demonstrate here grammatical category-specific effects pertaining to the semantic content and by extension the visual and tactile modality of acquisition underlying the acquisition of these categories. We conclude that abstract grammatical categories are subjected to the same mechanisms as general cognitive and neurophysiological processes and may therefore be grounded.

  18. Baking Gender Into Social Media Design: How Platforms Shape Categories for Users and Advertisers

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    Rena Bivens

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several popular social media platforms have launched freeform custom gender fields. This decision reconstitutes gender categories beyond an oppressive binary only permitting “males” and “females.” In this work, we uncover many different user-facing gender category design strategies within the social media ecosystem, ranging from custom gender options (on Facebook, Google+, and Pinterest to the absence of gender fields entirely (on Twitter and LinkedIn. To explore how gender is baked into platform design, this article investigates the 10 most popular English-speaking social media platforms by performing recorded walkthroughs from two different subject positions: (1 a new user registering an account, and (2 a new advertiser creating an ad. We explore several different spaces in social media software where designers commonly program gender—sign-up pages, profile pages, and advertising portals—to consider (1 how gender is made durable through social media design, and (2 the shifting composition of the category of gender within the social media ecosystem more broadly. Through this investigation, we question how these categorizations attribute meaning to gender as they materialize in different software spaces, along with the recursive implications for society. Ultimately, our analysis reveals how social media platforms act as intermediaries within the larger ecosystem of advertising and web analytics companies. We argue that this intermediary role entrusts social media platforms with a considerable degree of control over the generation of broader categorization systems, which can be wielded to shape the perceived needs and desires of both users and advertising clients.

  19. Category specificity in early perception: face and word N170 responses differ in both lateralization and habituation properties

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    Urs Maurer

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced N170 ERP responses to both faces and visual words raises questions about category specific processing mechanisms during early perception and their neural basis. Topographic differences across word and face N170s might suggest a form of category specific processing in early perception - the word N170 is consistently left lateralized, while less consistent evidence suggests a right lateralization for the face N170. Additionally, the face N170 shows a reduction in amplitude across consecutive unique faces, a form of habituation that might differ across studies thereby helping to explain inconsistencies in lateralization. This effect remains unexplored for visual words. The current study directly contrasts N170 responses to words and faces within the same subjects, examining both category-level habituation and lateralization effects. ERP responses to a series of different faces and words were collected under two contexts: blocks that alternated faces and words versus pure blocks designed to induce category level habituation. Global and occipito-temporal measures of N170 amplitude demonstrated an interaction between category (word, faces and block context (alternating, pure. N170 amplitude demonstrated class level habituation for faces but not words. Furthermore, the pure block context diminished the right lateralization of the face N170, potentially pointing to class level habituation as a factor that might drive inconsistencies of right lateralization across different paradigms. No analogous effect for the word N170 was found, suggesting category specificity for this process. Taken together, these topographic and habituation effects suggest distinct forms of perceptual processing drive the face N170 and the visual word form N170.

  20. Association between Cerebral Performance Category, Modified Rankin Scale, and discharge disposition after cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenberger, Jon C; Raina, Ketki; Holm, Margo B; Kim, Young Joo; Callaway, Clifton W

    2011-08-01

    Cerebral Performance Category (CPC), Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and discharge disposition are commonly used to determine outcomes following cardiac arrest. This study tested the association between these outcome measures. Retrospective chart review of subjects who survived to hospital discharge between 1/1/2006 and 12/31/2009 was conducted. Charts were reviewed for outcomes (CPC, mRS, and discharge disposition). Discharge disposition was classified in 6 categories: home with no services, home with home healthcare, acute rehabilitation facility, skilled nursing facility, long term acute care facility, and hospice. Intra-and inter-rater reliabilities were calculated for outcome measures. Rates of "good outcome" (defined as a CPC of 1-2, mRS of 0-3, or discharge disposition to home or acute rehabilitation facility) were also determined. Kendall's tau correlation coefficients explored relationships among measures. A total of 211 charts were reviewed. Mean age was 60 years (SD 16), the majority (75%) were white males, in- and out-of hospital cardiac arrests were equally prevalent, and ventricular dysrhythmia was most common (N=109, 52%). Half of the subjects were comatose following resuscitation and 75 (35%) received therapeutic hypothermia. Inter-rater percentage agreement for CPC and mRS abstraction was 95.24% (kappa 0.89, pdefinition, 47 subjects (22%) using the mRS definition, and 129 subjects (61%) subjects using discharge disposition definition. There was fair relationship between the CPC and mRS (tau 0.43) and poor relationships between CPC and discharge disposition (tau 0.23) and between mRS and discharge disposition (tau 0.25). Determination of the CPC, mRS and discharge disposition at hospital discharge is reliable from chart review. These instruments provide widely differing estimates of "good outcome". Agreement between these measures ranges from poor to fair. A more nuanced outcome measure designed for the post-cardiac arrest population is needed

