WorldWideScience

Sample records for subject category cybernetics

  1. Subject categories and scope descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series. It defines the subject categories and provides the scope descriptions to be used for categorization of the nuclear literature for the preparation of INIS and ETDE input by national and regional centres. Together with the other volumes of the INIS Reference Series it defines the rules, standards and practices and provides the authorities to be used in the International Nuclear Information System and ETDE. A complete list of the volumes published in the INIS Reference Series may be found on the inside front cover of this publication. This INIS/ETDE Reference Series document is intended to serve two purposes: to define the subject scope of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) and the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and to define the subject classification scheme of INIS and ETDE. It is thus the guide to the inputting centres in determining which items of literature should be reported, and in determining where the full bibliographic entry and abstract of each item should be included in INIS or ETDE database. Each category is identified by a category code consisting of three alphanumeric characters. A scope description is given for each subject category. The scope of INIS is the sum of the scopes of all the categories. With most categories cross references are provided to other categories where appropriate. Cross references should be of assistance in finding the appropriate category; in fact, by indicating topics that are excluded from the category in question, the cross references help to clarify and define the scope of the category to which they are appended. A Subject Index is included as an aid to subject classifiers, but it is only an aid and not a means for subject classification. It facilitates the use of this document, but is no substitute for the description of the scope of the subject categories

  2. Energy Data Base: subject categories and scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bost, D.E.

    1985-03-01

    The subject scope of the Energy Data Base (EDB) encompasses all DOE-sponsored research. Broadly defined, EDB subject scope includes all technological aspects of energy production, conversion, and efficient utilization, and the economic, social, and political aspects as well. Scope notes are provided to define the extent of interest in certain subject areas, particularly areas of basic research. Cross references between categories are provided to aid both the categorization of information and its retrieval. Citations entered into DOE's computerized bibliographic information system are assigned six-digit subject category numbers to broadly group information for storage, retrieval, and manipulation. These numbers are used in the preparation of printed documents, such as bibliographies and abstract journals, to arrange the citations and to aid searching on the DOE/RECON on-line system

  3. The cybernetic rehabilitation aid: preliminary results for wrist and elbow motions in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdogan, Erhan; Shima, Keisuke; Kataoka, Hitoshi; Hasegawa, Masaki; Otsuka, Akira; Tsuji, Toshio

    2012-09-01

    This paper proposes the cybernetic rehabilitation aid (CRA) based on the concept of direct teaching using tactile feedback with electromyography (EMG)-based motor skill evaluation. Evaluation and teaching of motor skills are two important aspects of rehabilitation training, and the CRA provides novel and effective solutions to potentially solve the difficulties inherent in these two processes within a single system. In order to evaluate motor skills, EMG signals measured from a patient are analyzed using a log-linearized Gaussian mixture network that can classify motion patterns and compute the degree of similarity between the patient's measured EMG patterns and the desired pattern provided by the therapist. Tactile stimulators are used to convey motion instructions from the therapist or the system to the patient, and a rehabilitation robot can also be integrated into the developed prototype to increase its rehabilitation capacity. A series of experiments performed using the developed prototype demonstrated that the CRA can work as a human-human, human-computer and human-machine system. The experimental results indicated that the healthy (able-bodied) subjects were able to follow the desired muscular contraction levels instructed by the therapist or the system and perform proper joint motion without relying on visual feedback.

  4. Subject categories with scope definitions and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bost, D.E.

    1983-08-01

    Citations entered into DOE's computerized bibliographic information system are assigned six-digit subject category numbers to broadly group information for storage, retrieval, and manipulation. These numbers are used in the preparation of printed documents, such as bibliographies and abstract journals, to arrange the citations and to aid searching on the DOE/RECON on-line system. This document has been prepared for use by (1) those individuals responsible for the assignment of category numbers to documents being entered into the Technical Information Center (TIC) system, (2) those individuals and organizations processing magnetic tape copies of the files, (3) those individuals doing on-line searching for information in TIC-created files, and (4) others who, having no access to RECON, need a printed copy

  5. Sixty Years of Cybernetics: The Philosophical Foundations of Cybernetics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tondl, Ladislav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 3 (2008), s. 299-306 ISSN 0023-5954 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : cybernetics * teleology * teleological systems Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.281, year: 2008

  6. Cybernetics Still Alive

    OpenAIRE

    Havel, Ivan M.

    2008-01-01

    This informal essay, written on the occasion of 60th anniversary of Wienerian cybernetics, presents a series of themes and ideas that has emerged during last several decades and which have direct or indirect relationships to the principal concepts of cybernetics. Moreover, they share with original cybernetics the same transdisciplinary character.

  7. Cybernetics of practice

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeting, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore ways in which cybernetics leads to distinctive ways of acting. Design/methodology/approach – Paralleling von Foerster's argument that it makes more sense to speak of the cybernetics of epistemology than the epistemology of cybernetics, the author argues that cybernetics is not one form of practice amongst others but an account of what it is to practice, understood as where we relate how we act to how we understand so that each informs the o...

  8. The Cybernetic Writing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Kelly Fisher

    This paper looks at the role of a Writing Program Administrator, and applies the idea of a cybernetic system to the administration of the program. In this cybernetic model, the Writing Program Administrator (WPA) works as both a problem solver and problem causer, with the responsibility of keeping the program in proper balance. A cybernetic…

  9. Cybernetics and Workshop Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Daniel G.

    1979-01-01

    Cybernetic sessions allow for the investigation of several variables concurrently, resulting in a large volume of input compacted into a concise time frame. Three session questions are reproduced to illustrate the variety of ideas generated relative to workshop design. (Author)

  10. Energy Data Base: Subject categories and scope: A reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grissom, M.C.

    1987-04-01

    The subject scope of the Energy Data Base (EDB) is defined, encompassing all technological aspects of energy production, conversion, and efficient utilization, and the economic, social, and political aspects as well. Coverage also includes the basic sciences as applicable. The subject areas within the scope of EDB are defined and hierarchically numbered, and scope notes are provided to define the extent of interest in certain areas, particularly areas of basic research

  11. CYBERNETICS AND GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION: CYBERNETICS OF LEARNING AND LEARNING OF CYBERNETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Arpentieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern geographical education implies a broad implementation of innovative technologies, allowing students to fully and deeply understand the subject and methods of professional activity, and effectively and productively act upon this understanding. Therefore, in the work of modern geographer computer and media technologies occupy a significant place, and geographic education occupies an important place in learning cybernetic disciplines: computer technologies act as an important condition for obtaining high quality professional education, as well as an important tool of professional activity of modern specialist-geographer. The article is devoted to comparing three modern approaches to the study and optimization of training Cybernetics and programming in the framework of geographical education: an approach devoted to the study of “learning styles”; the metacognitive approach to learning computer science and programming; and intersubjective, evergetic or actually cybernetic, approach. It describes their advantages and limitations in the context of geographical education, as well as the internal unity as different forms of study of productivity and conditions of the dialogical interaction between teacher and student in the context of obtaining high-quality geographical education.

  12. Cybernetics of Brief Family Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeney, Bradford P.; Ross, Jeffrey M.

    1983-01-01

    Presents a cybernetic view of brief family therapy. Includes a historical discussion of the key ideas underlying brief family therapy, a cybernetic model of therapeutic change, and a clinical case for exemplification. (Author/JAC)

  13. Modern software cybernetics: new trends

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, H; Chen, F; Aliyu, S

    2017-01-01

    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. Software cybernetics research is to apply a variety of techniques from cybernetics research to software engineering research. For more than fifteen years since 2001, there has been a dramatic increase in work relating to software cybernetics. From cybernetics viewpoint, the work is mainly on the first-order level, namely, the software under obs...

  14. Application of cybernetic methods in physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradkov, Aleksandr L [Institute of Problems of Mechanical Engineering, Russian Academy of Sciences, St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2005-02-28

    Basic aspects of the subject and methodology for a new and rapidly developing area of research that has emerged at the intersection of physics and control theory (cybernetics) and emphasizes the application of cybernetic methods to the study of physical systems are reviewed. Speed-gradient and Hamiltonian solutions for energy control problems in conservative and dissipative systems are presented. Application examples such as the Kapitza pendulum, controlled overcoming of a potential barrier, and controlling coupled oscillators and molecular systems are presented. A speed-gradient approach to modeling the dynamics of physical systems is discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  15. Application of cybernetic methods in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fradkov, Aleksandr L

    2005-01-01

    Basic aspects of the subject and methodology for a new and rapidly developing area of research that has emerged at the intersection of physics and control theory (cybernetics) and emphasizes the application of cybernetic methods to the study of physical systems are reviewed. Speed-gradient and Hamiltonian solutions for energy control problems in conservative and dissipative systems are presented. Application examples such as the Kapitza pendulum, controlled overcoming of a potential barrier, and controlling coupled oscillators and molecular systems are presented. A speed-gradient approach to modeling the dynamics of physical systems is discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  16. Cybernetics and Rhetoric: Freshman English in an Overdetermined World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comprone, Joseph

    1975-01-01

    Argues that freshman composition courses should incorporate the study of communications systems (Cybernetics) and the idea that a situation or subject cannot be explained by a single series of logical steps (Overdetermination) as part of their rationale. (RB)

  17. Real quantum cybernetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grössing, Gerhard

    1987-05-01

    It is shown on the basis of quantum cybernetics that one can obtain the usual predictions of quantum theory without ever referring to complex numbered “quantum mechanical amplitudes”. Instead, a very simple formula for transition and certain conditional probabilities is developed that involves real numbers only, thus relating intuitively understandable and in principle directly observable physical quantities.

  18. Cybernetics and consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabka, J

    1999-01-01

    This paper is a review of hypotheses of consciousness which arose from application of the theory of information and regulation and the cybernetic theory of mathematical machines in medicine. The author presents these hypotheses on the examples of his own works.

  19. PEDAGOGY AND CYBERNETICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    STOIAN, STANCIU

    CYBERNETICS, OR "THE ART OF ENSURING THE EFFICIENCY OF ACTIONS," MUST BE A TOOL SUPPORTING PEDAGOGY, THE EDUCATIONAL PHENOMENON, THAT IS DETERMINED BY COMMUNIST PARTY POLICY. ALTHOUGH ANALOGIES BETWEEN MEN AND MACHINES DERIVE FROM THE CONCEPTS OF A SYSTEM (A CONFIGURATION OF STABLE ELEMENTS), INFORMATION (A PROBABILITY SCIENCE),…

  20. Cybernetic functioning in stuttering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Zsilavecz

    1981-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate different kinds of masking noise and DAF, in order to identify the condition which would elicit the highest incidence of fluency in a group of stutterers. The study demonstrates that masking noise and DAF can be effectively applied as an aid in a therapy programme, viz. noise can effectively be put to use so as to encourage and reinforce somesthesia. Stuttering is viewed as defective functioning in the cybernetic system.

  1. Psychosomatic medicine and cybernetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, H

    1979-01-01

    In our daily psychosomatic medicine clinics, we have adopted four principles from Wiener's cybernetics and von Bertalanffy's general system theory. We use the polygraphic method for the diagnosis of psychosomatic disease (black box principle). For the control of psychosomatic symptoms, we use the biofeedback method (feedback principle). We use systematic desensitization to relieve social stresses which cause psychosomatic disease (open and closed system principle). And lastly, transactional analysis, which corresponds to the information and energy principle.

  2. Cybernetics and Education (Special Issue)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopstein, Felix F., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    This is a special issue examining the potential of cybernetics in educational technology. Articles discuss: cybernetic methods, algorithms, feedback learning theory, a structural approach to behavioral objectives and criterion-referenced testing, task specifications and diagnosis, teacher-child interaction, educational development, teaching…

  3. Towards quantum cybernetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolami, Davide; Schmidt, Rebecca; Adesso, Gerardo

    2015-10-01

    Classical cybernetics is a successful meta-theory to model the regulation of complex systems from an abstract information-theoretic viewpoint, regardless of the properties of the system under scrutiny. Fundamental limits to the controllability of an open system can be formalized in terms of the law of requisite variety, which is derived from the second law of thermodynamics. These concepts are briefly reviewed, and the chances, challenges and potential gains arising from the generalisation of such a framework to the quantum domain are discussed.

  4. [Cybernetics and biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, G F

    2013-01-01

    Owing to methodical disadvantages, the theory of control still lacks the potential for the analysis of biological systems. To get the full benefit of the method in addition to the algorithmic model of control (as of today the only used model in the theory of control) a parametric model of control is offered to employ. The reasoning for it is explained. The approach suggested provides the possibility to use all potential of the modern theory of control for the analysis of biological systems. The cybernetic approach is shown taking a system of the rise of glucose concentration in blood as an example.

  5. A global map of science based on the ISI subject categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Rafols, I

    2009-01-01

    The decomposition of scientific literature into disciplinary and subdisciplinary structures is one of the core goals of scientometrics. How can we achieve a good decomposition? The ISI subject categories classify journals included in the Science Citation Index (SCI). The aggregated journal-journal

  6. Cybernetics from past to future

    CERN Document Server

    Novikov, D A

    2016-01-01

    This book is a concise navigator across the history of cybernetics, its state-of-the-art and prospects. The evolution of cybernetics (from N. Wiener to the present day) and the reasons of its ups and downs are presented. The correlation of cybernetics with the philosophy and methodology of control, as well as with system theory and systems analysis is clearly demonstrated. The book presents a detailed analysis focusing on the modern trends of research in cybernetics. A new development stage of cybernetics (the so-called cybernetics 2.0) is discussed as a science on general regularities of systems organization and control. The author substantiates the topicality of elaborating a new branch of cybernetics, i.e. organization theory which studies an organization as a property, process and system. The book is intended for theoreticians and practitioners, as well as for students, postgraduates and doctoral candidates. In the first place, the target audience includes tutors and lecturers preparing courses on cyberne...

  7. Computer, Informatics, Cybernetics and Applications : Proceedings of the CICA 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Hua, Ertian; Lin, Yun; Liu, Xiaozhu

    2012-01-01

    Computer Informatics Cybernetics and Applications offers 91 papers chosen for publication from among 184 papers accepted for presentation to the International Conference on Computer, Informatics, Cybernetics and Applications 2011 (CICA 2011), held in Hangzhou, China, September 13-16, 2011. The CICA 2011 conference provided a forum for engineers and scientists in academia, industry, and government to address the most innovative research and development including technical challenges and social, legal, political, and economic issues, and to present and discuss their ideas, results, work in progress and experience on all aspects of Computer, Informatics, Cybernetics and Applications. Reflecting the broad scope of the conference, the contents are organized in these topical categories: Communication Technologies and Applications Intelligence and Biometrics Technologies Networks Systems and Web Technologies Data Modeling and Programming Languages Digital Image Processing Optimization and Scheduling Education and In...

  8. Cybernetics - The new Era Arrives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anil; Sengar, Chitransh; Bisht, Lalit; Sharma, Deepak

    2012-12-01

    The paper basically deals with the study of Cybernetics I, the history of evolution of this theory of this cyborg technology from the base to planting its roots in the future. The paper also presents a brief description about the use of this cyber technology in various felids known to the human world. Along with this is a description about the evolution of cybernetics as a cure to various medical problems.

  9. Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items, Number Thirteen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Wade B.

    An issue of "Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items" consists of English translations of the leading recent Soviet contributions to the study of cybernetics. Articles deal with cybernetics in the 21st Century; the Soviet State Committee on Science and Technology; economic reforms in Rudnev's ministry; an interview with Rudnev; Dnepr-2; Dnepr-2…

  10. Engaging Robots: Innovative Outreach for Attracting Cybernetics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, R.; Warwick, K.; Browne, W. N.; Gasson, M. N.; Wyatt, J.

    2010-01-01

    Cybernetics is a broad subject, encompassing many aspects of electrical, electronic, and computer engineering, which suffers from a lack of understanding on the part of potential applicants and teachers when recruiting students. However, once the engineering values, fascinating science, and pathways to rewarding, diverse careers are communicated,…

  11. The engineering of cybernetic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Robert L.

    2002-05-01

    This tutorial develops a logical basis for the engineering of systems that operate cybernetically. The term cybernetic system has a clear quantitative definition. It is a system that dynamically matches acquired information to selected actions relative to a computational issue that defines the essential purpose of the system or machine. This notion requires that information and control be further quantified. The logic of questions and assertions as developed by Cox provides one means of doing this. The design and operation of cybernetic systems can be understood by contrasting these kinds of systems with communication systems and information theory as developed by Shannon. The joint logic of questions and assertions can be seen to underlie and be common to both information theory as applied to the design of discrete communication systems and to a theory of discrete general systems. The joint logic captures a natural complementarity between systems that transmit and receive information and those that acquire and act on it. Specific comparisons and contrasts are made between the source rate and channel capacity of a communication system and the acquisition rate and control capacity of a general system. An overview is provided of the joint logic of questions and assertions and the ties that this logic has to both conventional information theory and to a general theory of systems. I-diagrams, the interrogative complement of Venn diagrams, are described as providing valuable reasoning tools. An initial framework is suggested for the design of cybernetic systems. Two examples are given to illustrate this framework as applied to discrete cybernetic systems. These examples include a predator-prey problem as illustrated through "The Dog Chrysippus Pursuing its Prey," and the derivation of a single-neuron system that operates cybernetically and is biologically plausible. Future areas of research are highlighted which require development for a mature engineering framework.

  12. Cognitive Cybernetics vs. Captology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Balaž

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In acronym Captology – Computers as Persuasive Technology, a persuasive component (lat. persuasibilibus – enticing refers to the persuasive stimulation by intelligent technologies. Latter being transitive and interactive as intelligent systems, they have imposed, by their persuasivity, a ‘cult of information’, after which information has become a type of goods that as a utilitarian resource must be exploited quickly and efficiently. Such a widely accepted fact resulted as hype, presenting a perspective that the approach to a large amount of information and faster ‘digestion’ of their content will enable users to quickly get desired knowledge. Recent investigations about persuasion processes have shown its dependence on intelligent technology factors (design, interactive computer products, web, desktop and others. Such technologies are also used to influence people’s attitudes, beliefs, learning, and behaviour. Development strategies for global computer production and sales head in that direction and confirm latter statement with the promoted 3-P model: persuasive, permissive and pervasive components. Cognitive level of human integrated development is increasingly overshadowed by the contribution of artificial intelligence through its products, i.e. ‘smart’ creations, and by the array of shortcomings and problems that the same interactive technology brings. This paper presents a parallel between captological component of intelligent and interactive technologies on one side and illustrates examples of captological influences proved by confirmed trials within cognitive science through computer simulations of human thinking on the other side. Many studies have shown that the success of persuasion depends on the factors which have been exposed by cognitive cybernetics. Next to it, people’s behavior system is transforming through the very development of society. Therefore, the influence of latter can be either positive or negative

  13. The Cybernetics of Bibliographic Control: Toward a Theory of Document Retrieval Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellisch, Hans H.

    1980-01-01

    Explores the concept of cataloging, analyzes its functions and operations, and holds that as a control system bibliographic organization is subject to the laws of cybernetics. The role of relevance and the limitations of some regulatory devices are examined. (FM)

  14. Warping similarity space in category learning by human subjects: the role of task difficulty

    OpenAIRE

    Pevtzow, Rachel; Harnad, Stevan

    1997-01-01

    In innate Categorical Perception (CP) (e.g., colour perception), similarity space is "warped," with regions of increased within-category similarity (compression) and regions of reduced between-category similarity (separation) enh ancing the category boundaries and making categorisation reliable and all-or-none rather than graded. We show that category learning can likewise warp similarity space, resolving uncertainty near category boundaries. Two Hard and two Easy texture learning tasks were ...

  15. Attitudes and evaluative practices: category vs. item and subjective vs. objective constructions in everyday food assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Sally; Potter, Jonathan

    2003-12-01

    In social psychology, evaluative expressions have traditionally been understood in terms of their relationship to, and as the expression of, underlying 'attitudes'. In contrast, discursive approaches have started to study evaluative expressions as part of varied social practices, considering what such expressions are doing rather than their relationship to attitudinal objects or other putative mental entities. In this study the latter approach will be used to examine the construction of food and drink evaluations in conversation. The data are taken from a corpus of family mealtimes recorded over a period of months. The aim of this study is to highlight two distinctions that are typically obscured in traditional attitude work ('subjective' vs. 'objective' expressions, category vs. item evaluations). A set of extracts is examined to document the presence of these distinctions in talk that evaluates food and the way they are used and rhetorically developed to perform particular activities (accepting/refusing food, complimenting the food provider, persuading someone to eat). The analysis suggests that researchers (a) should be aware of the potential significance of these distinctions; (b) should be cautious when treating evaluative terms as broadly equivalent and (c) should be cautious when blurring categories and instances. This analysis raises the broader question of how far evaluative practices may be specific to particular domains, and what this specificity might consist in. It is concluded that research in this area could benefit from starting to focus on the role of evaluations in practices and charting their association with specific topics and objects.

  16. Cybernetics in water resources management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, N.

    2005-01-01

    The term Water Resources is used to refer to the management and use of water primarily for the benefit of people. Hence, successful management of water resources requires a solid understanding of Hydrology. Cybernetics in Water Resources Management is an endeavor to analyze and enhance the beneficial exploitation of diverse scientific approaches and communication methods; to control the complexity of water management; and to highlight the importance of making right decisions at the right time, avoiding the devastating effects of drought and floods. Recent developments in computer technology and advancement of mathematics have created a new field of system analysis i.e. Mathematical Modeling. Based on mathematical models, several computer based Water Resources System (WRS) Models were developed across the world, to solve the water resources management problems, but these were not adaptable and were limited to computation by a well defined algorithm, with information input at various stages and the management tasks were also formalized in that well structured algorithm. The recent advancements in information technology has revolutionized every field of the contemporary world and thus, the WRS has also to be diversified by broadening the knowledge base of the system. The updation of this knowledge should be a continuous process acquired through the latest techniques of networking from all its concerned sources together with the expertise of the specialists and the analysis of the practical experiences. The system should then be made capable of making inferences and shall have the tendency to apply the rules based on the latest information and inferences in a given stage of problem solving. Rigid programs cannot adapt to changing conditions and new knowledge. Thus, there is a need for an evolutionary development based on mutual independence of computational procedure and knowledge with capability to adapt itself to the increasing complexity of problem. The subject

  17. Organizational Cybernetics and Human Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, Richard F.

    Prepared for the International Congress of Cybernetics, Imperial College, University of London, September 4, 1969, this paper is concerned with man in organizations. The major hypothesis explored is that managers of large enterprises--public or private, in any context--have an increasingly urgent socio-humanistic responsibility to create…

  18. Subjective evaluation of HDTV stereoscopic videos in IPTV scenarios using absolute category rating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Barkowsky, M.; Cousseau, R.; Brunnström, K.; Olsson, R.; Le Callet, P.; Sjöström, M.

    2011-03-01

    Broadcasting of high definition (HD) stereobased 3D (S3D) TV are planned, or has already begun, in Europe, the US, and Japan. Specific data processing operations such as compression and temporal and spatial resampling are commonly used tools for saving network bandwidth when IPTV is the distribution form, as this results in more efficient recording and transmission of 3DTV signals, however at the same time it inevitably brings quality degradations to the processed video. This paper investigated observers quality judgments of state of the art video coding schemes (simulcast H.264/AVC or H.264/MVC), with or without added temporal and spatial resolution reduction of S3D videos, by subjective experiments using the Absolute Category Rating method (ACR) method. The results showed that a certain spatial resolution reduction working together with high quality video compressing was the most bandwidth efficient way of processing video data when the required video quality is to be judged as "good" quality. As the subjective experiment was performed in two different laboratories in two different countries in parallel, a detailed analysis of the interlab differences was performed.

  19. Class categories and the subjective dimension of class: the case of Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer; Pedersen, Helene Helboe

    2018-03-01

    Class relations have been proven to affect various aspects of social life, even in modern individualized societies. However, following claims on individualization and the so-called 'death of class' thesis, studying the subjective dimension of class - that is, the way individuals perceive of class relations and their own position within them - has gone out of style. We argue that even in equalized societies, subjective class perceptions may still influence attitudes and behaviour as they evolve to fit modern class relations. To explore the existence as well as structure and content of perceived social classes, this article investigates how people describe society and social groups in focus group discussions. We find that groups in different positions in terms of education and economy all tend to apply hierarchical class categories to describe Danish society, which is normally seen as one of the most equal societies and political systems in the world. In addition, we find that economic resources serve as a baseline for the hierarchical ordering, often supplemented with notions of education, lifestyle and/or occupational profile. Even though people are somewhat uncomfortable with the notion of class, their descriptions of Danish society and classes are surprisingly similar within and across groups. We conclude that not only do class relations matter; people are also highly aware of the existing classes and able to position themselves and others according to their notion of classes. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  20. Cybernetical Physics From Control of Chaos to Quantum Control

    CERN Document Server

    Fradkov, Alexander L

    2007-01-01

    The control of complex systems is one of the most important aspects in dealing with systems exhibiting nonlinear behaviour or similar features that defy traditional control techniques. This specific subject is gradually becoming known as cybernetical physics, borrowing methods from both theoretical physics and control engineering. This book is, perhaps, the first attempt to present a unified exposition of the subject and methodology of cybernetical physics as well as solutions to some of its problems. Emphasis of the book is on the examination of fundamental limits on energy transformation by means of control procedures in both conservative and dissipative systems. A survey of application in physics includes the control of chaos, synchronisation of coupled oscillators, pendulum chains, reactions in physical chemistry and of quantum systems such as the dissociation of diatomic molecules. This book has been written having researchers from various backgrounds in physics, mathematics and engineering in mind and i...

  1. The Cybernetic Metaphor in Organisation Theory: Epistemological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    field of study which is concerned with the control and communication in animal and ... process upon which cybernetics is based has proved enormous, and over the ... the epistemological implications deriving from the Cybernetic perspective. .... the manner in which we conceive of organisations and their contexts has so.

  2. Some comments on cybernetics and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kickert, W.J.M.; Bertrand, J.W.M.; Praagman, J.

    1978-01-01

    The theory of cybernetics as introduced by Ashby and developed by Ashby and Conant will be analyzed and commented upon. Ashby's law of requisite variety and, in particular, the underlying measure of optimality-the quantity of entropy-are examined. Next the cybernetic theorem of error control and

  3. A Study of Subject Overlap between the Main Categories of Knowledge Management within the Web of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Hazeri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although a relatively new discipline, Knowledge Management (KM is an area with a wide range of theoretical concepts and practical implications. The applicability of KM in different environments, and the vast value and benefits of its application, have led to great developments within the discipline over the last few years. The interdisciplinary nature of KM has also provided the opportunity for contributions by people from different disciplines, which in turn has lead to the rapid advancement of KM boundaries. This paper aims to examine the subject structure of the KM discipline through keyword analysis of documents in the Web of Science, using a hierarchical clustering approach and an inclusion index. Within the Web of Science categories, according to the findings, the three categories of "Management", "Computer Science Information Systems" and "Information Science Library Science" claim the highest number of documents in this area. Of 5570 author keywords, , 96 keywords are identified as "highly used" keywords. Three hierarchical clusters (dendrograms are formed from co-occurrence analysis of highly used keywords in the three categories. A comparison of these denrograms indicates that six clusters, including a total of 16 keywords, are common in the three categories. Looking at clusters of the three categories revealed that two categories - Management and Information Science Library Science - have 14 common/shared clusters, and therefore the highest degree of similarities. However, the category of Computer Science Information Systems, with 28 unique clusters, differs most markedly from the other two categories. To investigate the rate of common keywords from one category to another, the inclusion index is calculated. Results of this exercise indicate that the category of Information Science Library Science has the highest number of common keywords.

  4. How Search for Meaning Interacts with Complex Categories of Meaning in Life and Subjective Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damásio, Bruno Figueiredo; Koller, Sílvia Helena

    2015-03-03

    This study sought to assess how the search for meaning interacts with crisis of meaning and with different categories of meaning in life (meaningfulness, crisis of meaning, existential indifference, and existential conflict). Furthermore, the moderation role of search for meaning between the relation of categories of meaning and subjective well-being (SWB) was also evaluated. Participants included 3,034 subjects (63.9% women) ranging in age from 18 to 91 (M = 33.90; SD = 15.01) years old from 22 Brazilian states. Zero-order correlations and a factorial MANOVA were implemented. Positive low correlations were found for search for meaning and crisis of meaning (r = .258; p < .001). Search for meaning presented a small-effect size moderation effect on the relation of the different categories of meaning with subjective happiness, F(6, 3008) = 2.698, p < .05; η2 = .004, but not for satisfaction with life, F(6, 3008) = .935, p = .47; η2 = .002. The differences on the levels of subjective happiness of those inserted in existential indifferent and conflicting categories differ depending on the levels of search for meaning. Further directions for future studies are proposed.

  5. Some unsolved problems in discrete mathematics and mathematical cybernetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korshunov, Aleksei D [S.L. Sobolev Institute for Mathematics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2009-10-31

    There are many unsolved problems in discrete mathematics and mathematical cybernetics. Writing a comprehensive survey of such problems involves great difficulties. First, such problems are rather numerous and varied. Second, they greatly differ from each other in degree of completeness of their solution. Therefore, even a comprehensive survey should not attempt to cover the whole variety of such problems; only the most important and significant problems should be reviewed. An impersonal choice of problems to include is quite hard. This paper includes 13 unsolved problems related to combinatorial mathematics and computational complexity theory. The problems selected give an indication of the author's studies for 50 years; for this reason, the choice of the problems reviewed here is, to some extent, subjective. At the same time, these problems are very difficult and quite important for discrete mathematics and mathematical cybernetics. Bibliography: 74 items.

  6. Some unsolved problems in discrete mathematics and mathematical cybernetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshunov, Aleksei D.

    2009-10-01

    There are many unsolved problems in discrete mathematics and mathematical cybernetics. Writing a comprehensive survey of such problems involves great difficulties. First, such problems are rather numerous and varied. Second, they greatly differ from each other in degree of completeness of their solution. Therefore, even a comprehensive survey should not attempt to cover the whole variety of such problems; only the most important and significant problems should be reviewed. An impersonal choice of problems to include is quite hard. This paper includes 13 unsolved problems related to combinatorial mathematics and computational complexity theory. The problems selected give an indication of the author's studies for 50 years; for this reason, the choice of the problems reviewed here is, to some extent, subjective. At the same time, these problems are very difficult and quite important for discrete mathematics and mathematical cybernetics. Bibliography: 74 items.

  7. Some unsolved problems in discrete mathematics and mathematical cybernetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korshunov, Aleksei D

    2009-01-01

    There are many unsolved problems in discrete mathematics and mathematical cybernetics. Writing a comprehensive survey of such problems involves great difficulties. First, such problems are rather numerous and varied. Second, they greatly differ from each other in degree of completeness of their solution. Therefore, even a comprehensive survey should not attempt to cover the whole variety of such problems; only the most important and significant problems should be reviewed. An impersonal choice of problems to include is quite hard. This paper includes 13 unsolved problems related to combinatorial mathematics and computational complexity theory. The problems selected give an indication of the author's studies for 50 years; for this reason, the choice of the problems reviewed here is, to some extent, subjective. At the same time, these problems are very difficult and quite important for discrete mathematics and mathematical cybernetics. Bibliography: 74 items.

  8. The New Science of Cybernetics: A Primer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl H. Müller

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Four years after the publication of the first volume on the new science of cybernetics (NSC (Müller, 2009 and after two more books on NSC (Müller, 2011, 2012 it is time to present and to summarize the main features and characteristics of the new science of cybernetics within a single article. - Historically, the new science of cybernetics can be viewed as a potential outline of Heinz von Foerster's vision of second-order cybernetics as the science of observing systems or, alternatively, of living systems by living systems for living systems. Heinz von Foerster introduced the concept of second-order cybernetics on several occasions, without specifying, however, its content and cognitive organization (Foerster, 1974, 2003 - Systematically, the new science of cybernetics operates on a new level which, not quite unexpectedly and surprisingly, can be characterized as second-order level. This second-order level is self-reflexive by nature and by design, because this level comes into play whenever a concept, a model or an academic field turns onto itself, like in understanding or in cybernetics of cybernetics. - Functionally, the new science of cybernetics can be viewed as a trans- or post-disciplinary second-order field for navigating through an ocean of first-order level science. NSC operates primarily with objects or with operations from first-order science and transforms them into new components which exhibit strong comparative advantages in terms of novelty and robustness. This list of historic, systemic and functional features of the new science of cybernetics(NSC may look strange or incomprehensible at first sight. It will become, thus, the main purpose of this article to transform these seemingly vague and unclear descriptions into concise ones which readers with only a weak familiarity with the old science of cybernetics can understand. Eventually, even the short set above of critical characteristics of the new science of cybernetics should

  9. Cybernetic brain sketches of another future

    CERN Document Server

    Pickering, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Cybernetics is often thought of as a grim military or industrial science of control. But as Andrew Pickering reveals in this beguiling book, a much more lively and experimental strain of cybernetics can be traced from the 1940s to the present.The Cybernetic Brain explores a largely forgotten group of British thinkers, including Grey Walter, Ross Ashby, Gregory Bateson, R. D. Laing, Stafford Beer, and Gordon Pask, and their singular work in a dazzling array of fields. Psychiatry, engineering, management, politics, music, architecture, education, tantric yoga, the Beats, and the sixties counterc

  10. Comparison of stable cesium and radiocesium on dietary intakes by Japanese subjects using 18 food categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, K.; Ban-nai, T.; Muramatsu, Y.; Yamamoto, M.

    1999-01-01

    Dietary intakes of radiocesium and non-radioactive cesium in Japanese were estimated using a market basket study and found to be 61 mBq and 9.1 ng per person per day, respectively. Food categories having higher Cs contents (per g-fresh) were found to be as follows: mushrooms 35.9 ng; nuts and seeds 33.6 ng; meats 26.8 ng; fishes and shellfishes 21.6 ng; potatoes 19.2 ng; seaweeds 10.2 ng; and milk and milk products 7.19 ng. For 137 Cs, higher contents (per kg-fresh) were as follows: mushrooms 1.7 Bq; nuts and seeds 0.23 Bq; fishes and shellfishes 0.16 Bq; meats 0.13 Bq; potatoes 0.11 Bq; seaweeds 0.092 Bq; and milk and milk products 0.089 Bq. Distributions of stable cesium in the 18 food categories were similar to those of radiocesium. (author)

  11. Underground spaces/cybernetic spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Novljan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A modern city space is a space where in the vertical and horizontal direction dynamic, non-linear processes exist, similar as in nature. Alongside the “common” city surface, cities have underground spaces as well that are increasingly affecting the functioning of the former. It is the space of material and cybernetic communication/transport. The psychophysical specifics of using underground places have an important role in their conceptualisation. The most evident facts being their limited volume and often limited connections to the surface and increased level of potential dangers of all kinds. An efficient mode for alleviating the effects of these specific features are artistic interventions, such as: shape, colour, lighting, all applications of the basic principles of fractal theory.

  12. The subjective nature of Linnaean categories and its impact in evolutionary biology and biodiversity studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurin, M.

    2010-01-01

    Absolute (Linnaean) ranks are essential to rank-based nomenclature (RN), which has been used by the vast majority of systematists for the last 150 years. They are widely recognized as being subjective among taxonomists, but not necessarily in other fields. For this reason, phylogenetic nomenclature

  13. Cybernetics and systems research. Proceedings of the sixth European meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trappl, R

    1982-01-01

    The following topics were dealt with: general systems methodology; system and decision theory; cybernetics in biology and medicine; cybernetics in cognition and learning; cybernetics in organisation; management and society; health care systems; energy systems; fuzzy sets; communication and computers; artificial intelligence. 211 papers were presented, all of which are published in full in the present proceedings.

  14. A BOARD GAME AND CYBERNETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana NICULA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Complex adaptive systems use a great amount of computer simulations to generate data and emphasize patterns in systems. In order to simulate a systems complex behavior in a faster and more pleasant maner we have used a multiplayer non-deterministic board game. Our conviction was that games can serve as an interactive education tool and we wanted to help students understand the properties of a complex adaptive systems. As a cybernetic system, the rules of a game define the sensors, comparators, and activators of the game's feedback loops. Within a game, there are many sub-systems that regulate the flow of play, dynamically changing and transforming game elements. Incorporating a game such as The Settlers of Catan into a classroom increased students’ engagement and helped them retrieve insight about how feedback loops look like in real life and what’s the exemplification of an adaptive behavior. The aim of this article is to share the relevance of the use of SOC for learning about complex adaptive systems.

  15. Enzymatic cybernetics: an unpublished work by Jacques Monod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayon, Jean

    2015-06-01

    In 1959, Jacques Monod wrote a manuscript entitled Cybernétique enzymatique [Enzymatic cybernetics]. Never published, this unpublished manuscript presents a synthesis of how Monod interpreted enzymatic adaptation just before the publication of the famous papers of the 1960s on the operon. In addition, Monod offers an example of a philosophy of biology immersed in scientific investigation. Monod's philosophical thoughts are classified into two categories, methodological and ontological. On the methodological side, Monod explicitly hints at his preferences regarding the scientific method in general: hypothetical-deductive method, and use of theoretical models. He also makes heuristic proposals regarding molecular biology: the need to analyse the phenomena in question at the level of individual cells, and the dual aspect of all biological explanation, functional and evolutionary. Ontological issues deal with the notions of information and genetic determinism, "cellular memory", the irrelevance of the notion of "living matter", and the usefulness of a cybernetic comprehension of molecular biology. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Cybernetics: A Possible Solution for the "Knowledge Gap" between "External" and "Internal" in Evaluation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin-Rozalis, Miri

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of the knowledge gap between evaluators and the entity being evaluated: the dilemma of the knowledge of professional evaluators vs. the in-depth knowledge of the evaluated subjects. In order to optimize evaluative outcomes, the author suggests an approach based on ideas borrowed from the science of cybernetics as a…

  17. Analysis of worldwide research in the field of cybernetics during 1997-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Virender; Perdigones, Alicia; García, José Luis; Cañas-Guerrero, Ignacio; Mazarrón, Fernando R

    2014-12-01

    The study provides an overview of the research activity carried out in the field of cybernetics. To do so, all research papers from 1997 to 2011 (16,445 research papers) under the category of "Computer Science, Cybernetics" of Web of Science have been processed using our in-house software which is developed specifically for this purpose. Among its multiple capabilities, this software analyses individual and compound keywords, quantifies productivity taking into account the work distribution, estimates the impact of each article and determines the collaborations established at different scales. Keywords analysis identifies the evolution of the most important research topics in the field of cybernetics and their specificity in biological aspects, as well as the research topics with lesser interest. The analysis of productivity, impact and collaborations provides a framework to assess research activity in a specific and realistic context. The geographical and institutional distribution of publications reveals the leading countries and research centres, analysing their relation to main research journals. Moreover, collaborations analysis reveals great differences in terms of internationalization and complexity of research networks. The results of this study may be very useful for the characterization and the decisions made by research in the field of cybernetics.

  18. Cybernetic systems based on inductive logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, Robert L.

    2001-01-01

    Recent work in the area of inductive logic suggests that cybernetics might be quantified and reduced to engineering practice. If so, then there are considerable implications for engineering, science, and other fields. This paper attempts to capture the essential ideas of cybernetics cast in the light of inductive logic. The described inductive logic extends conventional logic by adding a conjugate logical domain of questions to the logical domain of assertions intrinsic to Boolean Algebra with which most are familiar. This was first posited and developed by Richard Cox. Interestingly enough, these two logical domains, one of questions and the other of assertions, only exist relative to one another with each possessing natural measures of entropy and probability, respectively. Examples are given that highlight the utility of cybernetic approaches to neuroscience, algorithm design, system engineering, and the design and understanding of defensive and offensive systems. For example, the application of cybernetic approaches to defense systems suggests that these systems possess a wavefunction which like quantum mechanics, collapses when we 'look' through the eyes of the system sensors such as radars and optical sensors

  19. Cybernetic Wellness of the Youth: Psychological Aspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinnatova, Mariya V.; Zeer, Evald F.; Zavyalova, Ekaterina V.; Sorokin, Vladimir ?.; Yudina, Marina S.

    2016-01-01

    The ever more growing relevance of the issue under evaluation is explained by the wide expansion of digital technology that leads to the necessity to ensure cybernetic wellness of the population, especially the young. The goal of this article is to detect the psychological peculiarities of the Internet dependence of the youth. The leading approach…

  20. THE APPLICATION OF CYBERNETICS IN PEDAGOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATUTOV, P.R.

    THE APPLICATION OF CYBERNETICS TO PEDAGOGY CAN CREATE A PRECISE SCIENCE OF INSTRUCTION AND EDUCATION THROUGH THE TIME-CONSUMING BUT INEVITABLE TRANSITION FROM IDENTIFICATION OF QUALITATIVE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG PEDAGOGICAL OBJECTS TO QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF THESE OBJECTS. THE THEORETICAL UTILITY OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS AND FORMULAE FOR EXPLANATORY…

  1. The Cybernetic Metaphor in Organisation Theory: Epistemological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to build machines upon the principles which characterise organisms, and another which follows the epistemological implications deriving from the cybernetic perspective. The former line of development has given rise to a number of theories and techniques, which facilitate the achievement of regulation and control in social ...

  2. Cybernetic Principles of Learning and Educational Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karl U.; Smith, Margaret Foltz

    This book presents the cybernetic theory of learning and the evidence which supports it. Learning is more than the openloop forming of new stimulus-response associations--it is a process of reorganization of sensory feedback within a closed loop, or pattern, which increases the learner's level of control over his own behavior and the stimuli in…

  3. Fourier power, subjective distance, and object categories all provide plausible models of BOLD responses in scene-selective visual areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescroart, Mark D.; Stansbury, Dustin E.; Gallant, Jack L.

    2015-01-01

    Perception of natural visual scenes activates several functional areas in the human brain, including the Parahippocampal Place Area (PPA), Retrosplenial Complex (RSC), and the Occipital Place Area (OPA). It is currently unclear what specific scene-related features are represented in these areas. Previous studies have suggested that PPA, RSC, and/or OPA might represent at least three qualitatively different classes of features: (1) 2D features related to Fourier power; (2) 3D spatial features such as the distance to objects in a scene; or (3) abstract features such as the categories of objects in a scene. To determine which of these hypotheses best describes the visual representation in scene-selective areas, we applied voxel-wise modeling (VM) to BOLD fMRI responses elicited by a set of 1386 images of natural scenes. VM provides an efficient method for testing competing hypotheses by comparing predictions of brain activity based on encoding models that instantiate each hypothesis. Here we evaluated three different encoding models that instantiate each of the three hypotheses listed above. We used linear regression to fit each encoding model to the fMRI data recorded from each voxel, and we evaluated each fit model by estimating the amount of variance it predicted in a withheld portion of the data set. We found that voxel-wise models based on Fourier power or the subjective distance to objects in each scene predicted much of the variance predicted by a model based on object categories. Furthermore, the response variance explained by these three models is largely shared, and the individual models explain little unique variance in responses. Based on an evaluation of previous studies and the data we present here, we conclude that there is currently no good basis to favor any one of the three alternative hypotheses about visual representation in scene-selective areas. We offer suggestions for further studies that may help resolve this issue. PMID:26594164

  4. Contemporary cybernetics and its facets of cognitive informatics and computational intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingxu; Kinsner, Witold; Zhang, Du

    2009-08-01

    This paper explores the architecture, theoretical foundations, and paradigms of contemporary cybernetics from perspectives of cognitive informatics (CI) and computational intelligence. The modern domain and the hierarchical behavioral model of cybernetics are elaborated at the imperative, autonomic, and cognitive layers. The CI facet of cybernetics is presented, which explains how the brain may be mimicked in cybernetics via CI and neural informatics. The computational intelligence facet is described with a generic intelligence model of cybernetics. The compatibility between natural and cybernetic intelligence is analyzed. A coherent framework of contemporary cybernetics is presented toward the development of transdisciplinary theories and applications in cybernetics, CI, and computational intelligence.

  5. 2012 International Conference on Cybernetics and Informatics

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Cybernetics and informatics being a high-profile and fast-moving fields, the papers included in this proceedings will command a wide professional and academic readership. This book covers the very latest developments in the field of cybernetics and informatics. The 2012 conference in Chongqing, China, combined a focus on innovative technologies with an emphasis on sustainable solutions and strategies. Attended by leading figures from academia and industry whose work is represented here, the conference allowed effective cross-pollination between the theoretical and applied sectors of the field. Conference organizers received more than 1,000 papers, of which only ten percent were chosen to be featured in this publication. All of the papers are at the leading edge of developments, and so this book will not only ensure that the very best current work is disseminated, but that it also acts as a spur to future research.

  6. A Cybernetic Model to Enhance Organizational Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Schwaninger, Markus

    2003-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the modeling of cognitive processes in organizations. This issue is approached from the perspective of Organizational Cybernetics, the science of control and communication applied to the management of organizations. First, the Team Syntegrity Model is described, which provides a structural architecture for processes of planning, knowledge generation and innovation in turbulent environments. The model is holographic and based on the mathematical structure of polyhe...

  7. Cybernetic prediction of selenide Chevreul's phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiseleva, N.N.; Savitskij, E.M.

    1981-01-01

    The method of training a computer is used to forecast the possibility for the formation of selenide Chevreul's phases of the Asub(x)Bsub(6)Sesub(8) composition (where A is any chemical element, B-Mo, Cr, W, Re). The peculiarities of applying cybernetic forecasting systems in inorganic chemistry are considered. The critical temperature of transfer into the superconducting state of some phases forecasted is estimated [ru

  8. Cybernetic welness of the youth: Psychological aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Zinnatova, M. V.; Zeer, E. F.; Zavyalova, E. V.; Sorokin, V. A.; Yudina, M. S.; Зеер, Э. Ф.

    2016-01-01

    The ever more growing relevance of the issue under evaluation is explained by the wide expansion of digital technology that leads to the necessity to ensure cybernetic wellness of the population, especially the young. The goal of this article is to detect the psychological peculiarities of the Internet dependence of the youth. The leading approach to this issue is the empirical one (psychological evaluation); it allows detection of differences in socialization levels depending on severity of ...

  9. Constraints based analysis of extended cybernetic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandli, Aravinda R; Venkatesh, Kareenhalli V; Modak, Jayant M

    2015-11-01

    The cybernetic modeling framework provides an interesting approach to model the regulatory phenomena occurring in microorganisms. In the present work, we adopt a constraints based approach to analyze the nonlinear behavior of the extended equations of the cybernetic model. We first show that the cybernetic model exhibits linear growth behavior under the constraint of no resource allocation for the induction of the key enzyme. We then quantify the maximum achievable specific growth rate of microorganisms on mixtures of substitutable substrates under various kinds of regulation and show its use in gaining an understanding of the regulatory strategies of microorganisms. Finally, we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibits suboptimal dynamic growth with a long diauxic lag phase when growing on a mixture of glucose and galactose and discuss on its potential to achieve optimal growth with a significantly reduced diauxic lag period. The analysis carried out in the present study illustrates the utility of adopting a constraints based approach to understand the dynamic growth strategies of microorganisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Politeness Strategies Used in Requests--A Cybernetic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitao, Kenji

    This paper discusses a cybernetic model of politeness strategies used in the process of making a request. The concept of systems, cybernetic models, and politeness strategies are reviewed, and the way they work together in the proposed model is examined. Politeness strategies are communication strategies used to change behavior enough to achieve…

  11. Russian-English Dictionary of Cybernetics and Computer Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Wade B.

    This work contains over 5,350 terms which have special or unique definition when applied in a cybernetic context. Corrections and improvements to the first edition of the dictionary have been made in this second edition. Entries are made for terms encountered in the Soviet cybernetic literature, without any attempt to define the field or to…

  12. The Age of Information; An Interdisciplinary Survey of Cybernetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helvey, T. C.

    A series of essays discuss in a semi-technical way the philosophical, theoretical, and applied aspects of cybernetics and bionics. Of particular interest to educators is the author's discussion of the implications of cybernetics for pedagogical methodology. He predicts that education in the future will concentrate on a teaching systems approach,…

  13. The operationalization of "fields" as WoS subject categories (WCs) in evaluative bibliometrics: The cases of "library and information science" and "science & technology studies"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Bornmann, L.

    Normalization of citation scores using reference sets based on Web of Science subject categories (WCs) has become an established (“best”) practice in evaluative bibliometrics. For example, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings are, among other things, based on this operationalization.

  14. On the universe's cybernetics duality behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feria, Erlan H.

    2015-05-01

    Universal cybernetics is the study of control and communications in living and non-living systems. In this paper the universal cybernetics duality principle (UCDP), first identified in control theory in 1978 and expressing a cybernetic duality behavior for our universe, is reviewed. The review is given on the heels of major prizes given to physicists for their use of mathematical dualities in solving intractable problems in physics such as those of cosmology's `dark energy', an area that according to a recent New York Times article has become "a cottage industry in physics today". These dualities are not unlike those of our UCDP that are further enhanced with physical dualities. For instance, in 2008 the UCDP guided us to the derivation of the laws of retention in physics as the space-penalty dual of the laws of motion in physics, including the dark energy thought responsible for the observed increase of the volume of our Universe as it ages. The UCDP has also guided us to the discovery of significant results in other fields such as: 1) in matched processors for quantized control with applications in the modeling of central nervous system (CNS) control mechanisms; 2) in radar designs where the discovery of latency theory, the time-penalty dual of information-theory, has led us to high-performance radar solutions that evade the use of `big data' in the form of SAR imagery of the earth; and 3) in unveiling biological lifespan bounds where the life-expectancy of an organism is sensibly predicted through lingerdynamics, the identified time-penalty dual of thermodynamics, which relates its adult lifespan to either: a. the ratio of its body size to its nutritional consumption rate; or b. its specific heat-capacity; or c. the ratio of its nutritional consumption rate energy to its entropic volume energy, a type of dark energy that is consistent with the observed decrease in the mass density of the organism as it ages.

  15. [Physiology and cybernetics: the history of mutual penetration of ideas, modern state and perspectives. To a 60-th anniversary of a writing the book "Cybernetics"by N. Wiener].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, V I

    2007-01-01

    Description of the history of cybernetics origin and physiology influence on it is given. Role of Russian and foreign physiologists in becoming and development of cybernetics and contribution of cybernetic theorists (N. Wiener and A.A. Lyapunov) to physiology are shown. Becoming and a modern state of various sections of cybernetic physiology and perspective of connection of cybernetics with integrative physiology are considered.

  16. Cybernetics: A Model for Feedback in the ESL Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamel, Vivian

    1981-01-01

    Examines cybernetics as a model which provides framework with which to view communicators and the communications in the ESL classroom because it implies the kind of feedback the learner can assimilate and act upon. (Author/BK)

  17. Decision support for patient care: implementing cybernetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbolt, Judy; Ozdas, Asli; Waitman, Lemuel R; Smith, Janis B; Brennan, Grace V; Miller, Randolph A

    2004-01-01

    The application of principles and methods of cybernetics permits clinicians and managers to use feedback about care effectiveness and resource expenditure to improve quality and to control costs. Keys to the process are the specification of therapeutic goals and the creation of an organizational culture that supports the use of feedback to improve care. Daily feedback on the achievement of each patient's therapeutic goals provides tactical decision support, enabling clinicians to adjust care as needed. Monthly or quarterly feedback on aggregated goal achievement for all patients on a clinical pathway provides strategic decision support, enabling clinicians and managers to identify problems with supposed "best practices" and to test hypotheses about solutions. Work is underway at Vanderbilt University Medical Center to implement feedback loops in care and management processes and to evaluate the effects.

  18. Bioengineering and Cybernetics: A Modern Caduceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magin, Richard L

    2017-01-01

    Like the caduceus, a medical symbol of entwined serpents, bioengineering and cybernetics have interwoven together ideas and concepts for over 50 years. Half a century is a long time, and whether we are talking about an academic discipline, our lives, or an old car, achieving 50 is a number that brings pause to the conversation. In books, wine, or collectibles, 50 years is termed vintage, which carries the connotation of depth and maturity. Certainly, in the case of the discipline of bioengineering, 50 years is a milestone of growth and development. By all academic measures (number of departments, current enrollment and graduates, size of faculty, and impact factor for its publications), bioengineering is a mature discipline. Presently, there are almost 100 ABET-certified bioengineering degree programs in the United States alone.

  19. The management process, management information and control systems, and cybernetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannetos, Z. S.; Wilcox, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    An attempt has been made to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the cybernetics approach as applied to management. The conclusion is that cybernetics can serve not only as a conceptual philosophical aid, but also as an operational tool in both managerial planning and control. So far, however, most of its promise is yet unrealized; especially in the planning sphere. Only in the area of control of operations has the impact of this promising field shown tangible results.

  20. The Application of Karl Popper's Three Worlds Schema to Questions about Information in the Fields of Complexity, Cybernetics, and Informatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Nugent

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available More technically leaning disciplines such as informatics, complexity theory, and cybernetics often make simplifying assumptions about human beings and their causal/informational roles within larger techo-social systems. This paper employs the philosopher Karl Popper's three worlds schema to explore in depth the unique ways in which conscious human subjects process and create knowledge and information. The three worlds represent the physical world, the subjective world of the conscious subject, and the world of language, models, and schemas. The works of major philosophers are invoked to consider what makes conscious human subjects unique in the context of information systems. Context-based understandings, the expressive facet of consciousness, and experience-based valuing emerge as key themes that we believe could strengthen the fields of informatics, complexity theory, and cybernetics.

  1. Category fluency test: effects of age, gender and education on total scores, clustering and switching in Brazilian Portuguese-speaking subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brucki S.M.D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Verbal fluency tests are used as a measure of executive functions and language, and can also be used to evaluate semantic memory. We analyzed the influence of education, gender and age on scores in a verbal fluency test using the animal category, and on number of categories, clustering and switching. We examined 257 healthy participants (152 females and 105 males with a mean age of 49.42 years (SD = 15.75 and having a mean educational level of 5.58 (SD = 4.25 years. We asked them to name as many animals as they could. Analysis of variance was performed to determine the effect of demographic variables. No significant effect of gender was observed for any of the measures. However, age seemed to influence the number of category changes, as expected for a sensitive frontal measure, after being controlled for the effect of education. Educational level had a statistically significant effect on all measures, except for clustering. Subject performance (mean number of animals named according to schooling was: illiterates, 12.1; 1 to 4 years, 12.3; 5 to 8 years, 14.0; 9 to 11 years, 16.7, and more than 11 years, 17.8. We observed a decrease in performance in these five educational groups over time (more items recalled during the first 15 s, followed by a progressive reduction until the fourth interval. We conclude that education had the greatest effect on the category fluency test in this Brazilian sample. Therefore, we must take care in evaluating performance in lower educational subjects.

  2. On the cybernetic arrangement of feedback in serious games: A systems-theoretical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, Wim

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the cybernetic regulation of complex human learning and teaching. It provides a theoretical description of the arrangement of adaptive, machine- generated learner feedback which relies on cybernetic principles. Cybernetics — today often referred to as control theory, or

  3. Chaotic Feedback Loops within Decision Making Groups: Towards an Integration of Chaos Theory and Cybernetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaten, James A.

    This paper offers a model that integrates chaos theory and cybernetics, which can be used to describe the structure of decision making within small groups. The paper begins with an overview of cybernetics and chaos. Definitional characteristics of cybernetics are reviewed along with salient constructs, such as goal-seeking, feedback, feedback…

  4. A cybernetic view on wind-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajidavar, Aydin; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar; Towhidkhah, Farzad; Saeb, Sohrab

    2006-01-01

    Wind-up is described traditionally as a frequency dependent increase in the excitability of spinal cord neurons, evoked by electrical stimulation of afferent C-fibers. Different kinds of wind-up have been reported, but wind-up of Abeta fibers in hyperalgesic states has gained little attention. In this paper, we present a cybernetic view on Abeta fiber wind-up and consider the involved molecular mechanisms as feedback and feedforward processes. Furthermore, our previous hypothesis, the sprouting phenomenon, is included in this view. Considering the proposed model, wind-up in hyperalgesic states might leave out in three different ways: (1) blocking the NMDA receptors by increasing extracellular Mg2+, 2) blocking the receptors and channels that contribute to Ca2+ inward current, and 3) blocking the Abeta fibers by local anesthetics. It seems that wind-up may be inhibited more effectively by using these three blocking mechanisms simultaneously, because in this case, the feedback process (main controller), the feedforward process (trigger), and Abeta stimulation (trigger) would be inhibited concurrently. Wind up may aggravate the pain in clinical hyperalgesic situations such as post-surgical states, some neuropathic pains, fibromyalgia syndrome, and post-herpetic neuralgia. Surely, clinical studies are needed to validate the effectiveness of our abovementioned suggestions in relieving such clinical pains.

  5. [The application of cybernetic modeling methods for the forensic medical personality identification based on the voice and sounding speech characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaganov, A Sh; Kir'yanov, P A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present publication was to discuss the possibility of application of cybernetic modeling methods to overcome the apparent discrepancy between two kinds of the speech records, viz. initial ones (e.g. obtained in the course of special investigation activities) and the voice prints obtained from the persons subjected to the criminalistic examination. The paper is based on the literature sources and the materials of original criminalistics expertises performed by the authors.

  6. Philosophical Approaches towards Sciences of Life in Early Cybernetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnini, Leone

    2008-07-01

    The article focuses on the different conceptual and philosophical approaches towards the sciences of life operating in the backstage of Early Cybernetics. After a short reconstruction of the main steps characterizing the origins of Cybernetics, from 1940 until 1948, the paper examines the complementary conceptual views between Norbert Wiener and John von Neumann, as a "fuzzy thinking" versus a "logical thinking", and the marked difference between the "methodological individualism" shared by both of them versus the "methodological collectivism" of most of the numerous scientists of life and society attending the Macy Conferences on Cybernetics. The main thesis sustained here is that these different approaches, quite invisible to the participants, were different, maybe even opposite, but they could provoke clashes, as well as cooperate in a synergic way.

  7. [Medical cybernetics in Czechoslovakia--the first steps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wünsch, Z

    1998-09-01

    During fifties there were at most few tens of persons in this country who believed in the future of computers and cybernetics. One group of such enthusiasts, headed by Antonín Svoboda, was working at a construction of the first Czech computer SAPO. The other group tried to analyse, anticipate, and prepare in advance various applications for the new systemic conceptions and for the information processing machines. Members of both groups met for discussions which opened prospects to the future and influenced many of other activities for a long time. At the early sixties, the Czechoslovak Cybernetic Society was established at the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences and in 1962 the Main Problem Committee for the Medical Cybernetics was founded at the Department of Health. It coordinated majority of the research programmes in the medical cybernetics and informatics. In 1967-1969 the Committee prepared an extensive project of a medical information system (ZIS), but its accomplishment was finally blocked by the then authorities. However, interests for that topics kept growing and the new working places equipped with available computer technology were formed at the health and clinical centres. The first tentative lectures in medical cybernetics and biocybernetics at our faculty were introduced into the students curricula in the late sixties. Thematically, medical cybernetics subsequently differentiated into the medical informatics, simulations of biological and medical systems, and the biosignal analysis. The growing interest enabled to hold conferences since the middle of seventies, some of which were held periodically, sometimes with international participation. It is not possible in brevity to include the whole spectrum to those goal-directed activities nor to appraise adequately their future significance.

  8. Contested Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drawing on social science perspectives, Contested Categories presents a series of empirical studies that engage with the often shifting and day-to-day realities of life sciences categories. In doing so, it shows how such categories remain contested and dynamic, and that the boundaries they create...

  9. Brainwashing the cybernetic spectator: The Ipcress File, 1960s cinematic spectacle and the sciences of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Marcia

    2017-07-01

    This article argues that the mid-1960s saw a dramatic shift in how 'brainwashing' was popularly imagined, reflecting Anglo-American developments in the sciences of mind as well as shifts in mass media culture. The 1965 British film The Ipcress File (dir. Sidney J. Furie, starr. Michael Caine) provides a rich case for exploring these interconnections between mind control, mind science and media, as it exemplifies the era's innovations for depicting 'brainwashing' on screen: the film's protagonist is subjected to flashing lights and electronic music, pulsating to the 'rhythm of brainwaves'. This article describes the making of The Ipcress File 's brainwashing sequence and shows how its quest for cinematic spectacle drew on developments in cybernetic science, multimedia design and modernist architecture (developments that were also influencing the 1960s psychedelic counter-culture). I argue that often interposed between the disparate endeavours of 1960s mind control, psychological science and media was a vision of the human mind as a 'cybernetic spectator': a subject who scrutinizes how media and other demands on her sensory perception can affect consciousness, and seeks to consciously participate in this mental conditioning and guide its effects.

  10. Neutron field control cybernetics model of RBMK reactor operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, V.V.; Postnikov, V.V.; Sviridenkov, A.N.

    1992-01-01

    Results on parameter optimization for cybernetics model of RBMK reactor operator by power release control function are presented. Convolutions of various criteria applied previously in algorithms of the program 'Adviser to reactor operator' formed the basis of the model. 7 refs.; 4 figs

  11. Personalized Multi-Student Improvement Based on Bayesian Cybernetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaburlasos, Vassilis G.; Marinagi, Catherine C.; Tsoukalas, Vassilis Th.

    2008-01-01

    This work presents innovative cybernetics (feedback) techniques based on Bayesian statistics for drawing questions from an Item Bank towards personalized multi-student improvement. A novel software tool, namely "Module for Adaptive Assessment of Students" (or, "MAAS" for short), implements the proposed (feedback) techniques. In conclusion, a pilot…

  12. Impact of Cybernetics on Information Science, and Vice Versa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilprin, Laurence B.

    The impact of cybernetics on information science occurs chiefly through the concepts of variety, the law of requisite variety, and theory of transformations. Through these it pervades every aspect of information science. However, other basic sciences such as physics, biology, psychology are in their spheres equally pervasive, and information…

  13. Informatics with Systems Science and Cybernetics--Concepts and Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Kjell

    This dictionary defines information science, computer science, systems theory, and cybernetic terms in English and provides the Swedish translation of each term. An index of Swedish terms refers the user to the page where the English equivalent and definition appear. Most of the 38 references listed are in English. (RAA)

  14. Instructional Regulation and Control: Cybernetics, Algorithmization and Heuristics in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, L. N.; And Others

    This book on the aspects of instructional processes focuses on control of student cognitive activity during instruction. Chapter 1 introduces the cybernetic approach to the theory of instruction. It is followed by a chapter on instructional effectiveness and efficiency. The third chapter discusses cognitive processes and thinking. Chapter 4…

  15. Jens Glad Balchen: A Norwegian Pioneer in Engineering Cybernetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Breivik

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper tells the story of Jens Glad Balchen (1926-2009, a Norwegian research scientist and engineer who is widely regarded as the father of Engineering Cybernetics in Norway. In 1954, he founded what would later become the Department of Automatic Control at the Norwegian Institute of Technology in Trondheim. This name was changed to the Department of Engineering Cybernetics in 1972 to reflect the broader efforts being made, not only within the purely technical disciplines, but also within biology, oceanography and medicine. Balchen established an advanced research community in cybernetics in postwar Norway, whose applications span everything from the process industry and positioning of ships to control of fish and lobster farming. He was a chief among the tribe of Norwegian cybernetics engineers and made a strong impact on his colleagues worldwide. He planted the seeds of a whole generation of Norwegian industrial companies through his efforts of seeking applications for every scientific breakthrough. His strength and his wisdom in combination with his remarkable stubbornness gave extraordinary results.

  16. Love-hate for man-machine metaphors in Soviet physiology: from Pavlov to "physiological cybernetics".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerovitch, Slava

    2002-06-01

    This article reinterprets the debate between orthodox followers of the Pavlovian reflex theory and Soviet "cybernetic physiologists" in the 1950s and 60s as a clash of opposing man-machine metaphors. While both sides accused each other of "mechanistic," reductionist methodology, they did not see anything "mechanistic" about their own central metaphors: the telephone switchboard metaphor for nervous activity (the Pavlovians), and the analogies between the human brain and a computer (the cyberneticians). I argue that the scientific utility of machine analogies was closely intertwined with their philosophical and political meanings and that new interpretations of these metaphors emerged as a result of political conflicts and a realignment of forces within the scientific community and in society at large. I suggest that the constant travel of man-machine analogies, back and forth between physiology and technology has blurred the traditional categories of the "mechanistic" and the "organic" in Soviet neurophysiology, as perhaps in the history of physiology in general.

  17. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  18. Articles on Practical Cybernetics. Computer-Developed Computers; Heuristics and Modern Sciences; Linguistics and Practice; Cybernetics and Moral-Ethical Considerations; and Men and Machines at the Chessboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, A. I.; And Others

    Five articles which were selected from a Russian language book on cybernetics and then translated are presented here. They deal with the topics of: computer-developed computers, heuristics and modern sciences, linguistics and practice, cybernetics and moral-ethical considerations, and computer chess programs. (Author/JY)

  19. Adult and child use of love, like, don't like and hate during family mealtimes. Subjective category assessments as food preference talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Sally

    2014-09-01

    Food preference is now a ubiquitous concept in eating research, and closely associated with actual consumption, particularly in relation to children's food preferences. Research in this area is beginning to reveal the effects of parent-child interaction on eating practices though relatively little attention has been paid to the discursive and lexical processes involved. Food preferences are typically associated with the terms 'likes' and 'dislikes' in food preference research. By contrast, adults and children typically use the terms 'love', 'like', 'don't like' and 'hate' to construct and manage food preferences in everyday meal conversations. A corpus of 270 video- and audio-recorded English and Scottish family mealtimes, involving children aged 1-17 years, was searched and analysed for any and all occurrences of subjective category assessments (SCAs; e.g., 'I like X'), featuring the terms 'love', 'like', 'don't like' and 'hate'. Discursive psychology was used to analyse the transcripts and recordings, and illustrated the disparity between adult and child use of SCAs and food preference talk. Within the data set, parents typically made claims about what their children like, and in doing so claimed epistemic primacy over their children's food preferences. Children, by contrast, typically made claims about their own 'don't likes' and likes, and these were frequently countered by their parents or treated as inappropriate claims. Implications for how parents and researchers might reorient to the food preferences lexicon are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bats in the Belfry:On the Relationship of Cybernetics and German Media Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Müggenburg, Jan Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Background When German media theory (GMT) took shape in the early 1980s it was influenced by cybernetic concepts; however, it eventually discovered the history of cybernetics as an object of research.Analysis The article follows the assumption that GMT’s double reference to cybernetics must be characterized as the result of both a shared epistemology and a specific discursive constellation. After contrasting McCulloch’s concept of a synthetic physiological a priori and Kittler’s concept of a ...

  1. A Multi-Party Imaginary Dialogue about Power and Cybernetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Guddemi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is written as a multi-sided dialogue intended to present a number of ideas about power. Some of these ideas are my own, expressed in a kind of evolutionary idiom of adaptation though they were partly developed in reaction to Foucault (and are far more indebted to Foucault and cybernetics than to contemporary evolutionist thinking. There is a deep irony in that my way of thinking is primarily rooted in the cybernetic anthropology of Gregory Bateson; however, he was deeply skeptical of the concept of power. My personification of him in this dialogue, as “Bateson,” demonstrates this skepticism and brings into the discussion other relevant ideas of his. The third participant in the dialogue, Mary Midgley, is included because her consideration of Hobbes’ ideas leads us to consider yet another, probabilistic, way of thinking about power.

  2. Cybernetical investigations on the radiation effects on tumour cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliakis, G.

    1978-01-01

    The goal of this work was to find suitable conditions for the in-vitro investigations with these E.A.T. cells so that basic experiments carried out with yeast cells will also be possible. Systematic investigations on cell multiplication led to reliable and definite test conditions for these cells. For the evaluation of the data which had been measured with several sorts of radiation the cybernetic model was applied. (orig./MG) [de

  3. Immune Response to Electromagnetic Fields through Cybernetic Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godina-Nava, J. J.; Segura, M. A. Rodriguez; Cadena, S. Reyes; Sierra, L. C. Gaitan

    2008-01-01

    We study the optimality of the humoral immune response through a mathematical model, which involves the effect of electromagnetic fields over the large lymphocytes proliferation. Are used the so called cybernetic variables in the context of the matching law of microeconomics or mathematical psychology, to measure the large lymphocytes population and to maximize the instantaneous antibody production rate in time during the immunologic response in order to most efficiently inactivate the antigen

  4. Immune Response to Electromagnetic Fields through Cybernetic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godina-Nava, J. J.; Segura, M. A. Rodríguez; Cadena, S. Reyes; Sierra, L. C. Gaitán

    2008-08-01

    We study the optimality of the humoral immune response through a mathematical model, which involves the effect of electromagnetic fields over the large lymphocytes proliferation. Are used the so called cybernetic variables in the context of the matching law of microeconomics or mathematical psychology, to measure the large lymphocytes population and to maximize the instantaneous antibody production rate in time during the immunologic response in order to most efficiently inactivate the antigen.

  5. Command and Control: Cybernetics and BDSM

    OpenAIRE

    Behar, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores correlations between restrictive interfaces in computational systems and restrictive interfaces in BDSM (Bondage & Discipline/Dominance & Submission/Sadism & Masochism) culture. Novel technologies often serve as pet fetish objects, but how do technologies perform as subjects in fetish culture? When digital technologies appear to us as objects, they present us with an illusion of mastery. In reality, technologies are active subjects and we, their "users," must bend to their...

  6. Manual control cybernetics : State-of-the-art and current trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, M.; Pool, D.M.; Abbink, D.A.; Boer, E.R.; Zaal, P.M.T.; Drop, F.M.; van der El, K.; van Paassen, M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Manual control cybernetics aims to understand and describe how humans control vehicles and devices using mathematical models of human control dynamics. This “cybernetic approach” enables objective and quantitative comparisons of human behavior, and allows a systematic

  7. The general entity of life: a cybernetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielecki, Andrzej

    2015-06-01

    Life, not only in the well-known context of biochemical metabolism but also in the context of hypothetical life synthesized laboratorially or possibly found on other planets, is considered in this paper. The three-component information-energetic-structural irreducible processing in autonomous systems is the core of the proposed approach. The cybernetic organization of a general entity of life--the alivon--is postulated. The crucial properties of life and evolution are derived from the proposed approach. Information encoded in biological structures is also studied.

  8. Investment portfolio management from cybernetic point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchev, Angel, Jr.; Marchev, Angel

    2013-12-01

    The theory of investment portfolios is a well defined component of financial science. While sound in principle, it faces some setbacks in its real-world implementation. In this paper the authors propose a reformulation of the investment portfolio problem as a cybernetic system where the Investor is the controlling system and the portfolio is the controlled system. Also the portfolio controlling process should be dissected in several ordered phases, so that each phase is represented as a subsystem within the structure of the controlling system Investor.

  9. Organizational Categories as Viewing Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores how two Danish rehabilitation organizations textual guidelines for assessment of clients’ personality traits influence the actual evaluation of clients. The analysis will show how staff members produce institutional identities corresponding to organizational categories, which very often have little or no relevance for the clients evaluated. The goal of the article is to demonstrate how the institutional complex that frames the work of the organizations produces the client ...

  10. Fuzzy differential inclusions in atmospheric and medical cybernetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Kausik Kumar; Majumder, Dwijesh Dutta

    2004-04-01

    Uncertainty management in dynamical systems is receiving attention in artificial intelligence, particularly in the fields of qualitative and model based reasoning. Fuzzy dynamical systems occupy a very important position in the class of uncertain systems. It is well established that the fuzzy dynamical systems represented by a set of fuzzy differential inclusions (FDI) are very convenient tools for modeling and simulation of various uncertain systems. In this paper, we discuss about the mathematical modeling of two very complex natural phenomena by means of FDIs. One of them belongs to the atmospheric cybernetics (the term has been used in a broad sense) of the genesis of a cyclonic storm (cyclogenesis), and the other belongs to the bio-medical cybernetics of the evolution of tumor in a human body. Since a discussion of the former already appears in a previous paper by the first author, here, we present very briefly a theoretical formalism of cyclone formation. On the other hand, we treat the latter system more elaborately. We solve the FDIs with the help of an algorithm developed in this paper to numerically simulate the mathematical models. From the simulation results thus obtained, we have drawn a number of interesting conclusions, which have been verified, and this vindicates the validity of our models.

  11. Cybernetic Control in a Supply Chain: Wave Propagation and Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Dozier

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The cybernetic control and management of production can be improved by an understanding of the dynamics of the supply chains for the production organizations. This paper describes an attempt to better understand the dynamics of a linear supply chain through the application of the normal mode analysis technique of physics. A model is considered in which an organization's response to a perturbation from the steady state is affected by the inertia which the company naturally exhibits. This inertia determines how rapidly an organization can respond to deviations from the steady state of its own inventories and those of the two organizations immediately preceding and following it in the chain. The model equations describe the oscillatory phenomena of the naturally occurring normal modes in the chain, in which waves of deviations from the steady state situation travel forward and backwards through the chain. It would be expected that the most effective cybernetic control occurs when resonant interventions cause either amplification or damping of the deviations from the steady state.

  12. Cybernetic modeling of adaptive prediction of environmental changes by microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandli, Aravinda R; Modak, Jayant M

    2014-02-01

    Microorganisms exhibit varied regulatory strategies such as direct regulation, symmetric anticipatory regulation, asymmetric anticipatory regulation, etc. Current mathematical modeling frameworks for the growth of microorganisms either do not incorporate regulation or assume that the microorganisms utilize the direct regulation strategy. In the present study, we extend the cybernetic modeling framework to account for asymmetric anticipatory regulation strategy. The extended model accurately captures various experimental observations. We use the developed model to explore the fitness advantage provided by the asymmetric anticipatory regulation strategy and observe that the optimal extent of asymmetric regulation depends on the selective pressure that the microorganisms experience. We also explore the importance of timing the response in anticipatory regulation and find that there is an optimal time, dependent on the extent of asymmetric regulation, at which microorganisms should respond anticipatorily to maximize their fitness. We then discuss the advantages offered by the cybernetic modeling framework over other modeling frameworks in modeling the asymmetric anticipatory regulation strategy. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. The Smarter Planet: Built on Informatics and Cybernetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maymir-Ducharme Fred A.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available IBM's Smarter Planet initiative is a multi-disciplined approach that integrates the key tenets of the IMSCI 2014 (The 8th International Multi-Conference on Society, Cybernetics, and Informatics conference [1]. Industry has seen a tremendous explosion of data growth. Organizations that dealt with Terabytes (TB and Petabytes (PB just a couple of years ago are now faced with the challenge of dealing with Exabytes (EB of data. An Exabyte is 1018 Bytes – a million times a billion bytes! The amount of information available today is truly remarkable; so much that it is considered by many in industry as a new "natural resource." Computing has similarly grown and made major advances. Today's fastest supercomputer is a 33.8 PFLOPS machine (33.8 x 1015 floating point operations per second and applies analytics to predict weather to a degree that was unimaginable ten years ago. The Smarter Planet approach goes beyond the traditional data sources to include a plethora of sensor data (e.g., utility readings, concrete pressure sensors on a bridge, etc. and applies analytics to provide new Informatics, which in turn can be used to advance new Cybernetics (e.g., Smarter Buildings, Smarter Cities to address Societal needs in new, innovative ways. [2] [1] Callaos, Nagib (March, 2013, http://www.iiis.org/Nagib-Callaos/Cognition-and-Knowledge [2] Palmisano, Sam "A Smarter Planet: The Next Leadership Agenda," Speech to the Council on Foreign Relations, New York, NY, 6 November 2008.

  14. Academic Carelessness, Bootstrapping, and the Cybernetic Investigator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Drayson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The following discussion is concerned with certain forms of poor practice in academic publishing that give rise to “academic urban legends.” It suggests that rather than simply consider phenomena such as poor citation practices and circular reporting as mistakes, misunderstandings, and evidence of lack of rigor, we might also read them as evidence of a particular kind of creativity—for which misunderstandings, assump-tions, and failures of diligence are mechanisms by which potentially influential ideas manifest. Reflecting particularly on a critique of the debate surrounding pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement and its use by university staff and students, the following will argue that investigators within the disciplines concerned with the effects or development of these technologies are themselves implicated as potential subjects. Alongside reflections from science fiction studies that offer insights into the experiential dimension of reading and misreading, this paper offers some insights regarding how we might think of mistakes and misunderstandings as a form of bootstrapping and a source of creativity in scientific and technological development.

  15. [The beginnings of cybernetics and its introduction into the biomedical arena in the Czech Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wünsch, Z

    1998-01-01

    During fifties at most few tens of persons were in Czechoslovakia who believed in the future of computers and cybernetics. At the sixties, the Czechoslovak Cybernetics was established and in 1962 the Main Problem Committee for the Medical Cybernetics was founded at the Ministry of Health. The first tentative lectures on this topics at the Charles University Medical faculty were introduced in the late sixties. The growing interest enabled to hold national and international conferences since the middle of seventies. There is mentioned the whole spectrum of these goal-directed activities so important for the future.

  16. A cybernetic theory of morality and moral autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, J

    2001-04-01

    Human morality may be thought of as a negative feedback control system in which moral rules are reference values, and moral disapproval, blame, and punishment are forms of negative feedback given for violations of the moral rules. In such a system, if moral agents held each other accountable, moral norms would be enforced effectively. However, even a properly functioning social negative feedback system could not explain acts in which individual agents uphold moral rules in the face of contrary social pressure. Dr. Frances Kelsey, who withheld FDA approval for thalidomide against intense social pressure, is an example of the degree of individual moral autonomy possible in a hostile environment. Such extreme moral autonomy is possible only if there is internal, psychological negative feedback, in addition to external, social feedback. Such a cybernetic model of morality and moral autonomy is consistent with certain aspects of classical ethical theories.

  17. Second order pedagogy as an example of second order cybernetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne B. Reinertsen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is about seeing/creating/trying out an idea of pedagogy and pedagogical/ educational research in/as/with self-reflexive, circular and diffractive perspectives and about using second order cybernetics as thinking tool. It is a move away from traditional hypothesis driven activities and a move towards data driven pedagogies and research: Teachers, teacher researchers and researchers simultaneously producing and theorizing our practices and ourselves. Deleuzian becomings- eventually becomings with data - theory - theodata is pivotal. It is a move towards a Derridean bricolage. A different science of pedagogy operating as a circular science of self-reflexivity and diffraction in search of quality again and again and again: Theopractical becomings and inspiractionresearch.

  18. Quantum Cybernetics and Complex Quantum Systems Science - A Quantum Connectionist Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Carlos Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Quantum cybernetics and its connections to complex quantum systems science is addressed from the perspective of complex quantum computing systems. In this way, the notion of an autonomous quantum computing system is introduced in regards to quantum artificial intelligence, and applied to quantum artificial neural networks, considered as autonomous quantum computing systems, which leads to a quantum connectionist framework within quantum cybernetics for complex quantum computing systems. Sever...

  19. Cybernetic Security and Business Intelligence in the System of Diagnostics of Economic Security of the Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Skrynkovskyy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to determine the place, the role and features of cybernetic security and improve the business intelligence scheme in the system of diagnosing economic security of the enterprise. It had been found out that: 1 the term “cybernetic security of an enterprise” should be understood as the state of the protection of the cybernetic space of the whole enterprise or individual objects of its information infrastructure (computer system, computer data, etc. from the risk of external cybernetic influence, which ensures their sustainable development and the formation of prospects, as well as timely detection, prevention and neutralization of real and potential cybernetic interruptions and threats to the interests of the enterprise; 2 the main components of cybernetic security in the system of diagnostics of economic security of the enterprise are: investigation of information and telecommunication systems and cryptosystems of the opposing sides; cybernetic effects; protection of information sphere. It was established that the main task of business intelligence in the system of diagnosing economic security of the enterprise is the verification of the reliability of business information, the provision of cybernetic protection of information resources, information and communication technologies and systems and the elimination of the possibility of misinformation of senior management by the managers of the middle level, suppliers, marketing intermediaries, clientele, competitors or contact audiences of the enterprise. The prospect of further research in this direction is the development of a system of goals of the polycriterial diagnostics of the activity (economic diagnostics of the enterprise (on the basis of the isolation and systematization of its diagnostic purposes, taking into account the presented results of the study.

  20. Relationship Between Cybernetics Management and Organizational Trust Among Librarians of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Ghiasi, Mitra; Shahrabi, Afsaneh; Siamian, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose: Organization must keep current skills, abilities, and in the current field of competition, and move one step ahead of other competitors; for this purpose, must be a high degree of trust inside the organization. Cybernetic management is a new approach in management of organizations that its main task according to internal issues. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between cybernetics management and organizational trust among librarians of Mazandaran Univer...

  1. On the history of Ludwig von Bertalanffy's "General Systemology", and on its relationship to cybernetics - part III: convergences and divergences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drack, Manfred; Pouvreau, David

    2015-07-04

    Bertalanffy's so-called "general system theory" (GST) and cybernetics were and are often confused: this calls for clarification. In this article, Bertalanffy's conceptions and ideas are compared with those developed in cybernetics in order to investigate the differences and convergences. Bertalanffy was concerned with first order cybernetics. Nonetheless, his perspectivist epistemology is also relevant with regard to developments in second order cybernetics, and the latter is therefore also considered to some extent. W. Ross Ashby's important role as mediator between GST and cybernetics is analysed. The respective basic epistemological approaches, scientific approaches and inherent world views are discussed. We underline the complementarity of cybernetic and "organismic" trends in systems research within the unitary hermeneutical framework of "general systemology".

  2. On the history of Ludwig von Bertalanffy's "General Systemology", and on its relationship to cybernetics - part III: convergences and divergences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drack, Manfred; Pouvreau, David

    2015-07-01

    Bertalanffy's so-called "general system theory" (GST) and cybernetics were and are often confused: this calls for clarification. In this article, Bertalanffy's conceptions and ideas are compared with those developed in cybernetics in order to investigate the differences and convergences. Bertalanffy was concerned with first order cybernetics. Nonetheless, his perspectivist epistemology is also relevant with regard to developments in second order cybernetics, and the latter is therefore also considered to some extent. W. Ross Ashby's important role as mediator between GST and cybernetics is analysed. The respective basic epistemological approaches, scientific approaches and inherent world views are discussed. We underline the complementarity of cybernetic and "organismic" trends in systems research within the unitary hermeneutical framework of "general systemology".

  3. Cybernetic approach to the problem of prognosis of the radiation injury outcome in animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarov, V.P.; Pljushchev, A.K.; Chekhonadskij, N.A.; Stefashkin, Yu.P.

    1979-01-01

    The cybernetic approach to the problem in question lies in revealing the differences in the quality of control systems of animal physiological functions. For this purpose the ''perturbation'' effect (hypoxic load) is used and with the help of computers the characteristics of transition processes in the systems are analyzed for two classes of animals compared (irradiation survivors and non-survivors). For the irradiation retrieval the forecast error was 9.7 per cent. The experiments were conducted on the white nonlinear mice. Each animal was placed into hermetic chamber and subjected to anoxic hypoxia for 5 min at 10 per cent oxygen content in the inhaled Mixture. Then the mixture was replaced by common air for 2 min and during the subsequent 5 min the aftereffect reaction was recorded after 1.5-2 week examination the animals were gamma irradiated at the dose of 750 R and the dose rate of 355 R/min and the survival was determined by the 30th day

  4. SECOND-ORDER CYBERNETICS, SEMIOTICS AND THE ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculae V. Mihaita

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We take into consideration the concept of second order cybernetics and Pierce‘s approach of semiotics fundamentals. I am also an observer, experimenter and mental interpreter of metasigns given to the audience by Eugene Ionesco‘s absurd theatre. The interpreting of signs meaning is determinate by the context. From Semiotics ‗point of view, the objects I‘m studying (The Love Poem Lucifer or Evening Star, the short play Foursome and the most known, The Chairs gives me a lot of information about differences or NOT between actors, positive and negative interactions and become knowledge when I see them as signs. Second order cybernetics brings to the semiotics the idea of closure of structural coupling, interpretation and language [Soren, Cybersemiotics, 2008]. Them, the objects chosen are, for EXPERIMENTER, the YOYO in figure 1, and signifies the OBJECT of recursion. Boje [Boje, David, 2005] redefines antenarrative communication more holistically as an enactive phenomenon, and makes connections between varieties of disciplines in order to find out how antenarratives help us understand communication in the world. Instead of the finite event of producing an artifact, betting is a process and an end in itself, through which the practitioners might gain self-awareness. By synthesizing enactive-thinking in virtual space and the practice of communicating we appeal for valuable insights into the creative mind, challenging scholars and practitioners alike. Drawing contributions as above ideograms are useful for practicing cyberneticians, statisticians, researchers and academics, Informational Statistics applications [Mihaita, 2010] explores the ways in which liberal arts writers seek to involve, create and engage with new and diverse audiences from beginners encountering and participating in the work unexpectedly, to professionals from other disciplines and members of particular communities. Taking into consideration the Second-order Cybernetics

  5. CYBERNETIC BASIS AND SYSTEM PRACTICE OF REMOTE SENSING AND SPATIAL INFORMATION SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Tan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cybernetics provides a new set of ideas and methods for the study of modern science, and it has been fully applied in many areas. However, few people have introduced cybernetics into the field of remote sensing. The paper is based on the imaging process of remote sensing system, introducing cybernetics into the field of remote sensing, establishing a space-time closed-loop control theory for the actual operation of remote sensing. The paper made the process of spatial information coherently, and improved the comprehensive efficiency of the space information from acquisition, procession, transformation to application. We not only describes the application of cybernetics in remote sensing platform control, sensor control, data processing control, but also in whole system of remote sensing imaging process control. We achieve the information of output back to the input to control the efficient operation of the entire system. This breakthrough combination of cybernetics science and remote sensing science will improve remote sensing science to a higher level.

  6. Cybernetic Basis and System Practice of Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, X.; Jing, X.; Chen, R.; Ming, Z.; He, L.; Sun, Y.; Sun, X.; Yan, L.

    2017-09-01

    Cybernetics provides a new set of ideas and methods for the study of modern science, and it has been fully applied in many areas. However, few people have introduced cybernetics into the field of remote sensing. The paper is based on the imaging process of remote sensing system, introducing cybernetics into the field of remote sensing, establishing a space-time closed-loop control theory for the actual operation of remote sensing. The paper made the process of spatial information coherently, and improved the comprehensive efficiency of the space information from acquisition, procession, transformation to application. We not only describes the application of cybernetics in remote sensing platform control, sensor control, data processing control, but also in whole system of remote sensing imaging process control. We achieve the information of output back to the input to control the efficient operation of the entire system. This breakthrough combination of cybernetics science and remote sensing science will improve remote sensing science to a higher level.