  1. Subject (of documents)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    such as concepts, aboutness, topic, isness and ofness are also briefly presented. The conclusion is that the most fruitful way of defining “subject” (of a document) is the documents informative or epistemological potentials, that is, the documents potentials of informing users and advance the development......This article presents and discuss the concept “subject” or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document......-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts...

  2. Science of the subjective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, R G; Dunne, B J

    2007-01-01

    Over the greater portion of its long scholarly history, the particular form of human observation, reasoning, and technical deployment we properly term "science" has relied at least as much on subjective experience and inspiration as it has on objective experiments and theories. Only over the past few centuries has subjectivity been progressively excluded from the practice of science, leaving an essentially secular analytical paradigm. Quite recently, however, a compounding constellation of newly inexplicable physical evidence, coupled with a growing scholarly interest in the nature and capability of human consciousness, are beginning to suggest that this sterilization of science may have been excessive and could ultimately limit its epistemological reach and cultural relevance. In particular, an array of demonstrable consciousness-related anomalous physical phenomena, a persistent pattern of biological and medical anomalies, systematic studies of mind/brain relationships and the mechanics of human creativity, and a burgeoning catalogue of human factors effects within contemporary information processing technologies, all display empirical correlations with subjective aspects that greatly complicate, and in many cases preclude, their comprehension on strictly objective grounds. However, any disciplined re-admission of subjective elements into rigorous scientific methodology will hinge on the precision with which they can be defined, measured, and represented, and on the resilience of established scientific techniques to their inclusion. For example, any neo-subjective science, while retaining the logical rigor, empirical/theoretical dialogue, and cultural purpose of its rigidly objective predecessor, would have the following requirements: acknowledgment of a proactive role for human consciousness; more explicit and profound use of interdisciplinary metaphors; more generous interpretations of measurability, replicability, and resonance; a reduction of ontological

  3. Categorial Conflict Didactics as Paradigm of Civic Education

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    Horst Leps

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Rudolf Engelhard presents a lesson model in his article How to Deal with Party Politics at School? that dates back to the 1960s, when civic education was revived in the Federal Republic of Germany (West-Germany. In order to improve civic education at school, the former Ministers of Education of German states reached a joint decision on the new subject. This was as a reaction against the first massive scribbling of Nazi propaganda since the end of World War II. Therefore, a new subject in secondary education was introduced to serve this purpose. This subject was called Sozialkunde1 (civic education or Gemeinschaftskunde2 (social studies.

  4. The Subjectivity of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    What is a 'we' – a collective – and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity – and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas...... practices. Through this dialogue, it develops an original trans-disciplinary critical theory and practice of collective subjectivity for which the ongoing construction and overcoming of common sense, or ideology, is central. It also points to ways of relating discourse with agency, and fertilizing insights...... from interactionism and ideology theories in a cultural-historical framework....

  5. High frequency of psychopathology in subjects wishing to lose weight: an observational study in Italian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Valentina; Colombo, Ottavia; Nichini, Cristiano; Repossi, Ilaria; Vinai, Piergiuseppe; Tagliabue, Anna

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the frequency of psychiatric disorders in subjects wishing to lose weight categorized according to BMI. Cross-sectional study. An academic outpatient clinical nutrition service in Italy. A total of 207 subjects (thirty-nine men and 168 women; mean age: 38·7 (sd 14·1) years) consecutively attending the study centre for the first time between January 2003 and December 2006. In the entire study group, eighty-three (40 %) subjects had a psychiatric disorder according to criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision. Eating disorders were the most prevalent psychiatric condition (thirty-six subjects, 17·4 %), followed by mood and anxiety disorders (9·7 % and 8·7 %, respectively). The frequency of psychiatric disorders among different BMI categories was as follows: 75·0 % in underweight, 50·0 % in normal weight, 33·3 % in overweight and 33·3 % in obese subjects. Psychiatric disorders may be frequently found in subjects wishing to lose weight. Our results highlight the importance of psychiatric assessment especially in underweight and normal-weight subjects.