  7. Relationship Between Cybernetics Management and Organizational Trust Among Librarians of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiasi, Mitra; Shahrabi, Afsaneh; Siamian, Hasan

    2017-12-01

    Organization must keep current skills, abilities, and in the current field of competition, and move one step ahead of other competitors; for this purpose, must be a high degree of trust inside the organization. Cybernetic management is a new approach in management of organizations that its main task according to internal issues. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between cybernetics management and organizational trust among librarians of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. This is applied and analytical survey. which its population included all librarians of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, amounting to 42 people which were selected by census and participated in this research. There has no relationship between components of Cybernetics management (participative decision making, commitment, pay equity, Correct flow of information, develop a sense of ownership, online education) with organizational trust amongst librarians of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. And there has a significant relationship between flat Structure of cybernetics management and organizational trust. For data analysis was used Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and linear regression. There is no significant relationship between Cybernetic management and organizational trust amongst librarians of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences.

  8. Towards Quantum Cybernetics:. Optimal Feedback Control in Quantum Bio Informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belavkin, V. P.

    2009-02-01

    A brief account of the quantum information dynamics and dynamical programming methods for the purpose of optimal control in quantum cybernetics with convex constraints and cońcave cost and bequest functions of the quantum state is given. Consideration is given to both open loop and feedback control schemes corresponding respectively to deterministic and stochastic semi-Markov dynamics of stable or unstable systems. For the quantum feedback control scheme with continuous observations we exploit the separation theorem of filtering and control aspects for quantum stochastic micro-dynamics of the total system. This allows to start with the Belavkin quantum filtering equation and derive the generalized Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation using standard arguments of classical control theory. This is equivalent to a Hamilton-Jacobi equation with an extra linear dissipative term if the control is restricted to only Hamiltonian terms in the filtering equation. A controlled qubit is considered as an example throughout the development of the formalism. Finally, we discuss optimum observation strategies to obtain a pure quantum qubit state from a mixed one.

  9. FCJ-184 Interpassive User: Complicity and the Returns of Cybernetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Matviyenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay discusses the notions of “extension” and “prosthesis” as two different logics and modes of being with technology. I trace the two terms to the work of Marshall McLuhan, influenced by the work of Norbert Wiener and Buckminster Fuller. I argue that the logic of softwarisation (Manovich, 2013 is similar to the logic of extension, while the logic of appification (IDC, 2010 is similar to that of prosthesis. I argue that these logics also map onto the logics of metonymy and metaphor. I explain why such a distinction is useful for reading mobile apps and the computing practices they enable. I conclude by raising questions about users’ complicity within the bio-technological cybernetic assemblage: What does the user of these technologies want? Is she able to confront her desire through their use? Why is the demanding swarm of parasitic ‘media species’, such as apps, so determined to get under the user’s skin?

  10. THE ESTIMATION OF HUMAN-OPERATOR CYBERNETIC ABILITIES DURING THE IMPACT OF DESTABILIZING FACTORS OF EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergii T. Polishchuk

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available  The method of estimation of human-operator cybernetics abilities during of the impacting of destabilizing factors of external environment is suggested. It was proved that up-to-date biomedical approach for periodical health examination of pilots in civil aviation isn’t guarantees theirs cybernetics abilities in cases of influence of destabilizing factors.

  11. Automation, communication and cybernetics in science and engineering 2013/2014

    CERN Document Server

    Isenhardt, Ingrid; Hees, Frank; Henning, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    This book continues the tradition of its predecessors “Automation, Communication and Cybernetics in Science and Engineering 2009/2010 and 2011/2012” and includes a representative selection of scientific publications from researchers at the institute cluster IMA/ZLW & IfU.   IMA - Institute of Information Management in Mechanical Engineering
 ZLW - Center for Learning and Knowledge Management
 IfU - Associated Institute for Management Cybernetics e.V.
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, RWTH Aachen University   The book presents a range of innovative fields of application, including: cognitive systems, cyber-physical production systems, robotics, automation technology, machine learning, natural language processing, data mining, predictive data analytics, visual analytics, innovation and diversity management, demographic models, virtual and remote laboratories, virtual and augmented realities, multimedia learning environments, organizational development and management cybernetics. The contributio...

  12. Development of the cybernetic methods in the new generation of superhigh-energy accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, A.A.; Berezhnoj, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    The problems related to the use of cybernetic methods in case of the development of control systems for superhigh-energy accelerators, particularly for parameters control which determine betatron particle oscillations are discussed. It is pointed out that early in 1960-s the development of the 1 TeV cybernetic accelerating complex consisting of a linear accelerator - injector, booster and main accelerator has been started. The conclusion is drawn that with the increase of accelerator energy, increase of ring magnet perimeter and decrease of vacuum chaber aperture as well as owing to comlication of accelerating complexes complication of operational modes and increase of particle beams intensity the use of cybernetic methods and completely automated control systems created on their base becomes in future still more pressing

  13. Cybernetic modeling based on pathway analysis for Penicillium chrysogenum fed-batch fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jun; Yuan, Jingqi

    2010-08-01

    A macrokinetic model employing cybernetic methodology is proposed to describe mycelium growth and penicillin production. Based on the primordial and complete metabolic network of Penicillium chrysogenum found in the literature, the modeling procedure is guided by metabolic flux analysis and cybernetic modeling framework. The abstracted cybernetic model describes the transients of the consumption rates of the substrates, the assimilation rates of intermediates, the biomass growth rate, as well as the penicillin formation rate. Combined with the bioreactor model, these reaction rates are linked with the most important state variables, i.e., mycelium, substrate and product concentrations. Simplex method is used to estimate the sensitive parameters of the model. Finally, validation of the model is carried out with 20 batches of industrial-scale penicillin cultivation.

  14. Cybernetic principles of aging and rejuvenation: the buffering- challenging strategy for life extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heylighen, Francis

    2014-01-01

    Aging is analyzed as the spontaneous loss of adaptivity and increase in fragility that characterizes dynamic systems. Cybernetics defines the general regulatory mechanisms that a system can use to prevent or repair the damage produced by disturbances. According to the law of requisite variety, disturbances can be held in check by maximizing buffering capacity, range of compensatory actions, and knowledge about which action to apply to which disturbance. This suggests a general strategy for rejuvenating the organism by increasing its capabilities of adaptation. Buffering can be optimized by providing sufficient rest together with plenty of nutrients: amino acids, antioxidants, methyl donors, vitamins, minerals, etc. Knowledge and the range of action can be extended by subjecting the organism to an as large as possible variety of challenges. These challenges are ideally brief so as not to deplete resources and produce irreversible damage. However, they should be sufficiently intense and unpredictable to induce an overshoot in the mobilization of resources for damage repair, and to stimulate the organism to build stronger capabilities for tackling future challenges. This allows them to override the trade-offs and limitations that evolution has built into the organism's repair processes in order to conserve potentially scarce resources. Such acute, "hormetic" stressors strengthen the organism in part via the "order from noise" mechanism that destroys dysfunctional structures by subjecting them to strong, random variations. They include heat and cold, physical exertion, exposure, stretching, vibration, fasting, food toxins, micro-organisms, environmental enrichment and psychological challenges. The proposed buffering-challenging strategy may be able to extend life indefinitely, by forcing a periodic rebuilding and extension of capabilities, while using the Internet as an endless source of new knowledge about how to deal with disturbances.

  15. The cybernetic-statistical approach to the search for substances with pre-set properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitskij, E.M.; Kiseleva, N.N.; Shkatova, T.M.

    1982-01-01

    Using the cybernetic methods the forecast for a new phase Agsub(x)Mosub(6)Ssub(8), the data on which have not been used when computer learning, is given. Its Tsub(c) is evaluated and optimum contents of silver and conditions of phase obtaining with Tsub(c) somewhat higher than it is mentioned in literature for the same ratio of molybdenum and sulphur in the compound are found using statistical methods. The results obtained when solving the model task of the search for new ternary superconducting phases Asub(x)Bsub(6)Ssub(8) permitted to make a conclusion on correctness of the cybernetic-statistical approach suggested [ru

  16. From the classical cybernetics to cyberculture: conceptual tools to look at the wordl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña GROS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of Cybernetics until the development of the information technology half of century has gone with very fast changes of great importance. Not only because the rapid development of the technology, but also, because the social and personal implications that this technology has nowadays.The main goal of this article is to review the fundamental concepts of the cybernetics and to establish the changes of this discipline until the beginning of the cyberculture, as a maximun expression of the social interconnection, communication and globalisation.

  17. Thirty Years of Research on the Application of Cybernetic Methods in Fisheries and Aquaculture Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens G. Balchen

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper surveys the research activities at the Department of Engineering Cybernetics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway, in the application of cybernetic principles in fisheries technology, aqua-culture technology and ocean ranching during the period 1969-1999. It is believed that the results obtained in these activities will have an impact upon the future developments in one of the most important sectors of the Norwegian economy. Numerous reports and publications are listed in the comprehensive bibliography.

  18. Cybernetics, Redux: An Outside-In Strategy for Unraveling Cellular Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malleshaiah, Mohan; Gunawardena, Jeremy

    2016-01-11

    A new paper in Science reveals how repetitive stimulation can identify and help to repair fragilities within a signaling network, while using linear mathematical models inspired by engineering, thereby suggesting how cybernetic methods can be integrated into systems and synthetic biology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Introduction to the use of the TESHOM/LATREP codes on CDC CYBERNET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, J.; Milgram, M.

    1980-09-01

    The latest version of the reactor lattice code LATREP and its free format input code TESHOM are presently available to commercial users through the VSSL (Vendor Supported Software Library) facilities of Control Data Corporation's CYBERNET computer network. This report is a resume of the codes, together with instructions on their use and accuracy, examples of input and output and documentation. (auth)

  20. A Theoretical Cybernetic Macro-Script to Articulate Collaborative Interactions of Cyber Entities in Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellas, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the dissemination and exploitation of three-dimensional (3D) multi-user virtual worlds in higher education have been disclosed from their widespread acceptance as candidate learning platforms. However, it is still lacking a theoretical cybernetic macro-script to elaborate the coordination of multiple complex interactions among…

  1. Categories from scratch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poss, R.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of category from mathematics happens to be useful to computer programmers in many ways. Unfortunately, all "good" explanations of categories so far have been designed by mathematicians, or at least theoreticians with a strong background in mathematics, and this makes categories

  2. On the history of Ludwig von Bertalanffy’s “General Systemology”, and on its relationship to cybernetics – part III: convergences and divergences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drack, Manfred; Pouvreau, David

    2015-01-01

    Bertalanffy’s so-called “general system theory” (GST) and cybernetics were and are often confused: this calls for clarification. In this article, Bertalanffy’s conceptions and ideas are compared with those developed in cybernetics in order to investigate the differences and convergences. Bertalanffy was concerned with first order cybernetics. Nonetheless, his perspectivist epistemology is also relevant with regard to developments in second order cybernetics, and the latter is therefore also considered to some extent. W. Ross Ashby’s important role as mediator between GST and cybernetics is analysed. The respective basic epistemological approaches, scientific approaches and inherent world views are discussed. We underline the complementarity of cybernetic and “organismic” trends in systems research within the unitary hermeneutical framework of “general systemology”. PMID:26612966

  3. American Gadgets: Cybernetics, Consumer Electronics, and Twentieth-Century US Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeone, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Challenging the argument that liberal humanism faces extinction in the face of ubiquitous digital technologies, my dissertation analyzes the ways in which consumer electronics reinscribe the human subject as a privileged category in the information age. Through spaces like the Matrix, Windows 7, or even the single row of play controls on a…

  4. [Image guided and robotic treatment--the advance of cybernetics in clinical medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosse, E; Elle, O J; Samset, E; Johansen, M; Røtnes, J S; Tønnessen, T I; Edwin, B

    2000-01-10

    The introduction of advanced technology in hospitals has changed the treatment practice towards more image guided and minimal invasive procedures. Modern computer and communication technology opens up for robot aided and pre-programmed intervention. Several robotic systems are in clinical use today both in microsurgery and in major cardiac and orthopedic operations. As this trend develops, professions which are new in this context such as physicists, mathematicians and cybernetic engineers will be increasingly important in the treatment of patients.

  5. Blocking in Category Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bott, Lewis; Hoffman, Aaron B.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2007-01-01

    Many theories of category learning assume that learning is driven by a need to minimize classification error. When there is no classification error, therefore, learning of individual features should be negligible. We tested this hypothesis by conducting three category learning experiments adapted from an associative learning blocking paradigm. Contrary to an error-driven account of learning, participants learned a wide range of information when they learned about categories, and blocking effe...

  6. Category I structures program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endebrock, E.G.; Dove, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of the Category I Structure Program is to supply experimental and analytical information needed to assess the structural capacity of Category I structures (excluding the reactor cntainment building). Because the shear wall is a principal element of a Category I structure, and because relatively little experimental information is available on the shear walls, it was selected as the test element for the experimental program. The large load capacities of shear walls in Category I structures dictates that the experimental tests be conducted on small size shear wall structures that incorporates the general construction details and characteristics of as-built shear walls

  7. Categories and logical syntax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klev, Ansten Morch

    2014-01-01

    The notions of category and type are here studied through the lens of logical syntax: Aristotle's as well as Kant's categories through the traditional form of proposition `S is P', and modern doctrines of type through the Fregean form of proposition `F(a)', function applied to argument. Topics

  8. Computing color categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yendrikhovskij, S.N.; Rogowitz, B.E.; Pappas, T.N.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to develop a coherent framework for understanding, modeling, and computing color categories. The main assumption is that the structure of color category systems originates from the statistical structure of the perceived color environment. This environment can be modeled as

  9. Operadic categories and duoidal Deligne's conjecture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Batanin, M.; Markl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 285, 5 November (2015), s. 1630-1687 ISSN 0001-8708 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : operadic category * duoidal category * Deligne's conjecture Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.405, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0001870815002467

  10. Order of 28 April 1989 fixing the categories of products not subject to the new article R5235 of the Public Health Code in implementation of paragraph eight b and c of that article

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    This Order establishes the categories of products containing radioelements with a low specific activity or having a limited radiotoxicity which are exempted from the licensing regime for artificial radioelements for non-medical or other uses or which do not concern human biology [fr

  11. Triangulated categories (AM-148)

    CERN Document Server

    Neeman, Amnon

    2014-01-01

    The first two chapters of this book offer a modern, self-contained exposition of the elementary theory of triangulated categories and their quotients. The simple, elegant presentation of these known results makes these chapters eminently suitable as a text for graduate students. The remainder of the book is devoted to new research, providing, among other material, some remarkable improvements on Brown''s classical representability theorem. In addition, the author introduces a class of triangulated categories""--the ""well generated triangulated categories""--and studies their properties. This

  12. International Conference on Category Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Pedicchio, Maria; Rosolini, Guiseppe

    1991-01-01

    With one exception, these papers are original and fully refereed research articles on various applications of Category Theory to Algebraic Topology, Logic and Computer Science. The exception is an outstanding and lengthy survey paper by Joyal/Street (80 pp) on a growing subject: it gives an account of classical Tannaka duality in such a way as to be accessible to the general mathematical reader, and to provide a key for entry to more recent developments and quantum groups. No expertise in either representation theory or category theory is assumed. Topics such as the Fourier cotransform, Tannaka duality for homogeneous spaces, braided tensor categories, Yang-Baxter operators, Knot invariants and quantum groups are introduced and studies. From the Contents: P.J. Freyd: Algebraically complete categories.- J.M.E. Hyland: First steps in synthetic domain theory.- G. Janelidze, W. Tholen: How algebraic is the change-of-base functor?.- A. Joyal, R. Street: An introduction to Tannaka duality and quantum groups.- A. Jo...

  13. Analysis of rare categories

    CERN Document Server

    He, Jingrui

    2012-01-01

    This book focuses on rare category analysis where the majority classes have smooth distributions and the minority classes exhibit the compactness property. It focuses on challenging cases where the support regions of the majority and minority classes overlap.

  14. Consumer Product Category Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use...

  15. Product Category Management Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Żukowska, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present the issues related to category management. It includes the overview of category management definitions and the correct process of exercising it. Moreover, attention is paid to the advantages of brand management, the benefits the supplier and retailer may obtain in this way. The risk element related to this topics is also presented herein. Joanna Żukowska

  16. [A new strategy for Chinese medicine processing technologies: coupled with individuation processed and cybernetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ding-kun; Yang, Ming; Han, Xue; Lin, Jun-zhi; Wang, Jia-bo; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2015-08-01

    The stable and controllable quality of decoction pieces is an important factor to ensure the efficacy of clinical medicine. Considering the dilemma that the existing standardization of processing mode cannot effectively eliminate the variability of quality raw ingredients, and ensure the stability between different batches, we first propose a new strategy for Chinese medicine processing technologies that coupled with individuation processed and cybernetics. In order to explain this thinking, an individual study case about different grades aconite is provided. We hope this strategy could better serve for clinical medicine, and promote the inheritance and innovation of Chinese medicine processing skills and theories.

  17. Development of Mentalizing and Communication: From Viewpoint of Developmental Cybernetics and Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itakura, Shoji

    The ability to mentalize is essential for human socialization. Such ability is strongly related to communication. In this paper, I discuss the development of mentalizing and communication from the perspectives of a new idea, Developmental Cybernetics, and developmental cognitive neuroscience. Children only attributed intention to a robot when they saw it behaving as a human and displaying social signals such as eye gaze. The emergence of powerful new methods and tools, such as neuroimaging, now allows questions about mentalizing to resolved more directly than before.

  18. Cybernetic structured modeling of the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by Alcaligenes Eutrophus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. FERRAZ

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a cybernetic structured mathematical model developed for the fermentation step of the process of production of the copolymer of polyhydroxyalkanoates by the bacteria Alcaligenes eutrophus. This process is performed in two different fermentation stages. The first emphasizes the growth of the microorganism in a batch operation without substrates limitations, while in the second, the focus is on copolymer production by a fed-batch operation in the absence of the nitrogen source. This paper presents the results of the treatment of experimental data and of preliminary parameter estimation. The fitting of the proposed model to the experimental data of a standard experiment showed a good agreement.

  19. Decision Support System and Customer Relationship Management as Components of the Cybernetic System Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra MISDOLEA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the role played by the information system and its component, the software system, in a larger system - the Enterprise. In this context, the paper focuses on the structure of Decision Support System and Customer Relationship Management and their benefits in the functioning of the global system, by examining the conditions of implementation of these tools in the organization. We will show that used independently these tools offer reduced services, but when interconnected, they become a very powerful tool for command and control. Viability, evolution and autonomy requested by users for their information system are obtained more easily by a systemic-cybernetic approach to the Enterprise.

  20. The Need of the Autopoietic Cybernetics for Biosemiotics to become Embodied

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brier, Søren

    causation is vital in order to bring for the signs interpretant (merkmale) to arise. Maturana and Varela have no conception of signs and semiosis, as their theory lacks a phenomenological and hermeneutical basis. But they explicitly reject the cognitive view of cognition as the nervous system picking up...... information from the environment and the conceptualization of the cognitive processes in the brain as information processing. Though neither they nor Bateson have a semiotic theory of meaning, it is the bio-cybernetics theory of autopoiesis and structural coupling that makes the interpretation of disturbances...

  1. Models as Relational Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkonen, Tommi

    2017-11-01

    Model-based learning (MBL) has an established position within science education. It has been found to enhance conceptual understanding and provide a way for engaging students in authentic scientific activity. Despite ample research, few studies have examined the cognitive processes regarding learning scientific concepts within MBL. On the other hand, recent research within cognitive science has examined the learning of so-called relational categories. Relational categories are categories whose membership is determined on the basis of the common relational structure. In this theoretical paper, I argue that viewing models as relational categories provides a well-motivated cognitive basis for MBL. I discuss the different roles of models and modeling within MBL (using ready-made models, constructive modeling, and generative modeling) and discern the related cognitive aspects brought forward by the reinterpretation of models as relational categories. I will argue that relational knowledge is vital in learning novel models and in the transfer of learning. Moreover, relational knowledge underlies the coherent, hierarchical knowledge of experts. Lastly, I will examine how the format of external representations may affect the learning of models and the relevant relations. The nature of the learning mechanisms underlying students' mental representations of models is an interesting open question to be examined. Furthermore, the ways in which the expert-like knowledge develops and how to best support it is in need of more research. The discussion and conceptualization of models as relational categories allows discerning students' mental representations of models in terms of evolving relational structures in greater detail than previously done.

  2. Categories of transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter discusses the types of wholesale sales made by utilities. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), which regulates inter-utility sales, divides these sales into two broad categories: requirements and coordination. A variety of wholesale sales do not fall neatly into either category. For example, power purchased to replace the Three Mile Island outage is in a sense a reliability purchase, since it is bought on a long-term firm basis to meet basic load requirements. However, it does not fit the traditional model of a sale considered as part of each utility's long range planning. In addition, this chapter discusses transmission services, with a particular emphasis on wheeling

  3. Consumer Product Category Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use information is compiled from multiple sources while product information is gathered from publicly available Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). EPA researchers are evaluating the possibility of expanding the database with additional product and use information.

  4. Cybernetics of change and stability in the context of counselling and therapeutic work with client system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Šugman Bohinc

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The authoress defines the cybernetic concept of change and stability as a suitable description of constituting and maintaining the contex of counselling and therapeutic work with the client system. She explains the concept of first- and second-order change together with the (usual strategies for bringing forth first-order changes and second-order changes and different problem definitions as well as problem solutions, arising from the kind of changes created. The description of constitution and maintenance of the context of counselling and therapeutic work with the client system is summarized in the form of general views and strategies of cybernetic use of the concept of change and stability, such as: (aco-creation of the context for the development of desirable changes, (b testing the order of change needed for the desirable problem solution, (c common design of a plan of possible steps for bringing forth the desired changes, (d regular verification of epistemological assumptions of the counsellor or the therapist as well as of the client system regarding problem and solution understanding, regular verification (and redefinition of agreement on the desirable outcome of the problem all the way to the agreement on its realization.

  5. The Emergence of Cybernetics in Semiotics. Case Study: Art, Poetry and Absurd Theatre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculae V. Mihaita

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available It is shown in this paper, some results on cybernetic modeling and Informational Statistics application who are presented for sustaining the perfect narrative love poem, Evening Star or Lucifer of Eminescu, the antenarrative of Eugène Ionesco and of critical visual aesthetics and antenarrative spectrality described by David Boje [3] regarding Empire Reading of Manet‘s Execution of Maximilian. Cybernetics concepts of feed-before, feed-forward and feed-back could reveal the narrative behind the antenarrative creating of a theatrical play. It is shown in this paper, some results on fuzzy modeling and Informational Statistics application who are presented for sustaining of critical visual aesthetics and antenarrative spectrality described by David Boje regarding Empire Reading of Manet‘s Execution of Maximilian. The combination with planning statistical experiments and Informational Statistics make fuzzy membership function a new approach for antenarrative analysis independent of initial conditions. This feature allows new arguments obtained by measuring the informational gains to be discussed in art, literature or conversation. This approach can be used to obtain either complete or generalized synoptic ideograms. Several simulations or scenarios could be carried out to illustrate how the methods‘ combination clarify the „black box‖ of understanding complex processes in Art.

  6. Applying cybernetic technology to diagnose human pulmonary sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Yung; Chou, Cheng-Han

    2014-06-01

    Chest auscultation is a crucial and efficient method for diagnosing lung disease; however, it is a subjective process that relies on physician experience and the ability to differentiate between various sound patterns. Because the physiological signals composed of heart sounds and pulmonary sounds (PSs) are greater than 120 Hz and the human ear is not sensitive to low frequencies, successfully making diagnostic classifications is difficult. To solve this problem, we constructed various PS recognition systems for classifying six PS classes: vesicular breath sounds, bronchial breath sounds, tracheal breath sounds, crackles, wheezes, and stridor sounds. First, we used a piezoelectric microphone and data acquisition card to acquire PS signals and perform signal preprocessing. A wavelet transform was used for feature extraction, and the PS signals were decomposed into frequency subbands. Using a statistical method, we extracted 17 features that were used as the input vectors of a neural network. We proposed a 2-stage classifier combined with a back-propagation (BP) neural network and learning vector quantization (LVQ) neural network, which improves classification accuracy by using a haploid neural network. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve verifies the high performance level of the neural network. To expand traditional auscultation methods, we constructed various PS diagnostic systems that can correctly classify the six common PSs. The proposed device overcomes the lack of human sensitivity to low-frequency sounds and various PS waves, characteristic values, and a spectral analysis charts are provided to elucidate the design of the human-machine interface.

  7. Physical-mathematical model for cybernetic description of the human organs with trace element concentrations as input variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihai, Maria; Popescu, I.V.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we report a physical-mathematical model for studying the organs and humans fluids by cybernetic principle. The input variables represent the trace elements which are determined by atomic and nuclear methods of elemental analysis. We have determined the health limits between which the organs might function. (authors)

  8. Basic category theory

    CERN Document Server

    Leinster, Tom

    2014-01-01

    At the heart of this short introduction to category theory is the idea of a universal property, important throughout mathematics. After an introductory chapter giving the basic definitions, separate chapters explain three ways of expressing universal properties: via adjoint functors, representable functors, and limits. A final chapter ties all three together. The book is suitable for use in courses or for independent study. Assuming relatively little mathematical background, it is ideal for beginning graduate students or advanced undergraduates learning category theory for the first time. For each new categorical concept, a generous supply of examples is provided, taken from different parts of mathematics. At points where the leap in abstraction is particularly great (such as the Yoneda lemma), the reader will find careful and extensive explanations. Copious exercises are included.

  9. CHURCH, Category, and Speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinderknecht Jakob Karl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Roman Catholic definition of “church”, especially as applied to groups of Protestant Christians, creates a number of well-known difficulties. The similarly complex category, “species,” provides a model for applying this term so as to neither lose the centrality of certain examples nor draw a hard boundary to rule out border cases. In this way, it can help us to more adequately apply the complex ecclesiology of the Second Vatican Council. This article draws parallels between the understanding of speciation and categorization and the definition of Church since the council. In doing so, it applies the work of cognitive linguists, including George Lakoff, Zoltan Kovecses, Giles Fauconnier and Mark Turner on categorization. We tend to think of categories as containers into which we sort objects according to essential criteria. However, categories are actually built inductively by making associations between objects. This means that natural categories, including species, are more porous than we assume, but nevertheless bear real meaning about the natural world. Taxonomists dispute the border between “zebras” and “wild asses,” but this distinction arises out of genetic and evolutionary reality; it is not merely arbitrary. Genetic descriptions of species has also led recently to the conviction that there are four species of giraffe, not one. This engagement will ground a vantage point from which the Council‘s complex ecclesiology can be more easily described so as to authentically integrate its noncompetitive vision vis-a-vis other Christians with its sense of the unique place held by Catholic Church.

  10. Visual memory needs categories

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Henrik; Poom, Leo

    2005-01-01

    Capacity limitations in the way humans store and process information in working memory have been extensively studied, and several memory systems have been distinguished. In line with previous capacity estimates for verbal memory and memory for spatial information, recent studies suggest that it is possible to retain up to four objects in visual working memory. The objects used have typically been categorically different colors and shapes. Because knowledge about categories is stored in long-t...

  11. Libertarianism & Category-Mistake

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers a defense against two accusations according to which libertarianism incurs in a category-mistake. The philosophy of Gilbert Ryle will be used to explain the reasons which ground these accusations. Further, it will be shown why, although certain sorts of libertarianism based on agent-causation or Cartesian dualism incur in these mistakes, there is at least one version of libertarianism to which this criticism does not necessarily apply: the version that seeks to find in physi...

  12. Convergence semigroup categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Richardson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Properties of the category consisting of all objects of the form (X, S, λ are investigated, where X is a convergence space, S is a commutative semigroup, and λ: X × S → X is a continuous action. A “generalized quotient” of each object is defined without making the usual assumption that for each fixed g ∈ S, λ(., g : X  → X is an injection.

  13. Categories and Commutative Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Salmon, P

    2011-01-01

    L. Badescu: Sur certaines singularites des varietes algebriques.- D.A. Buchsbaum: Homological and commutative algebra.- S. Greco: Anelli Henseliani.- C. Lair: Morphismes et structures algebriques.- B.A. Mitchell: Introduction to category theory and homological algebra.- R. Rivet: Anneaux de series formelles et anneaux henseliens.- P. Salmon: Applicazioni della K-teoria all'algebra commutativa.- M. Tierney: Axiomatic sheaf theory: some constructions and applications.- C.B. Winters: An elementary lecture on algebraic spaces.

  14. LIBERTARISMO & ERROR CATEGORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se ofrece una defensa del libertarismo frente a dos acusaciones según las cuales éste comete un error categorial. Para ello, se utiliza la filosofía de Gilbert Ryle como herramienta para explicar las razones que fundamentan estas acusaciones y para mostrar por qué, pese a que ciertas versiones del libertarismo que acuden a la causalidad de agentes o al dualismo cartesiano cometen estos errores, un libertarismo que busque en el indeterminismo fisicalista la base de la posibilidad de la libertad humana no necesariamente puede ser acusado de incurrir en ellos.

  15. Libertarianism & Category-Mistake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a defense against two accusations according to which libertarianism incurs in a category-mistake. The philosophy of Gilbert Ryle will be used to explain the reasons which ground these accusations. Further, it will be shown why, although certain sorts of libertarianism based on agent-causation or Cartesian dualism incur in these mistakes, there is at least one version of libertarianism to which this criticism does not necessarily apply: the version that seeks to find in physical indeterminism the grounding of human free will.

  16. Libertarismo & Error Categorial

    OpenAIRE

    PATARROYO G, CARLOS G

    2009-01-01

    En este artículo se ofrece una defensa del libertarismo frente a dos acusaciones según las cuales éste comete un error categorial. Para ello, se utiliza la filosofía de Gilbert Ryle como herramienta para explicar las razones que fundamentan estas acusaciones y para mostrar por qué, pese a que ciertas versiones del libertarismo que acuden a la causalidad de agentes o al dualismo cartesiano cometen estos errores, un libertarismo que busque en el indeterminismo fisicalista la base de la posibili...

  17. Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Informatics, Cybernetics, and Computer Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The volume includes a set of selected papers extended and revised from the International Conference on Informatics, Cybernetics, and Computer Engineering. An information system (IS) is any combination of information technology and people's activities using that technology to support operations, management.  Computer engineering is a discipline that integrates several fields of electrical engineering and computer science required to develop computer systems. ICCE 2011 Volume 2 is to provide a forum for researchers, educators, engineers, and government officials involved in the general areas of Information system and Software Engineering to disseminate their latest research results and exchange views on the future research directions of these fields. 81 high-quality papers are included in the volume. Each paper has been peer-reviewed by at least 2 program committee members and selected by the volume editor.

  18. The ethics of using cybernetics and cyborg technologies: what every rehabilitation nurse should know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Linda Weaver; Rieg, Linda S

    2005-01-01

    Cybernetics and cyborg technologies are rapidly developing in the field of biotechnology. Such developments have yielded a wide variety of devices and prosthetics that have promoted the quality of life for many individuals with physical limitations and generally have been applauded by society and the rehabilitation field. However, such rapid developments have given rise to multiple ethical concerns. Understanding these ethical concerns and the implications they have for rehabilitation nurses is imperative. While the potential benefits of advances in technology are great for those with disabilities and chronic conditions, ethicists suggest that skepticism must be balanced with the zeal that often accompanies cutting-edge developments. As Hook notes, "We must show not a fear of technology, but a courageous control of technology, and refuse to let technology control us" (2002, p. 67).

  19. W. Grey Walter, pioneer in the electroencephalogram, robotics, cybernetics, artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladin, Peter F

    2006-02-01

    With the announcement by William Lennox at the 1935 London International Neurology Congress of the use of electroencephalography in the study of epilepsy, it became evident that a new and powerful technique for the investigation of seizures had been discovered. William Grey Walter, a young researcher finishing his post-graduate studies at Cambridge, was selected to construct and study the EEG in clinical neurology at the Maudsley Hospital, London. His hugely productive pioneering career in the use of EEG would eventually lead to groundbreaking work in other fields --the emerging sciences of robotics, cybernetics, and early work in artificial intelligence. In this historical note his pioneering work in the fields of clinical neurophysiology is documented, both in the areas of epileptology and tumour detection. His landmark contributions to clinical neurophysiology are worthy of documentation.

  20. Issues of organizational cybernetics and viability beyond Beer's viable systems model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechansky, Helmut

    2013-11-01

    The paper starts summarizing the claims of Beer's viable systems model to identify five issues any viable organizations has to deal with in an unequivocal hierarchical structure of five interrelated systems. Then the evidence is introduced for additional issues and related viable structures of organizations, which deviate from Beer's model. These issues are: (1) the establishment and (2) evolution of an organization; (3) systems for independent top-down control (like "Six Sigma"); (4) systems for independent bottom-up correction of performance problems (like "Kaizen"), both working outside a hierarchical structure; (5) pull production systems ("Just in Time") and (6) systems for checks and balances of top-level power (like boards and shareholder meetings). Based on that an evolutionary approach to organizational cybernetics is outlined, addressing the establishment of organizations and possible courses of developments, including recent developments in quality and production engineering, as well as problems of setting and changing goal values determining organizational policies.

  1. Section of Cybernetics in Mining of Mining Committee of Polish Academy of Sciences - Pro Memoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojaczek, Antoni; Miśkiewicz, Kazimierz

    2017-09-01

    Section of Cybernetics in Mining of Mining Committee of Polish Academy of Science (PAN) has been created by PAN Mining Committee in 1969. It was a section in Mining Committee of PAN, whose operation range included widely understood issues of automation, telecommunication and informatics in mining industry. The main operation method of the Section was to organize the periodic conferences dedicated to issues of control systems in mining. The first conference took place in 1971 in Katowice. Together with new (the current one) term of office of Mining Committee of PAN this Section ceased to exist. The paper presents (pro memoria) over 40 year long conference output of this Section that functioned within the scope of operation of Mining Committee of PAN up to 12th January 2016.

  2. Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Informatics, Cybernetics, and Computer Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This volume includes a set of selected papers extended and revised from the International Conference on Informatics, Cybernetics, and Computer Engineering. A computer network is a collection of computers and devices interconnected by communications channels that facilitate communications and allows sharing of resources and information among interconnected devices. Networks may be classified according to a wide variety of characteristics such as medium used to transport the data, communications protocol used, scale, topology, organizational scope, etc. Electronics engineering is an engineering discipline where non-linear and active electrical components such as electron tubes, and semiconductor devices, especially transistors, diodes and integrated circuits, are utilized to design electronic circuits, devices and systems, typically also including passive electrical components and based on printed circuit boards. ICCE 2011 Volume 3 is to provide a forum for researchers, educators, engineers, and government offi...

  3. Concepts to Analyze the Vulnerability of Critical Infrastructures - Taking into account Cybernetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Petit

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Critical Infrastructures (CIs are complex systems. For their operations, these infrastructures are increasingly using Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA systems. Management practices are therefore highly dependent on the cyber tools, but also on the data needed to make these tools work. Therefore, CIs are greatly vulnerable to degradation of data. In this context, this paper aims at presenting the fundamentals of a method for analyzing the vulnerabilities of CIs towards the use of cyber data. By characterizing cyber vulnerability of CIs, it will be possible to improve the resilience of these networks and to foster a proactive approach to risk management not only by considering cybernetics from a cyber-attack point of view but also by considering the consequences of the use of corrupted data.

  4. Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Informatics, Cybernetics, and Computer Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The volume includes a set of selected papers extended and revised from the International Conference on Informatics, Cybernetics, and Computer Engineering. Intelligent control is a class of control techniques, that use various AI computing approaches like neural networks, Bayesian probability, fuzzy logic, machine learning, evolutionary computation and genetic algorithms. Intelligent control can be divided into the following major sub-domains: Neural network control Bayesian control Fuzzy (logic) control Neuro-fuzzy control Expert Systems Genetic control Intelligent agents (Cognitive/Conscious control) New control techniques are created continuously as new models of intelligent behavior are created and computational methods developed to support them. Networks may be classified according to a wide variety of characteristics such as medium used to transport the data, communications protocol used, scale, topology, organizational scope, etc. ICCE 2011 Volume 1 is to provide a forum for researchers, educators, engi...

  5. Digital Self-Evaluation and the Cybernetic Regime: A Sketch for a Materialist Apparatus Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Schaupp

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Using the example of self-tracking, this paper develops a materialist approach to the methodology of apparatus analysis. It builds on the Foucauldian concept of the apparatus, which it then subdivides into micro apparatus, as a concrete digital technology, and macro apparatus, as the superordinate regime to which the micro apparatus contributes. To bridge these two concepts, the term of the “urgent need” is used for asking to which broader social problems a given apparatus reacts. Contrary to approaches of “new materialism”, this paper insists on an analytical divide between discourse and matter on the one hand and action structure on the other hand, to be able to consider politico-economic power relations. Using this methodology, the relationship between the techno-practice of self-tracking and a broader cybernetic regime, is illustrated.

  6. Aircraft cybernetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.

  7. Category-specificity in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Are all categories of objects recognized in the same manner visually? Evidence from neuropsychology suggests they are not: some brain damaged patients are more impaired in recognizing natural objects than artefacts whereas others show the opposite impairment. Category-effects have also been...... demonstrated in neurologically intact subjects, but the findings are contradictory and there is no agreement as to why category-effects arise. This article presents a Pre-semantic Account of Category Effects (PACE) in visual object recognition. PACE assumes two processing stages: shape configuration (the...... binding of shape elements into elaborate shape descriptions) and selection (among competing representations in visual long-term memory), which are held to be differentially affected by the structural similarity between objects. Drawing on evidence from clinical studies, experimental studies...

  8. Visual object recognition and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    This thesis is based on seven published papers. The majority of the papers address two topics in visual object recognition: (i) category-effects at pre-semantic stages, and (ii) the integration of visual elements into elaborate shape descriptions corresponding to whole objects or large object parts...... (shape configuration). In the early writings these two topics were examined more or less independently. In later works, findings concerning category-effects and shape configuration merge into an integrated model, termed RACE, advanced to explain category-effects arising at pre-semantic stages in visual...... in visual long-term memory. In the thesis it is described how this simple model can account for a wide range of findings on category-specificity in both patients with brain damage and normal subjects. Finally, two hypotheses regarding the neural substrates of the model's components - and how activation...

  9. Energy information data base: energy categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    Citations entered into DOE's computerized bibliographic information system are assigned six-digit subject category numbers to group information broadly for storage, retrieval, and manipulation. These numbers are used in the preparation of printed documents, such as bibliographies and abstract journals, to arrange the citations and as searching aids in the on-line system, DOE/RECON. This document has been prepared for use by those individuals responsible for the assignment of category numbers to documents being entered into the Technical Information Center (TIC) system, those individuals and organizations processing magnetic tape copies of the files, those individuals doing on-line searching for information in TIC-created files, and others who, having no access to RECON, need printed copy. The six-digit numbers assigned to documents are listed, along with the category names and text to define the scope of interest. Asterisks highlight those categories added or changed since the previous printing, and a subject index further details the subject content of each category

  10. Beyond the Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Jeffrey

    2015-07-01

    Shushu is a Turkish Cypriot drag performance artist and the article begins with a discussion of a short film about him by a Greek Cypriot playwright, film maker, and gay activist. The film is interesting in its own right as a documentary about a complex personality, but it is also relevant to wider discussion of sexual and gender identity and categorization in a country divided by history, religion, politics, and military occupation. Shushu rejects easy identification as gay or transgender, or anything else. He is his own self. But refusing a recognized and recognizable identity brings problems, and I detected a pervasive mood of melancholy in his portrayal. The article builds from this starting point to explore the problematic nature of identities and categorizations in the contemporary world. The analysis opens with the power of words and language in defining and classifying sexuality. The early sexologists set in motion a whole catalogue of categories which continue to shape sexual thinking, believing that they were providing a scientific basis for a more humane treatment of sexual variations. This logic continues in DSM-5. The historical effect, however, has been more complex. Categorizations have often fixed individuals into a narrow band of definitions and identities that marginalize and pathologize. The emergence of radical sexual-social movements from the late 1960s offered new forms of grassroots knowledge in opposition to the sexological tradition, but at first these movements worked to affirm rather than challenge the significance of identity categories. Increasingly, however, identities have been problematized and challenged for limiting sexual and gender possibilities, leading to the apparently paradoxical situation where sexual identities are seen as both necessary and impossible. There are emotional costs both in affirming a fixed identity and in rejecting one. Shushu is caught in this dilemma, leading to the pervasive sense of loss that shapes the

  11. An introduction to the language of category theory

    CERN Document Server

    Roman, Steven

    2017-01-01

    This textbook provides an introduction to elementary category theory, with the aim of making what can be a confusing and sometimes overwhelming subject more accessible. In writing about this challenging subject, the author has brought to bear all of the experience he has gained in authoring over 30 books in university-level mathematics. The goal of this book is to present the five major ideas of category theory: categories, functors, natural transformations, universality, and adjoints in as friendly and relaxed a manner as possible while at the same time not sacrificing rigor. These topics are developed in a straightforward, step-by-step manner and are accompanied by numerous examples and exercises, most of which are drawn from abstract algebra. The first chapter of the book introduces the definitions of category and functor and discusses diagrams, duality, initial and terminal objects, special types of morphisms, and some special types of categories, particularly comma categories and hom-set categories. Chap...

  12. Language categories in Russian morphology

    OpenAIRE

    زهرایی زهرایی

    2009-01-01

    When studying Russian morphology, one can distinguish two categories. These categories are “grammatical” and “lexico-grammatical”. Grammatical categories can be specified through a series of grammatical features of words. Considering different criteria, Russian grammarians and linguists divide grammatical categories of their language into different types. In determining lexico-grammatical types, in addition to a series of grammatical features, they also consider a series of lexico-semantic fe...

  13. Functional categories in agrammatism: evidence from Greek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrakaki, Stavroula; Kouvava, Sofia

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study is twofold. First, to investigate the use of functional categories by two Greek agrammatic aphasics. Second, to discuss the implications of our findings for the characterization of the deficit in agrammatism. The functional categories under investigation were the following: definite and indefinite articles, personal pronouns, aspect, tense, subject-verb agreement, wh-pronouns, complementizers and the mood marker na (=to). Based on data collected through different methods, it is argued that the deficit in agrammatism cannot be described in terms of a structural account but rather by means of difficulties in the implementation of grammatical knowledge.

  14. The mindful personality: A meta-analysis from a cybernetic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Adam W; Garland, Eric L

    2017-12-01

    Dispositional mindfulness (DM), or the tendency to attend to present moment experience, may have important implications for the structure of human personality. However, relationships between DM and the Big Five Model of Personality (BF) have not been definitively established. Therefore, the purpose of this meta-analysis was to extend previous investigations of the relationship between DM and the BF, utilizing a larger sample of studies, attending to relational inconsistencies potentially associated with alternative methods of operationalizing DM, conducting the first meta-analysis of the DM subdomains in relation to the BF, and situating the results in a cybernetic model. Results indicate that neuroticism evidenced the strongest, negative relationship with DM and conscientiousness evidenced the strongest, positive relationship with DM, suggesting the mindful personality may be characterized principally by emotional stability and conscientious self-regulation - potentially reflective of an inclination towards the personality metatrait stability. Measurement differences were also observed, with the mindful personality arrived at through the FFMQ differing to some extent from the mindful personality emerging from the MAAS. Broadly, the mindful personality associated with the FFMQ appears to reflect greater personality complexity, with the FFMQ evidencing associations with all five personality factors while the MAAS appears primarily linked with only three personality factors (Neuroticism, Conscientiousness and Agreeableness). Examination of the relationships between the BF and DM at the facet level also suggest unique patterns of association between the DM facets and each of the personality factors.

  15. Power centroid radar and its rise from the universal cybernetics duality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feria, Erlan H.

    2014-05-01

    Power centroid radar (PC-Radar) is a fast and powerful adaptive radar scheme that naturally surfaced from the recent discovery of the time-dual for information theory which has been named "latency theory." Latency theory itself was born from the universal cybernetics duality (UC-Duality), first identified in the late 1970s, that has also delivered a time dual for thermodynamics that has been named "lingerdynamics" and anchors an emerging lifespan theory for biological systems. In this paper the rise of PC-Radar from the UC-Duality is described. The development of PC-Radar, US patented, started with Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) funded research on knowledge-aided (KA) adaptive radar of the last decade. The outstanding signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) performance of PC-Radar under severely taxing environmental disturbances will be established. More specifically, it will be seen that the SINR performance of PC-Radar, either KA or knowledgeunaided (KU), approximates that of an optimum KA radar scheme. The explanation for this remarkable result is that PC-Radar inherently arises from the UC-Duality, which advances a "first principles" duality guidance theory for the derivation of synergistic storage-space/computational-time compression solutions. Real-world synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images will be used as prior-knowledge to illustrate these results.

  16. Cybernetic Theory as a New Approach to Studying Workers’ Well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Franco

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research is to explain why well-being in the workplace is a theme of increasing interest and why many studies have analyzed its functioning and diffusion. From the literature on well-being it is evident that the findings of previous research are sometimes discordant and theoretical models particularly use diverse variables according to different needs and objectives. Despite the influence of a number of different factors, well-being can be studied by looking at three main aspects: physical well-being, mental health, and job satisfaction. The variables influencing it, however, are numerous and often analyzed from different perspectives. Methods of analysis vary across national and disciplinary contexts. The present work is based on a local survey of a small Italian district that investigates two hypotheses about the correlation between locus of control and variables determining work well-being (Spector et al., 2002 and the possibility of using perceptions and desires on the variables influencing well-being as predictors of it. We use the concepts of cybernetic theory and feedback loop (Edwards, 1992. Findings of statistical correlation and hierarchic regression are discussed; limitations and suggestions for further research are presented.

  17. Towards the Accuracy of Cybernetic Strategy Planning Models: Causal Proof and Function Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian A. Hillbrand

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available All kind of strategic tasks within an enterprise require a deep understanding of its critical key success factors and their interrelations as well as an in-depth analysis of relevant environmental influences. Due to the openness of the underlying system, there seems to be an indefinite number of unknown variables influencing strategic goals. Cybernetic or systemic planning techniques try to overcome this intricacy by modeling the most important cause-and-effect relations within such a system. Although it seems to be obvious that there are specific influences between business variables, it is mostly impossible to identify the functional dependencies underlying such relations. Hence simulation or evaluation techniques based on such hypothetically assumed models deliver inaccurate results or fail completely. This paper addresses the need for accurate strategy planning models and proposes an approach to prove their cause-andeffect relations by empirical evidence. Based on this foundation an approach for the approximation of the underlying cause-andeffect function by the means of Artificial Neural Networks is developed.

  18. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research

  19. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

  20. How categories come to matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leahu, Lucian; Cohn, Marisa; March, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    In a study of users' interactions with Siri, the iPhone personal assistant application, we noticed the emergence of overlaps and blurrings between explanatory categories such as "human" and "machine". We found that users work to purify these categories, thus resolving the tensions related to the ...... initial data analysis, due to our own forms of latent purification, and outline the particular analytic techniques that helped lead to this discovery. We thus provide an illustrative case of how categories come to matter in HCI research and design.......In a study of users' interactions with Siri, the iPhone personal assistant application, we noticed the emergence of overlaps and blurrings between explanatory categories such as "human" and "machine". We found that users work to purify these categories, thus resolving the tensions related...

  1. The composition of category conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Russell R C; Crisp, Richard J

    2005-05-01

    In three experiments, the authors investigated the impression formation process resulting from the perception of familiar or unfamiliar social category combinations. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to generate attributes associated with either a familiar or unfamiliar social category conjunction. Compared to familiar combinations, the authors found that when the conjunction was unfamiliar, participants formed their impression less from the individual constituent categories and relatively more from novel emergent attributes. In Experiment 2, the authors replicated this effect using alternative experimental materials. In Experiment 3, the effect generalized to additional (orthogonally combined) gender and occupation categories. The implications of these findings for understanding the processes involved in the conjunction of social categories, and the formation of new stereotypes, are discussed.

  2. Effects of task and category membership on representation stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Manetta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the within-subject stability of 150 participants who performed both a sorting task and a property-generation task over multiple sessions, focusing on three concrete concept categories (food, animals and bathroom products. We hypothesized that (1 the within-subject stability would be higher in the sorting task than in the property-generation task and (2 the nature of the category would influence both the within-subject stability of the classification groups in the sorting task and the properties generated to define these groups. The results show that the within-subject stability of conceptual representations depends both on the task and on the nature of the category. The stability of the representations was greater in the sorting task than in the property-generation task and in the food category. These results are discussed from a longitudinal perspective.

  3. An organizational cybernetics framework for achieving balance in evidence-based practice and practice-based evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Dale

    2014-01-01

    This article applies the systems science of organizational cybernetics to the implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) in the provision of social work services in a residential treatment center setting. It does so by systemically balancing EBP with practice-based evidence (PBE) with a focus on the organizational and information system infrastructures necessary to ensure successful implementation. This application is illustrated by discussing a residential treatment program that implemented evidence-based programming and evaluated the results; however, the systemic principles articulated can be applied to any human services organizational setting.

  4. On Anaphora and the Binding Principles in Categorial Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Glyn; Valentín, Oriol

    In type logical categorial grammar the analysis of an expression is a resource-conscious proof. Anaphora represents a particular challenge to this approach in that the antecedent resource is multiplied in the semantics. This duplication, which corresponds logically to the structural rule of contraction, may be treated lexically or syntactically. Furthermore, anaphora is subject to constraints, which Chomsky (1981) formulated as Binding Principles A, B, and C. In this paper we consider English anaphora in categorial grammar including reference to the binding principles. We invoke displacement calculus, modal categorial calculus, categorial calculus with limited contraction, and entertain addition of negation as failure.

  5. How do Category Managers Manage?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Sigurbjornsson, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to explore the managerial role of category managers in purchasing. A network management perspective is adopted. A case based research methodology is applied, and three category managers managing a diverse set of component and service categories in a global production...... firm is observed while providing accounts of their progress and results in meetings. We conclude that the network management classification scheme originally deve loped by Harland and Knight (2001) and Knight and Harland (2005) is a valuable and fertile theoretical framework for the analysis...

  6. Ethnicity in censuses: Changeable and inconstant category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrđen Snježana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of ethnicity was set in all censuses of SFRY, as well as in the first censuses in countries that were created after its disintegration. When analyzing the censuses it can be concluded that it is a changeable category. Not only was the manner of forming the question in censuses changing, but also the number of categories of nationality and their order in published census' results. It depended on state policy and the political situation preceding the censuses. Since the answer on the issues of ethnicity is a subjective criterion, and it was written down according to the freely declared statement of the residents, guaranteed by the Constitution. It has often happened that same individuals have declared themselves differently from one census to another, and also some categories of ethnicity have vanished and some others were created. Although in SFRY nations and ethnicities were equal, still indirectly in published results, existence of these two categories was indicated. But, in newly created countries, the manner of forming the question of ethnicity was changed, their number and order were also changed and the notion of 'minority' was again introduced, indicating, beyond doubt, a different status of nationality (except the majority from the one in the former Yugoslavia.

  7. Homological algebra in -abelian categories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deren Luo

    2017-08-16

    Aug 16, 2017 ... Homological algebra in n-abelian categories. 627. We recall the Comparison lemma, together with its dual, plays a central role in the sequel. Lemma 2.1 [13, Comparison lemma 2.1]. Let C be an additive category and X ∈ Ch. ≥0(C) a complex such that for all k ≥ 0the morphism dk+1. X is a weak cokernel ...

  8. Data categories for marine planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsom, Frances L.; Cicchetti, Giancarlo; Wahle, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. National Ocean Policy calls for a science- and ecosystem-based approach to comprehensive planning and management of human activities and their impacts on America’s oceans. The Ocean Community in Data.gov is an outcome of 2010–2011 work by an interagency working group charged with designing a national information management system to support ocean planning. Within the working group, a smaller team developed a list of the data categories specifically relevant to marine planning. This set of categories is an important consensus statement of the breadth of information types required for ocean planning from a national, multidisciplinary perspective. Although the categories were described in a working document in 2011, they have not yet been fully implemented explicitly in online services or geospatial metadata, in part because authoritative definitions were not created formally. This document describes the purpose of the data categories, provides definitions, and identifies relations among the categories and between the categories and external standards. It is intended to be used by ocean data providers, managers, and users in order to provide a transparent and consistent framework for organizing and describing complex information about marine ecosystems and their connections to humans.

  9. PRECEDENCE AS A PSYCHOLINGUISTIC CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panarina Nadezhda Sergeevna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of particular linguistic units by representatives of a linguacultural community as the most preferable verbal actions is not necessary to be a case of verbal operations with some culturally specific knowledge. The analysis of a psychosocial mechanism used for generation and verbalization of such a knowledge allows to define the nature of precedence as a characteristic of meaning that is being effected in a speech act. The development of precedent meaning indispensably assumes not only generation of the definition component, but also entry into a structure of a culturological component meaning. The culturological component reflects a relationship between a subject-concept component of the meaning and the other elements of a speech situation – the relationship, which is notional for a person. Importance of the relationship consists in fact that definition of its content represents to a person their social identity. Until a person understands the content of relationship, which is represented by the culturological component, the use of corresponding linguistic units to nominate new objects of reality is a supraliminal appeal to the precedent knowledge, a speech act. But for new acts of usage the main thing is definitely quality of relationship as a characteristic of the cultural group stability, and the linguistic unit usage derives a new function. When the culturological component of the meaning is not included into generalization, since it is irrelevant one, and the core of meaning is composed of new and more relevant for the usage features, you can no more realize the inner form of the precedent meaning. The outer form is still relevant, since it is kept in mind by the representatives of linguaculture as the one which is preferable for usage. In this case the linguistic unit is just a tool not related to verbal representation of socially significant attitude, and its usage is a speech operation, a way to perform different speech acts

  10. Becoming with Data: Developing Self-Assessing Recursive Pedagogies in Schools and Using Second-Order Cybernetics as a Thinking Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinertsen, Anne Beate

    2014-01-01

    This article is about developing school-based self-assessing recursive pedagogies and case/action research practices and/or approaches in schools, and teachers, teacher researchers and researchers simultaneously producing and theorising their own practices using second-order cybernetics as a thinking tool. It is a move towards pragmatic…

  11. Some Contributions of General Systems Theory, Cybernetics Theory and Management Control Theory to Evaluation Theory and Practice. Research on Evaluation Program Paper and Report Series. Interim Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Desmond L.

    This document, one of a series of reports examining the possible contribution of other disciplines to evaluation methodology, describes the major elements of general systems theory (GST), cybernetics theory (CT) and management control theory (MCT). The author suggests that MCT encapsulates major concerns of evaluation since it reveals that…

  12. Interlinked population balance and cybernetic models for the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of natural polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yong Kuen; Doshi, Pankaj; Yeoh, Hak Koon; Ngoh, Gek Cheng

    2015-10-01

    Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) is a process where microbes have to first excrete extracellular enzymes to break polymeric substrates such as starch or cellulose into edible nutrients, followed by in situ conversion of those nutrients into more valuable metabolites via fermentation. As such, SSF is very attractive as a one-pot synthesis method of biological products. However, due to the co-existence of multiple biochemical steps, modeling SSF faces two major challenges. The first is to capture the successive chain-end and/or random scission of the polymeric substrates over time, which determines the rate of generation of various fermentable substrates. The second is to incorporate the response of microbes, including their preferential substrate utilization, to such a complex broth. Each of the above-mentioned challenges has manifested itself in many related areas, and has been competently but separately attacked with two diametrically different tools, i.e., the Population Balance Modeling (PBM) and the Cybernetic Modeling (CM), respectively. To date, they have yet to be applied in unison on SSF resulting in a general inadequacy or haphazard approaches to examine the dynamics and interactions of depolymerization and fermentation. To overcome this unsatisfactory state of affairs, here, the general linkage between PBM and CM is established to model SSF. A notable feature is the flexible linkage, which allows the individual PBM and CM models to be independently modified to the desired levels of detail. A more general treatment of the secretion of extracellular enzyme is also proposed in the CM model. Through a case study on the growth of a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of excreting a chain-end scission enzyme (glucoamylase) on starch, the interlinked model calibrated using data from the literature (Nakamura et al., Biotechnol. Bioeng. 53:21-25, 1997), captured features not attainable by existing approaches. In particular, the effect

  13. Category O for quantum groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Haahr; Mazorchuk, Volodymyr

    2015-01-01

    We study the BGG-categories O_q associated to quantum groups. We prove that many properties of the ordinary BGG-category O for a semisimple complex Lie algebra carry over to the quantum case. Of particular interest is the case when q is a complex root of unity. Here we prove a tensor decomposition...... for simple modules, projective modules, and indecomposable tilting modules. Using the known Kazhdan–Lusztig conjectures for O and for finite-dimensional U_q-modules we are able to determine all irreducible characters as well as the characters of all indecomposable tilting modules in O_q . As a consequence......, we also recover the known result that the generic quantum case behaves like the classical category O....

  14. FINANCIAL CONTROL AS A CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Yu. Volkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the basics of “financial control” as a category. The main attention is concentrated on the “control” itself (asa term, multiplicity of interpretation of“financial control” term and its juristic-practical matching. The duality of financial control category is detected. The identity of terms “financial control” and “state financial control” is justified. The article also offers ways of development of financial control juristical regulation.

  15. Learnable Classes of Categorial Grammars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Makoto

    Learnability theory is an attempt to illuminate the concept of learnability using a mathematical model of learning. Two models of learning of categorial grammars are examined here: the standard model, in which sentences presented to the learner are flat strings of words, and one in which sentences are presented in the form of functor-argument…

  16. Language universals without universal categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croft, W.; van Lier, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors present their views on an article by author Sandra Chung related to lexical categories. According to them, Chung's article critiques an analysis of word classes in Chamorro by author Donald M. Topping. They discuss the restatements made by Chung on Topping's criteria for

  17. Auditory and phonetic category formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudbeek, Martijn; Cutler, A.; Smits, R.; Swingley, D.; Cohen, Henri; Lefebvre, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Among infants' first steps in language acquisition is learning the relevant contrasts of the language-specific phonemic repertoire. This learning is viewed as the formation of categories in a multidimensional psychophysical space. Research in the visual modality has shown that for adults, some kinds

  18. Typicality effects in artificial categories: is there a hemisphere difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, L G; Chiarello, C

    1990-07-01

    In category classification tasks, typicality effects are usually found: accuracy and reaction time depend upon distance from a prototype. In this study, subjects learned either verbal or nonverbal dot pattern categories, followed by a lateralized classification task. Comparable typicality effects were found in both reaction time and accuracy across visual fields for both verbal and nonverbal categories. Both hemispheres appeared to use a similarity-to-prototype matching strategy in classification. This indicates that merely having a verbal label does not differentiate classification in the two hemispheres.

  19. Grammatical Constructions as Relational Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Micah B

    2017-07-01

    This paper argues that grammatical constructions, specifically argument structure constructions that determine the "who did what to whom" part of sentence meaning and how this meaning is expressed syntactically, can be considered a kind of relational category. That is, grammatical constructions are represented as the abstraction of the syntactic and semantic relations of the exemplar utterances that are expressed in that construction, and it enables the generation of novel exemplars. To support this argument, I review evidence that there are parallel behavioral patterns between how children learn relational categories generally and how they learn grammatical constructions specifically. Then, I discuss computational simulations of how grammatical constructions are abstracted from exemplar sentences using a domain-general relational cognitive architecture. Last, I review evidence from adult language processing that shows parallel behavioral patterns with expert behavior from other cognitive domains. After reviewing the evidence, I consider how to integrate this account with other theories of language development. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  20. A Formal Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José

    This dissertation studies the logic underlying category theory. In particular we present a formal calculus for reasoning about universal properties. The aim is to systematise judgements about functoriality and naturality central to categorical reasoning. The calculus is based on a language which...... extends the typed lambda calculus with new binders to represent universal constructions. The types of the languages are interpreted as locally small categories and the expressions represent functors. The logic supports a syntactic treatment of universality and duality. Contravariance requires a definition...... of universality generous enough to deal with functors of mixed variance. Ends generalise limits to cover these kinds of functors and moreover provide the basis for a very convenient algebraic manipulation of expressions. The equational theory of the lambda calculus is extended with new rules for the definitions...

  1. Seismic Category I Structures Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endebrock, E.G.; Dove, R.C.; Anderson, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Seismic Category I Structures Program currently being carried out at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is sponsored by the Mechanical/Structural Engineering Branch, Division of Engineering Technology of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This project is part of a program designed to increase confidence in the assessment of Category I nuclear power plant structural behavior beyond the design limit. The program involves the design, construction, and testing of heavily reinforced concrete models of auxiliary buildings, fuel-handling buildings, etc., but doe not include the reactor containment building. The overall goal of the program is to supply to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission experimental information and a validated procedure to establish the sensitivity of the dynamic response of these structures to earthquakes of magnitude beyond the design basis earthquake

  2. Different Categories of Business Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Valeria TOMA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Every business organisation involves some element of risk. Unmitigated risks can result in lost opportunity, financial losses, loss of reputation, or loss of the right to operate in a jurisdiction. Like any other risk type, understanding business risks is quite important for every business to garner profits instead of facing losses. A business risk is a universal risk type; this means that every business in the world faces business risks. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the different categories of business risk in order to create the appropriate strategies. The aim of this paper is to describe the most important categories of business risks and to make sure that every type of risk receives equal treatment and consideration.

  3. Virtue Ethics: The Misleading Category

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Nussbaum

    1998-01-01

    Virtue ethics is frequently considered to be a single category of ethical theory, and a rival to Kantianismand Utilitarianism. I argue that this approach is a mistake, because both Kantians and Utilitarians can, and do, have an interest in the virtues and the forrnation of character. But even if we focus on the group of ethical theorists who are most commonly called "virtue theorists" because they reject the guidance of both Kantianism and Utilitarianism, and derive inspiration from ancient G...

  4. Virtue Ethics: The Misleading Category

    OpenAIRE

    Nussbaum, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Virtue ethics is frequently considered to be a single category of ethical theory, and a rival to Kantianismand Utilitarianism. I argue that this approach is a mistake, because both Kantians and Utilitarians can, and do, have an interest in the virtues and the forrnation of character. But even if we focus on the group of ethical theorists who are most commonly called "virtue theorists" because they reject the guidance of both Kantianism and Utilitarianism, and derive inspiration from ancient G...

  5. 1999 who's who category index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A classified index and alphabetical directory of Canadian corporate entities involved in the production, manufacturing, conversion, service, retail sales, research and development, transportation, insurance, legal and communications aspects of propane in Canada is provided. The alphabetical directory section provides the usual business information (name, postal address, phone, fax, e-mail and Internet addresses), names of principal officers, affiliations, products or services produced or marketed, and the category under which the company is listed in the classified index

  6. A category of its own?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Jørgen; Roberts, Nigel S.

    1996-01-01

    of these systems on the proportionality of the representation of political parties are, indeed, comparable. The four electoral systems were the basis of their countries' general elections during 1994. The results of these elections are used for analyses and discussions of the relative importance of the differences......At first sight, the electoral systems in Denmark, Germany, South Africa and Sweden may seem different and attaempt to categorize them together odd. All four, however, belong to the same category, which Arend Lijphart calls 'proportional representation two-tier districting systems', and the effects...

  7. Functional categories in comparative linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    , Roger M. 1979. Linguistic knowledge and cultural knowledge: some doubts and speculation. American Anthropologist 81-1, 14-36. Levinson, Stephen C. 1997. From outer to inner space: linguistic categories and non-linguistic thinking. In J. Nuyts and E. Pederson (eds.), Language and Conceptualization, 13......). Furthermore certain ‘ontological categories’ are language-specific (Malt 1995). For example, speakers of Kalam (New Guinea) do not classify the cassowary as a bird, because they believe it has a mythical kinship relation with humans (Bulmer 1967).       In this talk I will discuss the role of functional...

  8. 14 CFR 23.3 - Airplane categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane categories. 23.3 Section 23.3... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES General § 23.3 Airplane categories. (a) The normal category is limited to airplanes that have a seating configuration, excluding pilot...

  9. Two-tier Haddon matrix approach to fault analysis of accidents and cybernetic search for relationship to effect operational control: a case study at a large construction site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumdar, Atmadeep; Sen, Krishna Nirmalya; Lahiri, Balendra Nath

    2007-01-01

    The Haddon matrix is a potential tool for recognizing hazards in any operating engineering system. This paper presents a case study of operational hazards at a large construction site. The fish bone structure helps to visualize and relate the chain of events, which led to the failure of the system. The two-tier Haddon matrix approach helps to analyze the problem and subsequently prescribes preventive steps. The cybernetic approach has been undertaken to establish the relationship among event variables and to identify the ones with most potential. Those event variables in this case study, based on the cybernetic concepts like control responsiveness and controllability salience, are (a) uncontrolled swing of sheet contributing to energy, (b) slippage of sheet from anchor, (c) restricted longitudinal and transverse swing or rotation about the suspension, (d) guilt or uncertainty of the crane driver, (e) safe working practices and environment.

  10. Aspect as a Communicative Category

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durst-Andersen, Per

    2018-01-01

    On the basis of internal evidence from primarily the use of imperfective forms and external evidence from primarily first language acquisition, it is argued that English, Russian, and French aspect differ from one another, because they go back to an obligatory choice among three possible communic......On the basis of internal evidence from primarily the use of imperfective forms and external evidence from primarily first language acquisition, it is argued that English, Russian, and French aspect differ from one another, because they go back to an obligatory choice among three possible...... communicative directions: should a grammatical category be grounded in the speaker's experience of a situation, in the situation referred to or in the hearer as information about the situation? The progressive vs. non-progressive distinction in English is acquired in the present tense of atelic (simplex) verbs...... to the meta-distinction between atelic (simplex) and telic (complex) verbs. It is second-person oriented. The specific order arrived at reflects the Peircean categories of Firstness, Secondness, and Thirdness and their predictions. This can account for the fact that the English and Russian types can be found...

  11. Writing and the 'Subject'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Charlotte

    /page. It is, moreover, an index pointing to the painting/writing subject; it is a special deictic mode of painting/writing. The handwriting of the Russian avant-garde books, the poetics of handwriting, and the way handwriting is represented in poetry emphasize the way the subject (the speaking and the viewing...... in the early as well as the contemporary avant-garde, it becomes clear that the ‘subject’ is an unstable category that can be exposed to manipulation and play. Handwriting is performing as a signature (as an index), but is at the same time similar to the signature of a subject (an icon) and a verbal construct...

  12. Traditional and New Enhancing Human Cybernetic and Nanotechnological Body Modification Technologies: A Comparative Study of Roman Catholic and Transhumanist Ethical Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiuri, Michael J.

    Advances in cybernetic and nanotechnological body modifications currently allow for enhancements to human physical and mental function which exceed human species-based norms. This thesis examines body modification and human enhancement from two perspectives---Roman Catholicism and Transhumanism--- in order to contribute to bioethical deliberations regarding enhancement technologies. Roman Catholicism has a longstanding tradition of bioethical discourse, informing the healthcare directives of Roman Catholic institutions. Transhumanism is more recent movement that endorses body modifications and human enhancements as a means of individual betterment and social evolution. The thesis first considers definitions of human enhancement and levels of normalcy in connection to cybernetic and nanotechnological bionic implants, and outlines a series of criteria to assess a technology's potential bioethical acceptability: implantability, permanency, power, and public interaction. The thesis then describes Roman Catholicism's response to non-enhancing decorative body modifications (cosmetic surgeries, common decorative modifications such as tattoos and piercings, and uncommon modifications such as scarifications and brandings) in order to establish a basis for possible Roman Catholic responses to enhancing cybernetic and nanotechnological modifications. This is followed by an analysis from a Roman Catholic perspective of the major social issues brought forward by enhancement technologies: commodification, eugenics, vulnerability, and distributive justice. Turning to Transhumanism, the thesis describes the origins and philosophy of the movement, and then discusses the bioethical principles it advances with regard to human enhancement. The thesis concludes by locating points of convergence between Transhumanism and Roman Catholicism that could be the basis of more widely accepted ethical guidelines regarding modification technologies.

  13. Standardization of radioactive waste categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    A large amount of information about most aspects of radioactive waste management has been accumulated and made available to interested nations in recent years. The efficiency of this service has been somewhat hampered because the terminology used to describe the different types of radioactive waste has varied from country to country and indeed from installation to installation within a given country. This publication is the outcome of a panel meeting on Standardization of Radioactive Waste Categories. It presents a simple standard to be used as a common language between people working in the field of waste management at nuclear installations. The purpose of the standard is only to act as a practical tool for increasing efficiency in communicating, collecting and assessing technical and economical information in the common interest of all nations and the developing countries in particular. 20 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  14. El Convenio de Estambul y los sujetos de la violencia de género. El cuestionamiento de la violencia doméstica como categoría jurídica // The Istanbul Convention and the subjects of gender violence. The questioned legal category of domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asunción Ventura Franch

    2016-12-01

    the definition of gender violence and subjects who exercise and suffer. To determine what is gender violence is needed start from the concepts by which it is built juridically and argumentatively the violence product of patriarchy as a social structure and gender as a consequence of that organization. From these criteria the conceptualization of violence that includes the Convention is analyzed, observing some contradictions that could introduce elements of confusion by raising a legal category of domestic violence and not to determine the active and passive subjects of gender violence. On this basis, an interpretation of the concept of violence as specified in Article 3 of the Convention, according to the parameters established by the doctrine to gender violence, while it intends to begin the process of tabling amendments proposed its modification provided for in the Convention itself.

  15. A Category Mistake: Why Contemporary Australian Religious Education in Catholic Schools May Be Doomed to Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Brendan

    2013-01-01

    Assuming religious education to be the same as other subject areas of a Catholic school's curriculum by, for example, applying the outcomes based philosophy and language of other subject areas to religious education renders a category mistake. A prominent notion in the work of metaphysical philosopher Gilbert Ryle, a category mistake arises when…

  16. Centers and homotopy centers in enriched monoidal categories

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Batanin, M.; Markl, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 230, 4-6 (2012), s. 1811-1858 ISSN 0001-8708 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/0397 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : monoidal categories * center * Hochschild complex Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.373, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0001870812001508

  17. Beknopte literatuurstudie inzake categorie-indeling van wegen.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, A. & Twisk, D.A.M.

    1992-01-01

    This literature study describes the road categorization from the road user point of view. The study describes the following subjects: (1) the mental load of road users; (2) road categories in relation to road safety; (3) a model for the traffic and transport system; (4) recognition of road types;

  18. Cybernetic group method of data handling (GMDH) statistical learning for hyperspectral remote sensing inverse problems in coastal ocean optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, Anthony Matthew

    For complex systems, sufficient a priori knowledge is often lacking about the mathematical or empirical relationship between cause and effect or between inputs and outputs of a given system. Automated machine learning may offer a useful solution in such cases. Coastal marine optical environments represent such a case, as the optical remote sensing inverse problem remains largely unsolved. A self-organizing, cybernetic mathematical modeling approach known as the group method of data handling (GMDH), a type of statistical learning network (SLN), was used to generate explicit spectral inversion models for optically shallow coastal waters. Optically shallow water light fields represent a particularly difficult challenge in oceanographic remote sensing. Several algorithm-input data treatment combinations were utilized in multiple experiments to automatically generate inverse solutions for various inherent optical property (IOP), bottom optical property (BOP), constituent concentration, and bottom depth estimations. The objective was to identify the optimal remote-sensing reflectance Rrs(lambda) inversion algorithm. The GMDH also has the potential of inductive discovery of physical hydro-optical laws. Simulated data were used to develop generalized, quasi-universal relationships. The Hydrolight numerical forward model, based on radiative transfer theory, was used to compute simulated above-water remote-sensing reflectance Rrs(lambda) psuedodata, matching the spectral channels and resolution of the experimental Naval Research Laboratory Ocean PHILLS (Portable Hyperspectral Imager for Low-Light Spectroscopy) sensor. The input-output pairs were for GMDH and artificial neural network (ANN) model development, the latter of which was used as a baseline, or control, algorithm. Both types of models were applied to in situ and aircraft data. Also, in situ spectroradiometer-derived Rrs(lambda) were used as input to an optimization-based inversion procedure. Target variables

  19. Color categories and color appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue–green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary were perceptually exaggerated. This task did not require overt judgments of the perceived colors, and the tendency to group showed only a weak and inconsistent categorical bias. In a second case, we analyzed results from two prior studies of hue scaling of chromatic stimuli (De Valois, De Valois, Switkes, & Mahon, 1997; Malkoc, Kay, & Webster, 2005), to test whether color appearance changed more rapidly around the blue–green boundary. In this task observers directly judge the perceived color of the stimuli and these judgments tended to show much stronger categorical effects. The differences between these tasks could arise either because different signals mediate color grouping and color appearance, or because linguistic categories might differentially intrude on the response to color and/or on the perception of color. Our results suggest that the interaction between language and color processing may be highly dependent on the specific task and cognitive demands and strategies of the observer, and also highlight pronounced individual differences in the tendency to exhibit categorical responses. PMID:22176751

  20. The Micro-Category Account of Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam E.; Fugelsang, Jonathan A.; Kraemer, David J. M.; Dunbar, Kevin N.

    2008-01-01

    Here, we investigate how activation of mental representations of categories during analogical reasoning influences subsequent cognitive processing. Specifically, we present and test the central predictions of the "Micro-Category" account of analogy. This account emphasizes the role of categories in aligning terms for analogical mapping. In a…

  1. Individual differences in attention during category learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, M.D.; Wetzels, R.

    2010-01-01

    A central idea in many successful models of category learning—including the Generalized Context Model (GCM)—is that people selectively attend to those dimensions of stimuli that are relevant for dividing them into categories. We use the GCM to re-examine some previously analyzed category learning

  2. Intrinsic rewards, fruit and vegetable consumption, and habit strength: a three-wave study testing the associative-cybernetic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Amelie U; Gardner, Benjamin; Knoll, Nina; Burkert, Silke

    2014-03-01

    Habit formation is thought to lead to long-term maintenance of fruit and vegetable consumption. Habits develop through context-dependent repetition, but additional variables such as intrinsic reward of behaviour may influence habit strength. Drawing upon the Associative-Cybernetic Model, this exploratory study tested different pathways by which intrinsic reward may influence fruit and vegetable consumption habit strength. In a three-wave study of fruit and vegetable intake in adults (N = 127) from the general population, intrinsic reward, intention, and self-efficacy were assessed at baseline, fruit and vegetable consumption and intrinsic reward two weeks later, and habit strength another two weeks later. Direct, indirect, and moderation effects of intrinsic reward on habit strength were tested simultaneously in a moderated mediation model. Intrinsic reward had a positive indirect effect on habit strength through its influence on the frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption. Further, the relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and habit was stronger where consumption was considered more intrinsically rewarding. Findings highlight the potential relevance of intrinsic reward to habit. We suggest that intrinsic rewards from behaviour may not only facilitate habit via behaviour frequency, but also reinforce the relationship between behavioural repetition and habit strength. © 2013 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  3. Bundles of C*-categories and duality

    OpenAIRE

    Vasselli, Ezio

    2005-01-01

    We introduce the notions of multiplier C*-category and continuous bundle of C*-categories, as the categorical analogues of the corresponding C*-algebraic notions. Every symmetric tensor C*-category with conjugates is a continuous bundle of C*-categories, with base space the spectrum of the C*-algebra associated with the identity object. We classify tensor C*-categories with fibre the dual of a compact Lie group in terms of suitable principal bundles. This also provides a classification for ce...

  4. Manual for subject analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series and also constitutes a part of the ETDE Procedures Manual. It presents the rules, guidelines and procedures to be adopted by centers submitting input to the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) or the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE). It is a manual for the subject analysis part of input preparation, meaning the selection, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing of relevant publications, and is to be used in conjunction with the Thesauruses, Subject Categories documents and the documents providing guidelines for the preparation of abstracts. The concept and structure of the new manual are intended to describe in a logical and efficient sequence all the steps comprising the subject analysis of documents to be reported to INIS or ETDE. The manual includes new chapters on preparatory analysis, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing, as well as rules, guidelines, procedures, examples and a special chapter on guidelines and examples for subject analysis in particular subject fields. (g.t.; a.n.)

  5. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool......-Saxon and continental traditions, this special issue provides examples of the use of researcher subjectivity, informed by psychoanalytic thinking, in expanding research understanding....

  6. Procedural-Based Category Learning in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Impact of Category Number and Category Continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vincent eFiloteo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Previously we found that Parkinson's disease (PD patients are impaired in procedural-based category learning when category membership is defined by a nonlinear relationship between stimulus dimensions, but these same patients are normal when the rule is defined by a linear relationship (Filoteo et al., 2005; Maddox & Filoteo, 2001. We suggested that PD patients' impairment was due to a deficit in recruiting ‘striatal units' to represent complex nonlinear rules. In the present study, we further examined the nature of PD patients' procedural-based deficit in two experiments designed to examine the impact of (1 the number of categories, and (2 category discontinuity on learning. Results indicated that PD patients were impaired only under discontinuous category conditions but were normal when the number of categories was increased from two to four. The lack of impairment in the four-category condition suggests normal integrity of striatal medium spiny cells involved in procedural-based category learning. In contrast, and consistent with our previous observation of a nonlinear deficit, the finding that PD patients were impaired in the discontinuous condition suggests that these patients are impaired when they have to associate perceptually distinct exemplars with the same category. Theoretically, this deficit might be related to dysfunctional communication among medium spiny neurons within the striatum, particularly given that these are cholinergic neurons and a cholinergic deficiency could underlie some of PD patients’ cognitive impairment.

  7. Feature-Based versus Category-Based Induction with Uncertain Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Oren; Hayes, Brett K.; Newell, Ben R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that when feature inferences have to be made about an instance whose category membership is uncertain, feature-based inductive reasoning is used to the exclusion of category-based induction. These results contrast with the observation that people can and do use category-based induction when category membership is…

  8. TV MEDIA ANALYSIS FOR BANKING CATEGORY (2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Elena POȘTOACĂ; Dorian – Laurențiu FLOREA

    2014-01-01

    This article represents a short overview of the media landscape for the banking category in Romania in 2012. Unlike the other categories (for example FMCG – fast moving consumer goods), the banking category is more complex because every bank can communicate for a wider range of products (credits, deposits, packages dedicated to students, pensioners and other types of banking products). In the first part of this paper, there will be presented some theoretical notions about media planning a...

  9. When more is less: Feedback effects in perceptual category learning ☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, W. Todd; Love, Bradley C.; Glass, Brian D.; Filoteo, J. Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Rule-based and information-integration category learning were compared under minimal and full feedback conditions. Rule-based category structures are those for which the optimal rule is verbalizable. Information-integration category structures are those for which the optimal rule is not verbalizable. With minimal feedback subjects are told whether their response was correct or incorrect, but are not informed of the correct category assignment. With full feedback subjects are informed of the correctness of their response and are also informed of the correct category assignment. An examination of the distinct neural circuits that subserve rule-based and information-integration category learning leads to the counterintuitive prediction that full feedback should facilitate rule-based learning but should also hinder information-integration learning. This prediction was supported in the experiment reported below. The implications of these results for theories of learning are discussed. PMID:18455155

  10. The perceptual effects of learning object categories that predict perceptual goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gulick, Ana E.; Gauthier, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    In classic category learning studies, subjects typically learn to assign items to one of two categories, with no further distinction between how items on each side of the category boundary should be treated. In real life, however, we often learn categories that dictate further processing goals, for instance with objects in only one category requiring further individuation. Using methods from category learning and perceptual expertise, we studied the perceptual consequences of experience with objects in tasks that rely on attention to different dimensions in different parts of the space. In two experiments, subjects first learned to categorize complex objects from a single morphspace into two categories based on one morph dimension, and then learned to perform a different task, either naming or a local feature judgment, for each of the two categories. A same-different discrimination test before and after each training measured sensitivity to feature dimensions of the space. After initial categorization, sensitivity increased along the category-diagnostic dimension. After task association, sensitivity increased more for the category that was named, especially along the non-diagnostic dimension. The results demonstrate that local attentional weights, associated with individual exemplars as a function of task requirements, can have lasting effects on perceptual representations. PMID:24820671

  11. Biased Allocation of Faces to Social Categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dotsch, R.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2011-01-01

    Three studies show that social categorization is biased at the level of category allocation. In all studies, participants categorized faces. In Studies 1 and 2, participants overallocated faces with criminal features-a stereotypical negative trait-to the stigmatized Moroccan category, especially if

  12. The ethnic category from a linguistic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan Săftoiu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I put forward an analysis from a linguistic perspective of an ethnic category in Romania that is defined by at least two terms: gypsy and Romany. The concept of category refers to the members of a particular group that sets apart from other groups by a set of specific elements acknowledged at the level of a larger community. In interaction, individuals frequently use categories and the set of features that a certain category is characterized by, since it is easier to deal with sets of knowledge than with references for each individual separately. The analysis is based on a series of expressions and phrases, proverbs and jokes which were (or still are getting about in the Romanian space and which delineated, at the level of the collective mentality, the image of an ethnic category whose name (still oscillates between two terms. The texts were grouped depending on the different stereotypes associated with the ethnic category under discussion, by highlighting the pejorative connotations of the uses of the term gypsy in relation to the ethnic category Romany, a significance-free category that can be ‘filled up’ by elements that can sketch a positive image.

  13. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B.

    2006-01-01

    a recent account of category-specificity and lends support to the notion that category-specific impairments can occur for both natural objects and artefacts following damage to pre-semantic stages in visual object recognition. The implications of the present findings are discussed in relation to theories...

  14. Conformal field theories and tensor categories. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Chengming [Nankai Univ., Tianjin (China). Chern Institute of Mathematics; Fuchs, Juergen [Karlstad Univ. (Sweden). Theoretical Physics; Huang, Yi-Zhi [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Kong, Liang [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. for Advanced Study; Runkel, Ingo; Schweigert, Christoph (eds.) [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Mathematics

    2014-08-01

    First book devoted completely to the mathematics of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications. Contributors include both mathematicians and physicists. Some long expository articles are especially suitable for beginners. The present volume is a collection of seven papers that are either based on the talks presented at the workshop ''Conformal field theories and tensor categories'' held June 13 to June 17, 2011 at the Beijing International Center for Mathematical Research, Peking University, or are extensions of the material presented in the talks at the workshop. These papers present new developments beyond rational conformal field theories and modular tensor categories and new applications in mathematics and physics. The topics covered include tensor categories from representation categories of Hopf algebras, applications of conformal field theories and tensor categories to topological phases and gapped systems, logarithmic conformal field theories and the corresponding non-semisimple tensor categories, and new developments in the representation theory of vertex operator algebras. Some of the papers contain detailed introductory material that is helpful for graduate students and researchers looking for an introduction to these research directions. The papers also discuss exciting recent developments in the area of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications and will be extremely useful for researchers working in these areas.

  15. Color descriptors for object category recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Sande, K.E.A.; Gevers, T.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Category recognition is important to access visual information on the level of objects. A common approach is to compute image descriptors first and then to apply machine learning to achieve category recognition from annotated examples. As a consequence, the choice of image descriptors is of great

  16. Conformal field theories and tensor categories. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Chengming; Fuchs, Juergen; Huang, Yi-Zhi; Kong, Liang; Runkel, Ingo; Schweigert, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    First book devoted completely to the mathematics of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications. Contributors include both mathematicians and physicists. Some long expository articles are especially suitable for beginners. The present volume is a collection of seven papers that are either based on the talks presented at the workshop ''Conformal field theories and tensor categories'' held June 13 to June 17, 2011 at the Beijing International Center for Mathematical Research, Peking University, or are extensions of the material presented in the talks at the workshop. These papers present new developments beyond rational conformal field theories and modular tensor categories and new applications in mathematics and physics. The topics covered include tensor categories from representation categories of Hopf algebras, applications of conformal field theories and tensor categories to topological phases and gapped systems, logarithmic conformal field theories and the corresponding non-semisimple tensor categories, and new developments in the representation theory of vertex operator algebras. Some of the papers contain detailed introductory material that is helpful for graduate students and researchers looking for an introduction to these research directions. The papers also discuss exciting recent developments in the area of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications and will be extremely useful for researchers working in these areas.

  17. Connections between realcompactifications in various categories ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The author gives a detailed analysis of the relation between the theories of realcompactications and compactications in the category of ditopological texture spaces and in the categories of bitopological spaces and topological spaces. Keywords: Bitopology, texture, ditopology, Stone-Čech compactication, Hewitt real- ...

  18. Finding biomedical categories in Medline®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeganova Lana

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are several humanly defined ontologies relevant to Medline. However, Medline is a fast growing collection of biomedical documents which creates difficulties in updating and expanding these humanly defined ontologies. Automatically identifying meaningful categories of entities in a large text corpus is useful for information extraction, construction of machine learning features, and development of semantic representations. In this paper we describe and compare two methods for automatically learning meaningful biomedical categories in Medline. The first approach is a simple statistical method that uses part-of-speech and frequency information to extract a list of frequent nouns from Medline. The second method implements an alignment-based technique to learn frequent generic patterns that indicate a hyponymy/hypernymy relationship between a pair of noun phrases. We then apply these patterns to Medline to collect frequent hypernyms as potential biomedical categories. Results We study and compare these two alternative sets of terms to identify semantic categories in Medline. We find that both approaches produce reasonable terms as potential categories. We also find that there is a significant agreement between the two sets of terms. The overlap between the two methods improves our confidence regarding categories predicted by these independent methods. Conclusions This study is an initial attempt to extract categories that are discussed in Medline. Rather than imposing external ontologies on Medline, our methods allow categories to emerge from the text.

  19. Appropriate Pupilness: Social Categories Intersecting in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofoed, Jette

    2008-01-01

    The analytical focus in this article is on how social categories intersect in daily school life and how intersections intertwine with other empirically relevant categories such as normality, pupilness and (in)appropriatedness. The point of empirical departure is a daily ritual where teams for football are selected. The article opens up for a…

  20. Mirror Asymmetry of Category and Letter Fluency in Traumatic Brain Injury and Alzheimer's Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitani, Erminio; Rosci, Chiara; Saetti, Maria Cristina; Laiacona, Marcella

    2009-01-01

    In this study we contrasted the Category fluency and Letter fluency performance of 198 normal subjects, 57 Alzheimer's patients and 57 patients affected by traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim was to check whether, besides the prevalence of Category fluency deficit often reported among Alzheimer's patients, the TBI group presented the opposite…

  1. Global maps of science based on the new Web-of-Science categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Carley, S.; Rafols, I.

    2013-01-01

    In August 2011, Thomson Reuters launched version 5 of the Science and Social Science Citation Index in the Web of Science (WoS). Among other things, the 222 ISI Subject Categories (SCs) for these two databases in version 4 of WoS were renamed and extended to 225 WoS Categories (WCs). A new set of

  2. Diagnostic Categories in Autobiographical Accounts of Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Working within frameworks drawn from the writings of Immanuel Kant, Alfred Schutz, and Kenneth Burke, this article examines the role that diagnostic categories play in autobiographical accounts of illness, with a special focus on chronic disease. Four lay diagnostic categories, each with different connections to formal medical diagnostic categories, serve as typifications to make sense of the way the lifeworld changes over the course of chronic illness. These diagnostic categories are used in conjunction with another set of typifications: lay epidemiologies, lay etiologies, lay prognostics, and lay therapeutics. Together these serve to construct and reconstruct the self at the center of the lifeworld. Embedded within the lay diagnostic categories are narratives of progression, regression, or stability, forms of typification derived from literary and storytelling genres. These narratives are developed by the self in autobiographical accounts of illness.