  6. THE SPECIFICITY OF CORRELATION CATEGORY REALIZATION IN THE MODERN GERMAN LANGUAGE

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    Goryunova Yuliya Nikolaevna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the German article in functional aspect taking into account the conception of the grammatical category of correlation / non-correlation, proposed by L.R. Zinder and T.V. Stroeva. The author describes the specificity of the correlation category realization with nouns of different semantic classes and explains the limitations of using article with definite classes of nouns. It is proved that the common nouns, realizing the five types of correlation, can be used with definite, indefinite and zero articles; abstract and material nouns, as a rule, correlate with the concept and are used with zero article, however, if their semantics is specified in the context, they pass into the class of common nouns, realizing the definite correlation and being used with definite article; proper names, correlating both with a concrete subject and a concept are used, as a rule, with zero or definite article; unique nouns correlate only with a single object and are used only with a definite article. The author reveals that if the abstract, material, unique and proper nouns are contextually specified in the context, they can be used with the indefinite article, which becomes the marker of nouns transposition from one semantic class to another, especially into the lexical and grammatical class of common nouns.

  7. Brazilian Normative Data on Letter and Category Fluency Tasks: Effects of Gender, Age, and Geopolitical Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazin, Izabel; Leite, Gilmara; Oliveira, Rosinda M; Alencar, João C; Fichman, Helenice C; Marques, Priscila D N; de Mello, Claudia Berlim

    2016-01-01

    Verbal fluency is a basic function of language that refers to the ability to produce fluent speech. Despite being an essentially linguistic function, its measurements are also used to evaluate executive aspects of verbal behavior. Performance in verbal fluency (VF) tasks varies according to age, education, and cognitive development. Neurodevelopmental disorders that affect the functioning of frontal areas tend to cause lower performance in VF tasks. Despite the relative consensus that has been reached in terms of the use of VF tasks for the diagnosis of dyslexia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, few studies have considered regional variations in Brazil. The present study sought to provide normative data on VF tasks in children by considering gender, age, education, and geopolitical region of origin with auxiliary purposes in neuropsychological diagnosis of disorders that occur with executive changes The study included 298 participants, 7-10 years of age of both genders, who performed three letter fluency tasks and three category fluency tasks. The data were subjected to correlational and variance analyses, with age and gender as factors. No effect of gender on the children's performance was found. However, significant differences between age groups were observed, with better performance in letter tasks in older children and better performance in letter tasks compared with category tasks. Significant regional differences in performance on the letter VF task were observed. These results reinforce the importance of regional normative data in countries with high regional cultural variations, such as Brazil.

  8. Category Selectivity of Human Visual Cortex in Perception of Rubin Face–Vase Illusion

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    Xiaogang Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available When viewing the Rubin face–vase illusion, our conscious perception spontaneously alternates between the face and the vase; this illusion has been widely used to explore bistable perception. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies have studied the neural mechanisms underlying bistable perception through univariate and multivariate pattern analyses; however, no studies have investigated the issue of category selectivity. Here, we used fMRI to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the Rubin face–vase illusion by introducing univariate amplitude and multivariate pattern analyses. The results from the amplitude analysis suggested that the activity in the fusiform face area was likely related to the subjective face perception. Furthermore, the pattern analysis results showed that the early visual cortex (EVC and the face-selective cortex could discriminate the activity patterns of the face and vase perceptions. However, further analysis of the activity patterns showed that only the face-selective cortex contains the face information. These findings indicated that although the EVC and face-selective cortex activities could discriminate the visual information, only the activity and activity pattern in the face-selective areas contained the category information of face perception in the Rubin face–vase illusion.