  3. Modular categories and 3-manifold invariants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tureav, V.G.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give a concise introduction to the theory of knot invariants and 3-manifold invariants which generalize the Jones polynomial and which may be considered as a mathematical version of the Witten invariants. Such a theory was introduced by N. Reshetikhin and the author on the ground of the theory of quantum groups. here we use more general algebraic objects, specifically, ribbon and modular categories. Such categories in particular arise as the categories of representations of quantum groups. The notion of modular category, interesting in itself, is closely related to the notion of modular tensor category in the sense of G. Moore and N. Seiberg. For simplicity we restrict ourselves in this paper to the case of closed 3-manifolds

  4. SUSTAIN: a network model of category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Bradley C; Medin, Douglas L; Gureckis, Todd M

    2004-04-01

    SUSTAIN (Supervised and Unsupervised STratified Adaptive Incremental Network) is a model of how humans learn categories from examples. SUSTAIN initially assumes a simple category structure. If simple solutions prove inadequate and SUSTAIN is confronted with a surprising event (e.g., it is told that a bat is a mammal instead of a bird), SUSTAIN recruits an additional cluster to represent the surprising event. Newly recruited clusters are available to explain future events and can themselves evolve into prototypes-attractors-rules. SUSTAIN's discovery of category substructure is affected not only by the structure of the world but by the nature of the learning task and the learner's goals. SUSTAIN successfully extends category learning models to studies of inference learning, unsupervised learning, category construction, and contexts in which identification learning is faster than classification learning.

  5. Can height categories replace weight categories in striking martial arts competitions? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubnov-Raz, Gal; Mashiach-Arazi, Yael; Nouriel, Ariella; Raz, Raanan; Constantini, Naama W

    2015-09-29

    In most combat sports and martial arts, athletes compete within weight categories. Disordered eating behaviors and intentional pre-competition rapid weight loss are commonly seen in this population, attributed to weight categorization. We examined if height categories can be used as an alternative to weight categories for competition, in order to protect the health of athletes. Height and weight of 169 child and adolescent competitive karate athletes were measured. Participants were divided into eleven hypothetical weight categories of 5 kg increments, and eleven hypothetical height categories of 5 cm increments. We calculated the coefficient of variation of height and weight by each division method. We also calculated how many participants fit into corresponding categories of both height and weight, and how many would shift a category if divided by height. There was a high correlation between height and weight (r = 0.91, p<0.001). The mean range of heights seen within current weight categories was reduced by 83% when participants were divided by height. When allocating athletes by height categories, 74% of athletes would shift up or down one weight category at most, compared with the current categorization method. We conclude that dividing young karate athletes by height categories significantly reduced the range of heights of competitors within the category. Such categorization would not cause athletes to compete against much heavier opponents in most cases. Using height categories as a means to reduce eating disorders in combat sports should be further examined.

  6. EDUCATIONAL EVENT AS THE PEDAGOGICAL CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor V. Lobanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to reveal the essence of the educational event as a pedagogical category. The reason to study the issue is the methodological generality of the term that came into pedagogical everyday life, but which semantic content is still not clear enough. Methods. The methods involve a theoretical analysis of the philosophical and pedagogical literature on the study, the categorical analysis, surveys of students and teachers. Results. The concept content of «event» is looked upon in both historical scholarship and pedagogy, «educational event» is analyzed in unity with the «educational situation» and «educational process». The attitude of students and teachers to educational events was clarified through the surveys; emotional and rational responses of the respondents were differentiated and the peculiarities of events organization in the education system were classified. While teachers and students are considered as subjects of educational events, their goals are delineated. Scientific novelty. The author's own definition of is given. Educational event is defined as a specially organized and unique pedagogical fact limited, but not rigidly determined by the educational situation, and capable of changing the educational process going beyond the boundaries of its conformism. The formulation above is the result of analysis how the concepts of «event», «situation» and «process» may interact in pedagogical discourse. Practical significance. The results can be used while designing the educational programs and projects, as well as in the development of academic courses of innovative pedagogy. 

  7. Observation versus classification in supervised category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levering, Kimery R; Kurtz, Kenneth J

    2015-02-01

    The traditional supervised classification paradigm encourages learners to acquire only the knowledge needed to predict category membership (a discriminative approach). An alternative that aligns with important aspects of real-world concept formation is learning with a broader focus to acquire knowledge of the internal structure of each category (a generative approach). Our work addresses the impact of a particular component of the traditional classification task: the guess-and-correct cycle. We compare classification learning to a supervised observational learning task in which learners are shown labeled examples but make no classification response. The goals of this work sit at two levels: (1) testing for differences in the nature of the category representations that arise from two basic learning modes; and (2) evaluating the generative/discriminative continuum as a theoretical tool for understand learning modes and their outcomes. Specifically, we view the guess-and-correct cycle as consistent with a more discriminative approach and therefore expected it to lead to narrower category knowledge. Across two experiments, the observational mode led to greater sensitivity to distributional properties of features and correlations between features. We conclude that a relatively subtle procedural difference in supervised category learning substantially impacts what learners come to know about the categories. The results demonstrate the value of the generative/discriminative continuum as a tool for advancing the psychology of category learning and also provide a valuable constraint for formal models and associated theories.

  8. The impact of category structure and training methodology on learning and generalizing within-category representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ell, Shawn W; Smith, David B; Peralta, Gabriela; Hélie, Sébastien

    2017-08-01

    When interacting with categories, representations focused on within-category relationships are often learned, but the conditions promoting within-category representations and their generalizability are unclear. We report the results of three experiments investigating the impact of category structure and training methodology on the learning and generalization of within-category representations (i.e., correlational structure). Participants were trained on either rule-based or information-integration structures using classification (Is the stimulus a member of Category A or Category B?), concept (e.g., Is the stimulus a member of Category A, Yes or No?), or inference (infer the missing component of the stimulus from a given category) and then tested on either an inference task (Experiments 1 and 2) or a classification task (Experiment 3). For the information-integration structure, within-category representations were consistently learned, could be generalized to novel stimuli, and could be generalized to support inference at test. For the rule-based structure, extended inference training resulted in generalization to novel stimuli (Experiment 2) and inference training resulted in generalization to classification (Experiment 3). These data help to clarify the conditions under which within-category representations can be learned. Moreover, these results make an important contribution in highlighting the impact of category structure and training methodology on the generalization of categorical knowledge.

  9. A Higher-Order Calculus for Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cáccamo, Mario José; Winskel, Glynn

    2001-01-01

    A calculus for a fragment of category theory is presented. The types in the language denote categories and the expressions functors. The judgements of the calculus systematise categorical arguments such as: an expression is functorial in its free variables; two expressions are naturally isomorphic...... in their free variables. There are special binders for limits and more general ends. The rules for limits and ends support an algebraic manipulation of universal constructions as opposed to a more traditional diagrammatic approach. Duality within the calculus and applications in proving continuity are discussed...... with examples. The calculus gives a basis for mechanising a theory of categories in a generic theorem prover like Isabelle....

  10. Kuranishi spaces as a 2-category

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    This is a survey of the author's in-progress book arXiv:1409.6908. 'Kuranishi spaces' were introduced in the work of Fukaya, Oh, Ohta and Ono in symplectic geometry (see e.g. arXiv:1503.07631), as the geometric structure on moduli spaces of $J$-holomorphic curves. We propose a new definition of Kuranishi space, which has the nice property that they form a 2-category $\\bf Kur$. Thus the homotopy category Ho$({\\bf Kur})$ is an ordinary category of Kuranishi spaces. Any Fukaya-Oh-Ohta-Ono (FOOO)...

  11. Categories of space in music and lifestyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Pavle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the connection between categories of space in music, music production and lifestyles. The relations between the symbolic space of social connections and musical contents in the social space of various status interactions is complex and contradictory. Category of space in the music exists in four forms. Categories of space in the description of the experience of the musical works, as well as in the way of music production (spacing are the integral part of the special way of consumption of these works (home Hi-Fi, and represent the social status, ways of cultural consumption and habitus in general.

  12. Words can slow down category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brojde, Chandra L; Porter, Chelsea; Colunga, Eliana

    2011-08-01

    Words have been shown to influence many cognitive tasks, including category learning. Most demonstrations of these effects have focused on instances in which words facilitate performance. One possibility is that words augment representations, predicting an across the-board benefit of words during category learning. We propose that words shift attention to dimensions that have been historically predictive in similar contexts. Under this account, there should be cases in which words are detrimental to performance. The results from two experiments show that words impair learning of object categories under some conditions. Experiment 1 shows that words hurt performance when learning to categorize by texture. Experiment 2 shows that words also hurt when learning to categorize by brightness, leading to selectively attending to shape when both shape and hue could be used to correctly categorize stimuli. We suggest that both the positive and negative effects of words have developmental origins in the history of word usage while learning categories. [corrected

  13. Uniform Reserve Training and Retirement Category Administration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kohner, D

    1997-01-01

    This Instruction implement policy as provided in DoD Directive 1215.6, assigns responsibilities and prescribes procedures that pertain to the designation and use of uniform Reserve component (RC) categories (RCCs...

  14. Topoi the categorial analysis of logic

    CERN Document Server

    Goldblatt, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A classic exposition of a branch of mathematical logic that uses category theory, this text is suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students and accessible to both philosophically and mathematically oriented readers.

  15. Comparing two K-category assignments by a K-category correlation coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorodkin, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Predicted assignments of biological sequences are often evaluated by Matthews correlation coefficient. However, Matthews correlation coefficient applies only to cases where the assignments belong to two categories, and cases with more than two categories are often artificially forced into two...... categories by considering what belongs and what does not belong to one of the categories, leading to the loss of information. Here, an extended correlation coefficient that applies to K-categories is proposed, and this measure is shown to be highly applicable for evaluating prediction of RNA secondary...

  16. Mixed quantum states in higher categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Heunen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are two ways to describe the interaction between classical and quantum information categorically: one based on completely positive maps between Frobenius algebras, the other using symmetric monoidal 2-categories. This paper makes a first step towards combining the two. The integrated approach allows a unified description of quantum teleportation and classical encryption in a single 2-category, as well as a universal security proof applicable simultaneously to both scenarios.

  17. Derivation of plutonium-239 materials disposition categories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brough, W.G.

    1995-01-01

    At this time, the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition within the DOE, is assessing alternatives for the disposition of excess fissile materials. To facilitate the assessment, the Plutonium-Bearing Materials Feed Report for the DOE Fissile Materials Disposition Program Alternatives report was written. The development of the material categories and the derivation of the inventory quantities associated with those categories is documented in this report

  18. Monoidal categories and topological field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Turaev, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to monoidal categories and their connections with 3-dimensional topological field theories. Starting with basic definitions, it proceeds to the forefront of current research. Part 1 introduces monoidal categories and several of their classes, including rigid, pivotal, spherical, fusion, braided, and modular categories. It then presents deep theorems of Müger on the center of a pivotal fusion category. These theorems are proved in Part 2 using the theory of Hopf monads. In Part 3 the authors define the notion of a topological quantum field theory (TQFT) and construct a Turaev-Viro-type 3-dimensional state sum TQFT from a spherical fusion category. Lastly, in Part 4 this construction is extended to 3-manifolds with colored ribbon graphs, yielding a so-called graph TQFT (and, consequently, a 3-2-1 extended TQFT). The authors then prove the main result of the monograph: the state sum graph TQFT derived from any spherical fusion category is isomorphic to the Reshetikhin-Turaev surgery gr...

  19. Quantum groups, quantum categories and quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fröhlich, Jürg

    1993-01-01

    This book reviews recent results on low-dimensional quantum field theories and their connection with quantum group theory and the theory of braided, balanced tensor categories. It presents detailed, mathematically precise introductions to these subjects and then continues with new results. Among the main results are a detailed analysis of the representation theory of U (sl ), for q a primitive root of unity, and a semi-simple quotient thereof, a classfication of braided tensor categories generated by an object of q-dimension less than two, and an application of these results to the theory of sectors in algebraic quantum field theory. This clarifies the notion of "quantized symmetries" in quantum fieldtheory. The reader is expected to be familiar with basic notions and resultsin algebra. The book is intended for research mathematicians, mathematical physicists and graduate students.

  20. Preliminary data summary for the hospitals point-source category

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strassler, E.; Hund, F.H.

    1989-09-01

    The summaries were prepared in order to allow EPA to respond to the mandate of Section 304(m) of the Clean Water Act. Summaries for categories already subject to rulemaking were developed for comparison purposes, and contain only the minimum amount of data needed to provide some perspective on the relative magnitude of the pollution problems created across the categories. The document summarizes the most current information available regarding the discharge of wastewater and solid wastes containing priority and hazardous non-priority pollutants by hospitals. The document provides a technical basis for determining whether additional national regulations should be developed pursuant to the Clean Water Act (CWA), and makes available preliminary information regarding the discharge of priority and hazardous non-priority pollutants by the hospital industry

  1. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORD CLASSES AND PHRASAL CATEGORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mevlüt ERDEM

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Phrasal categories in traditional studies increase because of the structural and semantic connection between the head and complements. However, the syntactic category of the head identifies the type of a phrasal category. The lexical classes which act as a head are nouns, adjectives, adverbs, verbs and postpositions. Therefore, the phrasal categories are noun phrases, adjectival phrases, adverbial phrases, verb phrases and postpositional phrases. Modern linguistic studies evaluate phrasal categories differently. In modern linguistic studies, the essential part of the sentence is verb phrase. Verb phrase reflects lexical categories as well as grammatical relations (subject, object etc.. The arguments which belong to verb phrase express certain semantic roles. Moreover, according to modern linguistic approach, even one word is enough to constitute a phrasal category Geleneksel çalışmalarda sözcük öbekleri ana ve yardımcı unsurlar arasında kurulan çeşitli anlam ilgisi ve yapısal ilgilerden dolayı sayıca fazlalaşır. Fakat sözcük öbeklerinin türünü başın sentaktik kategorisi belirler. Ana unsur olan sözlüksel türler ad, sıfat, zarf, fiil ve edattır ve öbekler de AÖ, SÖ, ZÖ, FÖ ve EÖ’dür. Modern dilbilimsel çalışmalar öbek yapılarını da farklı değerlendirir. Modern çalışmalarda cümlenin temelini fiil öbeği oluşturur. Fiil öbeği, sözlüksel kategorilerle birlikte cümlenin gramatik ilişkilerini (özne, nesne vb. de yansıtır. Fiil öbeğine ait unsurlar belli anlamsal roller de ifade eder. Modern anlayışa göre bir sözcük tek başına bir öbek kurabilir.

  2. When does fading enhance perceptual category learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashler, Harold; Mozer, Michael C

    2013-07-01

    Training that uses exaggerated versions of a stimulus discrimination (fading) has sometimes been found to enhance category learning, mostly in studies involving animals and impaired populations. However, little is known about whether and when fading facilitates learning for typical individuals. This issue was explored in 7 experiments. In Experiments 1 and 2, observers discriminated stimuli based on a single sensory continuum (time duration and line length, respectively). Adaptive fading dramatically improved performance in training (unsurprisingly) but did not enhance learning as assessed in a final test. The same was true for nonadaptive linear fading (Experiment 3). However, when variation in length (predicting category membership) was embedded among other (category-irrelevant) variation, fading dramatically enhanced not only performance in training but also learning as assessed in a final test (Experiments 4 and 5). Fading also helped learners to acquire a color saturation discrimination amid category-irrelevant variation in hue and brightness, although this learning proved transitory after feedback was withdrawn (Experiment 7). Theoretical implications are discussed, and we argue that fading should have practical utility in naturalistic category learning tasks, which involve extremely high dimensional stimuli and many irrelevant dimensions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. TV MEDIA ANALYSIS FOR BANKING CATEGORY (2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Elena POȘTOACĂ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article represents a short overview of the media landscape for the banking category in Romania in 2012. Unlike the other categories (for example FMCG – fast moving consumer goods, the banking category is more complex because every bank can communicate for a wider range of products (credits, deposits, packages dedicated to students, pensioners and other types of banking products. In the first part of this paper, there will be presented some theoretical notions about media planning and media analyses in order for the lecturer to easily go through the second part of the article. The second part of the paper will only refer to TV analyses. This media channel owns the highest budget share in our category, and also in the media mix of every important player, active in the Romanian market. The analyses will show which bank communicated most effectively, which is the most important spender on TV, what banking products had the largest budget allocated, which is the pattern for this category when it comes to allocating audience points for each day interval and so on. The starting point of this analyses is based on the secondary data obtained from InfoSys+ which is the world’s leading TV analyses software, used in more than 29 countries by 8000+ users.

  4. Grammatical category dissociation in multilingual aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Waked, Arifi N

    2010-03-01

    Word retrieval deficits for specific grammatical categories, such as verbs versus nouns, occur as a consequence of brain damage. Such deficits are informative about the nature of lexical organization in the human brain. This study examined retrieval of grammatical categories across three languages in a trilingual person with aphasia who spoke Arabic, French, and English. In order to delineate the nature of word production difficulty, comprehension was tested, and a variety of concomitant lexical-semantic variables were analysed. The patient demonstrated a consistent noun-verb dissociation in picture naming and narrative speech, with severely impaired production of verbs across all three languages. The cross-linguistically similar noun-verb dissociation, coupled with little evidence of semantic impairment, suggests that (a) the patient has a true "nonsemantic" grammatical category specific deficit, and (b) lexical organization in multilingual speakers shares grammatical class information between languages. The findings of this study contribute to our understanding of the architecture of lexical organization in bilinguals.

  5. From Perceptual Categories to Concepts: What Develops?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloutsky, Vladimir M.

    2010-01-01

    People are remarkably smart: they use language, possess complex motor skills, make non-trivial inferences, develop and use scientific theories, make laws, and adapt to complex dynamic environments. Much of this knowledge requires concepts and this paper focuses on how people acquire concepts. It is argued that conceptual development progresses from simple perceptual grouping to highly abstract scientific concepts. This proposal of conceptual development has four parts. First, it is argued that categories in the world have different structure. Second, there might be different learning systems (sub-served by different brain mechanisms) that evolved to learn categories of differing structures. Third, these systems exhibit differential maturational course, which affects how categories of different structures are learned in the course of development. And finally, an interaction of these components may result in the developmental transition from perceptual groupings to more abstract concepts. This paper reviews a large body of empirical evidence supporting this proposal. PMID:21116483

  6. Lectures on tensor categories and modular functors

    CERN Document Server

    Bakalov, Bojko

    2000-01-01

    This book gives an exposition of the relations among the following three topics: monoidal tensor categories (such as a category of representations of a quantum group), 3-dimensional topological quantum field theory, and 2-dimensional modular functors (which naturally arise in 2-dimensional conformal field theory). The following examples are discussed in detail: the category of representations of a quantum group at a root of unity and the Wess-Zumino-Witten modular functor. The idea that these topics are related first appeared in the physics literature in the study of quantum field theory. Pioneering works of Witten and Moore-Seiberg triggered an avalanche of papers, both physical and mathematical, exploring various aspects of these relations. Upon preparing to lecture on the topic at MIT, however, the authors discovered that the existing literature was difficult and that there were gaps to fill. The text is wholly expository and finely succinct. It gathers results, fills existing gaps, and simplifies some pro...

  7. Multimedia category preferences of working engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baukal, Charles E.; Ausburn, Lynna J.

    2016-09-01

    Many have argued for the importance of continuing engineering education (CEE), but relatively few recommendations were found in the literature for how to use multimedia technologies to deliver it most effectively. The study reported here addressed this gap by investigating the multimedia category preferences of working engineers. Four categories of multimedia, with two types in each category, were studied: verbal (text and narration), static graphics (drawing and photograph), dynamic non-interactive graphics (animation and video), and dynamic interactive graphics (simulated virtual reality (VR) and photo-real VR). The results showed that working engineers strongly preferred text over narration and somewhat preferred drawing over photograph, animation over video, and simulated VR over photo-real VR. These results suggest that a variety of multimedia types should be used in the instructional design of CEE content.

  8. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, I; Paulson, Olaf B.

    2006-01-01

    and fragmented drawings. We also examined whether fragmentation had different impact on the recognition of natural objects and artefacts and found that recognition of artefacts was more affected by fragmentation than recognition of natural objects. Thus, the usual finding of an advantage for artefacts...... in difficult object decision tasks, which is also found in the present experiments with outlines, is reversed when the stimuli are fragmented. This interaction between category (natural versus artefacts) and stimulus type (outlines versus fragmented forms) is in accordance with predictions derived from...... a recent account of category-specificity and lends support to the notion that category-specific impairments can occur for both natural objects and artefacts following damage to pre-semantic stages in visual object recognition. The implications of the present findings are discussed in relation to theories...

  9. How to Do Things with Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, Anders Dahl

    Consumers and other audiences draw upon cognitive categories when evaluating technological products (Clark, 1985; Kaplan and Tripsas, 2008). Categories such as “mini-van” or “computer” provide labels and conceptual meaning structures that consumers and other market actors draw upon in making sense...... the majority of archival data was collected. Finally, to trace consumer reception of innovations in the design of products and technological innovations, I constructed a data set based on posts from an online hearing aid consumer forum. The initial analysis each spawned into three distinct trajectories...

  10. Historical Roots of International Biomedical and Health Informatics: The Road to IFIP-TC4 and IMIA through Cybernetic Medicine and the Elsinore Meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikowski, C A

    2017-08-01

    Background: It is 50 years since the International Federation of Information Processing (IFIP) Societies approved the formation of a new Technical Committee (TC) 4 on Medical Information Processing under the leadership of Professor Francois Grémy, which was the direct precursor of the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA). Objectives: The goals of this paper are to give a very brief overview of early international developments leading to informatics in medicine, with the origins of the applications of computers to medicine in the USA and Europe, and two meetings - of the International Society of Cybernetic Medicine, and the Elsinore Meetings on Hospital Information Systems-that took place in 1966. These set the stage for the formation of IFIP-TC4 the following year, with later sponsorship of the first MEDINFO in 1974, setting the path for the evolution to IMIA. Methods: This paper reviews and analyzes some of the earliest research and publications, together with two critical contrasting meetings in 1966 involving international activities in what evolved into biomedical and health informatics in terms of their probable influence on the formation of IFIP-TC4. Conclusion: The formation of IFIP-TC 4 in 1967 by Francois Grémy arose out of his concerns for merging, at an international level, the diverse strands from the more abstract work on cybernetic medicine and its basis in biophysical and neural modeling, with the more concrete and health-oriented medical information processing that was developing at the time for hospitals and clinical decision-making. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.

  11. Application of the principles of systems biology and Wiener's cybernetics for analysis of regulation of energy fluxes in muscle cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzun, Rita; Saks, Valdur

    2010-03-08

    The mechanisms of regulation of respiration and energy fluxes in the cells are analyzed based on the concepts of systems biology, non-equilibrium steady state kinetics and applications of Wiener's cybernetic principles of feedback regulation. Under physiological conditions cardiac function is governed by the Frank-Starling law and the main metabolic characteristic of cardiac muscle cells is metabolic homeostasis, when both workload and respiration rate can be changed manifold at constant intracellular level of phosphocreatine and ATP in the cells. This is not observed in skeletal muscles. Controversies in theoretical explanations of these observations are analyzed. Experimental studies of permeabilized fibers from human skeletal muscle vastus lateralis and adult rat cardiomyocytes showed that the respiration rate is always an apparent hyperbolic but not a sigmoid function of ADP concentration. It is our conclusion that realistic explanations of regulation of energy fluxes in muscle cells require systemic approaches including application of the feedback theory of Wiener's cybernetics in combination with detailed experimental research. Such an analysis reveals the importance of limited permeability of mitochondrial outer membrane for ADP due to interactions of mitochondria with cytoskeleton resulting in quasi-linear dependence of respiration rate on amplitude of cyclic changes in cytoplasmic ADP concentrations. The system of compartmentalized creatine kinase (CK) isoenzymes functionally coupled to ANT and ATPases, and mitochondrial-cytoskeletal interactions separate energy fluxes (mass and energy transfer) from signalling (information transfer) within dissipative metabolic structures - intracellular energetic units (ICEU). Due to the non-equilibrium state of CK reactions, intracellular ATP utilization and mitochondrial ATP regeneration are interconnected by the PCr flux from mitochondria. The feedback regulation of respiration occurring via cyclic fluctuations of

  12. Application of the Principles of Systems Biology and Wiener’s Cybernetics for Analysis of Regulation of Energy Fluxes in Muscle Cells in Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzun, Rita; Saks, Valdur

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms of regulation of respiration and energy fluxes in the cells are analyzed based on the concepts of systems biology, non-equilibrium steady state kinetics and applications of Wiener’s cybernetic principles of feedback regulation. Under physiological conditions cardiac function is governed by the Frank-Starling law and the main metabolic characteristic of cardiac muscle cells is metabolic homeostasis, when both workload and respiration rate can be changed manifold at constant intracellular level of phosphocreatine and ATP in the cells. This is not observed in skeletal muscles. Controversies in theoretical explanations of these observations are analyzed. Experimental studies of permeabilized fibers from human skeletal muscle vastus lateralis and adult rat cardiomyocytes showed that the respiration rate is always an apparent hyperbolic but not a sigmoid function of ADP concentration. It is our conclusion that realistic explanations of regulation of energy fluxes in muscle cells require systemic approaches including application of the feedback theory of Wiener’s cybernetics in combination with detailed experimental research. Such an analysis reveals the importance of limited permeability of mitochondrial outer membrane for ADP due to interactions of mitochondria with cytoskeleton resulting in quasi-linear dependence of respiration rate on amplitude of cyclic changes in cytoplasmic ADP concentrations. The system of compartmentalized creatine kinase (CK) isoenzymes functionally coupled to ANT and ATPases, and mitochondrial-cytoskeletal interactions separate energy fluxes (mass and energy transfer) from signalling (information transfer) within dissipative metabolic structures – intracellular energetic units (ICEU). Due to the non-equilibrium state of CK reactions, intracellular ATP utilization and mitochondrial ATP regeneration are interconnected by the PCr flux from mitochondria. The feedback regulation of respiration occurring via cyclic fluctuations

  13. CYPROS - Cybernetic Program Packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Tyssø

    1980-10-01

    Full Text Available CYPROS is an interactive program system consisting of a number of special purpose packages for simulation, identification, parameter estimation and control system design. The programming language is standard FORTRAN IV and the system is implemented on a medium size computer system (Nord-10. The system is interactive and program control is obtained by the use of numeric terminals. Output is rapidly examined by extensive use of video colour graphics. The subroutines included in the packages are designed and documented according to standardization rules given by the SCL (Scandinavian Control Library organization. This simplifies the exchange of subroutines throughout the SCL system. Also, this makes the packages attractive for implementation by industrial users. In the simulation package, different integration methods are available and it can be easily used for off-line, as well as real time, simulation problems. The identification package consists of programs for single-input/single-output and multivariablc problems. Both transfer function models and state space models can be handled. Optimal test signals can be designed. The control package consists of programs based on multivariable time domain and frequency domain methods for analysis and design. In addition, there is a package for matrix and time series manipulation. CYPROS has been applied successfully to industrial problems of various kinds, and parts of the system have already been implemented on different computers in industry. This paper will, in some detail, describe the use and the contents of the packages and some examples of application will be discussed.

  14. Fundaments of plant cybernetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucconi, F

    2001-01-01

    A systemic approach is proposed for analyzing plants' physiological organization and cybernesis. To this end, the plant is inspected as a system, starting from the integration of crown and root systems, and its impact on a number of basic epigenetic events. The approach proves to be axiomatic and facilitates the definition of the principles behind the plant's autonomous control of growth and reproduction.

  15. The Cybernetics of Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-30

    8217 (1970). The theory of autopoiesis that was developed from this biological approach has profound epistemological consequences in several domains...direction in literary research, viz., empirical studies on the basis of a constructivist theory of knowledge. Thursday Morning 7. INDIVIDUAL AND SOCIAL...disposal, this situation allows probing into epistemology and theory underlying the strategies of such interventions. Of course, the notion of "communicative

  16. Department of Cybernetic Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of the theory, instrumentation and applications of methods and systems for the measurement, analysis, processing and synthesis of acoustic signals within the audio frequency range, particularly of the speech signal and the vibro-acoustic signal emitted by technical and industrial equipments treated as noise and vibration sources was discussed. The research work, both theoretical and experimental, aims at applications in various branches of science, and medicine, such as: acoustical diagnostics and phoniatric rehabilitation of pathological and postoperative states of the speech organ; bilateral ""man-machine'' speech communication based on the analysis, recognition and synthesis of the speech signal; vibro-acoustical diagnostics and continuous monitoring of the state of machines, technical equipments and technological processes.

  17. The Category of Value in the Corporate Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shvydanenko Genefa O.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article examines evolution of the category of value and its provisioning with economic arguments, considering the legacy of the modern school of strategic management. Analyzing, systematizing and generalizing the scientific work of the subject area of the study have led to the identification of some problematic aspects, namely: prevalence of consumerism in disclosing the essence of value and its assessment through the prism of value expression, as well as the lack of a systemic approach that would take into account the multidisciplinary nature of this category. The origins of the definition of «corporate values» have been identified. As result, a classification of the specific manifestations of the values of enterprise are presented, the notions of «values» and «value orientations» are delineated. It has been substantiated that value is the economic category that has a polysemic nature and, accordingly, its ontological essence can be systemically disclosed only in the light of the interests of all stakeholders in business.

  18. Language specific bootstraps for UG categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kampen, N.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that the universal categories N/V are not applied to content words before the grammatical markings for reference D(eterminers) and predication I(nflection) have been acquired (van Kampen, 1997, contra Pinker, 1984). Child grammar starts as proto-grammar with language-specific

  19. Quantum logic in dagger kernel categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heunen, C.; Jacobs, B.P.F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates quantum logic from the perspective of categorical logic, and starts from minimal assumptions, namely the existence of involutions/daggers and kernels. The resulting structures turn out to (1) encompass many examples of interest, such as categories of relations, partial

  20. Quantum logic in dagger kernel categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heunen, C.; Jacobs, B.P.F.; Coecke, B.; Panangaden, P.; Selinger, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates quantum logic from the perspective of categorical logic, and starts from minimal assumptions, namely the existence of involutions/daggers and kernels. The resulting structures turn out to (1) encompass many examples of interest, such as categories of relations, partial

  1. New Evidence for Infant Colour Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anna; Davies, Ian R. L.

    2004-01-01

    Bornstein, Kessen, and Weiskopf (1976) reported that pre-linguistic infants perceive colour categorically for primary boundaries: Following habituation, dishabituation only occurred if the test stimulus was from a different adult category to the original. Here, we replicated this important study and extended it to include secondary boundaries,…

  2. 40 CFR 2.105 - Exemption categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the mandatory disclosure requirements of 5 U.S.C. 552(a): (1)(i) Specifically authorized under... enforcement investigations or prosecutions if such disclosure could reasonably be expected to risk... for Disclosure of Records Under the Freedom of Information Act § 2.105 Exemption categories. (a) The...

  3. Categories for Observing Language Arts Instruction (COLAI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benterud, Julianna G.

    Designed to study individual use of time spent in reading during regularly scheduled language arts instruction in a natural classroom setting, this coding sheet consists of nine categories: (1) engagement, (2) area of language arts, (3) instructional setting, (4) partner (teacher or pupil(s)), (5) source of content, (6) type of unit, (7) assigned…

  4. Reliability of Multi-Category Rating Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard I.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Davis, John L.

    2013-01-01

    The use of multi-category scales is increasing for the monitoring of IEP goals, classroom and school rules, and Behavior Improvement Plans (BIPs). Although they require greater inference than traditional data counting, little is known about the inter-rater reliability of these scales. This simulation study examined the performance of nine…

  5. 21 CFR 330.5 - Drug categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug categories. 330.5 Section 330.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN...) Stimulants. (r) Antitussives. (s) Allergy treatment products. (t) Cold remedies. (u) Antirheumatic products...

  6. Shape configuration and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B

    2006-01-01

    in difficult object decision tasks, which is also found in the present experiments with outlines, is reversed when the stimuli are fragmented. This interaction between category (natural versus artefacts) and stimulus type (outlines versus fragmented forms) is in accordance with predictions derived from...

  7. Structural similarity and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that category-specific recognition disorders for natural objects may reflect that natural objects are more structurally (visually) similar than artefacts and therefore more difficult to recognize following brain damage. On this account one might expect a positive relationshi...

  8. Ontological semantics in modified categorial grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymczak, Bartlomiej Antoni

    2009-01-01

    Categorial Grammar is a well established tool for describing natural language semantics. In the current paper we discuss some of its drawbacks and how it could be extended to overcome them. We use the extended version for deriving ontological semantics from text. A proof-of-concept implementation...

  9. Semantic category interference in overt picture naming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maess, B.; Friederici, A.D.; Damian, M.F.; Meyer, A.S.; Levelt, W.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The study investigated the neuronal basis of the retrieval of words from the mental lexicon. The semantic category interference effect was used to locate lexical retrieval processes in time and space. This effect reflects the finding that, for overt naming, volunteers are slower when naming pictures

  10. Multimedia Category Preferences of Working Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baukal, Charles E., Jr.; Ausburn, Lynna J.

    2016-01-01

    Many have argued for the importance of continuing engineering education (CEE), but relatively few recommendations were found in the literature for how to use multimedia technologies to deliver it most effectively. The study reported here addressed this gap by investigating the multimedia category preferences of working engineers. Four categories…

  11. Typicality Mediates Performance during Category Verification in Both Ad-Hoc and Well-Defined Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Chaleece; Sebastian, Rajani; Kiran, Swathi

    2012-01-01

    Background: The typicality effect is present in neurologically intact populations for natural, ad-hoc, and well-defined categories. Although sparse, there is evidence of typicality effects in persons with chronic stroke aphasia for natural and ad-hoc categories. However, it is unknown exactly what influences the typicality effect in this…

  12. Uncovering Contrast Categories in Categorization with a Probabilistic Threshold Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheyen, Steven; De Deyne, Simon; Dry, Matthew J.; Storms, Gert

    2011-01-01

    A contrast category effect on categorization occurs when the decision to apply a category term to an entity not only involves a comparison between the entity and the target category but is also influenced by a comparison of the entity with 1 or more alternative categories from the same domain as the target. Establishing a contrast category effect…

  13. Automatic phoneme category selectivity in the dorsal auditory stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevillet, Mark A; Jiang, Xiong; Rauschecker, Josef P; Riesenhuber, Maximilian

    2013-03-20

    Debates about motor theories of speech perception have recently been reignited by a burst of reports implicating premotor cortex (PMC) in speech perception. Often, however, these debates conflate perceptual and decision processes. Evidence that PMC activity correlates with task difficulty and subject performance suggests that PMC might be recruited, in certain cases, to facilitate category judgments about speech sounds (rather than speech perception, which involves decoding of sounds). However, it remains unclear whether PMC does, indeed, exhibit neural selectivity that is relevant for speech decisions. Further, it is unknown whether PMC activity in such cases reflects input via the dorsal or ventral auditory pathway, and whether PMC processing of speech is automatic or task-dependent. In a novel modified categorization paradigm, we presented human subjects with paired speech sounds from a phonetic continuum but diverted their attention from phoneme category using a challenging dichotic listening task. Using fMRI rapid adaptation to probe neural selectivity, we observed acoustic-phonetic selectivity in left anterior and left posterior auditory cortical regions. Conversely, we observed phoneme-category selectivity in left PMC that correlated with explicit phoneme-categorization performance measured after scanning, suggesting that PMC recruitment can account for performance on phoneme-categorization tasks. Structural equation modeling revealed connectivity from posterior, but not anterior, auditory cortex to PMC, suggesting a dorsal route for auditory input to PMC. Our results provide evidence for an account of speech processing in which the dorsal stream mediates automatic sensorimotor integration of speech and may be recruited to support speech decision tasks.

  14. Correspondence between Grammatical Categories and Grammatical Functions in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Fu

    1993-01-01

    A correspondence is shown between grammatical categories and grammatical functions in Chinese. Some syntactic properties distinguish finite verbs from nonfinite verbs, nominals from other categories, and verbs from other categories. (Contains seven references.) (LB)

  15. Category-length and category-strength effects using images of scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Oliver; Vromen, Joyce M G; Boddy, Adam C; Crawshaw, Eloise; Humphreys, Michael S

    2018-06-21

    Global matching models have provided an important theoretical framework for recognition memory. Key predictions of this class of models are that (1) increasing the number of occurrences in a study list of some items affects the performance on other items (list-strength effect) and that (2) adding new items results in a deterioration of performance on the other items (list-length effect). Experimental confirmation of these predictions has been difficult, and the results have been inconsistent. A review of the existing literature, however, suggests that robust length and strength effects do occur when sufficiently similar hard-to-label items are used. In an effort to investigate this further, we had participants study lists containing one or more members of visual scene categories (bathrooms, beaches, etc.). Experiments 1 and 2 replicated and extended previous findings showing that the study of additional category members decreased accuracy, providing confirmation of the category-length effect. Experiment 3 showed that repeating some category members decreased the accuracy of nonrepeated members, providing evidence for a category-strength effect. Experiment 4 eliminated a potential challenge to these results. Taken together, these findings provide robust support for global matching models of recognition memory. The overall list lengths, the category sizes, and the number of repetitions used demonstrated that scene categories are well-suited to testing the fundamental assumptions of global matching models. These include (A) interference from memories for similar items and contexts, (B) nondestructive interference, and (C) that conjunctive information is made available through a matching operation.

  16. TO THE QUESTION OF PROFIT CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Myamlin

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The economic category “profit” is considered. The discrepancies and inconsistency of the existing financial-andeconomic model of management based only upon the “profitable” paradigm is demonstrated. It is shown how a “profit” affects a discrepancy between the supply of goods and the related solvent demand. It is suggested to build the laws of economics starting not from the private interests of separate social groups but from the universal laws of the Nature. The transition from “profit” maximization to wages/salary maximization is recommended. It is proposed to exclude a category “profit” from the financial-and-economic model of management as an unnecessary and imaginary one that continuously leads the economic system to crisis.

  17. Sacrality and worldmaking: new categorial perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    William E. Paden

    1999-01-01

    The category of the sacred in particular and the role of transcultural concept-formation in general have undergone an obvious crisis. For the most part, "the sacred," if not an empty label, has been linked with theologism, and transcultural concepts have been condemned for their general non-comparability and colonialist intent. The author approaches the matter of transcultural templates through an analysis of certain concepts of sacrality. With some exceptions, the discourse of sacrality has ...

  18. 40 CFR 156.62 - Toxicity Category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Acute Toxicity Categories for Pesticide Products Hazard Indicators I II III IV Oral LD50 Up to and including 50 mg/kg >50 thru 500 mg/kg >500 thru 5,000 mg/kg >5,000 mg/kg Dermal LD50 Up to and including 200 mg/kg >200 thru 2000 mg/kg >2000 thru 20,000 mg/kg >20,000 mg/kg Inhalation LC50 Up to and including...

  19. Metacognitive control of categorial neurobehavioral decision systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Robert Foxall

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The competing neuro-behavioral decision systems (CNDS model proposes that the degree to which an individual discounts the future is a function of the relative hyperactivity of an impulsive system based on the limbic and paralimbic brain regions and the relative hypoactivity of an executive system based in prefrontal cortex (PFC. The model depicts the relationship between these categorial systems in terms of the antipodal neurophysiological, behavioral, and decision (cognitive functions that engender classes normal and addictive responding. However, a case may be made for construing several components of the impulsive and executive systems depicted in the model as categories (elements of additional systems that are concerned with the metacognitive control of behavior. Hence, this paper proposes a category-based structure for understanding the effects on behavior of CNDS, which includes not only the impulsive and executive systems of the basic model but, a superordinate level of reflective or rational decision-making. Following recent developments in the modeling of cognitive control which contrasts Type 1 (rapid, autonomous, parallel processing with Type 2 (slower, computationally-demanding, sequential processing, the proposed model incorporates an arena in which the potentially conflicting imperatives of impulsive and executive systems are examined and from which a more appropriate behavioral response than impulsive choice emerges. This configuration suggests a forum in which the interaction of picoeconomic interests, which provide a cognitive dimension for CNDS, can be conceptualized. This proposition is examined in light of the resolution of conflict by means of bundling.

  20. On Learning Natural-Science Categories That Violate the Family-Resemblance Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosofsky, Robert M; Sanders, Craig A; Gerdom, Alex; Douglas, Bruce J; McDaniel, Mark A

    2017-01-01

    The general view in psychological science is that natural categories obey a coherent, family-resemblance principle. In this investigation, we documented an example of an important exception to this principle: Results of a multidimensional-scaling study of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks (Experiment 1) suggested that the structure of these categories is disorganized and dispersed. This finding motivated us to explore what might be the optimal procedures for teaching dispersed categories, a goal that is likely critical to science education in general. Subjects in Experiment 2 learned to classify pictures of rocks into compact or dispersed high-level categories. One group learned the categories through focused high-level training, whereas a second group was required to simultaneously learn classifications at a subtype level. Although high-level training led to enhanced performance when the categories were compact, subtype training was better when the categories were dispersed. We provide an interpretation of the results in terms of an exemplar-memory model of category learning.

  1. Is better beautiful or is beautiful better? Exploring the relationship between beauty and category structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Megan; Davis, Tyler; Love, Bradley C

    2013-06-01

    We evaluate two competing accounts of the relationship between beauty and category structure. According to the similarity-based view, beauty arises from category structure such that central items are favored due to their increased fluency. In contrast, the theory-based view holds that people's theories of beauty shape their perceptions of categories. In the present study, subjects learned to categorize abstract paintings into meaningfully labeled categories and rated the paintings' beauty, value, and typicality. Inconsistent with the similarity-based view, beauty ratings were highly correlated across conditions despite differences in fluency and assigned category structure. Consistent with the theory-based view, beautiful paintings were treated as central members for categories expected to contain beautiful paintings (e.g., art museum pieces), but not in others (e.g., student show pieces). These results suggest that the beauty of complex, real-world stimuli is not determined by fluency within category structure but, instead, interacts with people's prior knowledge to structure categories.

  2. From groups to categorial algebra introduction to protomodular and mal’tsev categories

    CERN Document Server

    Bourn, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    This book gives a thorough and entirely self-contained, in-depth introduction to a specific approach to group theory, in a large sense of that word. The focus lie on the relationships which a group may have with other groups, via “universal properties”, a view on that group “from the outside”. This method of categorical algebra, is actually not limited to the study of groups alone, but applies equally well to other similar categories of algebraic objects. By introducing protomodular categories and Mal’tsev categories, which form a larger class, the structural properties of the category Gp of groups, show how they emerge from four very basic observations about the algebraic litteral calculus and how, studied for themselves at the conceptual categorical level, they lead to the main striking features of the category Gp of groups. Hardly any previous knowledge of category theory is assumed, and just a little experience with standard algebraic structures such as groups and monoids. Examples and exercises...