  9. Evaluation of hydration status following soccer matches of different categories

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    Daniel Barbosa Coelho

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n3p276 The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hydration status and thermoregulatory responses, during official soccer matches, of soccer players in different categories. The participants of the under-15 (U-15, n=36 and of the under-17 category (U-17, n=14 were placed into different groups according to the amount of time spent in the field: Main group; Partial group; Intermediate group; Control group. The thermoregulatory responses and hydration status were measured. The Main group and the Partial group presented significantly higher water intake, weight loss and sweat rate compared with the Intermediate and Control group (p<0.05. The under-17 players of the Main group had a larger weight difference pre and post match compared with the under-15 players of the same group (p<0.05. It was concluded that an official soccer match altered significantly the hydration status of the players, and it was related with the time spent in the match.

  10. Human cloning: category, dignity, and the role of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, Evelyne

    2003-10-01

    Human cloning has been simultaneously a running joke for massive worldwide publicity of fringe groups like the Raelians, and the core issue of an international movement at the United Nations in support of a treaty to ban the use of cloning techniques to produce a child (so called reproductive cloning). Yet, even though debates on human cloning have greatly increased since the birth of Dolly, the clone sheep, in 1997, we continue to wonder whether cloning is after all any different from other methods of medically assisted reproduction, and what exactly makes cloning an 'affront to the dignity of humans.' Categories we adopt matter mightily as they inform but can also misinform and lead to mistaken and unproductive decisions. And thus bioethicists have a responsibility to ensure that the proper categories are used in the cloning debates and denounce those who try to win the ethical debate through well-crafted labels rather than well-reasoned argumentations. But it is as important for bioethicists to take a position on broad issues such as human cloning and species altering interventions. One 'natural question' would be, for example, should there be an international treaty to ban human reproductive cloning?

  11. Create your own stimulus: Manipulating movements according to social categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppensteiner, Markus; Primes, Georg; Stephan, Pia

    2017-01-01

    People ascribe purposeful behaviour to the movements of artificial objects and social qualities to human body motion. We investigated how people associate simple motion cues with social categories. For a first rating-experiment we converted the body movements of speakers into stick-figure animations; for a second rating-experiment we used animations of one single dot. Rating-experiments were "reversed" because we asked participants to alter the movements (i.e., vertical amplitude, horizontal amplitude, and velocity) of the stimuli according to different instructions (e.g., create a stimulus of high dominance). Participants equipped stick figures and dot animations with expansive movements to represent high dominance. Expansive and fast movements (i.e., high velocity) were mainly associated with high aggressiveness. Fast movements were also associated with low friendliness, low trustworthiness, and low competence. Overall, patterns found for stick figure and dot animations were similar indicating that certain motion cues convey social information even when only a dot and no body form is visible. The "reverse approach" we propose here makes the impact of different components directly observable. The data generated by this method offers better insights into the interplay of these components and the ways in which they form meaningful patterns. The proposed method can be extended to other types of nonverbal cues and a variety of social categories.

  12. Create your own stimulus: Manipulating movements according to social categories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Koppensteiner

    Full Text Available People ascribe purposeful behaviour to the movements of artificial objects and social qualities to human body motion. We investigated how people associate simple motion cues with social categories. For a first rating-experiment we converted the body movements of speakers into stick-figure animations; for a second rating-experiment we used animations of one single dot. Rating-experiments were "reversed" because we asked participants to alter the movements (i.e., vertical amplitude, horizontal amplitude, and velocity of the stimuli according to different instructions (e.g., create a stimulus of high dominance. Participants equipped stick figures and dot animations with expansive movements to represent high dominance. Expansive and fast movements (i.e., high velocity were mainly associated with high aggressiveness. Fast movements were also associated with low friendliness, low trustworthiness, and low competence. Overall, patterns found for stick figure and dot animations were similar indicating that certain motion cues convey social information even when only a dot and no body form is visible. The "reverse approach" we propose here makes the impact of different components directly observable. The data generated by this method offers better insights into the interplay of these components and the ways in which they form meaningful patterns. The proposed method can be extended to other types of nonverbal cues and a variety of social categories.

  13. Concurrent Dynamics of Category Learning and Metacognitive Judgments

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    Valnea Žauhar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In two experiments, we examined the correspondence between the dynamics of metacognitive judgments and classification accuracy when participants were asked to learn category structures of different levels of complexity, i.e., to learn tasks of types I, II and III according to Shepard, Hovland, and Jenkins (1961. The stimuli were simple geometrical figures varying in the following three dimensions: color, shape, and size. In Experiment 1, we found moderate positive correlations between confidence and accuracy in task type II and weaker correlation in task type I and III. Moreover, the trend analysis in the backward learning curves revealed that there is a non-linear trend in accuracy for all three task types, but the same trend was observed in confidence for the task type I and II but not for task type III. In Experiment 2, we found that the feeling-of-warmth judgments (FOWs showed moderate positive correlation with accuracy in all task types. Trend analysis revealed a similar non-linear component in accuracy and metacognitive judgments in task type II and III but not in task type I. Our results suggest that FOWs are a more sensitive measure of the progress of learning than confidence because FOWs capture global knowledge about the category structure, while confidence judgments are given at the level of an individual exemplar.

  14. Plans, Patterns, and Move Categories Guiding a Highly Selective Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippen, Gerhard

    In this paper we present our ideas for an Arimaa-playing program (also called a bot) that uses plans and pattern matching to guide a highly selective search. We restrict move generation to moves in certain move categories to reduce the number of moves considered by the bot significantly. Arimaa is a modern board game that can be played with a standard Chess set. However, the rules of the game are not at all like those of Chess. Furthermore, Arimaa was designed to be as simple and intuitive as possible for humans, yet challenging for computers. While all established Arimaa bots use alpha-beta search with a variety of pruning techniques and other heuristics ending in an extensive positional leaf node evaluation, our new bot, Rat, starts with a positional evaluation of the current position. Based on features found in the current position - supported by pattern matching using a directed position graph - our bot Rat decides which of a given set of plans to follow. The plan then dictates what types of moves can be chosen. This is another major difference from bots that generate "all" possible moves for a particular position. Rat is only allowed to generate moves that belong to certain categories. Leaf nodes are evaluated only by a straightforward material evaluation to help avoid moves that lose material. This highly selective search looks, on average, at only 5 moves out of 5,000 to over 40,000 possible moves in a middle game position.

  15. THE MAN CATEGORY IN PUBLIC POLICIES AND BRAZILIAN LAWS

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    Samantha Alflen Banin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the view of man as a gender category in public policies and national laws, especially those focused on violence against women. With this objective, it contextualizes the studies of feminisms and masculinities as theories and epistemology that guide the analysis of 17 official Brazilian documents selected for this study. This analysis seeks to clarify how the gendered man has been understood in various documents over the years. It discusses how the formulation of laws can provide a new accountability approach beyond the punishment of these men. It also investigates the regulation of some of the existing groups of men who have used violence against women in the country. It finalizes claiming the importance of these reflections for the debate on gender and masculinities in pursuit of a more effective system of prevention and eradication of violence against women. It discusses and argues in favor of both changing the way this category is addressed in official documents, and formalizing spaces for reflection for men who have used violence against women.

  16. Symbiont modulates expression of specific gene categories in Angomonas deanei

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    Luciana Loureiro Penha

    Full Text Available Trypanosomatids are parasites that cause disease in humans, animals, and plants. Most are non-pathogenic and some harbor a symbiotic bacterium. Endosymbiosis is part of the evolutionary process of vital cell functions such as respiration and photosynthesis. Angomonas deanei is an example of a symbiont-containing trypanosomatid. In this paper, we sought to investigate how symbionts influence host cells by characterising and comparing the transcriptomes of the symbiont-containing A. deanei (wild type and the symbiont-free aposymbiotic strains. The comparison revealed that the presence of the symbiont modulates several differentially expressed genes. Empirical analysis of differential gene expression showed that 216 of the 7625 modulated genes were significantly changed. Finally, gene set enrichment analysis revealed that the largest categories of genes that downregulated in the absence of the symbiont were those involved in oxidation-reduction process, ATP hydrolysis coupled proton transport and glycolysis. In contrast, among the upregulated gene categories were those involved in proteolysis, microtubule-based movement, and cellular metabolic process. Our results provide valuable information for dissecting the mechanism of endosymbiosis in A. deanei.