  3. The Effects of Mode of Presentation and Number of Categories on 4-Year-Olds' Proportion Estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Ginsburg, Herbert

    Two experiments investigate the effects of mode of presentation and number of categories on 4-year-olds' proportion estimates. Experiment I compares simultaneous and successive presentations of proportion problems using two categories of elements. The subjects were 40 children chosen randomly and tested individually. Four problems were presented…

  4. Standard distribution for unclassified scientific and technical reports: instructions and category scope notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Technical Information Center (DOE/TIC) uses a subject category scheme for classifying and distributing DOE-originated or -sponsored unclassified scientific and technical reports. This document contains the subject category scope notes used for these purposes. Originators of DOE or DOE-sponsored scientific and technical reports are urged to adhere to the instructions contained this publication. A limited number of copies of the unabridged version (addresses included) are available to Department of Energy offices and their contractors as DOE/TIC-4500(Rev.69)(Unabridged)

  5. Order of Presentation Effects in Learning Color Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhofer, Catherine M.; Doumas, Leonidas A. A.

    2008-01-01

    Two studies, an experimental category learning task and a computational simulation, examined how sequencing training instances to maximize comparison and memory affects category learning. In Study 1, 2-year-old children learned color categories with three training conditions that varied in how categories were distributed throughout training and…

  6. Supervised and Unsupervised Learning of Multidimensional Acoustic Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudbeek, Martijn; Swingley, Daniel; Smits, Roel

    2009-01-01

    Learning to recognize the contrasts of a language-specific phonemic repertoire can be viewed as forming categories in a multidimensional psychophysical space. Research on the learning of distributionally defined visual categories has shown that categories defined over 1 dimension are easy to learn and that learning multidimensional categories is…

  7. Category theoretic analysis of hierarchical protein materials and social networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I Spivak

    Full Text Available Materials in biology span all the scales from Angstroms to meters and typically consist of complex hierarchical assemblies of simple building blocks. Here we describe an application of category theory to describe structural and resulting functional properties of biological protein materials by developing so-called ologs. An olog is like a "concept web" or "semantic network" except that it follows a rigorous mathematical formulation based on category theory. This key difference ensures that an olog is unambiguous, highly adaptable to evolution and change, and suitable for sharing concepts with other olog. We consider simple cases of beta-helical and amyloid-like protein filaments subjected to axial extension and develop an olog representation of their structural and resulting mechanical properties. We also construct a representation of a social network in which people send text-messages to their nearest neighbors and act as a team to perform a task. We show that the olog for the protein and the olog for the social network feature identical category-theoretic representations, and we proceed to precisely explicate the analogy or isomorphism between them. The examples presented here demonstrate that the intrinsic nature of a complex system, which in particular includes a precise relationship between structure and function at different hierarchical levels, can be effectively represented by an olog. This, in turn, allows for comparative studies between disparate materials or fields of application, and results in novel approaches to derive functionality in the design of de novo hierarchical systems. We discuss opportunities and challenges associated with the description of complex biological materials by using ologs as a powerful tool for analysis and design in the context of materiomics, and we present the potential impact of this approach for engineering, life sciences, and medicine.

  8. Antisocial behavior: Dimension or category(ies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biro Mikloš

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Classificatory systems (DSM-IV, ICD-10 use different criteria for defining a rather common antisocial disorder, traditionally referred as psychopathy. Most empirical studies of this phenomenon use Cleckley's operational definition that was applied and amended in Hare's revised Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R. In modern literature, the fact that there is less than a perfect correspondence between classificatory systems and Hare's PCL-R is often cited as an indication that antisocial behavior is not confined to a distinct category of people but is rather a continuous personality dimension. In order to further elucidate the nosology of antisocial behaviors, a Psychopathy Assessment Questionnaire (PAQ based on Cleckley - Hare's criteria and consisting of 40 binary items was administered to 339 men (135 prisoners and 204 members of the general population. Four distinct clusters of respondents were identified by means of hierarchical cluster analysis: Psychopathic type (characterized by high positive scores on dimension of Unemotionality; Antisocial type (characterized by high positive scores on Social deviance dimension; Adapted type (characterized by negative scores on all dimensions; and Hyper-controlled type (characterized by extremely negative scores on dimension Social deviance accompanied with positive scores on Unemotionality dimension. Additional comparison with MMPI profiles which classified prison sample in two groups ("Psychopathic profiles" and "Non- Psychopathic profiles" shows that there is no expected compatibility between MMPI and PAQ. We conclude that Antisocial type can be treated as a distinct category, while Psychopathic type displays characteristics of dimensional distribution.

  9. Hippocampal activation during episodic and semantic memory retrieval: comparing category production and category cued recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Lee; Cox, Christine; Hayes, Scott M; Nadel, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Whether or not the hippocampus participates in semantic memory retrieval has been the focus of much debate in the literature. However, few neuroimaging studies have directly compared hippocampal activation during semantic and episodic retrieval tasks that are well matched in all respects other than the source of the retrieved information. In Experiment 1, we compared hippocampal fMRI activation during a classic semantic memory task, category production, and an episodic version of the same task, category cued recall. Left hippocampal activation was observed in both episodic and semantic conditions, although other regions of the brain clearly distinguished the two tasks. Interestingly, participants reported using retrieval strategies during the semantic retrieval task that relied on autobiographical and spatial information; for example, visualizing themselves in their kitchen while producing items for the category kitchen utensils. In Experiment 2, we considered whether the use of these spatial and autobiographical retrieval strategies could have accounted for the hippocampal activation observed in Experiment 1. Categories were presented that elicited one of three retrieval strategy types, autobiographical and spatial, autobiographical and nonspatial, and neither autobiographical nor spatial. Once again, similar hippocampal activation was observed for all three category types, regardless of the inclusion of spatial or autobiographical content. We conclude that the distinction between semantic and episodic memory is more complex than classic memory models suggest.

  10. Behavioral evidence for differences in social and non-social category learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucile eGamond

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available When meeting someone for the very first time one spontaneously categorizes the seen person on the basis of his/her appearance. Categorization is based on the association between some physical features and category labels that can be social (character trait… or non-social (tall, thin. Surprisingly little is known about how such associations are formed, particularly in the social domain. Here, we aimed at testing whether social and non-social category learning may be dissociated. We presented subjects with a large number of faces that had to be rated according to social or non-social labels, and induced an association between a facial feature (inter-eye distance and the category labels using two different procedures. In a first experiment, we used a feedback procedure to reinforce the association; behavioral measures revealed an association between the physical feature manipulated and abstract non-social categories, while no evidence for an association with social labels could be found. In a second experiment, we used passive exposure to the association between physical features and labels; we obtained behavioral evidence for learning of both social and non-social categories. These results support the view of the specificity of social category learning; they suggest that social categories are best acquired through unsupervised procedures that can be considered as a simplified proxy for group transmission.

  11. The Category Cued Recall test in very mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Mortensen, E.L.; Gade, A.

    2007-01-01

    Episodic memory tests that measure cued recall may be particularly effective in the diagnosis of early Alzheimer's disease (AD) because they examine both episodic and semantic memory functions. The Category Cued Recall (CCR) test provides superordinate semantic cues at encoding and retrieval...... was taken as the standard. It was also investigated whether the two episodic memory tests correlated with measures of semantic memory. The tests were administered to 35 patients with very mild AD (Mini Mental State Examination score > 22) and 28 control subjects. Both tests had high sensitivity (>88......%) with high specificity (>89%). One out of the five semantic memory tests was significantly correlated to performances on CCR, whereas delayed recall on the ADAS-cog memory test was significantly correlated to two semantic tests. In conclusion, the discriminative validity of the CCR test and the ADAS...

  12. The Category of Immaturity in a Legal Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedonkina A.A

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We presented psychological and legal approaches to the concept of immaturity, and the definition of the perpetrator. We analyzed the differences of age aspects of the subject of crime in different countries, the criteria for establishing a minimum age of criminal responsibility. We discuss the problem of the possibility of lowering the age of criminal responsibility in the Russian Federation from the point of view of psychological science. We considered the legal category of "mental retardation not associated with mental illness" and its psychological equivalent - "personal immaturity". We describe the main problems arising in the course of the complex judicial, psychological and psychiatric examination for the presence of a mental retardation not associated with mental illness in minor. We presented psychological approaches to the concept of "personal immaturity", described the concept of "mature personality".

  13. Perceptual differentiation and category effects in normal object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, I; Gade, A

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present PET study was (i) to investigate the neural correlates of object recognition, i.e. the matching of visual forms to memory, and (ii) to test the hypothesis that this process is more difficult for natural objects than for artefacts. This was done by using object decision...... tasks where subjects decided whether pictures represented real objects or non-objects. The object decision tasks differed in their difficulty (the degree of perceptual differentiation needed to perform them) and in the category of the real objects used (natural objects versus artefacts). A clear effect...... be the neural correlate of matching visual forms to memory, and the amount of activation in these regions may correspond to the degree of perceptual differentiation required for recognition to occur. With respect to behaviour, it took significantly longer to make object decisions on natural objects than...

  14. Hypostases of THEM category in mass media communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanysheva Zulfira Zakievna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the reflection of the US/THEM category in mass media communication in conditions of sharp confrontation of ideological opponents. It is aimed at revealing the potential of lingvocultural signs to be used as units of generating desirable senses in leading English periodical issues. The alien culture is shown to possess three basic hypostases with xenocultural axiological semantic space taking the lead. The article proves that intercultural massmedia communication is marked by reciprocal influence of semantic spaces and subjective evaluation of information. Xenoprecedent phenomena are viewed as supporting clamps in the process of semantic transformations of national and cultural signs designed to exert a manipulative effect on the target reader.

  15. Encoding tasks dissociate the effects of divided attention on category-cued recall and category-exemplar generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andrew; Dagnall, Neil; Munley, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The combined effects of encoding tasks and divided attention upon category-exemplar generation and category-cued recall were examined. Participants were presented with pairs of words each comprising a category name and potential example of that category. They were then asked to indicate either (i) their liking for both of the words or (ii) if the exemplar was a member of the category. It was found that divided attention reduced performance on the category-cued recall task under both encoding conditions. However, performance on the category-exemplar generation task remained invariant across the attention manipulation following the category judgment task. This provides further evidence that the processes underlying performance on conceptual explicit and implicit memory tasks can be dissociated, and that the intentional formation of category-exemplar associations attenuates the effects of divided attention on category-exemplar generation.

  16. The helpfulness of category labels in semi-supervised learning depends on category structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vong, Wai Keen; Navarro, Daniel J; Perfors, Amy

    2016-02-01

    The study of semi-supervised category learning has generally focused on how additional unlabeled information with given labeled information might benefit category learning. The literature is also somewhat contradictory, sometimes appearing to show a benefit to unlabeled information and sometimes not. In this paper, we frame the problem differently, focusing on when labels might be helpful to a learner who has access to lots of unlabeled information. Using an unconstrained free-sorting categorization experiment, we show that labels are useful to participants only when the category structure is ambiguous and that people's responses are driven by the specific set of labels they see. We present an extension of Anderson's Rational Model of Categorization that captures this effect.

  17. Risk as economic category: systematics scientific approach and refinement contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Vygovskyy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the categorical-conceptual apparatus of risk and its refinement based on a critical analysis of existing systematic scientific approaches. Determined that in the refinement of the economic nature of the risk of a number of controversial issues: the definition of the objective or subjective nature of risk; matching of concepts such as «risk», «danger», «loss», «probability of loss»; definition of negative or positive consequences of risk; identification of risk with its consequences, or source of origin, which makes the relevance of research topics. As a result of scientific research has been refined interpretation of risk as an economic category, the characteristics of the company associated with the probability of unforeseen situations that may lead to negative and positive impacts, assessment of which requires the development of alternatives for management decisions. Clarification of the definition focuses on the possibility (probability of a favorable (unfavorable events which require certain corrective action management unit of the enterprise. The author emphasizes the mandatory features of the category of «risk», in particular: the concept of risk is always associated with the uncertainty of the future; event occurring has implications for the enterprise (both negative and positive; consequences for necessitates the development of a number of alternative solutions to the possible elimination of the negative consequences of risky events; risk – a mandatory attribute of modern management (its value is enhanced in terms of market conditions; subject to risk assessment and management by the company. Dedicated and updated features contribute to the clarification of the nature of the economic risk and categorical conceptual apparatus of risk management.

  18. A social cybernetic analysis of simulation-based, remotely delivered medical skills training in an austere environment: developing a test bed for spaceflight medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musson, David M; Doyle, Thomas E

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes analysis of medical skills training exercises that were conducted at an arctic research station. These were conducted as part of an ongoing effort to establish high fidelity medical simulation test bed capabilities in remote and extreme "space analogue" environments for the purpose studying medical care in spaceflight. The methodological orientation followed by the authors is that of "second order cybernetics," or the science of studying human systems where the observer is involved within the system in question. Analyses presented include the identification of three distinct phases of the training activity, and two distinct levels of work groups-- termed "first-order teams" and "second-order teams." Depending on the phase of activity, first-order and second-order teams are identified, each having it own unique structure, composition, communications, goals, and challenges. Several specific teams are highlighted as case examples. Limitations of this approach are discussed, as are potential benefits to ongoing and planned research activity in this area.

  19. From the "Modern Synthesis" to cybernetics: Ivan Ivanovich Schmalhausen (1884-1963) and his research program for a synthesis of evolutionary and developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levit, Georgy S; Hossfeld, Uwe; Olsson, Lennart

    2006-03-15

    Ivan I. Schmalhausen was one of the central figures in the Russian development of the "Modern Synthesis" in evolutionary biology. He is widely cited internationally even today. Schmalhausen developed the main principles of his theory facing the danger of death in the totalitarian Soviet Union. His great services to evolutionary and theoretical biology are indisputable. However, the received view of Schmalhausen's contributions to evolutionary biology makes an unbiased reading of his texts difficult. Here we show that taking all of his works into consideration (including those only available in Russian) paints a much more dynamic and exciting picture of what he tried to achieve. Schmalhausen pioneered the integration of a developmental perspective into evolutionary thinking. A main tool for achieving this was his approach to living objects as complex multi-level self-regulating systems. Schmalhausen put enormous effort into bringing this idea into fruition during the final stages of his career by combining evolutionary theory with cybernetics. His results and ideas remain thought-provoking, and his texts are of more than just historical interest. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Sacrality and worldmaking: new categorial perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Paden

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The category of the sacred in particular and the role of transcultural concept-formation in general have undergone an obvious crisis. For the most part, "the sacred," if not an empty label, has been linked with theologism, and transcultural concepts have been condemned for their general non-comparability and colonialist intent. The author approaches the matter of transcultural templates through an analysis of certain concepts of sacrality. With some exceptions, the discourse of sacrality has indeed been dominated by a single model, where "the sacred" became a reified noun—a substantive term for a supernatural reality, a label for the transcendent, or even an epithet for divinity, mystery, the wholly other. As such, the expression has functioned to bestow a sense of unity to the diversity of cultures, link that unity with a transcendent reality, and offer a simple way of making sense of otherwise foreign beliefs and practices by giving them a familiar, generic referent.

  1. The structure and formation of natural categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Langley, Pat

    1990-01-01

    Categorization and concept formation are critical activities of intelligence. These processes and the conceptual structures that support them raise important issues at the interface of cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence. The work presumes that advances in these and other areas are best facilitated by research methodologies that reward interdisciplinary interaction. In particular, a computational model is described of concept formation and categorization that exploits a rational analysis of basic level effects by Gluck and Corter. Their work provides a clean prescription of human category preferences that is adapted to the task of concept learning. Also, their analysis was extended to account for typicality and fan effects, and speculate on how the concept formation strategies might be extended to other facets of intelligence, such as problem solving.

  2. Radiation hardness assurances categories for COTS technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hash, G.L.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Sexton, F.W.; Winokur, P.S.

    1997-01-01

    A comparison of the radiation tolerance of three commercial, and one radiation hardened SRAM is presented for four radiation environments. This work has shown the difficulty associated with strictly categorizing a device based solely on its radiation response, since its category depends on the specific radiation environment considered. For example, the 3.3-V Paradigm SRAM could be considered a radiation-tolerant device except for its SEU response. A more useful classification depends on the methods the manufacturer uses to ensure radiation hardness, i.e. whether specific design and process techniques have been used to harden the device. Finally, this work has shown that burned-in devices may fail functionally as much as 50% lower in total dose environments than non-burned-in devices. No burn-in effect was seen in dose-rate upset, latchup, or SEE environments. The user must ensure that total dose lot acceptance testing was performed on burned-in devices

  3. Housekeeping category corrective action unit work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Work Plan is to provide a strategy to be used by the US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), the US Department of Defense (DoD) Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA) (formerly the Defense Nuclear Agency), and contractor personnel for conducting corrective actions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and Nevada off-site locations including the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), the Project Shoal Area, and the Central Nevada Test Area. This Work Plan applies to housekeeping category CAUs already listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) Appendices (FFACO, 1996) as well as newly identified Corrective Action Sites (CASs) that will follow the housekeeping process

  4. Classification versus inference learning contrasted with real-world categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Erin L; Ross, Brian H

    2011-07-01

    Categories are learned and used in a variety of ways, but the research focus has been on classification learning. Recent work contrasting classification with inference learning of categories found important later differences in category performance. However, theoretical accounts differ on whether this is due to an inherent difference between the tasks or to the implementation decisions. The inherent-difference explanation argues that inference learners focus on the internal structure of the categories--what each category is like--while classification learners focus on diagnostic information to predict category membership. In two experiments, using real-world categories and controlling for earlier methodological differences, inference learners learned more about what each category was like than did classification learners, as evidenced by higher performance on a novel classification test. These results suggest that there is an inherent difference between learning new categories by classifying an item versus inferring a feature.

  5. The role of grammatical category information in spoken word retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duràn, Carolina Palma; Pillon, Agnesa

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the role of lexical syntactic information such as grammatical gender and category in spoken word retrieval processes by using a blocking paradigm in picture and written word naming experiments. In Experiments 1, 3, and 4, we found that the naming of target words (nouns) from pictures or written words was faster when these target words were named within a list where only words from the same grammatical category had to be produced (homogeneous category list: all nouns) than when they had to be produced within a list comprising also words from another grammatical category (heterogeneous category list: nouns and verbs). On the other hand, we detected no significant facilitation effect when the target words had to be named within a homogeneous gender list (all masculine nouns) compared to a heterogeneous gender list (both masculine and feminine nouns). In Experiment 2, using the same blocking paradigm by manipulating the semantic category of the items, we found that naming latencies were significantly slower in the semantic category homogeneous in comparison with the semantic category heterogeneous condition. Thus semantic category homogeneity caused an interference, not a facilitation effect like grammatical category homogeneity. Finally, in Experiment 5, nouns in the heterogeneous category condition had to be named just after a verb (category-switching position) or a noun (same-category position). We found a facilitation effect of category homogeneity but no significant effect of position, which showed that the effect of category homogeneity found in Experiments 1, 3, and 4 was not due to a cost of switching between grammatical categories in the heterogeneous grammatical category list. These findings supported the hypothesis that grammatical category information impacts word retrieval processes in speech production, even when words are to be produced in isolation. They are discussed within the context of extant theories of lexical production.

  6. The development of automaticity in short-term memory search: Item-response learning and category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Rui; Nosofsky, Robert M; Shiffrin, Richard M

    2017-05-01

    In short-term-memory (STM)-search tasks, observers judge whether a test probe was present in a short list of study items. Here we investigated the long-term learning mechanisms that lead to the highly efficient STM-search performance observed under conditions of consistent-mapping (CM) training, in which targets and foils never switch roles across trials. In item-response learning, subjects learn long-term mappings between individual items and target versus foil responses. In category learning, subjects learn high-level codes corresponding to separate sets of items and learn to attach old versus new responses to these category codes. To distinguish between these 2 forms of learning, we tested subjects in categorized varied mapping (CV) conditions: There were 2 distinct categories of items, but the assignment of categories to target versus foil responses varied across trials. In cases involving arbitrary categories, CV performance closely resembled standard varied-mapping performance without categories and departed dramatically from CM performance, supporting the item-response-learning hypothesis. In cases involving prelearned categories, CV performance resembled CM performance, as long as there was sufficient practice or steps taken to reduce trial-to-trial category-switching costs. This pattern of results supports the category-coding hypothesis for sufficiently well-learned categories. Thus, item-response learning occurs rapidly and is used early in CM training; category learning is much slower but is eventually adopted and is used to increase the efficiency of search beyond that available from item-response learning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Investigating cross-category brand loyalty behavior in FMCG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boztug, Yasemin; Hildebrandt, Lutz; Silberhorn, Nadja

    category depend on purchases in other categories. The aspect of cross-category related brand loyalty has been somewhat neglected so far. We concentrate on cross-category relationships of strong national brands and on how customers' brand choice decisions are related across several product categories.......In competitive markets, customer retention is more efficient than trying to attract new customers. Brand loyalty is an intrinsic commitment to repeatedly purchase a particular brand. But most analyses have been conducted in one specific category only. It has been shown that product purchases in one...

  8. Practical organization of medical supervision for the various categories of exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strambi, E.

    1975-01-01

    As an introduction to the discussion of the practical problems or organizing medical supervision for the various categories of workers exposed to the hazards of ionizing radiation, the following points were investigated: the kind of activities which should be subject to special medical supervision; the authorization of doctors responsible for this supervision; the extent of medical examination

  9. Category Rating Is Based on Prototypes and Not Instances: Evidence from Feedback-Dependent Context Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Alexander A.

    2011-01-01

    Context effects in category rating on a 7-point scale are shown to reverse direction depending on feedback. Context (skewed stimulus frequencies) was manipulated between and feedback within subjects in two experiments. The diverging predictions of prototype- and exemplar-based scaling theories were tested using two representative models: ANCHOR…

  10. Ad Hoc Categories and False Memories: Memory Illusions for Categories Created On-The-Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soro, Jerônimo C.; Ferreira, Mário B.; Semin, Gün R.; Mata, André; Carneiro, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Three experiments were designed to test whether experimentally created ad hoc associative networks evoke false memories. We used the DRM (Deese, Roediger, McDermott) paradigm with lists of ad hoc categories composed of exemplars aggregated toward specific goals (e.g., going for a picnic) that do not share any consistent set of features. Experiment…

  11. Category Specificity in Normal Episodic Learning: Applications to Object Recognition and Category-Specific Agnosia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukach, Cindy M.; Bub, Daniel N.; Masson, Michael E. J.; Lindsay, D. Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Studies of patients with category-specific agnosia (CSA) have given rise to multiple theories of object recognition, most of which assume the existence of a stable, abstract semantic memory system. We applied an episodic view of memory to questions raised by CSA in a series of studies examining normal observers' recall of newly learned attributes…

  12. Category Formation in Autism: Can Individuals with Autism Form Categories and Prototypes of Dot Patterns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastgeb, Holly Zajac; Dundas, Eva M.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Strauss, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing amount of evidence suggesting that individuals with autism have difficulty with categorization. One basic cognitive ability that may underlie this difficulty is the ability to abstract a prototype. The current study examined prototype and category formation with dot patterns in high-functioning adults with autism and matched…

  13. 28 CFR 60.2 - Authorized categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... officer of the Virgin Islands, Guam, or the Canal Zone. (d) Any officer of the Metropolitan Police... the United States. (f) Any civilian agent of the Department of Defense not subject to military... Uniform Code of Military Justice. (h) Any military agent of the Department of Defense who is authorized to...

  14. Relationships Among Categories of Vocational Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, K.

    1972-01-01

    The dimensions of preference were arranged in two independent groups: the first defined by occupational titles, curriculum subjects, and vocational life goals; and the second by job attributes and general life goals. The implications of this finding for the nature of vocational preference and certain counseling activities are discussed. (Author)

  15. Growth and the Category of Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yandell, John

    2016-01-01

    In John Dixon's account of Dartmouth, experience is seen as central to the business of English as a school subject. Experience, for Dixon, is the raw material that is worked on in the classroom. What kinds of theory inform this emphasis on experience, and what are the curricular and pedagogic implications of this version of English? How does…

  16. Correlation of the verb transitivity with other grammatical categories

    OpenAIRE

    LIUBCHENKO TATIANA VIKTOROVNA

    2016-01-01

    The correlation of the verb transitivity with other categories, including voice and aspect is specified in investigation. The article also deals with interpretation of categories “voice” and “diathesis” in linguistics.

  17. 40 CFR 98.410 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Industrial Greenhouse Gases § 98.410 Definition of the source category. (a) The industrial gas supplier source category consists of any facility that...

  18. School based assessment module for invasion games category in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    School based assessment module for invasion games category in physical education. ... This study identify the level of basic skills of invasion games category when using School Based Assessment Module. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  19. 40 CFR 98.110 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Ferroalloy Production § 98.110 Definition of the source category. The ferroalloy production source category consists of any facility that uses pyrometallurgical techniques to produce any of the following metals: ferrochromium, ferromanganese, ferromolybdenum...

  20. Subject search study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todeschini, C.

    1995-01-01

    The study gathered information on how users search the database of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS), using indicators such as Subject categories, Controlled terms, Subject headings, Free-text words, combinations of the above. Users participated from the Australian, French, Russian and Spanish INIS Centres, that have different national languages. Participants, both intermediaries and end users, replied to a questionnaire and executed search queries. The INIS Secretariat at the IAEA also participated. A protocol of all search strategies used in actual searches in the database was kept. The thought process for Russian and Spanish users is predominantly non-English and also the actual initial search formulation is predominantly non-English among Russian and Spanish users while it tends to be more in English among French users. A total of 1002 searches were executed by the five INIS centres including the IAEA. The search protocols indicate the following search behaviour: 1) free text words represent about 40% of search points on an average query; 2) descriptors used as search keys have the widest range as percentage of search points, from a low of 25% to a high of 48%; 3) search keys consisting of free text that coincides with a descriptor account for about 15% of search points; 4) Subject Categories are not used in many searches; 5) free text words are present as search points in about 80% of all searches; 6) controlled terms (descriptors) are used very extensively and appear in about 90% of all searches; 7) Subject Headings were used in only a few percent of searches. From the results of the study one can conclude that there is a greater reluctance on the part of non-native English speakers in initiating their searches by using free text word searches. Also: Subject Categories are little used in searching the database; both free text terms and controlled terms are the predominant types of search keys used, whereby the controlled terms are used more

  1. AMUC: Associated Motion capture User Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Sally Jane; Lawson, Sian E M; Olivier, Patrick; Watson, Paul; Chan, Anita M-A; Dade-Robertson, Martyn; Dunphy, Paul; Green, Dave; Hiden, Hugo; Hook, Jonathan; Jackson, Daniel G

    2009-07-13

    The AMUC (Associated Motion capture User Categories) project consisted of building a prototype sketch retrieval client for exploring motion capture archives. High-dimensional datasets reflect the dynamic process of motion capture and comprise high-rate sampled data of a performer's joint angles; in response to multiple query criteria, these data can potentially yield different kinds of information. The AMUC prototype harnesses graphic input via an electronic tablet as a query mechanism, time and position signals obtained from the sketch being mapped to the properties of data streams stored in the motion capture repository. As well as proposing a pragmatic solution for exploring motion capture datasets, the project demonstrates the conceptual value of iterative prototyping in innovative interdisciplinary design. The AMUC team was composed of live performance practitioners and theorists conversant with a variety of movement techniques, bioengineers who recorded and processed motion data for integration into the retrieval tool, and computer scientists who designed and implemented the retrieval system and server architecture, scoped for Grid-based applications. Creative input on information system design and navigation, and digital image processing, underpinned implementation of the prototype, which has undergone preliminary trials with diverse users, allowing identification of rich potential development areas.

  2. Health and morality: two conceptually distinct categories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengland, Per-Anders

    2012-03-01

    When seeing immoral actions, criminal or not, we sometimes deem the people who perform them unhealthy. This is especially so if the actions are of a serious nature, e.g. involving murder, assault, or rape. We turn our moral evaluation into an evaluation about health and illness. This tendency is partly supported by some diagnoses found in the DMS-IV, such as Antisocial personality disorder, and the ICD-10, such as Dissocial personality disorder. The aim of the paper is to answer the question: How analytically sound is the inclusion of morality into a theory of health? The holistic theory of Lennart Nordenfelt is used as a starting point, and it is used as an example of a theory where morality and health are conceptually distinct categories. Several versions of a pluralistic holistic theory are then discussed in order to see if, and if so, how, morality can be conceptually related to health. It is concluded that moral abilities (and dispositions) can be seen as being part of the individual's health. It is harder to incorporate moral virtues and moral actions into such a theory. However, if immoral actions "cluster" in an individual, and are of a severe kind, causing serious harm to other people, it is more likely that the person, for those reasons only, be deemed unhealthy.

  3. Licensing system for primary category radioactive installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Riquelme, Angelica Beatriz

    1997-01-01

    The development of a licensing system for primary category radioactive installations is described, which aims to satisfy the needs of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission's Department of Nuclear and Radiological Safety, particularly the sections for Licensing Outside Radioactive Installations and Safety Control. This system involves the identification, control and inspection of the installations, their personnel and connected activities, for the purpose of protecting the population's health and the environment. Following the basic cycle methodology, a systems analysis and engineering stage was prepared, establishing the functions of the system's elements and defining the requirements, based on interviews with the users. This stage was followed by the design stage, focusing on the data structure, the software architecture and the procedural detail. The codification stage followed, which translated the design into legible machine-readable format. In the testing stage, the entries that were defined were proven to produce the expected data. Finally and operational and maintenance stage was developed, when the system was installed and put to use. All the above generated a useful system for the Licensing section of the Department of Nuclear and Radiological Safety, since it provides faster and easier access to information. A project is described that introduces new development tools in the Computer department following standards established by the C.CH.E.N. (author)

  4. More than words: Adults learn probabilities over categories and relationships between them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson Kam, Carla L

    2009-04-01

    This study examines whether human learners can acquire statistics over abstract categories and their relationships to each other. Adult learners were exposed to miniature artificial languages containing variation in the ordering of the Subject, Object, and Verb constituents. Different orders (e.g. SOV, VSO) occurred in the input with different frequencies, but the occurrence of one order versus another was not predictable. Importantly, the language was constructed such that participants could only match the overall input probabilities if they were tracking statistics over abstract categories, not over individual words. At test, participants reproduced the probabilities present in the input with a high degree of accuracy. Closer examination revealed that learner's were matching the probabilities associated with individual verbs rather than the category as a whole. However, individual nouns had no impact on word orders produced. Thus, participants learned the probabilities of a particular ordering of the abstract grammatical categories Subject and Object associated with each verb. Results suggest that statistical learning mechanisms are capable of tracking relationships between abstract linguistic categories in addition to individual items.

  5. Are tent halls subject to property tax?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Macudziński

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The presented publication is a response to currently asked questions and interpretative doubts of taxpayers and tax authorities, namely whether tent halls are subject to property tax. General issues connected with an entity and a subject of taxation of this tax are presented herein. The answer to the question asked is then provided through the qualification of constructions works and the allocation of tent halls in the proper category of the works, with the use of the current law.

  6. Identifying demand effects in a large network of product categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelper, S.E.C.; Wilms, I.; Croux, C.

    2016-01-01

    Planning marketing mix strategies requires retailers to understand within- as well as cross-category demand effects. Most retailers carry products in a large variety of categories, leading to a high number of such demand effects to be estimated. At the same time, we do not expect cross-category

  7. A note on thick subcategories of stable derived categories

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Henning; Stevenson, Greg

    2013-01-01

    For an exact category having enough projective objects, we establish a bijection between thick subcategories containing the projective objects and thick subcategories of the stable derived category. Using this bijection, we classify thick subcategories of finitely generated modules over strict local complete intersections and produce generators for the category of coherent sheaves on a separated Noetherian scheme with an ample family of line bundles.

  8. 14 CFR 61.159 - Aeronautical experience: Airplane category rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aeronautical experience: Airplane category... Transport Pilots § 61.159 Aeronautical experience: Airplane category rating. (a) Except as provided in... certificate with an airplane category and class rating must have at least 1,500 hours of total time as a pilot...

  9. 47 CFR 36.126 - Circuit equipment-Category 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... separating property associated with special services, circuit equipment included in Categories 4.12 (other... Equipment Excluding Wideband—Category 4.13—The cost of Circuit Equipment associated with exchange line plant... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit equipment-Category 4. 36.126 Section 36...

  10. Quasi-coherent Hecke category and Demazure descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arkhipov, Sergey; Kanstrup, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Let G be a reductive algebraic group with a Borel subgroup B. We define the quasi-coherent Hecke category for the pair (G,B). For any regular Noetherian G- scheme X we construct a monoidal action of the Hecke category on the derived category of B-equivariant quasi-coherent sheaves on X. Using the...

  11. An Analysis of Category Management of Service Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    comprised of four steps to guide future category management teams in analyzing data and applying Category Management principles through the use of...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT AN ANALYSIS OF CATEGORY MANAGEMENT OF SERVICE CONTRACTS December 2017...Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project

  12. Racialized Subjects in a Colour Blind School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagermann, Laila Colding

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I examine processes of racialization in a school in Copenhagen, Denmark. On the basis of the data produced in 2009, which is part of a larger study, I investigate themes of race as a difference-making and constituting category for subjective (human) becoming and racialization as contingent and negotiated processes (Butler, 1997). As…

  13. Preschool Children Differentiation According to the Lingua- Grammatical Categories Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. V. Polivara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The parallel existence of languages and cultures brings forward the necessity of studying this linguistic phenomenon and designing special methods of speech development for the bilingual children. The particular attention should be given to the preschool age, for according to A. A. Leontyev’s study, the parallel acquiring of two languages often results in insufficient development of socio-linguistic speech standards. The research is devoted to the phenomenon of the two language systems coexistence in a bilingual person’s consciousness, both of them functioning and encoding the same subjects and phenomena. The peculiarities of language interference are described with the reference to the Russian-Tatar bilingual environment. The author believes that the bilingual interference problems are not caused by the phonetic and grammar system differences of the two languages. To find out the potential source of inter-language transition and interrelations between the native and non-native languages, it is necessary to identify the cognitive, neurolinguistic and psycho-linguistic aspects. Therefore, the regional phenomenon of mass bilingualism among the Tatar population is examined by the author in the framework of the psycho-linguistic and cognitive approaches. The paper presents the model of the lexical and grammar categories formation based on differentiated preschool teaching of the bilingual children. The proposed model makes it possible to overcome the limited viewpoint on the general speech dysfunctions, as well as the specifics of lexical and grammar categories development. It can be used for the further development of educational programs in psycho-linguistics, ethno-linguistics, onto-linguistics, cognitive linguistics, social-linguistics, contrastive linguistics and the language theory by means of extending the teaching course content. 

  14. Drug utilization and teratogenicity risk categories during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basgül, Alin; Akici, Ahmet; Uzuner, Arzu; Kalaça, Sibel; Kavak, Zehra N; Tural, Alper; Oktay, Sule

    2007-01-01

    A limited number of studies have investigated in detail the use of drugs during pregnancy. Researchers in the present study investigated the details of drug utilization in pregnant women during the month before pregnancy, at the time that they became aware of the pregnancy, and during the first trimester. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 359 pregnant women who were admitted to the fetal medicine unit at a university hospital for diagnosis and follow-up. A questionnaire was used to document sociodemographic characteristics and details of drug use. Drugs were categorized according to the US Food and Drug Administration fetal risk classification. Mean maternal age was 29.9+/-5.1 y, and mean gestational age was 19.6+/-9.5 wk. Many of the pregnant women studied (46.6%) were university graduates, and most (61.9%) had a relatively high annual income. Mean gestational age when participants first learned of their pregnancy was 39.8+/-16.4 d. One hundred seventeen participants (32.6%) used drugs during the month before conception, 54 (15%) at the time when they learned of their pregnancy, 180 (50.1%) at the time of the interview, and 289 (80.5%) during the first trimester. The percentages of drugs in categories D and X used by these subjects were 14%, 13.5%, 2.9%, and 5.9%, respectively. Most of the drugs were hormones. The total rate of drug utilization was not high before and during the first trimester of pregnancy. A considerable number of women were using drugs from the D and X categories; however, these numbers decreased significantly when women learned of their pregnancies. Intake of folic acid, vitamins, and iron was very low during the preconception period and was not high enough during the first trimester; this suggests that particular attention should be paid to the use of beneficial "safe" drugs during the preconception and early pregnancy periods.

  15. Prior knowledge of category size impacts visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rachel; McGee, Brianna; Echiverri, Chelsea; Zinszer, Benjamin D

    2018-03-30

    Prior research has shown that category search can be similar to one-item search (as measured by the N2pc ERP marker of attentional selection) for highly familiar, smaller categories (e.g., letters and numbers) because the finite set of items in a category can be grouped into one unit to guide search. Other studies have shown that larger, more broadly defined categories (e.g., healthy food) also can elicit N2pc components during category search, but the amplitude of these components is typically attenuated. Two experiments investigated whether the perceived size of a familiar category impacts category and exemplar search. We presented participants with 16 familiar company logos: 8 from a smaller category (social media companies) and 8 from a larger category (entertainment/recreation manufacturing companies). The ERP results from Experiment 1 revealed that, in a two-item search array, search was more efficient for the smaller category of logos compared to the larger category. In a four-item search array (Experiment 2), where two of the four items were placeholders, search was largely similar between the category types, but there was more attentional capture by nontarget members from the same category as the target for smaller rather than larger categories. These results support a growing literature on how prior knowledge of categories affects attentional selection and capture during visual search. We discuss the implications of these findings in relation to assessing cognitive abilities across the lifespan, given that prior knowledge typically increases with age. © 2018 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  16. Predicting Success Study Using Students GPA Category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awan Setiawan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Maintaining student graduation rates are the main tasks of a University. High rates of student graduation and the quality of graduates is a success indicator of a university, which will have an impact on public confidence as stakeholders of higher education and the National Accreditation Board as a regulator (government. Making predictions of student graduation and determine the factors that hinders will be a valuable input for University. Data mining system facilitates the University to create the segmentation of students’ performance and prediction of their graduation. Segmentation of student by their performance can be classified in a quadrant chart is divided into 4 segments based on grade point average and the growth rate of students performance index per semester. Standard methodology in data mining i.e CRISP-DM (Cross Industry Standard Procedure for Data Mining will be implemented in this research. Making predictions, graduation can be done through the modeling process by utilizing the college database. Some algorithms such as C5, C & R Tree, CHAID, and Logistic Regression tested in order to find the best model. This research utilizes student performance data for several classes. Parameters used in addition to GPA also included the master's students data are expected to build the student profile data. The outcome of the study is the student category based on their study performance and prediction of graduation. Based on this prediction, the  university may recommend actions to be taken to improve the student  achievement index and graduation rates.Keywords: graduation, segmentation, quadrant GPA, data mining, modeling algorithms

  17. Predicting Success Study Using Students GPA Category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awan Setiawan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Maintaining student graduation rates are the main tasks of a University. High rates of student graduation and the quality of graduates is a success indicator of a university, which will have an impact on public confidence as stakeholders of higher education and the National Accreditation Board as a regulator (government. Making predictions of student graduation and determine the factors that hinders will be a valuable input for University. Data mining system facilitates the University to create the segmentation of students’ performance and prediction of their graduation. Segmentation of student by their performance can be classified in a quadrant chart is divided into 4 segments based on grade point average and the growth rate of students performance index per semester. Standard methodology in data mining i.e CRISP-DM (Cross Industry Standard Procedure for Data Mining will be implemented in this research. Making predictions, graduation can be done through the modeling process by utilizing the college database. Some algorithms such as C5, C & R Tree, CHAID, and Logistic Regression tested in order to find the best model. This research utilizes student performance data for several classes. Parameters used in addition to GPA also included the master's students data are expected to build the student profile data. The outcome of the study is the student category based on their study performance and prediction of graduation. Based on this prediction, the university may recommend actions to be taken to improve the student achievement index and graduation rates. Keywords: graduation, segmentation, quadrant GPA, data mining, modeling algorithms

  18. 14 CFR 17.11 - Matters not subject to protest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Acquisition: (a) FAA purchases from or through, state, local, and tribal governments and public authorities...) Other transactions which do not fall into the category of procurement contracts subject to the AMS. ...

  19. Chromatic Perceptual Learning but No Category Effects without Linguistic Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandison, Alexandra; Sowden, Paul T; Drivonikou, Vicky G; Notman, Leslie A; Alexander, Iona; Davies, Ian R L

    2016-01-01

    Perceptual learning involves an improvement in perceptual judgment with practice, which is often specific to stimulus or task factors. Perceptual learning has been shown on a range of visual tasks but very little research has explored chromatic perceptual learning. Here, we use two low level perceptual threshold tasks and a supra-threshold target detection task to assess chromatic perceptual learning and category effects. Experiment 1 investigates whether chromatic thresholds reduce as a result of training and at what level of analysis learning effects occur. Experiment 2 explores the effect of category training on chromatic thresholds, whether training of this nature is category specific and whether it can induce categorical responding. Experiment 3 investigates the effect of category training on a higher level, lateralized target detection task, previously found to be sensitive to category effects. The findings indicate that performance on a perceptual threshold task improves following training but improvements do not transfer across retinal location or hue. Therefore, chromatic perceptual learning is category specific and can occur at relatively early stages of visual analysis. Additionally, category training does not induce category effects on a low level perceptual threshold task, as indicated by comparable discrimination thresholds at the newly learned hue boundary and adjacent test points. However, category training does induce emerging category effects on a supra-threshold target detection task. Whilst chromatic perceptual learning is possible, learnt category effects appear to be a product of left hemisphere processing, and may require the input of higher level linguistic coding processes in order to manifest.

  20. Radiation protection in category III large gamma irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Neivaldo; Furlan, Gilberto Ribeiro; Itepan, Natanael Marcio

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the advantages of category III large gamma irradiator compared to the others, with emphasis on aspects of radiological protection, in the industrial sector. This category is a kind of irradiators almost unknown to the regulators authorities and the industrial community, despite its simple construction and greater radiation safety intrinsic to the model, able to maintain an efficiency of productivity comparable to those of category IV. Worldwide, there are installed more than 200 category IV irradiators and there is none of a category III irradiator in operation. In a category III gamma irradiator, the source remains fixed in the bottom of the tank, always shielded by water, negating the exposition risk. Taking into account the benefits in relation to radiation safety, the category III large irradiators are highly recommended for industrial, commercial purposes or scientific research. (author)

  1. Dose mapping in category I irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, Sandip; Shinde, S.H.; Mhatre, S.G.V.

    2012-01-01

    Category I irradiators such as Gamma Chambers and Blood Irradiators are compact self shielded, dry source storage gamma irradiators offering irradiation volume of few hundred cubic centimeters. In the present work, dose distribution profiles along the central vertical plane of the irradiation volume of Gamma Chamber 900 and Blood Irradiator 2000 were measured using Fricke, FBX, and alanine dosimeters. Measured dose distribution profiles in Gamma Chamber 900 differed from the typical generic dose distribution pattern whereas that in Blood Irradiator 2000 was in agreement with the typical pattern. All reagents used were of analytical reagent grade and were used without further purification. Preparation and dose estimations of Fricke and FBX were carried out as recommended. Alanine pellets were directly placed in precleaned polystyrene container having dimensions 6.5 mm o.d., 32 mm height and 3 mm wall thickness. For these dosimeters, dose measurements were made using e-scan Bruker BioSpin alanine dedicated ESR spectrometer. Specially designed perspex jigs were used during irradiation in Gamma Chamber 900 and Blood Irradiator 2000. These jigs provided the reproducible geometry during irradiation, Absorbance measurements were made using a spectrophotometer calibrated as per the recommended procedure. In Gamma Chamber 900, there is a dose distribution variation of about 34% from top to the center, 18% from center to the bottom, and 15% from center to the periphery. Such a dose distribution profile is largely deviating from the typical profile wherein 15% variation is observed from center to the periphery on all sides. Further investigation showed that there was a nonalignment in the source and sample chamber. However, in Blood Irradiator 2000, there is a dose distribution variation of about 20% from top to the center, 15% from center to the bottom, and 12% from center to the periphery. This pattern is very much similar to the typical profile. Hence it is recommended

  2. Categories and Dimensions of Organizational Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa; Flyverbom, Mikkel

    Transparency is a distinctive area of research across disciplines and presents significant importance for organization studies. However, transparency is rarely subject to structured and critical scrutiny and as a result its relevance for organizational analysis is underestimated. In an attempt...... to foreground the value of transparency studies, we offer an overview of the existing research and indicate two paradigmatic positions underpinning the transparency literature, namely what we term non-performative and performative approaches. The main contribution of the paper lies in this ground......, an approach which remains underexplored. Finally, we discuss some avenues for future studies of the organizing properties of transparency: the secrecy-transparency interplay, the power-transparency nexus and the transparency ‘family tree’ (i.e., intersections between multiple forms of disclosure)....