  17. Enhancing individual and collaborative eyewitness memory with category clustering recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorley, Craig

    2018-01-29

    Most crimes have multiple eyewitnesses. The police typically interview co-witnesses separately. In time-sensitive investigations, this could slow down evidence accumulation. Having co-witnesses collaboratively recall a crime could potentially expedite evidence accumulation. However, past research shows that collaborative group members often have conflicting retrieval strategies that disrupt each other, degrading overall recall. This cost could potentially be overcome by aligning group members' retrieval strategies with category clustering recall (CCR), which is a retrieval strategy where information is recalled from a series of forensically relevant categories (e.g., recalling the protagonists' appearance, then actions). This study examined the costs and benefits of collaborative eyewitness memory by having collaborative pairs of strangers, nominal pairs (i.e., two individuals whose recall is pooled) and lone individuals watch a crime and recall it using free recall or CCR. The collaborative pairs recalled the crime faster than the nominal pairs. They also recalled more correct information than individuals but less than nominal pairs, irrespective of the retrieval method. There is therefore a speed-recall completeness trade-off when collaborative groups recall crimes. Importantly, all participants recalled more correct information when using CCR. This provides initial evidence suggesting that CCR is superior to free recall. Further research examining CCR's benefits is recommended.

  18. Sleep may not benefit learning new phonological categories

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    Gregory eCollet

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available It is known that sleep participates in memory consolidation processes. However, results obtained in the auditory domain are inconsistent. Here we aimed at investigating the role of post-training sleep in auditory training and learning new phonological categories, a fundamental process in speech processing. Adult French-speakers were trained to identify two synthetic speech variants of the syllable /də/ during two 1-hour training sessions. The 12-hours interval between the two sessions either did (8 p.m. to 8 a.m. ± 1h or did not (8 a.m. to 8 p.m. ± 1h included a sleep period. In both groups, identification performance dramatically improved over the first training session, to slightly decrease over the 12h offline interval, although remaining above chance levels. Still, reaction times were slowed down after sleep suggesting higher attention devoted to the learned, novel phonological contrast. Notwithstanding, our results essentially suggest that post-training sleep does not benefit more than wakefulness to the consolidation or stabilization of new phonological categories.

  19. Grammatical category mediates the bilingual disadvantage in word retrieval

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    Yasmeen Faroqi-Shah

    2015-05-01

    Figure 1 shows the scores. Language Quotient (LQ, Kertesz, 2006 was treated as a covariate to account for overall language proficiency for both picture naming and fluency. There was an interaction between grammatical category and bilingualism for both picture naming accuracy (F(1, 69 = 37.5, p< .001 and verbal fluency (F(1,60 = 5.2, p<.05, such that bilinguals scored lower than monolinguals for noun picture naming (F(1, 69 = 4.1, p< .05, LQ-corrected mean difference of 28.2% and animal fluency (F(1, 60 = 13.9, p< .001, mean difference = 3.2, but not for actions. This finding of comparable verb retrieval accuracy in high proficiency bilingual speakers could be attributed to fewer cross-language competitors for verbs (Bultena et al., 2013. This study suggests that 1 bilingual lexical organization is influenced by grammatical category; and 2 action naming tasks may be more reliable for neuropsychological testing of high proficiency bilinguals.

  20. Kierkegaard’s Ethical Stage In Hegel’s Logical Categories: Actual Possibility, Reality And Necessity

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    María J. Binetti

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available During decades, the history of philosophy has kept Kierkegaardrsquo;s and Hegelrsquo;s thought apart, and their long-standing opposition has swept through the speculative greatness of Kierkegaardian existentialism and the existential power of Hegelian philosophy. In contrast to such unfortunate misinterpretation, this article aims at showing the deep convergence that relates interiorly the Kierkegaardian ethical stage with the most important Hegelian logic categories. Kierkegaard and Hegel conceive of the idea as the real power of subjective becoming, and the existence as the actual concretion of the ideal. To both of them, the pure emeneacute;rgeia/em of freedom, which starts in the abstract and aesthetical possibility of the subjective immediacy, realizes itself as the actual concretion of finitude, assuming time and contingency by the eternal and necessary force of duty. The Kierkegaardian repetition is nothing but this powerful idea, mediating the flux of finite differences in the eternal identity of subject. However, for Kierkegaard as well as for Hegel there is an absolute contradiction, which promotes the overcoming of ethics.