  3. IDENTITY AS A PHENOMENON AND A CATEGORY OF THE RUSSIAN LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhakova, Ju.A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Linguists often use the notion of “identity”. It is used either in relation to structural peculiarities of constructions or in relation to semantics. In most cases, linguistic units have one identical (i.e. equivalent, similar, resembling distinctive feature: category, grammatical or lexical meaning, structural component, syntactic function. If within one unit we come across functional, structural, and semantic equivalence, we can speak about the linguistic category of identity. Modern science requires more than explication of the term, it calls for a detailed study of constituting phenomena, their interrelationships and interpenetration, their semantic and structural peculiarities, the means of their realization and actualization. The subject of our research is, on the one hand, special “markers” of identity, and, on the other hand, syntactic constructions in which the category of identity is realized.

  4. The Survival Processing Effect with Intentional Learning of Ad Hoc Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Savchenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that memory is adapted to remember information when it is processed in a survival context. This study investigates how procedural changes in Marinho (2012 study might have led to her failure to replicate the survival mnemonic advantage. In two between-subjects design experiments, participants were instructed to learn words from ad hoc categories and to rate their relevance to a survival or a control scenario. No survival advantage was obtained in either experiment. The Adjusted Ratio of Clustering (ARC scores revealed that including the category labels made the participants rely more on the category structure of the list. Various procedural aspects of the conducted experiments are discussed as possible reasons underlying the absence of the survival effect.

  5. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components among Japanese Workers by Clustered Business Category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Tomoo; Hayakawa, Takehito; Kakamu, Takeyasu; Kumagai, Tomohiro; Hiruta, Yuhei; Hata, Junko; Tsuji, Masayoshi; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2016-01-01

    The present study was a cross-sectional study conducted to reveal the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components and describe the features of such prevalence among Japanese workers by clustered business category using big data. The data of approximately 120,000 workers were obtained from a national representative insurance organization, and the study analyzed the health checkup and questionnaire results according to the field of business of each subject. Abnormalities found during the checkups such as excessive waist circumference, hypertension or glucose intolerance, and metabolic syndrome, were recorded. All subjects were classified by business field into 18 categories based on The North American Industry Classification System. Based on the criteria of the Japanese Committee for the Diagnostic Criteria of Metabolic Syndrome, the standardized prevalence ratio (SPR) of metabolic syndrome and its components by business category was calculated, and the 95% confidence interval of the SPR was computed. Hierarchical cluster analysis was then performed based on the SPR of metabolic syndrome components, and the 18 business categories were classified into three clusters for both males and females. The following business categories were at significantly high risk of metabolic syndrome: among males, Construction, Transportation, Professional Services, and Cooperative Association; and among females, Health Care and Cooperative Association. The results of the cluster analysis indicated one cluster for each gender with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome components; among males, a cluster consisting of Manufacturing, Transportation, Finance, and Cooperative Association, and among females, a cluster consisting of Mining, Transportation, Finance, Accommodation, and Cooperative Association. These findings reveal that, when providing health guidance and support regarding metabolic syndrome, consideration must be given to its components and the variety of its

  6. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components among Japanese Workers by Clustered Business Category.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoo Hidaka

    Full Text Available The present study was a cross-sectional study conducted to reveal the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components and describe the features of such prevalence among Japanese workers by clustered business category using big data. The data of approximately 120,000 workers were obtained from a national representative insurance organization, and the study analyzed the health checkup and questionnaire results according to the field of business of each subject. Abnormalities found during the checkups such as excessive waist circumference, hypertension or glucose intolerance, and metabolic syndrome, were recorded. All subjects were classified by business field into 18 categories based on The North American Industry Classification System. Based on the criteria of the Japanese Committee for the Diagnostic Criteria of Metabolic Syndrome, the standardized prevalence ratio (SPR of metabolic syndrome and its components by business category was calculated, and the 95% confidence interval of the SPR was computed. Hierarchical cluster analysis was then performed based on the SPR of metabolic syndrome components, and the 18 business categories were classified into three clusters for both males and females. The following business categories were at significantly high risk of metabolic syndrome: among males, Construction, Transportation, Professional Services, and Cooperative Association; and among females, Health Care and Cooperative Association. The results of the cluster analysis indicated one cluster for each gender with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome components; among males, a cluster consisting of Manufacturing, Transportation, Finance, and Cooperative Association, and among females, a cluster consisting of Mining, Transportation, Finance, Accommodation, and Cooperative Association. These findings reveal that, when providing health guidance and support regarding metabolic syndrome, consideration must be given to its components and the

  7. Comparison of two kinds of skin imaging analysis software: VISIA® from Canfield and IPP® from Media Cybernetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Shu, X; Li, Z; Huo, W; Zou, L; Tang, Y; Li, L

    2018-01-27

    Skin imaging analysis, acting as a supplement to noninvasive bioengineering devices, has been widely used in medical cosmetology and cosmetic product evaluation. The main aim of this study is to assess the differences and correlations in measuring skin spots, wrinkles, vascular features, porphyrin, and pore between two commercially available image analysis software. Seventy healthy women were included in the study. Before taking pictures, the dermatologist evaluated subjects' skin conditions. Test sites included the forehead, cheek, and periorbital skin. A 2 × 2 cm cardboard was used to make a mark on the skin surface. Pictures were taken using VISIA ® under three kinds light conditions and analyzed using VISIA ® and IPP ® respectively. (1) Skin pore, red area, ultraviolet spot, brown spot, porphyrin, and wrinkle measured with VISIA ® were correlated with those measured with IPP ® (P < .01). (2) Spot, wrinkle, fine line, brown spot, and red area analyzed with VISIA ® were correlated with age on the forehead and periorbital skin (P < .05). L-value, Crow's feet, ultraviolet spot, brown spot, and red area analyzed with IPP ® were correlated with age on the periorbital skin (P < .05). (3) L-value, spot, wrinkle, fine line, porphyrin, red area, and pore analyzed with VISIA ® and IPP ® showed correlations with the subjective evaluation scores (P < .05). VISIA ® and IPP ® showed acceptable correlation in measuring various skin conditions. VISIA ® showed a high sensibility when measured on the forehead skin. IPP ® is available as an alternative software program to evaluate skin features. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Grammatical categories in the brain: the role of morphological structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longe, O; Randall, B; Stamatakis, E A; Tyler, L K

    2007-08-01

    The current study addresses the controversial issue of how different grammatical categories are neurally processed. Several lesion-deficit studies suggest that distinct neural substrates underlie the representation of nouns and verbs, with verb deficits associated with damage to left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) and noun deficits with damage to left temporal cortex. However, this view is not universally shared by neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies. We have suggested that these inconsistencies may reflect interactions between the morphological structure of nouns and verbs and the processing implications of this, rather than differences in their neural representations (Tyler et al. 2004). We tested this hypothesis using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, to scan subjects performing a valence judgment on unambiguous nouns and verbs, presented as stems ('snail, hear') and inflected forms ('snails, hears'). We predicted that activations for noun and verb stems would not differ, whereas inflected verbs would generate more activation in left frontotemporal areas than inflected nouns. Our findings supported this hypothesis, with greater activation of this network for inflected verbs compared with inflected nouns. These results support the claim that form class is not a first-order organizing principle underlying the representation of words but rather interacts with the processes that operate over lexical representations.

  9. Typing and grading of cytological category C5 breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, N.; Jamal, S.; Mamoon, N.; Luqman, M.; Anwar, M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the tumour type, cytological grade and nuclear grade on fine-needle aspiration smears in cytological category C5 breast lesions and compare them with histopathological findings. Subjects and Methods: Out of all patients referred to AFIP, Rawalpindi for fine-needle aspiration of breast masses, those adjudged C5 (malignant) were chosen for this study. History, clinical details and mammographic findings were noted. Aspirated smears were examined and an attempt was made to ascertain tumour type, cytological grade and nuclear grade. On excision of these lesions, the cytological findings were compared with those on paraffin-embedded histological sections. Results: A total of 71 patients were included in this study. Of these, 64 (90.14%) were cytologically diagnosed as ductal carcinoma, 4 (5.63%) lobular carcinoma, 2 (2.82%) mucinous carcinoma and 1 (1.41%) as medullary carcinoma. Seventy (98.60%) tumours were correctly typed on aspiration smears. Sixty-eight (95.77%) cases were cytologically graded with accuracy. Nuclear grading was even better on cytology and, excluding one malignant lymphoma, all 70 (100%) smears were assessed correctly. Conclusion: Overall efficiency of the tumour typing, cytological grading and nuclear grading on aspirated material turned out to be quite accurate. In expert hands, cytological examination can be of great help in pre-operative planning and in cases where tumour morphology in paraffin-embedded material has been distorted by neo-adjuvant therapy prior to excision. (author)

  10. A Bulk Microphysics Parameterization with Multiple Ice Precipitation Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, Jerry M.; Mansell, Edward R.

    2005-04-01

    A single-moment bulk microphysics scheme with multiple ice precipitation categories is described. It has 2 liquid hydrometeor categories (cloud droplets and rain) and 10 ice categories that are characterized by habit, size, and density—two ice crystal habits (column and plate), rimed cloud ice, snow (ice crystal aggregates), three categories of graupel with different densities and intercepts, frozen drops, small hail, and large hail. The concept of riming history is implemented for conversions among the graupel and frozen drops categories. The multiple precipitation ice categories allow a range of particle densities and fall velocities for simulating a variety of convective storms with minimal parameter tuning. The scheme is applied to two cases—an idealized continental multicell storm that demonstrates the ice precipitation process, and a small Florida maritime storm in which the warm rain process is important.

  11. Social categories as markers of intrinsic interpersonal obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Marjorie; Chalik, Lisa

    2013-06-01

    Social categorization is an early-developing feature of human social cognition, yet the role that social categories play in children's understanding of and predictions about human behavior has been unclear. In the studies reported here, we tested whether a foundational functional role of social categories is to mark people as intrinsically obligated to one another (e.g., obligated to protect rather than harm). In three studies, children (aged 3-9, N = 124) viewed only within-category harm as violating intrinsic obligations; in contrast, they viewed between-category harm as violating extrinsic obligations defined by explicit rules. These data indicate that children view social categories as marking patterns of intrinsic interpersonal obligations, suggesting that a key function of social categories is to support inferences about how people will relate to members of their own and other groups.

  12. Category mistakes: A barrier to effective environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ken J; Jago, Mark

    2017-09-01

    How entities, the things that exist, are defined and categorised affects all aspects of environmental management including technical descriptions, quantitative analyses, participatory processes, planning, and decisions. Consequently, ambiguous definitions and wrongly assigning entities to categories, referred to as category mistakes, are barriers to effective management. Confusion caused by treating the term 'biodiversity' variously as the property of an area, the biota of an area, and a preferred end state (a value) - quite different categories of entities - is one example. To overcome such difficulties, we develop and define four entity categories - elements, processes, properties, and values - and two derived categories - states and systems. We argue that adoption of these categories and definitions will significantly improve environmental communication and analysis, and thus strengthen planning and decision-making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Categorial compositionality: a category theory explanation for the systematicity of human cognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Phillips

    Full Text Available Classical and Connectionist theories of cognitive architecture seek to explain systematicity (i.e., the property of human cognition whereby cognitive capacity comes in groups of related behaviours as a consequence of syntactically and functionally compositional representations, respectively. However, both theories depend on ad hoc assumptions to exclude specific instances of these forms of compositionality (e.g. grammars, networks that do not account for systematicity. By analogy with the Ptolemaic (i.e. geocentric theory of planetary motion, although either theory can be made to be consistent with the data, both nonetheless fail to fully explain it. Category theory, a branch of mathematics, provides an alternative explanation based on the formal concept of adjunction, which relates a pair of structure-preserving maps, called functors. A functor generalizes the notion of a map between representational states to include a map between state transformations (or processes. In a formal sense, systematicity is a necessary consequence of a higher-order theory of cognitive architecture, in contrast to the first-order theories derived from Classicism or Connectionism. Category theory offers a re-conceptualization for cognitive science, analogous to the one that Copernicus provided for astronomy, where representational states are no longer the center of the cognitive universe--replaced by the relationships between the maps that transform them.

  14. Categorial compositionality: a category theory explanation for the systematicity of human cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Steven; Wilson, William H

    2010-07-22

    Classical and Connectionist theories of cognitive architecture seek to explain systematicity (i.e., the property of human cognition whereby cognitive capacity comes in groups of related behaviours) as a consequence of syntactically and functionally compositional representations, respectively. However, both theories depend on ad hoc assumptions to exclude specific instances of these forms of compositionality (e.g. grammars, networks) that do not account for systematicity. By analogy with the Ptolemaic (i.e. geocentric) theory of planetary motion, although either theory can be made to be consistent with the data, both nonetheless fail to fully explain it. Category theory, a branch of mathematics, provides an alternative explanation based on the formal concept of adjunction, which relates a pair of structure-preserving maps, called functors. A functor generalizes the notion of a map between representational states to include a map between state transformations (or processes). In a formal sense, systematicity is a necessary consequence of a higher-order theory of cognitive architecture, in contrast to the first-order theories derived from Classicism or Connectionism. Category theory offers a re-conceptualization for cognitive science, analogous to the one that Copernicus provided for astronomy, where representational states are no longer the center of the cognitive universe--replaced by the relationships between the maps that transform them.

  15. The changing role of the subject specialist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cotta-Schønberg

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available As we all know, libraries are these years rapidly undergoing change on unparalleled scale. Evidently, this applies to librarians, too, and not the least to that important category of library staff, the subject specialist. As recruiting and education of library workers differ from country to country it is difficult to give a detailed, generally valid description of the subject librarian in libraries, but I believe that you can describe an ideal model of subject librarianship as follows: Within each of the major subject disciplines covered by the library, the library should have a subject specialist preferably with a master degree or at least a bachelor degree in the particular subject discipline. The role of the subject specialist is to perform four basic functions where extensive subject knowledge is considered to be necessary: selecting and classifying books, assisting users with advanced subject inquiries, giving subject-specific courses in information retrieval, and maintaining liaison with relevant academic departments and centres. Personally, I know this system very well since I got employment in the Royal Library in Copenhagen as a subject specialist in psychology in the very month I finished my degree in psychology from the University of Copenhagen, back in 1973. The subject librarian system at the Royal Library in Copenhagen was patterned on the ideal model, as I just described it, and it was closely paralleled in the other academic libraries in Denmark, also the new university libraries which were founded in the seventies.

  16. Right away: A late, right-lateralized category effect complements an early, left-lateralized category effect in visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, Merryn D; Becker, Stefanie I

    2017-10-01

    According to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, learned semantic categories can influence early perceptual processes. A central finding in support of this view is the lateralized category effect-namely, the finding that categorically different colors (e.g., blue and green hues) can be discriminated faster than colors within the same color category (e.g., different hues of green), especially when they are presented in the right visual field. Because the right visual field projects to the left hemisphere, this finding has been popularly couched in terms of the left-lateralization of language. However, other studies have reported bilateral category effects, which has led some researchers to question the linguistic origins of the effect. Here we examined the time course of lateralized and bilateral category effects in the classical visual search paradigm by means of eyetracking and RT distribution analyses. Our results show a bilateral category effect in the manual responses, which is combined of an early, left-lateralized category effect and a later, right-lateralized category effect. The newly discovered late, right-lateralized category effect occurred only when observers had difficulty locating the target, indicating a specialization of the right hemisphere to find categorically different targets after an initial error. The finding that early and late stages of visual search show different lateralized category effects can explain a wide range of previously discrepant findings.

  17. Categorical perception of color: evidence from secondary category boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-rasheed AS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abdulrahman Saud Al-rasheed Department of Psychology, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Abstract: Despite a plethora of behavioral research exploring the phenomenon of color categorical perception (CP known as "better discrimination between pair of colors stimuli from different categories and pair of colors stimuli from the same category even when the stimulus differences between the pairs of stimuli are equal", most of the evidence for the CP of color was derived from Roman or top-to-down script readers and very rarely from right-to-left script readers in primary category. To date, no studies of color CP have been conducted on right-to-left script readers in secondary category boundary to support this theory. Three experiments have been conducted: Experiments 1 and 2 established the Arabic blue–purple secondary category boundary, and Experiment 3 tested the CP of color in the blue–purple category boundary. Sixty participants (30 men and 30 women took part in this study. All spoke Arabic as their first language, and all were undergraduate or postgraduate students at King Saud University. Their ages ranged from 18–35 years with a mean age of 21.9 years (SD =5.2. The result indicated that for Experiments 1 and 2, it appeared that the Arabic blue–purple category boundary was approximately 10PB and it is in the same location as for English. For Experiment 3, reaction times in the between-categories condition were significantly faster than those in the within-category condition; this suggested that CP of color was shown in the Arabic's blue–purple secondary category boundary. Keywords: categorical perception, CP of color, categorization, blue–purple category boundary, secondary category boundary

  18. Generic task problem descriptions: Category B, C, and D tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    This document contains information relating to Category B, C, and D generic technical activities. The specific information provided for each task includes the reactor type to which the generic issue applies, the NRC division with lead responsibility and a description of the problem to be addressed by the task. Also provided in this document is a listing of Category A generic technical activities and definitions of Priority Categories A, B, C, and D

  19. Nature of Emotion Categories: Comment on Cowen and Keltner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Khan, Zulqarnain; Dy, Jennifer; Brooks, Dana

    2017-12-22

    Cowen and Keltner (2017) published the latest installment in a longstanding debate about whether measures of emotion organize themselves into categories or array themselves more continuously along affective dimensions. We discuss several notable features of the study and suggest future studies should consider asking questions more directly about physical and psychological variation within emotion categories as well as similarities between categories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Categories of relations as models of quantum theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Heunen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Categories of relations over a regular category form a family of models of quantum theory. Using regular logic, many properties of relations over sets lift to these models, including the correspondence between Frobenius structures and internal groupoids. Over compact Hausdorff spaces, this lifting gives continuous symmetric encryption. Over a regular Mal'cev category, this correspondence gives a characterization of categories of completely positive maps, enabling the formulation of quantum features. These models are closer to Hilbert spaces than relations over sets in several respects: Heisenberg uncertainty, impossibility of broadcasting, and behavedness of rank one morphisms.

  1. Abrupt category shifts during real-time person perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jonathan B

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have suggested that real-time person perception relies on continuous competition, in which partially active categories smoothly compete over time. Here, two studies demonstrated the involvement of a different kind of competition. In Study 1, before participants selected the correct sex category for morphed faces, their mouse trajectories often exhibited a continuous attraction toward the incorrect category that increased with sex-category ambiguity, indicating continuous competition. On other trials, however, trajectories initially pursued the incorrect category and then abruptly redirected toward the correct category, suggesting early incorrect category activation that was rapidly reversed later in processing. These abrupt category reversals also increased with ambiguity. In Study 2, participants were presented with faces containing a sex-typical or sex-atypical hair cue, in a context in which the norm was either sex-typical targets (normative context) or sex-atypical targets (counternormative context). Sex-atypical targets induced greater competition in the normative context, but sex-typical targets induced greater competition in the counternormative context. Together, these results demonstrate that categorizing others involves both smooth competition and abrupt category shifts, and that these flexibly adapt to the social context.

  2. On the (un)suitability of semantic categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Since Greenberg’s groundbreaking publication on universals of grammar, typologists have used semantic categories to investigate (constraints on) morphological and syntactic variation in the world’s languages and this tradition has been continued in the WALS project. It is argued here that the emp......Since Greenberg’s groundbreaking publication on universals of grammar, typologists have used semantic categories to investigate (constraints on) morphological and syntactic variation in the world’s languages and this tradition has been continued in the WALS project. It is argued here...... that the employment of semantic categories has some serious drawbacks, however, suggesting that semantic categories, just like formal categories, cannot be equated across languages in morphosyntactic typology. Whereas formal categories are too narrow in that they do not cover all structural variants attested across...... languages, semantic categories can be too wide, including too many structural variants. Furthermore, it appears that in some major typological studies semantic categories have been confused with formal categories. A possible solution is pointed out: typologists first need to make sure that the forms...

  3. MOST SOLD CATEGORIES FOOD SUPPLEMENTS IN BULGARIAN PHARMACIES - RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Elina Petkova1, Kalin Ivanov2, Stanislava Ivanova2*, Stanislav Gueorguiev3, Radiana Staynova3

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate which are the most sold categories food supplements in Bulgarian pharmacies. The survey covers 820 pharmacies across the country. We have found that the leading category of food supplements is “Immune and digestive health” (41.5%). The second place is for the “Bone and joint health” (12.9%). The “Urology” category (consisted mainly by plant extracts) is about 7.9%. Food supplements in the “Urology” category are not only recommended by pharmacists but of...

  4. Mere exposure alters category learning of novel objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R Folstein

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how mere exposure to complex objects with correlated or uncorrelated object features affects later category learning of new objects not seen during exposure. Correlations among pre-exposed object dimensions influenced later category learning. Unlike other published studies, the collection of pre-exposed objects provided no information regarding the categories to be learned, ruling out unsupervised or incidental category learning during pre-exposure. Instead, results are interpreted with respect to statistical learning mechanisms, providing one of the first demonstrations of how statistical learning can influence visual object learning.

  5. Mere exposure alters category learning of novel objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folstein, Jonathan R; Gauthier, Isabel; Palmeri, Thomas J

    2010-01-01

    We investigated how mere exposure to complex objects with correlated or uncorrelated object features affects later category learning of new objects not seen during exposure. Correlations among pre-exposed object dimensions influenced later category learning. Unlike other published studies, the collection of pre-exposed objects provided no information regarding the categories to be learned, ruling out unsupervised or incidental category learning during pre-exposure. Instead, results are interpreted with respect to statistical learning mechanisms, providing one of the first demonstrations of how statistical learning can influence visual object learning.

  6. [Science, public health and nursing: highlighting the gender and generation categories in the episteme of praxis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egry, Emiko Yoshikawa; da Fonseca, Rosa Maria Godoy Serpa; Oliveira, Maria Amélia de Campos

    2013-09-01

    This essay aims to show the relevance of sociological categories gender and generation that underlie the phenomenon of nursing in public health, the episteme of praxis. We understand praxis as the foundation of the historical and dialectic materialism, demonstrating its importance in the process of construction of knowledge in public health nursing. The sociological categories of gender and generation were chosen in this paper because it has the privilege to better illuminate certain phenomena that have been the subject of scientific concern, such as violence against women, children and the elderly, in all its vulnerabilities. The dialectical method was adopted, with an emphasis on the secondary laws of "essence and phenomena" and "reality and possibility". Finally, given that the choice of the approach to the object, as well as the instruments for intervention towards a purpose in the process of scientific knowledge is the choice of the knowing subject, the ethics was related to praxis.

  7. Color categories only affect post-perceptual processes when same- and different-category colors are equally discriminable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xun; Witzel, Christoph; Forder, Lewis; Clifford, Alexandra; Franklin, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Prior claims that color categories affect color perception are confounded by inequalities in the color space used to equate same- and different-category colors. Here, we equate same- and different-category colors in the number of just-noticeable differences, and measure event-related potentials (ERPs) to these colors on a visual oddball task to establish if color categories affect perceptual or post-perceptual stages of processing. Category effects were found from 200 ms after color presentation, only in ERP components that reflect post-perceptual processes (e.g., N2, P3). The findings suggest that color categories affect post-perceptual processing, but do not affect the perceptual representation of color.

  8. THE CATEGORY OF COUNTABILITY IN THE CROATIAN LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Znika

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the category of countability as a category established on the lexical meaning of nouns. The lexical meaning of nouns can be dually structured, in a unit and mass forms, relative to the opposition one ≠ many. The category of countability has its content and expression. The content of the category of countability consists of the feature [± countable], and its marker [+ countable] and [- countable]. A noun is countable if its content can be conceived as a unit opposed to mass (table, apple. A noun is uncoutable if its content cannot be perceived as a unit that could be opposed to mass (water, sugar. The expression of the category of countability depends on its content. In the Croatian language the category of countability has its expression in the grammatical category of number and its grammems: singular and plural. These two grammems are formally, and frequently accentually, distinctive from the majority of nouns. The analysis focuses on the meaning of nouns, while their expression is considered as a possible indicator of semantic relationships the category of countability is based on. The paper analyses pluralia tantum and singularia tantum, and their different status countability-wise. It points out the possibility of semantic recategorization of nouns and thus demonstrates a dynamic quality of the category of countability. It also analyses the process of appelativisation (eponomisation of personal names, and the process of appelative deappelativisation. It shows the relationship between the category of countability and the category of definiteness, when definiteness is expressed by an adjectival aspect.

  9. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  10. Contextual cueing based on the semantic-category membership of the environment

    OpenAIRE

    GOUJON, A

    2005-01-01

    During the analysis of a visual scene, top-down processing is constantly directing the subject's attention to the zones of interest in the scene. The contextual cueing paradigm developed by Chun and Jiang (1998) shows how contextual regularities can facilitate the search for a particular element via implicit learning mechanisms. In the proposed study, contextual cueing task with lexical displays was used. The semantic-category membership of the contextual words predicted the location of the t...

  11. Involvement and Trust in a Brand as Predictors of Loyalty Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Darsono, Licen Indahwati

    2009-01-01

    Customer loyalty is the most valuable asset for the firm. Several researchs find that customer loyalty is positively related with profitability. The purpose of this research is to investigate the power of involvement and trust in a brand (as cognitive and conative antece-dent of loyalty) to predict loyalty categories. Dick and Basu (1994) conceptualization of loyaly is used as the main reference in this research. The object of this research is facial whitening product, and the subjects are wo...

  12. Violence against adolescents: an analysis based on the categories gender and generation

    OpenAIRE

    Gessner, Rafaela; Fonseca, Rosa Maria Godoy Serpa da; Oliveira, Rebeca Nunes Guedes de

    2014-01-01

    Exploratory and descriptive study based on quantitative and qualitative methods that analyze the phenomenon of violence against adolescents based on gender and generational categories. The data source was reports of violence from the Curitiba Protection Network from 2010 to 2012 and semi-structured interviews with 16 sheltered adolescents. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20.0 and the qualitative data were subjected to content analysis. The adolescents were victims ...

  13. Normal and abnormal category-effects in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Are all categories of objects recognized in the same manner visually? Evidence from neuropsychology suggests they are not, as some brain injured patients are more impaired in recognizing natural objects than artefacts while others show the opposite impairment. In an attempt to explain category-sp...

  14. Accounting for a Functional Category: German "Drohen" "to Threaten"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Bernd; Miyashita, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    In many languages there are words that behave like lexical verbs and on the one hand and like functional categories expressing distinctions of tense, aspect, modality, etc. on the other. The grammatical status of such words is frequently controversial; while some authors treat them as belonging to one and the same grammatical category, others…

  15. Can Semi-Supervised Learning Explain Incorrect Beliefs about Categories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalish, Charles W.; Rogers, Timothy T.; Lang, Jonathan; Zhu, Xiaojin

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments with 88 college-aged participants explored how unlabeled experiences--learning episodes in which people encounter objects without information about their category membership--influence beliefs about category structure. Participants performed a simple one-dimensional categorization task in a brief supervised learning phase, then…

  16. Lifting to cluster-tilting objects in higher cluster categories

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Pin

    2008-01-01

    In this note, we consider the $d$-cluster-tilted algebras, the endomorphism algebras of $d$-cluster-tilting objects in $d$-cluster categories. We show that a tilting module over such an algebra lifts to a $d$-cluster-tilting object in this $d$-cluster category.

  17. 29 CFR 4044.11 - Priority category 1 benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... priority category 1 with respect to that participant is the present value of that annuity. ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Priority category 1 benefits. 4044.11 Section 4044.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION PLAN TERMINATIONS ALLOCATION OF...

  18. 41 CFR 105-62.101 - Security classification categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... three categories: Namely, Top Secret, Secret, or Confidential, depending on its degree of significance... provided by statute. The three classification categories are defined as follows: (a) Top Secret. Top Secret... with the utmost restraint. (b) Secret. Secret refers to that national security information or material...

  19. Towards the development of a salinity impact category for South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DRINIE

    2003-07-03

    Jul 3, 2003 ... nature from existing categories to warrant a separate salinity impact category. A conceptual method is ... compounds to the environment from all stages of a product's life- cycle are ... Marine. - Terrestrial. • Photo-oxidant formation. • Acidification .... algae. Reduced light input. Oxygen depletion near bottom.

  20. CATEGORY OF CIRCUMVENTION OF THE LAW IN RUSSIAN CIVIL LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Kamyshanskiy V. P.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the concept of "circumvention of the law" with respect to Treaty law. The author finds that the direct loan category "circumvention of the law" in Treaty law can be estimated ambiguously. The specified category which is fragmentary reflected in the active Civil codex indicates a regulatory gap

  1. The size of patent categories: USPTO 1976-2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafond, F.D.

    2014-01-01

    Categorization is an important phenomenon in science and society, and classification systems reflect the mesoscale organization of knowledge. The Yule-Simon-Naranan model, which assumes exponential growth of the number of categories and exponential growth of individual categories predicts a power

  2. What Does the Right Hemisphere Know about Phoneme Categories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolmetz, Michael; Poeppel, David; Rapp, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Innate auditory sensitivities and familiarity with the sounds of language give rise to clear influences of phonemic categories on adult perception of speech. With few exceptions, current models endorse highly left-hemisphere-lateralized mechanisms responsible for the influence of phonemic category on speech perception, based primarily on results…

  3. 40 CFR 98.360 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... this rule. (b) A manure management system (MMS) is a system that stabilizes and/or stores livestock... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Manure Management § 98.360 Definition of the source category. (a) This source category consists of livestock facilities with manure management systems that emit 25...

  4. Porcament : category management in de verse varkensvleesketen : AKK eindrapport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immink, V.M.; Heijden, van der C.H.T.M.

    2004-01-01

    Dit rapport geeft inzichten in de belangrijkste aspecten die een rol spelen bij de introductie van category management in de 'vers-vlees' categorie. Het biedt een overzicht van de leerervaringen en hoe daar in de praktijk mee omgegaan kan worden

  5. 40 CFR 98.70 - Definition of source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of source category. 98.70... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Ammonia Manufacturing § 98.70 Definition of source category...-based feedstock produced via steam reforming of a hydrocarbon. (b) Ammonia manufacturing processes in...

  6. 34 CFR 75.264 - Transfers among budget categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transfers among budget categories. 75.264 Section 75.264 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How Grants Are Made Miscellaneous § 75.264 Transfers among budget categories. A grantee may, notwithstanding any...

  7. 14 CFR 1206.701 - Categories of requesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... are representatives of the news media. NASA shall provide documents to requesters in this category for... scientific institutions; representatives of the news media; and all other requesters. The Act prescribes specific levels of fees for each of these categories: (a) Commercial use requesters. When NASA receives a...

  8. Representation of categories: metaphorical use of the container schema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, I.; Pecher, D.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we investigated whether the mental representation of the concept categories is represented by the container image schema (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980). In two experiments participants decided whether two pictures were from the same category (animal or vehicle). Pictures were

  9. 40 CFR 98.40 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of the source category. 98... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Electricity Generation § 98.40 Definition of the source... category does not include portable equipment, emergency equipment, or emergency generators, as defined in...

  10. 14 CFR 61.68 - Category III pilot authorization requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) The addition of another type of aircraft to the applicant's Category III pilot authorization. (2) To... height, as applicable, including use of a radar altimeter; (iii) Recognition of and proper reaction to... an aircraft of the same category and class, and type, as applicable, as the aircraft for which the...

  11. 5 CFR 575.104 - Ineligible categories of employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INCENTIVES Recruitment Incentives § 575.104 Ineligible categories of employees. An agency may not pay a recruitment incentive to an employee in— (a) A position to which an individual is appointed by the President... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ineligible categories of employees. 575...

  12. A review of functional imaging studies on category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2007-01-01

    such as familiarity and visual complexity. Of the most consistent activations found, none appear to be selective for natural objects or artefacts. The findings reviewed are compatible with theories of category-specificity that assume a widely distributed conceptual system not organized by category....

  13. Lexical categories in African languages: The case of adjectives word ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An endeavor to establish typical lexical categories in individual languages as well as a typology of word-classes yields contradictory conclusions. In this paper we provide evidence to substantiate the existence of an independent and indispensable open category of adjectives in the Bantu language Nyakyusa. An argument ...

  14. Categorical perception of color: evidence from secondary category boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-rasheed, Abdulrahman Saud

    2015-01-01

    Despite a plethora of behavioral research exploring the phenomenon of color categorical perception (CP) known as “better discrimination between pair of colors stimuli from different categories and pair of colors stimuli from the same category even when the stimulus differences between the pairs of stimuli are equal”, most of the evidence for the CP of color was derived from Roman or top-to-down script readers and very rarely from right-to-left script readers in primary category. To date, no studies of color CP have been conducted on right-to-left script readers in secondary category boundary to support this theory. Three experiments have been conducted: Experiments 1 and 2 established the Arabic blue–purple secondary category boundary, and Experiment 3 tested the CP of color in the blue–purple category boundary. Sixty participants (30 men and 30 women) took part in this study. All spoke Arabic as their first language, and all were undergraduate or postgraduate students at King Saud University. Their ages ranged from 18–35 years with a mean age of 21.9 years (SD =5.2). The result indicated that for Experiments 1 and 2, it appeared that the Arabic blue–purple category boundary was approximately 10PB and it is in the same location as for English. For Experiment 3, reaction times in the between-categories condition were significantly faster than those in the within-category condition; this suggested that CP of color was shown in the Arabic’s blue–purple secondary category boundary. PMID:26648764

  15. Measurement of habituation to noise using the method of continuous judgment by category

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namba, S.; Kuwano, S.

    1988-12-01

    Using "the method of continuous judgment by category", we examined the noisiness of sounds from public loudspeakers, and habituation to them. Subjects judged the noisiness of the sound at any moment of their choice by touching one of seven numbered keys on a computer keyboard, each corresponding to a noisiness category. At the same time, the subjects were required to complete a task as carefully and rapidly as possible. The duration of "no response" to sounds was an index of habituation. Both personality factors and physical factors were analyzed. It was found that the duration of "no response" is a good index to habituation to noise, and that there were wide differences in the "no response" time of different subjects. The reactions of individual subjects in sessions 1 and 2 and the questionnaire survey were, however, consistent. This suggests that there is a group that is relatively sensitive to noise and a group that is less sensitive to noise. It was also found that subjects had difficulty in becoming accustomed to intense noise.

  16. Basketball ability testing and category for players with mental retardation: 8-month training effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciosi, Emanuele; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Baldari, Carlo; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Guidetti, Laura

    2012-06-01

    Although sport for athletes with mental retardation (MR) is achieving an important role, the literature concerning basketball tests and training is still poor. The aims of this study were to verify whether the basketball test battery could be an appropriate modality to classify the players in the Promotion (Pro) category, to assess basketball abilities before (PRE) and after (POST) an 8-month training in players with MR in relation to Competitive (Comp) and Pro categories, to analyze the variation of specific basketball abilities based on subjects' MR diagnosis. Forty-one male basketball players with MR (17 Comp and 24 Pro; age range 18-45 years; MR: 15% mild, 54% moderate, 29% severe, and 2% profound) were assessed PRE and POST training through the basketball test battery, which assessed 4 ability levels of increasing difficulty (from I to IV), each one characterized by the analysis of fundamental areas (ball handling, reception, passing, and shooting). Level I was significantly changed after the intervention period regardless of the Category, whereas shooting was affected by the interaction between Category and Intervention. The results showed significant differences between categories in the scores of individual global, level I, level II, level III, and in all fundamental areas. Individual global score in both categories significantly increased. The players of Comp significantly improved in level III, in ball handling, reception, passing, and shooting scores. The players of Pro improved significantly in level II, in ball handling, reception, and passing scores. Individual global, ability levels I-III, and fundamental area scores were negatively correlated to the MR level indicating that the players with a lower MR obtained higher ability scores. In conclusion, it was found that the basketball test battery could be useful for improving and monitoring training in both Comp and Pro players.

  17. Combining features from ERP components in single-trial EEG for discriminating four-category visual objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changming; Xiong, Shi; Hu, Xiaoping; Yao, Li; Zhang, Jiacai

    2012-10-01

    Categorization of images containing visual objects can be successfully recognized using single-trial electroencephalograph (EEG) measured when subjects view images. Previous studies have shown that task-related information contained in event-related potential (ERP) components could discriminate two or three categories of object images. In this study, we investigated whether four categories of objects (human faces, buildings, cats and cars) could be mutually discriminated using single-trial EEG data. Here, the EEG waveforms acquired while subjects were viewing four categories of object images were segmented into several ERP components (P1, N1, P2a and P2b), and then Fisher linear discriminant analysis (Fisher-LDA) was used to classify EEG features extracted from ERP components. Firstly, we compared the classification results using features from single ERP components, and identified that the N1 component achieved the highest classification accuracies. Secondly, we discriminated four categories of objects using combining features from multiple ERP components, and showed that combination of ERP components improved four-category classification accuracies by utilizing the complementarity of discriminative information in ERP components. These findings confirmed that four categories of object images could be discriminated with single-trial EEG and could direct us to select effective EEG features for classifying visual objects.

  18. The Role of Corticostriatal Systems in Speech Category Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Han-Gyol; Maddox, W Todd; Mumford, Jeanette A; Chandrasekaran, Bharath

    2016-04-01

    One of the most difficult category learning problems for humans is learning nonnative speech categories. While feedback-based category training can enhance speech learning, the mechanisms underlying these benefits are unclear. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated neural and computational mechanisms underlying feedback-dependent speech category learning in adults. Positive feedback activated a large corticostriatal network including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal lobule, middle temporal gyrus, caudate, putamen, and the ventral striatum. Successful learning was contingent upon the activity of domain-general category learning systems: the fast-learning reflective system, involving the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex that develops and tests explicit rules based on the feedback content, and the slow-learning reflexive system, involving the putamen in which the stimuli are implicitly associated with category responses based on the reward value in feedback. Computational modeling of response strategies revealed significant use of reflective strategies early in training and greater use of reflexive strategies later in training. Reflexive strategy use was associated with increased activation in the putamen. Our results demonstrate a critical role for the reflexive corticostriatal learning system as a function of response strategy and proficiency during speech category learning. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Categories of fruit and vegetables: Attributes and definitions in Serbian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilparić Branislava M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the results of an empirical investigation performed by E. Rosch and K. Mervis (1975, the prototype structures of the categories FRUIT and VEGETABLES, the two superordinate and neighbouring categories with no clear-cut boundaries between them, are formed by family resemblances. Each category has only two attributes ('(part of a plant' and 'edible' which are common to all its members and yet not sufficient to define the category and separate it from other categories of edible (parts of plants. Through the analysis and comparison of a number of definitions for FRUIT and VEGETABLES (obtained in a questionnaire-based survey from a hundred native speakers of Serbian; taken from Lexicography and Conceptual Analysis by A. Wierzbicka; taken from five general dictionaries of the Serbian language, the author of this paper attempts to determine the group of attributes that could play a key role in differentiating the observed categories and to search for the most appropriate way to define the two categories in Serbian which would hopefully be acceptable to both modern (prototype semantics and practical lexicography.

  20. Probability based load combinations for design of category I structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, M.; Hwang, H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses a reliability analysis method and a procedure for developing the load combination design criteria for category I structures. For safety evaluation of category I concrete structures under various static and dynamic loads, a probability-based reliability analysis method has been developed. This reliability analysis method is also used as a tool for determining the load factors for design of category I structures. In this paper, the load combinations for design of concrete containments, corresponding to a target limit state probability of 1.0 x 10 -6 in 4 years, are described. A comparison of containments designed using the ASME code and the proposed design criteria is also presented

  1. The Category of Time in English, Russian and French Phraseology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Makleeva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we make an attempt to analyze linguistic and cultural descriptions of phraseological units of English, Russian and French reflecting the category of time. In the study of each language about 200 of phraseological units associated with the category of time were taken, which were divided into 5 groups representing different phraseo-semantic concepts. We have carried out a semantic analysis of the data of phraseological units identified by national-cultural peculiarities of expression of time category. The results can be used in the practice of teaching English, Russian and French as foreign languages, in courses on linguistics, and are also taken into account compiling dictionaries.

  2. Solving the Selective Multi-Category Parallel-Servicing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Range, Troels Martin; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    In this paper we present a new scheduling problem and describe a shortest path based heuristic as well as a dynamic programming based exact optimization algorithm to solve it. The Selective Multi-Category Parallel-Servicing Problem (SMCPSP) arises when a set of jobs has to be scheduled on a server...... (machine) with limited capacity. Each job requests service in a prespecified time window and belongs to a certain category. Jobs may be serviced partially, incurring a penalty; however, only jobs of the same category can be processed simultaneously. One must identify the best subset of jobs to process...

  3. Solving the selective multi-category parallel-servicing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Range, Troels Martin; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new scheduling problem and describe a shortest path-based heuristic as well as a dynamic programming-based exact optimization algorithm to solve it. The selective multi-category parallel-servicing problem arises when a set of jobs has to be scheduled on a server (machine......) with limited capacity. Each job requests service in a prespecified time window and belongs to a certain category. Jobs may be serviced partially, incurring a penalty; however, only jobs of the same category can be processed simultaneously. One must identify the best subset of jobs to process in each time...

  4. Client contribution in negotiations on employability – categories revised?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskelinen, L.; Olesen, Søren Peter; Caswell, D.

    2010-01-01

    worker–client talk: how the category unemployed is shaped and ‘translated’ when the client negotiates her situation with the social worker. Two types of category revisions are identified. First, the employability of the client, rather than her unemployment situation, is the issue under negotiation......In this article, we explore how the institutional category ‘unemployed’ is specified in everyday practice when implementing an active employment policy. We illustrate the process of categorisation as an aspect of the in situ positioning and self-representation of the client by examining one social...

  5. Basis for category B designation for K basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    This Supporting Document analyzes the various fissile material configurations in the 105-K East and K West fuel storage basins to determine the proper firefighting category. Firefighting categories are assigned to fissionable material facilities to provide guidance to firefighters in the allowable uses of water and other extinguishing materials to prevent inadvertent rearrangement of fissile materials or addition of neutron moderators which could lead to a criticality. This document concludes the appropriate category is B, which does not impose any restrictions on the use of water for firefighting purposes

  6. Norma categorial para el español de Bogotá, Colombia Category norm for the Spanish spoken in Bogota, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albeiro Migue Ángel Ramírez Sarmiento

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo presentamos los resultados de un estudio elaborado en Bogotá con 210 estudiantes universitarios de 5 instituciones con diferentes características sociodemográficas, con el fin de establecer las normas categoriales léxicas. Se utilizaron las 56 categorías léxico-semánticas usadas en el clásico estudio de Battig y Motague (1969 y se recogieron más de 7800 palabras que fueron organizadas por rango y moda. En la revisión bibliográfica realizada no se encontraron trabajos de esta naturaleza para el español colombiano (o latinoamericano, y se espera que sus resultados sean usados en protocolos para el campo de la terapia del lenguaje y los estudios psicolingüísticos. Los datos recogidos fueron comparados con uno de los estudios de norma categorial realizados para el español ibérico.In this article, we present the results of a study carried out in Bogotá, Colombia with 210 university students from five different universities pertaining to diverse socio-demographic groups. The objective of the study was to establish the lexical category norms. 56 lexical-semantic categories used by Battig and Montague (1969 in their classic study were employed. More than 7800 words were collected and organized by range and mode. There are no other studies on this subject for Colombian or Latin American Spanish. We hope that the results presented here will be used both in psycholinguistic and language therapy studies. The collected data were compared to one of the category norm studies made for European Spanish.

  7. The effect of midazolam on implicit and explicit memory in category exemplar production and category cued recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Jason; Passannante, Anthony; Hirshman, Elliot

    2004-03-01

    Transfer-appropriate processing theory (Roediger, Weldon, & Challis, 1989) proposes that dissociations between performance on explicit and implicit memory tests arise because these tests often rely on different types of information processing (e.g., perceptual processing vs conceptual processing). This perspective predicts that implicit and explicit memory tasks that rely primarily on conceptual processing should show comparable results, not dissociations. Numerous studies have demonstrated such similarities. It is, however, possible that these results arise from explicit memory contamination of performance on implicit memory tasks. To address this issue, an experiment was conducted in which participants were administered the sedative midazolam prior to study. Midazolam is known to create a temporary, but dense, period of anterograde amnesia. The effects of blocking stimulus materials by semantic category at study and generation at study were investigated on category exemplar production and category-cued recall. The results of this study demonstrated a dissociation of the effects of midazolam on category exemplar production and category-cued recall. Specifically, midazolam reduced the effect of blocking stimulus materials in category-cued recall, but not in category exemplar production. The differential effect of midazolam on explicit and implicit memory is at odds with transfer-appropriate processing theory and suggests that theories of memory must distinguish the roles of different types of conceptual processing on implicit and explicit memory tests.

  8. Reconceptualizing 'extremism' and 'moderation': from categories of analysis to categories of practice in the construction of collective identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Nick; Kahani-Hopkins, Vered

    2009-03-01

    Much psychological research employs the categories of extremism and moderation as categories of analysis (e.g. to identify the psychological bases for, and consequences of, holding certain positions). This paper argues these categorizations inevitably reflect one's values and taken-for-granted assumptions about social reality and that their use as analytic categories limits our ability to explore what is really important: social actors' own constructions of social reality. In turn we argue that if we are to focus on this latter, there may be merit in exploring how social actors themselves use the categories of moderation and extremism to construct their own terms of reference. That is we propose to re-conceptualize the categories of moderation and extremism as categories of practice rather than analysis. The utility of this approach is illustrated with qualitative data. We argue that these data illustrate the importance of respecting social actors' own constructions of social reality (rather than imposing our own). Moreover, we argue that categories of moderation and extremism may be employed by social actors in diverse ways to construct different terms of reference and so recruit support for different identity-related projects.

  9. COGNITIVE-COMMUNICATIVE PERSONALITY CATEGORY IN THE KAZAKH LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orynay Sagingalievna Zhubaeva

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to reveal the character of anthropocentricity of grammatical categories in their meaning and functioning. Materials and methods. According to the research objectives and goals, the methods used were as follows: the descriptive method, general scientific methods of analysis and synthesis, cognitive analysis, method of experiment, contextual analysis, structural-semantic analysis, transformation technique, comparative analysis. Results. For the first time in the Kazakh linguistics the substantial aspect of grammatical categories is characterized being a result of both conceptualization and categorization processes. Based on generalization and the comparative analysis of nature and forms of the human factor reflection in the Kazakh grammatical categories there has been revealed the national-cultural specific character of grammatical categories. Practical implications. The research materials can be used in theoretical courses onf grammar and linguistics, as well as in the development of special courses on cognitive linguistics, cognitive grammar, etc.

  10. Category 3 threshold quantities for hazard categorization of nonreactor facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandigo, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    This document provides the information necessary to determine Hazard Category 3 threshold quantities for those isotopes of interest not listed in WHC-CM-4-46, Section 4, Table 1.''Threshold Quantities.''

  11. Remanufacture Systems for Category 1 and 2 Marine Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA maintains a list of remanufacture systems, or “kits”, certified for use with Category 1 and 2 marine diesel engines according to the provisions of 40 CFR Part 1042, Subpart I, and is periodically updated.

  12. 77 FR 20281 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... derived from imported oil and natural gas. When USDA designates by rulemaking a product category (a...: Vehicular Products--re-refined lubricating oils. USDA is requesting that manufacturers of these qualifying...

  13. LexGram - a practical categorial grammar formalism -

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, Esther

    1995-01-01

    We present the LexGram system, an amalgam of (Lambek) categorial grammar and Head Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG), and show that the grammar formalism it implements is a well-structured and useful tool for actual grammar development.

  14. Goguen categories a categorical approach to l-fuzzy relations

    CERN Document Server

    Winter, Michael; Mundici, Daniele

    2007-01-01

    Goguen categories extend the relational calculus and its categorical formalization to the fuzzy world. Starting from the fundamental concepts of sets, binary relations and lattices this book introduces several categorical formulations of an abstract theory of relations such as allegories, Dedekind categories and related structures. It is shown that neither theory is sufficiently rich to describe basic operations on fuzzy relations. The book then introduces Goguen categories and provides a comprehensive study of these structures including their representation theory, and the definability of norm-based operations. The power of the theory is demonstrated by a comprehensive example. A certain Goguen category is used to specify and to develop a fuzzy controller. Based on its abstract description as well as certain desirable properties and their formal proofs, a verified controller is derived without compromising the - sometimes - intuitive choice of norm-based operations by fuzzy engineers.

  15. Correlation of Persistence, Initiative and Career Anchors Categories of Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I A Novikova

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the results of comparative empirical study of persistence, initiative and Career Anchors categories of the students on the basis of the systemic-functional approach.

  16. Monoidal categories and the Gerstenhaber bracket in Hochschild cohomology

    CERN Document Server

    Hermann, Reiner

    2016-01-01

    In this monograph, the author extends S. Schwede's exact sequence interpretation of the Gerstenhaber bracket in Hochschild cohomology to certain exact and monoidal categories. Therefore the author establishes an explicit description of an isomorphism by A. Neeman and V. Retakh, which links \\mathrm{Ext}-groups with fundamental groups of categories of extensions and relies on expressing the fundamental group of a (small) category by means of the associated Quillen groupoid. As a main result, the author shows that his construction behaves well with respect to structure preserving functors between exact monoidal categories. The author uses his main result to conclude, that the graded Lie bracket in Hochschild cohomology is an invariant under Morita equivalence. For quasi-triangular bialgebras, he further determines a significant part of the Lie bracket's kernel, and thereby proves a conjecture by L. Menichi. Along the way, the author introduces n-extension closed and entirely extension closed subcategories of abe...

  17. Online Consumer Reviews: The Moderating Effect of Product Category

    OpenAIRE

    Bjering, Einar; Havro, Lars Jaakko

    2014-01-01

    This paper tests a previously proposed model for assessing consumer generated online reviews effect on sales, the review impact continuum. Product category is found to play an important role as a moderating factor of several properties concerning user generated online reviews - including its impact on sales. The authors introduce a novel method for product category classification using natural language processing (NLP), and by applying this method show that reviews are more influential for su...

  18. Calabi-Yau structures on categories of matrix factorizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shklyarov, Dmytro

    2017-09-01

    Using tools of complex geometry, we construct explicit proper Calabi-Yau structures, that is, non-degenerate cyclic cocycles on differential graded categories of matrix factorizations of regular functions with isolated critical points. The formulas involve the Kapustin-Li trace and its higher corrections. From the physics perspective, our result yields explicit 'off-shell' models for categories of topological D-branes in B-twisted Landau-Ginzburg models.

  19. Tangent mappings and convergent sequences in the lipschitz category

    OpenAIRE

    Hyman, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    The standard definition of a derivative in linear spaces is extended to a definition of tangency in the Lipschitz category, without any assumed algebraic structure on the underlying spaces.  Tangency is characterized topologically, that is, solely in terms of continuity, without using any algebraic concepts or other analytical concepts. The mappings in the Lipschitz category are characterized as the class of functions that preserve topologically convergent sequences of finite variation.

  20. Converging modalities ground abstract categories: the case of politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Ana Rita; Garrido, Margarida V; Semin, Gün R

    2013-01-01

    Three studies are reported examining the grounding of abstract concepts across two modalities (visual and auditory) and their symbolic representation. A comparison of the outcomes across these studies reveals that the symbolic representation of political concepts and their visual and auditory modalities is convergent. In other words, the spatial relationships between specific instances of the political categories are highly overlapping across the symbolic, visual and auditory modalities. These findings suggest that abstract categories display redundancy across modal and amodal representations, and are multimodal.

  1. Strategy for the expansion of renewable energies. An investigation of the pricing strategy of the Renewable Energy Law from the viewpoint of an evolutionary cybernetic theory of economic policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlueter, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    This publication reports on how the steadily increasing costs caused by the Renewable Energy Law (EEG) have brought the German strategy for the expansion of renewable energies under criticism. According to theories of regulatory economic policy, which state that politico-economic incentives of this kind must necessarily result in an inefficient allocation of scarce resources, this cost increase can be interpreted as a direct consequence of the price intervention. The present publication takes a critical stance on this viewpoint, developing for its purpose a new position on regulatory policy referred to as the evolutionary cybernetic theory of economic policy. It starts out from the works of F.A. von Hayek, which it then takes a significant step further however. The author argues that price interventions can be meaningful strategies of economic policy as long as they are aimed at a temporary initiation of market development towards sustainability and efficiency. Based on this model conception of a shrewd pricing strategy the publication undertakes an analysis from the perspective of regulatory policy of the German subsidisation of renewable energies. In the process it not only reveals errors in design of the EEG but also makes a proposal for an amendment that could be effective in cutting through the present price dynamics. In presenting its recommendation of a self-steering expansion policy the publication not only contributes to the further development of an evolutionary cybernetic theory of economic policy but addresses the urgent problem of how to wisely use regulatory policy to create pricing strategies which serve the expansion of renewable energies.

  2. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  3. A Bayesian Model of Category-Specific Emotional Brain Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager, Tor D.; Kang, Jian; Johnson, Timothy D.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Satpute, Ajay B.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2015-01-01

    Understanding emotion is critical for a science of healthy and disordered brain function, but the neurophysiological basis of emotional experience is still poorly understood. We analyzed human brain activity patterns from 148 studies of emotion categories (2159 total participants) using a novel hierarchical Bayesian model. The model allowed us to classify which of five categories—fear, anger, disgust, sadness, or happiness—is engaged by a study with 66% accuracy (43-86% across categories). Analyses of the activity patterns encoded in the model revealed that each emotion category is associated with unique, prototypical patterns of activity across multiple brain systems including the cortex, thalamus, amygdala, and other structures. The results indicate that emotion categories are not contained within any one region or system, but are represented as configurations across multiple brain networks. The model provides a precise summary of the prototypical patterns for each emotion category, and demonstrates that a sufficient characterization of emotion categories relies on (a) differential patterns of involvement in neocortical systems that differ between humans and other species, and (b) distinctive patterns of cortical-subcortical interactions. Thus, these findings are incompatible with several contemporary theories of emotion, including those that emphasize emotion-dedicated brain systems and those that propose emotion is localized primarily in subcortical activity. They are consistent with componential and constructionist views, which propose that emotions are differentiated by a combination of perceptual, mnemonic, prospective, and motivational elements. Such brain-based models of emotion provide a foundation for new translational and clinical approaches. PMID:25853490

  4. Category learning in the color-word contingency learning paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, James R; Augustinova, Maria; De Houwer, Jan

    2018-04-01

    In the typical color-word contingency learning paradigm, participants respond to the print color of words where each word is presented most often in one color. Learning is indicated by faster and more accurate responses when a word is presented in its usual color, relative to another color. To eliminate the possibility that this effect is driven exclusively by the familiarity of item-specific word-color pairings, we examine whether contingency learning effects can be observed also when colors are related to categories of words rather than to individual words. To this end, the reported experiments used three categories of words (animals, verbs, and professions) that were each predictive of one color. Importantly, each individual word was presented only once, thus eliminating individual color-word contingencies. Nevertheless, for the first time, a category-based contingency effect was observed, with faster and more accurate responses when a category item was presented in the color in which most of the other items of that category were presented. This finding helps to constrain episodic learning models and sets the stage for new research on category-based contingency learning.

  5. Scientific Notes (Problems of Cybernetics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-10-18

    methodesworked out "by I, .P. P&vlov. ’ j ? The attainments cf neTirocyhernetI.es are opening new j [prospects for the in vest lotion ...created only for. a definite, state of the environment i. I and will expire If the environment changes, .Fiirtn-ars»©*’ i | its potentialities are no...orevious activities and to switch from one | i program of activity to another. I In this connection, the experiments conducted by thej famous Polish

  6. Digest of current research in the electric-utility industry. Volume 1. Categories 1-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, K.; Bates, P.; Berkey, R.; Gray, K.; Kindt, C.; O'Gara, M.; Pakulski, R.

    1980-01-01

    The major objective of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is to be a prime source of information of R and D activities in the field of electric energy. Therefore, EPRI developed the Research and Development Information System (RDIS) which is a computerized data base of research projects sponsored by EPRI and by individual electric utilities throughout the US. The heart of RDIS is a computerized on-line data base containing approximately 7200 records of R and D projects. The data base is organized into 13 major categories: General R and D support, hydroelectric power, nuclear power, fossil fuels, advanced power systems, transmission, distribution, stations and substations, consumer utilization, economics, personnel, area development, and environmental assessment. This issue of the Digest of Current Research, issued annually and published in two volumes, represents the data base as of August 1980. This volume covers categories 1 through 5. Subject and corporate indexes are included

  7. Digest of current research in the electric-utility industry. Volume 2. Categories 6-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, K.; Bates, P.; Berkey, R.; Gray, K.; Kindt, C.; O'Gara, M.; Pakulski, R.

    1980-01-01

    The major objective of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is to be a prime source of information of R and D activities in the field of electric energy. Therefore, EPRI developed the Research and Development Information System (RDIS) which is a computerized data base of research projects sponsored by EPRI and by individual electric utilities throughout the US. The heart of RDIS is a computerized on-line data base containing approximately 7200 records of R and D projects. The data base is organized into 13 major categories: General R and D Support, hydroelectric power, nuclear power, fossil fuels, advanced power systems, transmission, distribution, stations and substations, consumer utilization, economics, personnel, area development, and environmental assessment. This issue of the Digest of Current Research, issued annually and published in two volumes represents the data base as of August 1980. This volume covers categories 6 through 13. Subject and corporate indexes are included

  8. Category verbal fluency performance may be impaired in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Luiz Figueredo Balthazar

    Full Text Available Abstract To study category verbal fluency (VF for animals in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, mild Alzheimer disease (AD and normal controls. Method: Fifteen mild AD, 15 aMCI, and 15 normal control subjects were included. Diagnosis of AD was based on DSM-IV and NINCDS-ADRDA criteria, while aMCI was based on the criteria of the International Working Group on Mild Cognitive Impairment, using CDR 0.5 for aMCI and CDR 1 for mild AD. All subjects underwent testing of category VF for animals, lexical semantic function (Boston Naming-BNT, CAMCOG Similarities item, WAIS-R forward and backward digit span, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning (RAVLT, Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE, and other task relevant functions such as visual perception, attention, and mood state (with Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia. Data analysis used ANOVA and a post-hoc Tukey test for intergroup comparisons, and Pearson's coefficient for correlations of memory and FV tests with other task relevant functions (statistical significance level was p<0.05. Results: aMCI patients had lower performance than controls on category VF for animals and on the backward digit span subtest of WAIS-R but higher scores compared with mild AD patients. Mild AD patients scored significantly worse than aMCI and controls across all tests. Conclusion: aMCI patients may have poor performance in some non-memory tests, specifically category VF for animals in our study, where this could be attributable to the influence of working memory.

  9. Incidental Learning of Sound Categories is Impaired in Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, Yafit; Holt, Lori L.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is commonly thought to arise from specific phonological impairments. However, recent evidence is consistent with the possibility that phonological impairments arise as symptoms of an underlying dysfunction of procedural learning. The nature of the link between impaired procedural learning and phonological dysfunction is unresolved. Motivated by the observation that speech processing involves the acquisition of procedural category knowledge, the present study investigates the possibility that procedural learning impairment may affect phonological processing by interfering with the typical course of phonetic category learning. The present study tests this hypothesis while controlling for linguistic experience and possible speech-specific deficits by comparing auditory category learning across artificial, nonlinguistic sounds among dyslexic adults and matched controls in a specialized first-person shooter videogame that has been shown to engage procedural learning. Nonspeech auditory category learning was assessed online via within-game measures and also with a post-training task involving overt categorization of familiar and novel sound exemplars. Each measure reveals that dyslexic participants do not acquire procedural category knowledge as effectively as age- and cognitive-ability matched controls. This difference cannot be explained by differences in perceptual acuity for the sounds. Moreover, poor nonspeech category learning is associated with slower phonological processing. Whereas phonological processing impairments have been emphasized as the cause of dyslexia, the current results suggest that impaired auditory category learning, general in nature and not specific to speech signals, could contribute to phonological deficits in dyslexia with subsequent negative effects on language acquisition and reading. Implications for the neuro-cognitive mechanisms of developmental dyslexia are discussed. PMID:26409017

  10. Adherence to oral contraception in women on Category X medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkellner, Amy; Chen, William; Denison, Shannon E

    2010-10-01

    Over 6% of women become pregnant when taking teratogenic medications, and contraceptive counseling appears to occur at suboptimal rates. Adherence to contraception is an important component in preventing unwanted pregnancy and has not been evaluated in this population. We undertook a pharmacy claims-based analysis to evaluate the degree to which women of childbearing age who receive Category X medications adhere to their oral contraception. We evaluated the prescription medication claims for over 6 million women, age 18-44 years, with prescription benefits administered by a pharmacy benefits manager. Women with 2 or more claims for a Category X medication and 2 or more claims for oral contraception were evaluated in further detail. Adherence to oral contraception was measured by analyzing pharmacy claims. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with adherence. There were 146,758 women of childbearing age who received Category X medications, of which 26,136 also took oral contraceptive medication. Women who received Category X medications were prescribed oral contraception (18%) at rates similar to others of childbearing age (17%). Women prescribed both Category X and oral contraception demonstrated adherence similar to the overall population. Age, class of Category X medication, number of medications, prescriber's specialty, and ethnicity correlated with lower adherence rates. Despite added risk associated with unintended pregnancy, many women who receive Category X medications have refill patterns suggesting nonadherence to oral contraception. Compared with all women age 18-44 years, women receiving teratogenic medications do not have better adherence to oral contraception. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Incidental learning of sound categories is impaired in developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, Yafit; Holt, Lori L

    2015-12-01

    Developmental dyslexia is commonly thought to arise from specific phonological impairments. However, recent evidence is consistent with the possibility that phonological impairments arise as symptoms of an underlying dysfunction of procedural learning. The nature of the link between impaired procedural learning and phonological dysfunction is unresolved. Motivated by the observation that speech processing involves the acquisition of procedural category knowledge, the present study investigates the possibility that procedural learning impairment may affect phonological processing by interfering with the typical course of phonetic category learning. The present study tests this hypothesis while controlling for linguistic experience and possible speech-specific deficits by comparing auditory category learning across artificial, nonlinguistic sounds among dyslexic adults and matched controls in a specialized first-person shooter videogame that has been shown to engage procedural learning. Nonspeech auditory category learning was assessed online via within-game measures and also with a post-training task involving overt categorization of familiar and novel sound exemplars. Each measure reveals that dyslexic participants do not acquire procedural category knowledge as effectively as age- and cognitive-ability matched controls. This difference cannot be explained by differences in perceptual acuity for the sounds. Moreover, poor nonspeech category learning is associated with slower phonological processing. Whereas phonological processing impairments have been emphasized as the cause of dyslexia, the current results suggest that impaired auditory category learning, general in nature and not specific to speech signals, could contribute to phonological deficits in dyslexia with subsequent negative effects on language acquisition and reading. Implications for the neuro-cognitive mechanisms of developmental dyslexia are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  12. Picture reality decision, semantic categories and gender. A new set of pictures, with norms and an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarotto, Riccardo; Laiacona, Marcella; Macchi, Valeria; Capitani, Erminio

    2002-01-01

    We present a new corpus of 80 pictures of unreal objects, useful for a controlled assessment of object reality decision. The new pictures were assembled from parts of the Snodgrass and Vanderwart [J. Exp. Psychol., Hum. Learning Memory 6; 1980: 174] set and were devised for the purpose of contrasting natural categories (animals, fruits and vegetables), artefacts (tools, vehicles and furniture), body parts and musical instruments. We examined 140 normal subjects in a free-choice and a multiple-choice object decision task, assembled with 80 pictures of real objects and above 80 new pictures of unreal objects in order to obtain a difficulty index for each picture. We found that the tasks were more difficult with pictures representing natural entities than with pictures of artefacts. We found a gender by category interaction, with a female superiority with some natural categories (fruits and vegetables, but not animals), and a male advantage with artefacts. On this basis, the difficulty index we calculated for each picture is separately reported for males and females. We discuss the possible origin of the gender effect, which has been found with the same categories in other tasks and has a counterpart in the different familiarity of the stimuli for males and females. In particular, we contrast explanations based on socially determined gender differences with accounts based on evolutionary pressures. We further comment on the relationship between data from normal subjects and the domain-specific account of semantic category dissociations observed in brain-damaged patients.

  13. Misremembering emotion: Inductive category effects for complex emotional stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Jonathan C; Crawford, L Elizabeth; Vavra, Dylan T

    2017-07-01

    Memories of objects are biased toward what is typical of the category to which they belong. Prior research on memory for emotional facial expressions has demonstrated a bias towards an emotional expression prototype (e.g., slightly happy faces are remembered as happier). We investigate an alternate source of bias in memory for emotional expressions - the central tendency bias. The central tendency bias skews reconstruction of a memory trace towards the center of the distribution for a particular attribute. This bias has been attributed to a Bayesian combination of an imprecise memory for a particular object with prior information about its category. Until now, studies examining the central tendency bias have focused on simple stimuli. We extend this work to socially relevant, complex, emotional facial expressions. We morphed facial expressions on a continuum from sad to happy. Different ranges of emotion were used in four experiments in which participants viewed individual expressions and, after a variable delay, reproduced each face by adjusting a morph to match it. Estimates were biased toward the center of the presented stimulus range, and the bias increased at longer memory delays, consistent with the Bayesian prediction that as trace memory loses precision, category knowledge is given more weight. The central tendency effect persisted within and across emotion categories (sad, neutral, and happy). This article expands the scope of work on inductive category effects to memory for complex, emotional stimuli.

  14. Object-graphs for context-aware visual category discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Jae; Grauman, Kristen

    2012-02-01

    How can knowing about some categories help us to discover new ones in unlabeled images? Unsupervised visual category discovery is useful to mine for recurring objects without human supervision, but existing methods assume no prior information and thus tend to perform poorly for cluttered scenes with multiple objects. We propose to leverage knowledge about previously learned categories to enable more accurate discovery, and address challenges in estimating their familiarity in unsegmented, unlabeled images. We introduce two variants of a novel object-graph descriptor to encode the 2D and 3D spatial layout of object-level co-occurrence patterns relative to an unfamiliar region and show that by using them to model the interaction between an image’s known and unknown objects, we can better detect new visual categories. Rather than mine for all categories from scratch, our method identifies new objects while drawing on useful cues from familiar ones. We evaluate our approach on several benchmark data sets and demonstrate clear improvements in discovery over conventional purely appearance-based baselines.

  15. Problems in the Study of the Concepts of Underlying Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzel R. Faizova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the concepts of underlying categories. The economic good is one of such categories. In this regard, we considered such characteristics of an economic good as utility, value, and cost. The public goods, which are the goods that can benefit society and have two distinctive features, are an important category as well. In this regard, we characterized the characteristics and features of public goods and identified the main problems in this category. At present, the actual problem faced by the state is the production and evaluation of the effectiveness of public goods. The difficulty is that it is impossible to accurately determine the production volume of goods necessary for the society. Assessment of the effectiveness of the state activities requires the development of special tools. The existing legislatively defined methods have a number of shortcomings and do not allow obtaining an objective picture. Financing of most public goods occurs at the expense of the state, so it is very important to ensure and increase the efficiency of their spending at the moment. Public-private partnership is the most promising tool for better satisfying the needs of the population. The main goal of this work is to identify and discuss the main characteristics of the concepts of underlying categories and explain possible problems, issues faced by the state and the society.

  16. Designation of facility usage categories for Hanford Site facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wodrich, D.; Ellingson, D.; Scott, M.; Schade, A.

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the Hanford Site methodology used to ensure facility compliance with the natural phenomena design criteria set forth in the US Department of Energy orders and guidance. In particular, the Hanford Site approach to designating a suitable facility open-quotes Usage Category,close quotes is presented. The current Hanford Site methodology for Usage Category designation is based on an engineered feature's safety function and on the feature's assigned Safety Class. At the Hanford Site, Safety Class assignments are deterministic in nature and are based on the consequences of failure, without regard to the likelihood of occurrence. The report also proposes a risk-based approach to Usage Category designation, which is being considered for future application at the Hanford Site. To establish a proper Usage Category designation, the safety analysis and engineering design processes must be coupled. This union produces a common understanding of the safety function(s) to be accomplished by the design feature(s) and a sound basis for the assignment of Usage Categories to the appropriate systems, structures, and components

  17. Process for determining the remediation category of hazardous substance sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieben, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    An evaluation process has been developed that aids in selecting the appropriate remediation category of hazardous substance sites. Three general remediation categories have been established: No further Action: Potential Early Action: and Defer for RI/FS or Transition/Decontamination and Decommissioning. This evaluation method is a preliminary screening process only and will not identify the most appropriate remediation alternative for each site. The remedy selection process can proceed only after a remediation category is determined for each site. All sites are evaluated at a preliminary screening level to determine the general remediation category. After the first screen, a secondary evaluation is performed on both the PEA sites and the DEFER sites. For PEAs, this secondary evaluation will incorporate additional specific factors, such as a screening level risk assessment. For the DEFER sites feasibility factors will be used to distinguish between the sites which should undergo a normal RI/FS and the sites which will be recommended to be remediated in association with D ampersand D of buildings. Ultimately, all of the sites will be placed into one of four remediation categories

  18. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2014-01-01

    either construct elicitation mechanisms that control for risk aversion, or construct elicitation mechanisms which undertake 'calibrating adjustments' to elicited reports. We illustrate how the joint estimation of risk attitudes and subjective probabilities can provide the calibration adjustments...... that theory calls for. We illustrate this approach using data from a controlled experiment with real monetary consequences to the subjects. This allows the observer to make inferences about the latent subjective probability, under virtually any well-specified model of choice under subjective risk, while still...

  19. Deep-learning-based classification of FDG-PET data for Alzheimer's disease categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shibani; Srivastava, Anant; Mi, Liang; Caselli, Richard J.; Chen, Kewei; Goradia, Dhruman; Reiman, Eric M.; Wang, Yalin

    2017-11-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) measures the decline in the regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose, offering a reliable metabolic biomarker even on presymptomatic Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. PET scans provide functional information that is unique and unavailable using other types of imaging. However, the computational efficacy of FDG-PET data alone, for the classification of various Alzheimers Diagnostic categories, has not been well studied. This motivates us to correctly discriminate various AD Diagnostic categories using FDG-PET data. Deep learning has improved state-of-the-art classification accuracies in the areas of speech, signal, image, video, text mining and recognition. We propose novel methods that involve probabilistic principal component analysis on max-pooled data and mean-pooled data for dimensionality reduction, and multilayer feed forward neural network which performs binary classification. Our experimental dataset consists of baseline data of subjects including 186 cognitively unimpaired (CU) subjects, 336 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects with 158 Late MCI and 178 Early MCI, and 146 AD patients from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) dataset. We measured F1-measure, precision, recall, negative and positive predictive values with a 10-fold cross validation scheme. Our results indicate that our designed classifiers achieve competitive results while max pooling achieves better classification performance compared to mean-pooled features. Our deep model based research may advance FDG-PET analysis by demonstrating their potential as an effective imaging biomarker of AD.

  20. Infants can use distributional cues to form syntactic categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerken, LouAnn; Wilson, Rachel; Lewis, William

    2005-05-01

    Nearly all theories of language development emphasize the importance of distributional cues for segregating words and phrases into syntactic categories like noun, feminine or verb phrase. However, questions concerning whether such cues can be used to the exclusion of referential cues have been debated. Using the headturn preference procedure, American children aged 1;5 were briefly familiarized with a partial Russian gender paradigm, with a subset of the paradigm members withheld. During test, infants listened on alternate trials to previously withheld grammatical items and ungrammatical items with incorrect gender markings on previously heard stems. Across three experiments, infants discriminated new grammatical from ungrammatical items, but like adults in previous studies, were only able to do so when a subset of familiarization items was double marked for gender category. The results suggest that learners can use distributional cues to category structure, to the exclusion of referential cues, from relatively early in the language learning process.

  1. Brand importance across product categories in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Formánek Tomáš

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with customer loyalty to brands and provides an analysis of brand-related attitudes among Czech consumers. Brand loyalty is a very important aspect of competitive marketing and we contribute an empirically supported point of view on the topic. Based on primary data from a complex consumer survey carried out for the purpose of this study, we investigate the extent of brand loyalty across different product categories, mostly fast moving consumer goods (FMCG. For convenience, the analysis of our survey-data may be divided in two main areas. First, product categories are ranked according to their potential power to attract customers’ interest and loyalty towards brands. When loyalty programs are prepared, it is important to discern product categories where loyalty potential is weak from those categories that attract consumer loyalty. Second, sociodemographic features and lifestyle factors from the survey are evaluated with respect to different product categories, by means of logistic regression and subsequent average partial effect (APE analysis. A detailed and practically oriented interpretation of the empirical results is provided by the authors. However, both corporate marketers and academic readers can use the tables with empirical estimation outputs that are provided in this article to draw their own conclusions, which may be focused on the product category of interest and/or focused on any specific consumer group that is of particular interest. Among other topics, this paper emphasizes the fact that brand loyalty is a highly complex phenomenon and that it can and should be analysed from different perspectives.

  2. Pattern-Induced Covert Category Learning in Songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comins, Jordan A; Gentner, Timothy Q

    2015-07-20

    Language is uniquely human, but its acquisition may involve cognitive capacities shared with other species. During development, language experience alters speech sound (phoneme) categorization. Newborn infants distinguish the phonemes in all languages but by 10 months show adult-like greater sensitivity to native language phonemic contrasts than non-native contrasts. Distributional theories account for phonetic learning by positing that infants infer category boundaries from modal distributions of speech sounds along acoustic continua. For example, tokens of the sounds /b/ and /p/ cluster around different mean voice onset times. To disambiguate overlapping distributions, contextual theories propose that phonetic category learning is informed by higher-level patterns (e.g., words) in which phonemes normally occur. For example, the vowel sounds /Ι/ and /e/ can occupy similar perceptual spaces but can be distinguished in the context of "with" and "well." Both distributional and contextual cues appear to function in speech acquisition. Non-human species also benefit from distributional cues for category learning, but whether category learning benefits from contextual information in non-human animals is unknown. The use of higher-level patterns to guide lower-level category learning may reflect uniquely human capacities tied to language acquisition or more general learning abilities reflecting shared neurobiological mechanisms. Using songbirds, European starlings, we show that higher-level pattern learning covertly enhances categorization of the natural communication sounds. This observation mirrors the support for contextual theories of phonemic category learning in humans and demonstrates a general form of learning not unique to humans or language. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Predicting changes in flow category in patients with severe aortic stenosis and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction on medical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngiam, Jinghao Nicholas; Kuntjoro, Ivandito; Tan, Benjamin Y Q; Sim, Hui-Wen; Kong, William K F; Yeo, Tiong-Cheng; Poh, Kian-Keong

    2017-11-01

    Controversy surrounds the prognosis and management of patients with paradoxical low-flow severe aortic stenosis (AS) with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). It was not certain if patients in a particular flow category remained in the same category as disease progressed. We investigated whether there were switches in categories and if so, their predictors. Consecutive subjects (n = 203) with isolated severe AS and paired echocardiography (>180 days apart) were studied. They were divided into 4 groups, based on their flow categories and if they progressed on subsequent echocardiography to switch or remain in the same flow category. Univariate analyses of clinical and echocardiographic parameters identified predictors of these changes in flow category. One hundred eighteen were normal flow (SVI ≥ 35 mL/m 2 ), while 85 were low flow on index echocardiography. In the patients with normal flow, 33% switched to low flow. This was associated with higher valvuloarterial impedance (Zva, P 4.77 mm Hg/mL/m 2 , AUC = 0.81 [95% CI:0.75-0.87, P < .001]). In patients with low flow, 25% switched to normal flow, which was associated with lower Zva and higher SAC and the switch was predicted by a higher initial mean transaortic pressure gradient. A significant number of patients switched flow categories in severe AS with preserved LVEF on subsequent echocardiography. Changes in flow were reflected by respective changes in Zva and SAC. Identifying echocardiographic predictors of a switch in category may guide prognostication and management of such patients. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Probability-based load combinations for design of category I structures - overview of research program and recent results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, M.; Hwang, H.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the probability-based load combinations for the program dealing with the design of Category I structures, currently being worked on at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The objective of this program is to develop a probabilistic approach for the safety evaluations of reactor containments and other seismic Category I structures subjected to multiple static and dynamic loadings. Furthermore, on the basis of the developed probabilistic approach, a load combination methodology for the design of seismic Category I structures will also be established. The major tasks of this program are: (1) establish probabilistic representations for various loads and structural resistance, (2) select appropriate structural analysis methods and identify limit states of structures, (3) develop a reliability analysis method applicable to nuclear structures, (4) apply the developed methodology to existing Category I structures in order to evaluate the reliability levels implied in the current design criteria, and (5) recommend load combination design criteria for Category I structures. When the program is completed, it will be possible to (1) provide a method that can evaluate the safety margins of existing containment and other Category I structures and (2) recommended probability-based load combinations and load factors for the design of Category I structures. At the present time, a reliability analysis method for seismic Category I concrete structures has been completed. By utilizing this method, it is possible to evaluate the safety of structures under various static and dynamic loads. In this paper, results of a reliability analysis of a realistic reinforced concrete containment structure under dead load, accidental pressure, and earthquake ground acceleration are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the methodology. (orig.)

  5. The representation of grammatical categories in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Kevin; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2003-05-01

    Language relies on the rule-based combination of words with different grammatical properties, such as nouns and verbs. Yet most research on the problem of word retrieval has focused on the production of concrete nouns, leaving open a crucial question: how is knowledge about different grammatical categories represented in the brain, and what components of the language production system make use of it? Drawing on evidence from neuropsychology, electrophysiology and neuroimaging, we argue that information about a word's grammatical category might be represented independently of its meaning at the levels of word form and morphological computation.

  6. Converging modalities ground abstract categories: the case of politics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Farias

    Full Text Available Three studies are reported examining the grounding of abstract concepts across two modalities (visual and auditory and their symbolic representation. A comparison of the outcomes across these studies reveals that the symbolic representation of political concepts and their visual and auditory modalities is convergent. In other words, the spatial relationships between specific instances of the political categories are highly overlapping across the symbolic, visual and auditory modalities. These findings suggest that abstract categories display redundancy across modal and amodal representations, and are multimodal.

  7. Disentangling Memories. Complex (Be)longings and Social Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Chistina Hee; Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    This presentation analyses the complex workings of social categories in constructions of (be)longing in memories of young university students in Bolivia and Peru. In a methodology course the participants explored how socio economic and socio cultural differences had affected the lives...... belonging to a specific social or racial group. (Be)longing to a specific gendered and radicalised body constitutes in the analysis of these stories an excellent “location,” from which to analyse how socio/cultural and socio/economic categories like class, nationality and age intersect with one another...... to produce insights and consciousness about the socio-cultural impact of sense making processes....

  8. Saint rulers as a category of sanctity in Orthodoxy

    OpenAIRE

    Jarosław Charkiewicz

    2015-01-01

    In the wide spectre of Orthodox human sanctity, among others, there is also a category of saint rulers. Despite the fact that it’s represented by a significant number of saints, it remains, utterly undeservedly, in the shadow of the others – more known or more deeply rooted historically. On top of that, the situation may result as well from the fact that saint rulers, as a distinct category of saint, are not separately mentioned neither during the proskomedia, nor during the intercessory pray...

  9. The Hall module of an exact category with duality

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Matthew B.

    2012-01-01

    We construct from a finitary exact category with duality a module over its Hall algebra, called the Hall module, encoding the first order self-dual extension structure of the category. We study in detail Hall modules arising from the representation theory of a quiver with involution. In this case we show that the Hall module is naturally a module over the specialized reduced sigma-analogue of the quantum Kac-Moody algebra attached to the quiver. For finite type quivers, we explicitly determin...

  10. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  11. Effects of category-specific costs on neural systems for perceptual decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Stephen M; Whiteley, Louise; Hulme, Oliver J; Sahani, Maneesh; Dolan, Raymond J

    2010-06-01

    Perceptual judgments are often biased by prospective losses, leading to changes in decision criteria. Little is known about how and where sensory evidence and cost information interact in the brain to influence perceptual categorization. Here we show that prospective losses systematically bias the perception of noisy face-house images. Asymmetries in category-specific cost were associated with enhanced blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal in a frontoparietal network. We observed selective activation of parahippocampal gyrus for changes in category-specific cost in keeping with the hypothesis that loss functions enact a particular task set that is communicated to visual regions. Across subjects, greater shifts in decision criteria were associated with greater activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Our results support a hypothesis that costs bias an intermediate representation between perception and action, expressed via general effects on frontal cortex, and selective effects on extrastriate cortex. These findings indicate that asymmetric costs may affect a neural implementation of perceptual decision making in a similar manner to changes in category expectation, constituting a step toward accounting for how prospective losses are flexibly integrated with sensory evidence in the brain.

  12. Technical exercises for the execution of straight punches in boxers of the child category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giraldo Machuat Santana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present research aims to put into the hands of the coaches a material whose value in the methodological didactic can serve as a tool in the search for alternative solutions to the problems that today affect the technical and tactical preparation of our boxers from the point of view an offensive view, specifically on the effectiveness of straight blows to the face and trunk. For the accomplishment of this work a sample of 12 athletes was chosen, all belonging to the category 11-12 years of the municipality San Juan y Martínez to which as an experimental form ,the introduction of a methodology supported in a set of exercises was applied, as part of the teaching-learning process of athletes, regarding the execution of straight blows to the face and trunk, as an essential tactical offensive technical aspect in this age category to achieve victory in combat. A total of 16 observations were made to trainings and competitions to appreciate how the technique behaved in the execution of these blows by the athletes research subject. As a result there is a proposal of exercises that through a correct execution and implementation can contribute to the improvement of the effectiveness in the execution of the straight blows to the face and trunk of the boxers of the category 11 and 12 years of the combined sport nº 1 of the municipality San Juan y Martínez.

  13. An interplay of fusiform gyrus and hippocampus enables prototype- and exemplar-based category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Robert K; Güntürkün, Onur; Suchan, Boris

    2016-09-15

    The aim of the present study was to examine the contributions of different brain structures to prototype- and exemplar-based category learning using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-eight subjects performed a categorization task in which they had to assign prototypes and exceptions to two different families. This test procedure usually produces different learning curves for prototype and exception stimuli. Our behavioral data replicated these previous findings by showing an initially superior performance for prototypes and typical stimuli and a switch from a prototype-based to an exemplar-based categorization for exceptions in the later learning phases. Since performance varied, we divided participants into learners and non-learners. Analysis of the functional imaging data revealed that the interaction of group (learners vs. non-learners) and block (Block 5 vs. Block 1) yielded an activation of the left fusiform gyrus for the processing of prototypes, and an activation of the right hippocampus for exceptions after learning the categories. Thus, successful prototype- and exemplar-based category learning is associated with activations of complementary neural substrates that constitute object-based processes of the ventral visual stream and their interaction with unique-cue representations, possibly based on sparse coding within the hippocampus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Towards the development of a salinity impact category for South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Part 1 of the series, it was shown that there is sufficient justification for the creation of a separate salinity impact category. In this paper, the fundamental basis of environmental life cycle assessments (LCA) is examined. The generalised model, and model simplifications on which the life cycle assessment methodology is ...

  15. 40 CFR 98.420 - Definition of the source category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of the source category. 98.420 Section 98.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... distribution of CO2. (4) Purification, compression, or processing of CO2. (5) On-site use of CO2 captured on...

  16. Obligatory Grammatical Categories and the Expression of Temporal Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winskel, Heather; Luksaneeyanawin, Sudaporn

    2009-01-01

    Thai has imperfective aspectual morphemes that are not obligatory in usage, whereas English has obligatory grammaticized imperfective aspectual marking on the verb. Furthermore, Thai has verb final deictic-path verbs that form a closed class set. The current study investigated if obligatoriness of these grammatical categories in Thai and English…

  17. Cognitive Predictors of Generalization of Russian Grammatical Gender Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Vera; Brooks, Patricia J.; Kharkhurin, Anatoliy

    2010-01-01

    This study explores how learners generalize grammatical categories such as noun gender. Adult native English speakers with no prior knowledge of Russian (N = 47, ages 17-55 years) were trained to categorize Russian masculine and feminine diminutive nouns according to gender. The training set was morphophonologically homogeneous due to similarities…

  18. CATEGORIES AND PROTOTYPES: FROM CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY TO CONTEMPORARY LINGUISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHIVOKINA MAYYA ALEXANDROVNA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers two approaches to category studies: a classical or logical one pronciples of which were formulated by Aristotle, and a contemporary or cognitive one that deals with such concepts as fuzzy logic, fuzzy sets, prototype, family resemblance.

  19. Automated Discovery of Speech Act Categories in Educational Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Vasile; Moldovan, Cristian; Niraula, Nobal; Graesser, Arthur C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we address the important task of automated discovery of speech act categories in dialogue-based, multi-party educational games. Speech acts are important in dialogue-based educational systems because they help infer the student speaker's intentions (the task of speech act classification) which in turn is crucial to providing adequate…

  20. Designation of facility usage categories for Hanford Site facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodrich, D.D.; Ellingson, D.R.; Scott, M.A.; Schade, A.R.

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the Hanford Site methodology used to ensure facility compliance with the natural phenomena design criteria set forth in the US Department of Energy Orders and guidance. The current Hanford Site methodology for Usage Category designation is based on an engineered feature's safety function and on the feature's assigned Safety Class. At the Hanford Site, Safety Class assignments are deterministic in nature and are based on teh consequences of failure, without regard to the likelihood of occurrence. The report also proposes a risk-based approach to Usage Category designation, which is being considered for future application at the Hanford Site. To establish a proper Usage Category designation, the safety analysis and engineering design processes must be coupled. This union produces a common understanding of the safety function(s) to be accomplished by the design feature(s) and a sound basis for the assignment of Usage Categories to the appropriate systems, structures, and components. 4 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab